Articulo - Journal of Urban Research
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1661-4941
Published by Revues.org [400 journals]
- A Spatially-Explicit Scenario for Achieving “Wise Shrink”
Authors: Yoshiki Yamagata, Daisuke Murakami, Hajime Seya
Abstract: In order to achieve a sustainable and resilient eco-urbanism, we propose a “Wise Shrink” approach grounded on a consideration of trade-offs and synergies between city compaction and disaster risks. The objective of this study is to show the possibility of such scenarios in the Tokyo metropolitan area using a newly developed spatially-explicit urban land-use model (SULM). Here, a scenario that considers both city compaction and disaster risk reduction (Wise Shrink) is compared with a city compaction scenario without disaster risk reduction (Compact City) and a business-as-usual scenario (BAU). The results show that increasing green areas under the Compact City scenario would facilitate adaptation to climate change risks. However, there exist trade-offs for flooding and other risks depending on the location of the compaction. By harmonizing the risks, this study suggests a possible Wise-Shrink approach for achieving sustainable and resilient eco-urbanism.
- Sustainable Urban Design with Chinese Characteristics: Inspiration from
the Shan-Shui City Idea
Authors: Yizhao Yang, Jie Hu
Abstract: Aspiration for economic development and the forces of globalization have driven China to embrace global city planning and city building ideas. A threat of identity loss in many Chinese cities is becoming evident. Some scholars have suggested that “China seems to apprehend a need to return to its original civilization” and see the significance of applying the values embedded in traditional Chinese urbanism, such as balance and harmonious human-nature relationships, in its urban development. This paper examines how a Chinese vernacular urbanism, the Shan-Shui City (山水城市), can be an important source of inspiration for creating places that can balance the needs for economic growth and environmental protection. The paper describes a case study of a large urban development project that has applied the Shan-Shui city idea, the Beijing Olympic Forest Park, and argues that the environmental philosophy and aesthetics underlying the traditional “Shan-Shui” concept and the planning and design s...
- The Institutionalization of the Night: a Geography of Geneva’s Night
Authors: Raphaël Pieroni
Abstract: This paper is about the institution of the night as a public problem in Geneva. The main arguments can be summarized as follows. First, the urban night is a permanent construction, never stabilized, of a non-linear and contentious process of institution as a public problem. Secondly, this process produces more than the urban night as a space-time but also enables sets of practices and subjectivities. Institutional practices as well as from the civil society are produced through a complex process of what has been conceptualized as governmentality by Michel Foucault. Thirdly, night studies benefit from a geographical approach in terms of policy mobility. Night policies are circulating between cities through global microspaces such as public events, conferences, seminars and by way of experts, consultants and researchers. Consequently, their movements are the result of an uncertain topological process of relations. Finally, it is assumed that urban night could be part of what McCann pr...
Authors: Luc Gwiazdzinski
Abstract: The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research - is to examine the urban night as an innovative space-time on different scales and in different geographic contexts. In this introduction, I remind the reader that the night has often been approached negatively. I discuss the process of colonization of the night and the pressures and strains experienced by the individuals, communities, organizations and neighborhoods of the “polychronic city”. In the second part, I focus on the innovations unfolding in cities at night in different fields: economic, social, environmental and cultural. In the last section, I look at the possible contributions of “night studies” to our urban nights, to urban planning and sustainable development.
- Consider the Darkness
Authors: Samuel Challéat, Dany Lapostolle, Rémi Bénos
Abstract: This article explains the birth of an environmental problem, light pollution, which is understood to be a controversial source of social innovation. Over forty years, in support of the actor-network approach, it traces the conditions of its emergence, transformation, and dissemination to local, national, and transnational levels, and through various professional disciplines. Schematically, “environmentalists” uphold a holistic approach of “nocturnity” and define artificial light as a pollutant. Facing them, the “technicist” defends a segmented approach and defines artificial light as a nuisance. In France, the implementation of this controversy on the political agenda leads to institutional decisions that grasp it with difficulty in all its social, scientific, and spatial dimensions. The spatial spread of the controversy in the zoning and the standardisation process appears as a partial and segmented regulatory response to this problem. However, these processes can be considered to ...
- Media and the Urban Night
Authors: Will Straw
Abstract: Along with the other materials and rituals of urban life, media have played a role in structuring the transition from day to night in cities. This essay examines a variety of ways in which the appearance and consumption of media have been interwoven with the 24-hour cycle of day and night. The rhythms of media availability have shifted throughout the past hundred years, in ways which have altered the experience of day and night. Similarly, media have devised a variety of forms, genres and styles with which to capture and express characteristics of the urban night.
- Night-time Hours and Activities of the Italians
Authors: Mario Boffi, Matteo Colleoni, Manola Del Greco
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a secondary data analysis carried out on the latest survey on the use of time (2008-2009) by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT). It aims to analyse how night hours are used by the Italian population, with attention to the duration and the temporal sequence of activities. In detail, it intends to answer questions regarding the beginning and the end of the night and to analyse the density and the temporal sequence of night activities, in order to verify the hypothesis on the reduction of time spent in physiological activities and on the increasing number and density of night’s activities in particular in urban environment. The attention to the temporal behaviour of the Italians who live in different regions and cities, places this paper not only in the field of time studies, but also in that of the relations between territorial characteristics and population behaviour.
- From Conflict Management to Quality of Life at Night. The First Approach
of Lyon Urban Area Nights
Authors: Nicolas Chausson
Abstract: For more than a decade, the urban night’s issue has gradually found its place on the agenda of French and European cities. After nights were recognized as a subject of scientific research it attracted the authorities’ interest, in the prospect of enhancing their attractiveness globally. However, despite this growing interest, urban nights are still considered as a time to regulate, conflicts being the core of the topic. Implicitly, reflecting on nights to include them in the general reflection on the development of cities appears truly difficult. To get over this conflict and consider nights from a new perspective, we propose to change attitudes and consider nights through quality of life. The latter aims to link the characteristics of the living environment with the needs and desires of the inhabitants. Therefore, we propose to place people at the heart of the research, questioning them about what structures their lives at night. Through this method, we expect to build an essential...
- The Crisis in the UK’s High Streets: can the Evening and Nighttime
Authors: Marion Roberts
Abstract: Changes in retailing over the last half century have had a detrimental effect on the UK’s local high streets. The recession of 2008-2012 exacerbated these trends leading to a high number of vacancies and neglected properties. The impact was sufficiently severe for the term ‘crisis’ to be used in connection with the British high street. In the academic and commercial reports generated by the recognition that the high street needed to adapt to changing circumstances, a view emerged that the leisure component of high street activity would gain in importance. This article reviews the relationship of the evening and nighttime economy to the high street and considers its potential in reinventing the vitality that is normally associated with these mixed-use urban corridors. The article argues that there is hope in the high street offering a different type of experience to the mainstream forms of entertainment that are consolidating in major town and city centres. It concludes by suggesting...
- What is the Place of Night-time in the Urban Policy of a French
Authors: Sandra Mallet, Céline Burger
Abstract: Metropolisation is a widespread phenomenon, defined by special mechanisms operating on spaces in cities of all sizes. The process reorganizes not only space but also time, particularly night-time. Public policies consider the city at night-time to be a new field of action for competition. Cities aim to develop innovative actions to make them more attractive at night. This paper analyses these actions and the transformation of the urban geography at night, focusing on intermediate cities – less explored than the biggest cities – by studying the case of a specific French city. The research shows how public policy-makers are struggling and have difficulty positioning their actions and establishing guidelines, producing a situation that raises questions, creates problems and limits innovation.