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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics
  [SJR: 0.983]   [H-I: 104]   [23 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0946-2171 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0649
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Selective detection of intermolecular response in benzonitrile through
           double-pulse excitation in optical Kerr effect spectroscopy
    • Authors: V. G. Nikiforov; D. K. Zharkov; A. G. Shmelev; A. V. Leontyev; V. S. Lobkov
      Abstract: We report on the decomposition of the molecular contribution to the optically heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) in benzonitrile C6H5CN in the process of double-pulse laser excitation. The pump pulses with linear orthogonal polarizations, controllable intensities and timing enable us to manipulate the amplitudes of various molecular responses due to the fact that the OHD-OKE signal is formed by the superposition of independent third-order responses associated with each pump pulse. We apply this technique to detect the intermolecular response selectively by using an excitation scenario with suppression of orientational and intramolecular responses. A detailed comparative analysis of third-order optical responses indicates strongly that the double-pulse excitation of the OHD-OKE is the useful spectroscopic technique to obtain precise information on the intermolecular spectrum in liquids.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6788-6
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • Self-orientation effect of liquid crystals on holographic
           polymer-dispersed liquid crystal and distributed feedback lasers
    • Authors: Minghuan Liu; Yonggang Liu; Zenghui Peng; Haifeng Zhao; Zhaoliang Cao; Li Xuan
      Abstract: The average orientation of a liquid crystal (LC) director to the grating formation, morphology, and switching properties of a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) grating was systematically investigated in this study. The grating possessed high diffraction efficiency and low scattering with the LC director being parallel to the grating vector. The scanning electron microscope confirmed the well-defined morphology with the LC director being parallel to the grating vector. The grating was easily switched when the LC director was perpendicular to the grating vector. Moreover, polarization excitation was performed to investigate the polarization dependence behavior of the HPDLC-distributed feedback (DFB) laser. The results confirmed that the HPDLC grating is suitable as a laser oscillation when the LC director is parallel to the grating vector. Finally, the tuning range was obtained for the HPDLC DFB laser by applying an external electric field. The tunability, ease of fabrication, and mass production make the HPDLC DFB lasers suitable as smart laser sources for spectroscopy and communication.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6786-8
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • Narrow-line external cavity diode laser micro-packaging in the NIR and MIR
           spectral range
    • Authors: A. Jiménez; T. Milde; N. Staacke; C. Aßmann; G. Carpintero; J. Sacher
      Abstract: Narrow-linewidth tunable diode lasers are an important tool for spectroscopic instrumentation. Conventional external cavity diode lasers offer high output power and narrow linewidth. However, most external cavity diode lasers are designed as laboratory instrument and do not allow portability. In comparison, other commonly used lasers, like distributed feedback lasers (DFB) that are capable of driving a handheld device, are limited in power and show linewidths which are not sufficiently narrow for certain applications. We present new miniaturized types of tunable external cavity diode laser which overcome the drawbacks of conventional external cavity diode lasers and which preserve the advantages of this laser concept. Three different configurations are discussed in this article. The three types of miniaturized external cavity diode laser systems achieve power values of more than 50 mW within the 1.4 \(\mu\) m water vapor absorption band with excellent side-mode suppression and linewidth below 100 kHz. Typical features outstand with respect to other type of laser systems which are of extended use such as DFB laser diodes. The higher output power and the lower linewidth will enable a higher sensitivity and resolution for a wide range of applications.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6777-9
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • Optical and structural properties of Nd:MgO:LiNbO 3 crystal irradiated by
           2.8-MeV He ions
    • Authors: Chuan-Lei Jia; Song Li; Xiao-Xiao Song
      Abstract: We report the optical and structural properties of helium-implanted optical waveguides in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 laser crystals. The prism-coupling method is used to investigate the dark-mode properties at the wavelength of 632.8 nm. The spontaneous generation of ultraviolet, blue, red, and near-infrared fluorescence emissions is demonstrated under excitation with an 808-nm laser diode. The effects of ion irradiation on the structural properties are characterized using the high-resolution X-ray diffraction technique. The results show that the initial luminescence properties of Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 crystals are slightly modified by irradiation with 2.8 MeV He ions at fluences of 1.5 × 1016 ions/cm2 at room temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6783-y
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • Measurement of the absolute absorbance based on wavelength modulation
    • Authors: Yanjun Du; Lijuan Lan; Yanjun Ding; Zhimin Peng
      Abstract: Ratios of the 2nd and 1st harmonics at the line center are very sensitive to absorbance, but not to line profiles when the modulation index is set to 0.94. Based on this characteristic, we proposed a method which uses the 1st and 2nd harmonics to measure the absolute absorbance, and then obtain gas pressure and concentration. Some transitions of CO2 and H2O molecules near 6980 cm−1 are selected to verify this method. The satisfactory agreement between measurement results and theoretical values validates the proposed method.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6780-1
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • Energetic metallic ion implantation in polymers via cost-effective
           laser-driven ion source
    • Authors: Muhammad Bilal Tahir; M. Shahid Rafique; Rabia Ahmed; M. Rafique; Tahir Iqbal; Ali Hasan
      Abstract: This research work reports the ions emission from the plasma generated by Nd:YAG laser having wavelength 1.064 μm, power 1.1 MW, pulse energy 10 mJ and intensity 1011 W/cm2 irradiated at 70° with respect to the target normal to the ions. These ions were accelerated through a home-made extraction assembly by means of a high voltage DC power supply. The energy of these ions were measured using Thomson parabola technique which utilizes Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (CR-39) and confirmed by Faraday cup as well that exploits a well-known technique known as time of flight. Interestingly, a significant increase in energy (from 490 to 730 keV) was observed with a discrete increase in acceleration potential from 0 to 18 kV. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene were exposed to this recently developed ion source facility, to authenticate the reliability of this facility. The surface of the polymer is affected when energy of the irradiated ion is increased, which is evident from the optical micrographs. An increase in electrical conductivity was also observed with the increase in ion energy.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6762-3
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • The blue light indicator in rubidium 5S–5P–5D cascade
    • Authors: Waseem Raja; Md. Sabir Ali; Alok Chakrabarti; Ayan Ray
      Abstract: The cascade system has played an important role in contemporary research areas related to fields like Rydberg excitation, four wave mixing and non-classical light generation, etc. Depending on the specific objective, co or counter propagating pump–probe laser experimental geometry is followed. However, the stepwise excitation of atoms to states higher than the first excited state deals with increasingly much fewer number of atoms even compared to the population at first excited level. Hence, one needs a practical indicator to study the complex photon–atom interaction of the cascade system. Here, we experimentally analyze the case of rubidium 5S → 5P → 5D as a specimen of two-step excitation and highlight the efficacy of monitoring one branch, which emits ~420 nm, of associated cascade decay route 5D → 6P → 5S, as an effective monitor of the coherence in the system.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6778-8
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • Role of target thickness in proton acceleration from near-critical
           mass-limited plasmas
    • Authors: Deep Kumar Kuri; Nilakshi Das; Kartik Patel
      Abstract: The role played by the target thickness in generating high energetic protons by a circularly polarized laser from near-critical mass-limited targets (MLT) has been investigated with the help of three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The radiation pressure accelerates protons from the front side of the target. Due to hole boring, the target front side gets deformed resulting in a change in the effective angle of incidence which causes vacuum heating and hence generates hot electrons. These hot electrons travel through the target at an angle with the laser axis and hence get more diverged along transverse directions for large target thickness. The hot electrons form sheath fields on the target rear side which accelerates protons via target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). It is observed that the collimation of radiation pressure accelerated protons gets degraded on reaching the target rear side due to TNSA. The effect of transverse hot electron recirculations gets suppressed and the energetic protons get highly collimated on decreasing target thickness as the radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) starts dominating the acceleration process.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6779-7
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • Parametric Raman crystalline anti-Stokes laser at 503 nm with collinear
           beam interaction at tangential phase matching
    • Authors: S. N. Smetanin; M. Jelínek; V. Kubeček
      Abstract: Stimulated-Raman-scattering in crystals can be used for the single-pass frequency-conversion to the Stokes-shifted wavelengths. The anti-Stokes shift can also be achieved but the phase-matching condition has to be fulfilled because of the parametric four-wave mixing process. To widen the angular-tolerance of four-wave mixing and to obtain high-conversion-efficiency into the anti-Stokes, we developed a new scheme of the parametric Raman anti-Stokes laser at 503 nm with phase-matched collinear beam interaction of orthogonally-polarized Raman components in calcite oriented at the phase-matched angle under 532 nm 20 ps laser excitation. The excitation laser beam was split into two orthogonally-polarized components entering the calcite at the certain incidence angles to fulfill the nearly collinear phase-matching and also to compensate walk-off of extraordinary waves for collinear beam interaction. The phase matching of parametric Raman interaction is tangential and insensitive to the angular mismatch if the Poynting vectors of the biharmonic pump and parametrically generated (anti-Stokes) waves are collinear. For the first time it allows to achieve experimentally the highest conversion efficiency into the anti-Stokes wave (503 nm) up to 30% from the probe wave and up to 3.5% from both pump and probe waves in the single-pass picosecond parametric calcite Raman laser. The highest anti-Stokes pulse energy was 1.4  \(\upmu\) J.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6776-x
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • An optical multimode fiber as pseudothermal light source
    • Authors: Thomas Mehringer; Steffen Oppel; Joachim von Zanthier
      Abstract: We report on a novel pseudothermal light source based on laser light coupled into an optical multimode fiber. The setup is simple, low cost, exhibits inherently high directional light emission and allows for a flexible arrangement. By measuring the photon statistics and spatial two point intensity correlations in the far field we show that the setup exhibits all characteristics of a Gaussian random source.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6775-y
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • Predicting fluorescence quantum yield for anisole at elevated temperatures
           and pressures
    • Authors: Q. Wang; K. H. Tran; C. Morin; J. Bonnety; G. Legros; P. Guibert
      Abstract: Aromatic molecules are promising candidates for using as a fluorescent tracer for gas-phase scalar parameter diagnostics in a drastic environment like engines. Along with anisole turning out an excellent temperature tracer by Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostics in Rapid Compression Machine (RCM), its fluorescence signal evolution versus pressure and temperature variation in a high-pressure and high-temperature cell have been reported in our recent paper on Applied Phys. B by Tran et al. Parallel to this experimental study, a photophysical model to determine anisole Fluorescence Quantum Yield (FQY) is delivered in this paper. The key to development of the model is the identification of pressure, temperature, and ambient gases, where the FQY is dominated by certain processes of the model (quenching effect, vibrational relaxation, etc.). In addition to optimization of the vibrational relaxation energy cascade coefficient and the collision probability with oxygen, the non-radiative pathways are mainly discussed. The common non-radiative rate (intersystem crossing and internal conversion) is simulated in parametric form as a function of excess vibrational energy, derived from the data acquired at different pressures and temperatures from the literature. A new non-radiative rate, namely, the equivalent Intramolecular Vibrational Redistribution or Randomization (IVR) rate, is proposed to characterize anisole deactivated processes. The new model exhibits satisfactory results which are validated against experimental measurements of fluorescence signal induced at a wavelength of 266 nm in a cell with different bath gases (N2, CO2, Ar and O2), a pressure range from 0.2 to 4 MPa, and a temperature range from 473 to 873 K.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6773-0
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • Characterization of the coherence properties of different optical sources
    • Authors: A. Celine Kavida; A. Roberts
      Abstract: Non-interferometric phase-space tomography is used to characterize the spatial coherence properties of scalar quasi-monochromatic partially coherent optical fields. Three sources were investigated and characteristic projections through the correlation functions determined. It was seen that a single-mode fibre-coupled source exhibited a much longer coherence length than a multi-mode fibre-coupled source. Both sources exhibited a high degree of symmetry. A collimated light emitted diode, on the other hand, was shown to have a short spatial coherence length and clear asymmetries were evident.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6769-9
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • The effect of laser contrast on generation of highly charged Fe ions by
           ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulses
    • Authors: Anatoly Ya. Faenov; Maria A. Alkhimova; Tatiana A. Pikuz; Igor Yu. Skobelev; Mamiko Nishiuchi; Hironao Sakaki; Alexander S. Pirozhkov; Akito Sagisaka; Nicholas P. Dover; Kotaro Kondo; Koichi Ogura; Yuji Fukuda; Hiromitsu Kiriyama; Alexander Andreev; Keita Nishitani; Takumi Miyahara; Yukinobu Watanabe; Sergey A. Pikuz; Masaki Kando; Ruosuke Kodama; Kiminori Kondo
      Abstract: Experimental studies on the formation of highly charged ions of medium-Z elements using femtosecond laser pulses with different contrast levels were carried out. Multiply charged Fe ions were generated by laser pulses with 35 fs duration and an intensity exceeding 1021 W/cm2. Using high-resolution X-ray spectroscopic methods, bulk electron temperature of the generated plasma has been identified. It is shown that the presence of a laser pre-pulse at a contrast level of 105–106 with respect to the main pulse drastically decreases the degree of Fe ionization. We conclude that an effective source of energetic, multiply charged moderate and high-Z ions based on femtosecond laser–plasma interactions can be created only using laser pulses of ultra-high contrast.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6771-2
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • High-beam-quality, efficient operation of passively Q-switched
           Yb:YAG/Cr:YAG laser pumped by photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser
    • Authors: Xiaoyang Guo; Shigeki Tokita; Kana Fujioka; Hiro Nishida; Kazuyoshi Hirose; Takahiro Sugiyama; Akiyoshi Watanabe; Kenji Ishizaki; Susumu Noda; Noriaki Miyanaga; Junji Kawanaka
      Abstract: A passively Q-switched Yb:YAG/Cr:YAG laser pumped by a photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) was developed. Yb:YAG crystal was cryogenically cooled by liquid nitrogen at 77 K. Excellent Gaussian beam profile (M 2 = 1.02) and high slope efficiency of 58% were demonstrated without using a coupling optics between a laser material and PCSEL.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6772-1
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • Surface-tuned three-photon absorption of CdSe nanocrystals in
    • Authors: Chong Wang; Fangfang Wang; Baohua Zhu; Shuxi Dai; Yuzong Gu; Jiayu Zhang
      Abstract: We studied the tunable three-photon absorption (3PA) response of colloidal CdSe nanocrystals in near-infrared by surface states which were successfully controlled with a purification process. The 3PA cross section at room temperature was decreased by more than two orders of magnitude when the density of surface traps increases and works through the photoinduced and intrinsic dipole moments of excitons, indicating that the surface-tuned three-photon absorption of CdSe was of significance in potential applications.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6768-x
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • Three-dimensional light bullets in a Bragg medium with carbon nanotubes
    • Authors: Alexander V. Zhukov; Roland Bouffanais; Mikhail B. Belonenko; Ilya S. Dvuzhilov; Yulia V. Nevzorova
      Abstract: We present a theoretical study of the propagation of three-dimensional extremely short electromagnetic pulses (a.k.a. light bullets) through a Bragg medium containing an immersed array of carbon nanotubes. We demonstrate the possible stable propagation of such light bullets. In particular, our results suggest these light bullets can carry information about the Bragg medium itself.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6767-y
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • Acetone photophysics at 282 nm excitation at elevated pressure and
           temperature. II: Fluorescence modeling
    • Authors: Jason Hartwig; Mandhapati Raju; Chih-Jen Sung
      Abstract: This is the second in a series of two papers that presents an updated fluorescence model and compares with the new experimental data reported in the first paper, as well as the available literature data, to extend the range of acetone photophysics to elevated pressure and temperature conditions. This work elucidates the complete acetone photophysical model in terms of each and every competing radiative and non-radiative rate. The acetone fluorescence model is then thoroughly examined and optimized based on disparity with recently conducted elevated pressure and temperature photophysical calibration experiments. The current work offers insight into the competition between non-radiative and vibrational energy decay rates at elevated temperature and pressure and proposes a global optimization of model parameters from the photophysical model developed by Thurber (Acetone Laser-Induced Fluorescence for Temperature and Multiparameter Imaging in Gaseous Flows. PhD thesis, Stanford University Mechanical Engineering Department, 1999). The collisional constants of proportionality, which govern vibrational relaxation, are shown to be temperature dependent at elevated pressures. A new oxygen quenching rate is proposed which takes into account collisions with oxygen as well as the oxygen-assisted intersystem crossing component. Additionally, global trends in ketone photophysics are presented and discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6770-3
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 7 (2017)
  • X-ray emission from a liquid curtain jet when irradiated by femtosecond
           laser pulses
    • Authors: F. Valle Brozas; D. Papp; L. M. Escudero; L. Roso; A. Peralta Conde
      Abstract: Laser-based sources of ionizing radiation have attracted considerable attention in the last years for their broad potential applications. However, the stability and robustness of such sources are still issues that need to be addressed. Aiming to solve such problems, we propose a source that uses a liquid jet—rather than a solid—as a target for the production of X-rays. Liquid jets offer always a clean surface for every laser shot which represent a clear advantage over solids. In this work, we present an experimental characterization of the X-ray emission of such targets, and study the efficiency of the process when two temporally delayed pulses are used. According to the obtained results, the X-ray yield is comparable with commonly used targets.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6763-2
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2017)
  • Acetone photophysics at 282 nm excitation at elevated pressure and
           temperature. I: absorption and fluorescence experiments
    • Authors: Jason Hartwig; Gaurav Mittal; Kamal Kumar; Chih-Jen Sung
      Abstract: This is the first in a series of two papers that presents new experimental data to extend the range of acetone photophysics to elevated pressure and temperature conditions. In this work, a flexible static and flow system is designed and characterized to study the independent as well as coupled effect of elevated pressure and temperature on acetone photophysics over pressures of 0.05‒4.0 MPa and temperatures of 295‒750 K for 282 nm excitation wavelength in nitrogen and air as bath gases. Experimental results show that at 282 nm excitation, relative fluorescence quantum yield increases with increasing pressure, decreases with increasing temperature, and that the pressure sensitivity varies weakly with elevated temperature. The previously assumed linearity of fluorescence with tracer number density is shown to only be valid over a small range. Additionally, acetone fluorescence is only moderately quenched in the presence of oxygen. The present findings yield insight into the competition between the non-radiative and collisional rates at elevated temperature and pressure, as well as provide validation datasets for an updated fluorescence model developed in the second paper.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6774-z
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2017)
  • Even-parity autoionizing levels of atomic uranium and their total angular
    • Authors: P. K. Mandal; A. C. Sahoo; R. C. Das; M. L. Shah; Vas Dev
      Abstract: Employing three-colour three-step resonance ionization spectroscopy, photoionization spectra of atomic uranium have been investigated extensively in the energy region 49,959–51,504 cm−1. A detailed analysis of the photoionization spectra has resulted in the observation of 346 even-parity autoionizing levels including 199 new levels and a Rydberg series converging to the second-lowest ionic level ( \({}^{6}{\text{L}}_{11/2}^{\text{o}}\) ) of uranium. Using the method of laser polarization combinations as well as the method of total angular momentum (J) selection rules, the J values of 72 of these autoionizing levels have been assigned unambiguously. Out of these 72 levels, the unique J values of 56 autoionizing levels have been determined for the first time, while it has been confirmed for the remaining 16 reported previously.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6765-0
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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