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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2329 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics
  [SJR: 0.983]   [H-I: 104]   [23 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0946-2171 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0649
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • A robust, alignment-free broadband CARS system based on stimulated
           processes in heavy water
    • Authors: Hong Yuan; Baodong Gai; Jinbo Liu; Jingwei Guo; Xianglong Cai; Xusheng Xia; Xueyang Li; Baichao Zhang; Liezheng Deng; Yuqi Jin
      Abstract: We have established a new method for realizing a typical “2-color” collinear CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) system. The system mainly consists of a laser source, a D2O cell, and a spectrometer. The pump/probe beam and the Stokes beam are provided by SBS (stimulated Brillouin scattering) and BSRS (backward stimulated Raman scattering) of D2O, respectively. The CARS system is statistically stable, and it is also a broadband and alignment-free system. Measurement of N2 signal in air with this system is demonstrated. Detection of N2 in 0.006 bar air is realized with this system. Time-resolved pulse shapes of SBS and BSRS are measured to confirm their generation. Transference of energy from the SBS pulse to the BSRS pulse is realized with a Rhodamine 101 dye cuvette and discussed. This results in a better energy distribution between the pump/probe and Stokes pulses for CARS.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6753-4
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2017)
  • CO 2 laser polishing of conical shaped optical fiber deflectors
    • Authors: Elif Uzcengiz Şimşek; Bartu Şimşek; Bülend Ortaç
      Abstract: A novel method for polishing conical shaped optical fiber deflectors by modulated CO2 laser exposure is reported. The conical shaped fiber deflector geometry was first formed with rough mechanical polishing, then it was exposed to modulated CO2 laser operating with wavelength at 10.6 µm to achieve fine polish surfaces. The motivation of this work is to demonstrate that the modulated CO2 laser exposure approach allows a fiber surface roughness at a nanometer scale without modifying the conical shape of the fiber deflector. The average surface roughness of mechanically polished fiber deflectors with 30 and 9 µm lapping films was smoothed down to 20.4 and 4.07 nm, respectively, after CO2 laser polishing process. By combining mechanical and laser polishing techniques, fabrication of conical shaped optical fiber deflectors takes less time and it becomes laborer independent and easy to apply.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6746-3
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2017)
  • Beam shaping laser with controllable gain
    • Authors: Igor A. Litvin; Gary King; Hencharl Strauss
      Abstract: We propose a novel intra-cavity laser beam shaping technique based on the manipulation of the transverse gain profile in the laser crystal. The method allows controllable reshaping of a laser output beam into a desired beam profile. Two laser diodes were used to pump the crystal and to create a desirable pump beam profile. By independent manipulation of output powers of both pump diodes, we are able to perform a controllable operation of the laser output intensity profile.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6747-2
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2017)
  • Range extension in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using
           femtosecond–nanosecond dual-beam laser system
    • Authors: Wei Chu; Bin Zeng; Ziting Li; Jinping Yao; Hongqiang Xie; Guihua Li; Zhanshan Wang; Ya Cheng
      Abstract: We extend the detection range of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy by combining high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses with high-energy nanosecond CO2 laser pulses. The femtosecond laser pulses ionize the molecules and generate filament in air. The free electrons generated in the self-confined plasma channel by the femtosecond laser serve as the seed electrons which cause efficient avalanche ionization in the nanosecond CO2 laser field. We show that the detection distance has been extended by three times with the assistance of femtosecond laser filamentation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6749-0
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2017)
  • Modeling of pulsed Cs vapor lasers in transversely pumped configuration
    • Authors: Fei Zi; Xian Zhang; Xiaoxiao Ma; Kaikai Huang; Xuanhui Lu
      Abstract: By means of combining the transverse differential equation of pump intensity and the longitudinal differential equation of laser power, an optical model for transversely pumped diode-pumped alkali vapor lasers (DPALs) is established. The spatial distributions of both radius and intensities are considered in the model for pump and laser beams. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiment ones as compared to the reported pulsed transversely pumped Cs DPALs. Influences of pump power, temperature, cell length, and beam waist on output performance are investigated, which suggests a set of parameters for efficient DPAL operation. In particular, the optimal ratio of the beam waist between the laser and pump beam is demonstrated to be 0.81, which can increase the laser power by 85% larger than the current experimental result.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6745-4
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2017)
  • Raman self-induced-transparency soliton trains in hollow-core photonic
    • Authors: Duplex S. Mbieda Petmegni; Alain M. Dikandé; B. Z. Essimbi
      Abstract: Periodic trains of non-topological dark and bright optical solitons are proposed as one of the possible nonlinear optical structures that could be generated during Raman transitions in nonlinear hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled with gas. It is shown that Stokes-like probe fields, generated by stimulated Raman transitions upon propagation of the master pump in the hollow-core fiber, form a broadband spectrum, whose discrete branch is populated by several distinct localized periodic soliton modes with well-defined “quantum numbers”. Such soliton trains, which are intended to complement recently proposed single-pulse and single-dark solitons for multi-channel communication applications, can be formed by temporal quantum entanglements of the single-soliton fields. Attention is laid on a possibility to generate such soliton trains in the absence of Kerr nonlinearity, and total controllability of their shape profiles including their temporal periods and average widths is demonstrated through variations of characteristic parameters of the hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6748-1
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2017)
  • Lightweight mid-infrared methane sensor for unmanned aerial systems
    • Authors: Levi M. Golston; Lei Tao; Caroline Brosy; Klaus Schäfer; Benjamin Wolf; James McSpiritt; Bernhard Buchholz; Dana R. Caulton; Da Pan; Mark A. Zondlo; David Yoel; Harald Kunstmann; Marty McGregor
      Abstract: Abstract The design and field performance of a compact diode laser-based instrument for measuring methane on unmanned aerial systems (UAS) is described. The system is based on open-path, wavelength modulation spectroscopy with a 3.27 µm GaSb laser. We design two versions of the sensor for a long-endurance fixed wing UAS and a rotary wing hexacopter, with instrument masses of 4.6 and 1.6 kg, respectively. The long-endurance platform was used to measure vertical profiles of methane up to 600 m in altitude and showed repeatability of 13 ppbv between multiple profiles. Additionally, the hexacopter system was used to evaluate the evolution of methane in the nocturnal boundary layer during the ScaleX field campaign in Germany, where measured data is consistent with supporting ground-based methane and meteorological measurements. Testing results on both platforms demonstrated our lightweight methane sensor had an in-flight precision of 5–10 ppbv Hz−1/2.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6735-6
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2017)
  • Pulsed-induced electromagnetically induced transparency in the
           acetylene-filled hollow-core fibers
    • Authors: Nayeli Casillas Rodríguez; Serguei Stepanov; Manuel Ocegueda Miramontes; Eliseo Hernández Hernández
      Abstract: Abstract Experimental results on pulsed excitation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the acetylene-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) at pressures 0.1–0.4 Torr are reported. The EIT was observed both in Λ and V interaction configurations with the continuous probe wave tuned to R9 (1520.08 nm) acetylene absorption line and with the control pulses tuned to P11 (1531.58 nm) and P9 (1530.37 nm) lines, respectively. The utilized control pulses were of up to 40 ns duration with <2.5 ns fronts and with maximum input power ~1 W. The maximum modulation depth of the initial probe wave absorption via EIT was up to 40 and 15% for the co- and counter-propagation of the probe and control waves, respectively, and importance of the waves polarization matching was demonstrated. For a qualitative explanation of reduction in the counter-propagation EIT efficiency a simple model of the accelerated mismatch of the two-frequency EIT resonance with deviation of the molecule thermal velocity from the resonance value was utilized. It was shown experimentally that the EIT efficiencies in both configurations do not depend on the longitudinal velocity of the molecules. The characteristic relaxation time of the of the EIT response was found to be about 9 ns, i.e., is close to the relaxation times T 1,2 of the acetylene molecules under the utilized experimental conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6744-5
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2017)
  • Cavity ring-down Faraday rotation spectroscopy for oxygen detection
    • Authors: Jonas Westberg; Gerard Wysocki
      Abstract: Abstract A combination of the path length enhancement provided by cavity ring-down spectroscopy together with the selectivity and noise suppression capabilities of Faraday rotation spectroscopy is utilized for highly sensitive detection of oxygen at ~762.3 nm. The system achieves a noise-equivalent rotation angle of 1.3 × 10−9 rad/√Hz, and a trace O2 detection limit of 160 ppb for 100 s of averaging. The technique relies on measurements of the losses in two orthogonal polarization directions simultaneously, whereby an absolute assessment of the magnetically induced polarization rotation can be retrieved, analogous to the absolute absorption measurement provided by stand-alone cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The differential nature of the technique described here eliminates the need for off-resonance decay measurements and thereby allows for efficient shot-to-shot fluctuation suppression. This is especially advantageous when operating the system under measurement conditions that severely affect the non-absorber related losses, such as particulate matter contamination typically present in combustion or open-path applications.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6743-6
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 5 (2017)
  • An interband cascade laser-based in situ absorption sensor for nitric
           oxide in combustion exhaust gases
    • Authors: O. Diemel; J. Pareja; A. Dreizler; S. Wagner
      Abstract: Abstract A direct absorption nitric oxide sensor for combustion exhaust gas measurements, based on an interband cascade laser operating at 5.2 µm, is presented. The sensor was applied to the hot air co-flow of an auto-ignition test rig (800–1300 K), which contains nitric oxide mole fractions of the order of 1 mol%, due to prior microwave plasma heating. The effect of non-uniform temperature along the beam path, on both absorption line strength and gas density, was included in mole fraction measurements at various co-flow temperatures and velocities. At an absorption length of only 82 mm, a noise-limited detection limit of 30 ppm with a 10 ms observation time was achieved at 800 K. The results were compared in detail to previously measured mole fractions, using a sampling gas analyzer.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6741-8
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 5 (2017)
  • Is the photonic crystal with a Dirac cone at its Г point a real
           zero-index material?
    • Authors: H. Gao; Y. S. Zhou; Z. Y. Zheng; S. J. Chen; J. J. Dong
      Abstract: Abstract A novel optical property of a conventional two-dimensional dielectric photonic crystal (PC) has been reported by establishing a Dirac cone at the Г point of its band structure: it manipulates waves as if it had zero refractive indices at the Dirac point frequency (Huang et al. in Nature Mater 10:582–586, 2011). However, this PC is not a real homogeneous material. What is the difference between it and a real zero-index material (ZIM) is a fundamental issue of physics itself and also crucial to their applications. In this paper, through investigating the dispersion relations and the transmission properties of this kind of PC, we found that under normal incidence, at the frequency of the Dirac point, this PC does behave like a ZIM material. However, under oblique incidence, nonzero transmittances are obtained even at large incident angles, which is quite different from the real ZIM. The physical reason of the transmission properties was also investigated. It was found that near the Г point, there is an additional flat dispersion surface which intersects with the Dirac cone at the Dirac point. It is this flat dispersion surface which supports the Dirac point energy to exist in this PC, resulting in the nonzero transmission under oblique incidence.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6738-3
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 5 (2017)
  • A comparison of two 40 Ca + single-ion optical frequency standards at the
           5 × 10 −17 level and an evaluation of systematic shifts
    • Authors: Y. Huang; H. Guan; W. Bian; L. Ma; K. Liang; T. Li; K. Gao
      Abstract: Abstract A comparison of two optical frequency standards and a detailed study of the systematic frequency shifts of each 40Ca+ single-ion optical frequency standard is presented. The methods used for the systematic shift evaluation of the comparison measurements are also provided. One of the ion traps runs at a chosen operating frequency of 24.7 MHz, determined by the differential scalar polarizability of the clock transition, at which frequency the rf-induced Stark shifts and second-order Doppler shifts cancel each other, yielding a great suppression in the combined micromotion shifts. After compensating for the micromotion, the two optical frequency standards both reach an uncertainty level of a few parts in 10−17, which is more than an order of magnitude smaller compared to a few years ago. The dominant source of uncertainty is the blackbody radiation shift after minimizing the micromotion-induced shifts. The blackbody radiation shift is evaluated by controlling and measuring the temperature at the trap center. With a measurement over one month, the frequency difference between the two clocks is measured to be 3.2 × 10−17 with a measurement uncertainty of 5.5 × 10−17, considering both the statistical (1.9 × 10−17) and the systematic (5.1 × 10−17) uncertainties. Due to improvement of the clock laser and better control of the optical and electromagnetic field geometry and the laboratory conditions, a fractional stability of 7 × 10−17 in 20,000 s of averaging time is achieved. The absolute frequency of the 40Ca+ 4 s2S1/2–3d 2D5/2 clock transition is measured as 411 042 129 776 401.7 (1.1) Hz, with a fractional uncertainty of 2.7 × 10−15 using the GPS satellites as a link to the SI second. Details of the method used for the systematic shift evaluation of the measurements are given.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6731-x
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 5 (2017)
  • Dual quantum cascade laser-based sensor for simultaneous NO and NO 2
           detection using a wavelength modulation-division multiplexing technique
    • Authors: Yajun Yu; Nancy P. Sanchez; Fan Yi; Chuantao Zheng; Weilin Ye; Hongpeng Wu; Robert J. Griffin; Frank K. Tittel
      Abstract: Abstract A sensor system capable of simultaneous measurements of NO and NO2 was developed using a wavelength modulation-division multiplexing (WMDM) scheme and multi-pass absorption spectroscopy. A continuous wave (CW), distributed-feedback (DFB) quantum cascade laser (QCL) and a CW external-cavity (EC) QCL were employed for targeting a NO absorption doublet at 1900.075 cm−1 and a NO2 absorption line at 1630.33 cm−1, respectively. Simultaneous detection was realized by modulating both QCLs independently at different frequencies and demodulating the detector signals with LabView-programmed lock-in amplifiers. The sensor operated at a reduced pressure of 40 Torr and a data sampling rate of 1 Hz. An Allan–Werle deviation analysis indicated that the minimum detection limits of NO and NO2 can reach sub-ppbv concentration levels with averaging times of 100 and 200 s, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-05-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6742-7
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 5 (2017)
  • A novel vibration sensor based on phase grating interferometry
    • Authors: Qian Li; Xiaojun Liu; Li Zhao; Zili Lei; Zhen Lu; Lei Guo
      Abstract: Abstract Vibration sensors with high accuracy and reliability are needed urgently for vibration measurement. In this paper a vibration sensor with nanometer resolution is developed. This sensor is based on the principle of phase grating interference for displacement measurement and spatial polarization phase-shift interference technology, and photoelectric counting and A/D signal subdivision are adopted for vibration data output. A vibration measurement system consisting of vibration actuator and displacement adjusting device has been designed to test the vibration sensor. The high resolution and high reliability of the sensor are verified through a series of comparison experiments with Doppler interferometer.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6724-9
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 5 (2017)
  • Time-resolved whole field investigation of plasma plume-induced shock wave
           in liquid media of different densities
    • Authors: Kaushik Choudhury; R. K. Singh; Surya Narayan; Atul Srivastava; Ajai Kumar
      Abstract: Abstract Laser-produced plasma-induced shock wave in liquid media of different densities has been experimentally studied using non-intrusive diagnostics. A time-resolved Mach–Zehnder interferometer is setup to track the shock wave and subsequent density perturbations in the medium. Two-dimensional spatial distributions for both, ambient medium density and plasma (electron) density have been obtained by employing customised inversion technique and algorithm on the recorded interferograms. It has been observed that the nature of the shock-induced density perturbation in liquid medium is significantly different as compared to that in the gaseous medium. The observed density perturbations have been correlated with the primary shock wave and stress waves reflected from within the target and travelling back in the medium. The trend in the variation of electronic charge density in the plume region has also been studied.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6740-9
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 5 (2017)
  • Hybrid fiber links for accurate optical frequency comparison
    • Authors: Won-Kyu Lee; Fabio Stefani; Anthony Bercy; Olivier Lopez; Anne Amy-Klein; Paul-Eric Pottie
      Abstract: Abstract We present the experimental demonstration of a local two-way optical frequency comparison over a 43-km-long urban fiber network without any requirement for measurement synchronization. We combined the local two-way scheme with a regular active noise compensation scheme that was implemented on another parallel fiber leading to a highly reliable and robust frequency transfer. This hybrid scheme allowed us to investigate the major limiting factors of the local two-way comparison. We analyzed the contributions of the interferometers at both local and remote locations to the phase noise of the local two-way signal. Using the ability of this setup to be injected by either a single laser or two independent lasers, we measured the contributions of the demodulated laser instabilities to the long-term instability. We show that a fractional frequency instability level of 10−20 at 10,000 s can be obtained using this simple setup after propagation over a distance of 43 km in an urban area.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6736-5
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 5 (2017)
  • Tomographic imaging of reacting flows in 3D by laser absorption
    • Authors: J. Foo; P. A. Martin
      Abstract: Abstract This paper describes the development of an infrared laser absorption tomography system for the 3D volumetric imaging of chemical species and temperature in reacting flows. The system is based on high-resolution near-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) for the measurement of water vapour above twin, mixed fuel gas burners arranged with an asymmetrical output. Four parallel laser beams pass through the sample region and are rotated rapidly in a plane to produce a wide range of projection angles. A rotation of 180° with 0.5° sampling was achieved in 3.6 s. The effects of changes to the burner fuel flow were monitored in real time for the 2D distributions. The monitoring plane was then moved vertically relative to the burners enabling a stack of 2D images to be produced which were then interpolated to form a 3D volumetric image of the temperature and water concentrations above the burners. The optical transmission of each beam was rapidly scanned around 1392 nm and the spectrum was fitted to find the integrated absorbance of the water transitions and although several are probed in each scan, two of these transitions possess opposite temperature dependencies. The projections of the integrated absorbances at each angle form the sinogram from which the 2D image of integrated absorbance of each line can be reconstructed by the direct Fourier reconstruction based on the Fourier slice theorem. The ratio of the integrated absorbances of the two lines can then be related to temperature alone in a method termed, two-line thermometry. The 2D temperature distribution obtained was validated for pattern and accuracy by thermocouple measurements. With the reconstructed temperature distribution, the temperature-dependent line strengths could be determined and subsequently the concentration distribution of water across the 2D plane whilst variations in burner condition were carried out. These results show that the measurement system based on TDLAS can be used for 2D temporal or 3D volume imaging of temperature and chemical species concentration in reacting flows.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6733-8
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 5 (2017)
  • UV laser-induced poling inhibition in proton exchanged LiNbO $$_{3}$$ 3
    • Authors: G. Zisis; M. Manzo; K. Gallo; E. Soergel; S. Mailis
      Abstract: Abstract The applicability of the UV laser-induced poling inhibition method for ferroelectric domain engineering in proton exchanged lithium niobate planar waveguides is investigated. Our results indicate that intense UV irradiation of proton exchanged lithium niobate samples can, indeed, produce poling inhibited domains in this material under certain irradiation conditions. However, there is strong indication that the temperature gradient that is formed during UV irradiation modifies the local proton concentration leading to changes in the refractive index profile of the original planar waveguide.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6734-7
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 5 (2017)
  • Propagation of an Airy-Gaussian beam in defected photonic lattices
    • Authors: Zhiwei Shi; Jing Xue; Xing Zhu; Yang Li; Huagang Li
      Abstract: Abstract We investigate numerically that a finite Airy-Gaussian (AiG) beam varies its trajectory and shape in defected photonic lattices. Propagation properties and beam self-bending are controlled with modulation depth and period of photonic lattices, positive and negative defects, beam distribution factor and nonlinearities. For positive defects, the pseudo-period oscillation and localization of the AiG beam may form under a certain condition, while the beam diffuses in negative defects. Moreover, the solitons may appear during the propagation when the self-focusing nonlinearity is introduced.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6737-4
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 5 (2017)
  • Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating for characterization
           of an ultrashort optical pulse train
    • Authors: Yuta Nakano; Totaro Imasaka
      Abstract: Abstract A technique involving cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating is applied in characterizing an optical pulse train consisting of several spectral components. An optical beat was used as a reference pulse for measuring the relative spectral phase among the spectral components in the test pulse generated by four-wave Raman mixing in hydrogen gas. It was confirmed that a change in the relative phase can be measured by monitoring the shift in the interference fringe and that Raman emissions generated by four-wave Raman mixing are phase locked.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6732-9
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 5 (2017)
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Heriot-Watt University
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