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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2348 journals)

 Applied Physics B: Lasers and OpticsJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.74 Citation Impact (citeScore): 2Number of Followers: 24      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 0946-2171 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0649 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2348 journals]
• Effect of SiO 2 on optical properties of bismuth-doped B 2 O 3 –GeO
2 –SiO 2 glasses
• Authors: Zhousu Xu; Jinhua Yan; Cheng Xu; Hang Zhang; Gang Chen; Xiaofeng Liu; Jianrong Qiu
Abstract: Abstract Bi-doped (60-x)GeO2–xSiO2–15B2O3–20MgO–5Al2O3–0.5Bi2O3 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15,20, 25 mol%)glasses were prepared by a conventional melt-quenching process. A broad near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) band from Bi centers centered around 1100 nm with a large full-width-at-half-maximum value (~ 195 nm) was observed under excitation at 700 nm. Along with the increase of SiO2 concentration, the NIR PL intensity and the quantum yield (44.1–51.2%) increase first and then decrease, and the PL lifetime increases from 409 to 464 µs. The spectroscopic properties can be interpreted in terms of Bi centers with different valence states, which were confirmed by two-dimension photoluminescence excitation map spectra. The dependence of optical properties on SiO2 concentration is mainly attributed to the change of the optical basicity among different samples. This Bi-doped B2O3–GeO2–SiO2 glass could find potential application in fiber amplifier and laser due to the efficient and tunable broad NIR luminescence.
PubDate: 2018-08-16
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7044-4
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 9 (2018)

• Properties of a random electromagnetic multi-Gaussian Schell-model vortex
beam in oceanic turbulence
• Authors: Dajun Liu; Yaochuan Wang
Abstract: Abstract A new kind beam called the random electromagnetic multi-Gaussian Schell-model (REMGSM) vortex beam has been introduced. Based on the Huygens–Fresnel principle, the elements of the cross-spectral density matrix of the REMGSM vortex beam propagation in oceanic turbulence have been derived. The average intensity and spectral degree of polarization properties of the REMGSM vortex beam propagating in oceanic turbulence are illustrated and analyzed using numerical examples. The results show that the REMGSM vortex beam propagating in stronger oceanic turbulence will evolve into flat-topped beam and Gaussian-like beam more rapidly as the propagation distance increases.
PubDate: 2018-08-14
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7048-0
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 9 (2018)

• High-performance polarization beam splitter based on anisotropic plasmonic
nanostructures
• Authors: Zhengyong Song; Qiongqiong Chu; Longfang Ye; Yanhui Liu; Chunhui Zhu; Qing Huo Liu
Abstract: Abstract We propose an alternative design of efficient and compact polarization beam splitters for wide-angle and polarization-sensitive incidence of electromagnetic waves at near-infrared frequencies. The designed system is constructed by depositing periodic metallic strips on top and bottom of a continuous metal film. Based on the optimization of structure parameters, the whole system can suppress transmission (~ 0%) for one polarization and enhance transmission for another polarization (~ 95%). This phenomenon of anisotropic transmission can be attributed to different performances of impedance along different polarization directions. This device may find applications in optical components and polarization filter.
PubDate: 2018-08-14
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7049-z
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 9 (2018)

• Correction to: High phase space density loading of a falling magnetic trap
• Authors: Ido Almog; Jonathan Coslovsky; Gil Loewenthal; Arnaud Courvoisier; Nir Davidson
Abstract: In the original publication of the article, typesetters have incorrectly processed.
PubDate: 2018-08-13
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7045-3
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 9 (2018)

• High-order harmonic generation in H 2 + via multicolor beam superposition:
barrier suppression ionization regime
• Authors: S. Sarikhani; S. Batebi
Abstract: Abstract Generation of high-order harmonics (HOHs) and attosecond pulses in the barrier suppression ionization regime for a target of hydrogen molecular ion, $${\text{H}}_{2}^{+}$$ , with large inter nuclear distance is introduced in this work. Some broadband femtosecon laser pulses are designed based on multicolor beam superposition method in order to interact with $${\text{H}}_{2}^{+}$$ . Behavioral study of harmonics cutoff, attosecond pulse widths and intensities, along with the maximum ionization intensity with respect to the spectral width of driving pulses was carried out. Molecular orbitals in this study are estimated via the linear combination of atomic orbital approximation, and temporal variations of these orbitals are studied in the various ionization regimes. It is seen in this work that although the cutoff harmonic is increased by the driving pulse intensity, but it is insensitive to the spectral driving pulsewidth. This study showed that intensities of the generated attosecond pulses gradually decreased by increasing the bandwidth of the driving laser pulse, but the duration of them is shown to be insensitive in this respect.
PubDate: 2018-08-13
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7046-2
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 9 (2018)

• Q-switched repetitively pulsed cryogenic slab RF discharge CO laser with
active medium comprising air
• Authors: A. A. Ionin; I. O. Kinyaevskiy; Yu. M. Klimachev; A. Yu. Kozlov; O. A. Rulev; A. M. Sagitova; L. V. Seleznev; D. V. Sinitsyn
Abstract: Abstract Q-switched repetitively pulsed cryogenic slab RF discharge CO laser output characteristics (its spectrum, peak power and pulse duration) were studied for various active medium compositions and pump pulse energies. It was found that small addition of N2 increased output peak power at the same other parameters. The highest peak power of this CO laser facility ~ 4 kW was obtained for gas mixture CO:O2:N2:He with O2:N2 concentration ratio 1:4 as about in the atmospheric air. It was shown that the atmospheric air as the active gas mixture component can be applied instead of pure nitrogen and oxygen without the laser peak power loss.
PubDate: 2018-08-11
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7042-6
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 9 (2018)

• High conversion efficiency and small spot size of Kα X-ray generated from
nano-foam Cu targets irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses
• Authors: Hongjian Wang; Zeren Li; Zhanbin Chen
Abstract: Abstract Developing high-quality X-ray source to diagnose shock wave and changing the material and structure features of the target were presented to enhance its absorbability to ultra-intense laser energy. Experiments were carried out on the XingGuang-III Ti: sapphire laser facility (2.1– 6 J, 30 fs) at Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics. The minimum intensity was 1.6 × 1018 W/cm2 on a nano-foam Cu target with the thickness of 100 µm, the porosity of 70% and the density ratio of 30% solids of Cu. The emission of Kα X-rays from the target was measured using a single-photon counting CCD device. This nano-foam target had generated a Kα peak photon rate of 2.9 × 108 photons sr−1 s−1 and the maximum conversion efficiency (CE) value was 0.0084%. The average CE of the nano-foam Cu was 1.8 times greater than that of foil Cu target. The minimum spot size of the X-ray source was measured to be about 40 µm at full width at half maximum, smaller than 47–86 µm of the foil Cu target using 0.1-mm thick knife-edge method. The nano-foam structure showed the potential of enhancing the CE of the femtosecond laser for X-ray conversion.
PubDate: 2018-08-07
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7039-1
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 9 (2018)

• Modeling and measuring the quality factor of whispering gallery mode
resonators
• Authors: Anatoliy A. Savchenkov; Simone Borri; Mario Siciliani de Cumis; Andrey B. Matsko; Paolo De Natale; Lute Maleki
Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we study an experimental method of evaluation of efficiency of an evanescent field coupling of light to a dielectric whispering gallery mode resonator. We show that change of the relative contrast of the observable optical resonance provides an accurate and complete information about the loaded as well as unloaded bandwidth of the resonator mode. We introduce a model of the coupling that allows for an interpolation of the resonator quality factor using experimental data taken without usage of a frequency tunable narrow line laser, a fast photodiode, as well as a frequency reference. The method is also immune to imperfect geometrical mode matching frequently occurring in a realistic system. We validate this model experimentally at both 1.5 and $$4.5~\upmu \hbox {m}$$ .
PubDate: 2018-08-06
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7033-7
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 9 (2018)

• Thermal lensing in Nd:GdVO 4 laser with direct in-band pumping at
912 nm
Abstract: Abstract We report on the thermal lensing effect study in a 1063-nm Nd:GdVO4 laser with in-band diode pumping at 912 nm. The thermal lensing focal power was determined using the experimentally measured values of the laser beam width and beam quality factor (M2). The maximum observed thermal lens dioptric power was 9 m−1 at 11.3 W of output power (18.87 W of absorbed pump power) for the pump spot size diameter of ~ 394 µm. Finite element analysis simulation was also performed and strongly supported the experimental data. The effect of experimental conditions on the thermal lensing strength and comparison with previous values obtained with traditional 808 nm pumping were discussed. It was shown that pumping with 808 nm suffers from higher thermal lensing. A comparison with a well-known Nd:YVO4 laser crystal was also made.
PubDate: 2018-08-04
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7040-8
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)

• Highly stable Yb-fiber laser amplifier of delivering 32-μJ, 153-fs pulses
at 1-MHz repetition rate
• Authors: Peilong Yang; Teng Hao; Zhongqi Hu; Shaobo Fang; Junli Wang; Jiangfeng Zhu; Zhiyi Wei
Abstract: Abstract We demonstrated a sub-200-fs polarization-maintaining Yb-fiber laser amplifier based on chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) technology with high energy and stability. The seeding laser pulses were picked to 1 MHz from a nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) self-similar mode-locked Yb-fiber laser oscillator at 40.3 MHz. A specially designed chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) was employed as the pulse stretcher, which provide compensation for higher order dispersion introduced by grating compressor. Laser pulse as short as 153 fs with energy of 32 μJ was obtained after the compressor, which corresponds to a peak power of 209 MW. The measured output power fluctuation of root mean square was 0.64% in 24 h and the M2 factor was 1.3. It shows a great potential in many applications such as scientific researches, medical therapy, and industrial micromachining.
PubDate: 2018-08-03
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7026-6
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)

• Effects of the turbulent atmosphere and the oceanic turbulence on the
propagation of a rotating elliptical Gaussian beam
• Authors: Jianbin Zhang; Jintao Xie; Feng Ye; Kangzhu Zhou; Xingyu Chen; Dongmei Deng; Xiangbo Yang
Abstract: Abstract Based on the extended Huygens–Fresnel integral, the average intensity, the gradient force and the effective beam width in the x- and y-directions of a rotating elliptical Gaussian (REG) beam in the turbulent atmosphere and the oceanic turbulence are explored analytically and numerically. It is shown that the intensity patterns of the REG beam in the atmospheric and the oceanic turbulences spin anticlockwise within a certain propagation range and always keep unimodal distributions during the propagation. Meanwhile, the numerical experiments of the REG beam are carried out to verify the theoretical analytical results. By comparative analysis, the effective beam widths can be adjusted by varying the turbulent characteristic parameters and the initial beam waist of the REG beam. The intensity modulation of the REG beam through the turbulent atmosphere and the oceanic turbulence can be realized.
PubDate: 2018-08-03
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7038-2
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)

• Study of optical and laser damage threshold in EDTA and DTPA-doped DAST
single crystals
• Authors: M. Manivannan; S. A. Martin Britto Dhas; M. Balakrishnan; M. Jose
Abstract: Abstract We report the influence of EDTA and DTPA on the optical and laser damage thresholds of industrially relevant 4-dimethylamino-N-methyl stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) single crystals. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction studies substantiate that they crystallize in monoclinic system. The dopants facilitate tuning of the refractive indices and their optical conductivity. The laser damage threshold values of EDTA and DTPA-doped DAST crystals were found to be 1.5 and 1.6 times higher than the pure DAST crystal. The voltage-dependant photoconducting studies performed at ambient conditions shows negative photoconducting nature for pure and EDTA-doped DAST crystals while positive photoconducting nature is noticed for DTPA-doped crystal. The etching studies demonstrate the quality of the doped DAST crystals is better than the pure one.
PubDate: 2018-08-02
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7036-4
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)

• Polarization parametric indirect microscopic imaging for patterned device
line edge inspection
• Authors: Nagendra Yadav; Weize Wang; Kaleem Ullah; Xuefeng Liu
Abstract: Abstract To know the line edge inspection in any pattern device, super-resolution optical microscope is efficient and necessary due to diffraction limit. As a step toward these issues, we are reporting the polarization parametric indirect microscopic imaging for patterned device line edge inspection. Sub-nanometer resolution imaging techniques such as atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) can cause injurious damage to the sample, and it is more costly, time-taking imaging system. The optical microscopy has better imaging effectiveness, low cost, easy assemble. However, the optical microscopes still have to overcome a critical limit in optical resolution caused by the diffraction of visible light. Three different samples with different thickness have been studied. In this new attempt, we examined whether the etched part is fully etched without SiNx, (SiNx SiO2 + Au) in sample 1, 2 and without photoresist in sample 3, respectively. The maximum line edge resolution of PIMI image is better than resolution of the conventional microscope. All the measurements have been done by parametric indirect microscopic imaging (PIMI) system. PIMI images of third pattern device have been compared with the SEM images.
PubDate: 2018-08-02
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7037-3
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)

• 21.8 W CW second-Stokes CVD-diamond Raman laser at 1516 nm
• Authors: Ming Li; Ping Li; Xingyu Zhang; Xiaohan Chen
Abstract: Abstract In this letter, employing a chemical-vapor-deposition grown diamond as Raman gain medium and a 1080 nm fiber laser as pump source, we report a continuous-wave second-Stokes Raman laser with emission at 1516.4 nm within the eye-safe spectral range. A record output power of 21.8 W was obtained under a pump power of 191 W, corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 11.4%. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a 10 W level 1.5 µm eye-safe Raman laser pumped by a fiber laser source.
PubDate: 2018-08-01
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7031-9
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)

• Tunable single- and dual-wavelength nanosecond Ti:Sapphire laser around
765 nm
• Authors: Gholamreza Shayeganrad
Abstract: Abstract We report on the longitudinally pumped tunable single- and dual-wavelength nanosecond Ti:Sapphire laser operation around 765 nm by using a Brewster-cut single Ti:Sapphire crystal in combination with an intracavity prism and etalon. Tilting the etalon to a specific angle, single-wavelength operation at 767.9 nm is achieved first, with a maximum output power value of 1.3 W below 5.5 W pump power. Then, increasing the pump power leads to simultaneously operation at dual wavelength (765.0, 771.3 nm), (763.9, 772.2 nm), (763.5, 772.2 nm), and (762.4, 773.7 nm) with a maximum output power of ~ 2.98 W, pulse width of ~ 20 ns, and a laser slope efficiency of about 34.7% at 1 kHz repetition rate. By tilting the etalon, other dual- and single-wavelength laser operations could be achieved. Experimental results show that it is tunable in the region 750–840 nm which here is limited by the reflectivity of the cavity mirrors. We observed, when laser oscillates at dual wavelength, the separation of the wavelengths increased with pump power which could be because of thermal lensing in Ti:Sapphire. The output characteristics versus incident pump power at 1 and 5 kHz repetition rate show output power increases linearly with incident pump power with similar slope for both 1 and 5 kHz repetition rates, whereas pump threshold increased in the case of 5 kHz.
PubDate: 2018-07-28
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7029-3
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)

• Concentration measurements by intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy
for the case of strongly overlapped spectra
• Authors: Alexey Fomin; Yarin Sharabi; Anita Pilipodi Best; Vladimir Tsionsky; Igor Rahinov; Sergey Cheskis
Abstract: Abstract The feasibility of fiber laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy (FLICAS) for accurate measurement of pressure and concentration of CO and $$\hbox {CO}_2$$ at elevated pressures (up to 6.5 atm) was studied. FLICAS is a very sensitive absorption spectroscopy method which allows for simultaneous measurement of several species even in harsh environment, since it is not sensitive to broadband optical losses caused by particle scattering and absorption, optical window contamination, etc. However, the wings of spectral lines can overlap at elevated pressures, resulting in broadband absorption which is not monitored by FLICAS. It makes the direct evaluation of baseline challenging. Nevertheless, fitting the lineshapes of individual lines using the HITRAN database allows for recovering of the baseline position and shape in some cases. The CO and $$\hbox {CO}_2$$ spectra were studied under controlled conditions in the spectral range of 6350–6385 cm $$^{-1}$$ and processed by custom LabVIEW code to take into account the overlapping line effect. This procedure allows for accurate determination of the pressure and the CO concentration at least up to 6.5 atm. More dense and line-rich $$\hbox {CO}_2$$ spectrum allows correct pressure evaluation up to 6.5 atm, albeit with higher uncertainty. Accurate measurements of the $$\hbox {CO}_2$$ concentration are possible only up to about 4 atm.
PubDate: 2018-07-28
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7034-6
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)

• High repetition rate nanosecond optical parametric oscillator pumped by
the third harmonic of a DPSSL
• Authors: C. S. Rao; S. Kundu; Alok K. Ray
Abstract: Abstract A high repetition rate (5 kHz), nanosecond, type-I phase matched β-BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO), pumped by the third harmonic (355 nm) of a diode-pumped solid state laser, is demonstrated for the first time. The high threshold pump pulse energy, which impedes the high repetition rate operation of OPO, is reduced to ≤ 1 mJ using cylindrical focusing of the pump beam. The performance of the OPO is compared for different gain lengths of the type-I BBO crystal and the optimum length of the crystal for efficient operation of the OPO is determined. We have obtained a stable output power of ~ 2.6 W at a signal wavelength of 492 nm, and at a conversion efficiency of 26%, when operated with pump laser at 5 kHz. Furthermore, the narrowband (~ 0.15 nm) operation of the OPO at a repetition rate of 2 kHz was achieved by employing type-II phase-matched BBO crystal in double pass pump beam configuration. Thermal loading in the BBO crystal arising due to high repetition rate operation was studied by measuring the temperature of the crystal for determining the average power scaling limit of visible nanosecond OPOs.
PubDate: 2018-07-28
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7035-5
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)

• Laser spectroscopy for breath analysis: towards clinical implementation
• Authors: Ben Henderson; Amir Khodabakhsh; Markus Metsälä; Irène Ventrillard; Florian M. Schmidt; Daniele Romanini; Grant A. D. Ritchie; Sacco te Lintel Hekkert; Raphaël Briot; Terence Risby; Nandor Marczin; Frans J. M. Harren; Simona M. Cristescu
Abstract: Abstract Detection and analysis of volatile compounds in exhaled breath represents an attractive tool for monitoring the metabolic status of a patient and disease diagnosis, since it is non-invasive and fast. Numerous studies have already demonstrated the benefit of breath analysis in clinical settings/applications and encouraged multidisciplinary research to reveal new insights regarding the origins, pathways, and pathophysiological roles of breath components. Many breath analysis methods are currently available to help explore these directions, ranging from mass spectrometry to laser-based spectroscopy and sensor arrays. This review presents an update of the current status of optical methods, using near and mid-infrared sources, for clinical breath gas analysis over the last decade and describes recent technological developments and their applications. The review includes: tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, cavity ring-down spectroscopy, integrated cavity output spectroscopy, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy, photoacoustic spectroscopy, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy, and optical frequency comb spectroscopy. A SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) is presented that describes the laser-based techniques within the clinical framework of breath research and their appealing features for clinical use.
PubDate: 2018-07-28
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7030-x
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)

• Qualitative and quantitative analyses of copper ores collected from
Baluchistan, Pakistan using LIBS and LA-TOF-MS
• Authors: Nasar Ahmad; Rizwan Ahmed; Zeshan A. Umar; Usman Liaqat; Umair Manzoor; M. Aslam Baig
Abstract: Abstract We present a compositional analysis of different copper ore samples collected from Baluchistan, Pakistan. The qualitative as well as quantitative analysis was performed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LA-TOF-MS). The laser-produced plasma on the surface of the samples was generated by focusing a high-power Nd: YAG laser and the time-integrated optical emission spectra were recorded using a set of four spectrometers coupled and equipped with charged coupled device (CCD). We used the Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) for the quantitative determination of major and trace elements present in different ore samples. The quantitative analysis of these samples was also performed using LA-TOF-MS. Fifteen elements including lithium, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, potassium, calcium, manganese, titanium, iron, copper, zinc, silver, strontium and barium with varying concentrations have been detected in the optical emission spectra. Both the techniques, LIBS through CF and LA-TOF-MS, independently yield quantitative results that are in good agreement. It is demonstrated that LIBS and LA-TOF-MS are complementary, non-destructive and efficient techniques that can be used to analyze any solid material in a short time.
PubDate: 2018-07-26
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7032-8
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)

• Plasma emission during time-resolved laser-induced incandescence
measurements of aerosolized metal nanoparticles
• Authors: S. Talebi Moghaddam; K. J. Daun
Abstract: Abstract There has been speculation that several commonly observed anomalies in time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) measurement data may be caused by bremsstrahlung emission from a laser-induced plasma, a phenomenon known to occur at higher fluences typical of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. This paper presents the first theoretical framework to investigate a laser-induced plasma formation under LII measurement conditions, and explores how this plasma may affect time-resolved spectral intensity measurements. At fluences greater than 0.8 J/cm2, the absorption cross-section of the laser-energized nanoparticle is enhanced due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption, and bremsstrahlung emission results in an overestimation of the nanoparticle temperature due to the corruption of the incandescence signal. Under these conditions, neutral bremsstrahlung emission is more prevalent than electron–ion bremsstrahlung due to the weak nature of the induced plasma. Nevertheless, the current model does not predict laser-induced plasma phenomena below ~ 0.5 J/cm2, typical of low-fluence TiRe-LII measurements.
PubDate: 2018-07-26
DOI: 10.1007/s00340-018-7028-4
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)

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