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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics
  [SJR: 0.983]   [H-I: 104]   [22 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0946-2171 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0649
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Yellow laser emission at 578 nm by frequency doubling with diode lasers of
           high radiance at 1156 nm
    • Authors: R. Bege; G. Blume; D. Jedrzejczyk; K. Paschke; D. Feise; J. Hofmann; F. Bugge; G. Tränkle
      Abstract: Abstract For the first time, we demonstrate diode lasers consisting of a single quantum-well, which emit at 1156 nm. Ridge waveguide lasers and tapered lasers of this structure contain a monolithically integrated distributed Bragg reflector grating. Step-stress tests of both laser types demonstrate long lifetimes. The radiation of the laser sources is utilized for second-harmonic generation in a single-pass configuration with a 15.5 mm long MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO \(_{3}\) ridge waveguide crystal. Optical output powers of up to 0.86 W are achieved at 578 nm.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6700-4
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • The influence of charge stratification on the spectral signature of
           partially premixed combustion in a light-duty optical engine
    • Authors: M. Izadi Najafabadi; Luc Egelmeers; Bart Somers; Niels Deen; Bengt Johansson; Nico Dam
      Abstract: Abstract The origin of light emission during low-temperature combustion in a light-duty IC engine is investigated by high-speed spectroscopy in both HCCI and PPC regimes. Chemiluminescence and thermal radiation are expected to be the dominant sources of light emission during combustion. A method has been developed to distinguish chemiluminescence from thermal radiation, and different chemiluminescing species could be identified. Different combustion modes and global equivalence ratios are analyzed in this manner. The results indicate that the spectral signature (270–540 nm range) of the combustion is highly dependent on the stratification level. A significant broadband chemiluminescence signal is detected and superimposed on all spectra. This broadband chemiluminescence signal can reach up to 100 percent of the total signal in HCCI combustion, while it drops to around 80 percent for stratified combustion (PPC). We show that this broadband signal can be used as a measure for the heat release rate. The broadband chemiluminescence did also correlate with the equivalence ratio quite well in both HCCI and PPC regimes, suggesting that the total emission in the spectral region of 330–400 nm can serve as a proxy of equivalence ratio and the rate of heat release. Regarding C2* chemiluminescence, we see two different chemical mechanisms for formation of C2* in the PPC regime: first during the early stage of combustion by the breakup of bigger molecules and the second during the late stage of combustion when soot particles are forming.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6688-9
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • “Simultaneous measurement of flame impingement and piston surface
           temperatures in an optically accessible spark ignition engine”
    • Authors: Carl-Philipp Ding; Rene Honza; Benjamin Böhm; Andreas Dreizler
      Abstract: Abstract This paper shows the results of spatially resolved temperature measurements of the piston surface of an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine during flame impingement. High-speed thermographic phosphor thermometry (TPT), using Gd3Ga5O12:Cr,Ce, and planar laser-induced fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical (OH-PLIF) were used to investigate the temperature increase and the time and position of flame impingement at the piston surface. Measurements were conducted at two operating cases and showed heating rates of up to 16,000 K/s. The OH-PLIF measurements were used to localize flame impingement and calculate conditioned statistics of the temperature profiles. The TPT coating was characterized and its influence on the temperature measurements evaluated.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6694-y
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • High peak power actively Q-switched mid-infrared fiber lasers at
           3 μm
    • Authors: Yanlong Shen; Yishan Wang; Kunpeng Luan; Hongwei Chen; Mengmeng Tao; Jinhai Si
      Abstract: Abstract Diode-pumped pulsed Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at 2.8 μm actively Q-switched by using an mechanical Q-switch with feedbacks of a protected gold mirror and a blazing grating were investigated, respectively. A pulse energy of 0.13 mJ and repetition rate of 10 kHz with a pulse width of 127.3 ns at 2.78 μm was obtained when using a protected gold mirror as the feedback. By replacing the mirror with a blazing grating in Littrow configuration, the wavelength of the Q-switched pulse train was tunable with over 100 nm tuning range from 2.71 to 2.82 μm and a linewidth of ~1.5 nm. A maxinmum pulse energy of up to 0.15 mJ and repetition rate of 10 kHz with a pulse width of 92.6 ns was achieved, yielding the maximum peak power of exceeding 1.6 kW. The pulse energy and peak power, to our knowledge, are the highest ever reported in the mid-infrared Q-switched fiber lasers.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6684-0
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • Continuously tunable polarization-independent zeroth-order fiber comb
           filter based on polarization-diversity loop structure
    • Authors: Jaehoon Jung; Yong Wook Lee
      Abstract: Abstract By selecting some optimal wave retarder combination (WRC) groups, we propose and experimentally implement a continuously tunable polarization-independent zeroth-order fiber comb filter based on a polarization-diversity loop structure. The selected WRC groups contain a set of two quarter-wave retarders (QWRs), a set of a QWR and a half-wave retarder (HWR), and a set of an HWR and a QWR. The filter was formed using a polarization beam splitter (PBS), one of the three selected WRC groups, and high birefringence fiber (HBF). One end of HBF was butt-coupled to the PBS so that its slow axis should be oriented at 45° for the horizontal axis of the PBS, and the other end was connected to the WRC group. Three kinds of comb filters were fabricated with the three selected WRC groups. Through theoretical analysis on light polarization conditions for continuous spectral tuning and filter transmittances, eight special azimuth angle sets of two wave retarders, which gave the transmittance function eight different phase shifts of 0 to –7π/4 with a –π/4 step, were found for each WRC group. Theoretical prediction was verified by experimental demonstration. It was also confirmed that the filter could be continuously tuned by the appropriate control of wave retarders.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6697-8
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • Controlling optical beam shifts upon reflection from a magneto-electric
           liquid-crystal-based system for applications to chemical vapor sensing
    • Authors: Yuliya S. Dadoenkova; Florian F. L. Bentivegna; Viacheslav V. Svetukhin; Andrey V. Zhukov; Roman V. Petrov; Mirza I. Bichurin
      Abstract: Abstract We investigate the tunability of the Goos–Hänchen shift experienced by a Gaussian light beam reflected from a multilayered heterostructure consisting of a nematic liquid-crystal cell sandwiched between electrodes and deposited on a magneto-electric/non-magnetic bilayer. Our calculations account for the optical anisotropy of the magnetic layer and of the liquid-crystal cell, as well as for the inhomogeneous refractive index distribution in the latter due to the reorientation of its molecules. We show that the Goos–Hänchen shift can be enhanced and controlled via the voltage applied to the liquid crystal cell and the magnetization direction of the magnetic film. We propose to exploit the voltage-induced tunability of the Goos–Hänchen shift in this system to design an optical sensor devoted to the detection of chemical vapors in the vicinity of the structure.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6691-1
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • SiO multi-line laser-induced fluorescence for quantitative temperature
           imaging in flame-synthesis of nanoparticles
    • Authors: Robin S. M. Chrystie; Omid M. Feroughi; Thomas Dreier; Christof Schulz
      Abstract: Abstract Silicon monoxide (SiO) is an intermediate in the gas-phase synthesis of SiO2 nanoparticles and coatings. We demonstrate a method for in situ imaging the gas-phase temperature via multi-line laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) using excitation in the A 1Π–X 1Σ+(0,0) band near 235 nm. A low-pressure lean (3 kPa, φ = 0.39) premixed hydrogen/oxygen flame was seeded with 210 ppm hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) to produce SiO2 nanoparticles. Spectral regions with no interference from other species in the flame were located, and the excitation-spectral range that provides the best temperature sensitivity was determined from numerical experiments. Quenching rates of the selected transitions were also determined from fluorescence lifetime measurements, and found to be independent of the excited rotational state. Upon laser light-sheet excitation, images of fluorescence were recorded for a sequence of excitation wavelengths and pixel-wise multi-line fitting of the spectra yields temperature images. The results were compared against multi-line NO-LIF temperature imaging measurements using the A 2Σ+–X 2Π(0,0) band near 225 nm from 500 ppm NO added to the gas flow as a thermometry target. Both methods show good qualitative agreement with each other and demonstrate that temperature can be evaluated from the zone in the reactor where SiO is naturally present without adding tracers. SiO LIF exhibited high signal-to-noise ratios of the order of ten times that of NO LIF.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6692-0
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effect of –OH functionalization, C2 methylation, and high radiation
           fields on the non-linear optical response of imidazolium ionic liquids
    • Authors: Vinu V. Namboodiri; Apurav Guleria; Ajay K. Singh
      Abstract: Abstract Considering the impending applications of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in various areas involving high optical and radiation fields, it is pertinent to probe the structure–property correlation of these solvents exposed to such conditions. Herein, femtosecond Z-scan technique (at high pulse repetition rate, 80 MHz) was employed to investigate the non-linear optical response of imidazolium RTILs in 3 scenarios: (1) -OH functionalization, (2) C2 methylation, and (3) influence of high radiation fields. Large negative non-linear refractive values (n 2) were observed in all the RTIL samples and have been attributed predominantly due to the thermal effects. In order to isolate and determine the contribution of electronic Kerr effect, the Z-scan experiments were also carried out at low pulse repetition rate (i.e. 500 Hz) by means of a mechanical chopper. The closed aperture transmittance profile showed the valley-peak pattern, which signifies positive non-linearity. Nonetheless, the variation in the n2 values of the RTILs follows the same trend in low pulse repetition rate as was observed in case of high pulse repetition rate. The trend in the n 2 values clearly showed the decrease in the non-linearity in the first two cases and has been attributed to the weakening of the ion-pair formation, which adversely affects the charge transfer between the ionic moieties via C2 position. However, an increase in the n 2 values was observed in case of ILs irradiated to high radiation doses. This enhancement in the non-linearity has been assigned to the formation of double bond order radiolytic products. These results clearly indicate a strong correlation between the non-linearity and the strength of cation–anion interaction amongst them. Therefore, such information about these solvents may significantly contribute to the fundamental understanding of their structure–property relationships.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6695-x
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • T 3 -Interferometer for atoms
    • Authors: M. Zimmermann; M. A. Efremov; A. Roura; W. P. Schleich; S. A. DeSavage; J. P. Davis; A. Srinivasan; F. A. Narducci; S. A. Werner; E. M. Rasel
      Abstract: Abstract The quantum mechanical propagator of a massive particle in a linear gravitational potential derived already in 1927 by Kennard [2, 3] contains a phase that scales with the third power of the time T during which the particle experiences the corresponding force. Since in conventional atom interferometers the internal atomic states are all exposed to the same acceleration a, this \(T^3\) -phase cancels out and the interferometer phase scales as \(T^2\) . In contrast, by applying an external magnetic field we prepare two different accelerations \(a_1\) and \(a_2\) for two internal states of the atom, which translate themselves into two different cubic phases and the resulting interferometer phase scales as \(T^3\) . We present the theoretical background for, and summarize our progress towards experimentally realizing such a novel atom interferometer.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6655-5
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • Acousto-optic collinear filter with optoelectronic feedback
    • Authors: S. N. Mantsevich; V. I. Balakshy; Yu. I. Kuznetsov
      Abstract: Abstract A spectral optoelectronic system combining a collinear acousto-optic cell fabricated of calcium molybdate single crystal and a positive electronic feedback is proposed first and examined theoretically and experimentally. The feedback signal is formed at the cell output due to the optical heterodyning effect with the use of an unconventional regime of cell operation. It is shown that the feedback enables controlling spectral characteristics of the acousto-optic cell, resulting in enhancing the spectral resolution and the accuracy of optical wavelength determination. In the experiment, maximal filter passband narrowing was as great as 37 times.
      PubDate: 2017-03-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6689-8
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • Mode locking based on the temporal Talbot effect
    • Authors: Thomas Udem; Akira Ozawa
      Abstract: Abstract We propose a new laser mode locking state in which the pulse disperses quickly and then revives after a certain time. This mechanism is based on the temporal Talbot effect and requires a large amount of intra-cavity group velocity dispersion. Similar to the usual mode locking it should be possible to employ the Kerr effect to force the laser into this mode, even when the cold cavity dispersion is not exactly matched. We show that the mode spectrum of such a laser is not equidistant but increases linearly with very high precision. This Talbot frequency comb can be self referenced. The beating with the adjacent modes uniquely defines the optical mode frequency, which means that the optical spectrum is directly mapped into the radio frequency domain. This is similar to the dual frequency comb technique, albeit without the limiting relative jitter between two combs.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6676-0
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Atomic “bomb testing”: the Elitzur–Vaidman experiment
           violates the Leggett–Garg inequality
    • Authors: Carsten Robens; Wolfgang Alt; Clive Emary; Dieter Meschede; Andrea Alberti
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6639-5
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • Laser ablation production of Ba, Ca, Dy, Er, La, Lu, and Yb ions
    • Authors: S. Olmschenk; P. Becker
      Abstract: Abstract We use a pulsed nitrogen laser to produce atomic ions by laser ablation, measuring the relative ion yield for several elements, including some that have only recently been proposed for use in cold trapped ion experiments. For barium, we monitor the ion yield as a function of the number of applied ablation pulses for different substrates. We also investigate the ion production as a function of the pulse energy, and the efficiency of loading an ion trap as a function of radiofrequency voltage.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6683-1
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • Making unpolarized light sensitive to polarization-sensitive devices
    • Authors: Songhyun Jo; Hyun Wook Kang; Seung Yun Nam; Junghwan Oh; Yong Wook Lee
      Abstract: Abstract Here we propose a novel scheme in which depolarized or unpolarized light can respond to polarization-dependent optical elements such as an input-polarization-dependent wavelength-selective filter. An optical apparatus for realizing the proposed scheme consists of a polarization beam splitter, two Faraday rotators, and four waveplates. By harnessing the polarization decomposition/superposition property of a polarization-diversity loop and the irreciprocity of optical Faraday rotation, we could make unpolarized light selectively excite one of the two principal axes of a polarization-dependent element like polarized one while maintaining the unpolarized nature. The principle of operation of this apparatus was theoretically analyzed through the investigation of the polarization variation of light passing through the optical elements comprising it. Then, its polarization-selective feature was experimentally verified by employing a long-period fiber grating inscribed on polarization-maintaining fiber, which had polarization-dependent spectral dips with different resonance wavelengths, as a polarization-dependent element in the polarization-diversity loop. One of the two spectrally separated resonances of the grating could be freely chosen through the proper control of the waveplates in the apparatus.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6670-6
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • Determination of soot particle size using time-gated laser-induced
           incandescence images
    • Authors: Linghong Chen; Jian Wu; Mingming Yan; Xuecheng Wu; Gérard Gréhan; Kefa Cen
      Abstract: Abstract A laser-induced incandescence (LII) image-processing method has been developed to determine two-dimensional polydisperse size distribution of soot particles as well as their monodisperse equivalent mean diameters. In this method, two appropriate intervals confined by time-gated LII images are chosen to calculate the corresponding signal decay times coupled with exponential fits. The local soot particle sizes are determined based on the best-fit comparison of experimental LII signal decay times to the simulated database. According to the method, the experimental results on a laminar diffusion ethylene/air flame show that the monodisperse equivalent mean particle sizes obtained are identical to those from point measurements, and in agreement with the calculations from experimental lognormal distributions of polydisperse soot particles. Nevertheless, remarkable discrepancies occur at some locations for both results compared to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements of thermophoretically sampled soot. Thus, an attempt is made to explore the shielding effect of aggregates which may be responsible for the discrepancies, and narrower distributions are obtained with considering the effect. Besides, the findings of three LII images for simultaneously evaluating particle size distributions at various locations show the potential application of the method in practical turbulent flames.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6669-z
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • Metastable-state lifetime of erbium ions measured through delayed
           absorption in the fiber propagation direction
    • Authors: Keiji Kuroda; Mami Nakandakari; Yuzo Yoshikuni
      Abstract: Abstract We performed lifetime measurements of erbium ions doped in fibers with lengths of 20–160 cm. Using a pump–probe technique, we measured the lifetime of the 4I13/2 state of erbium ions in the fiber propagation direction. The dependence of the measured lifetime on fiber length was compared with the lifetime determined by temporally resolving spontaneous emission in the same direction. The dependence of the 4I13/2 lifetime on input power was also measured. We found that the 4I13/2 lifetime of erbium ions was nearly constant at about 10 ms under all the investigated conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6674-2
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 4 (2017)
  • High pulse energy, high beam quality microsecond-pulse Ti:sapphire laser
           at 819.7 nm
    • Authors: Chang Xu; Chuan Guo; Hai-Bo Yu; Zhi-Min Wang; Jun-Wei Zuo; Yuan-Qin Xia; Qi Bian; Yong Bo; Hong-Wei Gao; Ya-Ding Guo; Sheng Zhang; Da-Fu Cui; Qin-Jun Peng; Zu-Yan Xu
      Abstract: Abstract In this letter, a high pulse energy and high beam quality 819.7 nm Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser is demonstrated. At incident pump energy of 774 mJ, the maximum output energy of 89 mJ at 819.7 nm with a pulse width of 100 μs is achieved at a repetition rate of 5 Hz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest pulse energy at 819.7 nm with pulse width of hundred microseconds for a Ti:sapphire laser. The beam quality factor M 2 is measured to be 1.18. This specific wavelength with the high pulse energy and high beam quality at 819.7 nm is a promising light source to create a polychromatic laser guide star together with a home-made 589 nm laser via exciting the sodium atoms in the mesospheric atmosphere.
      PubDate: 2017-03-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-016-6627-1
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 3 (2017)
  • Tunable organic distributed feedback dye laser device excited through
           Förster mechanism
    • Authors: Naoto Tsutsumi; Taiki Hinode
      Abstract: Abstract Tunable organic distributed feedback (DFB) dye laser performances are re-investigated and characterized. The slab-type waveguide DFB device consists of air/active layer/glass substrate. Active layer consisted of tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum (Alq3), 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) dye, and polystyrene (PS) matrix. Effective energy transfer from Alq3 to DCM through Förster mechanism enhances the laser emission. Slope efficiency in the range of 4.9 and 10% is observed at pump energy region higher than 0.10–0.15 mJ cm−2 (lower threshold), which is due to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and lasing. Typical slope efficiency for lasing in the range of 2.0 and 3.0% is observed at pump energy region higher than 0.25–0.30 mJ cm−2 (higher threshold). The tuning wavelength for the laser emission is ranged from 620 to 645 nm depending on the ASE region.
      PubDate: 2017-03-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6679-x
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 3 (2017)
  • Dynamics of the light-induced atomic desorption at homogeneous
    • Authors: S. Tsvetkov; M. Taslakov; S. Gateva
      Abstract: Abstract An experimental investigation of Light-Induced Atomic Desorption (LIAD) at homogeneous illumination in uncoated Rb glass cell is reported. The dynamics parameters of LIAD and their dependences on the illumination intensity in uncoated cell are measured and compared with these in paraffin-coated cell and the theoretical dependences for coated cell at homogeneous illumination. The homogeneous illumination not only increases the yield of LIAD, but increases the rates of desorption and adsorption. The results are interesting for the better understanding of the process of LIAD and the atom-surface interaction, for the development of new LIAD-loaded atomic devices, all-optical control of light, optical sensors miniaturization, and new methods for surface and coating diagnostics and nanostructuring.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6662-6
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 3 (2017)
  • Trapped modes and resonances in gyrotropic graphene stacks
    • Authors: Faroq Razzaz; Majeed A. S. Alkanhal
      Abstract: Abstract This paper examines the anomalous electromagnetic wave interactions with gyrotropic graphene-dielectric stacks and characterizes their perturbed wave resonances. Expressions for the dispersion relations, trapped mode condition, and the propagating and evanescent modes in the gyrotropic graphene stack have been derived and numerically quantified. The evanescent modes supported in the ambient medium couple as propagating modes in the gyrotropic graphene-dielectric stack at the discrete frequencies of the trapped modes. Valuation of the resonances in the material tensor and the resonances around the trapped modes that result in transmission anomalies (total transmission and total reflection) and field amplifications in the gyrotropic graphene is described. The effects of the chemical potential and the external magnetic field on the number of discrete trapped modes and subsequently on the transmission resonances are numerically assessed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6651-9
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 3 (2017)
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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