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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics
  [SJR: 0.983]   [H-I: 104]   [23 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0946-2171 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0649
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Detection of shock-heated hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) by off-axis
           cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OA-CEAS)
    • Authors: Awad B. S. Alquaity; Utsav KC; Alber Popov; Aamir Farooq
      Abstract: Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) is a promising technique for studying chemical reactions due to its desirable characteristics of high sensitivity and fast time-response by virtue of the increased path length and relatively short photon residence time inside the cavity. Off-axis CEAS (OA-CEAS) is particularly suited for the shock tube applications as it is insensitive to slight misalignments, and cavity noise is suppressed due to non-overlapping multiple reflections of the probe beam inside the cavity. Here, OA-CEAS is demonstrated in the mid-IR region at 1310.068 cm−1 to monitor trace concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This particular probe frequency was chosen to minimize interference from other species prevalent in combustion systems and in the atmosphere. The noise-equivalent detection limit is found to be 3.25 × 10−5 cm−1, and the gain factor of the cavity is 131. This corresponds to a detection limit of 74 ppm of H2O2 at typical high-temperature combustion conditions (1200 K and 1 atm) and 12 ppm of H2O2 at ambient conditions (296 K and 1 atm). To our knowledge, this is the first successful application of the OA-CEAS technique to detect H2O2 which is vital species in combustion and atmospheric science.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6851-3
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 12 (2017)
  • Wall temperature measurements at elevated pressures and high temperatures
           in sooting flames in a gas turbine model combustor
    • Authors: Patrick Nau; Zhiyao Yin; Klaus Peter Geigle; Wolfgang Meier
      Abstract: Wall temperatures were measured with thermographic phosphors on the quartz walls of a model combustor in ethylene/air swirl flames at 3 bar. Three operating conditions were investigated with different stoichiometries and with or without additional injection of oxidation air downstream of the primary combustion zone. YAG:Eu and YAG:Dy were used to cover a total temperature range of 1000–1800 K. Measurements were challenging due to the high thermal background from soot and window degradation at high temperatures. The heat flux through the windows was estimated from the temperature gradient between the in- and outside of the windows. Differences in temperature and heat flux density profiles for the investigated cases can be explained very well with the previously measured differences in flame temperatures and flame shapes. The heat loss relative to thermal load is quite similar for all investigated flames (15–16%). The results complement previous measurements in these flames to investigate soot formation and oxidation. It is expected, that the data set is a valuable input for numerical simulations of these flames.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6856-y
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 12 (2017)
  • Diode laser-based thermometry using two-line atomic fluorescence of indium
           and gallium
    • Authors: Jesper Borggren; Wubin Weng; Ali Hosseinnia; Per-Erik Bengtsson; Marcus Aldén; Zhongshan Li
      Abstract: A robust and relatively compact calibration-free thermometric technique using diode lasers two-line atomic fluorescence (TLAF) for reactive flows at atmospheric pressures is investigated. TLAF temperature measurements were conducted using indium and, for the first time, gallium atoms as temperature markers. The temperature was measured in a multi-jet burner running methane/air flames providing variable temperatures ranging from 1600 to 2000 K. Indium and gallium were found to provide a similar accuracy of ~ 2.7% and precision of ~ 1% over the measured temperature range. The reliability of the TLAF thermometry was further tested by performing simultaneous rotational CARS measurements in the same experiments.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6855-z
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 12 (2017)
  • Ultraviolet laser-induced lateral photovoltaic response in anisotropic
           black shale
    • Authors: Xinyang Miao; Jing Zhu; Kun Zhao; Wenzheng Yue
      Abstract: The anisotropy of shale has significant impact on oil and gas exploration and engineering. In this paper, a-248 nm ultraviolet laser was employed to assess the anisotropic lateral photovoltaic (LPV) response of shale. Anisotropic angle-depending voltage signals were observed with different peak amplitudes (V p) and decay times. We employed exponential models to explain the charge carrier transport in horizontal and vertical directions. Dependences of the laser-induced LPV on the laser spot position were observed. Owing to the Dember effect and the layered structure of shale, V p shows an approximately linear dependence with the laser-irradiated position for the 0° shale sample but nonlinearity for the 45° and 90° ones. The results demonstrate that the laser-induced voltage method is very sensitive to the structure of materials, and thus has a great potential in oil and gas reservoir characterization.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6857-x
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 12 (2017)
  • High-SNR spectrum measurement based on Hadamard encoding and sparse
    • Authors: Zhaoxin Wang; Jiang Yue; Jing Han; Long Li; Yong Jin; Yuan Gao; Baoming Li
      Abstract: The denoising capabilities of the H-matrix and cyclic S-matrix based on the sparse reconstruction, employed in the Pixel of Focal Plane Coded Visible Spectrometer for spectrum measurement are investigated, where the spectrum is sparse in a known basis. In the measurement process, the digital micromirror device plays an important role, which implements the Hadamard coding. In contrast with Hadamard transform spectrometry, based on the shift invariability, this spectrometer may have the advantage of a high efficiency. Simulations and experiments show that the nonlinear solution with a sparse reconstruction has a better signal-to-noise ratio than the linear solution and the H-matrix outperforms the cyclic S-matrix whether the reconstruction method is nonlinear or linear.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6854-0
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 12 (2017)
  • The minimum number belts of DOE for Bessel–Gauss beams to generate a
           strong longitudinally polarized beam
    • Authors: Jian Fu; Ying Wang; Peifeng Chen
      Abstract: In this paper, we minimize the number of belts on the diffractive binary optical element (DOE) to generate a strong longitudinally polarized beam by focusing a radially polarized Bessel–Gaussian beam. Based on a combination of the three-belt DOE and a high-numerical aperture parabolic mirror focusing system, a needle of strong longitudinally polarized beam can be achieved. The transverse full width at half maximum of this longitudinally polarized beam is 0.40 λ and the longitudinal field power fraction reaches 85%. In alternative focusing elements, three belts are the minimum number of the DOE for Bessel–Gauss beams.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6852-2
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 12 (2017)
  • Pre-correction of distorted Bessel–Gauss beams without wavefront
    • Authors: Shiyao Fu; Tonglu Wang; Zheyuan Zhang; Yanwang Zhai; Chunqing Gao
      Abstract: By utilizing the property of the phase’s rapid solution of the Gerchberg–Saxton algorithm, we experimentally demonstrate a scheme to correct distorted Bessel–Gauss beams resulting from inhomogeneous media as weak turbulent atmosphere with good performance. A probe Gaussian beam is employed and propagates coaxially with the Bessel–Gauss modes through the turbulence. No wavefront sensor but a matrix detector is used to capture the probe Gaussian beams, and then, the correction phase mask is computed through inputting such probe beam into the Gerchberg–Saxton algorithm. The experimental results indicate that both single and multiplexed BG beams can be corrected well, in terms of the improvement in mode purity and the mitigation of interchannel cross talk.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6853-1
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 12 (2017)
  • Analytical thermal model for end-pumped solid-state lasers
    • Authors: L. Cini; J. I. Mackenzie
      Abstract: Fundamentally power-limited by thermal effects, the design challenge for end-pumped “bulk” solid-state lasers depends upon knowledge of the temperature gradients within the gain medium. We have developed analytical expressions that can be used to model the temperature distribution and thermal-lens power in end-pumped solid-state lasers. Enabled by the inclusion of a temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, applicable from cryogenic to elevated temperatures, typical pumping distributions are explored and the results compared with accepted models. Key insights are gained through these analytical expressions, such as the dependence of the peak temperature rise in function of the boundary thermal conductance to the heat sink. Our generalized expressions provide simple and time-efficient tools for parametric optimization of the heat distribution in the gain medium based upon the material and pumping constraints.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6848-y
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 12 (2017)
  • Double-sideband frequency scanning interferometry for long-distance
           dynamic absolute measurement
    • Authors: Di Mo; Ran Wang; Guang-zuo Li; Ning Wang; Ke-shu Zhang; Yi-rong Wu
      Abstract: Absolute distance measurements can be achieved by frequency scanning interferometry which uses a tunable laser. The main drawback of this method is that it is extremely sensitive to the movement of targets. In addition, since this method is limited to the linearity of frequency scanning, it is commonly used for close measurements within tens of meters. In order to solve these problems, a double-sideband frequency scanning interferometry system is presented in the paper. It generates two opposite frequency scanning signals through a fixed frequency laser and a Mach–Zehnder modulator. And the system distinguishes the two interference fringe patterns corresponding to the two signals by IQ demodulation (i.e., quadrature detection) of the echo. According to the principle of double-sideband modulation, the two signals have the same characteristics. Therefore, the error caused by the target movement can be effectively eliminated, which is similar to dual-laser frequency scanned interferometry. In addition, this method avoids the contradiction between laser frequency stability and swept performance. The system can be applied to measure the distance of the order of kilometers, which profits from the good linearity of frequency scanning. In the experiment, a precision about 3 μm was achieved for a kilometer-level distance.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6849-x
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
  • Propagation of low-quality laser beams in turbulent air: new fast
           simulation methods and experimental results
    • Authors: Thomas Hall; Gerhard Spindler; Peter Becker; Karin Grünewald; Carsten Pargmann; Frank Duschek
      Abstract: Novel inherently fast methods basing upon fundamental Gaussian modes are presented to numerically simulate the propagation behavior of a low-quality laser beam, i.e., a beam characterized by a high quality factor \(M^2\) , in turbulent air. Actually, for a given initial diameter, beam wandering and spread at the target position is calculated. Test results are checked against respective simulations using higher-order mode beams having clearly defined quality factors and nearly perfect agreement is demonstrated. Experiments performed on the German Aerospace Center (DLR) laser test range at Lampoldshausen near Stuttgart satisfactorily accord with the predictions of the proposed simulation techniques.
      PubDate: 2017-10-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6844-2
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
  • Two-photon photoluminescence and second-harmonic generation from
           unintentionally doped and semi-insulating GaN crystals
    • Authors: R. H. Godiksen; T. S. Aunsborg; P. K. Kristensen; K. Pedersen
      Abstract: Unintentionally doped and semi-insulating Fe-doped GaN crystals grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy have been investigated with two-photon photoluminescence and second-harmonic generation spectroscopy to reveal doping effects on the nonlinear optical properties and thus indirectly on crystal properties. Like for linear luminescence, it is found that Fe doping strongly reduces nonlinear luminescence. Recording of second-harmonic generation spectra in transmission probing bulk properties shows no significant difference between doped and un-doped crystals. Reflected second-harmonic generation probing 50–100 nm at the surface, on the other hand, shows significantly lower signal from the doped sample. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy shows that the Fe concentration is higher at the surface than in the bulk of the doped crystal. It is suggested that this causes higher defect density and degraded order in the surface region, thus reducing the second-harmonic signal.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6847-z
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
  • Lissajous-like patterns generated by multi-cosine Gaussian-correlated
           Schell-model beams
    • Authors: Jie Zhu; Huiqin Tang; Qin Su; Kaicheng Zhu
      Abstract: A class of random stationary, scalar sources producing far fields with Lissajous-like intensity profiles is introduced by modeling the source spectral degree of coherence (SDOC) as a multi-cosine Gaussian-correlated Schell-model (McGCSM) function. Analytical expressions for the cross-spectral density generated by such sources on propagation through a stigmatic ABCD optical system are derived. The far-field spectral density distributions in free space are illustrated numerically. It is shown that the McGCSM beam can exhibit Lissajous-like patterns during propagation when the beam parameter M is sufficiently large. The patterns can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries by directly adjusting the properties of its SDOC in the source plane. Moreover, we find that the far-field spectral density distribution can also display an optical lattice structure when the beam parameter M is relatively small.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6846-0
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
  • A widely tunable, near-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor for hydrogen
           cyanide (HCN) detection in exhaled breath
    • Authors: M. Azhar; J. Mandon; A. H. Neerincx; Z. Liu; J. Mink; P. J. F. M. Merkus; S. M. Cristescu; F. J. M. Harren
      Abstract: A compact, cost-effective sensor is developed for detection of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in exhaled breath within seconds. For this, an off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy setup is combined with a widely tunable compact near-infrared laser (tunability 1527–1564 nm). For HCN a detection sensitivity has been obtained of 8 ppbv in nitrogen (within 1 s), equal to a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 1.9 × 10−9 cm−1 Hz−1/2. With this sensor we demonstrated the presence of HCN in exhaled breath; its detection could be a good indicator for bacterial lung infection. Due to its compact, cost-effective and user-friendly design, this laser-based sensor has the potential to be implemented in future clinical applications.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6842-4
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
  • 240 W narrow-linewidth Yb-doped double-cladding fiber amplifier operated
           in the 100-ps pulse regime
    • Authors: Yaoyao Qi; Haijuan Yu; Jingyuan Zhang; Shuzhen Zou; Ling Zhang; Chaojian He; Zhangwang Miao; Xuechun Lin
      Abstract: High average power picosecond (~ 100 ps) lasers with narrow-linewidth are in great demand for some specific applications. In this paper, a 240 W Yb-doped double-cladding fiber amplifier system at 1064 nm delivering 112 ps pulses at 40 MHz repetition rate was demonstrated. To prevent possible double-cladding fiber damage, a bandwidth-limited (0.1 nm) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) was used to force a stretched pulse-width of 72 ps and a narrow-linewidth of 23 pm. The laser pulses were then stretched to ~ 100 ps after dispersion management and amplified without notable spectral distortion by nonlinear management. The output of the amplifier produces a pulsed energy of 6 μJ, which corresponds to a peak power of 54 kW. The M 2 factor was measured to be about 1.2 at the maximum power of 240 W. The spectral width was 0.45 nm after the power amplification. Further power-scaling was only limited by available pump power.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6839-z
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
  • Generation of a sub-half-wavelength focal spot with purely transverse spin
           angular momentum
    • Authors: Li Hang; Jian Fu; Xiaochang Yu; Ying Wang; Peifeng Chen
      Abstract: We theoretically demonstrate that optical focus fields with purely transverse spin angular momentum (SAM) can be obtained when a kind of special incident fields is focused by a high numerical aperture (NA) aplanatic lens (AL). When the incident pupil fields are refracted by an AL, two transverse Cartesian components of the electric fields at the exit pupil plane do not have the same order of sinusoidal or cosinoidal components, resulting in zero longitudinal SAMs of the focal fields. An incident field satisfying above conditions is then proposed. Using the Richard–Wolf vectorial diffraction theory, the energy density and SAM density distributions of the tightly focused beam are calculated and the results clearly validate the proposed theory. In addition, a sub-half-wavelength focal spot with purely transverse SAM can be achieved and a flattop energy density distribution parallel to z-axis can be observed around the maximum energy density point.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6841-5
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
  • Graphene-based plasmonic electro-optic modulator with sub-wavelength
           thickness and improved modulation depth
    • Authors: Hamid Vahed; Sahar Soltan Ahmadi
      Abstract: A graphene layer has high absorption with very low thickness. The chemical potential of graphene change by an applied voltage and then it leads to the variable optical absorption of graphene. These properties make graphene a suitable absorber layer in optoelectronic devices. The graphene layer is placed in the position of the maximum optical field that causes the maximum absorption. In this paper, an electro-optics modulator is designed with one and two graphene layers with the sub-wavelength thickness. The applied voltage causes change in the chemical potential of graphene and causes change in the graphene absorption. Therefore, the propagating wave would be modulated. The presence of the graphene layer has caused the proposed modulator to have a relatively uniform response in a broad range of frequencies. Simulations show that increasing the number of graphene layers improved the modulation properties. This modulator has a very low thickness and can be integrated into optical circuits. This modulator is applicable in mode-locking laser systems.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6845-1
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
  • Realization of omnidirectional ultra-broadband antireflection properties
           via subwavelength composite structures
    • Authors: Likai Zheng; Yimin Xuan
      Abstract: An advanced subwavelength composite structure (SCS) consisting of the hexagonally arranged silicon nanopillars and the misaligned TiO2/SiO2 double-layer films was proposed on the surface of crystalline silicon (c-Si). After optimization through the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, the SCS possesses omnidirectional ultra-broadband antireflection properties (average reflectance < 1.8% within 300–2500 nm) which are suitable for a photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid system to enhance the full-spectrum solar energy utilization. Furthermore, the antireflection mechanism was studied in detail. The composition of nanopillars and double-layer films has combined the effect of interference, interpillar scattering and waveguide resonance to realize outstanding antireflection proprieties. The SCS was prepared on a 3 cm × 3 cm silicon wafer by ICP etching and magnetron sputtering, and the measured results matched well with the simulation results. Further, such antireflection concept can be applied to other materials for particular ultra-broadband spectrum regulation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6843-3
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
  • Minimally intrusive optical probe for in situ shock tube measurements of
           temperature and species via tunable IR laser absorption
    • Authors: J. J. Girard; R. K. Hanson
      Abstract: An optical probe was developed for in situ laser absorption spectroscopy measurements of target species concentration and temperature near a shock tube endwall. The optical components of a single-ended sensor, including two sapphire rods with a separation of 2.8 cm (effective optical path length), were coupled with a custom-machined shock tube end cap. This hardware design—complemented by a scanned wavelength direct absorption (scanned DA) optical sensing scheme, targeting CO2—enabled minimally invasive, sensitive and spatially resolved measurement of CO2 along the shock tube axis in the reflected shock region. Scanned direct absorption of two adjacent, discrete, rovibrational features in the ν3 fundamental band of CO2 near 4.2 µm, with a single interband cascade laser, allowed measurement of temperature from the ratio of integrated absorbances. Several tests were conducted to validate the accuracy of the sensor and confirm that shock conditions were unperturbed by the probe. The probe-measured temperature and CO2 mol fraction in the reflected shock region, accurate within ~ 1 and ~ 5%, respectively, at a rate of 20 kHz, in shocks with 1–7% carbon dioxide diluted in argon or nitrogen and at temperatures of 1200–2000 K and pressures of 0.7–1.2 bar. Agreement with multiple metrics for validation was confirmed. No evidence of perturbed shock conditions was found.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6840-6
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
  • Tunable plasmonic band-pass filter based on Fabry–Perot graphene
    • Authors: Morteza Janfaza; Mohammad Ali Mansouri-Birjandi; Alireza Tavousi
      Abstract: A plasmonic band-pass filter (BPF) structure is designed and proposed in this research. The filter structure includes two graphene nanoribbon (GNR) waveguides laterally coupled to three perpendicular GNRs that forms a Fabry–Perot resonator (FPR). The transmission spectrum of the proposed structure can be tuned in an efficient and flexible fashion by making adjustments on the overall geometrical structure and its chemical potential, as well. Geometry can be modified in the design step, even as a real-time controlling voltage can be applied as a chemical potential tuner. The coupling distances between GNR waveguides and GNRs of the FPR and also coupling distances among GNRs of FPR themselves strongly affect the transmission spectrum and bandwidth characteristics of the BPF. Transmission spectrum with one, two, or three peaks can be achieved by adjusting the distances between GNRs of the FPR, even as other geometrical adjustments and/or chemical potential tuning shifts the spectrum to the desired frequency range. The results achieved by 3D finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) method verify the capability of the proposed structure to be applied in applications used in plasmonic and nano-optoelectronics devices.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6838-0
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 10 (2017)
  • Structures of Ge 15 Sb x Se 85−x chalcogenide glasses affect their
           Raman gain performance
    • Authors: Xuefeng Peng; Shixun Dai; Dong Xu; Hang Xu; Xing Li; Changgui Lin; Peiqing Zhang; Tiefeng Xu
      Abstract: A series of Ge15Sb x Se85−x (x = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mol%) chalcogenide glasses were prepared by traditional melt-quenching method. The refractive indexes, infrared transmissions, and spontaneous Raman spectra of the glass samples were measured. Based on the spontaneous Raman scattering theory and considering the measured Raman spectral data, we calculated the Raman gain coefficients of the chalcogenide glasses. The effect of Sb on the structures and Raman gain coefficients of the glass samples was then systematically investigated to understand the role of chemical composition in glass structure and Raman gain coefficient. In the Ge15Sb x Se85−x glasses, the number of heteropolar Ge–Se, Sb–Se bonds increased, whereas that of homopolar Se–Se bonds decreased at increased Sb concentration. The Raman gain coefficients increased until it reached a maximum value (290 × 10−13 m/W at Ge15Sb20Se65) and then decreased when the Sb concentration further increased. These results showed that the Raman gain coefficients of Ge–Sb–Se chalcogenide glasses without poisonous elements were over 300 times of that of commonly fused silica and closely correlated with the structures of the glasses, suggesting that the Raman gain coefficient can be adjusted by modifying the structures of the glasses. This work provides a new possibility for environment-friendly Raman fiber laser and amplifier materials.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00340-017-6832-6
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 10 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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