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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2350 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.182
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 64  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0614 - ISSN (Online) 0175-7598
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Roles and applications of probiotic Lactobacillus strains
    • Authors: Zhongwang Zhang; Jianliang Lv; Li Pan; Yongguang Zhang
      Pages: 8135 - 8143
      Abstract: Abstract Lactobacilli are recognized as probiotics on account of their health-promoting effects in the host. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge of the mechanisms of the adaption factors and main functions of lactobacilli that exert health-promoting effects in the host and to discuss important applications in animal and human health. The adaption mechanisms of lactobacilli facilitate interactions with the host and directly contribute to the beneficial nutritional, physiological, microbiological, and immunological effects in the host. Besides, the application of probiotic lactobacilli will increase our understanding of practical uses based on the roles of these organisms in immunoregulation, antipathogenic activities, and enhancement of the epithelial barrier.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9217-9
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Recent progress on biological production of α-arbutin
    • Authors: Xingtong Zhu; Yuqing Tian; Wenli Zhang; Tao Zhang; Cuie Guang; Wanmeng Mu
      Pages: 8145 - 8152
      Abstract: Abstract Arbutin, a glucoside of hydroquinone, is used as a powerful skin lightening agent in the cosmeceutical industry because of its strong inhibitory effect on the human tyrosinase activity. It is a natural compound occurring in a number of plants, with a β-anomeric form of the glycoside bond between glucose and hydroquinone. α-Arbutin, which glycoside bond is generated with α-anomeric form, is the isomer of natural arbutin. α-Arbutin is generally produced by transglucosylation of hydroquinone by microbial glycosyltransferases. It is interesting that α-arbutin is found to be over 10 times more effective than arbutin, and thus biological production of α-arbutin attracts increasing attention. Seven different microbial enzymes have been identified to be able to produce α-arbutin, including α-amylase, sucrose phosphorlase, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, α-glucosidase, dextransucrase, amylosucrase, and sucrose isomerase. In this work, enzymatic and microbial production of α-arbutin is reviewed in detail.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9241-9
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Bacterial steroid hydroxylases: enzyme classes, their functions and
           comparison of their catalytic mechanisms
    • Authors: Maciej Szaleniec; Agnieszka M. Wojtkiewicz; Rita Bernhardt; Tomasz Borowski; Marina Donova
      Pages: 8153 - 8171
      Abstract: Abstract The steroid superfamily includes a wide range of compounds that are essential for living organisms of the animal and plant kingdoms. Structural modifications of steroids highly affect their biological activity. In this review, we focus on hydroxylation of steroids by bacterial hydroxylases, which take part in steroid catabolic pathways and play an important role in steroid degradation. We compare three distinct classes of metalloenzymes responsible for aerobic or anaerobic hydroxylation of steroids, namely: cytochrome P450, Rieske-type monooxygenase 3-ketosteroid 9α-hydroxylase, and molybdenum-containing steroid C25 dehydrogenases. We analyze the available literature data on reactivity, regioselectivity, and potential application of these enzymes in organic synthesis of hydroxysteroids. Moreover, we describe mechanistic hypotheses proposed for all three classes of enzymes along with experimental and theoretical evidences, which have provided grounds for their formulation. In case of the 3-ketosteroid 9α-hydroxylase, such a mechanistic hypothesis is formulated for the first time in the literature based on studies conducted for other Rieske monooxygenases. Finally, we provide comparative analysis of similarities and differences in the reaction mechanisms utilized by bacterial steroid hydroxylases.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9239-3
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Correction to: Bacterial steroid hydroxylases: enzyme classes, their
           functions and comparison of their catalytic mechanisms
    • Authors: Maciej Szaleniec; Agnieszka M. Wojtkiewicz; Rita Bernhardt; Tomasz Borowski; Marina Donova
      Pages: 8173 - 8173
      Abstract: The published online version contains mistake in the author list. The correct presentation should have been “Rita Bernhardt” instead of “Rita Bernhard”. There was a missing “t” on the original publication.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9320-y
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • On the road towards tailor-made rhamnolipids: current state and
           perspectives
    • Authors: Andreas Wittgens; Frank Rosenau
      Pages: 8175 - 8185
      Abstract: Abstract Rhamnolipids are biosurfactants with an enormous potential to replace or complement classic surfactants in industrial applications. They consist of one or two L-rhamnose residues linked to one or two 3-hydroxyfatty acids of various chain lengths, which can also contain unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds, yielding a wide variety of different structures each with its specific physicochemical properties. Since different applications of surfactants require specific tenside characteristics related to surface tension reduction, emulsification, and foaming etc., rhamnolipids represent a platform molecule which harbors an enormous potential to adopt tailor-made properties to meet a huge variety of demands of surfactants for food-, healthcare-, and biotechnological applications. We are here giving an overview on current technology to synthesize tailor-made rhamnolipids based on the biotechnological use of different enzymes responsible for rhamnolipid biosynthesis originating from different naturally rhamnolipid-producing microorganism. Furthermore, we present future strategies to determine the number of L-rhamnose and 3-hydroxyfatty acids as well as their specific chain lengths and unsaturations to produce customized rhamnolipids perfectly tuned for every application.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9240-x
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Current understanding of sulfur assimilation metabolism to biosynthesize l
           -cysteine and recent progress of its fermentative overproduction in
           microorganisms
    • Authors: Yusuke Kawano; Kengo Suzuki; Iwao Ohtsu
      Pages: 8203 - 8211
      Abstract: Abstract To all organisms, sulfur is an essential and important element. The assimilation of inorganic sulfur molecules such as sulfate and thiosulfate into organic sulfur compounds such as l-cysteine and l-methionine (essential amino acid for human) is largely contributed by microorganisms. Of these, special attention is given to thiosulfate (S2O32−) assimilation, because thiosulfate relative to often utilized sulfate (SO42−) as a sulfur source is proposed to be more advantageous in microbial growth and biotechnological applications like l-cysteine fermentative overproduction toward industrial manufacturing. In Escherichia coli as well as other many bacteria, the thiosulfate assimilation pathway is known to depend on O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase B. Recently, another yet-unidentified CysM-independent thiosulfate pathway was found in E. coli. This pathway is expected to consist of the initial part of the thiosulfate to sulfite (SO32−) conversion, and the latter part might be shared with the final part of the known sulfate assimilation pathway [sulfite → sulfide (S2−) → l-cysteine]. The catalysis of thiosulfate to sulfite is at least partly mediated by thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (GlpE). In this mini-review, we introduce updated comprehensive information about sulfur assimilation in microorganisms, including this topic. Also, we introduce recent advances of the application study about l-cysteine overproduction, including the GlpE overexpression.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9246-4
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • From radioactive ligands to biosensors: binding methods with olfactory
           proteins
    • Authors: Paolo Pelosi; Jiao Zhu; Wolfgang Knoll
      Pages: 8213 - 8227
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we critically review the binding protocols currently reported in the literature to measure the affinity of odorants and pheromones to soluble olfactory proteins, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and Niemann-Pick class C2 (NPC2) proteins. The first part contains a brief introduction on the principles of binding and a comparison of the techniques adopted or proposed so far, discussing advantages and problems of each technique, as well as their suitable application to soluble olfactory proteins. In the second part, we focus on the fluorescent binding assay, currently the most widely used approach. We analyse advantages and drawbacks, trying to identify the causes of anomalous behaviours that have been occasionally observed, and suggest how to interpret the experimental data when such events occur. In the last part, we describe the state of the art of biosensors for odorants, using soluble olfactory proteins immobilised on biochips, and discuss the possibility of using such approach as an alternative way to measure binding events and dissociation constants.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9253-5
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for the production of
           butyl butyrate
    • Authors: Hyeon Ji Noh; Ji Eun Woo; Sang Yup Lee; Yu-Sin Jang
      Pages: 8319 - 8327
      Abstract: Abstract Butyl butyrate is widely used as a fragrance additive for foods and beverages. The first step in the currently used process is the production of precursors, including butanol and butyrate, from petroleum using chemical catalysts, followed by the conversion of precursors to butyl butyrate by immobilized lipase. In this work, we engineered Clostridium acetobutylicum for the selective, one-step production of butyl butyrate from glucose. C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824, possessing a strong carbon flux that yields butanol and butyryl-CoA, was selected as a host and was engineered by introducing alcohol acyltransferases (AATs) from Fragaria x ananassa (strawberry) or Malus sp. (apple). Batch culture of the engineered C. acetobutylicum strain CaSAAT expressing the strawberry SAAT gene produced 50.07 mg/L of butyl butyrate with a selectivity of 84.8% of total esters produced. Also, the engineered C. acetobutylicum strain CaAAAT expressing the apple AAAT gene produced 40.60 mg/L of butyl butyrate with a selectivity of 87.4%. This study demonstrated the feasibility of the one-step fermentation of butyl butyrate from glucose in the engineered C. acetobutylicum, as a proof of concept.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9267-z
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • A novel β-propeller phytase from the dioxin-degrading bacterium
           Sphingomonas wittichii RW-1
    • Authors: Anna Maria Sanangelantoni; Marina Malatrasi; Elisa Trivelloni; Giovanna Visioli; Caterina Agrimonti
      Pages: 8351 - 8358
      Abstract: Abstract β-propeller phytase-like sequences (BPP-like sequences) are widespread in the microbial world and have been found in the sequenced genomes of aquatic, soil, and plant bacteria. Exploring NCBI microbial genome database for putative genes encoding phytase, a BPP-like sequence from Sphingomonas wittichii RW-1 (Sequence ID: CP000699.1), known for its capacity of degrading polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, was recognized. The putative phytase gene (phySw) was amplified with specific primers, cloned, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the catalytic properties of the recombinant PhySw protein were analyzed. The results show that phySw encodes an enzyme with the properties of β-propeller phytases: it requires the presence of Ca2+ ions, it is optimally active at 55 °C, and it has a pH optimum of 6.0 with good activity in the range 6.0–8.0. Furthermore, the enzyme exhibits a good thermostability, recovering 68% of its original activity after treatment at 80 °C for 10 min, and shows a good substrate specificity for phytic acid. These properties render this enzyme a candidate as an animal feed additive (e.g., for aquaculture industry). The isolation of phytases from a hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganism also opens new scenarios for their possible application in combating oil pollution.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9248-2
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Immune responses induced by recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum expressing
           the spike protein derived from transmissible gastroenteritis virus in
           piglets
    • Authors: Yu-Bei Jin; Wen-Tao Yang; Chun-Wei Shi; Bo Feng; Ke-Yan Huang; Guang-Xun Zhao; Qiong-Yan Li; Jing Xie; Hai-Bin Huang; Yan-Long Jiang; Jian-Zhong Wang; Guan Wang; Yuan-Huan Kang; Gui-Lian Yang; Chun-Feng Wang
      Pages: 8403 - 8417
      Abstract: Abstract Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is one of the most severe threats to the swine industry. In this study, we constructed a suite of recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum with surface displaying the spike (S) protein coming from TGEV and fused with DC cells targeting peptides (DCpep) to develop an effective, safe, and convenient vaccine against transmissible gastroenteritis. Our research results found that the recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum (NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-S-DCpep) group expressing S fused with DCpep could not only significantly increase the percentages of MHC-II+CD80+ B cells and CD3+CD4+ T cells but also the number of IgA+ B cells and CD3+CD4+ T cells of ileum lamina propria, which elevated the specific secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) titers in feces and IgG titers in serum. Taken together, these results suggest that NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-S-DCpep expressing the S of TGEV fused with DCpep could effectively induce immune responses and provide a feasible original strategy and approach for the design of TGEV vaccines.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9205-0
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Heterologous AdpA transcription factors enhance landomycin production in
           Streptomyces cyanogenus S136 under a broad range of growth conditions
    • Authors: Oleksandr Yushchuk; Iryna Ostash; Iryna Vlasiuk; Tetiana Gren; Andriy Luzhetskyy; Joern Kalinowski; Victor Fedorenko; Bohdan Ostash
      Pages: 8419 - 8428
      Abstract: Abstract Streptomyces cyanogenus S136 is the only known producer of landomycin A (LaA), one of the largest glycosylated angucycline antibiotics possessing strong antiproliferative properties. There is rising interest in elucidation of mechanisms of action of landomycins, which, in turn, requires access to large quantities of the pure compounds. Overproduction of LaA has been achieved in the past through manipulation of cluster-situated regulatory genes. However, other components of the LaA biosynthetic regulatory network remain unknown. To fill this gap, we elucidated the contribution of AdpA family pleiotropic regulators in landomycin production via expression of adpA genes of different origins in S. cyanogenus S136. Overexpression of the native S. cyanogenus S136 adpA ortholog had no effect on landomycin titers. In the same time, expression of several heterologous adpA genes led to significantly increased landomycin production under different cultivation conditions. Hence, heterologous adpA genes are a useful tool to enhance or activate landomycin production by S. cyanogenus. Our ongoing research effort is focused on identification of mutations that render S. cyanogenus AdpA nonfunctional.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9249-1
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • A new approach for detection and quantification of microalgae in
           industrial-scale microalgal cultures
    • Authors: Peter Beatrice-Lindner; Jose Antonio Garrido-Cardenas; Claudia Sepulveda; Francisco Gabriel Acien-Fernandez
      Pages: 8429 - 8436
      Abstract: Abstract In industrial-scale microalgal cultures, non-target microalgae compete with the desired species for nutrients and CO2, thus reducing the growth rate of the target species and the quality of the produced biomass. Microalgae identification is generally considered a complicated issue; although, in the last few years, new molecular methods have helped to rectify this problem. Among the different techniques available, DNA barcoding has proven very useful in providing rapid, accurate, and automatable species identification; in this work, it is used to assess the genomic identity of the microalga species Scenedesmus sp. ‘almeriensis’, a common strain in industrial-scale cultures. Barcode markers rbcL and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 were sequenced and the obtained genomic information was used to design a quantitative PCR assay to precisely quantify the S. almeriensis concentration in microalgal cultures of industrial interest. TaqMan chemistry was used to quantify down to 1 μg/L dry weight of S. almeriensis cells, including in the presence of concentrated mixed cultures of other microalgae. A simple direct qPCR approach was also investigated to avoid classic DNA extraction and to reduce total assay time to approximately 2 h. The objective was to design strain-specific tools able to confirm and quantify the presence of different strains in whatever microalgae culture so as to achieve maximal productivity and quality of the produced biomass.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9268-y
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Engineering Salinispora tropica for heterologous expression of natural
           product biosynthetic gene clusters
    • Authors: Jia Jia Zhang; Bradley S. Moore; Xiaoyu Tang
      Pages: 8437 - 8446
      Abstract: Abstract The marine actinomycete genus Salinispora is a remarkably prolific source of structurally diverse and biologically active secondary metabolites. Herein, we select the model organism Salinispora tropica CNB-440 for development as a heterologous host for the expression of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) to complement well-established Streptomyces host strains. In order to create an integratable host with a clean background of secondary metabolism, we replaced three genes (salA–C) essential for salinosporamide biosynthesis with a cassette containing the Streptomyces coelicolor ΦC31 phage attachment site attB to generate the mutant S. tropica CNB-4401 via double-crossover recombination. This mutagenesis not only knocks-in the attachment site attB in the genome of S. tropica CNB-440 but also abolishes production of the salinosporamides, thereby simplifying the strain’s chemical background. We validated this new heterologous host with the successful integration and expression of the thiolactomycin BGC that we recently identified in several S. pacifica strains. When compared to the extensively engineered superhost S. coelicolor M1152, the production of thiolactomycins from S. tropica CNB-4401 was approximately 3-fold higher. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of using a marine actinomycete as a heterologous host for natural product BGC expression. The established heterologous host may provide a useful platform to accelerate the discovery of novel natural products and engineer biosynthetic pathways.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9283-z
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Imaging mass spectrometry-guided fast identification of antifungal
           secondary metabolites from Penicillium polonicum
    • Authors: Jing Bai; Peng Zhang; Guanhu Bao; Jin-Gang Gu; Lida Han; Li-Wen Zhang; Yuquan Xu
      Pages: 8493 - 8500
      Abstract: Abstract The discovery of antibiotics from microorganisms using classic bioactivity screens suffers from heavy labor and high re-discovery rate. Recently, largely uncovered biosynthetic potentials were unveiled by new approaches, such as genetic manipulation of “silent” biosynthetic gene clusters, innovative data acquisition, and processing methods. In this work, a fast and efficient antibiotic identification pipeline based on the MALDI-TOF imaging mass spectrometry was applied to study the antifungal metabolites during the confrontation of two fungal species, Penicillium polonicum and wilt-inducing fungus Fusarium oxysporum. By visualizing the spatial distribution of metabolites directly on the microbial colony and surrounding media, we predicted the antifungal candidates before isolating pure compounds and individually testing their bioactivity, which subsequently guided the identification of target molecules using classic chromatographic methods. Via this procedure, we successfully identified two antifungal metabolites, fructigenine A and B, which belong to indole alkaloid class and were not reported for antifungal activity. Our work assigned new bioactivity to previously reported compounds and more importantly showed the efficiency of this approach towards quick discovery of bioactive compounds, which can help study the vast unexploited synthetic potential of microbial secondary metabolites.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9218-8
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Analytical impact of Metschnikowia pulcherrima in the volatile profile of
           Verdejo white wines
    • Authors: Javier Ruiz; Ignacio Belda; Beata Beisert; Eva Navascués; Domingo Marquina; Fernando Calderón; Doris Rauhut; Antonio Santos; Santiago Benito
      Pages: 8501 - 8509
      Abstract: Abstract Most wine aroma compounds, including the varietal fraction, are produced or released during wine production and derived from microbial activity. Varietal aromas, typically defined as terpenes and thiols, have been described as derived from their non-volatile precursors, released during wine fermentation by different yeast hydrolytic enzymes. The perception of these minority aroma compounds depends on the chemical matrix of the wine, especially on the presence of majority aroma compounds, such as esters or higher alcohols. Strategies aiming to reduce the production of these masking flavors are on the spotlight of enology research as a way to better define varietal standard profiles for the global market. Using a natural white must from Verdejo variety (defined as a thiol grape variety), here we describe the analytical and sensorial impact of using, in sequential inoculations, a selected strain of Metschnikowia pulcherrima, in combination with two different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. An increase in the levels of the thiol 4-MSP (4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one) over its sensory threshold, together with a decrease in higher alcohol production, was observed when M. pulcherrima was used. This has an important impact on these wines, making them fruitier and fresher, always preferred by the sensory panel.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9255-3
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Medium chain unsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters inhibit persister
           formation of Escherichia coli via antitoxin HipB
    • Authors: Mengya Wang; Kuili Fang; Sung Min Choi Hong; Inwha Kim; Ik-Soon Jang; Seok Hoon Hong
      Pages: 8511 - 8524
      Abstract: Abstract Persisters represent a small bacterial population that is dormant and that survives under antibiotic treatment without experiencing genetic adaptation. Persisters are also considered one of the major reasons for recalcitrant chronic bacterial infections. Although several mechanisms of persister formation have been proposed, it is not clear how cells enter the dormant state in the presence of antibiotics or how persister cell formation can be effectively controlled. A fatty acid compound, cis-2-decenoic acid, was reported to decrease persister formation as well as revert the dormant cells to a metabolically active state. We reasoned that some fatty acid compounds may be effective in controlling bacterial persistence because they are known to benefit host immune systems. This study investigated persister cell formation by pathogens that were exposed to nine fatty acid compounds during antibiotic treatment. We found that three medium chain unsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters (ethyl trans-2-decenoate, ethyl trans-2-octenoate, and ethyl cis-4-decenoate) decreased the level of Escherichia coli persister formation up to 110-fold when cells were exposed to ciprofloxacin or ampicillin antibiotics. RNA sequencing analysis and gene deletion persister studies elucidated that these fatty acids inhibit bacterial persistence by regulating antitoxin HipB. A similar persister cell reduction was observed for pathogenic E. coli EDL933, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and Serratia marcescens ICU2-4 strains. This study demonstrates that fatty acid ethyl esters can be used to disrupt bacterial dormancy to combat persistent infectious diseases.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9271-3
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Identification and characterisation of short chain rhamnolipid production
           in a previously uninvestigated, non-pathogenic marine pseudomonad
    • Authors: Matthew S. Twigg; L. Tripathi; A. Zompra; K. Salek; V. U. Irorere; T. Gutierrez; G. A. Spyroulias; R. Marchant; I. M. Banat
      Pages: 8537 - 8549
      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to identify and characterise biosurfactant compounds produced by bacteria associated with a marine eukaryotic phytoplankton bloom. One strain, designated MCTG214(3b1), was isolated by enrichment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and based on 16S rDNA, and gyrB sequencing was found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas, however not related to P. aeruginosa. Cell-free supernatant samples of strain MCTG214(3b1) at stationary phase showed significant reductions in surface tension. HPLC-MS and NMR analysis of these samples indicated the presence of five different rhamnolipid (RL) congeners. Di-rhamnolipids accounted for 87% relative abundance and all congeners possessed fatty acid moieties consisting of 8–12 carbons. PCR screening of strain MCTG214(3b1) DNA revealed homologues to the P. aeruginosa RL synthesis genes rhlA and rhlB; however, no rhlC homologue was identified. Using the Galleria mellonella larvae model, strain MCTG214(3b1) was demonstrated to be far less pathogenic than P. aeruginosa. This study identifies for the first time a significantly high level of synthesis of short chain di-rhamnolipids by a non-pathogenic marine Pseudomonas species. We postulate that RL synthesis in Pseudomonas sp. MCTG214(3b1) is carried out by enzymes expressed from rhlA/B homologues similar to those of P. aeruginosa; however, a lack of rhlC potentially indicates the presence of a second novel rhamnosyltransferase responsible for the di-rhamnolipid congeners identified by HPLC-MS.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9202-3
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Diversity and community structure of ammonia oxidizers in a marsh wetland
           of the northeast China
    • Authors: Dawen Gao; Fengqin Liu; Lu Li; Chuhong Chen; Hong Liang
      Pages: 8561 - 8571
      Abstract: Abstract As an interface of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, wetland is a hotspot of the global nitrogen cycle. Ammonia oxidation is an essential part of the nitrogen cycle and is conducted by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Based on the amoA gene, the distribution and genetic diversity of AOA and AOB in the marsh wetland soil with different soil layers and vegetation had been investigated. The result showed that both soil layer and vegetation significantly influenced the diversity and abundance of AOA and AOB. AOB dominated numerically in all soil samples. The average bacterial amoA gene copies (2.62 × 109 copies/g dry soil) was 100-fold higher than the average archaeal amoA gene copies. In the soil sample under the Phragmites australis, the highest archaeal amoA gene was in depth 20–40 cm, whereas the bacterial amoA gene was more abundant in depth 0–20 cm. For the soil under Calamagrostis angustifolia, the highest archaeal and bacterial amoA gene were both detected in depth 0–20 cm. The dominated AOA was cluster AII, which was most related to the amoA gene found in aquatic habitat. Cluster BI accounted for 59.1% of bacterial amoA gene and it was related to the amoA gene found in the terrestrial habitat. CCA analysis revealed that NO3− was the main factor for AOA and AOB community structure in the P. australis soil. However, NO2− and NH4+ were important factors for AOA and AOB in the soil under C. angustifolia.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9225-9
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Microbiota assemblages of water, sediment, and intestine and their
           associations with environmental factors and shrimp physiological health
    • Authors: Fei Huang; Luqing Pan; Mengsi Song; Changcheng Tian; Shuo Gao
      Pages: 8585 - 8598
      Abstract: Abstract Microorganisms play crucial roles in nutrient cycling, water quality maintenance, and farmed animal health. Increasing evidences have revealed a close association between unstable microbial environments and disease occurrences in aquaculture. Thereupon, we used high-throughput sequencing technology to comprehensively compare the bacterial communities of water, sediment, and intestine in mariculture ponds at the middle and late stages of Litopenaeus vannamei farming and analyzed whether changes of their microbiota assemblages were associated with environmental factors and shrimp physiological health. Results showed that bacterial community structures were significantly distinct among water, sediment, and intestine; meanwhile, the relative abundances of intestinal dominant taxa were significantly changed between different rearing stages. Compared with intestine and water, shrimp intestine and sediment had a similar profile of the dominant bacterial genera by cluster analysis, and the observed species, diversity indexes, and shared OTUs of bacterial communities in intestine and sediment were simultaneously increased after shrimp were farmed for 90 days. These results reflected a closer relationship between microbiotas in sediment and intestine, which was further proved by nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis. However, bacterial communities in water, sediment, and intestine responded differently to environmental variables by redundancy and correlation analysis. More importantly, shrimp physiological parameters were closely associated with bacterial variations in the gut and/or ambient, especially the gut microbiota owning significantly high levels of predicted functional pathways involved in disease emergence. These findings may greatly add to our understanding of the microbiota characteristics of the shrimp pond ecosystem and the complex interactions among shrimp, ambient microflora, and environmental variables.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9229-5
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
  • Microbial community composition and diversity in rice straw digestion
           bioreactors with and without dairy manure
    • Authors: A. M. Zealand; R. Mei; P. Papachristodoulou; A. P. Roskilly; W. T. Liu; David W. Graham
      Pages: 8599 - 8612
      Abstract: Abstract Anaerobic digestion (AD) uses a range of substrates to generate biogas, including energy crops such as globally abundant rice straw (RS). Unfortunately, RS is high in lignocellulosic material and has high to C:N ratios (~80:1), which makes it (alone) a comparatively poor substrate for AD. Co-digestion with dairy manure (DM) has been promoted as a method for balancing C:N ratios to improve RS AD whilst also treating another farm waste and co-producing a potentially useful fertiliser. However, past co-digestion studies have not directly compared RS AD microbial communities with and without DM additions, which has made it hard to assess all impacts of DM addition to RS AD processes. Here, four RS:DM ratios were contrasted in identical semi-continuous-fed AD bioreactors, and 100% RS was found to produce the highest specific methane yields (112 mL CH4/g VS/day; VS, volatile solids), which is over double yields achieved in the reactor with the highest DM content (30:70 RS:DM by mass; 48 mL CH4/g VS/day). To underpin these data, microbial communities were sequenced and characterised across the four reactors. Dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the 100% RS unit were Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes, whereas the 30:70 RS:DM unit was dominated by Proteobacteria/Spirochaetes, suggesting major microbial community shifts occur with DM additions. However, community richness was lowest with 100% RS (despite higher specific yields), suggesting particular OTUs may be more important to yields than microbial diversity. Further, ambient VFA and VS levels were significantly higher when no DM was added, suggesting DM-amended reactors may cope better with higher organic loading rates (OLR). Results show that RS AD without DM addition is feasible, although co-digestion with DM will probably allow higher OLRs, resulting in great RS throughput in farm AD units.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9243-7
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 19 (2018)
       
 
 
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