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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  [SJR: 1.262]   [H-I: 161]   [61 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-0614 - ISSN (Online) 0175-7598
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Optogenetic switches for light-controlled gene expression in yeast
    • Authors: Francisco Salinas; Vicente Rojas; Verónica Delgado; Eduardo Agosin; Luis F. Larrondo
      Pages: 2629 - 2640
      Abstract: Abstract Light is increasingly recognized as an efficient means of controlling diverse biological processes with high spatiotemporal resolution. Optogenetic switches are molecular devices for regulating light-controlled gene expression, protein localization, signal transduction and protein-protein interactions. Such molecular components have been mainly developed through the use of photoreceptors, which upon light stimulation undergo conformational changes passing to an active state. The current repertoires of optogenetic switches include red, blue and UV-B light photoreceptors and have been implemented in a broad spectrum of biological platforms. In this review, we revisit different optogenetic switches that have been used in diverse biological platforms, with emphasis on those used for light-controlled gene expression in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The implementation of these switches overcomes the use of traditional chemical inducers, allowing precise control of gene expression at lower costs, without leaving chemical traces, and positively impacting the production of high-value metabolites and heterologous proteins. Additionally, we highlight the potential of utilizing this technology beyond laboratory strains, by optimizing it for use in yeasts tamed for industrial processes. Finally, we discuss how fungal photoreceptors could serve as a source of biological parts for the development of novel optogenetic switches with improved characteristics. Although optogenetic tools have had a strong impact on basic research, their use in applied sciences is still undervalued. Therefore, the invitation for the future is to utilize this technology in biotechnological and industrial settings.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8178-8
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment for reuse in
           water bodies
    • Authors: Jing-Han Wang; Tian-Yuan Zhang; Guo-Hua Dao; Xue-Qiao Xu; Xiao-Xiong Wang; Hong -Ying Hu
      Pages: 2659 - 2675
      Abstract: Abstract Reuse of secondary municipal effluent from wastewater treatment plants in water bodies could effectively alleviate freshwater resource shortage. However, excessive nutrients must be efficiently removed to prevent eutrophication. Compared with other means of advanced wastewater treatment, microalgae-based processes display overwhelming advantages including efficient and simultaneous N and P removal, no requirement of additional chemicals, O2 generation, CO2 mitigation, and potential value-added products from harvested biomass. One particular challenge of microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment compared to treatment of other types of wastewater is that concentrations of nutrients and N:P ratios in secondary municipal effluent are much lower and imbalanced. Therefore, there should be comprehensive considerations on nutrient removal from this specific type of effluent. Removal of nutrients and organic substances, and other environmental benefits of microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment systems were summarized. Among the existing studies on microalgal advanced nutrient removal, much information on major parameters is absent, rendering performances between studies not really comparable. Mechanisms of microalgae-based nitrogen and phosphorus removal were respectively analyzed to better understand advanced nutrient removal from municipal secondary effluent. Factors influencing microalgae-based nutrient removal were divided into intrinsic, environmental, and operational categories; several factors were identified in each category, and their influences on microalgal nutrient removal were discussed. A multiplicative kinetic model was integrated to estimate microalgal growth-related nutrient removal based majorly on environmental and intrinsic factors. Limitations and prospects of future full-scale microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment were also suggested. The manuscript could offer much valuable information for future studies on microalgae-based advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8184-x
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Cadmium-containing quantum dots: properties, applications, and toxicity
    • Authors: Dan Mo; Liang Hu; Guangming Zeng; Guiqiu Chen; Jia Wan; Zhigang Yu; Zhenzhen Huang; Kai He; Chen Zhang; Min Cheng
      Pages: 2713 - 2733
      Abstract: Abstract The marriage of biology with nanomaterials has significantly accelerated advancement of biological techniques, profoundly facilitating practical applications in biomedical fields. With unique optical properties (e.g., tunable broad excitation, narrow emission spectra, robust photostability, and high quantum yield), fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have been reasonably functionalized with controllable interfaces and extensively used as a new class of optical probe in biological researches. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in synthesis and properties of QDs. Moreover, we provide an overview of the outstanding potential of QDs for biomedical research and innovative methods of drug delivery. Specifically, the applications of QDs as novel fluorescent nanomaterials for biomedical sensing and imaging have been detailedly highlighted and discussed. In addition, recent concerns on potential toxicity of QDs are also introduced, ranging from cell researches to animal models.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8140-9
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Optimization of conditions for cadmium selenide quantum dot biosynthesis
           in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • Authors: Jordan Brooks; Daniel D. Lefebvre
      Pages: 2735 - 2745
      Abstract: Abstract The biosynthesis of quantum dots has been explored as an alternative to traditional physicochemical methods; however, relatively few studies have determined optimal synthesis parameters. Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequentially treated with sodium selenite and cadmium chloride synthesized CdSe quantum dots in the cytoplasm. These nanoparticles displayed a prominent yellow fluorescence, with an emission maximum of approximately 540 nm. The requirement for glutathione in the biosynthetic mechanism was explored by depleting its intracellular content through cellular treatments with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and buthionine sulfoximine. Synthesis was significantly inhibited by both of these reagents when they were applied after selenite treatment prior to the addition of cadmium, thereby indicating that glutathione contributes to the biosynthetic process. Determining the optimum conditions for biosynthesis revealed that quantum dots were produced most efficiently at entry into stationary phase followed by direct addition of 1 mM selenite for only 6 h and then immediately incubating these cells in fresh growth medium containing 3 mM Cd (II). Synthesis of quantum dots reached a maximum at 84 h of reaction time. Biosynthesis of 800-μg g−1 fresh weight cells was achieved. For the first time, significant efforts have been undertaken to optimize each aspect of the CdSe biosynthetic procedure in S. cerevisiae, resulting in a 70% increased production.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-8056-9
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Biopolymer microencapsulations of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal
           preparations for increased stability and resistance to environmental
    • Authors: Xiaolin He; Zhongqin Sun; Kanglai He; Shuyuan Guo
      Pages: 2779 - 2789
      Abstract: Abstract Parasporal crystals synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used as microbial pesticides because of their toxicity to the larval stages of specific insects. However, parasporal crystals can be damaged by environmental stresses, such as high temperature, ultraviolet radiation, and desiccation. To reduce environmental susceptibility of parasporal crystals and extend the duration of their activity, we developed a new type of protection by making microcapsules of crystals (MCs). The microcapsules were self-assembled by alternate deposition (layer by layer) of low-cost chitosan and sodium alginate (or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) on the crystal surface. Crystal toxins (Cry1Ac) were released from microcapsules at pH values above 9.0. Bioassay results demonstrated that microencapsulated preparations had larvicidal toxicity equivalent to the non-encapsulated form. Microencapsuled crystals were protected from environmental stresses such as high temperature and desiccation. The results indicate that microcapsule protection can enhance the efficacy of Bt in pest control, especially to Lepidoptera larvae that have a alkaline midgut.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-8070-y
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Heterologous synthesis of geranyllinalool, a diterpenol plant product, in
           the cyanobacterium Synechocystis
    • Authors: Cinzia Formighieri; Anastasios Melis
      Pages: 2791 - 2800
      Abstract: Abstract Cyanobacteria are industrially robust photosynthetic microorganisms that can be genetically programmed to synthesize commodity products for domestic and industrial consumption. In the present work, Synechocystis was endowed with the synthesis of the plant secondary metabolite geranyllinalool, a diterpene alcohol of commercial interest. Total average yields of 360 μg of geranyllinalool per gram of dry cell weight were obtained in the course of a 48-h cultivation period. Geranyllinalool was primarily sequestered inside the transformant cells, corresponding to 60–70% of the total heterologous product, instead of being entirely exuded, as the case is with shorter heterologous terpene hydrocarbons. Extraction of geranyllinalool necessitated disruption of the cells in order to release and isolate this chemical product. Moreover, geranyllinalool accumulation in the cells caused a mild inhibitory effect on cell fitness and biomass growth rate, such that the duplication time of Synechocystis transformants was 1.4-fold longer than that of the control. The remaining 30–40% of the geranyllinalool product was found to float on the surface of sealed transformant cultures, where it was siphoned off by applying a hydrophobic overlayer, with no need to disrupt the cells in this case. Concluding, the work extended efforts to heterologously produce terpene and terpenol products in cyanobacteria, and addressed possibilities and constrains inherent to this production system.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-8081-8
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Investigation of the instability and low water kefir grain growth during
           an industrial water kefir fermentation process
    • Authors: David Laureys; Amandine Van Jean; Jean Dumont; Luc De Vuyst
      Pages: 2811 - 2819
      Abstract: Abstract A poorly performing industrial water kefir production process consisting of a first fermentation process, a rest period at low temperature, and a second fermentation process was characterized to elucidate the causes of its low water kefir grain growth and instability. The frozen-stored water kefir grain inoculum was thawed and reactivated during three consecutive prefermentations before the water kefir production process was started. Freezing and thawing damaged the water kefir grains irreversibly, as their structure did not restore during the prefermentations nor the production process. The viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria and yeasts on the water kefir grains and in the liquors were as expected, whereas those of the acetic acid bacteria were high, due to the aerobic fermentation conditions. Nevertheless, the fermentations progressed slowly, which was caused by excessive substrate concentrations resulting in a high osmotic stress. Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bifidobacterium aquikefiri, Gluconobacter roseus/oxydans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Zygotorulaspora florentina were the most prevalent microorganisms. Lb. hilgardii, the microorganism thought to be responsible for water kefir grain growth, was not found culture-dependently, which could explain the low water kefir grain growth of this industrial process.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-8084-5
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • High production of 2,3-butanediol from glycerol without 1,3-propanediol
           formation by Raoultella ornithinolytica B6
    • Authors: Taeyeon Kim; Sukhyeong Cho; Han Min Woo; Sun-Mi Lee; Jinwon Lee; Youngsoon Um; Jin-Ho Seo
      Pages: 2821 - 2830
      Abstract: Abstract Conversion of crude glycerol derived from biodiesel processes to value-added chemicals has attracted much attention. Herein, Raoultella ornithinolytica B6 was investigated for the high production of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from glycerol without 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) formation, a by-product hindering 2,3-BD purification. By evaluating the effects of temperature, agitation speed, and pH control strategy, the fermentation conditions favoring 2,3-BD production were found to be 25 °C, 400 rpm, and pH control with a lower limit of 5.5, respectively. Notably, significant pH fluctuations which positively affect 2,3-BD production were generated by simply controlling the lower pH limit at 5.5. In fed-batch fermentation under those conditions, R. ornithinolytica B6 produced 2,3-BD up to 79.25 g/L, and further enhancement of 2,3-BD production (89.45 g/L) was achieved by overexpressing homologous 2,3-BD synthesis genes (the budABC). When pretreated crude glycerol was used as a sole carbon source, R. ornithinolytica B6 overexpressing budABC produced 78.10 g/L of 2,3-BD with the yield of 0.42 g/g and the productivity of 0.62 g/L/h. The 2,3-BD titer, yield, and productivity values obtained in this study are the highest 2,3-BD production from glycerol among 1,3-PD synthesis-deficient 2,3-BD producers, demonstrating R. ornithinolytica B6 as a promising 2,3-BD producer from glycerol.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8094-y
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Discovery and characterization of an F 420 -dependent glucose-6-phosphate
           dehydrogenase (Rh-FGD1) from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1
    • Authors: Quoc-Thai Nguyen; Gianluca Trinco; Claudia Binda; Andrea Mattevi; Marco W. Fraaije
      Pages: 2831 - 2842
      Abstract: Abstract Cofactor F420, a 5-deazaflavin involved in obligatory hydride transfer, is widely distributed among archaeal methanogens and actinomycetes. Owing to the low redox potential of the cofactor, F420-dependent enzymes play a pivotal role in central catabolic pathways and xenobiotic degradation processes in these organisms. A physiologically essential deazaflavoenzyme is the F420-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (FGD), which catalyzes the reaction F420 + glucose-6-phosphate → F420H2 + 6-phospho-gluconolactone. Thereby, FGDs generate the reduced F420 cofactor required for numerous F420H2-dependent reductases, involved e.g., in the bioreductive activation of the antitubercular prodrugs pretomanid and delamanid. We report here the identification, production, and characterization of three FGDs from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 (Rh-FGDs), being the first experimental evidence of F420-dependent enzymes in this bacterium. The crystal structure of Rh-FGD1 has also been determined at 1.5 Å resolution, showing a high similarity with FGD from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) (Mtb-FGD1). The cofactor-binding pocket and active-site catalytic residues are largely conserved in Rh-FGD1 compared with Mtb-FGD1, except for an extremely flexible insertion region capping the active site at the C-terminal end of the TIM-barrel, which also markedly differs from other structurally related proteins. The role of the three positively charged residues (Lys197, Lys258, and Arg282) constituting the binding site of the substrate phosphate moiety was experimentally corroborated by means of mutagenesis study. The biochemical and structural data presented here provide the first step towards tailoring Rh-FGD1 into a more economical biocatalyst, e.g., an F420-dependent glucose dehydrogenase that requires a cheaper cosubstrate and can better match the demands for the growing applications of F420H2-dependent reductases in industry and bioremediation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-8038-y
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Expression and secretion of glycosylated heparin biosynthetic enzymes
           using Komagataella pastoris
    • Authors: Jacob A. Englaender; Yuanyuan Zhu; Abhijit N. Shirke; Lei Lin; Xinyue Liu; Fuming Zhang; Richard A. Gross; Mattheos A. G. Koffas; Robert J. Linhardt
      Pages: 2843 - 2851
      Abstract: Abstract Heparin, an anticoagulant drug, is biosynthesized in selected animal cells. The heparin biosynthetic enzymes mainly consist of sulfotransferases and all are integral transmembrane glycoproteins. These enzymes are generally produced in engineered Escherichia coli as without their transmembrane domains as non-glycosylated fusion proteins. In this study, we used the yeast, Komagataella pastoris, to prepare four sulfotransferases involved in heparin biosynthesis as glycoproteins. While the yields of these yeast-expressed enzymes were considerably lower than E. coli-expressed enzymes, these enzymes were secreted into the fermentation media simplifying their purification and were endotoxin free. The activities of these sulfotransferases, expressed as glycoproteins in yeast, were compared to the bacterially expressed proteins. The yeast-expressed sulfotransferase glycoproteins showed improved kinetic properties than the bacterially expressed proteins.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-8047-x
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Recombinant expression and characterization of a l -amino acid oxidase
           from the fungus Rhizoctonia solani
    • Authors: Katharina Hahn; Katrin Neumeister; Andreas Mix; Tilman Kottke; Harald Gröger; Gabriele Fischer von Mollard
      Pages: 2853 - 2864
      Abstract: Abstract l-Amino acid oxidases (L-AAOs) catalyze the oxidative deamination of l-amino acids to the corresponding α-keto acids, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. l-AAOs are homodimeric enzymes with FAD as a non-covalently bound cofactor. They are of potential interest for biotechnological applications. However, heterologous expression has not succeeded in producing large quantities of active recombinant l-AAOs with a broad substrate spectrum so far. Here, we report the heterologous expression of an active l-AAO from the fungus Rhizoctonia solani in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with maltose-binding protein (MBP) as a solubility tag. After purification, it was possible to remove the MBP-tag proteolytically without influencing the enzyme activity. MBP-rsLAAO1 and 9His-rsLAAO1 converted basic and large hydrophobic l-amino acids as well as methyl esters of these l-amino acids. The progress of the conversion of l-phenylalanine and l-leucine into the corresponding α-keto acids was determined by HPLC and 1H-NMR analysis of reaction mixtures, respectively. Enzymatic activity was stimulated 50–100-fold by SDS treatment. K m values ranging from 0.9–10 mM and v max values from 3 to 10 U mg−1 were determined after SDS activation of 9His-rsLAAO1 for the best substrates. The enzyme displayed a broad pH optimum between pH 7.0 and 9.5. In summary, a successful overexpression of recombinant l-AAO in E. coli was established that results in a promising enzymatic activity and a broad substrate spectrum for biotechnological application.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-8054-y
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Xyloglucan breakdown by endo-xyloglucanase family 74 from Aspergillus
    • Authors: André Ricardo de Lima Damasio; Marcelo Ventura Rubio; Thiago Augusto Gonçalves; Gabriela Felix Persinoti; Fernando Segato; Rolf Alexander Prade; Fabiano Jares Contesini; Amanda Pereira de Souza; Marcos Silveira Buckeridge; Fabio Marcio Squina
      Pages: 2893 - 2903
      Abstract: Abstract Xyloglucan is the most abundant hemicellulose in primary walls of spermatophytes except for grasses. Xyloglucan-degrading enzymes are important in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis because they remove xyloglucan, which is abundant in monocot-derived biomass. Fungal genomes encode numerous xyloglucanase genes, belonging to at least six glycoside hydrolase (GH) families. GH74 endo-xyloglucanases cleave xyloglucan backbones with unsubstituted glucose at the −1 subsite or prefer xylosyl-substituted residues in the −1 subsite. In this work, 137 GH74-related genes were detected by examining 293 Eurotiomycete genomes and Ascomycete fungi contained one or no GH74 xyloglucanase gene per genome. Another interesting feature is that the triad of tryptophan residues along the catalytic cleft was found to be widely conserved among Ascomycetes. The GH74 from Aspergillus fumigatus (AfXEG74) was chosen as an example to conduct comprehensive biochemical studies to determine the catalytic mechanism. AfXEG74 has no CBM and cleaves the xyloglucan backbone between the unsubstituted glucose and xylose-substituted glucose at specific positions, along the XX motif when linked to regions deprived of galactosyl branches. It resembles an endo-processive activity, which after initial random hydrolysis releases xyloglucan-oligosaccharides as major reaction products. This work provides insights on phylogenetic diversity and catalytic mechanism of GH74 xyloglucanases from Ascomycete fungi.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-8014-6
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Degrons of yeast and mammalian ornithine decarboxylase enzymes make potent
           combination for regulated targeted protein degradation
    • Authors: Rushikesh G. Joshi; C. Ratna Prabha
      Pages: 2905 - 2917
      Abstract: Abstract Elevation of polyamine levels in eukaryotes leads to rapid degradation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis pathway. ODC in yeast (yODC) has two domains, the Nα/β domain consisting of α/β barrel domain (α/β) preceded by an overhang of 50 residues at its N-terminus (N50) and β sheet domain at its C-terminus. Two degradation determinant signals or degrons in yODC sequence, namely the N50 and the antizyme-binding element (AzBE) housed in the α/β domain, are responsible for its degradation by proteasomes. Antizyme (Az) induced under polyamine excess binds to AzBE and delivers ODC to proteasome, while the N50 threads the protein into proteasome. It was previously reported by us that the peptide Nα/β of yODC acts as an independent transplantable degron, whose action can be modulated with the help of antizyme by varying polyamine levels. Mammalian ODC (mODC), in spite of its 40% sequence homology with yODC, is devoid of N50 of yODC and instead sports a C-terminal tail of 37 residues (CmODC). CmODC acts as an independent transplantable degron with no equivalent in yODC. The present study investigates the merits of employing the two degrons Nα/β and CmODC together for targeted protein degradation by expressing them in a chimeric fusion with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Our results establish that under the regulation of antizyme, the signals Nα/β and CmODC acting together enhance degradation better than either degron in isolation. The combination of Nα/β and CmODC can be employed to study the function of novel proteins through their rapid removal.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-8023-5
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Structure-based engineering of a pectate lyase with improved specific
           activity for ramie degumming
    • Authors: Zhanping Zhou; Yang Liu; Zhenying Chang; Huilin Wang; André Leier; Tatiana T. Marquez-Lago; Yanhe Ma; Jian Li; Jiangning Song
      Pages: 2919 - 2929
      Abstract: Abstract Biotechnological applications of microbial pectate lyases (Pels) in plant fiber processing are promising, eco-friendly substitutes for conventional chemical degumming processes. However, to potentiate the enzymes’ use for industrial applications, resolving the molecular structure to elucidate catalytic mechanisms becomes necessary. In this manuscript, we report the high resolution (1.45 Å) crystal structure of pectate lyase (pelN) from Paenibacillus sp. 0602 in apo form. Through sequence alignment and structural superposition with other members of the polysaccharide lyase (PL) family 1 (PL1), we determined that pelN shares the characteristic right-handed β-helix and is structurally similar to other members of the PL1 family, while exhibiting key differences in terms of catalytic and substrate binding residues. Then, based on information from structure alignments with other PLs, we engineered a novel pelN. Our rational design yielded a pelN mutant with a temperature for enzymatic activity optimally shifted from 67.5 to 60 °C. Most importantly, this pelN mutant displayed both higher specific activity and ramie fiber degumming ability when compared with the wild-type enzyme. Altogether, our rational design method shows great potential for industrial applications. Moreover, we expect the reported high-resolution crystal structure to provide a solid foundation for future rational, structure-based engineering of genetically enhanced pelNs.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-7994-6
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Biotechnological exploitation of Tetrapisispora phaffii killer toxin:
           heterologous production in Komagataella phaffii (Pichia pastoris)
    • Authors: Rossella Chessa; Sara Landolfo; Maurizio Ciani; Marilena Budroni; Severino Zara; Murat Ustun; Zeynep Petek Cakar; Ilaria Mannazzu
      Pages: 2931 - 2942
      Abstract: Abstract The use of natural antimicrobials from plants, animals and microorganisms to inhibit the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms is becoming more frequent. This parallels the increased consumer interest towards consumption of minimally processed food and ‘greener’ food and beverage additives. Among the natural antimicrobials of microbial origin, the killer toxin produced by the yeast Tetrapisispora phaffii, known as Kpkt, appears to be a promising natural antimicrobial agent. Kpkt is a glycoprotein with β-1,3-glucanase and killer activity, which induces ultrastructural modifications to the cell wall of yeast of the genera Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora and Zygosaccharomyces. Moreover, Kpkt maintains its killer activity in grape must for at least 14 days under winemaking conditions, thus suggesting its use against spoilage yeast in wine making and the sweet beverage industry. Here, the aim was to explore the possibility of high production of Kpkt for biotechnological exploitation. Molecular tools for heterologous production of Kpkt in Komagataella phaffii GS115 were developed, and two recombinant clones that produce up to 23 mg/L recombinant Kpkt (rKpkt) were obtained. Similar to native Kpkt, rKpkt has β-glucanase and killer activities. Moreover, it shows a wider spectrum of action with respect to native Kpkt. This includes effects on Dekkera bruxellensis, a spoilage yeast of interest not only in wine making, but also for the biofuel industry, thus widening the potential applications of this rKpkt.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-8050-2
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • A bacterial GH6 cellobiohydrolase with a novel modular structure
    • Authors: Liliana Cerda-Mejía; Susana Valeria Valenzuela; Cristina Frías; Pilar Diaz; F. I. Javier Pastor
      Pages: 2943 - 2952
      Abstract: Abstract Cel6D from Paenibacillus barcinonensis is a modular cellobiohydrolase with a novel molecular architecture among glycosyl hydrolases of family 6. It contains an N-terminal catalytic domain (family 6 of glycosyl hydrolases (GH6)), followed by a fibronectin III-like domain repeat (Fn31,2) and a C-terminal family 3b cellulose-binding domain (CBM3b). The enzyme has been identified and purified showing catalytic activity on cellulosic substrates and cellodextrins, with a marked preference for phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC). Analysis of mode of action of Cel6D shows that it releases cellobiose as the only hydrolysis product from cellulose. Kinetic parameters were determined on PASC showing a K m of 68.73 mg/ml and a V max of 1.73 U/mg. A series of truncated derivatives of Cel6D have been constructed and characterized. Deletion of CBM3b caused a notable reduction in hydrolytic activity, while deletion of the Fn3 domain abolished activity, as the isolated GH6 domain was not active on any of the substrates tested. Mutant enzymes Cel6D-D146A and Cel6D-D97A were constructed in the residues corresponding to the putative acid catalyst and to the network for the nucleophilic attack. The lack of activity of the mutant enzymes indicates the important role of these residues in catalysis. Analysis of cooperative activity of Cel6D with cellulases from the same producing P. barcinonensis strain reveals high synergistic activity with processive endoglucanase Cel9B on hydrolysis of crystalline substrates. The characterized cellobiohydrolase can be a good contribution for depolymerization of cellulosic substrates and for the deconstruction of native cellulose.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8129-4
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Regulation of membrane fixation and energy production/conversion for
           adaptation and recovery of ZnO nanoparticle impacted Nitrosomonas europaea
    • Authors: Junkang Wu; Huijie Lu; Guangcan Zhu; Lianghui Chen; Yan Chang; Ran Yu
      Pages: 2953 - 2965
      Abstract: Abstract The ZnO nanoparticle (NP) effects on typical ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea in a chemostat bioreactor, and the cells’ toxicity adaptation and recovery potentials were explored. Hardly any inhibition was observed when the NP concentration was high up to 10 mg/L. The cells exposed to 50 mg/L ZnO NPs displayed time-dependent impairment and recovery potentials in terms of cell density, membrane integrity, nitrite production rate, and ammonia monooxygenase activity. The 6-h NP stress impaired cells were nearly completely restored during a 12-h recovery incubation, while the longer exposure time would cause irretrievable cell damage. Microarray analysis further indicated the transcriptional adaptation of N. europaea to NP stress. The regulations of genes encoding for membrane permeability or osmoprotectant, membrane integrity preservation, and inorganic ion transport during NP exposure and cell recovery revealed the importance of membrane fixation and the associated metabolisms for cells’ self-protection and the following recovery from NP stress. The oxidative phosphorylation, carbon assimilation, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycling pathways involved in the cells’ antitoxicity activities and would promote the energy production/conversion efficiency for cell recovery. The heavy metal resistance, histidine metabolism, toxin-antitoxin defense, glycolysis, and sulfate reduction pathways were also suggested to participate in the cell detoxication and recovery processes. All these findings provided valuable insights into the mechanisms of cell-mediated ZnO NP cytotoxicity and their potential impacts on wastewater nitrogen removal system.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8092-0
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Role of exopolysaccharide in salt stress resistance and cell motility of
           Mesorhizobium alhagi CCNWXJ12–2 T
    • Authors: Xiaodong Liu; Yantao Luo; Zhefei Li; Jiamei Wang; Gehong Wei
      Pages: 2967 - 2978
      Abstract: Abstract Mesorhizobium alhagi, a legume-symbiont soil bacterium that forms nodules with the desert plant Alhagi sparsifolia, can produce large amounts of exopolysaccharide (EPS) using mannitol as carbon source. However, the role of EPS in M. alhagi CCNWXJ12-2T, an EPS-producing rhizobium with high salt resistance, remains uncharacterized. Here, we studied the role of EPS in M. alhagi CCNWXJ12-2T using EPS-deficient mutants constructed by transposon mutagenesis. The insertion sites of six EPS-deficient mutants were analyzed using single primer PCR, and two putative gene clusters were found to be involved in EPS synthesis. EPS was extracted and quantified, and EPS production in the EPS-deficient mutants was decreased by approximately 25 times compared with the wild-type strain. Phenotypic analysis revealed reduced salt resistance, antioxidant capacity, and cell motility of the mutants compared with the wild-type strain. In conclusion, our results indicate that EPS can influence cellular Na+ content and antioxidant enzyme activity, as well as play an important role in the stress adaption and cell motility of M. alhagi CCNWXJ12-2T.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8114-y
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Synthesis of human parainfluenza virus 4 nucleocapsid-like particles in
           yeast and their use for detection of virus-specific antibodies in human
    • Authors: Aistė Bulavaitė; Rita Lasickienė; Paulius Lukas Tamošiūnas; Martynas Simanavičius; Kęstutis Sasnauskas; Aurelija Žvirblienė
      Pages: 2991 - 3004
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to produce human parainfluenza virus type 4 (HPIV4) nucleocapsid (N) protein in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system, to explore its structural and antigenic properties and to evaluate its applicability in serology. The use of an optimized gene encoding HPIV4 N protein amino acid (aa) sequence GenBank AGU90031.1 allowed high yield of recombinant N protein forming nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) in yeast. A substitution L332D disrupted self-assembly of NLPs, confirming the role of this position in the N proteins of Paramyxovirinae. Three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were generated against the NLP-forming HPIV4 N protein. They recognised HPIV4-infected cells, demonstrating the antigenic similarity between the recombinant and virus-derived N proteins. HPIV4 N protein was used as a coating antigen in an indirect IgG ELISA with serum specimens of 154 patients with respiratory tract infection. The same serum specimens were tested with previously generated N protein of a closely related HPIV2, another representative of genus Rubulavirus. Competitive ELISA was developed using related yeast-produced viral antigens to deplete the cross-reactive serum antibodies. In the ELISA either without or with competition using heterologous HPIV (2 or 4) N or mumps virus N proteins, the seroprevalence of HPIV4 N-specific IgG was, respectively, 46.8, 39.6 and 40.3% and the seroprevalence of HPIV2 N-specific IgG—47.4, 39.0 and 37.7%. In conclusion, yeast-produced HPIV4 N protein shares structural and antigenic properties of the native virus nucleocapsids. Yeast-produced HPIV4 and HPIV2 NLPs are prospective tools in serology.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8104-0
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
  • Combined effects of fermentation temperature and pH on kinetic changes of
           chemical constituents of durian wine fermented with Saccharomyces
    • Authors: Yuyun Lu; Marilyn Kai Wen Voon; Dejian Huang; Pin-Rou Lee; Shao-Quan Liu
      Pages: 3005 - 3014
      Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the effects of temperature (20 and 30 °C) and pH (pH 3.1, 3.9) on kinetic changes of chemical constituents of the durian wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Temperature significantly affected growth of S. cerevisiae EC-1118 regardless of pH with a higher temperature leading to a faster cell death. The pH had a more significant effect on ethanol production than temperature with higher production at 20 °C (5.95%, v/v) and 30 °C (5.56%, v/v) at pH 3.9, relative to that at pH 3.1 (5.25 and 5.01%, v/v). However, relatively higher levels of isobutyl alcohol and isoamyl alcohol up to 64.52 ± 6.39 and 56.27 ± 3.00 mg/L, respectively, were produced at pH 3.1 than at pH 3.9 regardless of temperature. In contrast, production of esters was more affected by temperature than pH, where levels of ethyl esters (ethyl esters of octanoate, nonanoate, and decanoate) and acetate esters (ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate) were significantly higher up to 2.13 ± 0.23 and 4.61 ± 0.22 mg/L, respectively, at 20 °C than at 30 °C. On the other hand, higher temperature improved the reduction of volatile sulfur compounds. This study illustrated that temperature control would be a more effective tool than pH in modulating the resulting aroma compound profile of durian wine.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-8043-1
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 7 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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