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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2562 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2562 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.182
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 67  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0614 - ISSN (Online) 0175-7598
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2562 journals]
  • Reversible control of enantioselectivity by the length of ketone
           substituent in biocatalytic reduction
    • Abstract: Enzyme engineering has been widely employed to tailor the substrate specificity and enantioselectivity of enzymes. In this study, we mutated Trp288, an unconserved residue in the small binding pocket of an acetophenone reductase from Geotrichum candidum NBRC 4597 (GcAPRD). Trp288 mutants showed substrate specificity expansion towards bulky-bulky ketones and enantioselectivity alteration which was highly dependent on the substrate substituent length. In aliphatic ketone reduction, enantioselectivity inverted from (S) to (R) when one of the substituents to the carbonyl carbon was elongated from propyl to butyl or pentyl. The best (R)-selective mutant, Trp288Val, achieved the reduction of 3-heptanone to its corresponding (R)-alcohol with 97% ee. Our docking simulation suggested that when enantioselectivity inverted to (R), only pro-R binding poses were productive. Gly94 played an important role to stabilize the butyl or pentyl group for their productive pro-R poses. Interestingly, when the substituent was further elongated, the enantioselectivity inverted back to the (S) form.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
  • Smart fermentation engineering for butanol production: designed biomass
           and consolidated bioprocessing systems
    • Abstract: There is a renewed interest in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from renewable substrates for the sustainable and environment-friendly production of biofuel and platform chemicals. However, the ABE fermentation is associated with several challenges due to the presence of heterogeneous components in the renewable substrates and the intrinsic characteristics of ABE fermentation process. Hence, there is a need to select optimal substrates and modify their characteristics suitable for the ABE fermentation process or microbial strain. This “designed biomass” can be used to establish the consolidated bioprocessing systems. As there are very few reports on designed biomass, the main objectives of this review are to summarize the main challenges associated with ABE fermentation from renewable substrates and to introduce feasible strategies for designing the substrates through pretreatment and hydrolysis technologies as well as through the establishment of consolidated bioprocessing systems. This review offers new insights on improving the efficiency of ABE fermentation from designed renewable substrates.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
  • Biological contamination and its chemical control in microalgal mass
    • Abstract: Microalgae are versatile sources of bioproducts, a solution for many environmental problems. However, and despite its importance, one of the main problems in large-scale cultures—the presence of contaminants—is rarely systematically approached. Contamination, or the presence of undesirable organisms in a culture, is deleterious for the culture and frequently leads to culture crashes. To avoid contamination, closed systems can be used; however, for very large-scale open systems, contamination is unavoidable and remediation procedures are necessary—ranging from physicochemical treatment to addition of biocidal substances. In all cases, early detection and culture monitoring are paramount. This article describes the biological contaminants, contamination mechanisms, and control systems used in open and closed cultures, discussing the latest advances and techniques in the area. It also discusses the complex interactions of algae with other microorganisms that can be expected in cultivation systems.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
  • Photoinactivation of dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis due to its endogenous
    • Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is able to transition into a dormant state, causing a latent state of tuberculosis. Dormant mycobacteria acquire phenotypic resistance to all known antibacterial drugs; they are also able to maintain vitality in the host for decades and become active, causing the active form of the disease. In order to cure latent tuberculosis, new approaches should be developed. Earlier, we discovered accumulation in significant concentrations of porphyrins in dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis, which is a close, fast-growing relative of the causative agent of tuberculosis. In this study, we explore a new possibility to kill dormant mycobacteria by photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using accumulated porphyrins as endogenous photosensitisers. The dormant M. smegmatis were obtained under gradual acidification in Sauton’s medium, for 14 days. Cells were exposed to light with different wavelengths emitted by three Spectra X light-emitting diodes (395/25, 470/24, 575/25 nm) and one separated 634-nm LED for 15 min. An increase in the concentration of coproporphyrin in M. smegmatis after 6 days of growth correlated with the beginning of a decrease in metabolic activity and formation of ovoid dormant forms. Dormant bacteria were sensitive to PDI and killed after 15–30 min of illumination, in contrast to active cells. The greatest inactivation of dormant mycobacteria occurred at 395 and 575 nm, which coincides with the main maximum of the absorption spectrum of extracted porphyrins. We, for the first time, demonstrate a successful application of PDI for inactivation of dormant mycobacteria, due to significant accumulation of endogenous photosensitisers—porphyrins.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Enhancement of FK520 production in Streptomyces hygroscopicus by combining
           traditional mutagenesis with metabolic engineering
    • Abstract: FK520 (ascomycin), a 23-membered macrolide with immunosuppressive activity, is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The problem of low yield and high impurities (mainly FK523) limits the industrialized production of FK520. In this study, the FK520 yield was significantly improved by strain mutagenesis and genetic engineering. First, a FK520 high-producing strain SFK-6-33 (2432.2 mg/L) was obtained from SFK-36 (1588.4 mg/L) through ultraviolet radiation mutation coupled with streptomycin resistance screening. The endogenous crotonyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase (FkbS) was found to play an important role in FK520 biosynthesis, identified with CRISPR/dCas9 inhibition system. FkbS was overexpressed in SFK-6-33 to obtain the engineered strain SFK-OfkbS, which produced 2817.0 mg/L of FK520 resulting from an increase in intracellular ethylmalonyl-CoA levels. In addition, the FK520 levels could be further increased with supplementation of crotonic acid in SFK-OfkbS. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase), used for the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, was also investigated in SFK-6-33, which improved the FK520 yield to 3320.1 mg/L but showed no significant inhibition in FK523 production. To further enhance FK520 production, FkbS and ACCase combinatorial overexpression strain SFK-OASN was constructed; the FK520 production increased by 44.4% to 3511.4 mg/L, and the FK523/FK520 ratio was reduced from 9.6 to 5.6% compared with that in SFK-6-33. Finally, a fed-batch culture was carried out in a 5-L fermenter, and the FK520 yield reached 3913.9 mg/L at 168 h by feeding glycerol, representing the highest FK520 yield reported thus far. These results demonstrated that traditional mutagenesis combined with metabolic engineering was an effective strategy to improve FK520 production.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 alleviates liver injury by modulating gut
           microbiome and metabolome in d -galactosamine-treated rats
    • Abstract: The liver is an important digestive gland, and acute liver failure results in high mortality. Probiotics are considered potential adjuvant therapies for liver disease. This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 on acute liver injury and the underlying mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with L. helveticus R0052 suspensions (3 × 109 CFU) for 1 week. Subsequently, acute liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal d-galactosamine injection on the eighth day. After 24 h, samples (blood, liver, ileum, faeces) were collected and assessed for histological injury, inflammation, intestinal barrier, gut microbiome and metabolome. L. helveticus R0052 alleviated aminotransferase, bilirubin and total bile acid elevation and histological hepatic injuries. Additionally, L. helveticus R0052 exhibited anti-inflammatory properties by downregulating Toll-like receptors, tumour necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κb transcription in liver samples and decreasing proinflammatory cytokine plasma concentrations. Additionally, L. helveticus R0052 ameliorated intestinal abnormalities and regulated Toll-like receptors, claudin2 and mucin3 gene transcription in the intestine. These effects were associated with gut microbiome and metabolome modulation by L. helveticus R0052. Probiotic pretreatment enriched Lactobacillus and Bacteroides and depleted Flavonifractor and Acetatifactor in the gut microbiome. Meanwhile, L. helveticus R0052 improved carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism and reduced lithocholic acid levels. These results indicate that L. helveticus R0052 is promising for alleviating acute liver injury and provide new insights regarding the correlations among the microbiome, the metabolome, the intestinal barrier and liver disease.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Microbial production of (2 R ,3 S )-isocitric acid: state of the arts and
    • Abstract: (2R,3S)-isocitric acid has long been used only as a specific biochemical reagent. However, there is ever increasing evidence that it can also be used as an original promising substance for prevention and treatment of some diseases. The review considers the results of longtime research in our laboratory and the data of other researchers related to microbial synthesis of (2R,3S)-isocitric acid, derivation and selection of active microbial producers, development of their cultivation conditions, as well as the results of study of the mechanism of acid overproduction, and regulation of enzymes involed in this process. The efficient processes of (2R,3S)-isocitric acid production with the aid of natural, mutant, and recombinant strains of Yarrowia lipolytica and methods of product isolation and purification to pharmacopeial standarts are also reviewed.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Insight into the glycosylation and hydrolysis kinetics of
           alpha-glucosidase in the synthesis of glycosides
    • Abstract: α-Glucosidase, Agl2, from Xanthomonas campestris was successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells and purified with Ni columns. The enzyme exhibits glycosylation abilities towards a wide range of phenolic substrates, including phenol, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin, with maltose as the glycosyl donor. The catalytic properties of the purified enzyme were further investigated. It was observed that the synthesized glycosides started to degrade with prolonged catalytic time, giving an “n”-shaped kinetic profile. To understand such catalytic behavior, the Agl2-catalyzed glycosylation process was investigated kinetically. Based on the obtained parameters, it was concluded that although the substrate conversions are thermodynamically restricted in a batch system, the glycosylation efficiency can be kinetically controlled by the glycosylation/hydrolysis selectivity. Glucose was produced by both glycosylation and hydrolysis, significantly impacting the glycosylation efficiency. This study provides a mechanistic understanding of the α-glucosidase-catalyzed glycosylation process in a water-based system. The developed kinetic model was successful in explaining and analyzing the catalytic process. It is suggested that when α-glucosidase is employed for glycosylation in a water-enriched environment, the catalytic efficiency is mainly impacted by the enzyme’s glycosylation/hydrolysis selectivity and glucose content in the catalytic environment.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • An overview of the biological production of 1-deoxynojirimycin: current
           status and future perspective
    • Abstract: 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a representative iminopyranose, is widely used in anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity applications. It naturally exists in plants, insects, and the culture broth of some microbes as a secondary metabolite product. However, the content of DNJ in plants and insects is relatively low, which is an obstacle to investigating DNJ in terms of structure–function relationships and restricts large-scale industrial production. With the development of micro-biotechnology, the production of DNJ during microbial fermentation has potential for industrial applications. In this review, we primarily focus on the microbial production of DNJ. The review covers sources of DNJ, determination methods, and physiological functions and applications. In a discussion of the efficient production of DNJ microorganisms, we summarize the current methods for DNJ screening and how to guide industrialized large-scale production of DNJ through fermentation regulation strategies. In addition, differences in the biosynthetic pathways of DNJ in different sources are also summarized. Finally, a comparison of DNJ content derived from different sources is discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Expression and purification of recombinant puroindoline A protein in
           Escherichia coli and its antifungal effect against Aspergillus flavus
    • Abstract: Aspergillus flavus is the main cause of postharvest agricultural commodity loss. In this study, puroindoline A (PINA) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and its antifungal properties against A. flavus were characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the molecular weight of the recombinant PINA protein was approximately 44 kDa. PINA exerted a powerful antifungal effect against A. flavus at 42.42 μg/mL on potato dextrose agar culture medium. Flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the spore morphology was damaged by PINA exposure; spores were depressed and broken, suggesting that the cell wall was impaired. Transmission electron microscopy and propidium iodide staining illustrated significant changes in intracellular spore structure, indicating cell membrane damage. 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethylbenzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide staining indicated decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Large nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation were detected by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. The expression of genes related to the cell wall, cell membrane, and spore germination significantly changed in PINA-treated cells; this illustrated the probable mode of PINA action on A. flavus through cell wall destruction and triggered cell membrane, mitochondrial, and DNA damage leading to cell death. The antifungal mechanism of wheat PINA protein on A. flavus has been demonstrated in this study, and has potential application in preventing postharvest loss in the agricultural industry.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Obtaining an Ent35-MccV derivative with mutated hinge region that exhibits
           increased activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli
    • Abstract: The present paper describes the generation of derivatives from the hybrid peptide called Ent35-MccV, active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This peptide has a triple glycine hinge region between enterocin CRL35 and microcin V. In order to obtain variants of Ent35-MccV with greater biotechnological potential, a saturation mutagenesis was carried out in the hinge region. As a result, we obtained a bank of E. coli strains expressing different mutated hybrid bacteriocins in the central position of the hinge region. From all these variants, we found that the one bearing a tyrosine in the central region of the hinge (Ent35-GYG-MccV) is 2-fold more active against E. coli and 4-fold more active against Listeria than the original peptide Ent35-MccV. This derivative was purified and characterized. The development and evaluation of alternative hinges for Ent35-MccV represents a step forward in the bioengineering of antimicrobial peptides. This approach fosters the rational design of peptides with enhanced antimicrobial activity.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Characterization of an extremely thermo-active archaeal β-glucosidase and
           its activity towards glucan and mannan in concert with an endoglucanase
    • Abstract: A metagenome from an enrichment culture of a hydrothermal vent sample taken at Vulcano Island (Italy) was sequenced and an endoglucanase-encoding gene (vul_cel5A) was identified in a previous work. Vul_Cel5A with maximal activity at 115 °C was characterized as the most heat-active endoglucanase to date. Based on metagenome sequences, genomes were binned and bin4 included vul_cel5A as well as a putative GH1 β-glycosidase-encoding gene (vul_bgl1A) with highest identities to sequences from the archaeal genus Thermococcus. The recombinant β-glucosidase Vul_Bgl1A produced in E. coli BL21 pQE-80L exhibited highest activity at 105 °C and pH 7.0 (76.12 ± 5.4 U/mg, 100%) using 4NP β-D-glucopyranoside as substrate and 61% relative activity at 120 °C. Accordingly, Vul_Bgl1A represents one of the most heat-active β-glucosidases to date. The enzyme has a broad substrate specificity with 155% activity towards 4NP β-D-mannopyranoside in comparison with 4NP β-D-glucopyranoside. Moreover, nearly complete hydrolysis of cellobiose was demonstrated. The enzyme exhibited a high glucose tolerance with 26% residual activity in presence of 2 M glucose and was furthermore activated at glucose concentrations of up to 0.5 M. When the endoglucanase Vul_Cel5A and the β-glucosidase Vul_Bgl1A were applied simultaneously at 99 °C, 158% activity towards barley β-glucan and 215% towards mannan were achieved compared with the activity of Vul_Cel5A alone (100%). Consequently, a significant increase in glucose formation was observed when both enzymes were incubated with β-glucan and mannan suggesting a synergistic effect. Hence, the two archaeal extremozymes are ideal candidates for complete glucan and mannan saccharification at temperatures above the boiling point of water.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Correction to: Metagenomic approaches: effective tools for monitoring the
    • Abstract: The original version of this article was revised: After publication of this article, the publisher was notified that Michael Klocke has been listed as an author without his consent.
      PubDate: 2019-11-09
  • Antimicrobial secondary metabolites from agriculturally important fungi as
           next biocontrol agents
    • Abstract: Synthetic chemical pesticides have been used for many years to increase the yield of agricultural crops. However, in the future, this approach is likely to be limited due to negative impacts on human health and the environment. Therefore, studies of the secondary metabolites produced by agriculturally important microorganisms have an important role in improving the quality of the crops entering the human food chain. In this review, we have compiled information about the most important secondary metabolites of fungal species currently used in agriculture pest and disease management.
      PubDate: 2019-11-09
  • Lignocellulosic biomass: Hurdles and challenges in its valorization
    • Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is globally available and sustainable feedstock containing sugar-rich platform that can be converted to biofuels and specialty products through appropriate processing. This review focuses on the efforts required for the development of sustainable and economically viable lignocellulosic biorefinery to produce carbon neutral biofuels along with the specialty chemicals. Sustainable biomass processing is a global challenge that requires the fulfillment of fundamental demands concerning economic efficiency, environmental compatibility, and social responsibility. The key technical challenges in continuous biomass supply and the biological routes for its saccharification with high yields of sugar sources have not been addressed in research programs dealing with biomass processing. Though many R&D endeavors have directed towards biomass valorization over several decades, the integrated production of biofuels and chemicals still needs optimization from both technical and economical perspectives. None of the current pretreatment methods has advantages over others since their outcomes depend on the type of feedstock, downstream process configuration, and many other factors. Consolidated bio-processing (CBP) involves the use of single or consortium of microbes to deconstruct biomass without pretreatment. The use of new genetic engineering tools for natively cellulolytic microbes would make the CBP process low cost and ecologically friendly. Issues arising with chemical characteristics and rigidity of the biomass structure can be a setback for its viability for biofuel conversion. Integration of functional genomics and system biology with synthetic biology and metabolic engineering undoubtedly led to generation of efficient microbial systems, albeit with limited commercial potential. These efficient microbial systems with new metabolic routes can be exploited for production of commodity chemicals from all the three components of biomass. This paper provides an overview of the challenges that are faced by the processes converting LCB to commodity chemicals with special reference to biofuels.
      PubDate: 2019-11-09
  • Metagenomic approaches: effective tools for monitoring the structure and
           functionality of microbiomes in anaerobic digestion systems
    • Abstract: Microbial metagenome analysis has proven its usefulness to investigate the microbiomes present in technical engineered ecosystems such as anaerobic digestion systems. The analysis of the total microbial genomic DNA allows the detailed determination of both the microbial community structure and its functionality. In addition, it enables to study the response of the microbiome to alterations in technical process parameters. Strategies of functional microbial networks to face abiotic stressors, e.g., resistance, resilience, and reorganization, can be evaluated with respect to overall process optimization. The objective of this paper is to review the main metagenomic tools used for effective studies on anaerobic digestion systems in monitoring the dynamic of the microbiomes, as well as the factors that have been identified so far as limiting the metagenomic studies in this ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2019-11-09
  • Construction and application of an HSP70 promoter-inducible genome editing
           system in transgenic silkworm to induce resistance to Nosema bombycis
    • Abstract: The microsporidian Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular parasitic fungus that causes devastating disease in sericulture. To date, no efficient biotechnological method to inhibit the proliferation of microspores has been established. Here, we developed a powerful genetic engineering technique involving microsporidia-inducible genome editing in transgenic silkworm that confers resistance to N. bombycis. This system includes an HSP70 promoter-induced expression of the Cas9 protein line and a target BmATAD3A gene line. The double-positive HSP70-Cas9(+)×sgATAD3A(+) lines were obtained by hybridization and activation of the CRISPR/Cas9 system under the condition of microsporidia infection, although it is silenced in uninfected individuals. Genome editing analysis showed that the system could efficiently edit the BmATAD3A gene and induce large deletions. It is notable that the HSP70-induced system could effectively improve the survival rate of transgenic silkworm after microsporidia infection and inhibit the expression of key microsporidia genes. Moreover, no significant developmental differences between the transgenic silkworms infected with microsporidia and normal individuals were observed. In this study, we effectively inhibited microsporidia proliferation in transgenic individuals through disruptive techniques, thereby providing a method for microsporidia treatment and prevention, paving the way for economically advantageous insect breeding.
      PubDate: 2019-11-09
  • The flavonoid degrading fungus Acremonium sp. DSM 24697 produces two
           diglycosidases with different specificities
    • Abstract: Diglycosidases hydrolyze the heterosidic linkage of diglycoconjugates, releasing the disaccharide and the aglycone. Usually, these enzymes do not hydrolyze or present only low activities towards monoglycosylated compounds. The flavonoid degrading fungus Acremonium sp. DSM 24697 produced two diglycosidases, which were termed 6-O-α-rhamnosyl-β-glucosidase I and II (αRβG I and II) because of their function of releasing the disaccharide rutinose (6-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-β-D-glucose) from the diglycoconjugates hesperidin or rutin. In this work, the genome of Acremonium sp. DSM 24697 was sequenced and assembled with a size of ~ 27 Mb. The genes encoding αRβG I and II were expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71 and the protein products were purified with apparent molecular masses of 42 and 82 kDa, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis showed that αRβG I grouped in glycoside hydrolase family 5, subfamily 23 (GH5), together with other fungal diglycosidases whose substrate specificities had been reported to be different from αRβG I. On the other hand, αRβG II grouped in glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) and thus is the first GH3 member that hydrolyzes the heterosidic linkage of rutinosylated compounds. The substrate scopes of the enzymes were different: αRβG I showed exclusive specificity toward 7-O-β-rutinosyl flavonoids, whereas αRβG II hydrolyzed both 7-O-β-rutinosyl- and 3-O-β-rutinosyl- flavonoids. None of the enzymes displayed activity toward 7-O-β-neohesperidosyl- flavonoids. The recombinant enzymes also exhibited transglycosylation activities, transferring rutinose from hesperidin or rutin onto various alcoholic acceptors. The different substrate scopes of αRβG I and II may be part of an optimized strategy of the original microorganism to utilize different carbon sources.
      PubDate: 2019-11-08
  • Profiling population-level diversity and dynamics of Accumulibacter via
           high throughput sequencing of ppk1
    • Abstract: As the key organism for enhanced biological phosphorus removal, Accumulibacter has shown high intragenus diversity based on the phylogeny of polyphosphate kinase1 gene (ppk1) and many clade-specific features related to performance of wastewater treatment. However, the widely used molecular approaches are deficient or cost-inefficient in providing a comprehensive and quantitative population-level profile for Accumulibacter in complex community. In this study, we introduced a pipeline to analyze the population-level diversity and dynamics of Accumulibacter via high throughput sequencing (HTS) of ppk1 and 16S rRNA gene simultaneously. The HTS approach was assessed by testing primer coverage, performing sample replication, and comparing with a traditional clone library. Based on survey on full-scale activated sludge samples, unexpected high microdiversity in Accumulibacter and a tendency of exclusivity between two phylogenetic types were discovered. Moreover, the pipeline facilitated monitoring the population-level dynamics and co-occurrence pattern under various laboratory enriching conditions. The results revealed previously uncharacterized intraclade dynamics during enrichment, little effect of denitrifying process on the Accumulibacter diversity, and the niche adaption of Clade IIC on propionate as sole carbon source. Co-occurrence of Accumulibacter populations further partially supported the exclusivity of two types. A few bacterial taxa, including Cytophagaceae-, Prosthecobacter-, and Compteibacter-related taxa, showed co-occurrence with many Accumulibacter populations, suggesting their niche co-selection or potential metabolic interactions with Accumulibacter. The present pipeline is transplantable for studying microdiversity and niche differentiation of other functional microorganisms in complex microbial systems.
      PubDate: 2019-11-08
  • Molecular, biochemical, and proteomic analyses of transplastomic tobacco
           plants expressing an endoglucanase support chloroplast-based molecular
           farming for industrial scale production of enzymes
    • Abstract: The successful production of recombinant enzymes by tobacco transplastomic plants must maintain compatibility of the heterologous enzyme with chloroplast metabolism and its long-time enzyme stability. Based on previous reports, it has been taken for granted that following biolistic-transformation, homoplasticity could be obtained from the initially heteroplastic state following successive rounds of selection in the presence of the selection agent. However, several studies indicated that this procedure does not always ensure the complete elimination of unmodified wild-type plastomes. The present study demonstrates that CelK1 transplastomic plants, which were photosyntetically as active as untransformed ones, remain heteroplastomic even after repeated selection steps and that this state does not impair the relatively high-level production of the recombinant enzyme. In fact, even in the heteroplastomic state, the recombinant protein represented about 6% of the total soluble proteins (TSP). Moreover, our data also show that, while the recombinant endoglucanase undergoes phosphorylation, this post-translation modification does not have any significant impact on the enzymatic activity. Biomass storage might be required whenever the enzyme extraction process could not be performed immediately following the harvest of tobacco mature plants. In this respect, we have observed that enzyme activity in the detached leaves stored at 4 °C is maintained up to 20 weeks without significant loss of activity. These findings may have major implications in the future of chloroplast genetic engineering–based molecular farming to produce industrial enzymes in transplastomic plants.
      PubDate: 2019-11-08
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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