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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  [SJR: 1.262]   [H-I: 161]   [62 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-0614 - ISSN (Online) 0175-7598
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Improved DNA purification with quality assurance for evaluation of the
           microbial genetic content of constructed wetlands
    • Authors: Wenda Huang; Jingjing Guo; Ran Tao; Ying Man; Yunv Dai; Yang Yang
      Pages: 7923 - 7931
      Abstract: Efficient isolation of target DNA is a crucial first step of DNA-based metagenomic analyses of environmental samples. Insufficient quantity and purity of DNA isolated using commercial kits result in missing genetic information, especially for large-diameter substrates in constructed wetlands (CWs). Here, we addressed this problem by devising a cost-effective calcium chloride lysozyme-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) method (CCLS), with key improvements in the steps of humic acid removal and cell lysis. The buffer comprising Tris, EDTA, Na2O2P7 and PVPP (TENP), and skim milk, could reduce adsorption between microorganisms and substrates, and calcium chloride precipitated and removed over 94% of humic acid. This humic acid removal step, when compared to the PowerSoil DNA kit (MO BIO Laboratories Inc.) (MBKIT), significantly enhanced the DNA purity (A260/230) from 0.68 to 1.63 (p < 0.01). When gentle and extended cell lysis in CCLS replaced the short but violent bead-beating in the MBKIT, DNA yield and the amount of lysed bacteria detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on average increased by 2 and 4 folds, respectively, compared to that obtained using the MBKIT (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene and nirK gene from denitrifying microorganisms were successfully amplified from CCLS-generated DNA. Additionally, bacterial diversity indices of richness, Shannon, and evenness examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) increased by 75, 30, and 7%, respectively, by CCLS compared to that using the MBKIT. Hence, the CCLS method enables improved evaluation of microbial density and diversity in CW systems.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8510-3
      Issue No: Vol. 101, No. 21 (2017)
  • Production of d -arabitol from d -xylose by the oleaginous yeast
           Rhodosporidium toruloides IFO0880
    • Authors: Sujit Sadashiv Jagtap; Christopher V. Rao
      Abstract: The sugar alcohol d-arabitol is one of the Department of Energy’s top twelve bio-based building block chemicals. In this study, we found that the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides IFO0880 produces d-arabitol during growth on xylose in nitrogen-rich medium. Efficient xylose utilization was a prerequisite for extracellular d-arabitol production. During growth in complex media, R. toruloides produced 22 ± 2, 32 ± 2, and 49 ± 2 g/L d-arabitol from 70, 105, and 150 g/L xylose, respectively. In addition, we found that R. toruloides could potentially be used for the co-production of lipids and d-arabitol from xylose. These results demonstrate that R. toruloides can be used to produce multiple value-added chemicals from xylose.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8581-1
  • Recent advances in microbial production of aromatic natural products and
           their derivatives
    • Authors: Jia Wang; Xiaolin Shen; Justin Rey; Qipeng Yuan; Yajun Yan
      Abstract: Aromatic natural products represent a diverse class of chemicals with great industrial significance. Usually, they serve as the building blocks for production of various polymers, esters, fibers, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. However, industrial synthesis of aromatic natural products still relies heavily on petroleum-based chemical processes, which are not sustainable and eco-friendly. In the past decades, construction of microbial cell factories that are able to efficiently convert renewable carbon sources into value-added products has made significant progress. This review highlights the recent advances in metabolic engineering efforts for biological production of aromatic natural products and their derivatives. Many novel pathways, enzymes, and products were reported in the literatures but have not yet detailed and informative viewed so far. Our goals are to provide a landscape of current works and present guidelines to address future challenges in biosynthesis of aromatic natural products and their derivatives using engineered microorganisms.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8599-4
  • Semi-rational engineering of CYP153A35 to enhance ω-hydroxylation
           activity toward palmitic acid
    • Authors: Eunok Jung; Beom Gi Park; Hee-Wang Yoo; Joonwon Kim; Kwon-Young Choi; Byung-Gee Kim
      Abstract: CYP153A35 from Gordonia alkanivorans was recently characterized as fatty acid ω-hydroxylase. To enhance the catalytic activity of CYP153A35 toward palmitic acid, site-directed saturation mutagenesis was attempted using a semi-rational approach that combined structure-based computational analysis and subsequent saturation mutagenesis. Using colorimetric high-throughput screening (HTS) method based on O-demethylation activity of P450, CYP153A35 D131S and D131F mutants were selected. The best mutant, D131S, having a single mutation on BC-loop, showed 13- and 17-fold improvement in total turnover number (TTN) and catalytic efficiency (k cat/K M) toward palmitic acid compared to wild-type, respectively. However, in whole-cell reaction, D131S mutant showed only 50% improvement in ω-hydroxylated palmitic acid yield compared to the wild type. Docking simulation studies explained that the effect of D131S mutation on the catalytic activity would be mainly caused by the binding pose of fatty acids in the substrate access tunnel of the enzyme. This effect of D131S mutation on the catalytic activity is synergistic with that of the mutations in the active site previously reported.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8584-y
  • Response of microbial communities to pesticide residues in soil restored
           with Azolla imbricata
    • Authors: Xiao-Ming Lu; Peng-Zhen Lu
      Abstract: Under conditions of Azolla imbricata restoration, the high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to determine change trends of microbial community structures in the soil that had undergone long-term application of pesticides. The relationship between the content of pesticide residues in the soil and the microbial community structure was analyzed. The results indicated that the microbial diversity was strongly negatively correlated with the contents of pesticide residues in the soil. At a suitable dosage of 5 kg fresh A. imbricata per square meter of soil area, the soil microbial diversity increased by 12.0%, and the contents of pesticide residues decreased by 26.8−72.1%. Sphingobacterium, Sphingopyxis, Thermincola, Sphingobium, Acaryochloris, Megasphaera, Ralstonia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Desulfitobacterium, Nostoc, Oscillochloris, and Aciditerrimonas may play major roles in the degradation of pesticide residues. Thauera, Levilinea, Geothrix, Thiobacillus, Thioalkalispira, Desulfobulbus, Polycyclovorans, Fluviicola, Deferrisoma, Erysipelothrix, Desulfovibrio, Cytophaga, Vogesella, Zoogloea, Azovibrio, Halomonas, Paludibacter, Crocinitomix, Haliscomenobacter, Hirschia, Silanimonas, Alkalibacter, Woodsholea, Peredibacter, Leptolinea, Chitinivorax, Candidatus_Lumbricincola, Anaerovorax, Propionivibrio, Parasegetibacter, Byssovorax, Runella, Leptospira, and Nitrosomonas may be indicators to evaluate the contents of pesticide residues.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8596-7
  • Retrieved 16S rRNA and nif H sequences reveal co-dominance of
           Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer ( Sinorhizobium ) strains in field-collected
           root nodules of the promiscuous host Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek
    • Authors: Sughra Hakim; Babur S. Mirza; Ahmad Zaheer; Joan E. Mclean; Asma Imran; Sumera Yasmin; M. Sajjad Mirza
      Abstract: In the present study, the relative distribution of endophytic rhizobia in field-collected root nodules of the promiscuous host mung bean was investigated by sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and nifH genes, amplified directly from the nodule DNA. Co-dominance of the genera Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer was indicated by 32.05 and 35.84% of the total retrieved 16S rRNA sequences, respectively, and the sequences of genera Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium comprised only 0.06 and 2.06% of the recovered sequences, respectively. Sequences amplified from rhizosphere soil DNA indicated that only a minor fraction originated from Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer strains, comprising about 0.46 and 0.67% of the total retrieved sequences, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequencing has also identified the presence of several non-rhizobial endophytes from phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroides, and Firmicutes. The nifH sequences obtained from nodules also confirmed the co-dominance of Bradyrhizobium (39.21%) and Ensifer (59.23%) strains. The nifH sequences of the genus Rhizobium were absent, and those of genus Mesorhizobium comprised only a minor fraction of the sequences recovered from the nodules and rhizosphere soil samples. Two bacterial isolates, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Bradyrhizobium strain Vr51 and Ensifer strain Vr38, successfully nodulated the original host (mung bean) plants. Co-dominance of Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer strains in the nodules of mung bean indicates the potential role of the host plant in selecting specific endophytic rhizobial populations. Furthermore, successful nodulation of mung bean by the isolates showed that strains of both the genera Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer can be used for production of inoculum.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8609-6
  • Identification of tomato miRNAs responsive to root colonization by
           endophytic Pochonia chlamydosporia
    • Authors: Isabella Pentimone; Ricardo Lebrón; Michael Hackenberg; Laura C. Rosso; Mariantonietta Colagiero; Franco Nigro; Aurelio Ciancio
      Abstract: The molecular mechanisms active during the endophytic phase of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia are still poorly understood. In particular, few data are available on the links between the endophyte and the root response, as modulated by noncoding small RNAs. In this study, we describe the microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially expressed (DE) in the roots of tomato, colonized by P. chlamydosporia. A genome-wide NGS expression profiling of small RNAs in roots, either colonized or not by the fungus, showed 26 miRNAs upregulated in inoculated roots. Their predicted target genes are involved in the plant information processing system, which recognizes, percepts, and transmits signals, with higher representations in processes such as apoptosis and plant defense regulation. RNAseq data showed that predicted miRNA target genes were downregulated in tomato roots after 4, 7, 10, and 21 days post P. chlamydosporia inoculation. The differential expression of four miRNAs was further validated using qPCR analysis. The P. chlamydosporia endophytic lifestyle in tomato roots included an intricate network of miRNAs and targets. Data provide a first platform of DE tomato miRNAs after P. chlamydosporia colonization. They indicated that several miRNAs are involved in the host response to the fungus, playing important roles for its recognition as a symbiotic microorganism, allowing endophytism by modulating the host defense reaction. Data also indicated that endophytism affects tRNA fragmentation. This is the first study on miRNAs induced by P. chlamydosporia endophytism and related development regulation effects in Solanum lycopersicum.
      PubDate: 2017-11-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8608-7
  • Fusion of DNA-binding domain of Pyrococcus furiosus ligase with Taq
           Stoffel DNA polymerase as a useful tool in PCR with difficult targets
    • Authors: Marta Śpibida; Beata Krawczyk; Beata Zalewska-Piątek; Rafał Piątek; Magdalena Wysocka; Marcin Olszewski
      Abstract: The DNA coding sequence of TaqStoffel polymerase was fused with the DNA-binding domain of Pyrococcus furiosus ligase. The resulting novel recombinant gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant enzyme was purified and its enzymatic features were studied. The fusion protein (PfuDBDlig-TaqS) was found to have enhanced processivity as a result of the conversion of the TaqDNA polymerase from a relatively low processive to a highly processive enzyme. The abovementioned processivity enhancement was about threefold as compared to the recombinant TaqStoffel DNA polymerase (TaqS), and the recombinant fusion protein was more thermostable. It had a half-life of 23 min at 99 °C as compared to 10 min for TaqS. The fusion protein also showed a significantly higher resistance to PCR inhibitors such as heparin or lactoferrin and the fusion polymerase-amplified GC-rich templates much more efficiently and was efficient even with 78% GC pairs.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8560-6
  • Environmental factors shaping the archaeal community structure and ether
           lipid distribution in a subtropic river and estuary, China
    • Authors: Wenting Guo; Wei Xie; Xueying Li; Peng Wang; Anyi Hu; Chuanlun L. Zhang
      Abstract: Archaea are widespread and abundant in aquatic and terrestrial habitats and play fundamental roles in global biogeochemical cycles. Archaeal lipids, such as isoprenoid glycerol diakyl glycerol tetraethers (iGDGTs), are important biomarkers tracing changes in archaeal community structure and biogeochemical processes in nature. However, the linkage between the archaeal populations and the GDGT distribution in the natural environment is poorly examined, which hindered the application and interpretation of GDGT-based climate or environmental proxies. We addressed this question by investigating changes in archaeal lipid composition and community structure in the context of environmental variables along the subtropical Jiulong River Watershed (JRW) and Jiulong River Estuary (JRE) in southern China. The results showed that both the archaeal cells and the polar GDGTs (P-GDGTs) in the JRW and JRE were mostly autochthonous rather than exogenous input from surrounding soils. We further found that only five (Methanobacteriales, Ca. Bathyarchaeota, Marine Benthic Groups A (MBGA), Marine Benthic Groups B (MBGB), and Marine Benthic Groups D (MBGD)) out of sixteen lineages showed significant impacts on the composition of P-GDGTs, suggesting the significant contribution of those archaea to the changes of P-GDGT compositions. Salinity and total phosphorus (TP) showed significant impact on the distribution of both genetic and P-GDGTs compositions of archaea; whereas, sand and silt contents only had significant impact on the P-GDGTs. MBGD archaea, which occur widely in marine sediments, showed positive correlations with P-TEX86 in the JRW and JRE, suggesting that uncultivated MBGD might also contribute to the variations in TEX86 signals in marine sediments. This study provided insight into the sources of P-GDGTs and the factors controlling their distributions in river-dominated continental margins, which has relevance to applications of GDGT-based proxies in paleoclimate studies.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8595-8
  • Transient gene expression optimization and expression vector comparison to
           improve HIV-1 VLP production in HEK293 cell lines
    • Authors: Javier Fuenmayor; Laura Cervera; Sonia Gutiérrez-Granados; Francesc Gòdia
      Abstract: Transient gene expression (TGE) has been used at small and medium scale for the production of biologicals in sufficient quantities to perform pre-clinical and characterization studies. Polyethyleneimine (PEI)-mediated transfection offers a low toxicity and non-expensive method for cell transfection. DNA and PEI concentration for transient gene expression has been extensively optimized in order to increase product titers. However, the possibility to extrapolate the optimal concentrations found for a specific bioprocess when expression vectors or cell lines need to be changed has not been investigated. In this work, the combination of three different HEK293 cell lines with three different vectors was studied for the production of HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs). The concentration of DNA and PEI was optimized for the nine combinations. The obtained results were very similar in all cases (DNA = 2.34 ± 0.18 μg/mL and PEI = 5.81 ± 0.18 μg/mL), revealing that transfection efficiency is not dependent on the cell line or vector type, but on DNA and PEI quantities. Furthermore, two of the cell lines tested stably expressed a protein able to recognize specific origins of replication: HEK293T/SV40 and HEK293E/oriP. Origins of replication were included in the vector sequences in order to test their capacity to increase production titers. HEK293T/SV40 resulted in a decrease of cell density and productivity of 2.3-fold compared to a control plasmid. On the other hand, HEK293E/OriP platform enabled a threefold improvement in HIV-1 VLP production keeping the same cell densities and viabilities compared to a control plasmid.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8605-x
  • Enhancement in catalytic activity of Aspergillus niger XynB by selective
           site-directed mutagenesis of active site amino acids
    • Authors: Xiuyun Wu; Zhennan Tian; Xukai Jiang; Qun Zhang; Lushan Wang
      Abstract: XynB from Aspergillus niger ATCC1015 (AnXynB) is a mesophilic glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11 xylanase which holds great potentials in a wide variety of industrial applications. In the present study, the catalytic activity and stability of AnXynB were improved by a combination of computational and experimental approaches. Virtual mutation and molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the introduction of Glu and Asn altered the interaction network at the − 3 subsite. Interestingly, the double mutant S41N/T43E displayed 72% increase in catalytic activity when compared to the wild type (WT). In addition, it also showed a better thermostability than the WT enzyme. Kinetic determination of the T43E and S41N/T43E mutants suggested that the higher xylanase activity is probably due to the increasing binding affinity of enzyme and substrate. Consequently, the enzyme activity and thermostability of AnXynB was both increased by selective site-directed mutagenesis at the − 3 subsite of its active site architecture which provides a good example for a successfully engineered enzyme for potential industrial application. Moreover, the molecular evolution approach adopted in this study led to the design of a library of sequences that captures a meaningful functional diversity in a limited number of protein variants.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8607-8
  • Deep sequencing analysis of transcriptomes in Aspergillus oryzae in
           response to salinity stress
    • Authors: Bin He; Long Ma; Zhihong Hu; Haoran Li; Mingqiang Ai; Chuannan Long; Bin Zeng
      Abstract: Characterization of the changes after various stimuli is crucial to comprehend the adaptation of cells to the changing condition. Aspergillus oryzae is widely used for the industrial production of soy sauce, which always encounter changes within a complex environment, such as salinity stress. However, the protective biochemical mechanisms of A. oryzae against salinity stress are poorly understood. In this study, we successfully characterized the fermentative behavior, transcriptomic profiles, and metabolite changes of A. oryzae in response to salinity stress. The results showed that salt treatment of A. oryzae inhibited the fungal development and conidia formation. Transcriptomic analysis showed an upregulated expression of the genes related to arginine accumulation and oleic acid synthesis. The results of qRT-PCR were further confirmed by the reliability and availability of the differentially expressed genes obtained from the transcriptome analysis. Metabolomic analysis revealed that the corresponding intracellular accumulation of arginine and oleic acid were also increased in response to the salinity stress. All of the results provide a global transcriptome characterization of the salt adaptation process in A. oryzae, and offer multiple target genes for salt tolerance improvement via genetic engineering.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8603-z
  • Nisin-induced expression of recombinant T cell epitopes of major Japanese
           cedar pollen allergens in Lactococcus lactis
    • Authors: Vinh Van Hoang; Takahumi Ochi; Kentaro Kurata; Yutaka Arita; Yusuke Ogasahara; Keiichi Enomoto
      Abstract: Japanese cedar pollinosis is a seasonal allergic disease caused by two major pollen allergens: Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens. To develop an oral vaccine to treat pollinosis, we constructed recombinant Lactococcus lactis harboring the gene encoding fused T cell epitopes from the Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens. The recombinant T cell epitope peptide was designed to contain the fused cholera toxin B subunit as an adjuvant and a FLAG tag at the C-terminus. An expression plasmid was constructed by inserting the T cell epitope peptide gene into the multiple cloning sites of plasmid pNZ8148, an Escherichia coli-L. lactis shuttle vector. The constructed plasmid was transformed into L. lactis NZ9000 for expression induced by nisin, an antibacterial peptide from L. lactis. The expression of the epitope peptide was induced with 10–40 ng/mL nisin, and the expressed T cell epitope peptide was detected by western blot analysis using an anti-FLAG antibody and an antibody against the T cell epitopes. The concentration of the epitope peptide was estimated to be ~ 22 mg/L of culture in the presence of 40 ng/mL nisin, although it varied depending on the nisin concentration, the culture time, and the bacterial concentration when nisin was added. The expression of the recombinant epitope peptide in L. lactis, an organism generally recognized as safe, as demonstrated in this study, may contribute to the development of an oral vaccine for the treatment of pollinosis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8579-8
  • Rational design for heterologous production of aurovertin-type compounds
           in Aspergillus nidulans
    • Authors: Zihui Ma; Wei Li; Peng Zhang; Haining Lyu; Youcai Hu; Wen-Bing Yin
      Abstract: Aurovertins are the structurally diverse polyketides that distribute widely in different fungal species. They feature a 2,6-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]-octane ring in structure and exhibit the potential antitumor activity against breast cancer as F1-ATPase β subunit inhibitor. In this study, we constructed the biosynthetic pathway of aurovertin in an Aspergillus nidulans host and obtained seven aurovertin-type compounds. Surprisingly, three new aurovertin geometric isomers were characterized. By introducing an inducible promoter xylP(p) in the pathway gene acyltransferase aurG, we can control the product ratios among different aurovertin compounds by adding glucose and/or inducer xylose. The yields of aurovertins could be increased up to about 20 times by adding a constitutive promoter gpdA(p) to transcription factor AurF, which indicates AurF’s positive role in the biosynthesis of aurovertin. Taken together, our results provided not only an efficient way to generate bioactive fungal natural products but also realized the rational controlling their yields with designed promoters.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8606-9
  • Distinguishing between metabolically active and dormant bacteria on paper
    • Authors: Stephanie A. Hice; Miguel C. Santoscoy; Michelle L. Soupir; Rebecca Cademartiri
      Abstract: Switching between metabolically active and dormant states provides bacteria with protection from environmental stresses and allows rapid growth under favorable conditions. This rapid growth can be detrimental to the environment, e.g., pathogens in recreational lakes, or to industrial processes, e.g., fermentation, making it useful to quickly determine when the ratio of dormant to metabolically active bacteria changes. While a rapid increase in metabolically active bacteria can cause complications, a high number of dormant bacteria can also be problematic, since they can be more virulent and antibiotic-resistant. To determine the metabolic state of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium, we developed two paper-based colorimetric assays. The color changes were based on oxidoreductases reducing tetrazolium salts to formazans, and alkaline phosphatases cleaving phosphates from nitrophenyl phosphate salt. Specifically, we added iodophenyl-nitrophenyl-phenyl tetrazolium salt (INT) and methylphenazinium methyl sulfate to metabolically active bacteria on paper and INT and para-nitrophenyl phosphate salt to dormant bacteria on paper. The color changed in less than 60 min and was generally visible at 103 CFU and quantifiable at 106 CFU. The color changes occurred in both bacteria, since oxidoreductases and alkaline phosphatases are common bacterial enzymes. On one hand, this feature makes the assays suitable to a wide range of applications, on the other, it requires specific capture, if only one type of bacterium is of interest. We captured Salmonella or E. coli with immobilized P22 or T4 bacteriophages on the paper, before detecting them at levels of 102 or 104 CFU, respectively. Determining the ratio of the metabolic state of bacteria or a specific bacterium at low cost and in a short time, makes this methodology useful in environmental, industrial and health care settings.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8604-y
  • Variations in Monascus pigment characteristics and biosynthetic gene
           expression using resting cell culture systems combined with extractive
    • Authors: Gong Chen; Qi Bei; Tao Huang; Zhenqiang Wu
      Abstract: Monascus pigments are promising sources of natural food colorants, and their productivity can be improved by a novel extractive fermentation technology. In this study, we investigated the variations in pigment characteristics and biosynthetic gene expression levels in resting cell culture systems combined with extractive fermentation in Monascus anka GIM 3.592. Although the biomass was low at about 6 g/L DCW, high pigment titer of approximately 130 AU470 was obtained in the resting culture with cells from extractive fermentation, illustrating that it had a good biocatalytic activity for pigment synthesis. The oxidation–reduction potential value correlated with the rate of relative content of the intracellular orange pigments to the yellow pigments (O/Y, r > 0.90, p < 0.05), indicating that the change in pigment characteristics may be responsible for the cellular redox activity. The up- or down-regulation of the pigment biosynthetic genes (MpFasA2, MpFasB2, MpPKS5, mppD, mppB, mppR1, and mppR2) in the resting culture with extractive culture cells was demonstrated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Moreover, the mppE gene associated with the yellow pigment biosynthesis was significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated by about 18.6%, whereas the mppC gene corresponding to orange pigment biosynthesis was significantly (p < 0.05) up-regulated by approximately 21.0%. These findings indicated that extractive fermentation was beneficial for the biosynthesis of the intracellular orange pigment. The mechanism described in this study proposes a potential method for the highly efficient production of Monascus pigments.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8576-y
  • Microbial diversity and composition in different gut locations of
           hyperlipidemic mice receiving krill oil
    • Authors: Chenyang Lu; Tingting Sun; Yanyan Li; Dijun Zhang; Jun Zhou; Xiurong Su
      Abstract: Low-dose (LD, 100 mg kg−1 day−1), moderate-dose (MD, 200 mg kg−1 day−1), and high-dose (HD, 600 mg kg−1 day−1) krill oil treatments have a stepwise, enhanced effect on alleviating hyperlipidemia, and 16S rRNA sequencing of the fecal samples demonstrates that krill oil treatment alters microbial communities. Feces may not represent all microbial communities in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Therefore, in this study, the stored ileal and colon samples collected from LD and HD groups were sequenced, and the location-specific modulations of microbial communities were observed after krill oil treatments. The 16S rRNA sequencing of the ileal samples showed that the LD and HD groups have similar patterns between control and high-fat diet (HFD) treatments, and six most abundant genera and 40 operational taxonomic units that respond to krill oil treatment were identified. However, the 16S rRNA sequencing of the colon samples showed that LD krill oil shifts the structure from the HFD to that of the control, whereas the HD group was distributed between the control and HFD groups. The corresponding most abundant genera and responsive OTUs totaled 4 and 45, respectively. In conclusion, different gastrointestinal tract locations contain different microbial communities. These results will help to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of dietary krill oil in modulating the gut microbiota and alleviating hyperlipidemia.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8601-1
  • Difference of nitrogen-cycling microbes between shallow bay and deep-sea
           sediments in the South China Sea
    • Authors: Tiantian Yu; Meng Li; Mingyang Niu; Xibei Fan; Wenyue Liang; Fengping Wang
      Abstract: In marine sediments, microorganisms are known to play important roles in nitrogen cycling; however, the composition and quantity of microbes taking part in each process of nitrogen cycling are currently unclear. In this study, two different types of marine sediment samples (shallow bay and deep-sea sediments) in the South China Sea (SCS) were selected to investigate the microbial community involved in nitrogen cycling. The abundance and composition of prokaryotes and seven key functional genes involved in five processes of the nitrogen cycle [nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox)] were presented. The results showed that a higher abundance of denitrifiers was detected in shallow bay sediments, while a higher abundance of microbes involved in ammonia oxidation, anammox, and DNRA was found in the deep-sea sediments. Moreover, phylogenetic differentiation of bacterial amoA, nirS, nosZ, and nrfA sequences between the two types of sediments was also presented, suggesting environmental selection of microbes with the same geochemical functions but varying physiological properties.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8594-9
  • Enhanced production of perylenequinones in the endophytic fungus Shiraia
           sp. Slf14 by calcium/calmodulin signal transduction
    • Authors: Bin Liu; Jianying Bao; Zhibin Zhang; Riming Yan; Ya Wang; Huilin Yang; Du Zhu
      Abstract: Perylenequinones (PQ) that notably produce reactive oxygen species upon exposure to visible light are a class of photoactivated polyketide mycotoxins produced by fungal plant pathogens such as Shiraia sp. The involvement of Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) signalling in PQ biosynthesis was investigated by submerged culturing of Shiraia sp. Slf14, a species that produces hypocrellins HA and HB and elsinochromes EA, EB, and EC. Our results showed that the total content of PQ reached 1894.66 ± 21.93 mg/L under optimal conditions of Ca2+ addition, which represents a 5.8-fold improvement over controls. The addition of pharmacological Ca2+ sensor inhibitors strongly inhibited PQ production, which indicates that Ca2+/CaM signalling regulates PQ biosynthesis. The expression levels of Ca2+ sensor and PQ biosynthetic genes were downregulated following addition of inhibitors but were upregulated upon addition of Ca2+. Inhibition was partially released by external Ca2+ supplementation. Fluo-3/AM experiments revealed that similar cytosolic Ca2+ variation occurred under these conditions. These results demonstrated that Ca2+ signalling via the CaM transduction pathway plays a pivotal role in PQ biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8602-0
  • Comparative proteomic analysis: SclR is importantly involved in
           carbohydrate metabolism in Aspergillus oryzae
    • Authors: Feng-Jie Jin; Pei Han; Miao Zhuang; Zhi-Min Zhang; Long Jin; Yasuji Koyama
      Abstract: The helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of transcriptional factors is a key player in a wide range of developmental processes in organisms from mammals to microbes. We previously identified the bHLH transcription factor SclR in Aspergillus oryzae and found that the loss of SclR function led to significant phenotypic changes, such as rapid protein degradation and cell lysis in dextrin-polypeptone-yeast extract liquid medium. The result implied that SclR is potentially important in both traditional fermentative manufacturing and commercial enzyme production in A. oryzae because of its effect on growth. Therefore, this study presents a comparative assessment at the proteome level of the intracellular differences between an sclR-disrupted strain and a control strain using isobaric tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling for quantification. A total of 5447 proteins were identified, and 568 were differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Of the DEPs, 251 proteins were increased by 1.5-fold, and 317 proteins were decreased by 1.5-fold in an sclR-disrupted strain compared to the control. The comparison of the quantitative TMT results revealed that SclR was mainly involved in carbon metabolism, especially carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, an enzyme profile by a semi-quantitative method (API-ZYM) indicated that three enzymes (β-galactosidase, α-glucosidase, and α-mannosidase) were significantly less active in the ∆sclR strain than in the control. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR showed that the expression of certain genes was changed similarly to their corresponding proteins. These results suggested that a possible function of SclR during growth of A. oryzae is its important involvement in carbohydrate metabolism.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8588-7
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