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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.182
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 66  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0614 - ISSN (Online) 0175-7598
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Translation enhancement by a Dictyostelium gene sequence in Escherichia
    • Abstract: Methods for heterologous protein production in Escherichia coli have revolutionized biotechnology and the bioindustry. It is ultimately important to increase the amount of protein product from bacteria. To this end, a variety of tools, such as effective promoters, have been developed. Here, we present a versatile molecular tool based on a phenomenon termed “translation enhancement by a Dictyostelium gene sequence” (“TED”) in E. coli. We found that protein expression was increased when a gene sequence of Dictyostelium discoideum was placed upstream of the Shine–Dalgarno sequence located between the promoter and the initiation codon of a target gene. The most effective sequence among the genes examined was mlcR, which encodes the myosin regulatory light chain, a subunit of myosin II. Serial deletion analysis revealed that at least 10 bases of the 3′ end of the mlcR gene enhanced the production of green fluorescent protein in cells. We applied this tool to a T7 expression system and found that the expression level of the proteins tested was increased when compared with the conventional method. Thus, current protein production systems can be improved by combination with TED.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Highly thermostable GH51 α-arabinofuranosidase from
           Hungateiclostridium clariflavum DSM 19732
    • Abstract: Arabinofuranosidase plays an essential role in the process of hydrolysis of arabinoxylan (AX). Thermostable, versatile, and efficient arabinofuranosidase is thus of great interest for the biorefinery industry. A GH51 arabinofuranosidase, Abf51, from Hungateiclostridium clariflavum DSM 19732 was heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli. Abf51 was found to have an optimal pH and temperature of 6.5 and 60 °C, respectively, with very high thermostability. At the optimal working temperature (60 °C), Abf51 retained over 90% activity after a 2-day incubation and over 60% activity after a 6-day incubation. Abf51 could effectively remove the arabinofuranosyls from three kinds of AX oligosaccharides [23-α-l-arabinofuranosyl-xylotriose (A2XX), 32-α-l-arabinofuranosyl-xylobiose (A3X), and 2333-di-α-l-arabinofuranosyl-xylotriose (A2 + 3XX)], which characterized as either single substitution or double substitution by arabinofuranosyls on terminal xylopyranosyl units. The maximal catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km) was observed using p-nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside (pNPAF) as a substrate (205.0 s−1 mM−1), followed by using A3X (22.8 s−1 mM−1), A2XX (6.9 s−1 mM−1), and A2 + 3XX (0.5 s−1 mM−1) as substrates. Moreover, the presence of Abf51 significantly stimulated the saccharification level of AX (18.5 g L−1) up to six times along with a β-xylanase as well as a β-xylosidase. Interestingly, in our survey of top thermostable arabinofuranosidases, most members were found from GH51, probably due to their owning of (β/α)8-barrel architectures. Our results suggested the great importance of GH51s as candidates for thermostable, versatile, and efficient arabinofuranosidases toward industry application.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Magnetosomes: biogenic iron nanoparticles produced by environmental
    • Abstract: The scientific community’s interest in magnetotactic bacteria has increased substantially in recent decades. These prokaryotes have the particularity of synthesizing nanomagnets, called magnetosomes. The majority of research is based on several scientific questions. Where do magnetotactic bacteria live, what are their characteristics, and why are they magnetic' What are the molecular phenomena of magnetosome biomineralization and what are the physical characteristics of magnetosomes' In addition to scientific curiosity to better understand these stunning organisms, there are biotechnological opportunities to consider. Magnetotactic bacteria, as well as magnetosomes, are used in medical applications, for example cancer treatment, or in environmental ones, for example bioremediation. In this mini-review, we investigated all the aspects mentioned above and summarized the currently available knowledge.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • The effect of environment on the microbiome associated with the roots of a
           native woody plant under different climate types in China
    • Abstract: Few studies have investigated the effect of environment on the root-associated microbiome, especially for woody plants in their native environment. The roots and rhizosphere soils of a native woody species (Broussonetia papyrifera) sampled across four different climate types in China were used to elucidate the influence of environment on the root-associated microbiome. Our results showed that the B. papyrifera root-associated microbiome contained abundant Proteobacteria and Basidiomycota, especially Pseudomonas and Rhizobium. The root-associated microbiomes were found to be significantly different under different climate types except for the bacterial community in the rhizosphere, and the proportion of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared among different climate types was lower than that of fungi. More than 50% of the total variance between microbiomes could be explained by 15 environmental factors, six of which, especially soil concentration phosphate and nitrate, had a significant effect. This study provided a comprehensive understanding of the root-associated microbiome of B. papyrifera and further confirmed the effect of environment on the root-associated microbiome of B. papyrifera under different climate types, with some exceptions in the rhizobacterial community and fungal OTUs. Our findings advanced knowledge of the effect of environment through an exploration of environmental factors and found that the nitrogen and phosphorus content represented the key factors.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • A novel salt-inducible CrGPDH3 promoter of the microalga Chlamydomonas
           reinhardtii for transgene overexpression
    • Abstract: The expression of transgenes in the nucleus is an attractive alternative for the expression of recombinant proteins in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. For this purpose, a strong inducible promoter that allows protein accumulation without possible negative effects on cell multiplication and biomass accumulation is desirable. A previous study at our laboratory identified that the CrGPDH3 gene from C. reinhardtii was inducible under NaCl treatments. In this study, we cloned and characterized a 3012 bp sequence upstream of the start codon of the CrGPDH3 gene, including the 285 bp 5′ untranslated region. This region was identified as the full-length promoter and named PromA (− 2727 to + 285). Deletion analysis of PromA using GUSPlus as a reporter gene enabled us to identify PromC (− 653 to + 285) as the core promoter, displaying basal expression. A region named RIA1 (− 2727 to − 1672) was suggested to contain the NaCl response elements. Moreover, deletion analysis of RIA1 enabled us to identify a region of 577 bp named RIA3 (− 2727 to − 2150) that, when cloned upstream of PromC, was able to drive the expression of GUSPlus in response to 5 and 100 mM NaCl, and 100 mM KCl, similar to the native CrGPDH3 promoter. These results expand our understanding of the transcriptional mechanism of CrGPDH3 and clearly show that CrGPDH3 promoter and its chimeric forms are highly salt-inducible and can be used as inducible promoters for the overexpression of transgenes in C. reinhardtii.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
  • Attributes of Polygonum multiflorum to transfigure red biotechnology
    • Abstract: A vast array of plant-based compounds has enriched red biotechnology to serve the human health and food. A peculiar medicinal plant which was an element of traditional Chinese medicine for centuries as a liver and kidney tonic, for life longevity and hair blackening, is Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PM) which is popularly known as “He shou wu” or “Fo-ti” and is rich in chemical components like stilbenes, quinones, and flavonoids which have been used as anti-aging, anti-alopecia, anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, anti-bacterial, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-atherosclerosis, and immunomodulating and hepatoprotective agents in the modern medicine. The health benefits from PM are attained since long through commercial products such as PM root powder, extract, capsules, tincture, shampoo, and body sprays in the market. Currently, the production of these pharmaceuticals and functional foods possessing stilbenes, quinones, and flavonoids is through cell and organ cultures to meet the commercial demand. However, hepatotoxic effects of PM-based products are the stumbling blocks for its long-term usage. The current review encompasses a comprehensive account of bioactive compounds of PM roots, their biological activities as well as efficacy and toxicity issues of PM ingredients and future perspectives.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
  • The antitumor antibiotic rebeccamycin—challenges and advanced approaches
           in production processes
    • Abstract: Rebeccamycin is an antibiotic and antitumor substance isolated from the filamentous bacterium Lentzea aerocolonigenes. After its discovery, investigations of rebeccamycin focused on elucidating its structure, biological activity, and biosynthetic pathway. For potential medical application, a sufficient drug supply has to be ensured, meaning that the production process of rebeccamycin plays a major role. In addition to the natural production of rebeccamycin in L. aerocolonigenes, where the complex cell morphology is an important factor for a sufficient production, rebeccamycin can also be heterologously produced or chemically synthesized. Each of these production processes has its own challenges, and first approaches to production often lead to low final product concentrations, which is why process optimizations are performed. This review provides an overview of the production of rebeccamycin and the different approaches used for rebeccamycin formation including process optimizations.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant proteins consisting
    • Abstract: Many recent studies have shown that flagellin fused to heterologous antigens can induce significantly enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses through its adjuvant activity. Therefore, in this study, two key B cell epitopes and a truncated VP1 (ΔVP1) protein from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were expressed as flagellin fusion proteins in different patterns. Specifically, ΔVP1 and two duplicates of two key B cell epitopes (2×B1B2) were fused separately to the C-terminus of flagellin with a universal exogenous T cell epitope to construct FT (Flagellin-Truncated VP1) and FME (Flagellin-Multiple Epitopes). In addition, the D3 domain of flagellin was replaced by ΔVP1 in FME, yielding FTME (Flagellin-Truncated VP1-Multiple Epitopes). The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the three fusion proteins as novel FMDV vaccine candidates were evaluated. The results showed that FT, FME, and FTME elicited significant FMDV-specific IgG responses at 10 μg/dose compared with the mock group (P < 0.05), with FTME producing the highest response. No significant differences in the antibody response to FTME were observed between different immunization routes or among adjuvants (ISA-206, poly(I·C), MPLA, and CpG-ODN) in mice. In addition, at 30 μg/dose, all three fusion proteins significantly induced neutralizing antibody production and upregulated the levels of some cytokines, including TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-12, in guinea pigs. Importantly, all three fusion proteins provided effective protective immunity against FMDV challenge in guinea pigs, though different protection rates were found. The results presented in this study indicate that the FTME fusion protein is a promising novel vaccine candidate for the future prevention and control of foot-and-mouth disease.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • A general platform for efficient extracellular expression and purification
           of Fab from Escherichia coli
    • Abstract: Antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) are an important part of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics and can be cost-effectively produced using an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system. However, Fabs tend to form undesirable aggregates when expressed in the cytoplasm of E. coli, substantially reducing the yield of correctly folded proteins. To solve this problem, in this study, we used five Fab fragments targeting IGF1R, Her2, VEGF, RANKL, and PD-1 to develop a novel system employing the alkaline phosphatase (phoA) promoter and the heat-stable enterotoxin II (STII) leader sequence to facilitate the efficient expression and extracellular secretion of Fabs. Following phosphate starvation, all five Fab fragments were expressed in BL21(DE3), were largely secreted into the culture medium, and then, were further purified by affinity chromatography specific to the constant region of the light chain. The purified Fab products were evaluated and were found to have high purity, antigen-binding affinity, and in vitro bioactivity. The mechanism experiments revealed that (1) BL21(DE3) had significantly higher productivity than the K-12 strains investigated; (2) the secretion ability of the PhoA promoter was superior to that of the T7 promoter; and (3) signal peptide, STII, showed higher extracellular secretion efficiency than pelB. Our findings strongly suggested that the phoA-STII-facilitated extracellular production platform is highly promising for application in the manufacturing of Fab fragments for both academic and industrial purposes.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • A simple biosynthetic pathway for 2,3-butanediol production in
           Thermococcus onnurineus NA1
    • Abstract: The biosynthetic pathway of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) production from pyruvate under anaerobic conditions includes three enzymes: acetolactate synthase (ALS), acetolactate decarboxylase (ALDC), and acetoin reductase (AR). Recently, in anaerobic hyperthermophilic Pyrococcus furiosus, it has been reported that acetoin, a precursor of 2,3-BDO, is produced from pyruvate by ALS through a temperature-dependent metabolic switch. In this study, we first attempted to produce 2,3-BDO from Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 using a simple biosynthetic pathway by two enzymes (ALS and AR) at a high temperature. Two heterologous genes, acetolactate synthase (alsS) from Pyrococcus sp. NA2 and alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) from T. guaymacensis, were introduced and expressed in T. onnurineus NA1. The mutant strain produced approximately 3.3 mM 2,3-BDO at 80 °C. An acetyl-CoA synthetase IIIα (TON_1001) was further deleted to enhance 2,3-BDO production, and the mutant strain showed a 25% increase in the specific production of 2,3-BDO. Furthermore, when carbon monoxide (CO) gas was added as a reductant, specific production of 2,3-BDO increased by 45%. These results suggest a new biosynthetic pathway for 2,3-BDO and demonstrate the possibility of T. onnurineus NA1 as a platform strain for 2,3-BDO production at high temperatures.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Bile-induced promoters for gene expression in Lactobacillus strains
    • Abstract: Bioengineering of probiotics allows the improvement of their beneficial characteristics. In this work, we develop a molecular tool that would allow the activation of desirable traits in probiotics once they reach the intestine. The activity of upstream regions of bile-inducible genes of Lactobacillus casei BL23 and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 was analyzed using plasmids encoding an anaerobic fluorescent protein as reporter. The promoter P16090 from Lb. casei BL23 was selected and its bile induction confirmed in Lb. casei BL23, Lb. plantarum WCFS1, and in Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri strains. However, the induction did not occur in Lactococcus lactis MG1363 or Bifidobacterium strains. Studies with different bile compounds revealed the importance of cholic acid in the bile induction process. Induction of fluorescence was also confirmed for transformed Lb. casei BL23 under simulated colonic conditions and in the presence of intestinal microbiota. The developed vector, pNZ:16090-aFP, constitutes a promising tool suitable for the expression of genes of interest under intestinal conditions in probiotic strains of the species Lb. casei, Lb. plantarum, Lb. rhamnosus, and Lb. reuteri.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Coupling ssDNA recombineering with CRISPR-Cas9 for Escherichia coli DnaG
    • Abstract: Homologous recombination-based recombineering is a widely used DNA cloning and modification technique; recombineering efficiency improvement would be helpful for high-throughput DNA manipulation. Escherichia coli primase DnaG variants, such as DnaG Q576A and DnaG K580A, increase the recombineering efficiency via impairment of the interaction between primase and the replisome and boost the loading of more ssDNA on the replication fork. Bacterial adaptive immunity origin CRISPR-Cas9 is emerging as a powerful genome editing strategy. In this study, ssDNA recombineering and CRISPR-Cas9 were combined for the generation of DnaG variants. The tightly regulated Red operon expression cassette and tightly regulated Cas9 expression cassette were integrated into one chloroamphenicol resistance, p15A replicon-based vector. A self-curing, kanamycin resistance, p15A replicon-based plasmid was applied for the plasmid elimination after genome editing. The genome editing efficiency was as high as 100%. The recombineering efficiency of the strains harboring the DnaG variants was assayed via the kanamycin resistance gene repair as well as the chromosomal gene deletion experiments. The established genome editing strategy will expedite the DnaG structure and function relationship study as well as the metabolic engineering and synthetic biology applications.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
  • Novel parameter describing restriction endonucleases:
           Secondary-Cognate-Specificity and chemical stimulation of Tso I leading to
           substrate specificity change
    • Abstract: Over 470 prototype Type II restriction endonucleases (REases) are currently known. Most recognise specific DNA sequences 4–8 bp long, with very few exceptions cleaving DNA more frequently. TsoI is a thermostable Type IIC enzyme that recognises the DNA sequence TARCCA (R = A or G) and cleaves downstream at N11/N9. The enzyme exhibits extensive top-strand nicking of the supercoiled single-site DNA substrate. The second DNA strand of such substrate is specifically cleaved only in the presence of duplex oligonucleotides containing a cognate site. We have previously shown that some Type IIC/IIG/IIS enzymes from the Thermus-family exhibit ‘affinity star’ activity, which can be induced by the S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) cofactor analogue—sinefungin (SIN). Here, we define a novel type of inherently built-in ‘star’ activity, exemplified by TsoI. The TsoI ‘star’ activity cannot be described under the definition of the classic ‘star’ activity as it is independent of the reaction conditions used and cannot be separated from the cognate specificity. Therefore, we define this phenomenon as Secondary-Cognate-Specificity (SCS). The TsoI SCS comprises several degenerated variants of the cognate site. Although the efficiency of TsoI SCS cleavage is lower in comparison to the cognate TsoI recognition sequence, it can be stimulated by S-adenosyl-L-cysteine (SAC). We present a new route for the chemical synthesis of SAC. The TsoI/SAC REase may serve as a novel tool for DNA manipulation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
  • Haloferax volcanii as immobilised whole cell biocatalyst: new applications
           for halophilic systems
    • Abstract: Enzyme-mediated synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds is a ‘green’ alternative to traditional synthetic chemistry, and microbial engineering opens up the possibility of using whole cells as mini-factories. Whole-cell biocatalysis reduces cost by eliminating expensive enzyme purification and cofactor addition steps, as well as resulting in increased enzyme stability. Haloferax volcanii is a model halophilic archaeon encoding highly salt and organic solvent tolerant enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (HvADH2), which catalyses the reduction of aldehydes and ketone in the presence of NADPH/NADH cofactor. A H. volcanii strain for constitutive HvADH2 expression was generated using a strong synthetic promoter (p.syn). The strain was immobilised in calcium alginate beads and repeatedly used as a whole-cell biocatalyst. The reduction of acetophenone, used as test substrate, was very successful and high yields were detected from immobilised whole cells over repeated biotransformation cycles. The immobilised H. volcanii retained stability and high product yields after 1 month of storage at room temperature. This newly developed system offers halophilic enzyme expression in its native environment, high product yield, stability and reusability without the addition of any expensive NADPH/NADH cofactor. This is the first report of whole cell–mediated biocatalysis by the halophilic archaeon H. volcanii.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
  • Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for hyperproduction of
           polymer-grade l - and d -lactic acid
    • Abstract: Strain development is critical for microbial production of bio-based chemicals. The stereo-complex form of polylactic acid, a complex of poly-l- and poly-d-lactic acid, is a promising polymer candidate due to its high thermotolerance. Here, we developed Corynebacterium glutamicum strains producing high amounts of l- and d-lactic acid through intensive metabolic engineering. Chromosomal overexpression of genes encoding the glycolytic enzymes, glucokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphofructokinase, triosephosphate isomerase, and enolase, increased l- and d-lactic acid concentration by 146% and 56%, respectively. Chromosomal integration of two genes involved in the Entner–Doudoroff pathway (6-phosphogluconate dehydratase and 2-dehydro-3-deoxyphosphogluconate aldolase), together with a gene encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis, to bypass the carbon flow from glucose, further increased l- and d-lactic acid concentration by 11% and 44%, respectively. Finally, additional chromosomal overexpression of a gene encoding NADH dehydrogenase to modulate the redox balance resulted in the production of 212 g/L l-lactic acid with a 97.9% yield and 264 g/L d-lactic acid with a 95.0% yield. The optical purity of both l- and d-lactic acid was 99.9%. Because the constructed metabolically engineered strains were devoid of plasmids and antibiotic resistance genes and were cultivated in mineral salts medium, these strains could contribute to the cost-effective production of the stereo-complex form of polylactic acid in practical scale.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
  • Generation, identification, and functional analysis of monoclonal
           antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus nucleocapsid
    • Abstract: The variant strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) severely threaten the pig industry worldwide and cause up to 100% mortality in suckling piglets. It is critically important and urgent to develop tools for detection of PEDV infection. In this study, we developed six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting N protein of PEDV and analyzed their applications on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), western blot assay, and flow cytometry assay. The results demonstrated that all these six mAbs were IgG1 isotype and κ chain. Among these six mAbs, 3F12 recognizes a linear epitope (VAAVKDALKSLGI) while the other five mAbs recognize different conformational epitopes formed by a specific peptide fragment or the full length of N protein. The functional analysis showed that all these six mAbs were applicable to ELISA, western blot, IFA, and flow cytometry assay. In conclusion, we developed six mAbs against PEDV-N protein to facilitate the early detection of PEDV infection using ELISA, western blot, IFA, and flow cytometry.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
  • Application of the CRISPR/Cas system for genome editing in microalgae
    • Abstract: Microalgae are arguably the most abundant single-celled eukaryotes and are widely distributed in oceans and freshwater lakes. Moreover, microalgae are widely used in biotechnology to produce bioenergy and high-value products such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), bioactive peptides, proteins, antioxidants and so on. In general, genetic editing techniques were adapted to increase the production of microalgal metabolites. The main genome editing tools available today include zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas nuclease system. Due to its high genome editing efficiency, the CRISPR/Cas system is emerging as the most important genome editing method. In this review, we summarized the available literature on the application of CRISPR/Cas in microalgal genetic engineering, including transformation methods, strategies for the expression of Cas9 and sgRNA, the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knock-in/knock-out strategies, and CRISPR interference expression modification strategies.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
  • Soluble expression of IGF1 fused to DsbA in SHuffle™ T7 strain:
           optimization of expression and purification by Box-Behnken design
    • Abstract: Production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in Escherichia coli mostly results in the formation of inclusion bodies. In the present study, IGF1 was fused to disulfide bond oxidoreductase A (DsbA) and expressed in SHuffle™ T7 strain, in order to obtain correctly folded protein. Soluble expression and IMAC purification of DsbA-IGF1 were optimized by applying the Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology. The optimization greatly increased concentration of soluble protein from 317 to 2600 mg/L, and IMAC yield from 400 to 1900 mg/L. Results of ANOVA showed induction OD600 and temperature had significant effects on the soluble protein expression while isopropyl-β-d thiogalactoside, in the concentrations tested, displayed no significant effect. Moreover, the three parameters of the binding buffer including, pH, concentration of NaCl, and imidazole displayed significant effects on the IMAC yield. Then, purified DsbA-IGF1 was cleaved by human rhinovirus 3C protease, and authentic IGF1 was obtained in flow through of a subtractive IMAC. Final polishing of the protein by reversed-phase HPLC yielded IGF1 with purity of 96%. The quality attributes of purified IGF1 such as purity, identity, molecular size, molecular weight, secondary structure, and biological activity were assessed and showed to be comparable to the standard IGF1. The final yield of purified IGF1 was estimated to be 120 ± 18 mg from 1 L of the culture. Our results demonstrated a simple and easily scalable strategy for production of large amounts of bioactive IGF1 by rational designing soluble protein expression, and further optimization of expression and purification methods.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
  • Improvement of pyoluteorin production in Pseudomonas protegens H78 through
           engineering its biosynthetic and regulatory pathways
    • Abstract: Pyoluteorin (Plt) is a PKS-NRPS hybrid antibiotic that is produced by Pseudomonas spp. and shows strong antifungal and antibacterial activities. Pseudomonas protegens H78, which was isolated from the rape rhizosphere in Shanghai, can produce a large array of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics and siderophores. Plt is produced at low levels in the H78 wild-type strain. This study aimed to improve Plt production through combinatory genetic engineered strategies. Plt production was significantly enhanced (by14.3-fold) in the strain engineered by the following steps: (1) deletion of the translational repressor gene rsmE in the Gac/Rsm-RsmE pathway; (2) deletion of the ATP-dependent protease gene lon that encodes a potential enzyme that degrades positive regulators; (3) deletion of the negative regulatory gene pltZ of the Plt ABC-type transporter operon pltIJKNOP; (4) deletion of an inhibitory sequence within the operator of the transcriptional activator gene pltR; and (5) overexpression of the pltIJKNOP transport operon. The Plt production of the final engineered strain was increased to 214 from 15 μg ml−1 in the H78 wild-type strain. In addition, the pltA gene in the pltLABCDEFG biosynthetic operon was characterized as the gene encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in the Plt biosynthetic pathway of H78. However, overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme gene pltA or the transcriptional activator gene pltR did not further improve Plt biosynthesis in the above multiple-gene knockout strains.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
  • Regulation of the cutinases expressed by Aspergillus nidulans and
           evaluation of their role in cutin degradation
    • Abstract: Four cutinase genes are encoded in the genome of the saprophytic fungus Aspergillus nidulans, but only two of them have proven to codify for active cutinases. However, their overall roles in cutin degradation are unknown, and there is scarce information on the regulatory effectors of their expression. In this work, the expression of the cutinase genes was assayed by multiplex qRT-PCR in cultures grown in media containing both inducer and repressor carbon sources. The genes ancut1 and ancut2 were induced by cutin and its monomers, while ancut3 was constitutively expressed. Besides, cutin induced ancut4 only under oxidative stress conditions. An in silico analysis of the upstream regulatory sequences suggested binding regions for the lipid metabolism transcription factors (TF) FarA for ancut1 and ancut2 while FarB for ancut3. For ancut4, the analysis suggested binding to NapA (the stress response TF). These binding possibilities were experimentally tested by transcriptional analysis using the A. nidulans mutants ANΔfarA, ANΔfarB, and ANΔnapA. Regarding cutin degradation, spectroscopic and chromatographic methods showed similar products from ANCUT1 and ANCUT3. In addition, ANCUT1 produced 9,10-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid, suggesting an endo-cleavage action of this enzyme. Regarding ANCUT2 and ANCUT4, they produced omega fatty acids. Our results confirmed the cutinolytic activity of the four cutinases, allowed identification of their specific roles in the cutinolytic system and highlighted their differences in the regulatory mechanisms and affinity towards natural substrates. This information is expected to impact the cutinase production processes and broaden their current biotechnological applications.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
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