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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2349 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2349 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.182
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 66  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0614 - ISSN (Online) 0175-7598
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2349 journals]
  • The co-existence of anammox genera in an expanded granular sludge bed
           reactor with biomass carriers for nitrogen removal
    • Abstract: Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox)-based nitrogen removal saves aeration energy and organic carbon costs, attributed to its anaerobic and autotrophic nature. However, due to the slow growth of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AnAOB), drawbacks including long startup time and sensitivity to toxins still hamper the application of anammox-based processes. To cope with the slow growth of AnAOB, various bioreactor configurations have been investigated for the capability of retaining anammox biomass, among which, the expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor is a promising option. In this study, two laboratory-scale EGSB reactors were used to gain insights of microbial population and their response to amending biofilm-carriers, aiming to enhance the biomass retention of AnAOB. The respective ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies were up to over 90%, and the overall nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) was stable at over 70%, in the EGSB reactor amended with carriers (CEGSB). Compared to the control EGSB, CEGSB’s observed performance was more stable during the 236-day operational period. The abundance of AnAOB reached 22% in the EGSB and 49% in the CEGSB. It was also observed that Ca. Brocadia (14.25%) and Asahi BRW2 (33.19%) coexisted in the CEGSB. The dynamics of major metabolisms and functional genes involved in nitrogen conversion were further observed by FAPROTAX based on the taxonomic data, providing more insights into the functions of the microbial communities.
      PubDate: 2018-11-14
  • Microbial β-mannosidases and their industrial applications
    • Abstract: Heteropolymers of mannan are polysaccharide components of the plant cell wall of gymnosperms and some angiosperms, including palm trees (Arecales and Monocot). Degradation of the complex structure of these polysaccharides requires the synergistic action of enzymes that disrupt the internal carbon skeleton of mannan and accessory enzymes that remove side chain substituents. However, complete degradation of these polysaccharides is carried out by an exo-hydrolase termed β-mannosidase. Microbial β-mannosidases belong to families 1, 2, and 5 of glycosyl hydrolases, and catalyze the hydrolysis of non-reducing ends of mannose oligomers. Besides, these enzymes are also involved in transglycosylation reactions. Because of their activity at different temperatures and pH values, these enzymes are used in a variety of industrial applications and the pharmaceutical, food, and biofuel industries.
      PubDate: 2018-11-13
  • Efficient production of porcine circovirus virus-like particles using the
           nonconventional yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus
    • Abstract: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous virus with high pathogenicity closely associated with the postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine circovirus diseases (PCVDs), which caused significant economic losses in the swine industry worldwide every year. The PCV2 virus-like particles (VLPs) are a powerful subunit vaccine that can elicit high immune response due to its native PCV2 virus morphology. The baculovirus expression system is the widely used platform for producing commercial PCV2 VLP vaccines, but its yield and cost limited the development of low-cost vaccines for veterinary applications. Here, we applied a nonconventional yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus to enhance the production of PCV2 VLPs. After codon optimization, the PCV2 Cap protein was expressed in K. marxianus and assemble spontaneously into VLPs. Using a chemically defined medium, we achieved approximately 1.91 g/L of PCV2 VLP antigen in a 5-L bioreactor after high cell density fermentation for 72 h. That yield greatly exceeded to recently reported PCV2 VLPs obtained by baculovirus-insect cell, Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. By the means of two-step chromatography, 652.8 mg of PCV2 VLP antigen was obtained from 1 L of the recombinant K. marxianus cell culture. The PCV2 VLPs induced high level of anti-PCV2 IgG antibody in mice serums and decreased the virus titers in both livers and spleens of the challenged mice. These results illustrated that K. marxianus is a powerful yeast for cost-effective production of PCV2 VLP vaccines.
      PubDate: 2018-11-13
  • Chlorogenic acid attenuates virulence factors and pathogenicity of
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa by regulating quorum sensing
    • Abstract: Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication that is used by bacteria to regulate collective behaviors. Quorum sensing controls virulence factor production in many bacterial species and it is regarded as an attractive target to combat bacterial pathogenicity, especially against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Chlorogenic acid (CA), abundant in fruits, vegetables, and Chinese herbs, processes multiple activities. In this research, we explored its quorum sensing quenching activity. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, CA significantly inhibited the formation of biofilm, the ability of swarming, and virulence factors including protease and elastase activities and rhamnolipid and pyocyanin production. CA showed similar inhibitory effects in Chromobacterium violaceum on its biofilm formation, swarming motility, chitinolytic activity and violacein production. We examined the expression of QS-related genes in P.aeruginosa  and found these genes were all downregulated by CA treatment. Computational modeling revealed that CA can form hydrogen bonds with all three QS receptors. Caenorhabditis elegans and mouse infection models were employed to explore the anti-virulence ability of CA and its effect on pathogenesis process in vivo. CA extended the survival period and reduced the quantity of P. aeruginosa in nematode gut, showing a moderate protective effect on C. elegans. In mice wound model, CA-treated groups showed an accelerating healing rate and the bacteria number in wound area was also decreased by CA treatment. It is suggested by our research that CA has potential to be used as an anti-virulence factor in P. aeruginosa infection.
      PubDate: 2018-11-12
  • In vitro antioxidant activities of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and protective
           effect on Caco-2 cell line model
    • Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities and the protective effect of Rhodobacter sphaeroides on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. The results showed that the antioxidant action of R. sphaeroides varied with different cell concentrations and treatments. Also, the intact cells and intracellular cell-free extracts showed better antioxidant activities. Caco-2 cell–based oxidative stress model was developed by optimizing H2O2 concentration and culture time with the half lethal dose and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium. By increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, upregulating the antioxidant ability of the anti-superoxide anion and anti-hydroxyl radical, R. sphaeroides, especially the mutant strain R. sphaeroides (CGMCC No. 8513), exhibited significant protective activity against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. Taken together, R. sphaeroides (CGMCC No. 8513) exhibits strong antioxidant activities and is a candidate to be investigated as a potential probiotic in the future.
      PubDate: 2018-11-12
  • Bile salt hydrolase activity is present in nonintestinal lactic acid
           bacteria at an intermediate level
    • Abstract: It is generally considered that bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity is hardly detected in nonintestinal lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and intensity of BSH activity in LAB isolated from naturally fermented vegetables and milk. A total of 624 lactic acid bacterial strains classified into 6 genera and 50 species were isolated from 144 naturally fermented vegetable samples and 103 naturally fermented milk samples, and their BSH activity was screened by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The BSH-positive strains were further analyzed quantitatively for their deconjugation ability against six human-conjugated bile salts by HPLC based on the disappearance of the conjugated bile salts from the reaction mixture. The results showed that 39% of the strains possessed BSH activity distributed in 24 lactic acid bacterial species. The strains of the fermented vegetable origin showed a 0.5-fold higher incidence of BSH-positive strains than those of the fermented milk origin, and the lactic acid bacilli exhibited 2.5-fold higher incidence of BSH-positive strains than the lactic acid cocci in general. The strains of the fermented vegetable origin generally had greater bile salt deconjugation ability than those of the fermented milk origin. More than 97% and 93% of the BSH-positive strains exhibited a greater substrate preference for glycoconjugated bile salts than tauroconjugated bile salts and for dihydroxy bile salts than trihydroxy bile salts, respectively. This study demonstrated that BSH activity was also present in nonintestinal LAB.
      PubDate: 2018-11-12
  • Process for symbiotic culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chlorella
           vulgaris for in situ CO 2 mitigation
    • Abstract: Industrial biotechnology relies heavily on fermentation processes that release considerable amounts of CO2. Apart from the fact that this CO2 represents a considerable part of the organic substrate, it has a negative impact on the environment. Microalgae cultures have been suggested as potential means of capturing the CO2 with further applications in high-value compounds production or directly for feed applications. We developed a sustainable process based on a mixed co-dominant culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chlorella vulgaris where the CO2 production and utilization controlled the microbial ecology of the culture. By mixing yeast and microalga in the same culture, the CO2 is produced in dissolved form and is available to the microalga avoiding degassing and dissolution phenomena. With this process, the CO2 production and utilization rates were balanced and a mutual symbiosis between the yeast and the microalga was set up in the culture. In this study, the reutilization of CO2 and growth of C. vulgaris was demonstrated. The two organism populations were balanced at approximately 20 × 106 cells ml−1 and almost all the CO2 produced by yeast was reutilized by microalga within 168 h of culture. The C. vulgaris inoculum preparation played a key role in establishing co-dominance of the two organisms. Other key factors in establishing symbiosis were the inoculum ratio of the two organisms and the growth medium design. A new method allowed the independent enumeration of each organism in a mixed culture. This study could provide a basis for the development of green processes of low environmental impact.
      PubDate: 2018-11-12
  • Current strategies and future prospects for enhancing microbial production
           of citric acid
    • Abstract: Aspergillus niger and Yarrowia lipolytica are highly important in citric acid (CA) production. To further minimize the cost of CA bio-production using A. niger and Y. lipolytica, some strategies (e.g., metabolic engineering, efficient mutagenesis, and optimal fermentation strategies) were developed to enhance CA production and low-cost carbon sources were also utilized to decrease CA bio-production cost. In this review, we summarize the recent significant progresses in CA bio-production, including metabolic engineering, efficient mutagenesis and screening methods, optimal fermentation strategies, and use of low-cost carbon sources, and future prospects in this field are also discussed, which could help in the development of CA production industry.
      PubDate: 2018-11-12
  • Improving extracellular protein production in Escherichia coli by
           overexpressing D,D-carboxypeptidase to perturb peptidoglycan network
           synthesis and structure
    • Authors: Haiquan Yang; Jinyuan Hu; Xiao Lu; Fuxiang Wang; Wei Shen; Wei Hu; Lingling Wang; Xianzhong Chen; Long Liu
      Abstract: Most recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli are not efficiently secreted to the extracellular space. Structural stabilisation of the cell wall is essential for extracellular protein production in E. coli, for which D,D-carboxypeptidases are essential. Herein, we perturbed the peptidoglycan structure of the E. coli cell wall by overexpressing D,D-carboxypeptidase genes dacA or dacB, and investigated the effect on extracellular protein production. Overexpression of dacA or dacB promoted the accumulation of intracellular soluble peptidoglycan, altered cell morphology (shape and size) and led to the formation of transparent globular structures in E. coli cells. Compared with controls (CK), extracellular production of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) was increased by 1.7- and 2.3-fold upon overexpression of dacA and dacB, respectively. Similarly, extracellular production of recombinant amylase and α-galactosidase was increased by 4.5- and 2.8-fold, respectively, upon overexpression of dacA, and by 11.9- and 2.5-fold, respectively, upon overexpression of dacB. Overexpression of dacA or dacB enhanced both the outer and inner membrane permeability of E. coli. This cell wall engineering strategy opens up a new direction for enhancing extracellular protein and chemical production in E. coli.
      PubDate: 2018-11-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9510-7
  • Synthesis of CdS 1-X Se X quantum dots in a protozoa Tetrahymena
    • Authors: Yin-Hua Cui; Ling-Li Li; Li-Jiao Tian; Nan-Qing Zhou; Dong-Feng Liu; Paul K. S. Lam; Han-Qing Yu
      Abstract: Quantum dots (QDs) are recognized as the excellent fluorescence and photochemical materials to be applied in bioimaging, biomedical, and solar cell fields. Biosynthesized QDs (bio-QDs) have attracted attention due to their simple, eco-friendly, and excellent biocompatible traits. Moreover, bio-QDs could not be replaced by chemically fabricated QDs in many fields. Bio-QDs synthesized by different microorganisms have diverse characteristics. In this work, the biosynthesis of QDs by Tetrahymena pyriformis, a typical protozoa in aquatic environments, was achieved for the first time. The synthesized materials by T. pyriformis emitted yellow fluorescence and had an average diameter of 8.27 ± 0.77 nm. Spectral characterization results demonstrated that the synthesized QDs were CdS1-XSeX. Meanwhile, the fluorescence intensities of the synthesized bio-QDs showed a linear relationship with Cd2+ dosage ranging from 20 to 80 μM. The fluorescence enhancement of the synthesized QDs was highly selective to Cd2+ compared to other metal ions. The bio-QDs were demonstrated to have a great potential to be applied for Cd2+ detection. This work provides valuable information about the transformation of heavy metal ions in protozoan and is useful to accelerate the applications of the synthesized QDs.
      PubDate: 2018-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9499-y
  • Biosynthesis of ω-hydroxy fatty acids and related chemicals from natural
           fatty acids by recombinant Escherichia coli
    • Authors: Sun-Ki Kim; Yong-Cheol Park
      Abstract: ω-Hydroxy fatty acids (ω-HFAs) are of great interest because they provide the long carbon chain monomers in the synthesis of polymer materials due to the location of the hydroxyl group close to the end of the first methyl carbon. ω-HFAs are widely used as building blocks and intermediates in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Recent achievements in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology enabled Escherichia coli to produce these fatty acids with high yield and productivity. These include (i) design and engineering of the ω-HFA biosynthetic pathways, (ii) enzyme engineering to enhance stability and activity, and (iii) increase of tolerance of E. coli to toxic effects of fatty acids. Strategies for improving product yield and productivity of ω-HFAs and their related chemicals (e.g., α,ω-dicarboxylic acids and ω-amino carboxylic acids) are systematically demonstrated in this review.
      PubDate: 2018-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9503-6
  • Multiplex PCR coupled with direct amplicon sequencing for simultaneous
           detection of numerous waterborne pathogens
    • Authors: Bo Li; Prakit Saingam; Satoshi Ishii; Tao Yan
      Abstract: The current water quality monitoring and regulation approaches use fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to indirectly assess health risks from fecal pathogens. Direct detection of waterborne pathogens is expected to provide more accurate and comprehensive risk assessment, which however has been hindered by the lack of methods for simultaneous detection of the numerous waterborne pathogens. This study aimed to develop a mPCR-NGS approach that uses the high sequencing depth of NGS and sequence-based detection to significantly increase the multiplex level of mPCR for direct pathogen detection in water. Individual PCR primers were designed for 16 target marker genes of nine different bacterial pathogens, and an optimal combination of primers with least primer complementarities was identified for the multiplex setting. Using an artificial tester sample, the mPCR system was optimized for annealing temperature and primer concentration, and bioinformatic procedures were developed to directly detect the target marker gene amplicons in NGS sequence reads, which showed simultaneous detection of 14 different target genes in one reaction. The effectiveness of the developed mPCR-NGS approach was subsequently demonstrated on DNA extracts from stream water samples and their counterparts that were spiked with various target pathogen DNA, and all target genes spiked into the environmental water samples were successfully detected. Several key issues for further improving the mPCR-NGS approach were also identified and discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9498-z
  • Characterization and functional analysis of calcium/calmodulin-dependent
           protein kinases (CaMKs) in the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys
    • Authors: Zhengyi Zhen; Guosheng Zhang; Le Yang; Ni Ma; Qing Li; Yuxin Ma; Xuemei Niu; Ke-Qin Zhang; Jinkui Yang
      Abstract: Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are unique second-messenger molecules that impact almost all cellular processes in eukaryotes. In this study, five genes encoding different CaMKs were characterized in the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. These CaMKs, which were retrieved from the A. oligospora genome according to their orthologs in fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa, were expressed at a low level in vitro during mycelial growth stages. Five deletion mutants corresponding to these CaMKs led to growth defects in different media and increased sensitivity to several environmental stresses, including H2O2, menadione, SDS, and Congo red; they also reduced the ability to produce conidia and traps, thus causing a deficiency in nematicidal ability as well. In addition, the transcriptional levels of several typical sporulation-related genes, such as MedA, VelB, and VeA, were down-regulated in all ΔCaMK mutants compared with the wild-type (WT) strain. Moreover, these mutants exhibited hypersensitivity to heat shock and ultraviolet-radiation stresses compared with the WT strain. These results suggest that the five CaMKs in A. oligospora are involved in regulating multiple cellular processes, such as growth, environmental stress tolerance, conidiation, trap formation, and virulence.
      PubDate: 2018-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9504-5
  • Changes in bacterial diversity and catabolic gene abundance during the
           removal of dimethylphenol isomers in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands
    • Authors: Mónica A. Vásquez Piñeros; Paula M. Martínez-Lavanchy; Kristin Schmidt; Melina Mardones; Hermann J. Heipieper
      Abstract: Constructed wetlands (CWs) are well-established wastewater treatment technologies and applied for bioremediation of contaminated water. Despite the optimal performance of CWs, the understanding of the bacterial processes in the rhizosphere, where mainly microbial degradation processes take place, is still limited. In the present study, laboratory-scale CWs planted with Juncus effusus and running under controlled conditions were studied in order to evaluate removal efficiency of dimethylphenols (DMPs), also in comparison to an unplanted bed. Next to removal rates, the bacterial community structure, diversity, and distribution, their correlation with physiochemical parameters, and abundance of the phenol hydroxylase gene were determined. As a result, better removal performance of DMP isomers (3,4-, 3,5-, and 2,6-DMP added as singles compounds or in mixtures) and ammonium loads, together with a higher diversity index, bacterial number, and phenol hydroxylase gene abundance in Juncus effusus CW in comparison with the non-planted CW, indicates a clear rhizosphere effect in the experimental CWs. An enhancement in the DMP removal and the recovery of the phenol hydroxylase gene were found during the fed with the DMP mixture. In addition, the shift of bacterial community in CWs was found to be DMP isomer dependent. Positive correlations were found between the bacteria harboring the phenol hydroxylase gene and communities present with 3,4-DMP and 3,5-DMP isomers, but not with the community developed with 2,6-DMP. These results indicate that CWs are highly dynamic ecosystems with rapid changes in bacterial communities harboring functional catabolic genes.
      PubDate: 2018-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9479-2
  • Two-hundred-liter scale fermentation, purification of recombinant human
           fibroblast growth factor-21, and its anti-diabetic effects on ob/ob mice
    • Authors: Qi Hui; Zhen Huang; Shucai Pang; Xuanxin Yang; Jinghang Li; Bingjie Yu; Lu Tang; Xiaokun Li; Xiaojie Wang
      Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) is a potential cytokine for type II diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to optimize recombinant human FGF-21 (rhFGF-21) production in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) employing high cell density fermentation at a 200-L scale and pilot-scale purification. FGF-21 was eventually expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) using human FGF-21 synthetic DNA sequence via the introduction of vector pET-3c; the product is used as seed strain during the fermentation of rhFGF-21. Fermentation of rhFGF-21 was performed in a 30-L and 200-L fermenters. rhFGF-21 was primarily expressed in the form of inclusion bodies after IPTG induction. At the 200-L scale, the bacterial production and expression levels of rhFGF-21 were 38.8 ± 0.6 g/L and 30.9 ± 0.7%, respectively. Additionally, the high purification (98%) of rhFGF-21 was tested with HPLC analysis and reducing & non-reducing SDS-PAGE analysis. The final yield of purified rhFGF-21 was 71.1 ± 13.9 mg/L. The activity of rhFGF-21 stock solution reached at 68.67 ± 8.74 IU/mg. Blood glucose controlling and insulin sensitization were improved with treatment of rhFGF-21 in type II diabetic ob/ob mice. Our results showed that the relatively stable and time-saving pilot-scale production process was successfully established, providing an efficient and cost-effective strategy for large-scale and industrial production of rhFGF-21.
      PubDate: 2018-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9470-y
  • Complete nitrification: insights into the ecophysiology of comammox
    • Authors: Hanna Koch; Maartje A. H. J. van Kessel; Sebastian Lücker
      Abstract: Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate, has been considered to be a stepwise process mediated by two distinct functional groups of microorganisms. The identification of complete nitrifying Nitrospira challenged not only the paradigm of labor division in nitrification, it also raises fundamental questions regarding the environmental distribution, diversity, and ecological significance of complete nitrifiers compared to canonical nitrifying microorganisms. Recent genomic and physiological surveys identified factors controlling their ecology and niche specialization, which thus potentially regulate abundances and population dynamics of the different nitrifying guilds. This review summarizes the recently obtained insights into metabolic differences of the known nitrifiers and discusses these in light of potential functional adaptation and niche differentiation between canonical and complete nitrifiers.
      PubDate: 2018-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9486-3
  • Novel osmotic stress control strategy for improved pneumocandin B 0
           production in Glarea lozoyensis combined with a mechanistic analysis at
           the transcriptome level
    • Authors: Ping Song; Baoqi Huang; Sen Zhang; Ke Zhang; Kai Yuan; Xiaojun Ji; Lujing Ren; Jianping Wen; He Huang
      Abstract: Pneumocandin B0, the precursor of the antifungal drug caspofungin, is a secondary metabolite of the fungus Glarea lozoyensis. In this study, we investigated the effects of mannitol as the sole carbon source on pneumocandin B0 production by G. lozoyensis. The osmotic pressure is more important in enhancing pneumocandin B0 production than is the substrate concentration. Based on the kinetic analysis, an osmotic stress control fed-batch strategy was developed. This strategy led to a maximum pneumocandin B0 concentration of 2711 mg/L with a productivity of 9.05 mg/L/h, representing 34.67 and 6.47% improvements, respectively, over the best result achieved by the one-stage fermentation. Furthermore, G. lozoyensis accumulated glutamate and proline as compatible solutes to resist osmotic stress, and these amino acids also provided the precursors for the enhanced pneumocandin B0 production. Osmotic stress also activated ROS (reactive oxygen species)-dependent signal transduction by upregulating the levels of related genes and increasing intracellular ROS levels by 20%. We also provided a possible mechanism for pneumocandin B0 accumulation based on signal transduction. These findings will improve our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of pneumocandin B0 biosynthesis and may be applied to improve secondary metabolite production.
      PubDate: 2018-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9440-4
  • Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from medicinal plants and
           evaluation of their antiviral potential against chikungunya virus
    • Authors: Vikrant Sharma; Sulochana Kaushik; Pooja Pandit; Divya Dhull; Jaya Parkash Yadav; Samander Kaushik
      Abstract: The exploration of nanoscale materials for their therapeutic potential against emerging and re-emerging infections has been increased in recent years. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to possess antimicrobial activities against different pathogens including viruses and provide an excellent opportunity to develop new antivirals. The present study focused on biological synthesis of AgNPs from Andrographis paniculata, Phyllanthus niruri, and Tinospora cordifolia and evaluation of their antiviral properties against chikungunya virus. Synthesized plants AgNPs were characterized to assess their formation, morphology, and stability. The cytotoxicity assays in Vero cells revealed that A. paniculata AgNPs were most cytotoxic with maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) value of 31.25 μg/mL followed by P. niruri (MNTD, 125 μg/mL) and T. cordifolia AgNPs (MNTD, 250 μg/mL). In vitro antiviral assay of AgNPs based on degree of inhibition of cytopathic effect (CPE) showed that A. paniculata AgNPs were most effective, followed by T. cordifolia and P. niruri AgNPs. The results of antiviral assay were confirmed by cell viability test using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye, which revealed that A. paniculata AgNPs inhibited the virus to a maximum extent. The cell viability of CHIKV-infected cells significantly increased from 25.69% to 80.76 and 66.8%, when treated with A. paniculata AgNPs at MNTD and ½MNTD, respectively. These results indicated that use of plants AgNPs as antiviral agents is feasible and could provide alternative treatment options against viral diseases which have no specific antiviral or vaccines available yet.
      PubDate: 2018-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9488-1
  • Bifunctional in vivo role of laccase exploited in multiple
           biotechnological applications
    • Authors: Abha Sharma; Kavish Kumar Jain; Arti Jain; Mazahir Kidwai; R. C. Kuhad
      Abstract: Laccases are multicopper enzymes present in plants, fungi, bacteria, and insects, which catalyze oxidation reactions together with four electron reduction of oxygen to water. Plant, bacterial, and insect laccases have a polymerizing role in nature, implicated in biosynthesis of lignin, melanin formation, and cuticle hardening, respectively. On the other hand, fungal laccases carry out both polymerizing (melanin synthesis and fruit body formation) as well as depolymerizing roles (lignin degradation). This bifunctionality of fungal laccases can be attributed to the presence of multiple isoforms within the same as well as different genus and species. Interestingly, by manipulating culture conditions, these isoforms with their different induction patterns and unique biochemical characteristics can be expressed or over-expressed for a targeted biotechnological application. Consequently, laccases can be considered as one of the most important biocatalyst which can be exploited for divergent industrial applications viz. paper pulp bleaching, fiber modification, dye decolorization, bioremediation as well as organic synthesis. The present review spotlights the role of fungal laccases in various antagonistic applications, i.e., polymerizing and depolymerizing, and co-relating this dual role with potential industrial significance.
      PubDate: 2018-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9404-8
  • Stimulatory effects of novel glucosylated lactose derivatives GL34 on
           growth of selected gut bacteria
    • Authors: Hien T. T. Pham; Markus C. L. Boger; Lubbert Dijkhuizen; Sander S. van Leeuwen
      Abstract: Previously we structurally characterized five glucosylated lactose derivatives (F1–F5) with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 3–4 (GL34), products of Lactobacillus reuteri glucansucrases, with lactose and sucrose as substrates. Here, we show that these GL34 compounds are largely resistant to the hydrolytic activities of common carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. Also, the ability of single strains of gut bacteria, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and commensal bacteria, to ferment the GL34 compounds was studied. Bifidobacteria clearly grew better on the GL34 mixture than lactobacilli and commensal bacteria. Lactobacilli and the commensal bacteria Escherichia coli Nissle and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron only degraded the F2 compound α-D-Glcp-(1 → 2)-[β-D-Galp-(1 → 4)-]D-Glcp, constituting around 30% w/w of GL34. Bifidobacteria digested more than one compound from the GL34 mixture, varying with the specific strain tested. Bifidobacterium adolescentis was most effective, completely degrading four of the five GL34 compounds, leaving only one minor constituent. GL34 thus represents a novel oligosaccharide mixture with (potential) synbiotic properties towards B. adolescentis, synthesized from cheap and abundantly available lactose and sucrose.
      PubDate: 2018-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9473-8
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