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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  [SJR: 1.262]   [H-I: 161]   [61 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-0614 - ISSN (Online) 0175-7598
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • A novel glucuronoyl esterase from Aspergillus fumigatus— the role of
           conserved Lys residue in the preference for 4- O -methyl glucuronoyl
           esters
    • Authors: Hung Hiep Huynh; Nozomi Ishii; Ichiro Matsuo; Manabu Arioka
      Abstract: Abstract Cellulose in plant cell walls is mainly covered by hemicellulose and lignin, and thus efficient removal of these components is thought to be a key step in the optimal utilization of lignocellulose. The recently discovered carbohydrate esterase (CE) 15 family of glucuronoyl esterases (GEs) which cleave the linkages between the free carboxyl group of d-glucuronic acid in hemicellulose and the benzyl groups in lignin residues could contribute to this process. Herein, we report the identification, functional expression, and enzymatic characterization of a GE, AfGE, from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. AfGE was heterologously expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, and the purified enzyme displayed the ability to degrade the synthetic substrates mimicking the ester linkage between hemicellulose and lignin. AfGE is a potentially industrially applicable enzyme due to its characteristic as a thermophilic enzyme with the favorable temperature of 40–50 °C at pH 5. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis studies of AfGE demonstrated that Lys209 plays an important role in the preference for the substrates containing 4-O-methyl group in the glucopyranose ring.
      PubDate: 2018-01-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-8739-5
       
  • Characteristics of ARG-carrying plasmidome in the cultivable microbial
           community from wastewater treatment system under high oxytetracycline
           concentration
    • Authors: Yanhong Shi; Hong Zhang; Zhe Tian; Min Yang; Yu Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Studies on antibiotic production wastewater have shown that even a single antibiotic can select for multidrug resistant bacteria in aquatic environments. It is speculated that plasmids are an important mechanism of multidrug resistance (MDR) under high concentrations of antibiotics. Herein, two metagenomic libraries were constructed with plasmid DNA extracted from cultivable microbial communities in a biological wastewater treatment reactor supplemented with 0 (CONTROL) or 25 mg/L of oxytetracycline (OTC-25). The OTC-25 plasmidome reads were assigned to 72 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) conferring resistance to 13 types of antibiotics. Dominant ARGs, encoding resistance to tetracycline, aminoglycoside, sulfonamide, and multidrug resistance genes, were enriched in the plasmidome under 25 mg/L of oxytetracycline. Furthermore, 17 contiguous multiple-ARG carrying contigs (carrying ≥ 2 ARGs) were discovered in the OTC-25 plasmidome, whereas only nine were found in the CONTROL. Mapping of the OTC-25 plasmidome reads to completely sequenced plasmids revealed that the conjugative IncU resistance plasmid pFBAOT6 of Aeromonas caviae, carrying multidrug resistance transporter (pecM), tetracycline resistance genes (tetA, tetR), and transposase genes, might be a potential prevalent resistant plasmid in the OTC-25 plasmidome. Additionally, two novel resistant plasmids (containing contig C301682 carrying multidrug resistant operon mexCD-oprJ and contig C301632 carrying the tet36 and transposases genes) might also be potential prevalent resistant plasmids in the OTC-25 plasmidome. This study will be helpful to better understand the role of plasmids in the development of MDR in water environments under high antibiotic concentrations.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-8738-6
       
  • Bis-guanylhydrazones as efficient anti- Candida compounds through DNA
           interaction
    • Authors: Jelena Lazić; Vladimir Ajdačić; Sandra Vojnovic; Mario Zlatović; Marina Pekmezovic; Selene Mogavero; Igor Opsenica; Jasmina Nikodinovic-Runic
      Abstract: Abstract Candida spp. are leading causes of opportunistic mycoses, including life-threatening hospital-borne infections, and novel antifungals, preferably aiming targets that have not been used before, are constantly needed. Hydrazone- and guanidine-containing molecules have shown a wide range of biological activities, including recently described excellent antifungal properties. In this study, four bis-guanylhydrazone derivatives (BG1–4) were generated following a previously developed synthetic route. Anti-Candida (two C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis) minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of bis-guanylhydrazones were between 2 and 15.6 μg/mL. They were also effective against preformed 48-h-old C. albicans biofilms. In vitro DNA interaction, circular dichroism, and molecular docking analysis showed the great ability of these compounds to bind fungal DNA. Competition with DNA-binding stain, exposure of phosphatidylserine at the outer layer of the cytoplasmic membrane, and activation of metacaspases were shown for BG3. This pro-apoptotic effect of BG3 was only partially due to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in C. albicans, as only twofold MIC and higher concentrations of BG3 caused depolarization of mitochondrial membrane which was accompanied by the decrease of the activity of fungal mitochondrial dehydrogenases, while the activity of oxidative stress response enzymes glutathione reductase and catalase was not significantly affected. BG3 showed synergistic activity with amphotericin B with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.5. It also exerted low cytotoxicity and the ability to inhibit epithelial cell (TR146) invasion and damage by virulent C. albicans SC5314. With further developments, BG3 may further progress in the antifungal pipeline as a DNA-targeting agent.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-8749-3
       
  • A new method for the in vitro determination of the bile tolerance of
           potentially probiotic lactobacilli
    • Authors: Peng-Li Hu; Ya-Hong Yuan; Tian-Li Yue; Chun-Feng Guo
      Abstract: Abstract A new in vitro method was developed to determine the bile tolerance of potentially probiotic lactobacilli. The overnight culture of various lactobacilli strains was inoculated into sterile, half-strength MRS broth supplemented with and without 0.3% (wt/vol) oxgall, buffered with 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer at a final pH of 7.3, and incubated at 37 °C for 12 h under anaerobic conditions. The bile tolerance ability of the lactobacilli strains was expressed as the percentage of the propagation generations of the bacterial cells in the presence of oxgall to those in the absence of oxgall. The bile tolerance ability of 11 strains of 8 Lactobacillus species, including 3 bile salt hydrolase (BSH)-negative strains and 8 BSH-positive strains, was analyzed using the newly developed method and two traditional methods. The results showed that bile tolerance ability of the strains was considerably different depending on the analysis method used. The newly developed method mimics the physiological environment of the human small intestine, and avoids changes in pH and bile salt composition during the incubation period, which are drawbacks of the traditional bile tolerance test methods. Therefore, the analysis method developed in this study is more suitable to screen or compare the bile tolerance ability of lactobacilli strains.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-8742-x
       
  • The specific effect of gallic acid on Escherichia coli biofilm formation
           by regulating pgaABCD genes expression
    • Authors: Jiamu Kang; Qianqian Li; Liu Liu; Wenyuan Jin; Jingfan Wang; Yuyang Sun
      Abstract: Abstract Escherichia coli (E. coli) is associated with an array of health-threatening contaminations, some of which are related to biofilm states. The pgaABCD-encoded poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA) polymer plays an important role in biofilm formation. This study was conducted to determine the inhibitory effect of gallic acid (GA) against E. coli biofilm formation. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of GA against planktonic E. coli were 0.5 and 4 mg/mL, and minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration and minimal biofilm eradication concentration values of GA against E. coli in biofilms were 2 and 8 mg/mL, respectively. Quantitative crystal violet staining of biofilms and ESEM images clearly indicate that GA effectively, dose-dependently inhibited biofilm formation. CFU counting and confocal laser scanning microscopy measurements showed that GA significantly reduced viable bacteria in the biofilm. The contents of polysaccharide slime, protein, and DNA in the E. coli biofilm also decreased. qRT-PCR data showed that at the sub-MIC level of GA (0.25 mg/mL) and expression of pgaABC genes was downregulated, while pgaD gene expression was upregulated. The sub-MBC level of GA (2 mg/mL) significantly suppressed the pgaABCD genes. Our results altogether demonstrate that GA inhibited viable bacteria and E. coli biofilm formation, marking a novel approach to the prevention and treatment of biofilm-related infections in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8709-3
       
  • Effective removal of a range of Ti/Ri plasmids using a pBBR1-type vector
           having a repABC operon and a lux reporter system
    • Authors: Shinji Yamamoto; Ayako Sakai; Vita Agustina; Kazuki Moriguchi; Katsunori Suzuki
      Abstract: Abstract Ti and Ri plasmids of pathogenic Agrobacterium strains are stably maintained by the function of a repABC operon and have been classified into four incompatibility groups, namely, incRh1, incRh2, incRh3, and incRh4. Removal of these plasmids from their bacterial cells is an important step in determining strain-specific virulence characteristics and to construct strains useful for transformation. Here, we developed two powerful tools to improve this process. We first established a reporter system to detect the presence and absence of Ti/Ri plasmids in cells by using an acetosyringone (AS)-inducible promoter of the Ti2 small RNA and luxAB from Vibrio harveyi. This system distinguished a Ti/Ri plasmid-free cell colony among plasmid-harboring cell colonies by causing the latter colonies to emit light in response to AS. We then constructed new “Ti/Ri eviction plasmids,” each of which carries a repABC from one of four Ti/Ri plasmids that belonged to incRh1, incRh2, incRh3, and incRh4 groups in the suicidal plasmid pK18mobsacB and in a broad-host-range pBBR1 vector. Introduction of the new eviction plasmids into Agrobacterium cells harboring the corresponding Ti/Ri plasmids led to Ti/Ri plasmid-free cells in every incRh group. The Ti/Ri eviction was more effective by plasmids with the pBBR1 backbone than by those with the pK18mobsacB backbone. Furthermore, the highly stable cryptic plasmid pAtC58 in A. tumefaciens C58 was effectively evicted by the introduction of a pBBR1 vector containing the repABC of pAtC58. These results indicate that the set of pBBR1-repABC plasmids is a powerful tool for the removal of stable rhizobial plasmids.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8721-7
       
  • Correction to: Environmental biodegradation of haloarchaea-produced
           poly(3-hydroxybutyrate- co -3-hydroxyvalerate) in activated sludge
    • Authors: Xiao-Bin Liu; Lin-Ping Wu; Jing Hou; Jun-Yu Chen; Jing Han; Hua Xiang
      Abstract: Abstract The published online version contains mistake in the funding information. Instead of 30370096, it should have been 31370096.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-8735-9
       
  • Repeat-induced point (RIP) mutation in the industrial workhorse fungus
           Trichoderma reesei
    • Authors: Wan-Chen Li; Chia-Ling Chen; Ting-Fang Wang
      Abstract: Abstract Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina) is a filamentous ascomycete. Due to its capability of producing large amounts of lignocellulolytic enzymes and various heterologous proteins, this fungus has been widely used for industrial applications for over 70 years. It is also a model organism for lignocellulosic biomass degradation and metabolic engineering. Recently, we experimentally and computationally demonstrated that Trichoderma reesei exhibits high homology pairing and repeat-induced point (RIP) mutation activities at a premeiotic stage, i.e., between fertilization and karyogamy or premeiotic DNA replication. The discovery of RIP in Trichoderma reesei not only reveals significant impacts of sexual reproduction on evolution and chromosome architecture but also provides intriguing perspectives for industrial strain improvement. This review emphasizes two major points about RIP and RIP-like processes in Pezizomycotina fungi. First, the molecular mechanisms of RIP and RIP-like processes in Trichoderma reesei and other Pezizomycotina fungi are apparently distinct from those originally described in the model fungus Neurospora crassa. Second, orthologs of the rid1 (deficient in RIP-1) DNA methyltransferase gene were shown to be essential for sexual development in at least four Pezizomycotina fungi, including Trichoderma reesei. In contrast, rid1 is dispensable for Neurospora crassa sexual development. We suggest that the rid1-like gene products and/or their DNA methyltransferase activities play critical roles in promoting fungal sexual development. The Neurospora crassa rid1 gene might have lost this evolutionarily conserved function.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8731-5
       
  • Biosynthesis of flavone C -glucosides in engineered Escherichia coli
    • Authors: Anil Shrestha; Ramesh Prasad Pandey; Dipesh Dhakal; Prakash Parajuli; Jae Kyung Sohng
      Abstract: Abstract Two plant-originated C-glucosyltransferases (CGTs) UGT708D1 from Glycine max and GtUF6CGT1 from Gentiana triflora were accessed for glucosylation of selected flavones chrysin and luteolin. Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose pool was enhanced in Escherichia coli cell cytosol by introducing heterologous UDP-glucose biosynthetic genes, i.e., glucokinase (glk), phosphoglucomutase (pgm2), and glucose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (galU), along with glucose facilitator diffusion protein from (glf) from different organisms, in a multi-monocistronic vector with individual T7 promoter, ribosome binding site, and terminator for each gene. The C-glucosylated products were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array, high-resolution quadruple time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Fed-batch shake flask culture showed 8% (7 mg/L; 16 μM) and 11% (9 mg/L; 22 μM) conversion of chrysin to chrysin 6-C-β-D-glucoside with UGT708D1 and GtUF6CGT1, respectively. Moreover, the bioengineered E. coli strains with exogenous UDP-glucose biosynthetic genes and glucose facilitator diffusion protein enhanced the production of chrysin 6-C-β-D-glucoside by approximately 1.4-fold, thus producing 10 mg/L (12%, 24 μM) and 14 mg/L (17%, 34 μM) by UGT708D1 and GtUF6CGT1, respectively, without supplementation of additional UDP-glucose in the medium. The biotransformation was further elevated when the bioengineered strain was scaled up in lab-scale fermentor at 3 L volume. HPLC analysis of fermentation broth extract revealed 50% (42 mg/L, 100 μM) conversion of chrysin to chrysin 6-C-β-D-glucoside at 48 h upon supplementation of 200 μM of chrysin. The maximum conversion of luteolin was 38% (34 mg/L, 76 μM) in 50-mL shake flask fermentation at 48 h. C-glucosylated derivative of chrysin was found to be more soluble and more stable to high temperature, different pH range, and β-glucosidase enzyme, than O-glucosylated derivative of chrysin.
      PubDate: 2018-01-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8694-6
       
  • Efficient synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics with very low product
           hydrolysis by a mutant Providencia rettgeri penicillin G acylase
    • Authors: Xin Pan; Li Wang; Jiajie Ye; Song Qin; Bingfang He
      Abstract: Abstract Penicillin G acylase (PGA) was isolated from Providencia rettgeri PX04 (PrPGApx04) and utilized for the kinetically controlled synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to increase the process efficiency. Molecular docking was carried out to speculate the key mutant positions corresponding with synthetic activity, which resulted in the achievement of an efficient mutant, βF24G. It yielded higher conversions than the wild-type enzyme in the synthesis of amoxicillin (95 versus 17.2%) and cefadroxil (95.4 versus 43.2%). The reaction time for achieving the maximum conversion decreased from 14 to 16 h to 2–2.5 h. Furthermore, the secondary hydrolysis of produced antibiotics was hardly observed. Kinetic analysis showed that the (kcat/Km)AD value for the activated acyl donor D-hydroxyphenylglycine methyl ester (D-HPGME) increased up to 41 times. In contrast, the (kcat/Km)Ps values for the products amoxicillin and cefadroxil decreased 6.5 and 21 times, respectively. Consequently, the α value (kcat/Km)Ps/(kcat/Km)AD, which reflected the relative hydrolytic specificity of PGA for produced antibiotics with respect to the activated acyl donor, were only 0.028 and 0.043, respectively. The extremely low hydrolytic activity for the products of the βF24G mutant enabled greater product accumulation to occur during synthesis, which made it a promising enzyme for industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8692-8
       
  • Forward genetics screen coupled with whole-genome resequencing identifies
           novel gene targets for improving heterologous enzyme production in
           Aspergillus niger
    • Authors: Morgann C. Reilly; Joonhoon Kim; Jed Lynn; Blake A. Simmons; John M. Gladden; Jon K. Magnuson; Scott E. Baker
      Abstract: Abstract Plant biomass, once reduced to its composite sugars, can be converted to fuel substitutes. One means of overcoming the recalcitrance of lignocellulose is pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. However, currently available commercial enzyme cocktails are inhibited in the presence of residual pretreatment chemicals. Recent studies have identified a number of cellulolytic enzymes from bacteria that are tolerant to pretreatment chemicals such as ionic liquids. The challenge now is generation of these enzymes in copious amounts, an arena where fungal organisms such as Aspergillus niger have proven efficient. Fungal host strains still need to be engineered to increase production titers of heterologous protein over native enzymes, which has been a difficult task. Here, we developed a forward genetics screen coupled with whole-genome resequencing to identify specific lesions responsible for a protein hyper-production phenotype in A. niger. This strategy successfully identified novel targets, including a low-affinity glucose transporter, MstC, whose deletion significantly improved secretion of recombinant proteins driven by a glucoamylase promoter.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8717-3
       
  • Identification of tarsal-less peptides from the silkworm Bombyx mori
    • Authors: Guangli Cao; Yongchang Gong; Xiaolong Hu; Min Zhu; Zi Liang; Lixu Huang; Lei Yu; Jian Xu; Kun Li; Mian Sahib Zar; Renyu Xue; Chengliang Gong
      Abstract: Abstract The polycistronic and non-canonical gene tarsal-less (tal, known as pri) was reported to be required for embryonic and imaginal development in Drosophila; however, there are few reports of the tal gene in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Here, we cloned a tal-like (Bmtal) gene, and a sequence analysis showed that the Bmtal cDNA (1661 bp) contains five small open reading frames (smORFs) (A1, A2, A3, A4, and B) that encode short peptides of 11–12 (A1–A4) amino acid residues containing an LDPTG(E)L(Q)(V)Y motif that is conserved in Drosophila Tal, as well as a 32-amino-acid B peptide. Reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of the Bmtal gene was highest in the trachea, followed by the silk gland and Malpighian tubule, in day 3 fifth-instar larvae. Subcellular localization showed that BmTal localized in the nucleus. By regulating the expression of the full-length Bmtal gene and the functional smORFs of Bmtal, we showed that the expression levels of the Bmovo gene and genes related to the Notch, transforming growth factor-β, and Hippo signaling pathways changed with changes in BmTal peptide expression. A co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that BmTal interacts with polyubiquitin, which triggered degradation and/or processing of the 14-3-3 protein zeta. A comparative transcriptome analysis showed that 2843 (2045) genes were up- (down)-regulated after Bmtal gene expression was up-regulated. The up- (down)-regulated differentially expressed genes were enriched in 326 (278) gene ontology terms (P ≤ 0.05) and 54 (59) Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (P ≤ 0.05), and the results indicated that the BmTal peptides could function as mediators of hormone levels or the activities of multiple pathways, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, Hedgehog, mitogen-activated protein kinase, adipocytokine, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathways, as well as the innate immune response. These results increase our understanding of the function and mechanism of BmTal at the genome-wide level.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8708-4
       
  • Production of α-keto carboxylic acid dimers in yeast by overexpression of
           NRPS-like genes from Aspergillus terreus
    • Authors: Elisabeth Hühner; Katja Backhaus; Rixa Kraut; Shu-Ming Li
      Abstract: Abstract Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are key enzymes in microorganisms for the assembly of peptide backbones of biologically and pharmacologically active natural products. The monomodular NRPS-like enzymes comprise often an adenylation (A), a thiolation (T), and a thioesterase (TE) domain. In contrast to the NRPSs, they do not contain any condensation domain and usually catalyze a dimerization of α-keto carboxylic acids and thereby provide diverse scaffolds for further modifications. In this study, we established an expression system for NRPS-like genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By expression of four known genes from Aspergillus terreus, their predicted function was confirmed and product yields of up to 35 mg per liter culture were achieved. Furthermore, expression of ATEG_03090 from the same fungus, encoding for the last uncharacterized NRPS-like enzyme with an A-T-TE domain structure, led to the formation of the benzoquinone derivative atromentin. All the accumulated products were isolated and their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. This study provides a convenient system for proof of gene function as well as a basis for synthetic biology, since additional genes encoding modification enzymes can be introduced.
      PubDate: 2018-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8719-1
       
  • Trp residue at subsite − 5 plays a critical role in the substrate
           binding of two protistan GH26 β-mannanases from a termite hindgut
    • Authors: Yunhan Hsu; Hirohiko Koizumi; Masato Otagiri; Shigeharu Moriya; Manabu Arioka
      Abstract: Abstract Symbiotic protists in the hindgut of termites provide a novel enzymatic resource for efficient lignocellulytic degradation of plant biomass. In this study, two β-mannanases, RsMan26A and RsMan26B, from a symbiotic protist community of the lower termite, Reticulitermes speratus, were successfully expressed in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. Biochemical characterization experiments demonstrated that both RsMan26A and RsMan26B are endo-acting enzymes and have a very similar substrate specificity, displaying a higher catalytic efficiency to galactomannan from locust bean gum (LBG) and glucomannan than to β-1,4-mannan and highly substituted galactomannan from guar gum. Homology modeling of RsMan26A and RsMan26B revealed that each enzyme displays a long open cleft harboring a unique hydrophobic platform (Trp79) that stacks against the sugar ring at subsite − 5. The Km values of W79A mutants of RsMan26A and RsMan26B to LBG increased by 4.8-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively, compared with those for the native enzymes, while the kcat remained unchanged or about 40% of that of the native enzyme, resulting in the decrease in the catalytic efficiency by 4.8-fold and 9.1-fold, respectively. The kinetic values for glucomannan also showed a similar result. These results demonstrate that the Trp residue present near the subsite − 5 has an important role in the recognition of the sugar ring in the substrate.
      PubDate: 2018-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8726-2
       
  • Pervasiveness of UVC 254 -resistant Geobacillus strains in extreme
           environments
    • Authors: Courtney Carlson; Nitin K. Singh; Mohit Bibra; Rajesh K. Sani; Kasthuri Venkateswaran
      Abstract: Abstract We have characterized a broad collection of extremophilic bacterial isolates from a deep subsurface mine, compost dumping sites, and several hot spring ecosystems. Spore-forming strains isolated from these environments comprised both obligate thermophiles/thermotolerant species (growing at > 55 °C; 240 strains) and mesophiles (growing at 15 to 40 °C; 12 strains). An overwhelming abundance of Geobacillus (81.3%) and Bacillus (18.3%) species was observed among the tested isolates. 16S rRNA sequence analysis documented the presence of 24 species among these isolates, but the 16S rRNA gene was shown to possess insufficient resolution to reliably discern Geobacillus phylogeny. gyrB-based phylogenetic analyses of nine strains revealed the presence of six known Geobacillus and one novel species. Multilocus sequence typing analyses based on seven different housekeeping genes deduced from whole genome sequencing of nine strains revealed the presence of three novel Geobacillus species. The vegetative cells of 41 Geobacillus strains were exposed to UVC254, and most (34 strains) survived 120 J/m2, while seven strains survived 300 J/m2, and cells of only one Geobacillus strain isolated from a compost facility survived 600 J/m2. Additionally, the UVC254 inactivation kinetics of spores from four Geobacillus strains isolated from three distinct geographical regions were evaluated and compared to that of a spacecraft assembly facility (SAF) clean room Geobacillus strain. The purified spores of the thermophilic SAF strain exhibited resistance to 2000 J/m2, whereas spores of two environmental Geobacillus strains showed resistance to 1000 J/m2. This study is the first to investigate UV resistance of environmental, obligately thermophilic Geobacillus strains, and also lays the foundation for advanced understanding of necessary sterilization protocols practiced in food, medical, pharmaceutical, and aerospace industries.
      PubDate: 2018-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8712-8
       
  • Genetic engineering to alter carbon flux for various higher alcohol
           productions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Chinese Baijiu fermentation
    • Authors: Wei Li; Shi-Jia Chen; Jian-Hui Wang; Cui-Ying Zhang; Yu Shi; Xue-Wu Guo; Ye-Fu Chen; Dong-Guang Xiao
      Abstract: Abstract Higher alcohols significantly influence the quality and flavor profiles of Chinese Baijiu. ILV1-encoded threonine deaminase, LEU1-encoded α-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, and LEU2-encoded β-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase are involved in the production of higher alcohols. In this work, ILV1, LEU1, and LEU2 deletions in α-type haploid, a-type haploid, and diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and ILV1, LEU1, and LEU2 single-allele deletions in diploid strains were constructed to examine the effects of these alterations on the metabolism of higher alcohols. Results showed that different genetic engineering strategies influence carbon flux and higher alcohol metabolism in different manners. Compared with the parental diploid strain, the ILV1 double-allele-deletion diploid mutant produced lower concentrations of n-propanol, active amyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethanol by 30.33, 35.58, and 11.71%, respectively. Moreover, the production of isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol increased by 326.39 and 57.6%, respectively. The LEU1 double-allele-deletion diploid mutant exhibited 14.09% increased n-propanol, 33.74% decreased isoamyl alcohol, and 13.21% decreased 2-phenylethanol production, which were similar to those of the LEU2 mutant. Furthermore, the LEU1 and LEU2 double-allele-deletion diploid mutants exhibited 41.72 and 52.18% increased isobutanol production, respectively. The effects of ILV1, LEU1, and LEU2 deletions on the production of higher alcohols by α-type and a-type haploid strains were similar to those of double-allele deletion in diploid strains. Moreover, the isobutanol production of the ILV1 single-allele-deletion diploid strain increased by 27.76%. Variations in higher alcohol production by the mutants are due to the carbon flux changes in yeast metabolism. This study could provide a valuable reference for further research on higher alcohol metabolism and future optimization of yeast strains for alcoholic beverages.
      PubDate: 2018-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8715-5
       
  • 14-3-3 proteins are involved in growth, hyphal branching, ganoderic acid
           biosynthesis, and response to abiotic stress in Ganoderma lucidum
    • Authors: Tian-Jun Zhang; Liang Shi; Dong-Dong Chen; Rui Liu; Deng-Ke Shi; Chen-Gao Wu; Ze-Hua Sun; Ang Ren; Ming-Wen Zhao
      Abstract: Abstract Ganoderma lucidum, which contains many pharmacologically active compounds, is regarded as a traditional medicinal fungus. Nevertheless, the scarcity of basic research limits the commercial value and utilization of G. lucidum. As a class of highly conserved, phosphopeptide-binding proteins present in all eukaryotes, 14-3-3 proteins play vital roles in controlling multiple physiological processes, including signal transduction, primary metabolism, and stress responses. However, knowledge of the roles of 14-3-3 proteins in Basidiomycetes is sparse. In this article, two homologs of 14-3-3 proteins, encoded by the two distinct genes GlBmh1 and GlBmh2, were distinguished in G. lucidum. We found that GlBmh1 and GlBmh2 were expressed at various developmental stages, including in vegetative mycelium cultivated on solid medium and in primordia and fruiting bodies. Moreover, we constructed GlBmh1 single-silenced strains, GlBmh2 single-silenced strains, and 14-3-3 double-silenced mutants for further study. When GlBmh1 and GlBmh2 were inhibited by RNA interference, the growth rate of mycelia was decreased, and the distance between the aerial hyphal branches was reduced; responses to various abiotic stresses such as oxidants and cell wall and osmotic stressors were also changed. Furthermore, the contents of secondary metabolite ganoderic acids (GAs) were increased after GlBmh1 and GlBmh2 were simultaneously silenced. Taken together, we provide evidence that implicates potential roles for the two 14-3-3 proteins in affecting growth and GA biosynthesis, thereby providing new insights into the basic functions of 14-3-3 proteins in G. lucidum.
      PubDate: 2018-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8711-9
       
  • Action of different types of endoxylanases on eucalyptus xylan in situ
    • Authors: Vladimír Puchart; Lucia Fraňová; Kristian B. R. Mørkeberg Krogh; Tine Hoff; Peter Biely
      Abstract: Abstract Most studies of the mode of action of industrially important endoxylanases have been done on alkali extracted-plant xylan. In just few cases, the native form of the polysaccharide, acetylated xylan, was used as a substrate. In this work action of xylanases belonging to three glycoside hydrolase families, GH10, GH11, and GH30 was investigated on acetylglucuronoxylan directly in hardwood cell walls. Powdered eucalyptus wood was used as xylanase substrate. Enzyme-generated fragments were characterized by TLC, MALDI ToF MS, and NMR spectroscopy. All three xylanases generated from eucalyptus wood powder acetylated xylooligosaccharides. Those released by GH10 enzyme were the shortest, and those released by GH30 xylanase were of the largest diversity. For GH30 xylanase the 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) side residues function as substrate specificity determinants regardless the acetylation of the neighboring hydroxyl group. Much simpler xylooligosaccharide patterns were observed when xylanases were applied in combination with carbohydrate esterase family 6 acetylxylan esterase. In the presence of the esterase, all aldouronic acids remained 3-O-acetylated on the xylopyranosyl (Xylp) residue substituted with MeGlcA. The 3-O-acetyl group, in contrast to the acetyl groups of otherwise unsubstituted Xylp residues, does not affect the mode of action of endoxylanases, but contributes to recalcitrance of the acidic xylan fragments. The results confirm importance of acetylxylan esterases in microbial degradation of acetylated hardwood glucuronoxylan. They also point to still unresolved question of efficient enzymatic removal of the 3-O-acetyl group on MeGlcA-substituted Xylp residues negatively affecting the saccharification yields.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8722-6
       
  • Contrasting growth properties of Nocardioides JS614 on threedifferent
           vinyl halides
    • Authors: Anne E. Taylor; Peter J. Bottomley; Lewis Semprini
      Abstract: Abstract Ethene (ETH)-grown inocula of Nocardioides JS614 grow on vinyl chloride (VC), vinyl fluoride (VF), or vinyl bromide (VB) as the sole carbon and energy source, with faster growth rates and higher cell yields on VC and VF than on VB. However, whereas acetate-grown inocula of JS614 grow on VC and VF after a lag period, growth on VB did not occur unless supplemental ethene oxide (EtO) was present in the medium. Despite inferior growth on VB, the maximum rate of VB consumption by ETH-grown cells was ~ 50% greater than the rates of VC and VF consumption, but Br− release during VB consumption was non-stoichiometric with VB consumption (~ 66%) compared to 100% release of Cl− and F− during VC and VF consumption. Evidence was obtained for VB turnover-dependent toxicity of cell metabolism in JS614 with both acetate-dependent respiration and growth being significantly reduced by VB turnover, but no VC or VF turnover-dependent toxicity of growth was detected. Reduced growth rate and cell yield of JS614 on VB probably resulted from a combination of inefficient metabolic processing of the highly unstable VB epoxide (t0.5 = 45 s), accompanied by growth inhibitory effects of VB metabolites on acetate-dependent metabolism. The exact role(s) of EtO in promoting growth of alkene repressed JS614 on VB remains unresolved, with evidence of EtO inducing epoxide consuming activity prior to an increase in alkene oxidizing activity and supplementing reductant supply when VB is the growth substrate.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8723-5
       
  • A novel galactolipase from a green microalga Chlorella kessleri :
           purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and heterologous
           expression
    • Authors: Shuhei Hashiro; Koyu Fujiuchi; Daisuke Sugimori; Hisashi Yasueda
      Abstract: Abstract We have identified an enzyme, galactolipase (ckGL), which hydrolyzes the acyl ester bond of galactolipids such as digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), in the microalga Chlorella kessleri. Following purification of the enzyme to electrophoretic homogeneity from cell-free extract, the maximum activity toward DGDG was observed at pH 6.5 and 37 °C. ckGL was Ca2+-dependent enzyme and displayed an apparent molecular mass of approx. 53 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The substrate specificity was in the order: DGDG (100%) > monogalactosyldiacylglycerol ≈ phosphatidylglycerol (~ 40%) > sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (~ 20%); the enzyme exhibited almost no activity toward glycerides and other phospholipids. Gas chromatography analysis demonstrated that ckGL preferably hydrolyzed the sn-1 acyl ester bond in the substrates. The genomic DNA sequence (5.6 kb) containing the ckGL gene (designated glp1) was determined and the cDNA was cloned. glp1 was composed of 10 introns and 11 exons, and the 1608-bp full-length cDNA encoded a mature ckGL containing 475 amino acids (aa), with a presequence (60 aa) containing a potential chloroplast transit peptide. Recombinant functional ckGL was produced in Escherichia coli. Although the deduced aa sequence of ckGL contained the typical GXSXG motif of serine hydrolases together with conserved histidine and aspartate residues which would form part of the catalytic triad of α/β-hydrolases, ckGL showed no significant overall similarity with known lipases including GLs from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Aspergillus japonicus, indicating that ckGL is a novel GL. ckGL, with high specificity for DGDG, could be applicable to food processing as an enzyme capable of improving material textures.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8713-7
       
 
 
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