Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2570 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2570 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.182
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 68  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0614 - ISSN (Online) 0175-7598
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2570 journals]
  • Characterization of an 17β-estradiol-degrading bacterium Stenotrophomonas
           maltophilia SJTL3 tolerant to adverse environmental factors
    • Abstract: Bioremediation of environmental estrogens requires microorganisms with stable degradation efficiency and great stress tolerance in complex environments. In this work, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SJTL3 isolated from wastewater was found to be able to degrade over 90% of 10 μg/mL 17β-estradiol (E2) in a week and the degradation dynamic was fitted by the first-order kinetic equations. Estrone was the first and major intermediate of E2 biodegradation. Strain SJTL3 exhibited strong tolerance to several adverse conditions like extreme pH (3.0–11.0), high osmolality (2%), co-existing heavy metals (6.25 μg/mL of Cu2+) and surfactants (5 CMC of Tween 80), and retained normal cell vitality and stable E2-degradaing efficiency. In solid soil, strain SJTL3 could remove nearly 100% of 1 μg/mL of E2 after the bacteria inoculation and 8-day culture. As to the contamination of 10 μg/mL E2 in soil, the biodegradation efficiency was about 90%. The further obtainment of the whole genome of strain SJTL3 and genome analysis revealed that this strain contained not only the potential genes responsible for estrogen degradation, but also the genes encoding proteins involved in stress tolerance. This work could promote the estrogen-biodegrading mechanism study and provide insights into the bioremediation application.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Fungal P 450 monooxygenases - the diversity in catalysis and their
           promising roles in biocontrol activity
    • Abstract: The fungal P450s catalyze vital monooxygenation reactions in primary and secondary metabolism, which may lead to the production of diverse secondary metabolites. Many of these, such as from the family of trichothecenes, involve in biocontrol activities. The diversified nature of fungal P450 monooxygenases makes their host organisms adoptable to various ecological niches. The available genome data analysis provided an insight into the activity and mechanisms of the fungal P450s. However, still more structural and functional studies are needed to elucidate the details of its catalytic mechanism, and the advance studies are also required to decipher further about their dynamic role in various aspects of trichothecene oxygenations. This mini review will provide updated information on different fungal P450 monooxygenases, their genetic diversity, and their role in catalyzing various biochemical reactions leading to the production of plant growth promoting secondary metabolites.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Engineered bacterial biofloc formation enhancing phenol removal and cell
           tolerance
    • Abstract: A microbial floc consisting of a community of microbes embedded in extracellular polymeric substances matrix can provide microbial resistances to toxic chemicals and harsh environments. Phenol is a toxic environmental pollutant and a typical lignin-derived phenolic inhibitor. In this study, we genetically engineered Escherichia coli cells by expressions of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) to promote proteinaceous and aliphatic biofloc formation. Compared with the planktonic E. coli cells, the biofloc-forming cells improved phenol removal rate by up to 2.2-folds, due to their substantially improved tolerance (up to 149%) to phenol and slightly enhanced cellular activity (20%) of phenol hydroxylase (PheH). The engineered bioflocs also improved E. coli tolerance to other toxic compounds such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and guaiacol. Additionally, the strategy of the engineered biofloc formation was applicable to Pseudomonas putida and enhanced its tolerance to phenol. This study highlights a strategy to form engineered bioflocs for improved cell tolerance and removal of toxic compounds, enabling their universality of use in bioproduction and bioremediation.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Efficient affinity-tagging of M13 phage capsid protein IX for
           immobilization of protein III-displayed oligopeptide probes on abiotic
           platforms
    • Abstract: We developed a genetic approach to efficiently add an affinity tag to every copy of protein IX (pIX) of M13 filamentous bacteriophage in a population. Affinity-tagged phages can be immobilized on a surface in a uniform monolayer in order to position the pIII–displayed peptides or proteins for optimal interaction with ligands. The tagging consists of two major steps. First, gene IX (gIX) of M13 phage is mutated in Escherichia coli via genetic recombineering with the gIX::aacCI insertion allele. Second, a plasmid that co-produces the affinity-tagged pIX and native pVIII is transformed into the strain carrying the defective M13 gIX. This genetic complementation allows the formation of infective phage particles that carry a full complement (five copies per virion) of the affinity-tagged pIX. To demonstrate the efficacy of our method, we tagged a M13 derivative phage, M13KE, with Strep-tag II. In order to tag pIX with Strep-tag II, the phage genes for pIX and pVIII were cloned and expressed from pASG-IBA4 which contains the E. coli OmpA signal sequence and Strep-Tag II under control of the tetracycline promoter/operator system. We achieved the maximum phage production of 3 × 1011 pfu/ml when Strep-Tag II-pIX-pVIII fusion was induced with 10 ng/ml of anhydrotetracycline. The complete process of affinity tagging a phage probe takes less than 5 days and can be utilized to tag any M13 or fd pIII-displayed oligopeptide probes to improve their performance.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Diversity of volatile organic compound production from leucine and citrate
           in Enterococcus faecium
    • Abstract: Enterococcus faecium is frequently isolated from fermented food; in particular, they positively contribute to the aroma compound generation in traditional cheese. Citrate fermentation is a desirable property in these bacteria, but this feature is not uniformly distributed among E. faecium strains. In the present study, three selected E. faecium strains, IQ110 (cit−), GM70 (cit+ type I), and Com12 (cit+ type II), were analyzed in their production of aroma compounds in milk. End products and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined by solid-phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) of aroma compound profiles revealed a different VOC composition for the three strains. In addition, resting cell experiments of E. faecium performed in the presence of leucine, citrate, or pyruvate as aroma compound precursors allowed us to determine metabolic differences between the studied strains. GM70 (cit+ type I) showed an active citrate metabolism, with increased levels of diacetyl and acetoin generation relative to Com12 or to citrate defective IQ110 strains. In addition, in the experimental conditions tested, a defective citrate-fermenting phenotype for the Com12 strain was found, while its leucine degradation and pyruvate metabolism were conserved. In conclusion, rational selection of E. faecium strains could be performed based on genotypic and phenotypic analyses. This would result in a performing strain, such as GM70, that could positively contribute to flavor, with typical notes of diacetyl, acetoin, 3-methyl butanal, and 3-methyl butanol in an adjuvant culture.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Zinc supplementation improves the harvest purity of β-glucuronidase from
           CHO cell culture by suppressing apoptosis
    • Abstract: The variability of trace metals in cell culture media is a potential manufacturing concern because it may significantly affect the production and quality of therapeutic proteins. Variability in trace metals in CHO cell culture has been shown to impact critical production metrics such as cell growth, viability, nutrient consumption, and production of recombinant proteins. To better understand the influence of excess supplementation, zinc and copper were initially supplemented with 50-μM concentrations to determine the impact on the production and quality of β-glucuronidase, a lysosomal enzyme, in a parallel bioreactor system. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a metal chelator, was included as another treatment to induce a depletion of trace metal bioavailability to examine deficiency. Samples were drawn daily to monitor cell growth and viability, nutrient levels, β-glucuronidase activity, and trace zinc flux. Cell cycle analysis revealed the inhibition of sub-G0/G1 species in zinc supplemented cultures, maintaining higher viability compared to the control, EDTA-, and copper-supplemented cultures. Enzyme activity analysis in the harvests revealed higher specific activity of β-glucuronidase in reactors supplemented with zinc. A confirmation run was conducted with supplementations of zinc at concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 μM. Further cell cycle analysis and caspase-3 analysis demonstrated the role of zinc as an apoptosis suppressor responsible for the enhanced harvest purity of β-glucuronidase from zinc-supplemented bioreactors.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Quantitative multi-omics analysis of the effects of mitochondrial
           dysfunction on lipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • Abstract: In this study, combined genome, transcriptome, and metabolome analysis was performed for eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial respiration-deficient mutants. Each mutant exhibited a unique nuclear genome mutation pattern; the nuclear genome mutations, and thus potentially affected genes and metabolic pathways, showed a co-occurrence frequency of ≤ 3 among the eight mutants. For example, only a lipid metabolism-related pathway was likely to be affected by the nuclear genome mutations in one of the mutants. However, large deletions in the mitochondrial genome were the shared characteristic among the eight mutants. At the transcriptomic level, lipid metabolism was the most significantly enriched Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) co-occurring in both ≥ 4 and ≥ 5 mutants. Any identified DEG enriched in lipid metabolism showed the same up-/down-regulated pattern among nearly all eight mutants. Further, 126 differentially expressed lipid species (DELS) were identified, which also showed the same up-/down-regulated pattern among nearly all investigated mutants. It was conservatively demonstrated that the similar change pattern of lipid metabolism in the entire investigated mutant population was attributed to mitochondrial dysfunction. The change spectrum of lipid species was presented, suggesting that the number and change degree of up-regulated lipid species were higher than those of down-regulated lipid species. Additionally, energy storage lipids increased in content and plasma-membrane phospholipid compositions varied in the relative proposition. The results for the genome, transcriptome, and lipidome were mutually validated, which provides quantitative data revealing the roles of mitochondria from a global cellular perspective.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Antimicrobial secondary metabolites from agriculturally important bacteria
           as next-generation pesticides
    • Abstract: The whole organisms can be packaged as biopesticides, but secondary metabolites secreted by microorganisms can also have a wide range of biological activities that either protect the plant against pests and pathogens or act as plant growth promotors which can be beneficial for the agricultural crops. In this review, we have compiled information about the most important secondary metabolites of three important bacterial genera currently used in agriculture pest and disease management.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Advances in acrylamide bioproduction catalyzed with Rhodococcus cells
           harboring nitrile hydratase
    • Abstract: Acrylamide is an important bulk chemical used for producing polyacrylamide, which is widely applied in diverse fields, such as enhanced oil recovery and water treatment. Acrylamide production with a superior biocatalyst, free-resting Rhodococcus cells containing nitrile hydratase (NHase), has been proven to be simple but effective, thereby becoming the main method adopted in industry to date. Under the harsh industrial conditions, however, NHase-containing Rhodococcus cells in a natural state are prone to deactivation. Thus, multiple genetic strategies able to evolve recombinant Rhodococcus biocatalysts at either the enzyme or cell level have been reported. While most of the methods on enzyme engineering concentrate on NHase stability enhancement by strengthening the flexible sites, Rhodococcus cell engineering with various methods can enhance both the NHase activity and stability as well. Developing some new types of reactors, especially the microreactor, is also an effective way to improve the hydration process efficiency. Compared with the conventional stirred tank reactor, the membrane dispersion microreactor can enhance the heat and mass transfer in the hydration process with Rhodococcus cells as biocatalysts, thereby significantly improving the productivity of the acrylamide bioproduction process.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Metabolic engineering for the production of fat-soluble vitamins: advances
           and perspectives
    • Abstract: Fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins that are insoluble in water, soluble in fat, and organic solvents; they are found in minute amount in various foods. Fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamins A, D, E, and K, have been widely used in food, cosmetics, health care products, and pharmaceutical industries. Fat-soluble vitamins are currently produced via biological and chemical synthesis. In recent years, fat-soluble vitamin production by biotechnological routes has been regarded as a very promising approach. Based on biosynthetic pathways, considerable advances of α-tocopherol and β-carotenes have been achieved in transgenic plants and microalgae. Microbial fermentation, as an alternative method for the production of vitamin K and β-carotenes, is attracting considerable attention because it is an environment friendly process. In this review, we address the function and applications of fat-soluble vitamins, and an overview of current developments in the production of fat-soluble vitamins in transgenic plants, microalgae, and microorganisms. We focus on the metabolic and process engineering strategies for improving production of fat-soluble vitamins, and we hope this review can be useful for the people who are interested in the production of fat-soluble vitamins by biotechnological routes.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Enzymatic characterization and regulation of gene expression of PhoK
           alkaline phosphatase in Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1
    • Abstract: Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 can significantly degrade chlorinated organophosphorus flame retardants, such as tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate. The PhoK of strain TCM1 (Sb-PhoK) is the main alkaline phosphatase (APase) that catalyzes the last step in the degradation pathway. Here, we purified and characterized Sb-PhoK produced in E. coli, and analyzed the regulation of Sb-phoK gene expression in strain TCM1. The recombinant Sb-PhoK was produced in the mature form, lacking a putative signal peptide, and formed a homodimer. Purified Sb-PhoK exhibited 384 U/mg of specific activity at 37 °C. The optimum temperature was 50 °C, and Sb-PhoK was completely inactivated when incubated at 60 °C for 10 min. The optimum pH was 10, with stability observed at pH 6.0–10.5. Sb-PhoK was suggested to contain two Ca2+ and one Zn2+ per subunit, but excess addition of Zn2+ into the reaction mixture markedly inhibited the enzyme activity. Sb-PhoK showed phosphatase activity against various phosphorylated compounds, except for bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate, indicating that it is a phosphomonoesterase with broad substrate specificity. The Km and kcat for p-nitrophenyl phosphate were 2.31 mM and 1270 s−1, respectively, under optimal conditions. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by vanadate, dithiothreitol, and SDS, but was highly resistant to urea and Triton X-100. Sb-phoK gene expression was regulated by the inorganic phosphate concentration in culture medium, and was induced at a low inorganic phosphate concentration. The deletion of Sb-phoB gene resulted in no induction of Sb-phoK gene even at a low inorganic phosphate concentration, confirming that Sb-PhoK is a member of Pho regulon.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Novel strategy to improve the colonizing ability of Irpex lacteus in
           non-sterile wheat straw for enhanced rumen and enzymatic digestibility
    • Abstract: Pretreatment with white rot fungi is a promising method to enhance the digestibility of lignocelluloses; however, sterilization of feedstocks prior to inoculation is one of the costliest steps. To improve the colonizing ability of white rot fungi under non-sterile condition, Irpex lacteus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were inoculated in the wheat straw ensiled for 28 days and incubated for 56 days to determine the changes in microbe counts, organic acid content, chemical composition, and rumen and enzymatic digestibility. Results showed that ensiling produced abundant organic acids and suppressed most microbes in wheat straw. Significant growth of I. lacteus was observed after 3 days of incubation, and molds were only detectable at day 7 in the group. At the end of incubation, aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria decreased by 18% and 38% in the wheat straw treated with I. lacteus, but molds, aerobic bacteria, and lactic acid bacteria thrived in those treated with P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium. Even more, P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium increased the lignin content of the ensiled wheat straw by 34% and 65%. However, I. lacteus selectively degraded lignin by 28% and improved the rumen and enzymatic digestibility by 18% and 34%. The finding indicates that ensiling prior to fermentation with I. lacteus is an effective method to control spoilage microbes and to enhance the rumen and enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • A plasmid-based genomic screening system for transcriptional regulators of
           non-adjacent xenobiotic catabolism genes
    • Abstract: Bacteria play an important role in the catabolism of environmental xenobiotics. The study of transcriptional regulation has greatly enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with these processes. However, genes encoding transcription factors (TFs) for xenobiotic catabolism are usually not located in the immediate vicinity of the catabolic genes that they regulate; therefore, functional identification of these TFs is difficult. Significantly modified from a metagenome screening method substrate-induced gene expression (SIGEX), here we propose a synthetic pSRGFP-18 plasmid-based tool as a TF reporter system. In short, two multiple cloning sites (MCS) were designed; one in front of an egfp reporter gene was constructed for promoter insertion, and the other MCS was used for shotgun cloning of genomic DNA. Based on the regulatory relationship between TFs and the promoter of their associated catabolic genes, this approach allowed us to screen for TF genes using a genome shotgun approach. This system performed well when testing the known operons. Following statistical analysis of known catabolic operons in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the suggested region of the target promoter for this system was from − 250 to + 150. Furthermore, to broaden the applicability of this plasmid, a series of pSRGFP-18 and pBBR1-based pSRGFP-X plasmids were constructed, which had broad host ranges and contained different antibiotic markers. This study outlines a powerful tool to enable functional identification of TFs for bacterial xenobiotic catabolism.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • OxyR-controlled surface polysaccharide production and biofilm formation in
           Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1
    • Abstract: The genomes of several Acinetobacter species possess three distinct polysaccharide-producing operons [two poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG) and one K-locus]. Using a microfluidic device, an increased amount of polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation were observed following continuous exposure to H2O2 and removal of the H2O2-sensing key regulator, OxyR, in Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 cells. Gene expression analysis revealed that genes located in PNAG1, but not those in PNAG2, were induced and that genes in the K-locus were expressed in the presence of H2O2. Interestingly, the expression of the K-locus gene was enhanced in the PNAG1 mutant and vice versa. The absence of either OxyR or PNAG1 resulted in enhanced biofilm formation, higher surface hydrophobicity, and increased motility, implying that K-locus-driven polysaccharide production in both the oxyR and PNAG1 deletion mutants may be related to these phenotypes. Both the oxyR and K-locus deletion mutants were more sensitive to H2O2 compared with the wildtype and PNAG1 mutant strains. Purified OxyR binds to the promoter regions of both polysaccharide operons with a higher affinity toward the K-locus promoter. Although oxidized OxyR could bind to both promoter regions, the addition of dithiothreitol further enhanced the binding efficiency of OxyR, suggesting that OxyR might function as a repressor for controlling these polysaccharide operons.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Production and characterisation of a marine Halomonas surface-active
           exopolymer
    • Abstract: During screening for novel emulsifiers and surfactants, a marine gammaproteobacterium, Halomonas sp. MCTG39a, was isolated and selected for its production of an extracellular emulsifying agent, P39a. This polymer was produced by the new isolate during growth in a modified Zobell’s 2216 medium amended with 1% glucose, and was extractable by cold ethanol precipitation. Chemical, chromatographic and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis confirmed P39a to be a high-molecular-weight (~ 261,000 g/mol) glycoprotein composed of carbohydrate (17.2%) and protein (36.4%). The polymer exhibited high emulsifying activities against a range of oil substrates that included straight-chain aliphatics, mono- and alkyl- aromatics and cycloparaffins. In general, higher emulsification values were measured under low (0.1 M PBS) compared to high (synthetic seawater) ionic strength conditions, indicating that low ionic strength is more favourable for emulsification by the P39a polymer. However, as observed with other bacterial emulsifying agents, the polymer emulsified some aromatic hydrocarbon species, as well as refined and crude oils, more effectively under high ionic strength conditions, which we posit could be due to steric adsorption to these substrates as may be conferred by the protein fraction of the polymer. Furthermore, the polymer effected a positive influence on the degradation of phenanthrene by other marine bacteria, such as the specialist PAH-degrader Polycyclovorans algicola. Collectively, based on the ability of this Halomonas high-molecular-weight glycoprotein to emulsify a range of pure hydrocarbon species, as well as refined and crude oils, it shows promise for the bioremediation of contaminated sites.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Genome mining integrating semi-rational protein engineering and
           nanoreactor design: roadmap for a robust biocatalyst for industrial
           resolution of Vince lactam
    • Abstract: Biomanufacturing of chemicals using biocatalysts is an attractive strategy for the production of valuable pharmaceuticals since it is usually more economical and has a much-reduced environmental impact. However, there are often challenges such as their thermal instability that should be overcome before a newly discovered enzyme is eventually translated into industrial processes. In this work, we describe a roadmap for the development of a robust catalyst for industrial resolution of Vince lactam, a key intermediate for the synthesis of carbocyclic-nucleoside-related pharmaceuticals. By a genome mining strategy, a new (+)-γ-lactamase (MiteL) from Microbacterium testaceum was successfully discovered and biochemically characterized. In vitro studies showed that the enzyme exhibited high activity but poor enantioselectivity (E = 6.3 ± 0.2) toward racemic Vince lactam, and thus, it is not suitable for industrial applications. Based on structural modeling and docking studies, a semi-rational engineering strategy combined with an efficient screening method was then applied to improve the enantioselectivity of MiteL. Several mutants with significant shifting stereoselectivity toward (−)-γ-lactam were obtained by site-saturation mutagenesis. Synergy effects led to the final mutant F14D/Q114R/M117L, which enabled efficient acquisition of (−)-γ-lactam with a high E value (> 200). The mutant was biochemically characterized, and the docking studies suggested a plausible mechanism for its improved selectivity. Finally, a sunflower-like nanoreactor was successfully constructed to improve the mutant’s robustness via protein supramolecular self-assembly. Thus, the synergism between semi-rational protein engineering and self-assembling immobilization enabled construction of a nanoreactor with superior properties, which can be used for resolution of Vince lactam in large scale.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Evaluation of the protective immunity of Riemerella anatipestifer OmpA
    • Abstract: Riemerella anatipestifer is responsible for an economically important disease of commercially raised ducks. No or only few cross-protection was observed between different serotypes of R. anatipestifer strains, and so far no protective antigen in this bacterium has been identified. OmpA is a predominant immunogenic protein of R. anatipestifer, and within the 1467 bp ompA ORF (ompA1467), there is another 1164 bp ORF (ompA1164) with the same C-terminal. In this study, our results showed that the full sequence of ompA1467 from some R. anatipestifer strains with different serotypes shared the same amino acid sequence. Animal experiments showed that the soluble recombinant protein rOmpA1164, but not rOmpA1467, could provide partial protective immunity against challenge. Moreover, there was no significant difference in protective immunity between ducklings immunized with Th4△ompA bacterin and those immunized with Th4 bacterin. In addition, OmpA1467 was the main existing form of OmpA in R. anatipestifer cells by gel electrophoresis and western blot analyses. The results suggested that OmpA1467 was not a protective antigen of R. anatipestifer, and antibodies against proteins other than OmpA play a critical role in the process of anti-R. anatipestifer infection.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Characterization of three GH35 β-galactosidases, enzymes able to shave
           galactosyl residues linked to rhamnogalacturonan in pectin, from
           Penicillium chrysogenum 31B
    • Abstract: Three recombinant β-galactosidases (BGALs; PcBGAL35A, PcBGAL35B, and PcGALX35C) belonging to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 35 derived from Penicillium chrysogenum 31B were expressed using Pichia pastoris and characterized. PcBGAL35A showed a unique substrate specificity that has not been reported so far. Based on the results of enzymological tests and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, PcBGAL35A was found to hydrolyze β-1,4-galactosyl residues linked to l-rhamnose in rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) of pectin, as well as p-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside and β-d-galactosyl oligosaccharides. PcBGAL35B was determined to be a common BGAL through molecular phylogenetic tree and substrate specificity analysis. PcGALX35C was found to have similar catalytic capacities for the β-1,4-galactosyl oligomer and polymer. Furthermore, PcGALX35C hydrolyzed RG-I-linked β-1,4-galactosyl oligosaccharide side chains with a degree of polymerization of 2 or higher in pectin. The amino acid sequence similarity of PcBGAL35A was approximately 30% with most GH35 BGALs, whose enzymatic properties have been characterized. The amino acid sequence of PcBGAL35B was approximately 80% identical to those of BGALs from Penicillium sp. The amino acid sequence of PcGALX35C was classified into the same phylogenetic group as PcBGAL35A. Pfam analysis revealed that the three BGALs had five domains including a catalytic domain. Our findings suggest that PcBGAL35A and PcGALX35C are enzymes involved in the degradation of galactosylated RG-I in pectin. The enzymes characterized in this study may be applied for products that require pectin processing and for the structural analysis of pectin.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Modulation effect of tea consumption on gut microbiota
    • Abstract: Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world and possesses a wide range of beneficial effects for human health. The modulation of tea on gut microbiota has gained much interest in recent years. The present study discussed the modulation effect of various types of tea on gut microbiota, which plays crucial roles in human health, as investigated by in vitro animal and human studies. The currently available findings from a total of 23 studies support the modulation effects of tea liquid, tea extract, and its major active components, including polyphenols, polysaccharides, and teasaponin, on gut microbiota. Overall, tea possesses prebiotic-like effect and can alleviate the gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by high-fat diet in gut microbiota, despite the detailed bacterial taxa may alter depending on the types of tea supplemented. Current evidence implies that the modulation effect on gut microbiota may be an important action mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of tea consumption in daily life and also the great potential of strategically chosen tea extract to develop functional foods.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Chemoenzymatic synthesis of the pH responsive surfactant octyl
           β-D-glucopyranoside uronic acid
    • Abstract: Methodology was developed to expand the range of benign alkyl glycoside surfactants to include also anionic types. This was demonstrated possible through conversion of the glycoside to its carboxyl derivative. Specifically, octyl β-D-glucopyranoside (OG) was oxidised to the corresponding uronic acid (octyl β-D-glucopyranoside uronic acid, OG-COOH) using the catalyst system T. versicolor laccase/2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPO) and oxygen from air as oxidant. The effects of oxygen supply methodology, concentrations of laccase, TEMPO and OG as well as reaction temperature were evaluated. At 10 mM substrate concentration, the substrate was almost quantitatively converted into product, and even at a substrate concentration of 60 mM, 85% conversion was reached within 24 h. The surfactant properties of OG-COOH were markedly dependent on pH. Foaming was only observed at low pH, while no foam was formed at pH values above 5.0. Thus, OG-COOH can be an attractive low-foaming surfactant, for example for cleaning applications and emulsification, in a wide pH range (pH 1.5–10.0).
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
 
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