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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.182
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 67  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0614 - ISSN (Online) 0175-7598
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Measures to improve wine malolactic fermentation
    • Abstract: This review focuses on the considerable amount of research that has been directed towards the improvement of efficiency and reliability of malolactic fermentation (MLF), which is important in winemaking. From this large body of work, it is clear that reliable MLF is essential for process efficiency and prevention of spoilage in the final product. Impediments to successful MLF in wine, the impact of grape and wine ecology and how this may affect MLF outcome are discussed. Further focus is given to how MLF success may be enhanced, via alternative inoculation strategies, MLF progress sensing technologies and the use of different bacterial species. An update of how this information may be used to enhance and improve sensory outcomes through metabolite production during MLF and suggestions for future research priorities for the field are also provided.
      PubDate: 2019-01-16
       
  • Biomedical applications of microbially engineered polyhydroxyalkanoates:
           an insight into recent advances, bottlenecks, and solutions
    • Abstract: Biopolymeric polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are fabricated and accumulated by microbes under unbalanced growth conditions, primarily by diverse genera of bacteria. Over the last two decades, microbially engineered PHAs gained substantial interest worldwide owing to their promising wide-range uses in biomedical field as biopolymeric biomaterials. Because of non-hazardous disintegration products, preferred surface alterations, inherent biocompatibility, modifiable mechanical properties, cultivation support for cells, adhesion devoid of carcinogenic impacts, and controllable biodegradability, the PHAs like poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate co-polymers, 3-hydroxybutyrate and 4-hydroxybutyrate co-polymers, etc., are available for various medical applications. These PHAs have been exploited to design in vivo implants like sutures as well as valves for direct tissue repairing as well as in regeneration devices like bone graft substitutes, nerve guides as well as cardiovascular patches, etc. Furthermore, they are also emerged as attractive candidates for developing effective/novel drug delivery systems because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability with the ability to deliver and release the drugs at a specific site in a controllable manner and, therefore widen the therapeutic window with reduced side effects. However, there still remain some bottlenecks related to PHA purity, mechanical properties, biodegradability, etc., that are need to be addressed so as to make PHAs a realistic biomaterial. In addition, innovative approaches like PHAs co-production with other value-added products, etc., must be developed currently for economical PHA production. This review provides an insight toward the recent advances, bottlenecks, and potential solutions for prospective biomedical applications of PHAs with conclusion that relatively little research/study has been performed presently toward the viability of PHAs as realistic biopolymeric biomaterials.
      PubDate: 2019-01-15
       
  • Enrichment of cordycepin for cosmeceutical applications: culture systems
           and strategies
    • Abstract: Cordyceps spp. is the herbal medication initially used in China and has been reported as the unique resource of cordycepin. Cordycepin exhibits many health benefits, including anti-photoaging and anti-pigmentation; therefore, it potentially is a bioactive ingredient of cosmetic products. In order to enrich cordycepin content in Cordyceps, two artificial cultivation procedures, which are solid-state fermentation and liquid culture, were developed and optimized. The aim of this review is to illustrate cordycepin biosynthesis pathway in Cordyceps, and its bioactivity for cosmeceutical applications, as well as comparing the two different cultivation procedures. The basic model of artificial cultivation of Cordyceps is introduced; meanwhile, the potential application of modern biotechnology to the artificial cultivation is also discussed. This review should be of interest to the readers for the development of cordycepin bioproduction in order to be applied in cosmeceutical industry and some other uses.
      PubDate: 2019-01-15
       
  • Engineering and characterization of copper and gold sensors in Escherichia
           coli and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002
    • Abstract: The anthropogenic release of toxic metals into the environment poses danger to the health of both humans and the local ecosystem. Biosensors for the detection of metals have been developed to improve our ability to monitor these environmental contaminants, yet most of these sensors use heterotrophic bacterial hosts, which require a fixed carbon source and do not typically grow in natural waterways. In this study, we constructed and characterized metal sensors for development of a photoautotrophic biosensor using Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. We characterized gold and copper sensors based on modified MerR transcriptional activators: GolSA113T, with improved gold binding, and GolSCL, containing the metal-binding loop from CueR which binds both gold and copper. The metal-sensing constructs were first optimized and characterized in Escherichia coli MG1655. The addition of a strong ribosome binding site to the optical reporter protein increased translation of the fluorescent reporter, and expression of golSA113T from the rbc promoter of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 improved the response to gold in MG1655. In rich medium, the GolSA113T-based E. coli sensor detected gold at concentrations as low as 100 nM, while the GolSCL-based E. coli sensor detected gold and copper at sensitivities of 100 nM and 10 μM, respectively. Both E. coli sensors responded to gold and copper yet showed no detectable response to other metals. Abiotic factors, such as medium complexity, were found to influence the response of the E. coli sensors, with minimal medium resulting in higher sensitivities of detection. Expression of the GolSA113T- and GolSCL-based sensor constructs in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 resulted in photoautotrophic gold sensors, but these biosensors failed to produce a significant response to copper. Moreover, the fluorescence response of the cyanobacterial sensors to gold was significantly reduced compared to that of analogous E. coli sensors. While this effort demonstrates feasibility for the development of photoautotrophic biosensors, additional efforts to optimize sensor performance will be required.
      PubDate: 2019-01-15
       
  • Recent advancements in high-level synthesis of the promising clinical
           drug, prodigiosin
    • Authors: Chee-Hoo Yip; Orr Yarkoni; James Ajioka; Kiew-Lian Wan; Sheila Nathan
      Abstract: Prodigiosin, a red linear tripyrrole pigment and a member of the prodiginine family, is normally secreted by the human pathogen Serratia marcescens as a secondary metabolite. Studies on prodigiosin have received renewed attention as a result of reported immunosuppressive, antimicrobial and anticancer properties. High-level synthesis of prodigiosin and the bioengineering of strains to synthesise useful prodiginine derivatives have also been a subject of investigation. To exploit the potential use of prodigiosin as a clinical drug targeting bacteria or as a dye for textiles, high-level synthesis of prodigiosin is a prerequisite. This review presents an overview on the biosynthesis of prodigiosin from its natural host Serratia marcescens and through recombinant approaches as well as highlighting the beneficial properties of prodigiosin. We also discuss the prospect of adopting a synthetic biology approach for safe and cost-effective production of prodigiosin in a more industrially compliant surrogate host.
      PubDate: 2019-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-09611-z
       
  • Applications of cellulose and chitin/chitosan derivatives and composites
           as antibacterial materials: current state and perspectives
    • Authors: Shahia Khattak; Fazli Wahid; Ling-Pu Liu; Shi-Ru Jia; Li-Qiang Chu; Yan-Yan Xie; Zi-Xuan Li; Cheng Zhong
      Abstract: The bacterial infections have always a serious problem to public health. Scientists are developing new antibacterial materials to overcome this problem. Polysaccharides are promising biopolymers due to their diverse biological functions, low toxicity, and high biodegradability. Chitin and chitosan have antibacterial properties due to their cationic nature, while cellulose/bacterial cellulose does not possess any antibacterial activity. Moreover, the insolubility of chitin in common solvents, the poor solubility of chitosan in water, and the low mechanical properties of chitosan have restricted their biomedical applications. In order to solve these problems, chemical modifications such as quaternization, carboxymethylation, cationization, or surface modification of these polymers with different antimicrobial agents, including metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, are carried out to obtain new materials with improved physiochemical and biological properties. This mini review describes the recent progress in such derivatives and composites with potential antibacterial applications.
      PubDate: 2019-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-09602-0
       
  • Establishment and characterization of an immortalized renal cell line of
           the Chinese tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri chinesis )
    • Authors: Tianle Gu; Dandan Yu; Yu Li; Ling Xu; Yu-Lin Yao; Yong-Gang Yao
      Abstract: The Chinese tree shrew holds a great potential as a viable animal model in biomedical research, especially for infectious diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. A thorough understanding of the innate immunity, which represents the first line that defends the host against viral infection, of the Chinese tree shrew, is needed. However, the progress is hindered by the lack of a proper cell line for research usage. In this study, we established a cell line that is applicable to the study of tree shrew innate immune responses against viral infections. The Chinese tree shrew primary renal cells (TSPRCs) were immortalized by simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40LT) transduction, and the immortalized cells were termed TSR6 (tree shrew renal cell #6). TSR6 showed a similar morphology to TSPRCs and expressed the epithelial cell-specific marker cytokeratin 18 (KRT18). In addition, TSR6 could be transfected by transfection reagent and was suitable for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing. Infection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) in TSR6 induced the mRNA expression of tree shrew interferon-β (tIFNB1) and myxovirus resistance protein 1 (tMx1) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Collectively, we successfully established a tree shrew renal cell line and demonstrated that this cell line was suitable for the study of the innate immune response to viral infections.
      PubDate: 2019-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-019-09615-3
       
  • Landomycin biosynthesis and its regulation in Streptomyces
    • Authors: Oleksandr Yushchuk; Madan Kharel; Iryna Ostash; Bohdan Ostash
      Abstract: This mini-review is centered on genetic aspects of biosynthesis of landomycins (La), a family of angucycline polyketides. From the very discovery in the 1990s, La were noted for unusual structure and potent anticancer properties. La are produced by a few actinobacteria that belong to genus Streptomyces. Biochemical logic behind the production of La aglycon and glycoside halves and effects of La on mammalian cells have been thoroughly reviewed in 2009–2012. Yet, the genetic diversity of La biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) and regulation of their production were not properly reviewed since discovery of La. Here, we aim to fill this gap by focusing on three interrelated topics. First, organization of known La BGCs is compared. Second, up-to-date scheme of biosynthetic pathway to landomycin A (LaA), the biggest (by molar weight) member of La family, is succinctly outlined. Third, we describe genetic and nutritional factors that influence La production and export. A summary of the practical utility of the gained knowledge and future directions to study La biosynthesis conclude this mini-review.
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-09601-1
       
  • Expression, characterization, and site-specific covalent immobilization of
           an L-amino acid oxidase from the fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum
    • Authors: Svenja Bloess; Tobias Beuel; Tobias Krüger; Norbert Sewald; Thomas Dierks; Gabriele Fischer von Mollard
      Abstract: l-Amino acid oxidases (LAAOs) are flavoproteins, which use oxygen to deaminate l-amino acids and produce the corresponding α-keto acids, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. Here we describe the heterologous expression of LAAO4 from the fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum without signal sequence as fusion protein with a 6His tag in Escherichia coli and its purification. 6His-hcLAAO4 could be activated by exposure to acidic pH, the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate, or freezing. The enzyme converted 14 proteinogenic l-amino acids with l-glutamine, l-leucine, l-methionine, l-phenylalanine, l-tyrosine, and l-lysine being the best substrates. Methyl esters of these l-amino acids were also accepted. Even ethyl esters were converted but with lower activity. Km values were below 1 mM and vmax values between 19 and 39 U mg−1 for the best substrates with the acid-activated enzyme. The information for an N-terminal aldehyde tag was added to the coding sequence. Co-expressed formylglycine-generating enzyme was used to convert a cysteine residue in the aldehyde tag to a Cα-formylglycine residue. The aldehyde tag did not change the properties of the enzyme. Purified Ald-6His-hcLAAO4 was covalently bound to a hexylamine resin via the Cα-formylglycine residue. The immobilized enzyme could be reused repeatedly to generate phenylpyruvate from l-phenylalanine with a total turnover number of 17,600 and was stable for over 40 days at 25 °C.
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-09609-7
       
  • Regulation of the phosphate metabolism in Streptomyces genus: impact on
           the secondary metabolites
    • Authors: Carlos Barreiro; Miriam Martínez-Castro
      Abstract: The analysis of the inorganic phosphate effect over the antibiotics production is a long-distance history in the Streptomyces genus, which began almost at the same time that Michael Ende published his book entitled The Neverending Story. In some way, the unveiling of the pho regulon and its influence over the secondary metabolites production is an unfinished story, which keeps this subject as a trending topic, nowadays. Up to date, different studies have been releasing knowledge about particular areas of the pho regulon of different Streptomyces species. Nevertheless, for the first time, these knowledge drops are grouped in a review presenting a broad overview of the phosphate regulation and its impact over the secondary metabolites production in industrially relevant species. Even though the genetic response against phosphate scarcity is similar, as a whole, in different Streptomyces species, the fine-tuning is species-specific. Thus, the response regulator PhoP directly controls the secondary metabolites production in some species, whereas it regulates them in an indirect manner in other species. This information, unraveled in this review, is the result of the intensive analysis along last decade in several species of the genus that is allowing to distinguish how the phosphate response is unleashed in Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces lividans, Streptomyces natalensis, Streptomyces lydicus, Streptomyces avermitilis, and Streptomyces tsukubaensis.
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-09600-2
       
  • The homeobox gene MaH1 governs microcycle conidiation for increased
           conidial yield by mediating transcription of conidiation pattern
           shift-related genes in Metarhizium acridum
    • Authors: Pingping Gao; Muchun Li; Kai Jin; Yuxian Xia
      Abstract: Conidiation capacity and conidial quality are very important for the production and application of mycopesticides. Most filamentous ascomycetous fungi have two distinct patterns of conidiation. Conidiation through microcycle conidiation proceeds to more rapidly achieve a maximum of conidial yield than normal conidiation and hence is of greater merit for exploitation in mass production of fungal insect pathogens, such as Metarhizium acridum. In this study, the mechanism underlying the conidiation pattern shift in M. acridum was explored by characterization of the fungal homeobox gene MaH1. MaH1 was evidently localized to the nuclei of hyphae and transcriptionally expressed at a maximal level when conidiation began. Intriguingly, deletion of MaH1 in M. acridum resulted in a shift of normal conidiation to microcycle conidiation on one-quarter strength Sabouraud’s dextrose agar medium, and hence accelerated conidiation and increased conidial yield. In the deletion mutant, moreover, conidia became larger in size and hyphae cells were shorter in length while conidial virulence and stress tolerance were not altered. As revealed by digital gene expression profiling, MaH1 controlled the shift of conidiation patterns by mediating transcription of a set of genes related to hyphal growth, cell differentiation, conidiation, and some important signaling pathways. These findings indicate that MaH1 and its downstream genes can be exploited to increase the conidial yield for more efficient production of mycopesticides.
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9558-4
       
  • Effect of ultrasonication and thermal and pressure treatments,
           individually and combined, on inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores
    • Authors: Ruiling Lv; Mingming Zou; Thunthacha Chantapakul; Weijun Chen; Aliyu Idris Muhammad; Jianwei Zhou; Tian Ding; Xingqian Ye; Donghong Liu
      Abstract: Bacillus cereus spores are a concern to the food industry due to their high resistance to processing and their ability to germinate to vegetative cells under suitable conditions. This research aimed to elucidate the mechanisms of Bacillus cereus spore inactivation under ultrasonication (US) combined with thermal (thermosonication, TS) treatments, with pressure (manosonication, MS) treatments, and with thermal and pressure (manothermosonication, MTS) treatments. Electronic microscopy, dipicolinic acid (DPA) release, and flow cytometric assessments were used to investigate the inactivation effect and understand the inactivation mechanisms. The sporicidal effects of the US and thermal treatment were slight, and the MS and TS also showed little inactivation effect. However, ultrasonication promoted the detachment of the exosporium, thereby reducing the spore’s ability to adhere to a surface, while the thermal treatment induced a decrease in the electron density in the nucleoid of bacterium, which retained a relatively intact exosporium and coat. MS caused 92.54% DPA release, which might be due to triggering of the germinant receptors or releasing of ions and Ca2+-DPA. In addition, the morphological changes such as core hydration and cortex degradation were significant after treatment with MS. The release of DPA and the morphological changes were responsible for the reduction in thermal resistance. The MTS showed a remarkable inactivation effect of 3.12 log CFU/mL reductions after 30 min of treatment. It was the most effective treatment and exhibited a large fraction of damage. In addition, the MTS had a significant impact on the intracellular structure of the spores, with the coat destroyed and the cortex damaged. These results indicated that ultrasonication combined with thermal and pressure treatments had a significant sporicidal effect on Bacillus cereus spores and could be a promising green sterilization technology.
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9559-3
       
  • Discovery and identification of antimicrobial peptides in Sichuan pepper (
           Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim) seeds by peptidomics and bioinformatics
    • Authors: Xiaoyan Hou; Shanshan Li; Qingying Luo; Guanghui Shen; Hejun Wu; Meiliang Li; Xingyan Liu; Anjun Chen; Meng Ye; Zhiqing Zhang
      Abstract: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have generated growing attention because of the increasing bacterial resistance. However, the discovery and identification of AMPs have proven to be challenging due to the complex purification procedure associated with conventional methods. For the reasons given above, it is necessary to explore more efficient ways to obtain AMPs. We established a new method for discovery and identification of novel AMPs by proteomics and bioinformatics from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim seeds protein hydrolysate directly. This process was initially achieved by employing ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) spectrometry to identify peptides derived from Z. bungeanum Maxim seed protein hydrolysates. Three online servers were introduced to predict potential AMPs. Sixteen potential AMPs ranging from 1.5 to 2.7 kDa were predicted and chemically synthesized, one of which, designated NP-6, inhibited activity against all the tested strains according to antimicrobial assay. Time-killing assay indicated that NP-6 could quickly kill almost all the Escherichia coli within 180 min and Staphylococcus aureus at 360 min. Moreover, the simulation 3D structure of NP-6 was consisted of α-helix and random coil, and this was verified by circular dichroism (CD) spectra. At last, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of E. coli and S. aureus treated by NP-6 demonstrated that NP-6 had a significant effect on bacteria cell morphology. Our findings provide an efficient approach for discovery of AMPs, and Z. bungeanum Maxim seeds may be a nature resource to extract antimicrobial agents.
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-09593-y
       
  • Expression of the VP1 protein of FMDV integrated chromosomally with mutant
           Listeria monocytogenes strain induced both humoral and cellular immune
           responses
    • Authors: S. E. Mahdy; Sijing Liu; Lin Su; Xiang Zhang; Haotai Chen; Xiaofang Pei; Chuan Wang
      Abstract: Live vector-based vaccine is a modern approach to overcome the drawbacks of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines such as improper inactivation during manufacture. Listeria monocytogenes (LM), an intracellular microorganism with immune-stimulatory properties, is appropriate to be utilized as a live bacterial vaccine vector. FMDV-VP1 protein has the capability to induce both cellular and humoral immune responses since it is considered the most immunogenic part of FMDV capsid and has the most of antigenic sites for viral neutralization. The codon-optimized vp1 gene was ligated to the integrative pCW702 plasmid to construct the target cassette. The antigen cassette was integrated successfully into the chromosome of mutant LM strain via homologous recombination for more stability to generate a candidate vaccine strain LM△actAplcB-vp1. Safety evaluation of recombinant LM△actAplcB-vp1 revealed it could be eliminated from the internal organs within 3 days as a safe candidate vaccine. Mice groups were immunized I.V. twice with the recombinant LM△actAplcB-vp1 at an interval of 2 weeks. Antigen-specific IgG antibodies and the level of CD4+- and CD8+-specific secreted cytokines were estimated to evaluate the immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine. The rapid onset immune response was detected, strong IgG humoral immune response within 14 days post immunization and augmented again after the booster dose. Cellular immunity data after 9 days post the prime dose indicated elevation in CD4+ and CD8+ secreted cytokine level with another elevation after the booster dose. This is the first report to explain the ability of attenuated mutant LM to be a promising live vector for FMDV vaccine.
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-09605-x
       
  • Characterization of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and regulators
           involved in estrogen degradation in Pseudomonas putida SJTE-1
    • Authors: Pingping Wang; Daning Zheng; Wanli Peng; Yanqiu Wang; Xiuli Wang; Weiliang Xiong; Rubing Liang
      Abstract: In bacteria, the enzyme catalyzing the transformation of 17β-estradiol is considered the key enzyme for its metabolism, whose enzymatic activity and regulatory network influence the biodegradation efficiency of this typical estrogen. In this work, a novel 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) was characterized from the estrogen-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida SJTE-1, and two regulators were identified. This 17β-HSD, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, could be induced by 17β-estradiol and catalyzed the oxidization reaction at the C17 site of 17β-estradiol efficiently. Its Km value was 0.068 mM, and its Vmax value was 56.26 μmol/min/mg; over 98% of 17β-estradiol was oxidized into estrone in 5 min, indicating higher efficiency than other reported bacterial 17β-HSDs. Furthermore, two genes (crgA and oxyR) adjacent to 17β-hsd were studied which encoded the potential CrgA and OxyR regulators. Overexpression of crgA could enhance the transcription of 17β-hsd, while that of oxyR resulted in the opposite effect. They could bind to the specific and different sites in the promoter region of 17β-hsd gene directly, and binding of OxyR could be released by 17β-estradiol. OxyR repressed the expression of 17β-hsd by its specific binding to the conserved motif of GATA-N9-TATC, while CrgA activated the expression of this gene through its binding to the motif of T-N11-A. Therefore, this 17β-HSD transformed 17β-estradiol efficiently and the two regulators regulated its expression directly. This work could promote the study of the enzymatic mechanism and regulatory network of the estrogen biodegradation pathway in bacteria.
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9543-y
       
  • Evolutionary engineering of Escherichia coli for improved anaerobic growth
           in minimal medium accelerated lactate production
    • Authors: Baowei Wang; Xiaoxia Zhang; Xinlei Yu; Zhenzhen Cui; Zhiwen Wang; Tao Chen; Xueming Zhao
      Abstract: Anaerobic fermentation is a favorable process for microbial production of bulk chemicals like ethanol and organic acids. Low productivity is the bottleneck of several anaerobic processes which has significant impact on the technique competitiveness of production strain. Improving growth rate of production strain can speed up the total production cycle and may finally increase productivity of anaerobic processes. In this work, evolutionary engineering of wild-type strain Escherichia coli W3110 was adopted to improve anaerobic growth in mineral medium. Significant increases in exponential growth rate and stationary cell density were achieved in evolved strain WE269, and a 96.5% increase in lactate productivity has also been observed in batch fermentation of this strain with M9 minimal medium. Then, an engineered strain for lactate production (BW100) was constructed by using WE269 as a platform and 98.3 g/L lactate (with an optical purity of D-lactate above 95%) was produced in a 5-L bioreactor after 48 h with a productivity of 2.05 g/(L·h). Finally, preliminary investigation demonstrated that mutation in sucD (sucD M245I) (encoding succinyl-CoA synthetase); ilvG (ilvG Δ1bp) (encoding acetolactate synthase 2 catalytic subunit), and rpoB (rpoB T1037P) (encoding RNA polymerase β subunit) significantly improved anaerobic growth of E. coli. Double-gene mutation in ilvG and sucD resumed most of the growth potential of evolved strain WE269. This work suggested that improving anaerobic growth of production host can increase productivity of organic acids like lactate, and specific mutation-enabled improved growth may also be applied to metabolic engineering for production of other bulk chemicals.
      PubDate: 2019-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-09588-9
       
  • Development of an efficient neutralization assay for Coxsackievirus A10
    • Authors: Dongxiao Liu; Longfa Xu; Rui Zhu; Zhichao Yin; Yu Lin; Wangheng Hou; Shuxuan Li; Shuizhen He; Tong Cheng; Ningshao Xia
      Abstract: Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) recently has become one of the major pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children worldwide, but no cure or vaccine against CVA10 is available yet. Serological evaluation of herd immunity to CVA10 will promote the development of vaccine. The traditional neutralization assay based on inhibition of cytopathic effect (Nt-CPE) is a common method for measuring neutralizing antibody titer against CVA10, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, an efficient neutralization test based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3D1 against CVA10, called Elispot-based neutralization test (Nt-Elispot), was developed. In the Nt-Elispot, the mAb 3D1 labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to detect the CVA10-infected RD cells at a 1:4000 dilution and the optimal infectious dose of CVA10 was set at 105 TCID50/well when combined with a fixed incubation time of 14 h. Compared with the Nt-CPE, the Nt-Elispot method effectively shortened the detection period and presented a good correlativity with it. Using the Nt-Elispot, a total of 123 sera from healthy children were tested for neutralizing antibody against CVA10, demonstrating that the overall seroprevalence was 49.3% (54/123) and the geometric mean titer (GMT) had been calculated as 574.2. Furthermore, 2 anti-CVA10 neutralizing mAbs were obtained by screening via the Nt-Elispot. Overall, the established Nt-Elispot could be used as an efficient and high-throughput method for evaluating immunity to CVA10 and screening the neutralizing antibodies.
      PubDate: 2019-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-09598-7
       
  • What keeps polyhydroxyalkanoates in bacterial cells amorphous' A
           derivation from stress exposure experiments
    • Authors: Petr Sedlacek; Eva Slaninova; Vojtech Enev; Martin Koller; Jana Nebesarova; Ivana Marova; Kamila Hrubanova; Vladislav Krzyzanek; Ota Samek; Stanislav Obruca
      Abstract: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are storage polymers accumulated by numerous prokaryotes in form of intracellular granules. Native PHA granules are formed by amorphous polymer which reveals considerably higher elasticity and flexibility as compared to crystalline pure PHA polymers. The fact that bacteria store PHA in amorphous state has great biological consequences. It is not clear which mechanisms protect amorphous polymer in native granules from transition into thermodynamically favorable crystalline state. Here, we demonstrate that exposition of bacterial cells to particular stressors induces granules aggregation, which is the first but not sufficient condition for PHA crystallization. Crystallization of the polymer occurs only when the stressed bacterial cells are subsequently dried. The fact that both granules aggregation and cell drying must occur to induce crystallization of PHA indicates that both previously suggested hypotheses about mechanisms of stabilization of amorphous state of native PHA are valid and, in fact, both effects participate synergistically. It seems that the amorphous state of the polymer is stabilized kinetically by the low rate of crystallization in limited volume in small PHA granules and, moreover, water present in PHA granules seems to function as plasticizer protecting the polymer from crystallization, as confirmed experimentally for the first time by the present work.
      PubDate: 2019-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-09584-z
       
  • Solubility enhancement of Cry2Aa crystal through carboxy-terminal
           extension and synergism between the chimeric protein and Cry1Ac
    • Authors: Xianfeng Qiu; Xiuqing Lu; Xiaomeng Ren; Ran Li; Binbin Wu; Sisi Yang; Lingling Qi; Xiangtao Mo; Xuezhi Ding; Liqiu Xia; Yunjun Sun
      Abstract: It was reported that the highly conserved C-terminal region of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A protoxins was very important for parasporal crystal formation and solubility feature in alkaline environment. In order to improve the solubilization efficiency of Cry2Aa crystal, the coding sequences of Cry2Aa protein and the C-terminal half of Cry1Ac were fused seamlessly through Red/ET homologous recombination and expressed in an acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strain under the control of the cry1Ac promoter and terminator. Microscopic observation revealed that the recombinant strain containing the chimeric gene cry2Aa-1Ac produced distinct parasporal inclusion with semispherical to approximately cuboidal shape during sporulation. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that this strain expressed stable 130-kDa Cry2Aa-1Ac chimeric protein, which was confirmed to be the correctly expressed product by LC-MS/MS. The chimeric protein inclusion could be effectively dissolved at pH 10.5 and activated by trypsin like the parental Cry1Ac crystal. While, the parental Cry2Aa crystal exhibited very low solubility under this condition. Bioassays against third-instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera proved that the chimeric protein was more toxic than Cry2Aa. Additionally, synergistic effect was clearly detected between the chimeric protein and Cry1Ac against H. armigera, while there was only additive effect for the combination of wild Cry2Aa and Cry1Ac. These results indicated that the developed chimeric protein might serve as a potent insecticidal toxin used in the field against lepidopteran pests.
      PubDate: 2019-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-09606-w
       
  • Hydroperoxides derived from marine sources: origin and biological
           activities
    • Authors: Vera A. Vil; Tatyana A. Gloriozova; Alexander O. Terent’ev; Nick Savidov; Valery M. Dembitsky
      Abstract: Hydroperoxides are a small and interesting group of biologically active natural marine compounds. All these metabolites contain a group (R-O-O-H). In this mini-review, studies of more than 80 hydroperoxides isolated from bacteria, fungi, algae, and marine invertebrates are described. Hydroperoxides from the red, brown, and green algae exhibit high antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, and antiprotozoal activity with a confidence of 73 to 94%. Hydroperoxides produced by soft corals showed antineoplastic and antiprotozoal activity with confidence from 81 to 92%. Metabolites derived from sea sponges, mollusks, and other invertebrates showed antineoplastic and antiprotozoal (Plasmodium) activity with confidence from 80 to 90%.
      PubDate: 2019-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9560-x
       
 
 
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