Abstract: Nanofluid flow occurs in extensive applications, and hence has received widespread attention. The transition of nanofluids from laminar to turbulent flow is an important issue because of the differences in pressure drop and heat transfer between laminar and turbulent flow. Nanofluids will become unstable when they depart from the thermal equilibrium or dynamic equilibrium state. This paper conducts a brief review of research on the flow instability of nanofluids, including hydrodynamic instability and thermal instability. Some open questions on the subject are also identified. PubDate: 2019-07-16

Abstract: The droplet formation dynamics of a Newtonian liquid in a drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet process is numerically investigated by using a volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. We focus on the nozzle geometry, wettability of the interior surface, and the fluid properties to achieve the stable droplet formation with higher velocity. It is found that a nozzle with contracting angle of 45° generates the most stable and fastest single droplet, which is beneficial for the enhanced printing quality and high-throughput printing rate. For this nozzle with the optimal geometry, we systematically change the wettability of the interior surface, i.e., different contact angles. As the contact angle increases, pinch-off time increases and the droplet speed reduces. Finally, fluids with different properties are investigated to identify the printability range. PubDate: 2019-07-16

Abstract: For a piezoelectric energy harvester composed of a doubly-clamped beam with arbitrary width shapes and a proof mass, the influence of beam shapes and electrode arrangements on different electric outputs is analyzed. The output performances of piezoelectric energy harvesters with rectangular shape, concave trapezoidal shape, and concave parabolic shape are compared, and an optimization way is given. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the methods. PubDate: 2019-07-16

Abstract: A simple and effective method is proposed to derive the three-dimensional electric potential induced by a point singularity of any type in an N-phase dielectric medium composed of N−2 intermediate dielectric layers of equal thickness encased in two semi-infinite dielectric media. The point singularity can include a point charge or a point electric dipole. The original boundary value problem for the N-phase medium is reduced to the determination of a single unknown three-dimensional harmonic function through satisfaction of the continuity conditions across all of the N−1 perfect planar interfaces. The single harmonic function can be completely determined after analytically solving the resulting linear recurrence relations, which are independent of the type and the specific location of the singularity. When the singularity is a point charge, we obtain the self-energy of the point charge expressed in terms of a single function and the Coulomb force on the point charge expressed in terms of the negative derivative of this function. PubDate: 2019-07-12

Abstract: The effects of rotation and gravity on an electro-magneto-thermoelastic medium with diffusion and voids in a generalized thermoplastic half-space are studied by using the Lord-Shulman (L-S) model and the dual-phase-lag (DPL) model. The analytical solutions for the displacements, stresses, temperature, diffusion concentration, and volume fraction field with different values of the magnetic field, the rotation, the gravity, and the initial stress are obtained and portrayed graphically. The results indicate that the effects of gravity, rotation, voids, diffusion, initial stress, and electromagnetic field are very pronounced on the physical properties of the material. PubDate: 2019-07-11

Abstract: The wavelet approach is introduced to study the influence of the natural convection stagnation point flow of the Williamson fluid in the presence of thermophysical and Brownian motion effects. The thermal radiation effects are considered along a permeable stretching surface. The nonlinear problem is simulated numerically by using a novel algorithm based upon the Chebyshev wavelets. It is noticed that the velocity of the Williamson fluid increases for assisting flow cases while decreases for opposing flow cases when the unsteadiness and suction parameters increase, and the magnetic effect on the velocity increases for opposing flow cases while decreases for assisting flow cases. When the thermal radiation parameter, the Dufour number, and Williamson’s fluid parameter increase, the temperature increases for both assisting and opposing flow cases. Meanwhile, the temperature decreases when the Prandtl number increases. The concentration decreases when the Soret parameter increases, while increases when the Schmidt number increases. It is perceived that the assisting force decreases more than the opposing force. The findings endorse the credibility of the proposed algorithm, and could be extended to other nonlinear problems with complex nature. PubDate: 2019-07-11

Abstract: The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) graphene-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanofluid flow between two squeezing parallel plates in the presence of thermal radiation effects is investigated. The energy efficiency of the system via the Bejan number is studied extensively. The governing partial differential equations are converted by using the similarity transformations into a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The set of these converted equations is solved by using the differential transform method (DTM). The entropy generation in terms of the Bejan number, the coefficient of skin-friction, and the heat transfer rate is furthermore investigated under the effects of various physical parameters of interest. The present study shows that the Bejan number, the velocity and thermal profiles, and the rate of heat transfer decrease with a rise in the Deborah number De while the skin-friction coefficient increases. It is also observed that the entropy generation due to frictional forces is higher than that due to thermal effects. Thus, the study bears the potential application in powder technology as well as in biomedical engineering. PubDate: 2019-07-01

Abstract: Thermally responsive liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) hold great promise in applications of soft robots and actuators because of the induced size and shape change with temperature. Experiments have successfully demonstrated that the LCE based bimorphs can be effective soft robots once integrated with soft sensors and thermal actuators. Here, we present an analytical transient thermo-mechanical model for a bimorph structure based soft robot, which consists of a strip of LCE and a thermal inert polymer actuated by an ultrathin stretchable open-mesh shaped heater to mimic the unique locomotion behaviors of an inchworm. The coupled mechanical and thermal analysis based on the thermo-mechanical theory is carried out to underpin the transient bending behavior, and a systematic understanding is therefore achieved. The key analytical results reveal that the thickness and the modulus ratio of the LCE and the inert polymer layer dominate the transient bending deformation. The analytical results will not only render fundamental understanding of the actuation of bimorph structures, but also facilitate the rational design of soft robotics. PubDate: 2019-07-01

Abstract: The inconsistences of the higher-order shear resultant expressed in terms of displacement(s) and the complete boundary value problems of structures modeled by the nonlocal strain gradient theory have not been well addressed. This paper develops a size-dependent Timoshenko beam model that considers both the nonlocal effect and strain gradient effect. The variationally consistent boundary conditions corresponding to the equations of motion of Timoshenko beams are reformulated with the aid of the weighted residual method. The complete boundary value problems of nonlocal strain gradient Timoshenko beams undergoing buckling are solved in closed forms. All the possible higher-order boundary conditions induced by the strain gradient are selectively suggested based on the fact that the buckling loads increase with the increasing aspect ratios of beams from the conventional mechanics point of view. Then, motivated by the expression for beams with simply-supported (SS) boundary conditions, some semiempirical formulae are obtained by curve fitting procedures. PubDate: 2019-07-01

Abstract: Axially moving beams are often discussed with several classic boundary conditions, such as simply-supported ends, fixed ends, and free ends. Here, axially moving beams with generalized boundary conditions are discussed for the first time. The beam is supported by torsional springs and vertical springs at both ends. By modifying the stiffness of the springs, generalized boundaries can replace those classical boundaries. Dynamic stiffness matrices are, respectively, established for axially moving Timoshenko beams and Euler-Bernoulli (EB) beams with generalized boundaries. In order to verify the applicability of the EB model, the natural frequencies of the axially moving Timoshenko beam and EB beam are compared. Furthermore, the effects of constrained spring stiffness on the vibration frequencies of the axially moving beam are studied. Interestingly, it can be found that the critical speed of the axially moving beam does not change with the vertical spring stiffness. In addition, both the moving speed and elastic boundaries make the Timoshenko beam theory more needed. The validity of the dynamic stiffness method is demonstrated by using numerical simulation. PubDate: 2019-07-01

Abstract: The nonlinear combined resonance problem of a ferromagnetic circular plate in a transverse alternating magnetic field is investigated. On the basis of the deformation potential energy, the strain potential energy, and the kinetic energy of the circular plate, the Hamilton principle is used to induce the magnetoelastic coupling transverse vibration dynamical equation of the ferromagnetic circular plate. Based on the basic electromagnetic theory, the expressions of the magnet force and the Lorenz force of the circular plate are presented. A displacement function satisfying clamped-edge combined with the Galerkin method is used to derive the Duffing vibration differential equation of the circular plate. The amplitude-frequency response equations of the system under various combined resonance forms are obtained by means of the multi-scale method, and the stability of the steady-state solutions is analyzed according to the Lyapunov theory. Through examples, the amplitude-frequency characteristic curves with different parameters, the amplitude of resonance varying with magnetic field intensity and excitation force, and the time-course response diagram, phase diagram, Poincaré diagram of the system vibration are plotted, respectively. The effects of different parameters on the amplitude and stability of the system are discussed. The results show that the electromagnetic parameters have a significant effect on the multi-valued attribute and stability of the resonance solutions, and the system may exhibit complex nonlinear dynamical behavior including multi-period and quasi-periodic motion. PubDate: 2019-07-01

Abstract: An analytical approach is proposed to study the postbuckling of circular cylindrical shells subject to axial compression and lateral pressure made of functionally graded graphene platelet-reinforced polymer composite (FG-GPL-RPC). The governing equations are obtained in the context of the classical Donnell shell theory by the von Kármán nonlinear relations. Then, based on the Ritz energy method, an analytical solution approach is used to trace the nonlinear postbuckling path of the shell. The effects of several parameters such as the weight fraction of the graphene platelet (GPL), the geometrical properties, and distribution patterns of the GPL on the postbuckling characteristics of the FG-GPL-RPC shell are analyzed. PubDate: 2019-07-01

Abstract: A rotating pre-twisted and inclined cantilever beam model (RPICBM) with the flapwise-chordwise-axial-torsional coupling is established with the Hamilton principle and the finite element (FE) method. The effectiveness of the model is verified via comparisons with the literatures and the FE models in ANSYS. The effects of the setting and pre-twisted angles on the dynamic responses of the RPICBM are analyzed. The results show that: (i) the increase in the setting or pre-twisted angle results in the increases in the first-order flapwise and torsional frequencies while the decrease in the first-order chordwise frequency under rotating conditions; (ii) a positive/negative setting angle leads to a positive/negative constant component, while a positive/negative pre-twisted angle leads to a negative/positive constant component; (iii) when the rotation speed is non-zero, the pre-twisted angle or non-zero setting angle will result in the coupled flapwise-chordwise-axial-torsional vibration of the RPICBM under axial base excitation. PubDate: 2019-06-29

Abstract: The dynamics and stability of fluid-conveying corrugated pipes are investigated. The flow velocity is assumed to harmonically vary along the pipe rather than with time. The dimensionless equation is discretized with the differential quadrature method (DQM). Subsequently, the effects of the mean flow velocity and two key parameters of the corrugated pipe, i.e., the amplitude of the corrugations and the total number of the corrugations, are studied. The results show that the corrugated pipe will lose stability by flutter even if it has been supported at both ends. When the total number of the corrugations is sufficient, this flutter instability occurs at a micro flow velocity. These phenomena are verified via the Runge-Kutta method. The critical flow velocity of divergence is analyzed in detail. Compared with uniform pipes, the critical velocity will be reduced due to the corrugations, thus accelerating the divergence instability. Specifically, the critical flow velocity decreases if the amplitude of the corrugations increases. However, the critical flow velocity cannot be monotonously reduced with the increase in the total number of the corrugations. An extreme point appears, which can be used to realize the parameter optimization of corrugated pipes in practical applications. PubDate: 2019-06-29

Abstract: A model of piezoelectric rectangular thin plates with the consideration of the coupled thermo-piezoelectric-mechanical effect is established. Based on the von Karman large deflection theory, the nonlinear vibration governing equation is obtained by using Hamilton’s principle and the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The harmonic balance method (HBM) is used to analyze the first-order approximate response and obtain the frequency response function. The system shows non-linear phenomena such as hardening nonlinearity, multiple coexistence solutions, and jumps. The effects of the temperature difference, the damping coefficient, the plate thickness, the excited charge, and the mode on the primary resonance response are theoretically analyzed. With the increase in the temperature difference, the corresponding frequency jumping increases, while the resonant amplitude decreases gradually. Finally, numerical verifications are carried out by the Runge-Kutta method, and the results agree very well with the theoretical results. PubDate: 2019-06-29

Abstract: Two equal collinear cracks with coalesced interior electric saturation zones are analytically studied for two-dimensional (2D) arbitrary polarized semipermeable piezoelectric media based on a modified strip saturated model. The strip saturated model is modified here by varying the strip saturated constant electric displacement condition to the polynomially varying electric displacement conditions. Based on the linear, quadratic, and cubic electric displacement conditions on the inner and outer saturated zones, different modified strip saturated models are proposed and studied for two equal collinear cracks. With the Stroh formalism and the complex variable technique, these fracture problems are reduced into different types of non-homogeneous Riemann Hilbert problems in unknown generalized complex potential functions. These mathematical problems are then solved with the Riemann-Hilbert approach to obtain the stress and electric displacement components at any point of the domain. The explicit expressions for the outer saturated zone length, the crack opening potential (COP), the crack opening displacement (COD), and the local intensity factors (LIFs) are derived. A numerical study is presented for the modified strip saturated model in 2D arbitrary polarized semipermeable PZT-4 material. The obtained results are compared with those of the strip saturated model, and the effects of the polynomially varying saturation condition on the saturated zones and the applied electrical loadings are presented. PubDate: 2019-06-29

Abstract: We present a theoretical investigation of rotating electroosmotic flows (EOFs) in soft parallel plate microchannels. The soft microchannel, also called as the polyelectrolyte-grafted microchannel, is denoted as a rigid microchannel coated with a polyelectrolyte layer (PEL) on its surface. We compare the velocity in a soft microchannel with that in a rigid one for different rotating frequencies and find that the PEL has a trend to lower the velocities in both directions for a larger equivalent electrical double layer (EDL) thickness λFCL (λFCL = 0.3) and a smaller rotating frequency ω (ω < 5). However, for a larger rotating frequency ω (ω < 5), the main stream velocity u far away from the channel walls in a soft microchannel exceeds that in a rigid one. Inspired by the above results, we can control the EOF velocity in micro rotating systems by imparting PELs on the microchannel walls, which may be an interesting application in biomedical separation and chemical reaction. PubDate: 2019-06-04

Abstract: This study investigates the cilia transport phenomenon from the perspectives of the heat transfer and variable viscosity in a bending channel. The rightward wall is maintained at a temperature of T0, and the leftward wall has a temperature of T1. Each wall has a metachronal wave that travels along its wall. The structures of the ciliary assemblies are calculated by the well-known simplifying suppositions of the large wavelength and the small Reynolds number approximation. The flow phenomenon for the Newtonian fluid is described as a function of cilia and a metachronal wave velocity. The pressure rise is calculated with MATHEMATICA. The theme of the cilia beating flow is inspected with scheming plots, and its features are discussed at the end of the article. PubDate: 2019-06-01

Abstract: The direct numerical simulation (DNS) is carried out for the incompressible viscous turbulent flows over an anisotropic porous wall. Effects of the anisotropic porous wall on turbulence modifications as well as on the turbulent drag reduction are investigated. The simulation is carried out at a friction Reynolds number of 180, which is based on the averaged friction velocity at the interface between the porous medium and the clear fluid domain. The depth of the porous layer ranges from 0.9 to 54 viscous units. The permeability in the spanwise direction is set to be lower than the other directions in the present simulation. The maximum drag reduction obtained is about 15.3% which occurs for a depth of 9 viscous units. The increasing of drag is addressed when the depth of the porous layer is more than 25 wall units. The thinner porous layer restricts the spanwise extension of the streamwise vortices which suppresses the bursting events near the wall. However, for the thicker porous layer, the wall-normal fluctuations are enhanced due to the weakening of the wall-blocking effect which can trigger strong turbulent structures near the wall. PubDate: 2019-05-31

Abstract: The nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a double cable-stayed shallow arch model are investigated under the one-to-one-to-one internal resonance among the lowest modes of cables and the shallow arch and external primary resonance of cables. The in-plane governing equations of the system are obtained when the harmonic excitation is applied to cables. The excitation mechanism due to the angle-variation of cable tension during motion is newly introduced. Galerkin’s method and the multi-scale method are used to obtain ordinary differential equations (ODEs) of the system and their modulation equations, respectively. Frequency- and force-response curves are used to explore dynamic behaviors of the system when harmonic excitations are symmetrically and asymmetrically applied to cables. More importantly, comparisons of frequency-response curves of the system obtained by two types of trial functions, namely, a common sine function and an exact piecewise function, of the shallow arch in Galerkin’s integration are conducted. The analysis shows that the two results have a slight difference; however, they both have sufficient accuracy to solve the proposed dynamic system. PubDate: 2019-05-16