Authors:P. Singh; A. Chattopadhyay; A. K. Singh Pages: 317 - 334 Abstract: Propagation of Rayleigh-type surface waves in an incompressible visco-elastic material over incompressible visco-elastic semi-infinite media under the effect of initial stresses is discussed. The dispersion equation is determined to study the effect of different types of parameters such as inhomogeneity, initial stress, wave number, phase velocity, damping factor, visco-elasticity, and incompressibility on the Rayleigh-type wave propagation. It is found that the affecting parameters have a significant effect on the wave propagation. Cardano’s and Ferrari’s methods are deployed to estimate the roots of differential equations associated with layer and semi-infinite media. The MATHEMATICA software is applied to explicate the effect of these parameters graphically. PubDate: 2018-03-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2306-9 Issue No:Vol. 39, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:Tuoya Sun; Junhong Guo; Xiaoyan Zhan Pages: 335 - 352 Abstract: Quasicrystals (QCs) are sensitive to the piezoelectric (PE) effect. This paper studies static deformation of a multilayered one-dimensional (1D) hexagonal QC plate with the PE effect. The exact closed-form solutions of the extended displacement and traction for a homogeneous piezoelectric quasicrystal (PQC) plate are derived from an eigensystem. The general solutions for multilayered PQC plates are then obtained using the propagator matrix method when mechanical and electrical loads are applied on the top surface of the plate. Numerical examples for several sandwich plates made up of PQC, PE, and QC materials are provided to show the effect of stacking sequence on phonon, phason, and electric fields under mechanical and electrical loads, which is useful in designing new composites for engineering structures. PubDate: 2018-03-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2309-9 Issue No:Vol. 39, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:Lin Du; Yong Yang; Youming Lei Pages: 353 - 364 Abstract: This paper studies synchronization of all nodes in a fractional-order complex dynamic network. An adaptive control strategy for synchronizing a dynamic network is proposed. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, this paper shows that tracking errors of all nodes in a fractional-order complex network converge to zero. This simple yet practical scheme can be used in many networks such as small-world networks and scale-free networks. Unlike the existing methods which assume the coupling configuration among the nodes of the network with diffusivity, symmetry, balance, or irreducibility, in this case, these assumptions are unnecessary, and the proposed adaptive strategy is more feasible. Two examples are presented to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed method. PubDate: 2018-03-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2304-9 Issue No:Vol. 39, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:Jian Yu; Chao Yan; Zhenhua Jiang Pages: 379 - 394 Abstract: The idea of using velocity dilation for shock capturing is revisited in this paper, combined with the discontinuous Galerkin method. The value of artificial viscosity is determined using direct dilation instead of its higher order derivatives to reduce cost and degree of difficulty in computing derivatives. Alternative methods for estimating the element size of large aspect ratio and smooth artificial viscosity are proposed to further improve robustness and accuracy of the model. Several benchmark tests are conducted, ranging from subsonic to hypersonic flows involving strong shocks. Instead of adjusting empirical parameters to achieve optimum results for each case, all tests use a constant parameter for the model with reasonable success, indicating excellent robustness of the method. The model is only limited to third-order accuracy for smooth flows. This limitation may be relaxed by using a switch or a wall function. Overall, the model is a good candidate for compressible flows with potentials of further improvement. PubDate: 2018-03-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2302-7 Issue No:Vol. 39, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:Hang Xu; I. Pop; Q. Sun Pages: 395 - 408 Abstract: We develop a mathematical model to describe the flow in a microchannel driven by the upper stretching wall of the channel in the presence of electrokinetic effects. In this model, we avoid imposing any unphysical boundary condition, for instance, the zero electrostatic potential in the middle of the channel. Using the similarity transformation, we employ the homotopy analysis method (HAM) to get the analytical solution of the model. In our approach, the unknown pressure constant and the integral constant related to the electric potential are solved spontaneously by using the proper boundary conditions on the channel walls, which makes our model consistent with the commonly accepted models in the field of fluid mechanics. It is expected that our model can offer a general and proper way to study the flow phenomena in microchannels. PubDate: 2018-03-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-017-2307-7 Issue No:Vol. 39, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:Chuanchuan Xie; Bo Chen; Bing Yan; Jiankang Wu Pages: 409 - 422 Abstract: A field-modulated electroosmotic flow (FMEOF) in a microchannel can be obtained by applying modulating electric fields in a direction perpendicular to the channel wall. Micro-vortexes are generated around the electrodes along with an EOF due to the surface charge on the modulated wall. When polarizable particles are suspended near the electrodes, they experience dielectrophoretic forces due to a non-uniform electric field. In this paper, micro-vortexes and dielectrophoretic forces are combined to achieve separation and trap different sized particles in a continuous flow. Numerical results indicate that by adjusting the driving electric field parallel to the channel wall and the modulating electric field, the ratio of dielectrophoretic and hydrodynamic forces can be altered. One type of particles can be trapped by micro-vortexes (negative dielectrophoresis (DEP)), and the other particles are transported to the downstream so that the particles are separated. The influence of the electrode length and the channel height on the trapping rate is investigated. PubDate: 2018-03-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2303-9 Issue No:Vol. 39, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:Hulin Huang; Linyong Li; Guiping Zhu; Lai Li Pages: 423 - 436 Abstract: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generator system involves several subjects such as magnetohydrodynamics, plasma physics, material science, and structure mechanics. Therefore, the performance of the MHD power generator is affected by many factors, among which the load coefficient k is of great importance. This paper reveals the effect of some system parameters on the performance by three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation for a Faraday type MHD power generator using He/Xe as working plasma. The results show that average electrical conductivity increases first and then decreases with the addition of magnetic field intensity. Electrical conductivity reaches the maximum value of 11.05 S/m, while the applied magnetic field strength is B = 1.75 T. When B > 3T, the ionization rate along the midline well keeps stable, which indicates that the ionization rate and three-body recombination rate (three kinds of particles combining to two kinds of particles) are approximately equal, and the relatively stable plasma structure of the mainstream is preserved. Efficiency of power generation of the Faraday type channel increases with an increment of the load factor. However, enthalpy extraction first increases to a certain value, and then decreases with the load factor. The enthalpy extraction rate reaches the maximum when the load coefficient k equals 0.625, which is the best performance of the power generator channel with the maximum electricity production. PubDate: 2018-03-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2310-9 Issue No:Vol. 39, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:H. Ashraf; A. M. Siddiqui; M. A. Rana Pages: 437 - 454 Abstract: The present theoretical assessment deals with the peristaltic-ciliary transport of a developing embryo within a fallopian tubal fluid in the human fallopian tube. A mathematical model of peristalsis-cilia induced flow of a linearly viscous fluid within a fallopian tubal fluid in a finite two-dimensional narrow tube is developed. The lubrication approximation theory is used to solve the resulting partial differential equation. The expressions for axial and radial velocities, pressure gradient, stream function, volume flow rate, and time mean volume flow rate are derived. Numerical integration is performed for the appropriate residue time over the wavelength and the pressure difference over the wavelength. Moreover, the plots of axial velocity, the appropriate residue time over wavelength, the vector, the pressure difference over wavelength, and the streamlines are displayed and discussed for emerging parameters and constants. Salient features of the pumping characteristics and the trapping phenomenon are discussed in detail. Furthermore, a comparison between the peristaltic flow and the peristaltic-ciliary flow is made as the special case. Relevance of the current results to the transport of a developing embryo within a fallopian tubal fluid from ampulla to the intramural in the fallopian tube is also explored. It reveals the fact that cilia along with peristalsis helps to complete the required mitotic divisions while transporting the developing embryo within a fallopian tubal fluid in the human fallopian tube. PubDate: 2018-03-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2305-9 Issue No:Vol. 39, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:Xiaogang Wu; Kuijun Chen; Zhaowei Wang; Ningning Wang; Teng Zhao; Yanan Xue; Yanqin Wang; Weiyi Chen Abstract: The articular cartilage (AC) can be seen as a biphasic poroelastic material. The cartilage deformation under compression mainly leads to an interstitial fluid flow in the porous solid phase. In this paper, an analytical poroelastic model for the AC under laboratorial mechanical testing is developed. The solutions of interstitial fluid pressure and velocity are obtained. The results show the following facts. (i) Both the pressure and fluid velocity amplitudes are proportional to the strain loading amplitude. (ii) Both the amplitudes of pore fluid pressure and velocity in the AC depend more on the loading amplitude than on the frequency. Thus, in order to obtain the considerable fluid stimulus for the AC cell responses, the most effective way is to increase the loading amplitude rather than the frequency. (iii) Both the interstitial fluid pressure and velocity are strongly affected by permeability variations. This model can be used in experimental tests of the parameters of AC or other poroelastic materials, and in research of mechanotransduction and injury mechanism involved interstitial fluid flow. PubDate: 2018-02-26 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2334-9

Authors:A. Ghorbanpour-Arani; F. Kolahdouzan; M. Abdollahian Abstract: This paper is concerned with a buckling analysis of an embedded nanoplate integrated with magnetoelectroelastic (MEE) layers based on a nonlocal magnetoelectroelasticity theory. A surrounding elastic medium is simulated by the Pasternak foundation that considers both shear and normal loads. The sandwich nanoplate (SNP) consists of a core that is made of metal and two MEE layers on the upper and lower surfaces of the core made of BaTiO3/CoFe2O4. The refined zigzag theory (RZT) is used to model the SNP subject to both external electric and magnetic potentials. Using an energy method and Hamilton’s principle, the governing motion equations are obtained, and then solved analytically. A detailed parametric study is conducted, concentrating on the combined effects of the small scale parameter, external electric and magnetic loads, thicknesses of MEE layers, mode numbers, and surrounding elastic medium. It is concluded that increasing the small scale parameter decreases the critical buckling loads. PubDate: 2018-02-20 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2319-8

Authors:S. Sahmani; A. M. Fattahi Abstract: By means of a comprehensive theory of elasticity, namely, a nonlocal strain gradient continuum theory, size-dependent nonlinear axial instability characteristics of cylindrical nanoshells made of functionally graded material (FGM) are examined. To take small scale effects into consideration in a more accurate way, a nonlocal stress field parameter and an internal length scale parameter are incorporated simultaneously into an exponential shear deformation shell theory. The variation of material properties associated with FGM nanoshells is supposed along the shell thickness, and it is modeled based on the Mori-Tanaka homogenization scheme. With a boundary layer theory of shell buckling and a perturbation-based solving process, the nonlocal strain gradient load-deflection and load-shortening stability paths are derived explicitly. It is observed that the strain gradient size effect causes to the increases of both the critical axial buckling load and the width of snap-through phenomenon related to the postbuckling regime, while the nonlocal size dependency leads to the decreases of them. Moreover, the influence of the nonlocal type of small scale effect on the axial instability characteristics of FGM nanoshells is more than that of the strain gradient one. PubDate: 2018-02-20 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2321-8

Authors:Hui Guan; Yifei Xue; Zhijun Wei; Chuijie Wu Abstract: Sloshing is a common phenomenon in nature and industry, and it is important in many fields, such as marine engineering and aerospace engineering. To reduce the sloshing load on the side walls, the topology optimization and optimal control methods are used to design the shape of the board, which is fixed in the middle of the tank. The results show that the new board shape, which is designed via topology optimization, can significantly reduce the sloshing load on the side wall. PubDate: 2018-02-14 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2332-9

Authors:Peng Tang; Hongda Zhang; Taohong Ye; Zhou Yu; Zhaoyang Xia Abstract: The principal component analysis (PCA) is used to analyze the high dimensional chemistry data of laminar premixed/stratified flames under strain effects. The first few principal components (PCs), which have larger contribution ratios, are chosen as the tabulated scalars to build the look-up chemistry table. Prior tests show that the strained premixed flame structure can be well reconstructed. To highlight the physical meanings of the tabulated scalars in the stratified flames, a modified PCA method is developed, where the mixture fraction is used to replace one of the PCs with the highest correlation coefficient with a mixture fraction. The other two tabulated scalars are then modified with the Schmidt orthogonalization. The modified tabulated scalars not only have clear physical meanings, but also contain passive scalars. The PCA method has good commonality, and can be extended for building the thermo-chemistry table including strain rate effects when different fuels are used. PubDate: 2018-02-08 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2326-6

Authors:Peng Li; Feng Jin; Jianxun Ma Abstract: Within the framework of continuum mechanics, the double power series ex- pansion technique is proposed, and a series of reduced one-dimensional (1D) equations for a piezoelectric semiconductor beam are obtained. These derived equations are universal, in which extension, flexure, and shear deformations are all included, and can be degen- erated to a number of special cases, e.g., extensional motion, coupled extensional and flexural motion with shear deformations, and elementary flexural motion without shear deformations. As a typical application, the extensional motion of a ZnO beam is analyzed sequentially. It is revealed that semi-conduction has a great effect on the performance of the piezoelectric semiconductor beam, including static deformations and dynamic be- haviors. A larger initial carrier density will evidently lead to a lower resonant frequency and a smaller displacement response, which is a little similar to the dissipative effect. Both the derived approximate equations and the corresponding qualitative analysis are general and widely applicable, which can clearly interpret the inner physical mechanism of the semiconductor in the piezoelectrics and provide theoretical guidance for further experimental design. PubDate: 2018-02-08 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2325-6

Authors:S. M. H. Karimian; A. Amani; M. Seyednia Abstract: The computational cost of numerical methods in microscopic-scales such as molecular dynamics (MD) is a deterrent factor that limits simulations with a large number of particles. Hence, it is desirable to decrease the computational cost and run time of simulations, especially for problems with a symmetrical domain. However, in microscopic-scales, implementation of symmetric boundary conditions is not straight-forward. Previously, the present authors have successfully used a symmetry boundary condition to solve molecular flows in constant-area channels. The results obtained with this approach agree well with the benchmark cases. Therefore, it has provided us with a sound ground to further explore feasibility of applying symmetric solutions of micro-fluid flows in other geometries such as variable-area ducts. Molecular flows are solved for the whole domain with and without the symmetric boundary condition. Good agreement has been reached between the results of the symmetric solution and the whole domain solution. To investigate robustness of the proposed method, simulations are conducted for different values of affecting parameters including an external force, a flow density, and a domain length. The results indicate that the symmetric solution is also applicable to variable-area ducts such as micro-nozzles. PubDate: 2018-02-06 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2317-8

Authors:C. Q. Ru Abstract: The existing theories of finite-time stability depend on a prescribed bound on initial disturbances and a prescribed threshold for allowable responses. It remains a challenge to identify the critical value of loading parameter for finite time instability observed in experiments without the need of specifying any prescribed threshold for allowable responses. Based on an energy balance analysis of a simple dynamic system, this paper proposes a general criterion for finite time stability which indicates that finite time stability of a linear dynamic system with constant coefficients during a given time interval [0, tf] is guaranteed provided the product of its maximum growth rate (determined by the maximum eigen-root p1 >0) and the duration tf does not exceed 2, i.e., p1tf <2. The proposed criterion (p1tf=2) is applied to several problems of impacted buckling of elastic columns: (i) an elastic column impacted by a striking mass, (ii) longitudinal impact of an elastic column on a rigid wall, and (iii) an elastic column compressed at a constant speed (“Hoff problem”), in which the time-varying axial force is replaced approximately by its average value over the time duration. Comparison of critical parameters predicted by the proposed criterion with available experimental and simulation data shows that the proposed criterion is in robust reasonable agreement with the known data, which suggests that the proposed simple criterion (p1tf=2) can be used to estimate critical parameters for finite time stability of dynamic systems governed by linear equations with constant coefficients. PubDate: 2018-01-15 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2311-9

Authors:Yulin Jin; Zhenyong Lu; Rui Yang; Lei Hou; Yushu Chen Abstract: A new nonlinear force model based on experimental data is proposed to replace the classical Hertzian contact model to solve the fractional index nonlinearity in a ball bearing system. Firstly, the radial force and the radial deformation are measured by statics experiments, and the data are fitted respectively by using the Hertzian contact model and the cubic polynomial model. Then, the two models are compared with the approximation formula appearing in Aeroengine Design Manual. In consequence, the two models are equivalent in an allowable deformation range. After that, the relationship of contact force and contact deformation for single rolling element between the races is calculated based on statics equilibrium to obtain the two kinds of nonlinear dynamic models in a rigid-rotor ball bearing system. Finally, the displacement response and frequency spectrum for the two system models are compared quantitatively at different rotational speeds, and then the structures of frequency-amplitude curves over a wide speed range are compared qualitatively under different levels of radial clearance, amplitude of excitation, and mass of supporting rotor. The results demonstrate that the cubic polynomial model can take place of the Hertzian contact model in a range of deformation. PubDate: 2018-01-15 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2308-9

Authors:M. Mohammadimehr; R. Rostami Abstract: The bending and free vibration of a rotating sandwich cylindrical shell are analyzed with the consideration of the nanocomposite core and piezoelectric layers subjected to thermal and magnetic fields by use of the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) of shells. The governing equations of motion and the corresponding boundary conditions are established through the variational method and the Maxwell equation. The closed-form solutions of the rotating sandwich cylindrical shell are obtained. The effects of geometrical parameters, volume fractions of carbon nanotubes, applied voltages on the inner and outer piezoelectric layers, and magnetic and thermal fields on the natural frequency, critical angular velocity, and deflection of the sandwich cylindrical shell are investigated. The critical angular velocity of the nanocomposite sandwich cylindrical shell is obtained. The results show that the mechanical properties, e.g., Young’s modulus and thermal expansion coefficient, for the carbon nanotube and matrix are functions of temperature, and the magnitude of the critical angular velocity can be adjusted by changing the applied voltage. PubDate: 2018-01-12 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2301-6

Authors:Guangyu Li; Xiaowei Li; Jue Ding; Peifen Weng; Zhanbin Lu Abstract: An improved constant volume cycle (CVC) model is developed to analyze the nozzle effects on the thrust and specific impulse of pulse detonation rocket engine (PDRE). Theoretically, this model shows that the thrust coefficient/specific impulse of PDRE is a function of the nozzle contraction/expansion ratio and the operating frequency. The relationship between the nozzle contraction ratio and the operation frequency is obtained by introducing the duty ratio, by which the key problem in the theoretical design can be solved. Therefore, the performance of PDRE can be accessed to guide the preliminary shape design of nozzle conveniently and quickly. The higher the operating frequency of PDRE is, the smaller the nozzle contraction ratio should be. Besides, the lower the ambient pressure is, the larger the expansion ratio of the nozzle should be. When the ambient pressure is 1.013 × 105 Pa, the optimal expansion ratio will be less than 2.26. When the ambient pressure is reduced to vacuum, the extremum of the optimal thrust coefficient is 2.236 9, and the extremum of the specific impulse is 321.01 s. The results of the improved model are verified by numerical simulation. PubDate: 2018-01-05 DOI: 10.1007/s10483-018-2294-6