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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2354 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2354 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Applied Geophysics
  [SJR: 0.541]   [H-I: 13]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1993-0658 - ISSN (Online) 1672-7975
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Shales in the Qiongzhusi and Wufeng–Longmaxi Formations: a rock-physics
           model and analysis of the effective pore aspect ratio
    • Authors: Zhi-Qiang Yang; Tao He; Chang-Chun Zou
      Pages: 325 - 336
      Abstract: The shales of the Qiongzhusi Formation and Wufeng–Longmaxi Formations at Sichuan Basin and surrounding areas are presently the most important stratigraphic horizons for shale gas exploration and development in China. However, the regional characteristics of the seismic elastic properties need to be better determined. The ultrasonic velocities of shale samples were measured under dry conditions and the relations between elastic properties and petrology were systemically analyzed. The results suggest that 1) the effective porosity is positively correlated with clay content but negatively correlated with brittle minerals, 2) the dry shale matrix consists of clays, quartz, feldspars, and carbonates, and 3) organic matter and pyrite are in the pore spaces, weakly coupled with the shale matrix. Thus, by assuming that all connected pores are only present in the clay minerals and using the Gassmann substitution method to calculate the elastic effect of organic matter and pyrite in the pores, a relatively simple rock-physics model was constructed by combining the self-consistent approximation (SCA), the differential effective medium (DEM), and Gassmann’s equation. In addition, the effective pore aspect ratio was adopted from the sample averages or estimated from the carbonate content. The proposed model was used to predict the P-wave velocities and generally matched the ultrasonic measurements very well.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0628-7
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Study on the simulation of acoustic logging measurements in horizontal and
           deviated wells
    • Authors: He Liu; Bing Wang; Guo Tao; Kuo Zhang; Wen-Zheng Yue
      Pages: 337 - 350
      Abstract: The conventional acoustic logging interpretation method, which is based on vertical wells that penetrate isotropic formations, is not suitable for horizontal and deviated wells penetrating anisotropic formations. This unsuitability is because during horizontal and deviated well drilling, cuttings will splash on the well wall or fall into the borehole bottom and form a thin bed of cuttings. In addition, the high velocity layers at different depths and intrinsic anisotropy may affect acoustic logging measurements. In this study, we examine how these factors affect the acoustic wave slowness measured in horizontal and deviated wells that are surrounded by an anisotropic medium using numerical simulation. We use the staggered-grid finite difference method in time domain (FDTD) combined with hybrid-PML. First, we acquire the acoustic slowness using a simulated array logging system, and then, we analyze how various factors affect acoustic slowness measurements and the differences between the effects of these factors. The factors considered are high-velocity layers, thin beds of cuttings, dipping angle, formation thickness, and anisotropy. The simulation results show that these factors affect acoustic wave slowness measurements differently. We observe that when the wavelength is much smaller than the distance between the borehole wall and high velocity layer, the true slowness of the formation could be acquired. When the wavelengths are of the same order (i.e., in the near-field scenarios), the geometrical acoustics theory is no longer applicable. Furthermore, when a thin bed of cuttings exists at the bottom of the borehole, Fermat's principle is still applicable, and true slowness can be acquired. In anisotropic formations, the measured slowness changes with increments in the dipping angle. Finally, for a measurement system with specific spacing, the slowness of a thin target layer can be acquired when the distance covered by the logging tool is sufficiently long. Based on systematical simulations with different dipping angles and anisotropy in homogenous TI media, slowness estimation charts are established to quantitatively determine the slowness at any dipping angle and for any value of the anisotropic ratio. Synthetic examples with different acoustic logging tools and different elastic parameters demonstrate that the acoustic slowness estimation method can be conveniently applied to horizontal and deviated wells in TI formations with high accuracy.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0637-6
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Analysis and application of the response characteristics of DLL and LWD
           resistivity in horizontal well
    • Authors: Song Hu; Jun Li; Hong-Bo Guo; Chang-Xue Wang
      Pages: 351 - 362
      Abstract: There exist different response characteristics in the resistivity measurements of dual laterolog (DLL) and logging while drilling (LWD) electromagnetic wave propagation logging in highly deviated and horizontal wells due to the difference in their measuring principles. In this study, we first use the integral equation method simulated the response characteristics of LWD resistivity and use the three dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM) simulated the response characteristics of DLL resistivity in horizontal wells, and then analyzed the response differences between the DLL and LWD resistivity. The comparative analysis indicated that the response differences may be caused by different factors such as differences in the angle of instrument inclination, anisotropy, formation interface, and mud intrusion. In the interface, the curves of the LWD resistivity become sharp with increases in the deviation while those of the DLL resistivity gradually become smooth. Both curves are affected by the anisotropy although the effect on DLL resistivity is lower than the LWD resistivity. These differences aid in providing a reasonable explanation in the horizontal well. However, this can also simultaneously lead to false results. At the end of the study, we explain the effects of the differences in the interpretation of the horizontal well based on the results and actual data analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0635-8
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Fault detection based on microseismic events
    • Authors: Chen Yin
      Pages: 363 - 371
      Abstract: In unconventional reservoirs, small faults allow the flow of oil and gas as well as act as obstacles to exploration; for, (1) fracturing facilitates fluid migration, (2) reservoir flooding, and (3) triggering of small earthquakes. These small faults are not generally detected because of the low seismic resolution. However, such small faults are very active and release sufficient energy to initiate a large number of microseismic events (MEs) during hydraulic fracturing. In this study, we identified microfractures (MF) from hydraulic fracturing and natural small faults based on microseismicity characteristics, such as the time–space distribution, source mechanism, magnitude, amplitude, and frequency. First, I identified the mechanism of small faults and MF by reservoir stress analysis and calibrated the ME based on the microseismic magnitude. The dynamic characteristics (frequency and amplitude) of MEs triggered by natural faults and MF were analyzed; moreover, the geometry and activity types of natural fault and MF were grouped according to the source mechanism. Finally, the differences among time–space distribution, magnitude, source mechanism, amplitude, and frequency were used to differentiate natural faults and manmade fractures.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0631-z
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Shear wave velocity prediction during CO 2 -EOR and sequestration in the
           Gao89 well block of the Shengli Oilfield
    • Authors: Lin Li; Jin-Feng Ma; Hao-Fan Wang; Ming-You Tan; Shi-Ling Cui; Yun-Yin Zhang; Zhi-Peng Qu
      Pages: 372 - 380
      Abstract: Shear-wave velocity is a key parameter for calibrating monitoring time-lapse 4D seismic data during CO2-EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) and CO2 sequestration. However, actual S-wave velocity data are lacking, especially in 4D data for CO2 sequestration because wells are closed after the CO2 injection and seismic monitoring is continued but no well log data are acquired. When CO2 is injected into a reservoir, the pressure and saturation of the reservoirs change as well as the elastic parameters of the reservoir rocks. We propose a method to predict the S-wave velocity in reservoirs at different pressures and porosities based on the Hertz–Mindlin and Gassmann equations. Because the coordination number is unknown in the Hertz–Mindlin equation, we propose a new method to predict it. Thus, we use data at different CO2 injection stages in the Gao89 well block, Shengli Oilfield. First, the sand and mud beds are separated based on the structural characteristics of the thin sand beds and then the S-wave velocity as a function of reservoir pressure and porosity is calculated. Finally, synthetic seismic seismograms are generated based on the predicted P- and S-wave velocities at different stages of CO2 injection.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0638-5
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Conjugate gradient and cross-correlation based least-square reverse time
           migration and its application
    • Authors: Xiao-Dong Sun; Zhong-Hui Ge; Zhen-Chun Li
      Pages: 381 - 386
      Abstract: Although conventional reverse time migration can be perfectly applied to structural imaging it lacks the capability of enabling detailed delineation of a lithological reservoir due to irregular illumination. To obtain reliable reflectivity of the subsurface it is necessary to solve the imaging problem using inversion. The least-square reverse time migration (LSRTM) (also known as linearized reflectivity inversion) aims to obtain relatively high-resolution amplitude preserving imaging by including the inverse of the Hessian matrix. In practice, the conjugate gradient algorithm is proven to be an efficient iterative method for enabling use of LSRTM. The velocity gradient can be derived from a cross-correlation between observed data and simulated data, making LSRTM independent of wavelet signature and thus more robust in practice. Tests on synthetic and marine data show that LSRTM has good potential for use in reservoir description and four-dimensional (4D) seismic images compared to traditional RTM and Fourier finite difference (FFD) migration. This paper investigates the first order approximation of LSRTM, which is also known as the linear Born approximation. However, for more complex geological structures a higher order approximation should be considered to improve imaging quality.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0626-9
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • An amplitude suppression method based on the decibel criterion
    • Authors: Xuan-Lin Kong; Hui Chen; Jin-Long Wang; Zhi-quan Hu; Dan Xu; Lu-Ming Li
      Pages: 387 - 398
      Abstract: To suppress the strong noise in seismic data with wide range of amplitudes, commonly used methods often yield unsatisfactory denoising results owing to inappropriate thresholds and require parametric testing as well as iterations to achieve the anticipated results. To overcome these problems, a data-driven strong amplitude suppression method based on the decibel criterion in the wavelet domain (ISANA) is proposed. The method determines the denoising threshold based on the decibel criterion and statistically analyzes the amplitude index rather than the abnormally high amplitudes. The method distinguishes the frequency band distributions of the valid signals in the time–frequency domain based on the wavelet transformation and then calculates thresholds in selected time windows, eventually achieving frequency-divided noise attenuation for better denoising. Simulations based on theoretical and real-world data verify the adaptability and low dependence of the method on the size of the time window. The method suppresses noise without energy loss in the signals.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0636-7
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Diffraction separation by plane-wave prediction filtering
    • Authors: Xue Kong; De-Ying Wang; Zhen-Chun Li; Rui-Xiang Zhang; Qiu-Yuan Hu
      Pages: 399 - 405
      Abstract: Seismic data processing typically deals with seismic wave reflections and neglects wave diffraction that affect the resolution. As a general rule, wave diffractions are treated as noise in seismic data processing. However, wave diffractions generally originate from geological structures, such as fractures, karst caves, and faults. The wave diffraction energy is much weaker than that of the reflections. Therefore, even if wave diffractions can be traced back to their origin, their energy is masked by that of the reflections. Separating and imaging diffractions and reflections can improve the imaging accuracy of diffractive targets. Based on the geometrical differences between reflections and diffractions on the plane-wave record; that is, reflections are quasi-linear and diffractions are quasi-hyperbolic, we use plane-wave prediction filtering to separate the wave diffractions. First, we estimate the local slope of the seismic event using planewave destruction filtering and, then, we predict and extract the wave reflections based on the local slope. Thus, we obtain the diffracted wavefield by directly subtracting the reflected wavefield from the entire wavefield. Finally, we image the diffracted wavefield and obtain high-resolution diffractive target results. 2D SEG salt model data suggest that the plane-wave prediction filtering eliminates the phase reversal in the plane-wave destruction filtering and maintains the original wavefield phase, improving the accuracy of imaging heterogeneous objects.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0634-9
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Reflection full-waveform inversion using a modified phase misfit function
    • Authors: Chao Cui; Jian-Ping Huang; Zhen-Chun Li; Wen-Yuan Liao; Zhe Guan
      Pages: 407 - 418
      Abstract: Reflection full-waveform inversion (RFWI) updates the low- and highwavenumber components, and yields more accurate initial models compared with conventional full-waveform inversion (FWI). However, there is strong nonlinearity in conventional RFWI because of the lack of low-frequency data and the complexity of the amplitude. The separation of phase and amplitude information makes RFWI more linear. Traditional phase-calculation methods face severe phase wrapping. To solve this problem, we propose a modified phase-calculation method that uses the phase-envelope data to obtain the pseudo phase information. Then, we establish a pseudophase-information-based objective function for RFWI, with the corresponding source and gradient terms. Numerical tests verify that the proposed calculation method using the phase-envelope data guarantees the stability and accuracy of the phase information and the convergence of the objective function. The application on a portion of the Sigsbee2A model and comparison with inversion results of the improved RFWI and conventional FWI methods verify that the pseudophase-based RFWI produces a highly accurate and efficient velocity model. Moreover, the proposed method is robust to noise and high frequency.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0630-0
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • 3D anisotropic modeling and identification for airborne EM systems based
           on the spectral-element method
    • Authors: Xin Huang; Chang-Chun Yin; Xiao-Yue Cao; Yun-He Liu; Bo Zhang; Jing Cai
      Pages: 419 - 430
      Abstract: The airborne electromagnetic (AEM) method has a high sampling rate and survey flexibility. However, traditional numerical modeling approaches must use high-resolution physical grids to guarantee modeling accuracy, especially for complex geological structures such as anisotropic earth. This can lead to huge computational costs. To solve this problem, we propose a spectral-element (SE) method for 3D AEM anisotropic modeling, which combines the advantages of spectral and finite-element methods. Thus, the SE method has accuracy as high as that of the spectral method and the ability to model complex geology inherited from the finite-element method. The SE method can improve the modeling accuracy within discrete grids and reduce the dependence of modeling results on the grids. This helps achieve high-accuracy anisotropic AEM modeling. We first introduced a rotating tensor of anisotropic conductivity to Maxwell’s equations and described the electrical field via SE basis functions based on GLL interpolation polynomials. We used the Galerkin weighted residual method to establish the linear equation system for the SE method, and we took a vertical magnetic dipole as the transmission source for our AEM modeling. We then applied fourth-order SE calculations with coarse physical grids to check the accuracy of our modeling results against a 1D semi-analytical solution for an anisotropic half-space model and verified the high accuracy of the SE. Moreover, we conducted AEM modeling for different anisotropic 3D abnormal bodies using two physical grid scales and three orders of SE to obtain the convergence conditions for different anisotropic abnormal bodies. Finally, we studied the identification of anisotropy for single anisotropic abnormal bodies, anisotropic surrounding rock, and single anisotropic abnormal body embedded in an anisotropic surrounding rock. This approach will play a key role in the inversion and interpretation of AEM data collected in regions with anisotropic geology.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0632-y
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Three-dimensional arbitrarily anisotropic modeling for time-domain
           airborne electromagnetic surveys
    • Authors: Wei Huang; Fang Ben; Chang-Chun Yin; Qing-Min Meng; Wen-Jie Li; Gui-Xiang Liao; Shan Wu; Yong-Zai Xi
      Pages: 431 - 440
      Abstract: Electrically anisotropic strata are abundant in nature, so their study can help our data interpretation and our understanding of the processes of geodynamics. However, current data processing generally assumes isotropic conditions when surveying anisotropic structures, which may cause discrepancies between reality and electromagnetic data interpretation. Moreover, the anisotropic interpretation of the time-domain airborne electromagnetic (TDAEM) method is still confined to one dimensional (1D) cases, and the corresponding three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations are still in development. In this study, we expanded the 3D TDAEM modeling of arbitrarily anisotropic media. First, through coordinate rotation of isotropic conductivity, we obtained the conductivity tensor of an arbitrary anisotropic rock. Next, we incorporated this into Maxwell’s equations, using a regular hexahedral grid of vector finite elements to subdivide the solution area. A direct solver software package provided the solution for the sparse linear equations that resulted. Analytical solutions were used to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the algorithm. The proven model was then applied to analyze the effects of arbitrary anisotropy in 3D TDAEM via the distribution of responses and amplitude changes, which revealed that different anisotropy situations strongly affected the responses of TDAEM.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0627-8
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Application of a wide-field electromagnetic method to shale gas
           exploration in South China
    • Authors: Xue-Li Yang; Bo Li; Chuan-Sheng Peng; Yang Yang
      Pages: 441 - 448
      Abstract: In an effort to reduce the shale gas exploration risks and costs, we applied the wide-field electromagnetic method (WFEM), because of its strong anti-interference capability, high resolution, ability to conduct exploration at large depths, and high efficiency, to the Bayan Syncline in the South Huayuan block, Hunan Province. We collected rock samples and analyzed their resistivity and induced polarization (IP) and built A series of two-dimensional models for geological conditions to investigate the applicability of WFEM to different geological structures. We also analyzed the correlation between TOC of shale and the resistivity and IP ratio to determine the threshold for identifying target formations. We used WFEM to identify the underground structures and determine the distribution, depth, and thickness of the target strata. Resistivity, IP, and total organic carbon were used to evaluate the shale gas prospects and select favorable areas (sweet spots) for exploration and development. Subsequently, drilling in these areas proved the applicability of WFEM in shale gas exploration.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0633-x
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Field testing of the surface electromagnetic prospecting system
    • Authors: Qing-Yun Di; Chang-Min Fu; Zhi-Guo An; Cheng Xu; Ya-Lu Wang; Zhong-Xing Wang
      Pages: 449 - 458
      Abstract: To test the performance of the Chinese whole-surface electromagnetic prospecting (SEP) system, system integrations, instrument performances, and large-scale production viabilities in Liaoning province and Inner Mongolia were measured via extensive field tests. Resultant electric fields, magnetic fields, apparent resistivities, impedance phases, and inversion profiles compared favorably with results of commercial equipment from other countries. The inversion results agreed well with the geologic information from boreholes. Field tests showed that the SEP system is stable, reliable, lightweight, and easy to operate, making it suitable and ready for real-field exploration.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0639-4
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A method of reconstructing complex stratigraphic surfaces with multitype
           fault constraints
    • Authors: Shi-Wu Deng; Yu Jia; Xing-Miao Yao; Zhi-Ning Liu
      Pages: 195 - 204
      Abstract: The construction of complex stratigraphic surfaces is widely employed in many fields, such as petroleum exploration, geological modeling, and geological structure analysis. It also serves as an important foundation for data visualization and visual analysis in these fields. The existing surface construction methods have several deficiencies and face various difficulties, such as the presence of multitype faults and roughness of resulting surfaces. In this paper, a surface modeling method that uses geometric partial differential equations (PDEs) is introduced for the construction of stratigraphic surfaces. It effectively solves the problem of surface roughness caused by the irregularity of stratigraphic data distribution. To cope with the presence of multitype complex faults, a two-way projection algorithm between threedimensional space and a two-dimensional plane is proposed. Using this algorithm, a unified method based on geometric PDEs is developed for dealing with multitype faults. Moreover, the corresponding geometric PDE is derived, and an algorithm based on an evolutionary solution is developed. The algorithm proposed for constructing spatial surfaces with real data verifies its computational efficiency and its ability to handle irregular data distribution. In particular, it can reconstruct faulty surfaces, especially those with overthrust faults.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0619-8
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Inversion of river-bottom sediment parameters using mechanically sampled
           specimens and subbottom profiling data
    • Authors: Chang-Zheng Li; Yong Yang; Rui Wang; Jun Zheng
      Pages: 225 - 235
      Abstract: The study of river dynamics requires knowledge of physical parameters, such as porosity, permeability, and wave propagation velocity, of river-bottom sediments. To do so, sediment properties are determined on mechanically sampled specimens and from subbottom profiling. However, mechanical sampling introduces disturbances that affect test results, with the exception of grain-size distribution. In this study, we perform inversion of acoustic data using the grain-size distribution of mechanically sampled specimens and the relation between porosity and permeability from the Kozeny–Carman equation as prior information. The wave reflection coefficient of the water–silt interface is extracted from the raw subbottom profile. Based on the effective density fluid model, we combine the Kozeny–Carman equation and the wave reflection coefficient. We use experimental data from two Yellow River reservoirs to obtain the wave velocity and density of multiple sections and their spatial variations, and find that the inversion and testing results are in good agreement.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0621-1
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Research and application of spectral inversion technique in frequency
           domain to improve resolution of converted PS-wave
    • Authors: Hua Zhang; Zhen-Hua He; Ya-Lin Li; Rui Li; Guamg-Ming He; Zhong Li
      Pages: 247 - 257
      Abstract: Multi-wave exploration is an effective means for improving precision in the exploration and development of complex oil and gas reservoirs that are dense and have low permeability. However, converted wave data is characterized by a low signal-to-noise ratio and low resolution, because the conventional deconvolution technology is easily affected by the frequency range limits, and there is limited scope for improving its resolution. The spectral inversion techniques is used to identify λ/8 thin layers and its breakthrough regarding band range limits has greatly improved the seismic resolution. The difficulty associated with this technology is how to use the stable inversion algorithm to obtain a high-precision reflection coefficient, and then to use this reflection coefficient to reconstruct broadband data for processing. In this paper, we focus on how to improve the vertical resolution of the converted PS-wave for multi-wave data processing. Based on previous research, we propose a least squares inversion algorithm with a total variation constraint, in which we uses the total variance as a priori information to solve under-determined problems, thereby improving the accuracy and stability of the inversion. Here, we simulate the Gaussian fitting amplitude spectrum to obtain broadband wavelet data, which we then process to obtain a higher resolution converted wave. We successfully apply the proposed inversion technology in the processing of high-resolution data from the Penglai region to obtain higher resolution converted wave data, which we then verify in a theoretical test. Improving the resolution of converted PS-wave data will provide more accurate data for subsequent velocity inversion and the extraction of reservoir reflection information.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0617-x
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Seismic wavefield modeling based on time-domain symplectic and Fourier
           finite-difference method
    • Authors: Gang Fang; Jing Ba; Xin-xin Liu; Kun Zhu; Guo-Chang Liu
      Pages: 258 - 269
      Abstract: Seismic wavefield modeling is important for improving seismic data processing and interpretation. Calculations of wavefield propagation are sometimes not stable when forward modeling of seismic wave uses large time steps for long times. Based on the Hamiltonian expression of the acoustic wave equation, we propose a structure-preserving method for seismic wavefield modeling by applying the symplectic finite-difference method on time grids and the Fourier finite-difference method on space grids to solve the acoustic wave equation. The proposed method is called the symplectic Fourier finite-difference (symplectic FFD) method, and offers high computational accuracy and improves the computational stability. Using acoustic approximation, we extend the method to anisotropic media. We discuss the calculations in the symplectic FFD method for seismic wavefield modeling of isotropic and anisotropic media, and use the BP salt model and BP TTI model to test the proposed method. The numerical examples suggest that the proposed method can be used in seismic modeling of strongly variable velocities, offering high computational accuracy and low numerical dispersion. The symplectic FFD method overcomes the residual qSV wave of seismic modeling in anisotropic media and maintains the stability of the wavefield propagation for large time steps.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0624-y
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • 2D joint inversion of CSAMT and magnetic data based on cross-gradient
           theory
    • Authors: Kun-Peng Wang; Han-Dong Tan; Tao Wang
      Pages: 279 - 290
      Abstract: A two-dimensional forward and backward algorithm for the controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) method is developed to invert data in the entire region (near, transition, and far) and deal with the effects of artificial sources. First, a regularization factor is introduced in the 2D magnetic inversion, and the magnetic susceptibility is updated in logarithmic form so that the inversion magnetic susceptibility is always positive. Second, the joint inversion of the CSAMT and magnetic methods is completed with the introduction of the cross gradient. By searching for the weight of the cross-gradient term in the objective function, the mutual influence between two different physical properties at different locations are avoided. Model tests show that the joint inversion based on cross-gradient theory offers better results than the single-method inversion. The 2D forward and inverse algorithm for CSAMT with source can effectively deal with artificial sources and ensures the reliability of the final joint inversion algorithm.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0615-z
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Regional spatiotemporal variations of a nondipole magnetic field over the
           Chinese mainland and neighboring regions in millennial scale
    • Authors: Yan Feng; Yong Jiang
      Pages: 314 - 321
      Abstract: Spatiotemporal variations of the nondipole (ND) magnetic field over the Chinese mainland and neighboring regions from 10000 BC to 1990 AD were analyzed using the latest global geomagnetic models CALS10K.1b, CALS3K.4, and IGRF11. Moreover, for field sources, we investigated 2 n (n = 2–10) pole ND fields and their energies. The results suggest that the study period can be divided into three. The intensity of the ND field has been mainly positive since 10000 BC and lasted almost 7500 years, then gradually decreased to negative in 2500 BC to 1500 AD, and finally sharply increased to positive. The anomaly areas of the ND field in East Asia took shape for n = 3, when the anomaly areas in East Asia were shaped into closed circles in the mainland. This suggests that the first three harmonic degrees account for most of the ND field. The energy of the ND field rapidly attenuates at the core–mantle boundary and is stable at the surface.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0622-0
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Three-dimensional tomography using high-power induced polarization with
           the similar central gradient array
    • Authors: Jun-Lu Wang; Pin-Rong Lin; Meng Wang; Dang Li; Jian-Hua Li
      Abstract: Induced polarization (IP) 3D tomography with the similar central gradient array combines IP sounding and IP profiling to retrieve 3D resistivity and polarization data rapidly. The method is characterized by high spatial resolution and large probing depth. We discuss data acquisition and 3D IP imaging procedures using the central gradient array with variable electrode distances. A 3D geoelectric model was constructed and then numerically modeled. The data modeling results suggest that this method can capture the features of real geoelectric models. The method was applied to a polymetallic mine in Gansu Province. The results suggest that IP 3D tomography captures the distribution of resistivity and polarization of subsurface media, delineating the extension of abrupt interfaces, and identifies mineralization.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0618-9
       
 
 
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