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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.641, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Applied Geophysics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.488
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 8  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1993-0658 - ISSN (Online) 1672-7975
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • 3D forward modeling and response analysis for marine CSEMs towed by two
    • Authors: Bo Zhang; Chang-Chun Yin; Yun-He Liu; Xiu-Yan Ren; Yan-Fu Qi; Jing Cai
      Pages: 11 - 25
      Abstract: A dual-ship-towed marine electromagnetic (EM) system is a new marine exploration technology recently being developed in China. Compared with traditional marine EM systems, the new system tows the transmitters and receivers using two ships, rendering it unnecessary to position EM receivers at the seafloor in advance. This makes the system more flexible, allowing for different configurations (e.g., in-line, broadside, and azimuthal and concentric scanning) that can produce more detailed underwater structural information. We develop a three-dimensional goal-oriented adaptive forward modeling method for the new marine EM system and analyze the responses for four survey configurations. Oceanbottom topography has a strong effect on the marine EM responses; thus, we develop a forward modeling algorithm based on the finite-element method and unstructured grids. To satisfy the requirements for modeling the moving transmitters of a dual-ship-towed EM system, we use a single mesh for each of the transmitter locations. This mitigates the mesh complexity by refining the grids near the transmitters and minimizes the computational cost. To generate a rational mesh while maintaining the accuracy for single transmitter, we develop a goal-oriented adaptive method with separate mesh refinements for areas around the transmitting source and those far away. To test the modeling algorithm and accuracy, we compare the EM responses calculated by the proposed algorithm and semi-analytical results and from published sources. Furthermore, by analyzing the EM responses for four survey configurations, we are confirm that compared with traditional marine EM systems with only in-line array, a dual-ship-towed marine system can collect more data.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0659-8
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Continuous TDEM for monitoring shale hydraulic fracturing
    • Authors: Liang-Jun Yan; Xiao-Xiong Chen; Hao Tang; Xing-Bing Xie; Lei Zhou; Wen-Bao Hu; Zhong-Xin Wang
      Pages: 26 - 34
      Abstract: Monitoring and delineating the spatial distribution of shale fracturing is fundamentally important to shale gas production. Standard monitoring methods, such as time-lapse seismic, cross-well seismic and micro-seismic methods, are expensive, timeconsuming, and do not show the changes in the formation with time. The resistivities of hydraulic fracturing fluid and reservoir rocks were measured. The results suggest that the injection fluid and consequently the injected reservoir are characterized by very low resistivity and high chargeability. This allows using of the controlled-source electromagnetic method (CSEM) to monitor shale gas hydraulic fracturing. Based on the geoelectrical model which was proposed according to the well-log and seismic data in the test area the change rule of the reacted electrical field was studied to account for the change of shale resistivity, and then the normalized residual resistivity method for time lapse processing was given. The time-domain electromagnetic method (TDEM) was used to continuously monitor the shale gas fracturing at the Fulin shale gas field in southern China. A high-power transmitter and multi-channel transient electromagnetic receiver array were adopted. 9 h time series of Ex component of 224 sites which were laid out on the surface and over three fracturing stages of a horizontal well at 2800 m depth was recorded. After data processing and calculation of the normalized resistivity residuals, the changes in the Ex signal were determined and a dynamic 3D image of the change in resistivity was constructed. This allows modeling the spatial distribution of the fracturing fluid. The model results suggest that TDEM is promising for monitoring hydraulic fracturing of shale.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0661-1
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Acoustic reflection well logging modeling using the frequency-domain
           finite-element method with a hybrid PML
    • Authors: Bing Wang; Zhang Kuo; Tao Guo; Liu He; Xiao-Liang Zhang
      Pages: 35 - 45
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a hybrid PML (H-PML) combining the normal absorption factor of convolutional PML (C-PML) with tangential absorption factor of Mutiaxial PML (M-PML). The H-PML boundary conditions can better suppress the numerical instability in some extreme models. and the computational speed of finite-element method and the dynamic range are greatly increased using this HPML. We use the finiteelement method with a hybrid PML to model the acoustic reflection of the interface when wireline and well logging while drilling (LWD), in a formation with a reflector outside the borehole. The simulation results suggests that the PS- and SP- reflected waves arrive at the same time when the inclination between the well and the outer interface is zero, and the difference in arrival times increases with increasing dip angle. When there are fractures outside the well, the reflection signal is clearer in the subsequent reflection waves and may be used to identify the fractured zone. The difference between the dominant wavelength and the model scale shows that LWD reflection logging data are of higher resolution and quality than wireline acoustic reflection logging.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0666-9
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Seismic physical modeling and quality factor
    • Authors: Feng Gao; Jian-Xin Wei; Bang-Rang Di
      Pages: 46 - 56
      Abstract: Accurate Q parameter is hard to be obtained, but there is great difference between Q measurements from different measurement methods in seismic physical modelling. The influence factors, stability and accuracy of different methods are analyzed through standard sample experiment and the seismic physical modelling. Based on this, we proposed an improved method for improving accuracy of pulse transmission method, in which the samples with similar acoustic properties to the test sample are selected as the reference samples. We assess the stability and accuracy of the pulse transmission, pulse transmission insertion, and reflection wave methods for obtaining the quality factor Q using standard and reference samples and seismic physical modeling. The results suggest that the Q-values obtained by the pulse transmission method are strongly affected by diffraction and the error is 50% or greater, whereas the relative error of the improved pulse transmission method is about 10%. By using a theoretical diffraction correction method and the improved measurement method, the differences among the Q-measuring methods can be limited to within 10%.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0664-y
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Study and application of PS-wave pre-stack migration in HTI media and an
           anisotropic correction method
    • Authors: Li-Li Yan; Bing-Jie Cheng; Tian-Ji Xu; Ying-Ying Jiang; Zhao-Jun Ma; Jian-Ming Tang
      Pages: 57 - 68
      Abstract: Anisotropy correction is necessary during the processing of converted PSwave seismic data to achieve accurate structural imaging, reservoir prediction, and fracture detection. To effectively eliminate the adverse effects of S-wave splitting and to improve PSwave imaging quality, we tested methods for pre-stack migration imaging and anisotropic correction of PS-wave data. We based this on the propagation rules of seismic waves in a horizontal transverse isotropy medium, which is a fractured medium model that reflects likely subsurface conditions in the field. We used the radial (R) and transverse (T) components of PS-wave data to separate the fast and slow S-wave components, after which their propagation moveout was effectively extracted. Meanwhile, corrections for the energies and propagation moveouts of the R and T components were implemented using mathematical rotation. The PS-wave imaging quality was distinctly improved, and we demonstrated the reliability of our methods through numerical simulations. Applying our methods to three-dimensional and three-component seismic field data from the Xinchang-Hexingchang region of the Western Sichuan Depression in China, we obtained high-quality seismic imaging with continuous reflection wave groups, distinct structural features, and specific stratigraphic contact relationships. This study provides an effective and reliable approach for data processing that will improve the exploration of complex, hidden lithologic gas reservoirs.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0660-2
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Acoustic parameters inversion and sediment properties in the Yellow River
    • Authors: Chang-Zheng Li; Yong Yang; Rui Wang; Xiao-Fei Yan
      Pages: 78 - 90
      Abstract: The physical properties of silt in river reservoirs are important to river dynamics. Unfortunately, traditional techniques yield insufficient data. Based on porous media acoustic theory, we invert the acoustic parameters for the top river-bottom sediments. An explicit form of the acoustic reflection coefficient at the water–sediment interface is derived based on Biot’s theory. The choice of parameters in the Biot model is discussed and the relation between acoustic and geological parameters is studied, including that between the reflection coefficient and porosity and the attenuation coefficient and permeability. The attenuation coefficient of the sound wave in the sediments is obtained by analyzing the shift of the signal frequency. The acoustic reflection coefficient at the water–sediment interface is extracted from the sonar signal. Thus, an inversion method of the physical parameters of the riverbottom surface sediments is proposed. The results of an experiment at the Sanmenxia reservoir suggest that the estimated grain size is close to the actual data. This demonstrates the ability of the proposed method to determine the physical parameters of sediments and estimate the grain size.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0663-z
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Surface wave attenuation based polarization attributes in time-frequency
           domain for multicomponent seismic data
    • Authors: Xuan-Lin Kong; Hui Chen; Zhi-Quan Hu; Jia-Xing Kang; Tian-Ji Xu; Lu-Ming Li
      Pages: 99 - 110
      Abstract: In the paper, we propose a surface wave suppression method in time-frequency domain based on the wavelet transform, considering the characteristic difference of polarization attributes, amplitude energy and apparent velocity between the effective signals and strong surface waves. First, we use the proposed method to obtain time–frequency spectra of seismic signals by using the wavelet transform and calculate the instantaneous polarizability at each point based on instantaneous polarization analysis. Then, we separate the surface wave area from the signal area based on the surface-wave apparent velocity and the average energy of the signal. Finally, we combine the polarizability, energy, and frequency characteristic to identify and suppress the signal noise. Model and field data are used to test the proposed filtering method.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0656-y
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Ground roll attenuation based on an empirical curvelet transform
    • Authors: Huan Yuan; Zi-Duo Hu; Zhao Liu; Jian-Wei Ma
      Pages: 111 - 117
      Abstract: In the field of seismic exploration, ground roll seriously affects the deep effective reflections from subsurface deep structures. Traditional curvelet transform cannot provide an adaptive basis function to achieve a suboptimal denoised result. In this paper, we propose a method based on empirical curvelet transform (ECT) for ground roll attenuation. Unlike the traditional curvelet transform, this method not only decomposes seismic data into multiscale and multi-directional components, but also provides an adaptive filter bank according to frequency content of seismic data itself. So, ground roll can be separated by using this method. However, as the frequency of reflection and ground roll components are close, we apply singular value decomposition (SVD) in the curvelet domain to differentiate the ground roll and reflection better. Examples of synthetic and field seismic data reveal that the proposed method based ECT performs better than the traditional curvelet method in terms of the suppression of ground roll.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0658-9
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Automatic pickup of arrival time of channel wave based on multi-channel
    • Authors: Bao-Li Wang
      Pages: 118 - 124
      Abstract: Accurately detecting the arrival time of a channel wave in a coal seam is very important for in-seam seismic data processing. The arrival time greatly affects the accuracy of the channel wave inversion and the computed tomography (CT) result. However, because the signal-to-noise ratio of in-seam seismic data is reduced by the long wavelength and strong frequency dispersion, accurately timing the arrival of channel waves is extremely difficult. For this purpose, we propose a method that automatically picks up the arrival time of channel waves based on multi-channel constraints. We first estimate the Jaccard similarity coefficient of two ray paths, then apply it as a weight coefficient for stacking the multichannel dispersion spectra. The reasonableness and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified in an actual data application. Most importantly, the method increases the degree of automation and the pickup precision of the channel-wave arrival time.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0655-z
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Seismic imaging of the middle and upper crust by double-difference
           tomography: the Haicheng earthquake (Ms 7.3) in Liaoning Province
    • Authors: Que Zheng; Cai Liu; You Tian; Hong-Xiang Zhu
      Pages: 125 - 136
      Abstract: The Haicheng earthquake (Ms 7.3) occurred in Liaoning Province (39°N–43°N, 120°E–126°E ), China on February 4, 1975. The mortality rate was only 0.02% owing to the first timely and accurate prediction, although the area affected by the earthquake was 9200 km2 and covered cities with a population density of 1000 p/km2. In this study, the doubledifference (DD) tomography method was used to obtain high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) P- and S-wave velocity (Vp and Vs) structures and Vp/Vs as well as the earthquake locations. Tomography results suggest that velocity structure at shallow depth coincides well with topography and sediment thickness. The earthquake locations form a northwest-striking zone associated with the Jinzhou(JZ) Fault and a northeast-striking zone associated with the Haichenghe-Dayanghe (HD) Fault, and suggest that the JZ Fault consists of three faults and the Ms 7.3 Haicheng earthquake originated at the intersection of the JZ and the Faults. Lowvelocity zones (LVZs) with low Vp/Vs are observed at 15–20 km depth beneath the Haicheng (HC) region. We interpret the LVZs in the middle crust as regions of fluids, suggesting rock dehydration at high temperatures. The LVZs and low Vp/Vs in the upper crust are attributed to groundwater-filled cracks and pores. We believe that large crustal earthquakes in this area are caused by the combination of faulting and fluid movement in the middle crust.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0662-0
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Analyzing gravity anomaly variations before the 2016 Ms 6.4 earthquake in
           Menyuan, Qinghai with an interpolation/cutting potential field separation
    • Authors: Jin-Zhao Liu; Tong-Qing Wang; Zhao-Hui Chen; Pin Zhang; Chuan-Dong Zhu; Shuang-Xi Zhang
      Pages: 137 - 146
      Abstract: We evaluated 2011–2015 mobile relative gravity data from the Hexi monitoring network that covers the epicenter of the 2016 Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake, Qinghai Province, China and examined the spatiotemporal characteristics of the gravity field at the focal depth. In addition, we assessed the regional gravity field and its variation the half-year before the earthquake. We use first different interpolation algorithms to build a grid for the gravity data and then introduce potential field interpolation–cutting separation techniques and adaptive noise filtering. The results suggest that the gravity filed at the focal depth of 11.12 km separated from the total gravity field at about–400~150 × 10−8 m/s2 in the second half of 2015, which is larger than that in the same period in 2011 to 2014 (±30 × 10−8 m/s2). Moreover, at the same time, the gravity field changed fast from September 2014 to May 2015 and May 2015 to September 2015, reflecting to some extent material migration deep in the crust before the Menyuan earthquake.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0665-x
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Random noise suppression of seismic data using non-local Bayes algorithm
    • Authors: De-Kuan Chang; Wu-Yang Yang; Yi-Hui Wang; Qing Yang; Xin-Jian Wei; Xiao-Ying Feng
      Abstract: For random noise suppression of seismic data, we present a non-local Bayes (NL-Bayes) filtering algorithm. The NL-Bayes algorithm uses the Gaussian model instead of the weighted average of all similar patches in the NL-means algorithm to reduce the fuzzy of structural details, thereby improving the denoising performance. In the denoising process of seismic data, the size and the number of patches in the Gaussian model are adaptively calculated according to the standard deviation of noise. The NL-Bayes algorithm requires two iterations to complete seismic data denoising, but the second iteration makes use of denoised seismic data from the first iteration to calculate the better mean and covariance of the patch Gaussian model for improving the similarity of patches and achieving the purpose of denoising. Tests with synthetic and real data sets demonstrate that the NL-Bayes algorithm can effectively improve the SNR and preserve the fidelity of seismic data.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0657-x
  • Super-resolution least-squares prestack Kirchhoff depth migration using
           the L 0 -norm
    • Authors: Shao-Jiang Wu; Yi-Bo Wang; Yue Ma; Xu Chang
      Abstract: Least-squares migration (LSM) is applied to image subsurface structures and lithology by minimizing the objective function of the observed seismic and reverse-time migration residual data of various underground reflectivity models. LSM reduces the migration artifacts, enhances the spatial resolution of the migrated images, and yields a more accurate subsurface reflectivity distribution than that of standard migration. The introduction of regularization constraints effectively improves the stability of the least-squares offset. The commonly used regularization terms are based on the L 2-norm, which smooths the migration results, e.g., by smearing the reflectivities, while providing stability. However, in exploration geophysics, reflection structures based on velocity and density are generally observed to be discontinuous in depth, illustrating sparse reflectance. To obtain a sparse migration profile, we propose the super-resolution least-squares Kirchhoff prestack depth migration by solving the L 0-norm-constrained optimization problem. Additionally, we introduce a two-stage iterative soft and hard thresholding algorithm to retrieve the super-resolution reflectivity distribution. Further, the proposed algorithm is applied to complex synthetic data. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the proposed algorithm to noise and the dominant frequency of the source wavelet was evaluated. Finally, we conclude that the proposed method improves the spatial resolution and achieves impulse-like reflectivity distribution and can be applied to structural interpretations and complex subsurface imaging.
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0654-0
  • Removal of the airwave effect by main-part decomposition of the anomalous
           field of MCSEM data
    • Authors: Shu-Ming Wang; Qing-Yun Di; Ruo Wang; Xue-Mei Wang; Xiao-Lu Su; Peng-Fei Wang
      Abstract: The airwave effect greatly influences the observational data from controlled-source electromagnetic exploration in shallow seas, which obscures the abnormal effects generated by exploration targets and, hence, affects the accuracy of the late exploration data interpretation. In this study, we propose a method to separate the main part from the anomalous field of marine controlled-source electromagnetic method (MCSEM) data based on Stratton–Chu integral transforms to eliminate the airwave effect, which dominates observed electromagnetic (EM) response in shallow seawater. This method of separating the main part from the anomalous field is a type of finite impulse response filter based on a discrete data set. Theoretical analysis proved that the method is stable and able to effectively depress noise. A numerical test indicated that the method could successfully eliminate the airwave effect from the observed EM signals generated by an air–water interface and a seawater layer. This technique is applicable for seawater models with either flat or rough seabeds.
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0653-1
  • Prediction of brittleness based on anisotropic rock physics model for
           kerogen-rich shale
    • Authors: Ke-Ran Qian; Zhi-Liang He; Ye-Quan Chen; Xi-Wu Liu; Xiang-Yang Li
      Pages: 463 - 479
      Abstract: The construction of a shale rock physics model and the selection of an appropriate brittleness index (BI) are two significant steps that can influence the accuracy of brittleness prediction. On one hand, the existing models of kerogen-rich shale are controversial, so a reasonable rock physics model needs to be built. On the other hand, several types of equations already exist for predicting the BI whose feasibility needs to be carefully considered. This study constructed a kerogen-rich rock physics model by performing the selfconsistent approximation and the differential effective medium theory to model intercoupled clay and kerogen mixtures. The feasibility of our model was confirmed by comparison with classical models, showing better accuracy. Templates were constructed based on our model to link physical properties and the BI. Different equations for the BI had different sensitivities, making them suitable for different types of formations. Equations based on Young’s Modulus were sensitive to variations in lithology, while those using Lame’s Coefficients were sensitive to porosity and pore fluids. Physical information must be considered to improve brittleness prediction.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0640-y
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2017)
  • Physical properties, vitrinite reflectance, and microstructure of coal,
           Taiyuan Formation, Qinshui Basin, China
    • Authors: Qiong Li; Jie Chen; Jian-Jun He
      Pages: 480 - 491
      Abstract: In this study, we experimentally established the relationship between physical properties, vitrinite reflectance, and microstructure of coal, Taiyuan Formation, Qinshui Basin, China using representative coal samples collected from three different mines via the rock mechanics testing system (MTS). We analyzed the organic macerals, vitrinite reflectance, and microstructure of 11 coal samples using petrography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results suggest that (1) the elastic parameters can be described by linear equations, (2) both P-and S-wave velocities display anisotropy, (3) the anisotropy negatively correlates with vitrinite reflectance, and (4) the acoustic velocities and Young’s modulus are negatively correlated with the volume of micropores. The derived empirical equations can be used in the forward modeling and seismic inversion of physical properties of coal for improving the coal-bed methane (CBM) reservoir characterization.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0651-8
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2017)
  • Extraction of amplitude-preserving angle gathers based on vector wavefield
           reverse-time migration
    • Authors: Jia-Jia Yang; Xi-Wu Luan; Bing-Shou He; Gang Fang; Jun Pan; Wei-Min Ran; Tao Jiang
      Pages: 492 - 504
      Abstract: Angle-domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs) transformed from the shotdomain common-offset gathers are input to migration velocity analysis (MVA) and prestack inversion. ADCIGs are non-illusion prestack inversion gathers, and thus, accurate. We studied the extraction of elastic-wave ADCIGs based on amplitude-preserving elastic-wave reversetime migration for calculating the incidence angle of P-and S-waves at each image point and for different source locations. The P-and S-waves share the same incident angle, namely the incident angle of the source P-waves. The angle of incidence of the source P-wavefield was the difference between the source P-wave propagation angle and the reflector dips. The propagation angle of the source P-waves was obtained from the polarization vector of the decomposed P-waves. The reflectors’ normal direction angle was obtained using the complex wavenumber of the stacked reverse-time migration (RTM) images. The ADCIGs of P-and S-waves were obtained by rearranging the common-shot migration gathers based on the incident angle. We used a horizontally layered model, the graben medium model, and part of the Marmousi-II elastic model and field data to test the proposed algorithm. The results suggested that the proposed method can efficiently extract the P-and S-wave ADCIGs of the elastic-wave reverse-time migration, the P-and S-wave incident angle, and the angle-gather amplitude fidelity, and improve the MVA and prestack inversion.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0650-9
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2017)
  • Controlled-source electromagnetic data processing based on gray system
           theory and robust estimation
    • Authors: Dan Mo; Qi-Yun Jiang; Di-Quan Li; Chao-Jian Chen; Bi-Ming Zhang; Jia-Wen Liu
      Pages: 570 - 580
      Abstract: We propose a novel method that combines gray system theory and robust M-estimation method to suppress the interference in controlled-source electromagnetic data. We estimate the standard deviation of the data using a gray model because of the weak dependence of the gray system on data distribution and size. We combine the proposed and threshold method to identify and eliminate outliers. Robust M-estimation is applied to suppress the effect of the outliers and improve the accuracy. We treat the M-estimators of the preserved data as the true data. We use our method to reject the outliers in simulated signals containing noise to verify the feasibility of our proposed method. The processed values are observed to be approximate to the expected values with high accuracy. The maximum relative error is 3.6676%, whereas the minimum is 0.0251%. In processing field data, we observe that the proposed method eliminates outliers, minimizes the root-mean-square error, and improves the reliability of controlled-source electromagnetic data in follow-up processing and interpretation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0646-5
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2017)
  • Forward modeling and inversion of tensor CSAMT in 3D anisotropic media
    • Authors: Tao Wang; Kun-Peng Wang; Han-Dong Tan
      Pages: 590 - 605
      Abstract: Tensor controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotellurics (CSAMT) can yield information about electric and magnetic fields owing to its multi-transmitter configuration compared with the common scalar CSAMT. The most current theories, numerical simulations, and inversion of tensor CSAMT are based on far-field measurements and the assumption that underground media have isotropic resistivity. We adopt a three-dimensional (3D) staggered-grid finite difference numerical simulation method to analyze the resistivity in axial anisotropic and isotropic media. We further adopt the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno (LBFGS) method to perform 3D tensor CSAMT axial anisotropic inversion. The inversion results suggest that when the underground structure is anisotropic, the isotropic inversion will introduce errors to the interpretation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0644-7
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2017)
  • Translation-invariant wavelet denoising of full-tensor gravity
           –gradiometer data
    • Authors: Dai-Lei Zhang; Da-Nian Huang; Ping Yu; Yuan Yuan
      Pages: 606 - 619
      Abstract: Denoising of full-tensor gravity-gradiometer data involves detailed information from field sources, especially the data mixed with high-frequency random noise. We present a denoising method based on the translation-invariant wavelet with mixed thresholding and adaptive threshold to remove the random noise and retain the data details. The novel mixed thresholding approach is devised to filter the random noise based on the energy distribution of the wavelet coefficients corresponding to the signal and random noise. The translationinvariant wavelet suppresses pseudo-Gibbs phenomena, and the mixed thresholding better separates the wavelet coefficients than traditional thresholding. Adaptive Bayesian threshold is used to process the wavelet coefficients according to the specific characteristics of the wavelet coefficients at each decomposition scale. A two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform is used to denoise gridded data for better computational efficiency. The results of denoising model and real data suggest that compared with Gaussian regional filter, the proposed method suppresses the white Gaussian noise and preserves the high-frequency information in gravity-gradiometer data. Satisfactory denoising is achieved with the translation-invariant wavelet.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0649-2
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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