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Showing 1 - 200 of 2341 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Applied Geophysics
  [SJR: 0.541]   [H-I: 13]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1993-0658 - ISSN (Online) 1672-7975
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2341 journals]
  • Feasibility of central loop TEM method for prospecting multilayer
           water-filled goaf
    • Authors: Shu Yan; Gou-Qiang Xue; Wei-Zhong Qiu; Hai Li; Hua-Sen Zhong
      Pages: 587 - 597
      Abstract: Abstract With deep mining of coal mines, prospecting multilayer water-filled goaf has become a new content that results from geophysical exploration in coalfields. The central loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) method is favorable for prospecting conductive layers because of the coupling relationship between its field structure and formation. However, the shielding effect of conductive overburden would not only require a longer observation time when prospecting the same depth but also weaken the anomalous response of underlying layers. Through direct time domain numerical simulation and horizontal layered earth forward modeling, this paper estimates the length of observation time required to prospect the target, and the distinguishable criterion of multilayer water-filled goaf is presented with observation error according to the effect of noise on observation data. The observed emf curves from Dazigou Coal Mine, Shanxi Province can distinguish multilayer water-filled goaf. In quantitative inversion interpretation of observed curves, using electric logging data as initial parameters restrains the equivalence caused by coal formation thin layers. The deduced three-layer and two-layer water-filled goafs are confirmed by the drilling hole. The result suggests that when observation time is long enough and with the anomalous situation of underlying layers being greater than the observation error, the use of the central loop TEM method to prospect a multilayer water-filled goaf is feasible.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0586-5
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • Multi-resolution graph-based clustering analysis for lithofacies
           identification from well log data: Case study of intraplatform bank gas
           fields, Amu Darya Basin
    • Authors: Yu Tian; Hong Xu; Xing-Yang Zhang; Hong-Jun Wang; Tong-Cui Guo; Liang-Jie Zhang; Xing-Lin Gong
      Pages: 598 - 607
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, we used the multi-resolution graph-based clustering (MRGC) method for determining the electrofacies (EF) and lithofacies (LF) from well log data obtained from the intraplatform bank gas fields located in the Amu Darya Basin. The MRGC could automatically determine the optimal number of clusters without prior knowledge about the structure or cluster numbers of the analyzed data set and allowed the users to control the level of detail actually needed to define the EF. Based on the LF identification and successful EF calibration using core data, an MRGC EF partition model including five clusters and a quantitative LF interpretation chart were constructed. The EF clusters 1 to 5 were interpreted as lagoon, anhydrite flat, interbank, low-energy bank, and high-energy bank, and the coincidence rate in the cored interval could reach 85%. We concluded that the MRGC could be accurately applied to predict the LF in non-cored but logged wells. Therefore, continuous EF clusters were partitioned and corresponding LF were interpreted, and the distribution and petrophysical characteristics of different LF were analyzed in the framework of sequence stratigraphy.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0588-3
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • The stability problem of reverse time migration for viscoacoustic VTI
    • Authors: Xiao-Dong Sun; Zhong-Hui Ge; Zhen-Chun Li; Ying Hong
      Pages: 608 - 613
      Abstract: Abstract In real strata anisotropy and viscosity extensively exists. They degraded waveforms in amplitude, resulting in which reducing of image resolution. To obtain high-precision imaging of deep reservoirs, we extended the separated viscous and anisotropic reverse time migration (RTM) to a stable viscoacoustic anisotropic RTM for vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) media, based on single generalized standard and linear solid (GSLS) media theory.. We used a pseudo-spectral method to develop the numerical simulation. By introducing a regularization operator to eliminate the high-frequency instability problem, we built a stable inverse propagator and achieved viscoacoustic VTI media RTM. High-resolution imaging results were obtained after correcting for the effects of anisotropy and viscosity. Synthetic tests verify the validity and accuracy of algorithm.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0590-9
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • Phase-shift- and phase-filtering-based surface-wave suppression method
    • Authors: De-Ying Wang; Yun Ling
      Pages: 614 - 620
      Abstract: Abstract Aliased surface waves are caused by large-space sampling intervals in threedimensional seismic exploration and most current surface-wave suppression methods fail to account for. Thus, we propose a surface-wave suppression method using phase-shift and phase-filtering, named the PSPF method, in which linear phase-shift is performed to solve the coupled problem of surface and reflected waves in the FKXKY domain and then used phase and FKXKY filtering to attenuate the surface-wave energy. Processing of model and field data suggest that the PSPF method can reduce the surface-wave energy while maintaining the low-frequency information of the reflected waves.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0594-5
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • Numerical simulations of full-wave fields and analysis of channel wave
           characteristics in 3-D coal mine roadway models
    • Authors: Si-Tong Yang; Jiu-Chuan Wei; Jiu-Long Cheng; Long-Qing Shi; Zhi-Jie Wen
      Pages: 621 - 630
      Abstract: Abstract Currently, numerical simulations of seismic channel waves for the advance detection of geological structures in coal mine roadways focus mainly on modeling twodimensional wave fields and therefore cannot accurately simulate three-dimensional (3-D) full-wave fields or seismic records in a full-space observation system. In this study, we use the first-order velocity–stress staggered-grid finite difference algorithm to simulate 3-D full-wave fields with P-wave sources in front of coal mine roadways. We determine the three components of velocity V x, V y, and V z for the same node in 3-D staggered-grid finite difference models by calculating the average value of V y, and V z of the nodes around the same node. We ascertain the wave patterns and their propagation characteristics in both symmetrical and asymmetric coal mine roadway models. Our simulation results indicate that the Rayleigh channel wave is stronger than the Love channel wave in front of the roadway face. The reflected Rayleigh waves from the roadway face are concentrated in the coal seam, release less energy to the roof and floor, and propagate for a longer distance. There are surface waves and refraction head waves around the roadway. In the seismic records, the Rayleigh wave energy is stronger than that of the Love channel wave along coal walls of the roadway, and the interference of the head waves and surface waves with the Rayleigh channel wave is weaker than with the Love channel wave. It is thus difficult to identify the Love channel wave in the seismic records. Increasing the depth of the receivers in the coal walls can effectively weaken the interference of surface waves with the Rayleigh channel wave, but cannot weaken the interference of surface waves with the Love channel wave. Our research results also suggest that the Love channel wave, which is often used to detect geological structures in coal mine stopes, is not suitable for detecting geological structures in front of coal mine roadways. Instead, the Rayleigh channel wave can be used for the advance detection of geological structures in coal mine roadways.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0582-9
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • Joint AVO inversion in the time and frequency domain with Bayesian
    • Authors: Zhao-Yun Zong; Xing-Yao Yin; Kun Li
      Pages: 631 - 640
      Abstract: Abstract Amplitude variations with offset or incident angle (AVO/AVA) inversion are typically combined with statistical methods, such as Bayesian inference or deterministic inversion. We propose a joint elastic inversion method in the time and frequency domain based on Bayesian inversion theory to improve the resolution of the estimated P- and S-wave velocities and density. We initially construct the objective function using Bayesian inference by combining seismic data in the time and frequency domain. We use Cauchy and Gaussian probability distribution density functions to obtain the prior information for the model parameters and the likelihood function, respectively. We estimate the elastic parameters by solving the initial objective function with added model constraints to improve the inversion robustness. The results of the synthetic data suggest that the frequency spectra of the estimated parameters are wider than those obtained with conventional elastic inversion in the time domain. In addition, the proposed inversion approach offers stronger antinoising compared to the inversion approach in the frequency domain. Furthermore, results from synthetic examples with added Gaussian noise demonstrate the robustness of the proposed approach. From the real data, we infer that more model parameter details can be reproduced with the proposed joint elastic inversion.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0584-7
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • Calculation method of prestack FAGVO and its applications
    • Authors: Xue-Qing Liu; Yan-Chun Wang; Gui-Bing Zhang; Sheng-Li Ma; Li-Fang Cheng; Wen-Wu Yu
      Pages: 641 - 648
      Abstract: Abstract Frequency attenuation occurs when seismic waves propagate through the porous reservoirs containing hydrocarbons. Current researches on the seismic frequency attenuation mainly focus on the post-stack domain instead of the prestack domain. Here we propose the frequency attenuation gradient vs. offset (FAGVO) based on the amplitude variation with offset and frequency attenuation integral equations. We derive the FAGVO equation that equals to zero in a full-elastic medium and is negative in a viscoelastic medium. FAGVO is affected by the viscosity of the medium, the coefficients of reflection, the frequency variation, and high-frequency attenuation. FAGVO uses the differences of partially stacked data to decrease the interference caused by subsurface strata affecting the frequency attenuation, highlights the frequency attenuation gradient anomalies in hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir pores, and finally realizes the hydrocarbon fluid identification. The method was verified using a two-dimensional wave equation forward model and was found to be cost effective. Furthermore, the method does not require well information, which can be applied in the stage of seismic exploration, especially, in the exploration of a none-well project.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0589-2
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • P-wave attenuation anisotropy in TI media and its application in fracture
           parameters inversion
    • Authors: Yi-Yuan He; Tian-Yue Hu; Chuan He; Yu-Yang Tan
      Pages: 649 - 657
      Abstract: Abstract The existence of aligned fractures in fluid-saturated rocks leads to obvious attenuation anisotropy and velocity anisotropy. Attenuation anisotropy analysis can be applied to estimate fracture density and scale, which provide important information for reservoir identification. This paper derives P-wave attenuation anisotropy in the ATI media where the symmetry axis is in the arbitrary direction theoretically and modifies the spectral ratio method to measure attenuation anisotropy in the ATI media, thus avoiding a large measurement error when applied to wide azimuth or full azimuth data. Fracture dip and azimuth can be estimated through attenuation anisotropy analysis. For small-scale fractures, fracture scale and fracture density can be determined with enhanced convergence if velocity and attenuation information are both used. We also apply the modified spectralratio method to microseismic field data from an oilfield in East China and extract the fracture dip through attenuation anisotropy analysis. The result agrees with the microseismic monitoring.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0592-7
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • Normal moveout for long offset in isotropic media using the Padé
    • Authors: Han-Jie Song; Jin-Hai Zhang; Zhen-Xing Yao
      Pages: 658 - 666
      Abstract: Abstract The normal moveout correction is important to long-offset observations, especially deep layers. For isotropic media, the conventional two-term approximation of the normal moveout function assumes a small offset-to-depth ratio and thus fails at large offset-to-depth ratios. We approximate the long-offset moveout using the Padé approximation. This method is superior to typical methods and flattens the seismic gathers over a wide range of offsets in multilayered media. For a four-layer model, traditional methods show traveltime errors of about 5 ms for offset-to-depth ratio of 2 and greater than 10 ms for offset-to-depth ratio of 3; in contrast, the maximum traveltime error for the [3, 3]-order Padé approximation is no more than 5 ms at offset-to-depth ratio of 3. For the Cooper Basin model, the maximum offset-to-depth ratio for the [3, 3]-order Padé approximation is typically double of those in typical methods. The [7, 7]-order Padé approximation performs better than the [3, 3]-order Padé approximation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0587-4
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • Boundary-reflected waves and ultrasonic coda waves in rock physics
    • Authors: Bo-Ye Fu; Li-Yun Fu; Wei Wei; Yan Zhang
      Pages: 667 - 682
      Abstract: Abstract Ultrasonic coda waves are widely used to study high-frequency scattering. However, ultrasonic coda waves are strongly affected by interference from by boundary-reflected waves. To understand the effect of boundary-reflected waves, we performed ultrasonic experiments using aluminum and shale samples, and the rotating staggered-mesh finite-difference method to simulate the wavefield. We analyzed the wavefield characteristics at the different receiving points and the interference characteristics of the boundary-reflected waves with the ultrasonic coda wave, and the effect of sample geometry on the ultrasonic coda waves. The increase in the aspect ratio of the samples delays the interference effect of the laterally reflected waves and reduces the effect on the ultrasonic coda waves. The main waves interfering with the ultrasonic coda waves are laterally reflected PP-, PS-, PPP-, and PPS-waves. The scattering and attenuation of the high-frequency energy in actual rocks can weaken the interference of laterally reflected waves with the ultrasonic coda waves.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0583-8
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • Rough interfaces and ultrasonic imaging logging behind casing
    • Authors: Bei Tao; De-Hua Chen; Xiao He; Xiu-Ming Wang
      Pages: 683 - 688
      Abstract: Abstract Ultrasonic leaky Lamb waves are sensitive to defects and debonding in multilayer media. In this study, we use the finite-difference method to simulate the response of flexural waves in the presence of defects owing to casing corrosion and rough fluctuations at the cement-formation interface. The ultrasonic obliquely incidence could effectively stimulate the flexural waves. The defects owing to casing corrosion change the amplitude of the earlyarrival flexural wave, which gradually decrease with increasing defect thickness on the exterior walls and is the lowest when the defect length and wavelength were comparable. The scattering at the defects decreases the energy of flexural waves in the casing that leaks directly to fluids. For rough cement-formation interface, the early-arrival flexural waves do not change, whereas the late-arrival flexural waves have reduced amplitude owing to the scattering at rough interface.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0576-7
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • 3D LBFGS inversion of controlled source extremely low frequency
           electromagnetic data
    • Authors: Meng Cao; Han-Dong Tan; Kun-Peng Wang
      Pages: 689 - 700
      Abstract: Abstract The controlled source extremely low frequency (CSELF) electromagnetic method is characterized by extremely long and powerful sources and a huge measurement range. Its electromagnetic field can therefore be affected by the ionosphere and displacement current. Research on 3D forward modeling and inversion of CSELF electromagnetic data is currently in its infancy. This paper makes exploratory attempts to firstly calculate the 1D extremely low frequency electromagnetic field under ionosphere-air-earth coupling circumstances, and secondly analyze the propagation characteristics of the background electromagnetic field. The 3D staggered-grid finite difference scheme for solving for the secondary electric field is adopted and incorporated with the 1D modeling algorithm to complete 3D forward modeling. Considering that surveys can be carried out in the near field and transition zone for lower frequencies, the 3D Limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (LBFGS) inversion of CSELF electromagnetic data is presented (in which the sources, or primary fields, are included), with the aim of directly inverting the impedance data, regardless of where it is acquired. Derivation of the objective functional gradient is the core component in the inversion. Synthetic tests indicate that the well-chosen approximation to the Hessian can significantly speed up the inversion. The model responses corresponding to the coexistence of conductive and resistive blocks show that the off-diagonal components of tensor impedance are much more sensitive to the resistivity variation than the diagonal components. In comparison with conventional scalar inversion, tensor inversion is superior in the recoveries of electric anomalies and background resistivity.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0585-6
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • 3D parallel inversion of time-domain airborne EM data
    • Authors: Yun-He Liu; Chang-Chun Yin; Xiu-Yan Ren; Chang-Kai Qiu
      Pages: 701 - 711
      Abstract: Abstract To improve the inversion accuracy of time-domain airborne electromagnetic data, we propose a parallel 3D inversion algorithm for airborne EM data based on the direct Gauss–Newton optimization. Forward modeling is performed in the frequency domain based on the scattered secondary electrical field. Then, the inverse Fourier transform and convolution of the transmitting waveform are used to calculate the EM responses and the sensitivity matrix in the time domain for arbitrary transmitting waves. To optimize the computational time and memory requirements, we use the EM “footprint” concept to reduce the model size and obtain the sparse sensitivity matrix. To improve the 3D inversion, we use the OpenMP library and parallel computing. We test the proposed 3D parallel inversion code using two synthetic datasets and a field dataset. The time-domain airborne EM inversion results suggest that the proposed algorithm is effective, efficient, and practical.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0581-x
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • Magnetic interface forward and inversion method based on Padé
    • Authors: Chong Zhang; Da-Nian Huang; Kai Zhang; Yi-Tao Pu; Ping Yu
      Pages: 712 - 720
      Abstract: Abstract The magnetic interface forward and inversion method is realized using the Taylor series expansion to linearize the Fourier transform of the exponential function. With a large expansion step and unbounded neighborhood, the Taylor series is not convergent, and therefore, this paper presents the magnetic interface forward and inversion method based on Padé approximation instead of the Taylor series expansion. Compared with the Taylor series, Padé’s expansion’s convergence is more stable and its approximation more accurate. Model tests show the validity of the magnetic forward modeling and inversion of Padé approximation proposed in the paper, and when this inversion method is applied to the measured data of the Matagami area in Canada, a stable and reasonable distribution of underground interface is obtained.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0591-8
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • Regional metallogenic structure based on aeromagnetic data in northern
    • Authors: Xiao-San Zhu; Min-Jie Lu
      Pages: 721 - 735
      Abstract: Abstract Chile is a very important country that forms part of the Andean metallogenic belts. The Atacama and Domeyko fault systems in northern Chile control the tectonic–magmatic activities that migrate eastward and the types of mineral resources. In this paper, we processed and interpreted aeromagnetic data from northern Chile using reduction to pole, upward field continuation, the second derivative calculation in the vertical direction, inclination angle calculation, and analytical signal amplitude analysis. We revealed the locations and planar distribution characteristics of the regional deep faults along the NNE and NS directions. Furthermore, we observed that the major reasons for the formation of the tectonic–magmatic rocks belts were the nearly parallel deep faults distributed from west to east and multiple magmatic activities along these faults. We ascertained the locations of volcanic mechanisms and the relationships between them using these regional deep faults. We deduced the spatial distributions of the basic–intermediate, basic, and acidic igneous rocks, intrusive rocks, and sedimentary sequences. We showed the linear positive magnetic anomalies and magnetic anomaly gradient zones by slowly varying the background, negative magnetic anomaly field, which indicated the presence of strong magmatic activities in these regional deep faults; it also revealed the favorable areas of copper and polymetallic mineralization. This study provides some basic information for further research on the geology, structural characteristics, and mineral resource prospecting in northern Chile.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0593-6
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2016)
  • A graphical model for haloanhydrite components and P-wave velocity: A case
           study of haloanhydrites in Amu Darya Basin
    • Authors: Tong-Cui Guo; Hong-Jun Wang; Long-Xin Mu; Xing-Yang Zhang; Zhi Ma; Yu Tian; Hao-Chen Li
      Pages: 459 - 468
      Abstract: Abstract Wave velocities in haloanhydrites are difficult to determine and significantly depend on the mineralogy. We used petrophysical parameters to study the wave velocity in haloanhydrites in the Amur Darya Basin and constructed a template of the relation between haloanhydrite mineralogy (anhydrite, salt, mudstone, and pore water) and wave velocities. We used the relation between the P-wave moduli ratio and porosity as constraint and constructed a graphical model (petrophysical template) for the relation between wave velocity, mineral content and porosity. We tested the graphical model using rock core and well logging data.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0578-5
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2016)
  • Broadband seismic illumination and resolution analyses based on staining
    • Authors: Bo Chen; Xiao-Feng Jia; Xiao-Bi Xie
      Pages: 480 - 490
      Abstract: Abstract Seismic migration moves reflections to their true subsurface positions and yields seismic images of subsurface areas. However, due to limited acquisition aperture, complex overburden structure and target dipping angle, the migration often generates a distorted image of the actual subsurface structure. Seismic illumination and resolution analyses provide a quantitative description of how the above-mentioned factors distort the image. The point spread function (PSF) gives the resolution of the depth image and carries full information about the factors affecting the quality of the image. The staining algorithm establishes a correspondence between a certain structure and its relevant wavefield and reflected data. In this paper, we use the staining algorithm to calculate the PSFs, then use these PSFs for extracting the acquisition dip response and correcting the original depth image by deconvolution. We present relevant results of the SEG salt model. The staining algorithm provides an efficient tool for calculating the PSF and for conducting broadband seismic illumination and resolution analyses.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0555-z
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2016)
  • Elastic reverse-time migration based on amplitude-preserving P- and S-wave
    • Authors: Jia-Jia Yang; Xi-Wu Luan; Gang Fang; Xin-Xin Liu; Jun Pan; Xiao-Jie Wang
      Pages: 500 - 510
      Abstract: Abstract Imaging the PP- and PS-wave for the elastic vector wave reverse-time migration requires separating the P- and S-waves during the wave field extrapolation. The amplitude and phase of the P- and S-waves are distorted when divergence and curl operators are used to separate the P- and S-waves. We present a P- and S-wave amplitude-preserving separation algorithm for the elastic wavefield extrapolation. First, we add the P-wave pressure and P-wave vibration velocity equation to the conventional elastic wave equation to decompose the P- and S-wave vectors. Then, we synthesize the scalar P- and S-wave from the vector Pand S-wave to obtain the scalar P- and S-wave. The amplitude-preserved separated P- and S-waves are imaged based on the vector wave reverse-time migration (RTM). This method ensures that the amplitude and phase of the separated P- and S-wave remain unchanged compared with the divergence and curl operators. In addition, after decomposition, the P-wave pressure and vibration velocity can be used to suppress the interlayer reflection noise and to correct the S-wave polarity. This improves the image quality of P- and S-wave in multicomponent seismic data and the true-amplitude elastic reverse time migration used in prestack inversion.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0571-z
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2016)
  • Prismatic and full-waveform joint inversion
    • Authors: Ying-Ming Qu; Zhen-Chun Li; Jian-Ping Huang; Jin-Li Li
      Pages: 511 - 518
      Abstract: Abstract Prismatic wave is that it has three reflection paths and two reflection points, one of which is located at the reflection interface and the other is located at the steep dip angle reflection layer, so that contains a lot of the high and steep reflection interface information that primary cannot reach. Prismatic wave field information can be separated by applying Born approximation to traditional reverse time migration profile, and then the prismatic wave is used to update velocity to improve the inversion efficiency for the salt dame flanks and some other high and steep structure. Under the guidance of this idea, a prismatic waveform inversion method is proposed (abbreviated as PWI). PWI has a significant drawback that an iteration time of PWI is more than twice as that of FWI, meanwhile, the full wave field information cannot all be used, for this problem, we propose a joint inversion method to combine prismatic waveform inversion with full waveform inversion. In this method, FWI and PWI are applied alternately to invert the velocity. Model tests suggest that the joint inversion method is less dependence on the high and steep structure information in the initial model and improve high inversion efficiency and accuracy for the model with steep dip angle structure.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0568-7
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2016)
  • 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm and anomaly features of ZTEM
    • Authors: Tao Wang; Han-Dong Tan; Zhi-Qiang Li; Kun-Peng Wang; Zhi-Ming Hu; Xing-Dong Zhang
      Pages: 553 - 560
      Abstract: Abstract The Z-Axis tipper electromagnetic (ZTEM) technique is based on a frequency-domain airborne electromagnetic system that measures the natural magnetic field. A survey area was divided into several blocks by using the Maxwell’s equations, and the magnetic components at the center of each edge of the grid cell are evaluated by applying the staggered-grid finite-difference method. The tipper and its divergence are derived to complete the 3D ZTEM forward modeling algorithm. A synthetic model is then used to compare the responses with those of 2D finite-element forward modeling to verify the accuracy of the algorithm. ZTEM offers high horizontal resolution to both simple and complex distributions of conductivity. This work is the theoretical foundation for the interpretation of ZTEM data and the study of 3D ZTEM inversion.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11770-016-0566-9
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2016)
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