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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2562 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2562 Journals sorted by number of followers
Intl. J. on Digital Libraries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 758, SJR: 0.441, CiteScore: 2)
Information Retrieval     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 658, SJR: 0.352, CiteScore: 2)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 526, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Crime, Law and Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 487, SJR: 0.357, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Police and Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 433, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 1)
Diabetologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 321, SJR: 3.228, CiteScore: 5)
Innovative Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309, SJR: 0.586, CiteScore: 1)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 290, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
Gyroscopy and Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 240, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 221, SJR: 1.243, CiteScore: 3)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 0.99, CiteScore: 2)
Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 1.782, CiteScore: 2)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 1.077, CiteScore: 3)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 1.628, CiteScore: 4)
Crime Prevention and Community Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Space Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95, SJR: 3.262, CiteScore: 7)
J. of Autism and Developmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.81, CiteScore: 4)
Intensive Care Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 3.293, CiteScore: 4)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Marine Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.085, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.375, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 2.014, CiteScore: 3)
Landscape Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.858, CiteScore: 4)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 62)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.035, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.752, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Research in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.702, CiteScore: 2)
Oecologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.695, CiteScore: 3)
J. of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Experimental Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.639, CiteScore: 4)
Machine Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.695, CiteScore: 3)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.276, CiteScore: 3)
Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. for Philosophy of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge journal of evidence-based policing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.427, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Earth System Science     Open Access   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.366, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.159, CiteScore: 4)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.186, CiteScore: 2)
Memory & Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.379, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Astrophysics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.921, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Anesthesia/J. canadien d'anesth├ęsie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.908, CiteScore: 2)
Contemporary Political Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.331, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Bulletin of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Family Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
Astrophysics and Space Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.616, CiteScore: 1)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.093, CiteScore: 2)
Comparative European Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.24, CiteScore: 2)
Demography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.345, CiteScore: 3)
Foundations of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Intl. Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.198, CiteScore: 7)
Water Resources Management     Open Access   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 3)
Qualitative Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.984, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.125, CiteScore: 2)
Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.864, CiteScore: 4)
Mindfulness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.132, CiteScore: 3)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.392, CiteScore: 1)
European Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.25, CiteScore: 0)
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Experimental Astronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.908, CiteScore: 2)
Metal Science and Heat Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 2)
IMF Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 3.287, CiteScore: 2)
Solar Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.517, CiteScore: 3)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.445, CiteScore: 4)
Scientometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.125, CiteScore: 3)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Quantitative Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 3.562, CiteScore: 4)
J. of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.022, CiteScore: 3)
JOM J. of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.054, CiteScore: 2)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.204, CiteScore: 4)
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.323, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.408, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.621, CiteScore: 2)
Child and Adolescent Social Work J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.444, CiteScore: 1)
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.695, CiteScore: 1)
Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.914, CiteScore: 2)
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.8, CiteScore: 4)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Political Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.708, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.228, CiteScore: 6)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.081, CiteScore: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Der Onkologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Australian Educational Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Italian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
J. of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.058, CiteScore: 3)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.262, CiteScore: 2)
Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
Motivation and Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.136, CiteScore: 2)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.911, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Population Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.574, CiteScore: 2)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
Information Systems Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.821, CiteScore: 4)
Clinical Social Work J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.498, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Economic Growth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 5.529, CiteScore: 5)
Current Diabetes Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.618, CiteScore: 4)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.674, CiteScore: 5)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.845, CiteScore: 3)
CEAS Aeronautical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.248, CiteScore: 1)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Risk and Uncertainty     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.471, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Information Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.827, CiteScore: 2)
Flow, Turbulence and Combustion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.934, CiteScore: 2)
IIC - Intl. Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.28, CiteScore: 0)
Microsystem Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.346, CiteScore: 1)
Landslides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.802, CiteScore: 4)
Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
Higher Education Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.652, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Ornithology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
J. of Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Financial Services Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.31, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Computational Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.888, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Banking Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.22, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.587, CiteScore: 2)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Review of Accounting Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.757, CiteScore: 2)
Public Choice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.991, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.249, CiteScore: 3)
Continental Philosophy Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Human Rights Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.175, CiteScore: 1)
European Business Organization Law Review (EBOR)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.409, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Human Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 2)
Evolutionary Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.312, CiteScore: 3)
Russian Aeronautics (Iz VUZ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
The European Physical J. D - Atomic, Molecular, Optical and Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.387, CiteScore: 1)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Mechanics of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Public Health Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.715, CiteScore: 1)
World J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.359, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.352, CiteScore: 1)
Experimental Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.276, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.784, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.514, CiteScore: 3)
Experimental Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.947, CiteScore: 2)
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.066, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Mental Health and Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Science and Mathematics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.737, CiteScore: 1)
Russian J. of Non-Ferrous Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 3)
Breast Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 2)
Diabetes Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.094, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.34, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Materials Engineering and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 2)
Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.345, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.502, CiteScore: 1)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 1)
European Spine J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.535, CiteScore: 2)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.099, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.899, CiteScore: 5)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.562, CiteScore: 1)
Science & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.186, CiteScore: 2)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.514, CiteScore: 1)
Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.448, CiteScore: 1)
Netherlands Intl. Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.274, CiteScore: 0)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.092, CiteScore: 2)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.307, CiteScore: 3)
Hydrogeology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Marine Biology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.085
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 63  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-1793 - ISSN (Online) 0025-3162
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2562 journals]
  • Comparing the effects of different coloured artificial illumination on
           diurnal fish assemblages in the lower mesophotic zone
    • Abstract: Artificial illumination is required when sampling with baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS) in the lower mesophotic zone beyond ~ 90 m depth, yet little is known of how the choice of lighting influences fish assemblages and affects survey results in this zone. Here we use BRUVS equipped with the commonly used GoPro action camera to compare the composition and abundance of diurnal fish assemblages sampled under artificial Royal blue (~ 450 nm), Deep red (~ 660 nm) and natural day white light (~ 5600 K) in the lower mesophotic zone of the north-west shelf of Australia (19° 14.724′S 117° 20.286′E). No significant differences were detected in the fish assemblage composition or the number of species when surveyed using blue, red or white light at our study location. A greater mean total abundance of fish was observed using red light compared with white and blue light, however, individual species showed varied responses to the different light colours. When using consumer-grade action cameras such as GoPros, white light was shown to be far superior in image quality (and therefore ease of fish identification) compared to red and blue light. We recommend sampling diurnal mesophotic fish assemblages using a wavelength of light based on the survey objectives and the capabilities of the camera selected.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
       
  • Environmental regulation of individual body size contributes to geographic
           variation in clonal life cycle expression
    • Abstract: Clonal behavior has been hypothesized to provide an escape from allometric metabolic scaling that limits the maximum mass achieved by a single individual. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of a wide-spread, non-native sea anemone to buffer its colony biomass accumulation rate across environments by modulating ramet body size through environmentally dependent growth, fission, and catabolism. In 2015, thermal reaction norms for growth and fission behavior were constructed using clonal lines of the sea anemone Diadumene lineata. In 2018, variation in growth patterns under a factorial cross of temperature level and oxygen availability was examined to test the hypothesis that individual ramet size is regulated by oxygen limitation in accordance with optimal size theory. Across a wide range of temperatures, colonies accumulated a similar amount of biomass despite a radical shift from unitary to clonal growth, supporting fission as a mechanism to buffer growth rates over a range of conditions. Individual body size appears to be regulated by the environment with increased temperature and reduced oxygen modifying fission and mass-specific growth patterns, leading to the production of smaller-bodied ramets in warm conditions. However, whether anemones in common garden conditions reduce individual body size through catabolism or fission depends on the region of origin and may relate to differences in seasonal temperature patterns among coastlines, which influence the energetic benefits of fission rate plasticity.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
       
  • Assessing a macroalgal foundation species: community variation with
           shifting algal assemblages
    • Abstract: Foundation species have strong, positive effects on local community structure; increasing biodiversity and species abundances by providing food and habitat. On coastal temperate and subpolar rocky reefs, canopy-forming kelps form three-dimensional habitats that support numerous fish, invertebrate, and algal species. Throughout the Aleutian Archipelago, unregulated sea urchin grazing has largely removed the foundation canopy-forming kelp, Eualaria fistulosa, and most subcanopy algae. Consequently, most nearshore rocky reefs have shifted from kelp to sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus spp.) dominated habitats. These latter habitats are either urchin barrens devoid of all fleshy macroalgae, or transition forests devoid of all fleshy macroalgae algae but E. fistulosa. These three distinct communities (kelp and transition forests, and urchin barrens) were used to test the influence of E. fistulosa and sea urchins on the associated communities. Contrary to initial expectations, in transition forest habitats where E. fistulosa is the lone macroalga, no differences in community structure or in the size structure of benthic invertebrates were seen relative to urchin barrens. In kelp forests, where E. fistulosa coexisted with subcanopy macroalgae and urchins were less abundant, faunal communities were more species rich with higher abundance, biomass, and percent cover of numerous filter feeders. These findings stress not only the strong negative impact which urchins can exert on the kelp forest communities, but also the context-dependent nature of foundation species.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
       
  • Fish stable isotope community structure of a Bahamian coral reef
    • Abstract: Stable isotopes have provided important insight into the trophic structure and interaction in many ecosystems, but to date have scarcely been applied to the complex food webs of coral reefs. We sampled white muscle tissues from the fish species composing 80% of the biomass in the 4–512 g body mass range at Cape Eleuthera (the Bahamas) in order to examine isotopic niches characterised by δ13C and δ15N data and explore whether fish body size is a driver of trophic position based on δ15N. We found the planktivore isotopic niche was distinct from those of the other trophic guilds suggesting the unique isotopic baseline of pelagic production sources. Other trophic guilds showed some level of overlap among them especially in the δ13C value which is attributable to source omnivory. Surprising features of the isotopic niches included the benthivore Halichoeres pictus, herbivores Acanthurus coeruleus and Coryphopterus personatus and omnivore Thalassoma bifasciatum being close to the planktivore guild, while the piscivore Aulostomus maculatus came within the omnivore and herbivore ellipses. These characterisations contradicted the simple trophic categories normally assigned to these species. δ15N tended to increase with body mass in most species, and at community level, the linear δ15N–log2 body mass relationship pointing to a mean predator–prey mass ratio of 1047:1 and a relatively long food chain compared with studies in other aquatic systems. This first demonstration of a positive δ15N–body mass relationship in a coral reef fish community suggested that the Cape Eleuthera coral reef food web was likely supported by one main pathway and bigger reef fishes tended to feed at higher trophic position. Such finding is similar to other marine ecosystems (e.g. North Sea).
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
       
  • Sound production and associated behaviours in the New Zealand paddle crab
           Ovalipes catharus
    • Abstract: Despite growing evidence that crustaceans produce and detect sounds, the behavioural and biological function of these sounds is still poorly understood. Here, we describe sounds produced by the New Zealand paddle crab, Ovalipes catharus, and provide evidence of intraspecific communication using underwater sound. Acoustic and video analyses of tank-based experiments show that O. catharus produce at least three distinct sounds: the rasp, zip and bass. Notably, two of these sounds, the zip and bass, were directly correlated with post-copulatory mate-guarding and courtship behaviour and produced only by competing adult male crabs in the presence of a receptive female. Rasp sounds were produced by both sexes; the occurrence significantly increased in the presence of food, and play-back experiments of these sounds initiated a foraging-like behaviour. Responses to rasps might have evolved as a result of acoustic spying. Further, we show that both the rasp and bass sounds were produced by an alternative mechanism than stridulation of the chela ridges. This refutes widespread assumptions that Ovalipes crabs use only stridulation of ridges along their chelae to produce rasp-like sounds. Our results suggest that sound production in decapod crustaceans may be more widespread than previously presumed.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
       
  • Multiple zooplankton species alter the stoichiometric interactions between
           producer and consumer levels
    • Abstract: Planktonic primary consumers have been shown to strongly influence phytoplankton communities via top-down effects such as grazing and nutrient recycling. However, it remains unclear how changes in consumer richness may alter the stoichiometric constrains between producer and consumer assemblages. Here we test whether the stoichiometry of producer–consumer interactions is affected by the species richness of the consumer community (multispecies consumer assemblage vs single consumer species). Therefore, we fed a phytoplankton assemblage consisting of two flagellates and two diatom species reared under a 2 × 2 factorial combination of light and nitrogen supply to three planktonic consumer species in mono- and polycultures. As expected, phytoplankton biomass and C:nutrient ratios significantly increased with light intensity while nitrogen limitation resulted in reduced phytoplankton biomass and increasing phytoplankton C:N but lower N:P. Differences in phytoplankton stoichiometry were partly transferred to the consumer level, i.e., consumer C:N significantly increased with phytoplankton C:N. Consumer diversity significantly increased consumer biomass, resource use efficiency and nutrient uptake. In turn, consumer N:P ratios significantly decreased in consumer assemblages under high resource supply due to unequal changes in nutrient uptake. Consumer diversity further altered phytoplankton biomass, stoichiometry and species composition via increased consumption. Whether the effects of consumer diversity on phytoplankton and consumer performance were positive or negative strongly depended on the resource supply. In conclusion, the stoichiometric constraints of trophic interactions in multispecies assemblages cannot be predicted from monoculture traits alone, but consumer diversity effects are constrained by the resources supplied.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
       
  • Effects of temperature on carbon circulation in macroalgal food webs are
           mediated by herbivores
    • Abstract: Warming is one of the most dramatic aspects of climate change and threatens future ecosystem functioning. It may alter primary productivity and thus jeopardize carbon sequestration, a crucial ecosystem service provided by coastal environments. Fucus vesiculosus is an important canopy-forming macroalga in the Baltic Sea, and its main consumer is Idotea balthica. The objective of this study is to understand how temperature impacts a simplified food web composed of macroalgae and herbivores to quantify the effect on organic carbon storage. The organisms were exposed to a temperature gradient from 5 to 25 °C. We measured and modeled primary production, respiration, growth and epiphytic load on the surface of Fucus and respiration, growth and egestion of Idotea. The results show that temperature affects physiological responses of Fucus and Idotea separately. However, Idotea proved more sensitive to increasing temperatures than the primary producers. The lag between the collapse of the grazer and the decline of Fucus and epiphytes above 20 °C allows an increase of carbon storage of the primary productivity at higher temperatures. Therefore, along the temperature gradient, the simplified food web stores carbon in a non-monotonic way (reaching minimum at 20 °C). Our work stresses the need of considering the combined metabolic performance of all organisms for sound predictions on carbon circulation in food webs.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
       
  • Resource partitioning among sympatric elasmobranchs in the central-western
           Mediterranean continental shelf
    • Abstract: Knowledge of the mechanisms that allow coexistence among sympatric species is fundamental to understand ecosystem functioning. Resource partitioning among seven elasmobranchs inhabiting the Sardinian continental shelf (40°07′N, 9°00′E): Dasyatis pastinaca; Raja asterias; R. brachyura; R. clavata; R. miraletus; R. polystigma and Scyliorhinus canicula, was investigated through stomach content analysis. Data from 1680 samples collected between 2005 and 2014, in 26–200 m depth, were analysed with respect to population, sex, season (winter and summer) and size groups. Species living in shallower waters (characterized by a narrower bathymetric range) had the most specialized diets. All species appeared to be mesopredators, feeding mainly on Crustacea, Actinopterygii, Mollusca and Polychaeta. Despite shared common morphological features, from the high ecological diversity of prey items, we hypothesized the presence of different predatory behavior among the species studied: some species were able to feed on endobenthic and/or epibenthic organisms, while others had made limited movements in the water column. Non-parametric Multi-Dimensional Scaling analysis highlighted the presence of five predator groups, confirming strong resource partitioning, as also demonstrated by low levels of interspecific niche overlap. The observed variations in feeding habits could be ascribed only to size and not to sex or season. Generally, diet changed from small Crustacean prey, to larger prey, like Actinopterygii and Mollusca. Some species became more generalist during development, others restricted their prey range. Shifts in feeding habits affected species’ roles in the food web, with different species occupying different functional trophic groups over the course of their life cycles.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
       
  • Ontogeny of larval swimming abilities in three species of coral reef
           fishes and a hypothesis for their impact on the spatial scale of dispersal
           
    • Abstract: The late-stage larvae of many reef fishes possess strong swimming abilities that may allow them to influence their dispersal. However, due to the challenges associated with directly measuring patterns of larval dispersal, determining how swimming abilities relate to dispersal outcomes remains a critical gap in our knowledge of the mechanisms that shape dispersal patterns. In this study, we first investigated the ontogeny of swimming speed and endurance in lab-reared larvae of the clown anemonefish (Amphiprion percula), and neon gobies (Elacatinus lori and E. colini). In general, the swimming speed and endurance of larvae improved with age. The congeners, E. lori and E. colini, possessed similar swimming speed and endurance, while A. percula was capable of swimming nearly twice as fast and 322 times longer than either Elacatinus. Second, to relate swimming abilities and other larval traits with patterns of dispersal, we searched the literature for all species in which the dispersal kernel, swimming speed, larval body size and pelagic larval duration have been measured. We found complete datasets for three species: A. percula, E. lori and Plectropomus leopardus. For these species, maximum swimming speed was a better predictor of long-distance dispersal than other larval traits. Thus, we propose the testable hypothesis that swimming abilities may play an important role in determining the extent of long-distance dispersal. Testing this hypothesis, and the alternatives, will require measuring the dispersal kernel, swimming speed, and other dispersal-related larval traits of multiple species in the same seascape.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
       
  • Temperature mediates the outcome of species interactions in early
           life-history stages of two sympatric kelp species
    • Abstract: Ocean warming can mediate species interactions and provoke changes in community structure worldwide. Species interactions vary along environmental gradients and life-history stages and increasing temperatures may change competitive dominance between species. Kelps, being marine foundation species, have a complex heteromorphic life cycle, with the early developmental stages being a bottleneck for successful establishment of the adult population. Here, we investigated how temperature influences interactions in early life-history stages of two kelp species with different thermal affinities (Alaria esculenta and Laminaria digitata from Spitsbergen) by cultivating them in mono- and co-culture and different temperatures. Irrespectively of cultivation treatment, spore germination, gametogenesis, and sporophyte development of both species were mostly positively stimulated by a temperature increase from mean ambient summer temperatures (4–5 °C) to a global warming scenario for the Arctic future (9–10 °C) but not at 15 °C which is the southern temperature limit of A. esculenta. At 15 °C gametogenesis and sporophyte formation of A. esculenta were greatly inhibited in monoculture but not so in L. digitata. On the other hand at 5 °C and 10 °C, gametogenesis and sporophyte growth were generally faster in A. esculenta than in L. digitata, leading to a competitive advantage of A. esculenta over L. digitata in the co-cultivation treatments. The interactive effects of co-cultivation and temperature were evident, where development of A. esculenta was accelerated in the presence of L. digitata at 9 °C but not at 4 °C. Although the mechanisms triggering interspecific interactions were not determined in this study, future global warming was found to give competitive advantage of A. esculenta over L. digitata, which could affect community structure and dominance in coastal environments.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
       
  • Contrasting molecular diversity and demography patterns in two intertidal
           amphipod crustaceans reflect Atlantification of High Arctic
    • Abstract: The distribution of two common intertidal amphipod species Gammarus oceanicus and Gammarus setosus was studied along the coast of Svalbard Archipelago. Genetic analysis showed geographical homogeneity of G. oceanicus with only one molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU) and much higher diversification of G. setosus (5 MOTUs) in the studied area. Only two MOTUs of G. setosus are widespread along the whole studied Svalbard coastline, whereas the remaining three MOTUs are present mainly along the northern and eastern parts of archipelago’s largest island, Spitsbergen. Distribution analysis indicates that the demographic and spatial expansion of G. oceanicus in the northern Atlantic has started already during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 18 ka), while G. setosus seems to be a long-persistent inhabitant of the Arctic, possibly even through the LGM, with slower distribution dynamics. Combining the results of our molecular study with previous field observations and the knowledge upon the direction of ocean currents around the Svalbard Archipelago, it can be assumed that G. oceanicus is a typical boreal Atlantic species that is still continuing its postglacial expansion northwards. In recent decades it colonized High Arctic due to the climate warming and has partly displaced G. setosus, that used to be the only common gammarid of the Svalbard intertidal zone.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
       
  • Interspecific differences in environmental response blur trait dynamics in
           classic statistical analyses
    • Abstract: Trait-based ecology strives to better understand how species, through their bio-ecological traits, respond to environmental changes, and influence ecosystem functioning. Identifying which traits are most responsive to environmental changes can provide insight for understanding community structuring and developing sustainable management practices. However, misinterpretations are possible, because standard statistical methods (e.g., principal component analysis and linear regression) for identifying and ranking the responses of different traits to environmental changes ignore interspecific differences. Here, using both artificial data and real-world examples from marine fish communities, we show how considering species-specific responses can lead to drastically different results than standard community-level methods. By demonstrating the potential impacts of interspecific differences on trait dynamics, we illuminate a major, yet rarely discussed issue, highlighting how analytical misinterpretations can confound our basic understanding of trait responses, which could have important consequences for biodiversity conservation.
      PubDate: 2019-11-08
       
  • Differential immunity as a factor influencing mussel hybrid zone structure
    • Abstract: Interspecific hybridisation can alter fitness-related traits, including the response to pathogens, yet immunity is rarely investigated as a potential driver of hybrid zone dynamics, particularly in invertebrates. We investigated the immune response of mussels from a sympatric population at Croyde Bay, within the hybrid zone of Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis in Southwest England. The site is characterised by size-dependent variation in genotype frequencies, with a higher frequency of M. galloprovincialis alleles in large mussels, largely attributed to selective mortality in favour of the M. galloprovincialis genotype. To determine if differences in immune response may contribute to this size-dependent variation in genotype frequencies, we assessed the two pure species and their hybrids in their phagocytic abilities when subject to immune challenge as a measure of immunocompetence and measured the metabolic cost of mounting an antigen-stimulated immune response. Mussels identified as M. galloprovincialis had a greater immunocompetence response at a lower metabolic cost compared to mussels identified as M. edulis. Mussels identified as hybrids had intermediate values for both parameters, providing no evidence for heterosis but suggesting that increased susceptibility compared to M. galloprovincialis may be attributed to the M. edulis genotype. The results indicate phenotypic differences in the face of pathogenic infection, which may be a contributing factor to the differential mortality in favour of M. galloprovincialis, and the size-dependent variation in genotype frequencies associated with this contact zone. We propose that immunity may contribute to European mussel hybrid zone dynamics.
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
       
  • Acoustic and conventional tagging support the growth patterns of grey
           nurse sharks and reveal their large-scale displacements in the west coast
           of Australia
    • Abstract: The grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus, is a globally vulnerable coastal species with aggregatory behaviour and low productivity, making it highly susceptible to overfishing. Little is known on the biology and movement for the population along the west coast of Australia. Here we use acoustic telemetry to show that C. taurus can undertake large-scale movements and potentially capitalise on seasonal prey aggregations. Conventional tagging provided evidence to support the growth parameter values used to represent the species’ growth dynamics and considerably extended the species’ maximum observed age. As maximum age is a proxy for productivity, our findings directly inform the recovery plan currently in place for Australian C. taurus.
      PubDate: 2019-10-29
       
  • Sulfide oxidation in deep Baltic Sea sediments upon oxygenation and
           colonization by macrofauna
    • Abstract: Coastal and shelf sediments affected by transient or long-term bottom water anoxia and sulfidic conditions undergo drastic changes in macrofauna communities and abundances. This study investigates how early colonization by two macrofaunal functional traits (epifauna vs. infauna) affects oxygen, sulfide, and pH dynamics in anoxic sediment upon recent bottom water oxygenation. Large mesocosms (area 900 cm2) with 150-m-deep Baltic Sea soft sediments were exposed to three treatments: (1) no animals; (2) addition of 170 polychaetes (Marenzelleria arctia); (3) addition of 181 amphipods (Monoporeia affinis). Porewater chemistry was investigated repeatedly by microsensor profiling over a period of 65 days. Colonization by macrofauna did not significantly deepen penetration of oxygen compared to the animal-free sediment. Bioturbation by M. affinis increased the volume of the oxidized, sulfide-free sediment by 66% compared to the animal-free control already after 13 days of incubation. By the end of the experiment M. affinis and M. arctia increased the oxidized sediment volume by 87 and 35%, respectively. Higher efficiency of epifaunal amphipods in removing hydrogen sulfide than deep-burrowing polychaetes is likely due to more substantial re-oxidation of manganese and/or nitrogen compounds associated with amphipod mixing activity. Our results thus indicate that early colonization of different functional groups might have important implications for the later colonization by benthic macrofauna, meiofauna and microbial communities that benefit from oxidized and sulfide-free sediments.
      PubDate: 2019-10-29
       
  • Colony size and depth affect wound repair in a branching coral
    • Abstract: Coral colonies regularly suffer tissue damage from natural and anthropogenic sources. The resultant wounds can decrease colony fitness and act as sources of infection or algal overgrowth. By systematically breaking branches on 54 Pocillopora meandrina colonies and following in situ tissue regeneration (April–August 2017), variation in the wound recovery process was investigated within colonies, among colonies, and across four sites on O‘ahu, Hawai‘i. Ninety-five percent of all wounds healed, with an average healing time of 42 days. Average healing time was not different between initial and subsequent wounds. The relative importance of intrinsic factors, extrinsic factors, and disturbance history for the wound repair process was examined. Previous colony stressors, i.e., percent live coral tissue and bleaching history, were not correlated with wound healing time. These results indicate that wound repair is a priority for P. meandrina. Colony size and depth were significantly correlated with wound healing time: larger colonies healed 14 days faster than smaller colonies, and deeper colonies healed 25 days slower than shallower colonies. These findings support the hypothesis that larger colonies have more energy available for tissue regeneration. The observation of longer healing times for deeper colonies is likely driven by extrinsic factors that vary with depth, including temperature, wave energy, and irradiance. Overall, we show that wound healing in P. meandrina is physiologically resilient to previous stressors, but is affected by both colony size and depth. Understanding drivers of variation in regenerative processes for corals is critical for predicting coral population recovery after disturbances.
      PubDate: 2019-10-15
       
  • Melanin-concentrating hormone is not involved in luminescence emission in
           the velvet belly lanternshark, Etmopterus spinax
    • Abstract: Luminous deep-sea etmopterid sharks use hormonal control to regulate bioluminescence. Melatonin and prolactin trigger light emission and, conversely, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone actively reduces ongoing luminescence. Interestingly, these hormones are also known as regulators of skin pigment motion in teleost fish and epipelagic elasmobranchs. On the other hand, the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is another regulator of the skin pigment motion in fish melanophores. Here, we studied the putative effect of MCH on the light emission control of the velvet belly lanternshark, Etmopterus spinax (Etmopteridae). In parallel, the presence of the MCH receptor in our model is investigated through database searches. Our results show that MCH is not involved in the bioluminescence triggering in the velvet belly lanternshark. Moreover, no MCH receptor transcript was found in a specific transcriptome of the luminous ventral skin of E. spinax.
      PubDate: 2019-10-10
       
  • Meiofauna versus macrofauna as a food resource in a tropical intertidal
           mudflat
    • Abstract: Evaluations of the functioning of benthic marine food webs could be improved by quantifying organic matter fluxes from the meiofauna to higher trophic levels. In this study, we measured the simultaneous ingestion of meiofauna and macrofauna by common dwellers of a tropical intertidal mudflat on the coast of Amazonia. The meiofauna and macrofauna (tanaid) communities of a tropical intertidal mudflat of French Guiana were separately enriched with 15N and 13C, respectively. The enriched preys were then used as tracers during feeding experiments with common predators of different sizes and feeding mechanisms: a Portunidae crab (Callinectes bocourti), a Penaeidae shrimp (Farfantepenaeus subtilis), and a Gobiidae fish (Gobionellus oceanicus). In feeding experiments with all predators except crabs, feeding rates increased with the availability of meiofauna and macrofauna food sources. The ability of consumers to ingest their food selectively was evaluated by calculating the differences in the ratio of macrofauna to meiofauna between the (1) ingested material and (2) that available in the environment. Larger predators showed a higher degree of preferential macrofauna ingestion than smaller predators, consistent with the optimal foraging theory. For large predators, the meiofauna would be important only during early life or in the absence of large food items.
      PubDate: 2019-10-10
       
  • Re-examination of the effects of food abundance on jaw plasticity in
           purple sea urchins
    • Abstract: Morphological plasticity is a critical mechanism that animals use to cope with variations in resource availability. During periods of food scarcity, sea urchins demonstrate an increase in jaw length relative to test diameter. This trait is thought to be reversible and adaptive by yielding an increase in feeding efficiency. We directly tested the hypotheses that (1) there are reversible shifts in jaw length to test diameter ratios with food abundance in individual urchins, and (2) these shifts alter feeding efficiency. Purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, were collected and placed in either high or low food treatments for 3 months, after which treatments were switched for two additional months in La Jolla, CA (32.8674°N, 117.2530°W). Measurements of jaw length to test diameter ratios were significantly higher in low compared to high food urchins, but this was due to test growth in the high food treatments. Ratios of low food urchins did not change following a switch to high food conditions, indicating that this trait is not reversible within the time frame of this study. Relatively longer jaws were also not correlated with increased feeding efficiency. We argue that jaw length plasticity is not adaptive and is simply a consequence of exposure to high food availability, as both jaw and test growth halt when food is scarce.
      PubDate: 2019-10-10
       
  • Applying continuous functional traits to large brown macroalgae: variation
           across tidal emersion and wave exposure gradients
    • Abstract: Ecologists use a functional trait-based approach to seek a general understanding of organism—environment interactions, but, among primary producers, the empirical basis rests on vascular plants. We hypothesised that with increasing intertidal elevation, traits of large brown macroalgae would reflect a resource acquisition vs. conservation (stress tolerance) trade-off at species and community levels. Across the elevation gradient at four UK sites of varying wave exposure, we: (1) screened species’ relevant morphological traits, using principal component analysis to reduce dimensionality; and (2) up-scaled species’ traits using community weighted trait means (CWMs). The first principal component (PC1) strongly related to specific thallus area and thallus dry matter content, representing an acquisition–conservation trade-off. Although species generally shifted to the conservative end of this axis as elevation increased, mid-shore Ascophyllum nodosum sat at the extreme conservative end. PC2 related to holdfast ratio, thickness and length, with A. nodosum scoring higher than other mid-shore species. CWMs of PC1 decreased with elevation at two sites indicating a shift from ‘fast’ to ‘slow’ ecosystem functioning, but this relationship was disrupted by A. nodosum at the sheltered site, and by the up-shore extent of Laminaria digitata at the most exposed site. The anomalous traits of A. nodosum reflect its unique competitive strategy (slow, persistent growth) in the relatively stressful mid-shore. Seaweed functional traits show promise in linking species’ identities to their strategies and ecosystem contributions. However, because resource conservation traits can be related to competitive as well as stress-tolerance strategies, predicting seaweed trait responses to environmental stress gradients is challenging.
      PubDate: 2019-10-10
       
 
 
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