Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2626 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2626 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
aBIOTECH : An Intl. J. on Plant Biotechnology and Agricultural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adversity and Resilience Science : J. of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Functional Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Composite Materials
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.58
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 53  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-4897 - ISSN (Online) 0929-189X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Electrical Resistance Curing Method for Hybrid Metal-CFRP Tubes
    • Abstract: Abstract Hybrid metal-Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) core tubes and rollers are becoming progressively important in the automotive, aerospace, and printing industry for the excellent performance/price ratio. The enhanced mechanical properties and favorable tribological performance of these tubes are provided by the coupling of metal with CFRP compared to tubes build from solely CFRP or metal. However, these kinds of tubes are very expensive and only the co-curing technique of metal and CFRP parts guarantees a reduction in production cost and the competitiveness of products. In this work, a simple out-of-autoclave (OOA) electrical resistance co-curing method for hybrid metal-CFRP tubes, based on an analytical model, that exploits the Joule effects, is proposed and verified by experimental test and finite element analysis (FEA). This technique can also be used for other geometries and guarantees considerable energy savings.
      PubDate: 2020-06-26
  • Effects of Impactor Geometry on the Low-Velocity Impact Behaviour of
           Fibre-Reinforced Composites: An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation
    • Abstract: Abstract Carbon-fibre/epoxy-matrix composites used in aerospace and vehicle applications are often susceptible to critical loading conditions and one example is impact loading. The present paper describes a detailed experimental and numerical investigation on the relatively low-velocity (i.e. <10 m/s) impact behaviour of such composite laminates. In particular, the effects of the geometry of the impactor have been studied and two types of impactor were investigated: (a) a steel impactor with a hemispherical head and (b) a flat-ended steel impactor. They were employed to strike the composite specimens with an impact energy level of 15 J. After the impact experiments, all the composite laminates were inspected using ultrasonic C-scan tests to assess the damage that was induced by the two different types of impactor. A three-dimensional finite-element (FE) model, incorporating a newly developed elastic-plastic damage model which was implemented as a VUMAT subroutine, was employed to simulate the impact event and to investigate the effects of the geometry of the impactor. The numerical predictions, including those for the loading response and the damage maps, gave good agreement with the experimental results.
      PubDate: 2020-06-17
  • Zero-Waste Recycling of Shelf-Cured Pre-Impregnated Carbon Fiber
           Reinforced Epoxy Laminae
    • Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this study was to investigate a zero-waste restoration and reprocessing method of carbon/epoxy prepreg. We studied a series of chemical and thermal treatments to reshape and re-strengthen pre-impregnated (prepreg) carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite rolls that were cured over the shelf, never been used, and would otherwise be discarded. The proposed treatment method is of high interest in minimizing solid waste and reducing the environmental footprint of polymer composites. We used a series of solvents (water, ethanol, N, N- Dimethylformamide (DMF) and Sulfuric Acid) to induce ductility in the scrap already rigid self-cured specimens. The chemical treatments of the scraps using mixtures of DMF-Water or DMF-Ethanol enhanced the ductility of the samples without any negative impact on the mechanical properties. However, the chemical treatment of scarps using a mixture of sulfuric acid with other solvents, could not improve the ductility of the samples. Heat pressing the chemically treated samples further enhanced the ductility of the samples and flattened the scrap composites. The recovered strength and modulus of the recycled prepreg CFRP reached a promising value of over 65% of the original properties, where the samples treated with a mixture of DMF-ethanol preserved their mechanical properties better than other treated samples. The simple, safe, and zero-waste recycling technique presented in this study has proven to be effective for closing the life cycle of a thermoset polymer composite.
      PubDate: 2020-06-13
  • A Cutting Force Prediction Model, Experimental Studies, and Optimization
           of Cutting Parameters for Rotary Ultrasonic Face Milling of C/SiC
    • Abstract: Abstract Ceramic matrix composites of type C/SiC have great potential because of their excellent properties such as high specific strength, high specific rigidity, high-temperature endurance, and superior wear resistance. However, the machining of C/SiC is still challenging to achieve desired efficiency and quality due to their heterogeneous, anisotropic, and varying thermal properties. Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) is considered as a highly feasible technology for advanced materials. Cutting force prediction in RUM can help to optimize input variables and reduce processing defects in composite materials. In this research, a mathematical axial cutting force model has been developed based on the indentation fracture theory of material removal mechanism considering penetration trajectory and energy conservation theorem for rotary ultrasonic face milling (RUFM) of C/SiC composites and validated through designed sets of experiments. Experimental results were found to be in good agreement with theoretically simulated results having less than 15% error. Therefore, this theoretical model can be effectively applied to predict the axial cutting forces during RUFM of C/SiC. The surface roughness of the workpiece materials was investigated after machining. The relationships of axial cutting force and surface roughness with cutting parameters, including spindle speed, feed rate, and cutting depth, were also investigated. In order to identify the influence of cutting parameters on the RUFM process, correlation analysis was applied. In addition, response surface methodology was employed to optimize the cutting parameters.
      PubDate: 2020-06-13
  • Effects of CVD Carbon on the Erosion Behavior of 5D Carbon-Carbon
           Composite in a Solid Rocket Motor
    • Abstract: Abstract An experimental study was conducted to study the effects of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) carbon content on the erosion behavior of 5 direction (5D) carbon-carbon (C/C) composite in a solid rocket motor (SRM). A small SRM, which can compare the erosion performance of two samples under the same working conditions, was designed and tested. The erosion of the carbon-carbon composite ablative morphology at macroscale and microscale was obtained and analyzed. Results show that the average erosion rates of 1# and 2# samples are 0.35 mm/s and 0.45 mm/s, respectively, which means the erosion rate of the sample with high CVD carbon content is 22.2% times lower than the one with low CVD carbon content. During SRM operation, the fibers within fiber bundles and carbon rods are in a dispersive and integral state, respectively, thus carbon rods have a better anti-ablation capability, followed by fiber bundles and matrix in turn. As a result, a carbon rod will be positioned higher than the matrix and fiber bundles around. Furthermore, the ablation of fibers within fiber bundles and carbon rods, although they have significant differences in the ablation process, can both be described as a single fiber ablation. The oxidizing species react with the matrix, then with the CVD carbon and the fiber within a fiber bundle in turn, while they react with the matrix, the CVD carbon and the fiber within a carbon rod simultaneously. This shows that the increase in CVD carbon content will improve the ablation performance of C/C composite by protecting the fibers within the fiber bundles. The present study provides a fundamental understanding of the effect of CVD carbon on the ablation performance of C/C composite, serving as a reference for further design and optimizations of C/C composite.
      PubDate: 2020-06-13
  • Improving the Mechanical Properties of Cf/ PEEK Composite by Implanting
           Functionalized Multi-Wall Carbon Nanopaper
    • Abstract: Abstract The multi-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared into nanopaper with three-dimensional network structure by ultrasonic dispersion technology and suction filtration, and then implanted into Cf / PEEK composite materials by mold pressing process. The microstructure, tensile strength, flexural strength and abrasion resistance of the composites were tested. The influence of the nanopaper on the properties of composites were discussed and analyzed. After implanting a well- dispersed PANI-functionalized nanopaper layer, the tensile strength and bending strength of the 0.1 mm nanopaper composite increased by 20.6% and 26.6% respectively, which meant that high load is needed to cause the composite to break. There are pores in the interface of 0.2 mm nanopaper composite after hot pressing, and the improvement of mechanical properties is not significant. Compared with the pure Cf / PEEK composite, the friction coefficient of 0.1 mm nanopaper composite is reduced by 0.05, and the wear rate is reduced by 26%. This should be ascribed to that the self-lubricating property of MWCNTs. The three-dimensional network structure of nanopaper with good thermal conductivity can disperse the heat generated in the friction process and reduce the contact area between the Si3N4 ball and the resin matrix.
      PubDate: 2020-06-13
  • Effect of Stress Ratio on Fatigue Behaviour of Non-Crimp Fabriccomposites
           at Room and Elevated Temperatures
    • Abstract: Abstract The fatigue behaviour of a biaxial carbon/epoxy Non-Crimp-Fabric (NCF) composite is evaluated at room temperature and 130o C for automotive applications. A new specimen geometry is developed allowing three stress ratios R = 0.1, R = −1 and R = 10 to be tested at 130o C without the use of anti-buckling fixtures for axial loadings. The three stress ratios show good agreement in fatigue life using an equivalent stress amplitude. The fracture surfaces from failed fatigue test specimens are compared to those of monotonic loading to evaluate the changes to failure modes under the different loading conditions. Tensile dominated loading such as uniaxial tension and fatigue testing with R = 0.1 result in delamination of the NCF material coupled with fibre failure along the loading direction as the primary failure modes. Compressive fatigue failures at 130 °C occur at an inclined angle through thickness due to a shearing process along with fibre kinking. The matrix material exhibits more ductile characteristics at 130o C altering the fracture surfaces at elevated temperature.
      PubDate: 2020-06-11
  • Editorial: Applied Composite Materials is not a Journal about
    • PubDate: 2020-06-01
  • Micromechanical Modelling of Dynamic Behavior of Advanced Sheet Molding
           Compound (A-SMC) Composite
    • Abstract: Abstract Passive safety, particularly in the transport industry, requires maximizing the dissipation of energy and minimizing the decelerations undergone by a vehicle following a violent impact (crash). This paper proposes a strategy for identifying an anisotropic local damage criterion in a moderate dynamic loading for Advanced Sheet Molding Compound (A-SMC) composite materials. Multi-scale damage modelling based on the Mori-Tanaka approach is put forward. Previously, the results of an experimental campaign carried out on a range of strain rates varying from quasi static to 200 s−1 were used to identify a probabilistic local damage criterion based on Weibull’s formulation and integrate the effect of damage at a fiber-matrix interface scale. Therefore, the progressive local damage occurring under a fast loading may be described. A two-step homogenization procedure allows describing the strain rate effect on the stress-strain curves. The model gives also rise to the prediction of the progressive anisotropic loss of stiffness. Comparing between the experimental and numerical results confirms the ability of the proposed approach to describe the visco-damage effect (delay of damage threshold and decrease in damage kinetics) emphasized in A-SMC composites.
      PubDate: 2020-05-15
  • Finite Element Analysis of the Crack Deflection in Fiber Reinforced
           Ceramic Matrix Composites with Multilayer Interphase Using Virtual Crack
           Closure Technique
    • Abstract: Abstract Crack deflection along the interphase for fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) is an important condition upon which the toughening mechanisms depend. The multilayer interphase is designed and developed to enhance this deflection mechanism. Combined with the virtual crack closure technique, a finite element model was proposed to predict the competition between crack deflection and penetration in multilayer interphase of CMCs. The model was used to analysis the propagation of primary matrix crack in a SiCf/SiCm composite with (PyC/SiC)n multilayer interphase. The effects of the number of sublayers, thicknesses of sublayers and thermal residual stress (TRS) on the energy release rate and the crack deflection mechanisms were studied. Results show that the multilayer interphase increases the ability to deflect the matrix crack at interfaces between sublayers. Moreover, the number of sublayers shows a larger effect than the thicknesses of the sublayers. The influence of TRS is much complex and needs to be evaluated accordingly. The research provides an analysis tool for promoting the toughening design of CMCs.
      PubDate: 2020-05-12
  • Impact Response of Carbon/Kevlar Hybrid 3D Woven Composite Under High
           Velocity Impact: Experimental and Numerical Study
    • Abstract: Abstract The ballistic impact behavior of hybrid 3-dimentional woven composites (3DWC) is predicted through a novel numerical modeling technique and validated the outcome through experimental data. Continuum shell elements with Hashin failure criterion and cohesive surface contact algorithm with traction separation law are used to predict the damage behavior and failure mechanisms during the impact process at interply and intraply levels. Z-yarns are represented by the connector elements with uniaxial behavior having stress-based failure criterion. The proposed methodology predicted the different damage mechanisms during the impact process in comparison with the experimental data and estimated the residual velocities with acceptable accuracy. Different failure mechanisms incurred due to the hybrid nature of the material are also captured by the numerical simulation and the effect of z-yarns are truly depicted by the use of simple 1D elements over the different phases of perforation process. Overall, the finite element (FE) methodology by using simplest form of the elements, their constitutive and damage behavior gives promising results by sufficiently reducing the computational cost.
      PubDate: 2020-05-12
  • A Modeling Method of Continuous Fiber Paths for Additive Manufacturing (3D
           Printing) of Variable Stiffness Composite Structures
    • Abstract: Abstract A modeling method of variable stiffness composite structures (VSCSs) with curved fiber trajectories has been developed. The fiber trajectories are aligned in the direction of maximum principal stress, and the VSCSs with variable fiber orientation and the variable fiber volume fraction are modeled on the basis of these trajectories. A material property degradation method taking into account the heterogeneity of material properties of the VSCSs is used to predict the ultimate load and model the progressive failure for a composite plate with a hole under tensile loading. It is shown that a transition from rectilinear reinforcement to curvilinear results in an increase in the ultimate load of the plate. The opportunity for simulation of a continuous fiber path for the VSCSs is presented, and the path could be used to produce the VSCSs by additive manufacturing (3D printing).
      PubDate: 2020-05-09
  • 3D In-Situ Characterizations of Damage Evolution in C/SiC Composite under
           Monotonic Tensile Loading by Using X-Ray Computed Tomography
    • Abstract: Abstract The damage evolution and fracture behavior in the bulk of C/SiC material under monotonic tensile loading have been investigated with the 3D in-situ observations by using X-ray CT. Crack initiated inside the matrix within 0.02 mm below surface when the load was only 19% of the failure strength, and propagated to the surface of matrix and towards the interior of specimen by breaking fibers and matrix when the load was above the elastic limit. With the further increasing of loading, other fiber breaks, matrix breaks and delaminations were observed to initiate and propagate both on the surface and in the bulk of specimen, while the cracks nucleating in the bulk of specimen are generally located at the laminae with a high volume fraction of pores. With the further propagations of cracks, the specimen split in the laminae with a large quantity of pores, while the fiber drawings results in the final fracture in the laminae without a large quantity of pores. The novel method being proposed to characterize the distribution of pores in this paper highlights the relation between the distribution of pores in the bulk of the studied material and cracks initiations and final fracture.
      PubDate: 2020-05-08
  • Finite Element Simulation of Tensile Preload Effects on High Velocity
           Impact Behavior of Fiber Metal Laminates
    • Abstract: Abstract As primary structures and protective structures, fiber metal laminates (FMLs) in practical application are always in preload states before possible impact damage threats. In this work, a nonlinear finite element (FE) model is developed to study the impact damage scenario where tensile preloaded FMLs are impacted by a hemispherical nose projectile at high velocities. In the modeling, the intra-layer damage in aluminum sheets and composite laminates and the delamination between adjacent plies are entirely included. The FE model is verified with available experimental results in non-preload condition and then applied to predict the high velocity impact behavior in uniaxial and biaxial tensile preload cases. The ballistic performance and damage response of representative FMLs with different preloads and impact velocities are discussed and analyzed in detail. The numerical results and modeling strategy here provides applicable reference for preloaded impact issues in other FMLs.
      PubDate: 2020-05-08
  • Investigation of Silica-Based Shear Thickening Fluid in Enhancing
           Composite Impact Resistance
    • Abstract: Abstract Laminated composite structures have attracted the interest of the modern industry due to their high performances and reduced weight when compared to traditional structural materials. However, they are very sensitive towards out-of-plane dynamic loading that can generate Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID) within the structure and cause a drastic detriment of mechanical properties. One solution is proposed to overcome this problem by the hybridisation of the laminate stacking sequence using Shear Thickening Fluids (STFs) for absorption of large fractions of impact energy with a minimal damage generation. This work numerically investigated the impact response of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) when a silica-based STF is embedded within the lamination sequence utilising an innovative Ls-Dyna-based Finite-Element Model (FEM). This was developed using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Element (ALE) approach in a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis and calibrated with an experimental impact campaign to determine the best impact resistance as a function of the STF position along the thickness of the laminate. The results showed an improvement in impact resistance for all the hybrid configurations identifying the optimal STF location in the upper portion of the laminate with a reduction in absorbed energy of ~ 42%, damaged area of ~ 35% alongside an increase in contact force (~ 36%) with respect to conventional laminate with same stacking sequence and number of plies. The results showed that STF/CFRP structures can be successfully employed for applications in several advanced sectors including aerospace, automotive and energy (wind blades) representing an important step-up in the development of high-impact resistant hybrid composite structures.
      PubDate: 2020-05-05
  • Uncertainty in Fibre Strength Characterisation Due to Uncertainty in
           Measurement and Sampling Randomness
    • Abstract: Abstract Carbon fibres have exceptional mechanical properties and are used for critical structural applications such as composite pressure vessels and aerospace components. For such high performance applications, reliability-based designs and lifetime assessments require very accurate strength models. Accuracy of the predictions made by composite strength models depend on realistic material properties of constituents, which are used as input. In practice however, fibre strength properties reported by different sources show significant variations. The work described here aims at understanding the influence of measurement uncertainty and sampling randomness on the uncertainty in calculated tensile strength distribution parameters. Tensile strength data for T700 carbon fibres obtained from single fibre testing process has been analysed for uncertainties. A parametric bootstrap method has been used for the evaluation. It has been shown that although both the causes studied of uncertainty are critical, the sampling randomness has a larger influence on the uncertainty of fibre strength, as compared to the uncertainty due to measurement. Choosing an insufficient sample size for analysis can thus result in uncertain or even inaccurate fibre strength properties, which would limit the reliability of composite strength models. The knowledge of the causes and effects of these uncertainties can help in taking appropriate measures for improving the accuracy of results. This would thereby enhance the capability of composite strength models to estimate the behaviour of different composite structures more accurately.
      PubDate: 2020-05-05
  • Influence of Fiber Orientation and Adhesion Properties On Tailored
           Fiber-reinforced Elastomers
    • Abstract: Abstract This research focuses on the investigation of endless fiber-reinforced elastomeric materials with special tailoring by different fiber orientations in the composite structure. Therefore, a modified testing device including a suitable specimen production was carried out and the comparability of tests conducted at different test scales (micro- to macro testing level) was proven. Two elastic matrix materials (silicone and polyurethane) and reinforcing fiber types (glass- and polyester fibers) were investigated in all combinations. Due to the important effect on the shear behavior during the deformation of textiles significantly influenced by the fiber orientations of the warp- and weft-yarns, a testing plan was established by using one material combination as a reference setting. Generally, the results reveal a good comparability between different testing levels for the same fiber-matrix combinations and the modified composite testing device has been proven. Furthermore, the significant influence of different fiber orientations on the shear stiffness was investigated.
      PubDate: 2020-05-04
  • Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Aluminum/CFRP Hybrid Tubes
           with Rubber-like Interlayer
    • Abstract: Abstract In the automotive, aerospace, printing, and sports industries, the development of hybrid CFRP-metal components is becoming increasingly important and used. The coupling of metal with CFRP, in axial symmetric components, results in reduced production costs and an increase in mechanical properties such as bending, torsional stiffness, mass reduction, and critical speed, when compared to the single material-built ones. The challenge for engineers is to design hybrid co-cured tubes with external metal layers, which avoid possible detachments and delaminations due to the mismatching coefficients of thermal expansion of the two materials. In this work, residual thermal stresses and strain have been studied with numerical models based on Finite Element Method (FEM) and compared with experimental tests. The FEM model allowed for the investigation of the influence of length, diameters, thickness and interface layer material on residual thermal stress peaks near the free edges zone. To reduce the risk of premature failure,the interleaving of a rubber-like layer is proposed and experimentally validated.
      PubDate: 2020-05-03
  • Preparation, Adsorption Properties and Microwave-Assisted Regeneration of
           Porous C/SiC Ceramics with a Hierarchical Structure
    • Abstract: Abstract Porous C/SiC ceramics were prepared by chemical vapor reaction of SiO and porous C/C composites. The porous C/SiC ceramics presented a hierarchical structured consisted of carbon fibers, SiC layer, microspheres and nanowires. The density of porous C/C composites control the growth of SiC nanowires and nanolayer, and influence the pore size distribution and specific surface area of the porous C/SiC ceramics. The C/SiC samples converting from the C/C composites with a density of 0.46 g/cm3 possess the superior adsorption properties. The adsorption efficiency can reach 98.2% within 80 min, indicating that C/SiC samples have a promising adsorption property for MB from aqueous solution. Furthermore, the adsorption efficiency after five cycles microwave regeneration still reached 80.2%, which present excellent regeneration stability.
      PubDate: 2020-04-29
  • Repair of Thin Face Sheet Sandwich Structure with Small Holes and Impact
    • Abstract: Abstract This manuscript presents experimental results of compression tests of repaired sandwich structure typical of a launch vehicle Payload Adapter Fitting (PAF) that is being considered for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle. Specimens with 8-ply quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy face sheets and aluminum honeycomb core were damaged with representations of misdrilled holes, barely visible impact damage (BVID) or visible impact damage (VID). A patch repair technique not requiring removal of any material is presented and assessed for residual in-plane compressive load-carrying capability on each of the three types of damage. Edgewise compression tests on specimens demonstrated the repairs could recover all measured undamaged compressive load-carrying capability of the misdrilled hole and BVID specimens. For the specimens with VID, an average of about 91% of the average measured undamaged compressive load carrying capability was recovered indicating that larger patches, or perhaps removal and replacement of the damaged material, may be needed for more severe damage if all the measured undamaged compression strength needs to be regained.
      PubDate: 2020-04-29
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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