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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Applied Composite Materials
  [SJR: 0.705]   [H-I: 35]   [47 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-4897 - ISSN (Online) 0929-189X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Multilevel Optimization Framework for Hierarchical Stiffened Shells
           Accelerated by Adaptive Equivalent Strategy
    • Authors: Bo Wang; Kuo Tian; Haixin Zhao; Peng Hao; Tianyu Zhu; Ke Zhang; Yunlong Ma
      Pages: 575 - 592
      Abstract: In order to improve the post-buckling optimization efficiency of hierarchical stiffened shells, a multilevel optimization framework accelerated by adaptive equivalent strategy is presented in this paper. Firstly, the Numerical-based Smeared Stiffener Method (NSSM) for hierarchical stiffened shells is derived by means of the numerical implementation of asymptotic homogenization (NIAH) method. Based on the NSSM, a reasonable adaptive equivalent strategy for hierarchical stiffened shells is developed from the concept of hierarchy reduction. Its core idea is to self-adaptively decide which hierarchy of the structure should be equivalent according to the critical buckling mode rapidly predicted by NSSM. Compared with the detailed model, the high prediction accuracy and efficiency of the proposed model is highlighted. On the basis of this adaptive equivalent model, a multilevel optimization framework is then established by decomposing the complex entire optimization process into major-stiffener-level and minor-stiffener-level sub-optimizations, during which Fixed Point Iteration (FPI) is employed to accelerate convergence. Finally, the illustrative examples of the multilevel framework is carried out to demonstrate its efficiency and effectiveness to search for the global optimum result by contrast with the single-level optimization method. Remarkably, the high efficiency and flexibility of the adaptive equivalent strategy is indicated by compared with the single equivalent strategy.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9527-y
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
  • Micro-CT Characterization on the Meso-Structure of Three-Dimensional Full
           Five-Directional Braided Composite
    • Authors: Jixuan Ya; Zhenguo Liu; Yuanhang Wang
      Pages: 593 - 610
      Abstract: The meso-structure is important in predicting mechanical properties of the three-dimensional (3D) braided composite. In this paper, the internal structure and porosity of three-dimensional full five-directional (3DF5D) braided composite is characterized at mesoscopic scale (the scale of the yarns) using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) non-destructively. Glass fiber yarns as tracer are added into the sample made of carbon fiber to enhance the contrast in the sectional images. The model of tracer yarns is established with 3D reconstruction method to analyze the cross-section and path of yarns. The porosities are reconstructed and characterized in the end. The results demonstrate that the cross sections of braiding yarns and axial yarns change with the regions and the heights in one pitch of 3DF5D braided composites. The path of braiding yarns are various in the different regions while the axial yarns are always straight. Helical indentations appear on the surfaces of the axial yarns because of the squeeze from braiding yarns. Moreover, the porosities in different shapes and sizes are almost located in the matrix and between the yarns.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9528-x
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
  • Oblique Low-Velocity Impact on Fiber-Metal Laminates
    • Authors: M. Heydari-Meybodi; H. Mohammadkhani; M. R. Bagheri
      Pages: 611 - 623
      Abstract: In the present study, oblique low-velocity impact (OLVI) on GLARE fiber-metal laminates (FMLs) has been modeled using finite element analysis (FEA) for the first time. Two types of boundary conditions (BCs) can be considered for impactor in the low-velocity impact: constrained (if the impact angle between the impactor and target remains constant during and after the contact) and free (if rotation of the impactor and change in angle with respect to the target is likely) BCs. The more details of these BCs are described in the paper. The OLVI is numerically modeled for four different impact angles. Effect of BC types and impact angle on energy absorption, as well as maximum contact force, is investigated. Due to lack of experimental results for the OLVI on FMLs in the open literature, the authors had to validate the present modelling via the experimental data of the perpendicular low-velocity impact. An excellent agreement was obtained between the numerical results and the experimental data. The results of present study reveal that at the same impact angle, the maximum contact force and energy absorption are greater for the constraint oblique impact (Constrained OLVI). In addition, in the Constrained OLVI, the maximum energy absorption occurs at larger impact angles, while this occurs at smaller impact angles for free oblique impact (Free OLVI). The conclusion to be drawn from all of the cases studied in this paper is that the maximum contact force occurs in the Constrained OLVI with smaller impact angles. Moreover, the maximum energy absorption takes place in the Constrained OLVI at higher impact angles.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9530-3
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
  • Effect of Nesting on the Permeability of Multilayer Unidirectional Fabrics
    • Authors: Jianjun Jiang; Yang Su; Linchao Zhou; Qiang Guo; Chumeng Xu; Guoli Deng; Xing Chen; Xuming Yao; Liangchao Fang
      Pages: 625 - 642
      Abstract: Nesting of layers is the main source of the variations in permeability values in liquid composite molding (LCM) processes. In this paper, the permeability of unidirectional fabrics was modeled as a function of layer shift and geometrical yarn parameters to study the effect of nesting. Firstly, three different unit cells of two layers were modeled based on the range of layer shift and decomposed into zones of characteristic yarn arrangement, respectively. The overall permeability of each unit cell was then modeled as a mixture of local permeabilities of different zones with the electrical resistance analogy. Secondly, every two adjacent layers were regarded as porous media with different permeabilities. The permeability of multilayer unidirectional fabrics was then modeled with electrical resistance analogy. As the unpredictability of layer shifting in actual process, the statistical characteristics were analyzed theoretically and validated with experimental measurements. Excellent agreement was found between predictions and experiment data.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9531-2
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
  • Design and Manufacturing of a Novel Shear Thickening Fluid Composite
           (STFC) with Enhanced out-of-Plane Properties and Damage Suppression
    • Authors: F. Pinto; M. Meo
      Pages: 643 - 660
      Abstract: The ability to absorb a large amount of energy during an impact event without generating critical damages represents a key feature of new generation composite systems. Indeed, the intrinsic layered nature of composite materials allows the embodiment of specific hybrid plies within the stacking sequence that can be exploited to increase impact resistance and damping of the entire structure without dramatic weight increase. This work is based on the development of an impact-resistant hybrid composite obtained by including a thin layer of Non-Newtonian silica based fluid in a carbon fibres reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate. This hybrid phase is able to respond to an external solicitation by activating an order-disorder transition that thickens the fluid increasing its viscosity, hence dissipating the energy impact without any critical failure. Several Shear Thickening Fluids (STFs) were manufactured by changing the dimensions of the particles that constitute the disperse phase and their concentrations into the continuous phase. The dynamic viscosity of the different STFs was evaluated via rheometric tests, observing both shear thinning and shear thickening effects depending on the concentration of silica particles. The solutions were then embedded as an active layer within the stacking sequence to manufacture the hybrid CFRP laminates with different embedded STFs. Free vibration tests were carried out in order to assess the damping properties of the different laminates, while low velocity impact tests were used to evaluate their impact properties. Results indicate that the presence of the non-Newtonian fluid is able to absorb up to 45 % of the energy during an impact event for impacts at 2.5 m/s depending on the different concentrations and particles dimensions. These results were confirmed via C-Scan analyses to assess the extent of the internal delamination.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9532-1
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
  • Fiber Trajectories Design of Ellipsoid Component Based on Topological
           Mapping Methodology
    • Authors: Rong Min; Bin Liu
      Pages: 661 - 674
      Abstract: This paper presents a topological mapping algorithm for ellipsoid component winding trajectory. The sphere with double opposite holes was used as initial winding trajectory design model. The double opposite holes ellipsoid winding trajectory was obtained form that of the double-holes-sphere based on topological mapping algorithm. The basic equation of equilibrium for ellipsoidal mapping trajectory was given and its slippage coefficients were calculated using the non-geodesic law and differential geometry. The variation of slippage coefficients with holes-radius and ellipsoid rate were analyzed. The results show that, when ellipsoidal rate get close to 1 gradually, the better stability of fiber trajectories was obtained by topological mapping function. The ellipsoid component with lager holes-radius requires lower coefficient of friction between the fiber bundle and the ellipsoid surface. This fiber trajectory mapping function in the paper presents a useful tool for designing the double opposite holes ellipsoid filament-wound component trajectory.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9533-0
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
  • A Mathematical Model for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic
           Composite in Melt Impregnation
    • Authors: Feng Ren; Yang Yu; Jianjun Yang; Chunling Xin; Yadong He
      Pages: 675 - 690
      Abstract: Through the combination of Reynolds equation and Darcy’s law, a mathematical model was established to calculate the pressure distribution in wedge area, which contributed to the forecast effect of processing parameters on impregnation degree of the fiber bundle. The experiments were conducted to verify the capacity of the proposed model with satisfactory results, which means that the model is effective in predicting the influence of processing parameters on impregnation. From the mathematical model, it was known that the impregnation degree of the fiber bundle would be improved by increasing the processing temperature, number and radius of pins, or decreasing the pulling speed and the center distance of pins, which provided a possible solution to the difficulty of melt with high viscosity in melt impregnation and optimization of impregnation processing.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9534-z
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
  • Synergistic Effects of Temperature and Oxidation on Matrix Cracking in
           Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites
    • Authors: Li Longbiao
      Pages: 691 - 715
      Abstract: In this paper, the synergistic effects of temperatrue and oxidation on matrix cracking in fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) has been investigated using energy balance approach. The shear-lag model cooperated with damage models, i.e., the interface oxidation model, interface debonding model, fiber strength degradation model and fiber failure model, has been adopted to analyze microstress field in the composite. The relationships between matrix cracking stress, interface debonding and slipping, fiber fracture, oxidation temperatures and time have been established. The effects of fiber volume fraction, interface properties, fiber strength and oxidation temperatures on the evolution of matrix cracking stress versus oxidation time have been analyzed. The matrix cracking stresses of C/SiC composite with strong and weak interface bonding after unstressed oxidation at an elevated temperature of 700 °C in air condition have been predicted for different oxidation time.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9535-y
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
  • Design and Ballistic Performance of Hybrid Composite Laminates
    • Authors: Tomasz K. Ćwik; Lorenzo Iannucci; Paul Curtis; Dan Pope
      Pages: 717 - 733
      Abstract: This paper presents an initial design assessment of a series of novel, cost-effective, and hybrid composite materials for applications involving high velocity impacts. The proposed hybrid panels were designed in order to investigate various physical phenomenon occurring during high velocity impact on compliant laminates from a previous study on Dyneema® and Spectra®. In the first, screening phase of the study twenty different hybrid composite laminates were impacted with 20 mm Fragment Simulating Projectiles at 1 km/s striking velocity. The best performing concepts were put forward to phase II with other hybrid concepts involving shear thickening fluids, commonly used in low velocity impacts. The results indicated that it is possible to design hybrid laminates of similar ballistic performance as the reference Dyneema® laminate, but with lower material costs. The optimal hybrid concept involves a fibre reinforced Polypropylene front and a Dyneema® backing.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9536-x
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
  • Tearing Behaviors of Flexible Fiber-Reinforced Composites for the
           Stratospheric Airship Envelope
    • Authors: Junhui Meng; Penghui Li; Guangyuan Ma; Huafei Du; Mingyun Lv
      Pages: 735 - 749
      Abstract: Tearing behaviors of the envelope material is important for the stratospheric airship because it directly decides the service life of the airship. Uniaxial tensile tests of the specimens with different initial damage were performed to study the tear propagation properties of a new kind of envelope material for the stratospheric airship. A Matlab program was developed to simulate the mechanical properties in the tensile process. The interaction forces between warp and weft yarns were considered, and the yarns in the transition region between deformed region and non- deformed region were assumed as hinges in the simulation. It is discovered that the interaction factor, which represents interaction force between different components of the material, and the frictional coefficient between warp and weft yarns are the crucial factors for the tensile curves of the material. The tear strength and the damage mode of the envelope material are determined by the number of the cutoff yarns and the declination of the initial cracks, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9539-7
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
  • Evaluation of Basalt Fibre Composites for Marine Applications
    • Authors: P. Davies; W. Verbouwe
      Abstract: Basalt fibres offer potential for use in marine structures, but few data exist to evaluate the influence of seawater immersion on their mechanical behaviour. This paper provides the results from a study in which basalt fibre reinforced epoxy composites were aged in natural seawater at different temperatures. Tests were performed under quasi-static and cyclic loading, first in the as-received state then after saturation in natural seawater. Results are compared to those for an E-glass reinforced composite with the same epoxy matrix. They indicate similar mechanical performance for both materials after seawater saturation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9619-3
  • Finite-Element Analysis of Crack Arrest Properties of Fiber Reinforced
           Composites Application in Semi-Elliptical Cracked Pipelines
    • Authors: Linyuan Wang; Shulei Song; Hongbo Deng; Kai Zhong
      Abstract: In nowadays, repair method using fiber reinforced composites as the mainstream pipe repair technology, it can provide security for X100 high-grade steel energy long-distance pipelines in engineering. In this paper, analysis of cracked X100 high-grade steel pipe was conducted, simulation analysis was made on structure of pipes and crack arresters (CAs) to obtain the J-integral value in virtue of ANSYS Workbench finite element software and evaluation on crack arrest effects was done through measured elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameter J-integral and the crack arrest coefficient K, in a bid to summarize effect laws of composite CAs and size of pipes and cracks for repairing CAs. The results indicate that the K value is correlated with laying angle λ, laying length L2/D1, laying thickness T1/T2of CAs, crack depth c/T1 and crack length a/c, and calculate recommended parameters for repairing fiber reinforced composite CAs in terms of two different crack forms.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9621-9
  • Experimental Study and Numerical Modelling of Low Velocity Impact on
           Laminated Composite Reinforced with Thin Film Made of Carbon Nanotubes
    • Authors: A. El Moumen; M. Tarfaoui; O. Hassoon; K. Lafdi; H. Benyahia; M. Nachtane
      Abstract: In this work, polymer laminated composites based on Epon 862 Epoxy resin, T300 6 k carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were tested with the aim to elucidate the effect of CNTs on impact properties including impact force and capacity to absorb impact energy. The polymer matrix was reinforced by a random distribution of CNTs with fraction ranging from 0.5 to 4.wt%. Composite panels were manufactured by using the infusion process. Taylor impact test was used to obtain the impact response of specimens. Projectile manufactured from a high strength and hardened steel with a diameter of 20 mm and 1.5 kg of mass was launched by a compressed gas gun within the velocity of 3 m/s. Impact force histories and absorbed energy of specimens were recorded. A numerical model was employed to simulate the impact performance. This model has been accomplished by forming a user established subroutine (VUMAT) and executing it in ABAQUS software. Finally, the effect of CNTs amount on dynamic properties of laminated composites was discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9622-8
  • Simulation of Mechanical Behavior and Damage of a Large Composite Wind
           Turbine Blade under Critical Loads
    • Authors: M. Tarfaoui; M. Nachtane; H. Khadimallah; D. Saifaoui
      Abstract: a Issues such as energy generation/transmission and greenhouse gas emissions are the two energy problems we face today. In this context, renewable energy sources are a necessary part of the solution essentially winds power, which is one of the most profitable sources of competition with new fossil energy facilities. This paper present the simulation of mechanical behavior and damage of a 48 m composite wind turbine blade under critical wind loads. The finite element analysis was performed by using ABAQUS code to predict the most critical damage behavior and to apprehend and obtain knowledge of the complex structural behavior of wind turbine blades. The approach developed based on the nonlinear FE analysis using mean values for the material properties and the failure criteria of Tsai-Hill to predict failure modes in large structures and to identify the sensitive zones.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9612-x
  • Investigation into the Fiber Orientation Effect on the Formability of
           GLARE Materials in the Stamp Forming Process
    • Authors: Shichen Liu; Lihui Lang; Ehsan Sherkatghanad; Yao Wang; Wencai Xu
      Abstract: Glass-reinforced aluminum laminate (GLARE) is a new class of fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which has the advantages such as high tensile strength, outstanding fatigue, impact resistance, and excellent corrosion properties. GLARE has been extensively applied in advanced aerospace and automobile industries. However, the deformation behavior of the glass fiber during forming must be studied to the benefits of the good-quality part we form. In this research, we focus on the effect of fiber layer orientation on the GLARE laminate formability in stamp forming process. Experimental and numerical analysis of stamping a hemisphere part in different fiber orientation is investigated. The results indicate that unidirectional and multi-directional fiber in the middle layer make a significant effect on the thinning and also surface forming quality of the three layer sheet. Furthermore, the stress-strain distribution of the aluminum alloy and the unique anisotropic property of the fiber layer exhibit that fiber layer orientation can also affect the forming depths as well as the fracture modes of the laminate. According to the obtained results, it is revealed that multi-directional fiber layers are a good alternative compared to the unidirectional fibers especially when a better formability is the purpose.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9615-7
  • Erratum to: Design of Tailored Non-Crimp Fabrics Based on Stitching
    • Authors: Helga Krieger; Thomas Gries; Scott E. Stapleton
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9617-5
  • Experimental Investigations of Compressed Sandwich Composite/Honeycomb
           Cylindrical Shells
    • Authors: A. Muc; A. Stawiarski; P. Romanowicz
      Abstract: This article explains in some details the behaviour of thick, deep cylindrical sandwich panels subjected to compressive loads. In general, experimental results indicated that two different forms of failure have been observed – the first corresponds to the overall buckling and the second to the facesheet wrinkling. The obtained experimentally damages of shells are verified and validated with the use of the FE analysis, 2-D and 3-D both in the linear and non-linear approach. The unidirectional strain gauges were applied to detect the initiation of the overall buckling mode.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9614-8
  • Applied Integrated Design in Composite UAV Development
    • Authors: Zoran Vasić; Stevan Maksimović; Dragutin Georgijević
      Abstract: This paper presents a modern approach to integrated development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle made of laminated composite materials from conceptual design, through detail design, strength and stiffness analyses, definition and management of design and production data, detailed tests results and other activities related to development of laminated composite structures with main of its particularities in comparison to metal structures. Special attention in this work is focused to management processes of product data during life cycle of an UAV and experimental tests of its composite wing. Experience shows that the automation management processes of product data during life cycle, as well as processes of manufacturing, are inevitable if a company wants to get cheaper and quality composite aircraft structures. One of the most effective ways of successful management of product data today is Product Life cycle Management (PLM). In terms of the PLM, a spectrum of special measures and provisions has to be implemented when defining fiber-reinforced composite material structures in comparison to designing with metals which is elaborated in the paper.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9611-y
  • Computational Analysis of Torsional Bulking Behavior of 3D 4-Directional
           Braided Composites Shafts
    • Authors: Xinrong Huang; Ye Liu; Wenfeng Hao; Yinghua Liu; Jianguo Zhu
      Abstract: The torsional bulking behavior of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts was analyzed in this work. First, the unit cell models of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts with different braiding angles and fiber volume fraction were built up. Then, the elastic parameters of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts were predicted using the unit cells under different boundary conditions. Finally, the torsional bulking eigenvalues and bulking modes of the composites shafts were obtained by numerical simulation, and the effects of braiding angle and fiber volume fraction on the torsional bulking behavior of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts were analyzed. The simulation results show that the bulking eigenvalues increase with the increase of braiding angle and fiber volume fraction. This work will play an important role in the design of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts.
      PubDate: 2017-06-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9616-6
  • Multi-Scaled Modeling the Mechanical Properties of Tubular Composites
           Reinforced with Innovated 3D Weft Knitted Spacer Fabrics
    • Authors: Elahe Omrani; Hossein Hasani; Sayed Houssain Dibajian
      Abstract: Textile composites of 3D integrated spacer configurations have been recently focused by several researchers all over the world. In the present study, newly-designed tubular composites reinforced with 3D spacer weft knitted fabrics were considered and the effects of their structural parameters on some applicable mechanical properties were investigated. For this purpose, two different samples of 3D spacer weft knitted textile types in tubular form were produced on an electronic flat knitting machine, using glass/nylon hybrid yarns. Thermoset tubular-shaped composite parts were manufactured via vacuum infusion molding process using epoxy resin. The mechanical properties of the produced knitted composites in term of external static and internal hydrostatic pressures were evaluated. Resistance of the produced composites against the external static and internal hydrostatic pressures was numerically simulated using multi-scale modeling method. The finding revealed that there is acceptable correlation between experimental and theoretical results.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9613-9
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