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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2353 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Applied Composite Materials
  [SJR: 0.705]   [H-I: 35]   [48 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-4897 - ISSN (Online) 0929-189X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Tests on GFRP Pultruded Profiles with Channel Section Subjected to Web
           Crippling
    • Authors: Wenxue Zhang; Yu Chen
      Pages: 849 - 862
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an experimental investigation on the web-crippling behavior in glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) pultruded profiles with channel section. A main bending main crack on the web is the main failure mode in the test. The effects of the loading positions, the supporting conditions and bearing lengths on the web crippling behavior of GFRP pultruded profiles with channel section are discussed. Specimens with interior bearing load have higher ultimate strength and all the specimens with loading conditions IG reached the highest ultimate strength but all ruptured. Ultimate strengths of GFRP pultruded profiles with channel section can not be enhanced by increasing the length of the bearing plate. Finite element models were developed to numerically simulate the test results in the terms of ultimate loads, failure modes and load-displacement curves. Based on the results of the parametric study, a number of design formulas are proposed in this paper to accurately predict web crippling ultimate capacity of pultruded GFRP channel sections under four loading and boundary conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9546-8
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Investigation on the Bearing Abilities of Three-Dimensional Full
           Five-Directional Braided Composites with Cut-Edge
    • Authors: Yibo Wang; Zhenguo Liu; Bing Lei; Xiang Huang; Xiaokang Li
      Pages: 893 - 910
      Abstract: Abstract The longitudinal tensile experiments of cut-edge effect on the mechanical performance of three-dimensional full five-directional (3DF5D) braided composites were conducted. The specimens involved two different braiding angles and two different cutting ways. Fracture appearance of specimens without cut-edge and cutting along width direction presented flush, while explosive for specimen with cut-edge along thickness direction. The fracture of axis yarns mainly contributed to the damage of specimens. Cut-edge had little influence on the stiffness of 3DF5D braided composites and had approximately 20 % reduction in tensile strength compared with specimens without cut-edge. The periodic boundary conditions under cut-edge and uncut-edge situations were applied to the RVC to simulate the mesoscopic damage mechanism using finite element method. The stress–strain curves and damage evolution nephogram were obtained. The variation of cut-edge effect with the number of inner cells was predicted by superimposing inner cells method, the addition of inner cells could strengthen the performance of 3DF5D braided composites with cut-edge. These results will play an important role in evaluating the mechanical properties of braided materials after cutting.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9558-4
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Plasma Polypyrrole Coated Hybrid Composites with Improved Mechanical and
           Electrical Properties for Aerospace Applications
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper deals with the dielectric barrier discharge assisted continuous plasma polypyrrole deposition on CNT-grafted carbon fibers for conductive composite applications. The simultaneous effects of three controllable factors have been studied on the electrical resistivity (ER) of these two material systems based on multivariate experimental design methodology. A posterior probability referring to Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) false discovery rate was explored as multiple testing corrections of the t-test p values. BH significance threshold of 0.05 was produced truly statistically significant coefficients to describe ER of two material systems. A group of plasma modified samples was chosen to be used for composite manufacturing to drive an assessment of interlaminar shear properties under static loading. Transversal and longitudinal electrical resistivity (DC, ω =0) of composite samples were studied to compare both the effects of CNT grafting and plasma modification on ER of resultant composites.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
       
  • A Large-scale Finite Element Model on Micromechanical Damage and Failure
           of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composites Including Thermal Residual Stress
    • Authors: P. F. Liu; X. K. Li
      Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this paper is to study micromechanical progressive failure properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites with thermal residual stress by finite element analysis (FEA). Composite microstructures with hexagonal fiber distribution are used for the representative volume element (RVE), where an initial fiber breakage is assumed. Fiber breakage with random fiber strength is predicted using Monte Carlo simulation, progressive matrix damage is predicted by proposing a continuum damage mechanics model and interface failure is simulated using Xu and Needleman’s cohesive model. Temperature dependent thermal expansion coefficients for epoxy matrix are used. FEA by developing numerical codes using ANSYS finite element software is divided into two steps: 1. Thermal residual stresses due to mismatch between fiber and matrix are calculated; 2. Longitudinal tensile load is further exerted on the RVE to perform progressive failure analysis of carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Numerical convergence is solved by introducing the viscous damping effect properly. The extended Mori-Tanaka method that considers interface debonding is used to get homogenized mechanical responses of composites. Three main results by FEA are obtained: 1. the real-time matrix cracking, fiber breakage and interface debonding with increasing tensile strain is simulated. 2. the stress concentration coefficients on neighbouring fibers near the initial broken fiber and the axial fiber stress distribution along the broken fiber are predicted, compared with the results using the global and local load-sharing models based on the shear-lag theory. 3. the tensile strength of composite by FEA is compared with those by the shear-lag theory and experiments. Finally, the tensile stress-strain curve of composites by FEA is applied to the progressive failure analysis of composite pressure vessel.
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9634-4
       
  • New Design Concept for an Excavator Arms by Using Composite Material
    • Authors: L. Solazzi; A. Assi; F. Ceresoli
      Abstract: Abstract The purpose of the present paper is to lightweight design an excavator arms, by using a different materials and in particular composite material. Specifically, the research is based on the study of a commercial excavator, by determining its geometry and analyzing the load conditions to which it is exposed. These are determined in relation to either the load diagram of the machine or the possible utilities of the excavator, such as the rotation of the machine. The materials used and implemented in the different analytical and numerical elaborations are classic construction steel S 355 (UNI EN 10025–3), high-resistance steel S 890 (UNI EN 10025–6), aluminum Al 6063 T6 (UNI EN 573–3) and the composite material made by carbon fiber and epoxy resin. The adopted constraints for the design of new arms with different materials, non-conventional for these applications, are numerous. The new solutions must present a safety factor either with respect to the yield tensile strength or to the critical load of buckling greater than or equal to the one determined for the excavator in its original geometrical conformation. Another criterion, which has heavily conditioned the geometry of the arms, was given by the fact that the developed solutions must present a very similar value of the maximum displacement in the different load conditions analyzed. A new geometry for arms made by composite material was developed. It was an elliptical conic section, instead of the classic rectangular section, in order to use the filament winding technological process. As for the adoption of the composite material, we focused on the study and the design of this material as long as the interaction with the extremities (made of aluminum) which are interfaced either with the link between the arms or with the elements of the hydraulic plant which serves for the arms movement. From the results developed, it emerges that the solution developed by adopting composite materials is the one that permits the maximum weight reduction for all arms, about 68.1%, which can be seen as an increment of the maximum mass transportable about 45.5% i.e. passing from 5000 kg to 7277 kg.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9638-0
       
  • Identification and Modelling of the In-Plane Reinforcement Orientation
           Variations in a CFRP Laminate Produced by Manual Lay-Up
    • Authors: Yves Davila; Laurent Crouzeix; Bernard Douchin; Francis Collombet; Yves-Henri Grunevald
      Abstract: Abstract Reinforcement angle orientation has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of composite materials. This work presents a methodology to introduce variable reinforcement angles into finite element (FE) models of composite structures. The study of reinforcement orientation variations uses meta-models to identify and control a continuous variation across the composite ply. First, the reinforcement angle is measured through image analysis techniques of the composite plies during the lay-up phase. Image analysis results show that variations in the mean ply orientations are between −0.5 and 0.5° with standard deviations ranging between 0.34 and 0.41°. An automatic post-treatment of the images determines the global and local angle variations yielding good agreements visually and numerically between the analysed images and the identified parameters. A composite plate analysed at the end of the cooling phase is presented as a case of study. Here, the variation in residual strains induced by the variability in the reinforcement orientation are up to 28% of the strain field of the homogeneous FE model. The proposed methodology has shown its capabilities to introduce material and geometrical variability into FE analysis of layered composite structures.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9642-4
       
  • NiTi SMA Wires Coupled with Kevlar Fabric: a Real Application of an
           Innovative Aircraft LE Slat System in SMAHC Material
    • Authors: M. Guida; F. Marulo; S. Russo
      Abstract: Abstract This paper investigates experimentally and numerically the response of a smart hybrid thermoplastic aircraft slat system subjected to a short-duration and high-frequency event like a birdstrike. The focus of the paper is to exploit the ability that superelastic shape memory alloys have to absorb and dissipate energy compared to conventional composite structures. The final objective of the work is to develop an innovative thermoplastic wing leading edge slat able to resist to an impact of 4-lb (1.8 kg) bird at speed of 350 kts (132 m/s), as requested by the aeronautical requirements. Aircraft leading edges must be certified for a proven level of bird impact resistance. In particular, the main structural requirement is to protect the torsion box and control devices from any significant damage caused by birdstrike in order to allow the aircraft to land safely. A clear increase of the composites toughness and higher absorbed energy levels before failure were also observed. This is due to the fact that SMA wires can absorb kinetic energy during the impact due to their remarkably large failure and recoverable strain and to their superelastic and hysteretic behaviour. The activities have been performed within the European Project COALESCE “Cost Efficient Advanced Leading Edge Structure”, funded by the Seventh Framework Program Theme 7 Transport (incl. Aeronautics).
      PubDate: 2017-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9618-4
       
  • Investigation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Machining Using 355 nm
           Picosecond Pulsed Laser
    • Authors: Jun Hu; Dezhi Zhu
      Abstract: Abstract Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been widely used in the aircraft industry and automobile industry owing to its superior properties. In this paper, a Nd:YVO4 picosecond pulsed system emitting at 355 nm has been used for CFRP machining experiments to determine optimum milling conditions. Milling parameters including laser power, milling speed and hatch distance were optimized by using box-behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM). Material removal rate was influenced by laser beam overlap ratio which affects mechanical denudation. The results in heat affected zones (HAZ) and milling quality were discussed through the machined surface observed with scanning electron microscope. A re-focusing technique based on the experiment with different focal planes was proposed and milling mechanism was also analyzed in details.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9637-1
       
  • Characterization of a New Fully Recycled Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite
           Subjected to High Strain Rate Tension
    • Authors: H. Meftah; S. Tamboura; J. Fitoussi; H. BenDaly; A. Tcharkhtchi
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study is the complete physicochemical characterization and strain rate effect multi-scale analysis of a new fully recycled carbon fiber reinforced composites for automotive crash application. Two composites made of 20% wt short recycled carbon fibers (CF) are obtained by injection molding. The morphology and the degree of dispersion of CF in the matrixes were examined using a new ultrasonic method and SEM. High strain tensile behavior up to 100 s-1 is investigated. In order to avoid perturbation due to inertial effect and wave propagation, the specimen geometry was optimized. The elastic properties appear to be insensitive to the strain rate. However, a high strain rate effect on the local visco-plasticity of the matrix and fiber/matrix interface visco-damageable behavior is emphasized. The predominant damage mechanisms evolve from generalized matrix local ductility at low strain rate regime to fiber/matrix interface debonding and fibers pull-out at high strain rate regime.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9632-6
       
  • Investigation into Z-Pin Reinforced Composite Skin/Stiffener Debond under
           Monotonic and Cyclic Bending
    • Authors: Xiangyang Zhang; Yong Li; Suong Van Hoa; Jun Xiao; Qiyi Chu
      Abstract: Abstract Skin/stiffener debonding has been a longstanding concern for the users of stiffened composite panels in long-term service. Z-pinning technology is an emerging solution to reinforce the composite assembly joints. This work experimentally characterizes the progressive debonding of Z-pinned skin/stiffener interface with the skin under static bend loading. The three-stage failure process is identified as: flange edge debonding, pin/laminate debonding, and ultimate structural failure. Three different distribution patterns were compared in terms of the static debonding properties revealed the affirmative fact that locating pins in high normal stress regions, that is close to the flange edges in skin/stiffener structures, is more beneficial to utilize the full potential of Z-pinning reinforcement. The unit strip FE model was developed and demonstrated effective to analysis the effect of Z-pin distribution on the ultimate debond load. On the other hand, the evolution of fatigue cracks at Z-pinned skin/flange interface was investigated with a series of displacement-controlled fatigue bending tests and microscopic observations. Results show that Z-pinning postpones crack initiations at low displacement levels, and the remarkable crack-arresting function of pins enables the structure a prolonged fatigue life. However, pins become less effective when the maximum displacement exceeds the crack initiation level due to gradually pullout of pins.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9640-6
       
  • A Theoretical Model for Predicting Fracture Strength and Critical Flaw
           Size of the ZrB 2 -ZrC Composites at High Temperatures
    • Authors: Ruzhuan Wang; Xiaobo Li; Jing Wang; Bi Jia; Weiguo Li
      Abstract: Abstract This work shows a new rational theoretical model for quantitatively predicting fracture strength and critical flaw size of the ZrB2-ZrC composites at different temperatures, which is based on a new proposed temperature dependent fracture surface energy model and the Griffith criterion. The fracture model takes into account the combined effects of temperature and damage terms (surface flaws and internal flaws) with no any fitting parameters. The predictions of fracture strength and critical flaw size of the ZrB2-ZrC composites at high temperatures agree well with experimental data. Then using the theoretical method, the improvement and design of materials are proposed. The proposed model can be used to predict the fracture strength, find the critical flaw and study the effects of microstructures on the fracture mechanism of the ZrB2-ZrC composites at high temperatures, which thus could become a potential convenient, practical and economical technical means for predicting fracture properties and material design.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9641-5
       
  • Computational Homogenization of Mechanical Properties for Laminate
           Composites Reinforced with Thin Film Made of Carbon Nanotubes
    • Authors: A. El Moumen; M. Tarfaoui; K. Lafdi
      Abstract: Abstract Elastic properties of laminate composites based Carbone Nanotubes (CNTs), used in military applications, were estimated using homogenization techniques and compared to the experimental data. The composite consists of three phases: T300 6k carbon fibers fabric with 5HS (satin) weave, baseline pure Epoxy matrix and CNTs added with 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4%. Two step homogenization methods based RVE model were employed. The objective of this paper is to determine the elastic properties of structure starting from the knowledge of those of constituents (CNTs, Epoxy and carbon fibers fabric). It is assumed that the composites have a geometric periodicity and the homogenization model can be represented by a representative volume element (RVE). For multi-scale analysis, finite element modeling of unit cell based two step homogenization method is used. The first step gives the properties of thin film made of epoxy and CNTs and the second is used for homogenization of laminate composite. The fabric unit cell is chosen using a set of microscopic observation and then identified by its ability to enclose the characteristic periodic repeat in the fabric weave. The unit cell model of 5-Harness satin weave fabric textile composite is identified for numerical approach and their dimensions are chosen based on some microstructural measurements. Finally, a good comparison was obtained between the predicted elastic properties using numerical homogenization approach and the obtained experimental data with experimental tests.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9636-2
       
  • A Unit-Cell Model for Predicting the Elastic Constants of 3D Four
           Directional Cylindrical Braided Composite Shafts
    • Authors: Wenfeng Hao; Ye Liu; Xinrong Huang; Yinghua Liu; Jianguo Zhu
      Abstract: Abstract In this work, the elastic constants of 3D four directional cylindrical braided composite shafts were predicted using analytical and numerical methods. First, the motion rule of yarn carrier of 3D four directional cylindrical braided composite shafts was analyzed, and the horizontal projection of yarn motion trajectory was obtained. Then, the geometry models of unit-cells with different braiding angles and fiber volume contents were built up, and the meso-scale models of 3D cylindrical braided composite shafts were obtained. Finally, the effects of braiding angles and fiber volume contents on the elastic constants of 3D braided composite shafts were analyzed theoretically and numerically. These results play a crucial role in investigating the mechanical properties of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9639-z
       
  • Micro-tomography based Geometry Modeling of Three-Dimensional Braided
           Composites
    • Authors: Guodong Fang; Chenghua Chen; Shenggang Yuan; Songhe Meng; Jun Liang
      Abstract: Abstract A tracking and recognizing algorithm is proposed to automatically generate irregular cross-sections and central path of braid yarn within the 3D braided composites by using sets of high resolution tomography images. Only the initial cross-sections of braid yarns in a tomography image after treatment are required to be calibrated manually as searching cross-section template. The virtual geometry of 3D braided composites including some detailed geometry information, such as the braid yarn squeezing deformation, braid yarn distortion and braid yarn path deviation etc., can be reconstructed. The reconstructed geometry model can reflect the change of braid configurations during solidification process. The geometry configurations and mechanical properties of the braided composites are analyzed by using the reconstructed geometry model.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9630-8
       
  • The Degradation Behavior of SiC f /SiO 2 Composites in High-Temperature
           Environment
    • Authors: Xiang Yang; Feng Cao; Wang Qing; Zhi-hang Peng; Yi Wang
      Abstract: Abstract SiCf/SiO2 composites had been fabricated efficiently by Sol-Gel method. The oxidation behavior, thermal shock property and ablation behavior of SiCf/SiO2 composites was investigated. SiCf/SiO2 composites showed higher oxidation resistance in oxidation atmosphere, the flexural strength retention ratio was larger than 90.00%. After 1300 °C thermal shock, the mass retention ratio was 97.00%, and the flexural strength retention ratio was 92.60%, while after 1500 °C thermal shock, the mass retention ratio was 95.37%, and the flexural strength retention ratio was 83.34%. After 15 s ablation, the mass loss rate was 0.049 g/s and recession loss rate was 0.067 mm/s. The SiO2 matrix was melted in priority and becomes loosen and porous. With the ablation going on, the oxides were washed away by the shearing action of the oxyacetylene flame. The evaporation of SiO2 took away large amount of heat, which is also beneficial to the protection for SiCf/SiO2 composites.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9620-x
       
  • Meso-Scale Progressive Damage Behavior Characterization of Triaxial
           Braided Composites under Quasi-Static Tensile Load
    • Authors: Yiru Ren; Songjun Zhang; Hongyong Jiang; Jinwu Xiang
      Abstract: Abstract Based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM), a sophisticated 3D meso-scale finite element (FE) model is proposed to characterize the progressive damage behavior of 2D Triaxial Braided Composites (2DTBC) with 60° braiding angle under quasi-static tensile load. The modified Von Mises strength criterion and 3D Hashin failure criterion are used to predict the damage initiation of the pure matrix and fiber tows. A combining interface damage and friction constitutive model is applied to predict the interface damage behavior. Murakami-Ohno stiffness degradation scheme is employed to predict the damage evolution process of each constituent. Coupling with the ordinary and translational symmetry boundary conditions, the tensile elastic response including tensile strength and failure strain of 2DTBC are in good agreement with the available experiment data. The numerical results show that the main failure modes of the composites under axial tensile load are pure matrix cracking, fiber and matrix tension failure in bias fiber tows, matrix tension failure in axial fiber tows and interface debonding; the main failure modes of the composites subjected to transverse tensile load are free-edge effect, matrix tension failure in bias fiber tows and interface debonding.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9623-7
       
  • Process Modelling of Curing Process-Induced Internal Stress and
           Deformation of Composite Laminate Structure with Elastic and Viscoelastic
           Models
    • Authors: Dongna Li; Xudong Li; Jianfeng Dai
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, two kinds of transient models, the viscoelastic model and the linear elastic model, are established to analyze the curing deformation of the thermosetting resin composites, and are calculated by COMSOL Multiphysics software. The two models consider the complicated coupling between physical and chemical changes during curing process of the composites and the time-variant characteristic of material performance parameters. Subsequently, the two proposed models are implemented respectively in a three-dimensional composite laminate structure, and a simple and convenient method of local coordinate system is used to calculate the development of residual stresses, curing shrinkage and curing deformation for the composite laminate. Researches show that the temperature, degree of curing (DOC) and residual stresses during curing process are consistent with the study in literature, so the curing shrinkage and curing deformation obtained on these basis have a certain referential value. Compared the differences between the two numerical results, it indicates that the residual stress and deformation calculated by the viscoelastic model are more close to the reference value than the linear elastic model.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9633-5
       
  • Tensile Properties of Unsaturated Polyester and Epoxy Resin Reinforced
           with Recycled Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic
    • Authors: Mitsuhiro Okayasu; Yuta Kondo
      Abstract: Abstract To better understand the mechanical properties of recycled carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (rCFRP), CFRP crushed into small pieces was mixed randomly in different proportions (0–30 wt%) with two different resins: unsaturated polyester and epoxy resin. Two different sizes of crushed CFRP were used: 0.1 mm × 0.007 mm (milled CFRP) and 30 mm × 2 mm (chopped CFRP). The tensile strength of rCFRP was found to depend on both the proportion and the size of the CFRP pieces. It increased with increasing proportion of chopped CFRP, but decreased with increasing proportion of milled CFRP. There was no clear dependence of the tensile strength on the resin that was used. A low fracture strain was found for rCFRP samples made with chopped CFRP, in contrast to those made with milled CFRP. The fracture strain was found to increase with increasing content of milled CFRP up to 20 wt%, at which point, coalescence of existing microvoids occurred. However, there was a reduction in fracture strain for rCFRP with 30 wt% of milled CFRP, owing to the formation of defects (blow holes). Overall, the fracture strain was higher for rCFRPs based on epoxy resin than for those based on unsaturated polyester with the same CFRP content, because of the high ductility of the epoxy resin. The different tensile properties reflected different failure characteristics, with the use of chopped CFRP leading to a complicated rough fracture surface and with milled CFRP causing ductile failure through the presence of tiny dimple-like fractures. However, for a high content of milled CFRP (30 wt%), large blow holes were observed, leading to low ductility.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9635-3
       
  • Resin Viscosity Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection
           Pultrusion Manufacturing
    • Authors: N. B. Masuram; J. A. Roux; A. L. Jeswani
      Abstract: Abstract Viscosity of the liquid resin effects the chemical and mechanical properties of the pultruded composite. In resin injection pultrusion manufacturing the liquid resin is injected into a specially designed tapered injection chamber through the injection slots present on top and bottom of the chamber. The resin is injected at a pressure so as to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements inside the tapered injection chamber. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the center of chamber causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to efficaciously penetrate through the compacted fibers and achieve complete wetout. The impact of resin viscosity on resin flow, fiber compaction, wetout and on the final product is further discussed. Injection chamber design predominantly effects the resin flow inside the chamber and the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. Therefore, a desirable injection chamber design is such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures and at low internal pressures inside the injection chamber.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9631-7
       
  • Analysis of Mode I and Mode II Crack Growth Arrest Mechanism with Z-Fibre
           Pins in Composite Laminated Joint
    • Authors: N. Jeevan Kumar; P. Ramesh Babu
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the numerical study of the mode I and mode II interlaminar crack growth arrest in hybrid laminated curved composite stiffened joint with Z-fibre reinforcement. A FE model of hybrid laminated skin-stiffener joint reinforced with Z-pins is developed to investigate the effect of Z- fibre pins on mode I and mode II crack growth where the delamination is embedded inbetween the skin and stiffener interface. A finite element model was developed using S4R element of a 4-node doubly curved thick shell elements to model the composite laminates and non linear interface elements to simulate the reinforcements. The numerical analyses revealed that Z-fibre pinning were effective in suppressing the delamination growth when propagated due to applied loads. Therefore, the Z-fibre technique effectively improves the crack growth resistance and hence arrests or delays crack growth extension.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9624-6
       
 
 
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