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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Applied Composite Materials
  [SJR: 0.705]   [H-I: 35]   [48 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-4897 - ISSN (Online) 0929-189X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Anisotropic Dielectric Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer
           Composites during Microwave Curing
    • Authors: Linglin Zhang; Yingguang Li; Jing Zhou
      Abstract: Abstract Microwave cuing technology is a promising alternative to conventional autoclave curing technology in high efficient and energy saving processing of polymer composites. Dielectric properties of composites are key parameters related to the energy conversion efficiency during the microwave curing process. However, existing methods of dielectric measurement cannot be applied to the microwave curing process. This paper presented an offline test method to solve this problem. Firstly, a kinetics model of the polymer composites under microwave curing was established based on differential scanning calorimetry to describe the whole curing process. Then several specially designed samples of different feature cure degrees were prepared and used to reflect the dielectric properties of the composite during microwave curing. It was demonstrated to be a feasible plan for both test accuracy and efficiency through extensive experimental research. Based on this method, the anisotropic complex permittivity of a carbon fiber/epoxy composite during microwave curing was accurately determined. Statistical results indicated that both the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the composite increased at the initial curing stage, peaked at the maximum reaction rate point and decreased finally during the microwave curing process. Corresponding mechanism has also been systematically investigated in this work.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9669-6
       
  • Building Block Approach’ for Structural Analysis of Thermoplastic
           Composite Components for Automotive Applications
    • Authors: M. Carello; N. Amirth; A. G. Airale; M. Monti; A. Romeo
      Pages: 1309 - 1320
      Abstract: Abstract Advanced thermoplastic prepreg composite materials stand out with regard to their ability to allow complex designs with high specific strength and stiffness. This makes them an excellent choice for lightweight automotive components to reduce mass and increase fuel efficiency, while maintaining the functionality of traditional thermosetting prepreg (and mechanical characteristics) and with a production cycle time and recyclability suited to mass production manufacturing. Currently, the aerospace and automotive sectors struggle to carry out accurate Finite Elements (FE) component analyses and in some cases are unable to validate the obtained results. In this study, structural Finite Elements Analysis (FEA) has been done on a thermoplastic fiber reinforced component designed and manufactured through an integrated injection molding process, which consists in thermoforming the prepreg laminate and overmolding the other parts. This process is usually referred to as hybrid molding, and has the provision to reinforce the zones subjected to additional stresses with thermoformed themoplastic prepreg as required and overmolded with a shortfiber thermoplastic resin in single process. This paper aims to establish an accurate predictive model on a rational basis and an innovative methodology for the structural analysis of thermoplastic composite components by comparison with the experimental tests results.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9592-x
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • An Experimental Study of the Influence of in-Plane Fiber Waviness on
           Unidirectional Laminates Tensile Properties
    • Authors: Cong Zhao; Jun Xiao; Yong Li; Qiyi Chu; Ting Xu; Bendong Wang
      Pages: 1321 - 1337
      Abstract: Abstract As one of the most common process induced defects of automated fiber placement, in-plane fiber waviness and its influences on mechanical properties of fiber reinforced composite lack experimental studies. In this paper, a new approach to prepare the test specimen with in-plane fiber waviness is proposed in consideration of the mismatch between the current test standard and actual fiber trajectory. Based on the generation mechanism of in-plane fiber waviness during automated fiber placement, the magnitude of in-plane fiber waviness is characterized by axial compressive strain of prepreg tow. The elastic constants and tensile strength of unidirectional laminates with in-plane fiber waviness are calculated by off-axis and maximum stress theory. Experimental results show that the tensile properties infade dramatically with increasing magnitude of the waviness, in good agreement with theoretical analyses. When prepreg tow compressive strain reaches 1.2%, the longitudinal tensile modulus and strength of unidirectional laminate decreased by 25.5% and 57.7%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9590-z
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Lightning Damage of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates with Interlayers Modified
           by Nickel-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
    • Authors: Qi Dong; Guoshun Wan; Yongzheng Xu; Yunli Guo; Tianxiang Du; Xiaosu Yi; Yuxi Jia
      Pages: 1339 - 1351
      Abstract: Abstract The numerical model of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates with electrically modified interlayers subjected to lightning strike is constructed through finite element simulation, in which both intra-laminar and inter-laminar lightning damages are considered by means of coupled electrical-thermal-pyrolytic analysis method. Then the lightning damage extents including the damage volume and maximum damage depth are investigated. The results reveal that the simulated lightning damages could be qualitatively compared to the experimental counterparts of CFRP laminates with interlayers modified by nickel-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ni-MWCNTs). With higher electrical conductivity of modified interlayer and more amount of modified interlayers, both damage volume and maximum damage depth are reduced. This work provides an effective guidance to the anti-lightning optimization of CFRP laminates.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9589-5
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Experimental and Numerical Simulation Analysis of Typical Carbon Woven
           Fabric/Epoxy Laminates Subjected to Lightning Strike
    • Authors: J. J. Yin; F. Chang; S. L. Li; X. L. Yao; J. R. Sun; Y. Xiao
      Pages: 1353 - 1372
      Abstract: Abstract To clarify the evolution of damage for typical carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates exposed to lightning strike, artificial lightning testing on carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates were conducted, damage was assessed using visual inspection and damage peeling approaches. Relationships between damage size and action integral were also elucidated. Results showed that damage appearance of carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminate presents circular distribution, and center of the circle located at the lightning attachment point approximately, there exist no damage projected area dislocations for different layers, visual damage territory represents maximum damage scope; visible damage can be categorized into five modes: resin ablation, fiber fracture and sublimation, delamination, ablation scallops and block-shaped ply-lift; delamination damage due to resin pyrolysis and internal pressure exist obvious distinguish; project area of total damage is linear with action integral for the same type specimens, that of resin ablation damage is linear with action integral, but no correlation with specimen type, for all specimens, damage depth is linear with logarithm of action integral. The coupled thermal–electrical model constructed is capable to simulate the ablation damage for carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates exposed to simulated lightning current through experimental verification.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9588-6
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Mechanical Behavior of CFRP Lattice Core Sandwich Bolted Corner Joints
    • Authors: Xiaolei Zhu; Yang Liu; Yana Wang; Xiaofeng Lu; Lingxue Zhu
      Pages: 1373 - 1386
      Abstract: Abstract The lattice core sandwich structures have drawn more attention for the integration of load capacity and multifunctional applications. However, the connection of carbon fibers reinforced polymer composite (CFRP) lattice core sandwich structure hinders its application. In this paper, a typical connection of two lattice core sandwich panels, named as corner joint or L-joint, was investigated by experiment and finite element method (FEM). The mechanical behavior and failure mode of the corner joints were discussed. The results showed that the main deformation pattern and failure mode of the lattice core sandwich bolted corner joints structure were the deformation of metal connector and indentation of the face sheet in the bolt holes. The metal connectors played an important role in bolted corner joints structure. In order to save the calculation resource, a continuum model of pyramid lattice core was used to replace the exact structure. The computation results were consistent with experiment, and the maximum error was 19%. The FEM demonstrated the deflection process of the bolted corner joints structure visually. So the simplified FEM can be used for further analysis of the bolted corner joints structure in engineering.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9582-4
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Fatigue Hysteresis Behavior of 2.5D Woven C/SiC Composites: Theory and
           Experiments
    • Authors: Xuteng Hu; Zhigang Sun; Fushu Yang; Xihui Chen; Yingdong Song
      Pages: 1387 - 1403
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an intriguing fatigue hysteresis behavior of 2.5 dimensional woven C/SiC composites via the integration tool of advanced experimental techniques with a multiscale theoretical model. Tension-tension fatigue experiment has been carried out to predict the fatigue hysteresis properties of 2.5D woven C/SiC composite at room temperature, accompanied with the fracture of specimens to investigate the mechanism of fatigue damage. Meanwhile, a multiscale fatigue model of 2.5D woven C/SiC composites, which encompasses a micro-scale model of fiber/matrix/porosity in fiber tows and a macro-scale model of unit-cell, has been proposed to provide a reliable validation of the experimental results based on fiber damages resulting from relative slip motion with respect to matrix at interfaces and the architecture of 2.5D woven C/SiC composites. The predicted hysteresis loop from theoretical model at room temperature holds great agreement with that from tension-tension fatigue experiments. Also, effects of fatigue load, braided structural parameters and material properties at micro scale on fatigue hysteresis behavior have been investigated.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9591-y
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Fatigue of a 3D Orthogonal Non-crimp Woven Polymer Matrix Composite at
           Elevated Temperature
    • Authors: M. P. Wilkinson; M. B. Ruggles-Wrenn
      Pages: 1405 - 1424
      Abstract: Abstract Tension-tension fatigue behavior of two polymer matrix composites (PMCs) was studied at elevated temperature. The two PMCs consist of the NRPE polyimide matrix reinforced with carbon fibers, but have different fiber architectures: the 3D PMC is a singly-ply non-crimp 3D orthogonal weave composite and the 2D PMC, a laminated composite reinforced with 15 plies of an eight harness satin weave (8HSW) fabric. In order to assess the performance and suitability of the two composites for use in aerospace components designed to contain high-temperature environments, mechanical tests were performed under temperature conditions simulating the actual operating conditions. In all elevated temperature tests performed in this work, one side of the test specimen was at 329 °C while the other side was open to ambient laboratory air. The tensile stress-strain behavior of the two composites was investigated and the tensile properties measured for both on-axis (0/90) and off-axis (±45) fiber orientations. Elevated temperature had little effect on the on-axis tensile properties of the two composites. The off-axis tensile strength of both PMCs decreased slightly at elevated temperature. Tension-tension fatigue tests were conducted at elevated temperature at a frequency of 1.0 Hz with a ratio of minimum stress to maximum stress of R = 0.05. Fatigue run-out was defined as 2 × 105 cycles. Both strain accumulation and modulus evolution during cycling were analyzed for each fatigue test. The laminated 2D PMC exhibited better fatigue resistance than the 3D composite. Specimens that achieved fatigue run-out were subjected to tensile tests to failure to characterize the retained tensile properties. Post-test examination under optical microscope revealed severe delamination in the laminated 2D PMC. The non-crimp 3D orthogonal weave composite offered improved delamination resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9597-5
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A Multi Material Shell Model for the Mechanical Analysis of Triaxial
           Braided Composites
    • Authors: A. García-Carpintero; M. Herráez; J. Xu; C. S. Lopes; C. González
      Pages: 1425 - 1445
      Abstract: Abstract An efficient numerical methodology based on a multi material shell (MMS) approximation is proposed in this paper for the analysis of the mechanical behavior of triaxial braided composites subjected to tensile loads. The model is based on a geometrical description of the textile architecture of the material at the Gauss point level of a standard shell including the corresponding yarn geometrical parameters. The mechanical properties at the yarn level were determined from values reported in the literature or by means of micromechanical homogenization of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites. Simulations were carried out on single representative unit cell subjected to periodic boundary conditions and on multiple cell representative volume elements corresponding to the size of the standard width of a tensile specimen. The numerical results were compared with the stress-strain curves obtained experimentally as well as the damage mechanisms progression during deformation captured using radiographs performed on interrupted tests.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9593-9
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Influence of Layup and Curing on the Surface Accuracy in the Manufacturing
           of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Composite Space Mirrors
    • Authors: Zhiyong Yang; Jianbao Zhang; Yongjie Xie; Boming Zhang; Baogang Sun; Hongjun Guo
      Pages: 1447 - 1458
      Abstract: Abstract Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, CFRP, composite materials have been used to fabricate space mirror. Usually the composite space mirror can completely replicate the high-precision surface of mould by replication process, but the actual surface accuracy of replicated space mirror is always reduced, still needed further study. We emphatically studied the error caused by layup and curing on the surface accuracy of space mirror through comparative experiments and analyses, the layup and curing influence factors include curing temperature, cooling rate of curing, method of prepreg lay-up, and area weight of fiber. Focusing on the four factors, we analyzed the error influence rule and put forward corresponding control measures to improve the surface figure of space mirror. For comparative analysis, six CFRP composite mirrors were fabricated and surface profile of mirrors were measured. Four guiding control measures were described here. Curing process of composite space mirror is our next focus.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9595-7
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Simulation of Low Velocity Impact Induced Inter- and Intra-Laminar Damage
           of Composite Beams Based on XFEM
    • Authors: Wei Sun; Zhidong Guan; Zengshan Li
      Pages: 1459 - 1477
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the Inter-Fiber Fracture (IFF) criterion of Puck failure theory based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) was implemented in ABAQUS code to predict the intra-laminar crack initiation of unidirectional (UD) composite laminate. The transverse crack path in the matrix can be simulated accurately by the presented method. After the crack initiation, the propagation of the crack is simulated by Cohesive Zoom Model (CZM), in which the displacement discontinuities and stress concentration caused by matrix crack is introduced into the finite element (FE) model. Combined with the usage of the enriched element interface, which can be used to simulate the inter-laminar delamination crack, the Low Velocity Impact (LVI) induced damage of UD composite laminate beam with a typical stacking of composite laminates [05/903]S is studied. A complete crack initiation and propagation process was simulated and the numerical results obtained by the XFEM are consistent with the experimental results.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9598-4
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Optimisation of Fabric Reinforced Polymer Composites Using a Variant of
           Genetic Algorithm
    • Authors: Andrei Axinte; Nicolae Taranu; Liliana Bejan; Iuliana Hudisteanu
      Pages: 1479 - 1491
      Abstract: Abstract Fabric reinforced polymeric composites are high performance materials with a rather complex fabric geometry. Therefore, modelling this type of material is a cumbersome task, especially when an efficient use is targeted. One of the most important issue of its design process is the optimisation of the individual laminae and of the laminated structure as a whole. In order to do that, a parametric model of the material has been defined, emphasising the many geometric variables needed to be correlated in the complex process of optimisation. The input parameters involved in this work, include: widths or heights of the tows and the laminate stacking sequence, which are discrete variables, while the gaps between adjacent tows and the height of the neat matrix are continuous variables. This work is one of the first attempts of using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to optimise the geometrical parameters of satin reinforced multi-layer composites. Given the mixed type of the input parameters involved, an original software called SOMGA (Satin Optimisation with a Modified Genetic Algorithm) has been conceived and utilised in this work. The main goal is to find the best possible solution to the problem of designing a composite material which is able to withstand to a given set of external, in-plane, loads. The optimisation process has been performed using a fitness function which can analyse and compare mechanical behaviour of different fabric reinforced composites, the results being correlated with the ultimate strains, which demonstrate the efficiency of the composite structure.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9594-8
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Static Design and Finite Element Analysis of Innovative CFRP Transverse
           Leaf Spring
    • Authors: M. Carello; A. G. Airale; A. Ferraris; A. Messana; L. Sisca
      Pages: 1493 - 1508
      Abstract: Abstract This paper describes the design and the numerical modelization of a novel transverse Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) leaf-spring prototype for a multilink suspension. The most significant innovation is in the functional integration where the leaf spring has been designed to work as spring, anti-roll bar, lower and longitudinal arms at the same time. In particular, the adopted work flow maintains a very close correlation between virtual simulations and experimental tests. Firstly, several tests have been conducted on the CFRP specimen to characterize the material property. Secondly, a virtual card fitting has been carried out in order to set up the leaf-spring Finite Element (FE) model using CRASURV formulation as material law and RADIOSS as solver. Finally, extensive tests have been done on the manufactured component for validation. The results obtained show a good agreement between virtual simulation and experimental tests. Moreover, this solution enabled the suspension to reduce about 75% of the total mass without losing performance.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9596-6
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Mechanical Behaviour of 3D Multi-layer Braided Composites: Experimental,
           Numerical and Theoretical Study
    • Authors: Jian Deng; Guangming Zhou; Le Ji; Xiaopei Wang
      Pages: 1509 - 1523
      Abstract: Abstract Mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of a newly designed 3D multi-layer braided composites are evaluated by experimental, numerical and theoretical studies. The microstructure of the composites is introduced. The unit cell technique is employed to address the periodic arrangement of the structure. The volume averaging method is used in theoretical solutions while FEM with reasonable periodic boundary conditions and meshing technique in numerical simulations. Experimental studies are also conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed models. Predicted elastic properties agree well with the experimental data, indicating the feasibility of the proposed models. Numerical evaluation is more accurate than theoretical assessment. Deformations and stress distributions of the unit cell under tension shows displacement and traction continuity, guaranteeing the rationality of the applied periodic boundary conditions. Although compression and tension modulus are close, the compressive strength only reaches 70% of the tension strength. This indicates that the composites can be weakened in compressive loading. Additionally, by analysing the micrograph of fracture faces and strain-stress curves, a brittle failure mechanism is observed both in composites under tension and compression.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9600-1
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Insight into the Effects of Reinforcement Shape on Achieving Continuous
           Martensite Transformation in Phase Transforming Matrix Composites
    • Authors: Xudong Zhang; Junqiang Ren; Xiaofei Wang; Hongxiang Zong; Lishan Cui; Xiangdong Ding
      Abstract: Abstract A continuous martensite transformation is indispensable for achieving large linear superelasticity and low modulus in phase transforming metal-based composites. However, determining how to accurately condition the residual martensite in a shape memory alloy matrix though the reinforcement shape to achieve continuous martensite transformation has been a challenge. Here, we take the finite element method to perform a comparative study of the effects of nanoinclusion shape on the interaction and martensite phase transformation in this new composite. Two typical samples are compared: one reinforced by metallic nanowires and the other by nanoparticles. We find that the residual martensite within the shape memory alloy matrix after a pretreatment can be tailored by the reinforcement shape. In particular, our results show that the shape memory alloy matrix can retain enough residual martensite phases to achieve continuous martensite transformation in the subsequent loading when the aspect ratio of nanoreinforcement is larger than 20. In contrast, the composites reinforced with spherical or low aspect ratio reinforcement show a typical nonlinear superelasticity as a result of a low stress transfer-induced discontinuous martensite transformation within the shape memory alloy matrix.
      PubDate: 2017-12-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9671-z
       
  • Effect of Spring-in Deviation on Fatigue Life of Composite Elevator
           Assembly
    • Authors: Hua Wang
      Abstract: Abstract The spring-in deviation results in the extra stresses around the joints of the composite C-beam and metallic parts when they are assembled together. These extra stresses affect the composite elevator’s fatigue life, which should be explored with the fatigue experimentation. The paper presents the experimental investigation on the effect of spring-in deviation on the fatigue life of the composite elevator assembly. The investigation seeks to build the relationship between the spring-in and the fatigue life in order to determine the spring-in threshold during the course of assembling. The phenomenological model of the composite C-beam is constructed to predict the stresses around the joints. Based on the predicted spring-in induced stresses around the joints, pre-stresses are precisely added to the fatigue specimen when conducting the fatigue experiment. At last, the relationship curve of the spring-in on the composite C-beam’s fatigue life is obtained from the experimental data. Giving the fatigue life accepting limits, the maximum accepting spring-in deviation during the course of assembling could be obtained from the relationship curve. The reported work will enhance the understanding of assembling the composites with spring-in deviation in the civil aircraft industry.
      PubDate: 2017-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9670-0
       
  • Hybrid Composite Using Natural Filler and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
           (MWCNTs)
    • Authors: Omid Nabinejad; D. Sujan; Muhammad Ekhlasur Rahman; Willey Yun Hsien Liew; Ian J. Davies
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an experimental study on the development of hybrid composites comprising of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and natural filler (oil palm shell (OPS) powder) within unsaturated polyester (UP) matrix. The results revealed that the dispersion of pristine MWCNTs in the polymer matrix was strongly enhanced through use of the solvent mixing method assisted by ultrasonication. Four different solvents were investigated, namely, ethanol, methanol, styrene and acetone. The best compatibility with minimum side effects on the curing of the polyester resin was exhibited by the styrene solvent and this produced the maximum tensile and flexural properties of the resulting nanocomposites. A relatively small amount of pristine MWCNTs well dispersed within the natural filler polyester composite was found to be capable of improving mechanical properties of hybrid composite. However, increasing the MWCNT amount resulted in increased void content within the matrix due to an associated rapid increase in viscosity of the mixture during processing. Due to this phenomenon, the maximum tensile and flexural strengths of the hybrid composites were achieved at MWCNT contents of 0.2 to 0.4 phr and then declined for higher MWCNT amounts. The flexural modulus also experienced its peak at 0.4 phr MWCNT content whereas the tensile modulus exhibited a general decrease with increasing MWCNT content. Thermal stability analysis using TGA under an oxidative atmosphere showed that adding MWCNTs shifted the endset degradation temperature of the hybrid composite to a higher temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9667-8
       
  • Impregnation of Composite Materials: a Numerical Study
    • Authors: Elliott Baché; Chloé Dupleix-Couderc; Eric Arquis; Isabelle Berdoyes
      Abstract: Abstract Oxide ceramic matrix composites are currently being developed for aerospace applications such as the exhaust, where the parts are subject to moderately high temperatures (≈ 700 ∘C) and oxidation. These composite materials are normally formed by, among other steps, impregnating a ceramic fabric with a slurry of ceramic particles. This impregnation process can be complex, with voids possibly forming in the fabric depending on the process parameters and material properties. Unwanted voids or macroporosity within the fabric can decrease the mechanical properties of the parts. In order to design an efficient manufacturing process able to impregnate the fabric well, numerical simulations may be used to design the process as well as the slurry. In this context, a tool is created for modeling different processes. Thétis, which solves the Navier-Stokes-Darcy-Brinkman equation using finite volumes, is expanded to take into account capillary pressures on the mesoscale. This formulation allows for more representativity than for Darcy’s law (homogeneous preform) simulations while avoiding the prohibitive simulation times of a full discretization for the composing fibers at the representative elementary volume scale. The resulting tool is first used to investigate the effect of varying the slurry parameters on impregnation evolution. Two different processes, open bath impregnation and wet lay-up, are then studied with emphasis on varying their input parameters (e.g. inlet velocity).
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9666-9
       
  • Study on Forced Torsional Vibration of CFRP Drive-Line System with
           Internal Damping
    • Authors: Mo Yang; Yefa Hu; Jinguang Zhang; Guoping Ding; Chunsheng Song
      Abstract: Abstract The use of CFRP transmission shaft has positive effect on the weight and flexural vibration reduction of drive-line system. However, the application of CFRP transmission shaft will greatly reduce the torsional stiffness of the drive-line, and may cause strong transient torsional vibration. Which will seriously affect the performance of CFRP drive-line. In this study, the forced torsional vibration of the CFRP drive-line system is carried out using the lumped parameter model. In addition, the effect of rotary inertia, internal damping, coupling due to the composite laminate, and excitation torque are incorporated in the modified transfer matrix model (TMM). Then, the modified TMM is used to predict the torsional frequency and forced torsional vibration of a CFRP drive-line with three-segment drive shafts. The results of modified TMM shown that the rotational speed difference of the CFRP transmission shaft segment is much larger than metal transmission shaft segment under excitation torque. And compared the results from finite element simulation, modified TMM and torsional vibration experiment respectively, and it has shown that the modified TMM can accurately predict forced torsional vibration behaviors of the CFRP drive-line system.
      PubDate: 2017-12-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9668-7
       
  • Fitness Considerations for Contemporary Composite Materials: (Who’s
           Afraid of the Composite Micro-Crack')
    • Authors: Peter W R Beaumont; Costas Soutis; Alastair Johnson
      Abstract: Abstract Avoiding the catastrophic failure of a large structure demands the material’s microstructure be designed in such as a way as to render any crack present innocuous thereby raising the integrity of that structure. Structural integrity of a composite material embraces contributions from: materials science and engineering; processing science; design and fabrication technology. It combines a number of interacting factors: the criticality of the application; the accessibility for and ability to inspect vital parts and components; the intended use including load spectrum and time; the consequences of impact, fatigue, temperature and hostile environment; the nature of inherent flaws; the constituent properties of the material system utilized; and it takes into account human factors.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9662-0
       
 
 
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