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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2329 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Applied Composite Materials
  [SJR: 0.705]   [H-I: 35]   [46 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-4897 - ISSN (Online) 0929-189X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Multilevel Optimization Framework for Hierarchical Stiffened Shells
           Accelerated by Adaptive Equivalent Strategy
    • Authors: Bo Wang; Kuo Tian; Haixin Zhao; Peng Hao; Tianyu Zhu; Ke Zhang; Yunlong Ma
      Pages: 575 - 592
      Abstract: Abstract In order to improve the post-buckling optimization efficiency of hierarchical stiffened shells, a multilevel optimization framework accelerated by adaptive equivalent strategy is presented in this paper. Firstly, the Numerical-based Smeared Stiffener Method (NSSM) for hierarchical stiffened shells is derived by means of the numerical implementation of asymptotic homogenization (NIAH) method. Based on the NSSM, a reasonable adaptive equivalent strategy for hierarchical stiffened shells is developed from the concept of hierarchy reduction. Its core idea is to self-adaptively decide which hierarchy of the structure should be equivalent according to the critical buckling mode rapidly predicted by NSSM. Compared with the detailed model, the high prediction accuracy and efficiency of the proposed model is highlighted. On the basis of this adaptive equivalent model, a multilevel optimization framework is then established by decomposing the complex entire optimization process into major-stiffener-level and minor-stiffener-level sub-optimizations, during which Fixed Point Iteration (FPI) is employed to accelerate convergence. Finally, the illustrative examples of the multilevel framework is carried out to demonstrate its efficiency and effectiveness to search for the global optimum result by contrast with the single-level optimization method. Remarkably, the high efficiency and flexibility of the adaptive equivalent strategy is indicated by compared with the single equivalent strategy.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9527-y
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Micro-CT Characterization on the Meso-Structure of Three-Dimensional Full
           Five-Directional Braided Composite
    • Authors: Jixuan Ya; Zhenguo Liu; Yuanhang Wang
      Pages: 593 - 610
      Abstract: Abstract The meso-structure is important in predicting mechanical properties of the three-dimensional (3D) braided composite. In this paper, the internal structure and porosity of three-dimensional full five-directional (3DF5D) braided composite is characterized at mesoscopic scale (the scale of the yarns) using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) non-destructively. Glass fiber yarns as tracer are added into the sample made of carbon fiber to enhance the contrast in the sectional images. The model of tracer yarns is established with 3D reconstruction method to analyze the cross-section and path of yarns. The porosities are reconstructed and characterized in the end. The results demonstrate that the cross sections of braiding yarns and axial yarns change with the regions and the heights in one pitch of 3DF5D braided composites. The path of braiding yarns are various in the different regions while the axial yarns are always straight. Helical indentations appear on the surfaces of the axial yarns because of the squeeze from braiding yarns. Moreover, the porosities in different shapes and sizes are almost located in the matrix and between the yarns.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9528-x
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Oblique Low-Velocity Impact on Fiber-Metal Laminates
    • Authors: M. Heydari-Meybodi; H. Mohammadkhani; M. R. Bagheri
      Pages: 611 - 623
      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, oblique low-velocity impact (OLVI) on GLARE fiber-metal laminates (FMLs) has been modeled using finite element analysis (FEA) for the first time. Two types of boundary conditions (BCs) can be considered for impactor in the low-velocity impact: constrained (if the impact angle between the impactor and target remains constant during and after the contact) and free (if rotation of the impactor and change in angle with respect to the target is likely) BCs. The more details of these BCs are described in the paper. The OLVI is numerically modeled for four different impact angles. Effect of BC types and impact angle on energy absorption, as well as maximum contact force, is investigated. Due to lack of experimental results for the OLVI on FMLs in the open literature, the authors had to validate the present modelling via the experimental data of the perpendicular low-velocity impact. An excellent agreement was obtained between the numerical results and the experimental data. The results of present study reveal that at the same impact angle, the maximum contact force and energy absorption are greater for the constraint oblique impact (Constrained OLVI). In addition, in the Constrained OLVI, the maximum energy absorption occurs at larger impact angles, while this occurs at smaller impact angles for free oblique impact (Free OLVI). The conclusion to be drawn from all of the cases studied in this paper is that the maximum contact force occurs in the Constrained OLVI with smaller impact angles. Moreover, the maximum energy absorption takes place in the Constrained OLVI at higher impact angles.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9530-3
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Effect of Nesting on the Permeability of Multilayer Unidirectional Fabrics
    • Authors: Jianjun Jiang; Yang Su; Linchao Zhou; Qiang Guo; Chumeng Xu; Guoli Deng; Xing Chen; Xuming Yao; Liangchao Fang
      Pages: 625 - 642
      Abstract: Abstract Nesting of layers is the main source of the variations in permeability values in liquid composite molding (LCM) processes. In this paper, the permeability of unidirectional fabrics was modeled as a function of layer shift and geometrical yarn parameters to study the effect of nesting. Firstly, three different unit cells of two layers were modeled based on the range of layer shift and decomposed into zones of characteristic yarn arrangement, respectively. The overall permeability of each unit cell was then modeled as a mixture of local permeabilities of different zones with the electrical resistance analogy. Secondly, every two adjacent layers were regarded as porous media with different permeabilities. The permeability of multilayer unidirectional fabrics was then modeled with electrical resistance analogy. As the unpredictability of layer shifting in actual process, the statistical characteristics were analyzed theoretically and validated with experimental measurements. Excellent agreement was found between predictions and experiment data.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9531-2
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Design and Manufacturing of a Novel Shear Thickening Fluid Composite
           (STFC) with Enhanced out-of-Plane Properties and Damage Suppression
    • Authors: F. Pinto; M. Meo
      Pages: 643 - 660
      Abstract: Abstract The ability to absorb a large amount of energy during an impact event without generating critical damages represents a key feature of new generation composite systems. Indeed, the intrinsic layered nature of composite materials allows the embodiment of specific hybrid plies within the stacking sequence that can be exploited to increase impact resistance and damping of the entire structure without dramatic weight increase. This work is based on the development of an impact-resistant hybrid composite obtained by including a thin layer of Non-Newtonian silica based fluid in a carbon fibres reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate. This hybrid phase is able to respond to an external solicitation by activating an order-disorder transition that thickens the fluid increasing its viscosity, hence dissipating the energy impact without any critical failure. Several Shear Thickening Fluids (STFs) were manufactured by changing the dimensions of the particles that constitute the disperse phase and their concentrations into the continuous phase. The dynamic viscosity of the different STFs was evaluated via rheometric tests, observing both shear thinning and shear thickening effects depending on the concentration of silica particles. The solutions were then embedded as an active layer within the stacking sequence to manufacture the hybrid CFRP laminates with different embedded STFs. Free vibration tests were carried out in order to assess the damping properties of the different laminates, while low velocity impact tests were used to evaluate their impact properties. Results indicate that the presence of the non-Newtonian fluid is able to absorb up to 45 % of the energy during an impact event for impacts at 2.5 m/s depending on the different concentrations and particles dimensions. These results were confirmed via C-Scan analyses to assess the extent of the internal delamination.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9532-1
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Fiber Trajectories Design of Ellipsoid Component Based on Topological
           Mapping Methodology
    • Authors: Rong Min; Bin Liu
      Pages: 661 - 674
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a topological mapping algorithm for ellipsoid component winding trajectory. The sphere with double opposite holes was used as initial winding trajectory design model. The double opposite holes ellipsoid winding trajectory was obtained form that of the double-holes-sphere based on topological mapping algorithm. The basic equation of equilibrium for ellipsoidal mapping trajectory was given and its slippage coefficients were calculated using the non-geodesic law and differential geometry. The variation of slippage coefficients with holes-radius and ellipsoid rate were analyzed. The results show that, when ellipsoidal rate get close to 1 gradually, the better stability of fiber trajectories was obtained by topological mapping function. The ellipsoid component with lager holes-radius requires lower coefficient of friction between the fiber bundle and the ellipsoid surface. This fiber trajectory mapping function in the paper presents a useful tool for designing the double opposite holes ellipsoid filament-wound component trajectory.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9533-0
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A Mathematical Model for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic
           Composite in Melt Impregnation
    • Authors: Feng Ren; Yang Yu; Jianjun Yang; Chunling Xin; Yadong He
      Pages: 675 - 690
      Abstract: Abstract Through the combination of Reynolds equation and Darcy’s law, a mathematical model was established to calculate the pressure distribution in wedge area, which contributed to the forecast effect of processing parameters on impregnation degree of the fiber bundle. The experiments were conducted to verify the capacity of the proposed model with satisfactory results, which means that the model is effective in predicting the influence of processing parameters on impregnation. From the mathematical model, it was known that the impregnation degree of the fiber bundle would be improved by increasing the processing temperature, number and radius of pins, or decreasing the pulling speed and the center distance of pins, which provided a possible solution to the difficulty of melt with high viscosity in melt impregnation and optimization of impregnation processing.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9534-z
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Synergistic Effects of Temperature and Oxidation on Matrix Cracking in
           Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites
    • Authors: Li Longbiao
      Pages: 691 - 715
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the synergistic effects of temperatrue and oxidation on matrix cracking in fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) has been investigated using energy balance approach. The shear-lag model cooperated with damage models, i.e., the interface oxidation model, interface debonding model, fiber strength degradation model and fiber failure model, has been adopted to analyze microstress field in the composite. The relationships between matrix cracking stress, interface debonding and slipping, fiber fracture, oxidation temperatures and time have been established. The effects of fiber volume fraction, interface properties, fiber strength and oxidation temperatures on the evolution of matrix cracking stress versus oxidation time have been analyzed. The matrix cracking stresses of C/SiC composite with strong and weak interface bonding after unstressed oxidation at an elevated temperature of 700 °C in air condition have been predicted for different oxidation time.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9535-y
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Design and Ballistic Performance of Hybrid Composite Laminates
    • Authors: Tomasz K. Ćwik; Lorenzo Iannucci; Paul Curtis; Dan Pope
      Pages: 717 - 733
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an initial design assessment of a series of novel, cost-effective, and hybrid composite materials for applications involving high velocity impacts. The proposed hybrid panels were designed in order to investigate various physical phenomenon occurring during high velocity impact on compliant laminates from a previous study on Dyneema® and Spectra®. In the first, screening phase of the study twenty different hybrid composite laminates were impacted with 20 mm Fragment Simulating Projectiles at 1 km/s striking velocity. The best performing concepts were put forward to phase II with other hybrid concepts involving shear thickening fluids, commonly used in low velocity impacts. The results indicated that it is possible to design hybrid laminates of similar ballistic performance as the reference Dyneema® laminate, but with lower material costs. The optimal hybrid concept involves a fibre reinforced Polypropylene front and a Dyneema® backing.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9536-x
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Tearing Behaviors of Flexible Fiber-Reinforced Composites for the
           Stratospheric Airship Envelope
    • Authors: Junhui Meng; Penghui Li; Guangyuan Ma; Huafei Du; Mingyun Lv
      Pages: 735 - 749
      Abstract: Abstract Tearing behaviors of the envelope material is important for the stratospheric airship because it directly decides the service life of the airship. Uniaxial tensile tests of the specimens with different initial damage were performed to study the tear propagation properties of a new kind of envelope material for the stratospheric airship. A Matlab program was developed to simulate the mechanical properties in the tensile process. The interaction forces between warp and weft yarns were considered, and the yarns in the transition region between deformed region and non- deformed region were assumed as hinges in the simulation. It is discovered that the interaction factor, which represents interaction force between different components of the material, and the frictional coefficient between warp and weft yarns are the crucial factors for the tensile curves of the material. The tear strength and the damage mode of the envelope material are determined by the number of the cutoff yarns and the declination of the initial cracks, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9539-7
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Bolted Joints in Three Axially Braided Carbon Fibre/Epoxy Textile
           Composites with Moulded-in and Drilled Fastener Holes
    • Authors: Akın Ataş; Mayank Gautam; Constantinos Soutis; Prasad Potluri
      Pages: 449 - 460
      Abstract: Abstract Experimental behaviour of bolted joints in triaxial braided (0°/±45°) carbon fibre/epoxy composite laminates with drilled and moulded-in fastener holes has been investigated in this paper. Braided laminates were manufactured by vacuum infusion process using 12 K T700S carbon fibres (for bias and axial tows) and Araldite LY-564 epoxy resin. Moulded-in fastener holes were formed using guide pins which were inserted in the braided structure prior to the vacuum infusion process. The damage mechanism of the specimens was investigated using ultrasonic C-Scan technique. The specimens were dimensioned to obtain a bearing mode of failure. The bearing strength of the specimens with moulded-in hole was reduced in comparison to the specimens with drilled hole, due to the increased fibre misalignment angle following the pin insertion procedure. An improvement on the bearing strength of moulded-in hole specimens might be developed if the specimen dimensions would be prepared for a net-tension mode of failure where the fibre misalignment would not have an effect as significant as in the case of bearing failure mode, but this mode should be avoided since it leads to sudden catastrophic failures.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-016-9542-z
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Design of Tailored Non-Crimp Fabrics Based on Stitching Geometry
    • Authors: Helga Krieger; Thomas Gries; Scott E. Stapleton
      Abstract: Abstract Automation of the preforming process brings up two opposing requirements for the used engineering fabric. On the one hand, the fabric requires a sufficient drapeability, or low shear stiffness, for forming into double-curved geometries; but on the other hand, the fabric requires a high form stability, or high shear stiffness, for automated handling. To meet both requirements tailored non-crimp fabrics (TNCFs) are proposed. While the stitching has little structural influence on the final part, it virtually dictates the TNCFs local capability to shear and drape over a mold during preforming. The shear stiffness of TNCFs is designed by defining the local stitching geometry. NCFs with chain stitch have a comparatively high shear stiffness and NCFs with a stitch angle close to the symmetry stitch angle have a very low shear stiffness. A method to design the component specific local stitching parameters of TNCFs is discussed. For validation of the method, NCFs with designed tailored stitching parameters were manufactured and compared to benchmark NCFs with uniform stitching parameters. The designed TNCFs showed both, generally a high form stability and in locally required zones a good drapeability, in drape experiments over an elongated hemisphere.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9603-y
       
  • Effect of Lamina Thickness of Prepreg on the Surface Accuracy of Carbon
           Fiber Composite Space Mirrors
    • Authors: Zhiyong Yang; Zhanwen Tang; Yongjie Xie; Hanqiao Shi; Boming Zhang; Hongjun Guo
      Abstract: Abstract Composite space mirror can completely replicate the high-precision surface of mould by replication process, but the actual surface accuracy of the replication composite mirror always decreases. Lamina thickness of prepreg affects the layers and layup sequence of composite space mirror, and which would affect surface accuracy of space mirror. In our research, two groups of contrasting cases through finite element analyses (FEA) and comparative experiments were studied; the effect of different lamina thicknesses of prepreg and corresponding lay-up sequences was focused as well. We describe a special analysis model, validated process and result analysis. The simulated and measured surface figures both get the same conclusion. Reducing lamina thickness of prepreg used in replicating composite space mirror is propitious to optimal design of layup sequence for fabricating composite mirror, and could improve its surface accuracy.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9604-x
       
  • A Two-Scale Approach to Numerically Predict the Strength and Degradation
           of Composites
    • Authors: W. Li; Y. J. Jia; L. X. Li
      Abstract: Abstract Regarding the composite structure firstly as a composite on the macro-scale and then as the fiber phase and matrix phase on the meso scale, a two-scale approach is proposed to numerically predict the strength of fiber-reinforced composites. As the first step, the stress field is calculated by combining the macro-scale and meso-scale analysis together. With the stress field, the strength index is defined and the initial strength is then predicted. As the second step, the damage is defined and the degradation strength is then predicted. The two-scale approach is validated by analyzing a woven fiber reinforced composite under compression after impact (CAI) loading. Compared with the conventional homogenization approach, the present two-scale approach can not only calculate the stress and the damage of constituent phases on the meso scale, but obtain well correlated CAI strengths with the experimental test.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9607-7
       
  • A Comparison of Curing Process-Induced Residual Stresses and Cure
           Shrinkage in Micro-Scale Composite Structures with Different Constitutive
           Laws
    • Authors: Dongna Li; Xudong Li; Jianfeng Dai; Shangbin Xi
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, three kinds of constitutive laws, elastic, “cure hardening instantaneously linear elastic (CHILE)” and viscoelastic law, are used to predict curing process-induced residual stress for the thermoset polymer composites. A multi-physics coupling finite element analysis (FEA) model implementing the proposed three approaches is established in COMSOL Multiphysics-Version 4.3b. The evolution of thermo-physical properties with temperature and degree of cure (DOC), which improved the accuracy of numerical simulations, and cure shrinkage are taken into account for the three models. Subsequently, these three proposed constitutive models are implemented respectively in a 3D micro-scale composite laminate structure. Compared the differences between these three numerical results, it indicates that big error in residual stress and cure shrinkage generates by elastic model, but the results calculated by the modified CHILE model are in excellent agreement with those estimated by the viscoelastic model.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9608-6
       
  • Improvement of Progressive Damage Model to Predicting Crashworthy
           Composite Corrugated Plate
    • Authors: Yiru Ren; Hongyong Jiang; Wenyuan Ji; Hanyu Zhang; Jinwu Xiang; Fuh-Gwo Yuan
      Abstract: Abstract To predict the crashworthy composite corrugated plate, different single and stacked shell models are evaluated and compared, and a stacked shell progressive damage model combined with continuum damage mechanics is proposed and investigated. To simulate and predict the failure behavior, both of the intra- and inter- laminar failure behavior are considered. The tiebreak contact method, 1D spot weld element and cohesive element are adopted in stacked shell model, and a surface-based cohesive behavior is used to capture delamination in the proposed model. The impact load and failure behavior of purposed and conventional progressive damage models are demonstrated. Results show that the single shell could simulate the impact load curve without the delamination simulation ability. The general stacked shell model could simulate the interlaminar failure behavior. The improved stacked shell model with continuum damage mechanics and cohesive element not only agree well with the impact load, but also capture the fiber, matrix debonding, and interlaminar failure of composite structure.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9610-z
       
  • Deformation and Stress Response of Carbon Nanotubes/UHMWPE Composites
           under Extensional-Shear Coupling Flow
    • Authors: Junxia Wang; Changlin Cao; Dingshan Yu; Xudong Chen
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the effect of varying extensional-shear couple loading on deformation and stress response of Carbon Nanotubes/ ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (CNTs/UHMWPE) composites was investigated using finite element numerical simulation, with expect to improve the manufacturing process of UHMWPE-based composites with reduced stress and lower distortion. When applying pure extensional loading and pure X-Y shear loading, it was found that the risk of a structural breakage greatly rises. For identifying the coupling between extensional and shear loading, distinct generations of force loading were defined by adjusting the magnitude of extensional loading and X-Y shear loading. It was shown that with the decrement of X-Y shear loading the deformation decreases obviously where the maximal Mises stress in Z-direction at 0.45 m distance is in the range from 24 to 10 MPa and the maximal shear stress at 0.61 m distance is within the range from 0.9 to 0.3 MPa. In addition, all the stresses determined were clearly below the yield strength of CNTs/UHMWPE composites under extensional-shear couple loading.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9606-8
       
  • Three-Point Flexural Properties of Bonded Reinforcement Elements for
           Pleasure Craft Decks
    • Authors: G . Di Bella; G. Galtieri; C. Borsellino
      Abstract: The aim of this work was both to study the performances of pleasure craft reinforced components, bonded using a structural adhesive, and to compare them with those obtained using over-lamination as joining system, typically employed in the shipbuilding. With such aim, two different lots of components were prepared: in the first lot, the reinforcement structures were laminated directly on the investigated composite components and, in the second one; they were made separately in a mould and, then, bonded to the composite components. This last method allowed to evaluate the introduction of a product/process innovation in a field typically unwilling to innovation, still tied to craft, and non-standardized procedures. The results of bending tests, performed in order to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of the reinforced components, evidenced the goodness of this innovative design choice. Finally, a finite element analysis was performed. Graphical Graphical abstract of the work: Left) Ship 85 feet long; Center) Manufacturing procedures and sections of the reinforcement elements; Right) Test apparatus and typical failure modes
      PubDate: 2017-04-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9605-9
       
  • Modeling Strength Degradation of Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix
           Composites Subjected to Cyclic Loading at Elevated Temperatures in
           Oxidative Environments
    • Authors: Li Longbiao
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the strength degradation of non-oxide and oxide/oxide fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) subjected to cyclic loading at elevated temperatures in oxidative environments has been investigated. Considering damage mechanisms of matrix cracking, interface debonding, interface wear, interface oxidation and fibers fracture, the composite residual strength model has been established by combining the micro stress field of the damaged composites, the damage models, and the fracture criterion. The relationships between the composite residual strength, fatigue peak stress, interface debonding, fibers failure and cycle number have been established. The effects of peak stress level, initial and steady-state interface shear stress, fiber Weibull modulus and fiber strength, and testing temperature on the degradation of composite strength and fibers failure have been investigated. The evolution of residual strength versus cycle number curves of non-oxide and oxide/oxide CMCs under cyclic loading at elevated temperatures in oxidative environments have been predicted.
      PubDate: 2017-04-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9609-5
       
  • Multi-Scale Finite Element Analyses of Thermal Conductivities of Three
           Dimensional Woven Composites
    • Authors: Yufen Zhao; Leilei Song; Jialu Li; Yanan Jiao
      Abstract: Abstract This paper summarizes an extensive experimental and prediction study of thermal conductivities of three-dimensional woven composites (3DWCs). Three kinds of innovative 3D woven architectures are examined, including 2.5D angle-interlock, 2.5D angle-interlock (with warp reinforcement), and 3D orthogonal woven architectures. The differences of thermal behaviors of 3DWCs in plane and out of plane are assessed by using multi-scale finite element analysis. For the validation of models, the thickness direction thermal conductivity of 3DWCs are measured. It is indicated that the predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effects of weave density and fabric architecture on the distribution of heat flux and temperature have been discussed in this work, which determined the thermal conductivities of 3DWCs. From this study, it can be expected that the need of thermal performance of 3DWCs can obtained according to optimize the weave parameters based on the high designability of 3DWCs.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10443-017-9601-0
       
 
 
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