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Showing 1 - 200 of 2341 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
  [SJR: 0.575]   [H-I: 80]   [44 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1599-0291 - ISSN (Online) 0273-2289
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2341 journals]
  • Effects of Low Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia (LMAA) Pretreatment at
           Controlled Ammoniation Temperatures on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover
    • Authors: Roent Dune A. Cayetano; Tae Hyun Kim
      Pages: 1257 - 1269
      Abstract: Abstract Corn stover was treated using low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) at controlled ammoniation temperature. Moisturized corn stover (50 % moisture) was contacted with anhydrous ammonia (0.1 g NH3/g-biomass) in a batch reactor at various temperatures (ambient to 150 °C). After ammoniation at elevated and controlled temperature, ammoniated corn stover was pretreated at various temperatures (60–150 °C) for 72–144 h. Change in composition was marginal at low pretreatment temperature but was relatively severe with pretreatment at high temperature (130–150 °C). The latter resulted in low enzymatic digestibility. It was also observed that extreme levels (either high or low) of residual ammonia affected enzymatic digestibility, while residual ammonia improved by 1.0–1.5 %. The LMAA method enhanced enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated corn stover (29.8 %). The highest glucan and xylan digestibility (84.1 and 73.6 %, respectively) was obtained under the optimal LMAA conditions (i.e., ammoniation at 70 °C for 20 min, followed by pretreatment at 90 °C for 48 h).
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-016-2282-6
      Issue No: Vol. 181, No. 4 (2017)
  • Efficient Preparation of (S)-N-Boc-3-Hydroxylpiperidine Through
           Bioreduction by a Thermostable Aldo-KetoReductase
    • Authors: Mengyan He; Shuo Zhou; Maolin Cui; Xiaolu Jin; Dunyue Lai; Shuangling Zhang; Zhiguo Wang; Zhenming Chen
      Pages: 1304 - 1313
      Abstract: Abstract (S)-N-Boc-3-hydroxypiperidine ((S)-NBHP) is a key pharmaceutical intermediate and the chiral source in synthesizing Imbruvica, which is a newly approved drug in lymphoma therapy by targeting Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK). Current chemical synthesis of (S)-NBHP suffered from the need of noble metal catalyst and low yield. The single reported bioconversion of (S)-NBHP was achieved by using recombinant ketoreductase, but enzyme sequence was kept confidential and the catalytic process suffered from the thermodeactivation and substrate inhibition. In the current study, we presented a thermostable aldo-keto reductase (AKR)—AKR-43—which showed high activity toward N-Boc-3-piperidone (NBP) to produce (S)-NBHP, high enantioselectivity, and no substrate inhibition. The molecular simulations demonstrated the structural rationale for the enantioselectivity of AKR-43 toward NBP and supported the classic ordered two-step catalytic mechanism. The catalytic process was achieved by using glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) for cofactor recycling, and the optimal reaction conditions were determined to be 30 °C and pH 7.5. Within a reaction time of 16 h, the 16 % substrate concentration (w/w), over 99 % ee and under 3.5 % of enzyme loading (w/w) characterized a high efficiency process with promising industrial values.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-016-2285-3
      Issue No: Vol. 181, No. 4 (2017)
  • Prediction of the Reverse Micellar Extraction of Papain Using Dissipative
           Particle Dynamics Simulation
    • Authors: Mingxiang Lin; Tingting Yu; Junfen Wan; Xuejun Cao
      Pages: 1338 - 1346
      Abstract: Abstract Reverse micellar extraction is a promising technology for large-scale protein purification, but its molecular interaction mechanisms have not been thoroughly characterized. In this study, a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) molecular simulation method was employed to study the interactions among the surfactant, organic phase, water, and proteins on the mesoscopic scale. This study simulated the self-assembly process of the reverse micelle extraction of papain. The results showed that the papain could be extracted by a CTAB/isooctane/n-hexanol system, which was validated by extraction experiments. The optimized extraction recovery was 76.9 %. This study elucidates the molecular process of the reverse micellar extraction of proteins and provides a method to predict its efficacy.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-016-2287-1
      Issue No: Vol. 181, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effective Biotransformation of Ethyl 4-Chloro-3-Oxobutanoate into Ethyl (
           S )-4-Chloro-3-Hydroxybutanoate by Recombinant E. coli CCZU-T15 Whole
           Cells in [ChCl][Gly]–Water Media
    • Authors: Yong Dai; Bin Huan; Hai-Sheng Zhang; Yu-Cai He
      Pages: 1347 - 1359
      Abstract: Abstract To increase the biocatalytic activity of Escherichia coli CCZU-T15 whole cells, choline chloride/glycerol ([ChCl][Gly]) was firstly used as biocompatible solvent for the effective biotransformation of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) into ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(S)-CHBE]. Furthermore, L-glutamine (150 mM) was added into [ChCl][Gly]–water ([ChCl][Gly] 12.5 vol%, pH 6.5) media instead of NAD+ for increasing the biocatalytic efficiency. To further improve the biosynthesis of (S)-CHBE (>99 % e.e.) by E. coli CCZU-T15 whole cells, Tween-80 (7.5 mM) was also added into this reaction media, and (S)-CHBE (>9 % e.e.) could be effectively synthesized from 2000 and 3000 mM COBE in the yields of 100 and 93.0 % by whole cells of recombinant E. coli CCZU-T15, respectively. TEM image indicated that the cell membrane was permeabilized and lost its integrity and when the cell was exposed to [ChCl][Gly]–water media with Tween-80. Clearly, this bioprocess has high potential for the effective biosynthesis of (S)-CHBE (>99 % e.e.).
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-016-2288-0
      Issue No: Vol. 181, No. 4 (2017)
  • Neuroprotective Effect of Low Frequency-Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in
           Ischemic Stroke
    • Authors: Enerelt Urnukhsaikhan; Tsogbadrakh Mishig-Ochir; Soo-Chan Kim; Jung-Keug Park; Young-Kwon Seo
      Pages: 1360 - 1371
      Abstract: Abstract Low frequency-pulsed electromagnetic fields (LF-PEMFs) affect many biological processes; however, the fundamental mechanisms responsible for these effects remain unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of LF-PEMFs on neuroprotection after ischemic stroke. C57B6 mice were exposed to LF-PEMF (F = 60 Hz, Bm = 10 mT) after photothrombotic occlusion. We measured the BDNF/TrkB/Akt signaling pathway, pro-apoptotic and pro-survival protein and gene expressions, and the expression of inflammatory mediators and performed behavioral tests in both LF-PEMF-treated and untreated ischemic stroke mice. Our results showed that LF-PEMF treatment promotes activation of the BDNF/TrkB/Akt signaling pathway. Subsequently, pro-survival proteins were significantly increased, while pro-apoptotic proteins and inflammatory mediators were decreased in ischemic stroke mice after LF-PEMF treatment. The results demonstrated that LF-PEMF exposure has a neuroprotective effect after ischemic stroke in mice during the recovery process.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-016-2289-z
      Issue No: Vol. 181, No. 4 (2017)
  • Leucas aspera Nanomedicine Shows Superior Toxicity and Cell Migration
           Retarded in Prostate Cancer Cells
    • Authors: Anjusha Mohan; Shantikumar V. Nair; Vinoth-Kumar Lakshmanan
      Pages: 1388 - 1400
      Abstract: Abstract Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies among men worldwide. The main aim of the present work was to clarify the advantages of a nanoformulation of ayurvedic herbal plants. Specifically, we assessed the improved anticancer activity of Leucas aspera nanoparticles compared with methanolic crude extract in PC3 prostate cancer cells and normal cells. L. aspera is a plant that is used in ayurveda due to the antirheumatic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancer, and cytotoxic activities. Nanoparticles of L. aspera were prepared from plant methanolic extracts. Cytotoxic effect was studied in the normal and prostate cancer cells. Size and morphology of the formulated nanoparticles was assessed using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of L. aspera nanoparticles for PC3 cells was concentration- and time-dependent. In vitro hemolysis assay, cellular uptake studies, cell aggregation studies, and cell migration assay established the anticancerous activity of L. aspera in prostate cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-016-2291-5
      Issue No: Vol. 181, No. 4 (2017)
  • Production and Purification of Recombinant Glucocerebrosidase in
           Transgenic Rice Cell Suspension Cultures
    • Authors: Hyung-Jin Nam; Jun-Young Kwon; Hong-Yeol Choi; Seung-Hoon Kang; Hahn-Sun Jung; Dong-Il Kim
      Pages: 1401 - 1415
      Abstract: Abstract Gaucher disease, which is caused by deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GCD), is currently treated by enzyme replacement therapy. Plant-based systems produce glycoproteins and can be combined with targeting strategies to generate proteins with terminal mannose structures for macrophage uptake. However, the gliding step for the purification is essential since the produced protein still exists inside cells. In the case of rice-amylase 1A (RAmy1A) secretion signal peptide, GCD protein is secreted outside of cells and simplifies the purification step. Here, an established cell line was confirmed as having fundamental characteristics of growth and production. GCD from transgenic calli was examined by Western blot analysis and compared with that from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Calli expressing high levels of GCD were used to establish suspension cell lines. Growth and production characteristics were investigated in suspension cell cultures. Production of GCD in suspension cultures was confirmed upon induction for 12–24 h. The amount of GCD in medium increased until 60–84 h and decreased thereafter. Purification of GCD was performed in three steps (ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography) and verified. Purified GCD was able to hydrolyze the synthetic substrate. Thus, a rice expression system could be a suitable alternative to GCD expression in mammalian cells.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-016-2292-4
      Issue No: Vol. 181, No. 4 (2017)
  • Phytase Production and Development of an Ideal Dephytinization Process for
           Amelioration of Food Nutrition Using Microbial Phytases
    • Authors: Jinender Jain; Bijender Singh
      Pages: 1485 - 1495
      Abstract: Abstract Development of an ideal process for reduction of food phytates using microbial phytases is a demanding task by all food and feed industries all over the world. Phytase production by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis JJBS250 isolated from soil sample was optimized in submerged fermentation using statistical tools. Among all the culture variables tested, sucrose, sodium phytate and Tween-80 were identified as the most significant variables using the Placket–Burman design. Further optimization of these variables resulted in a 6.79-fold improvement in phytase production (7170 U/L) as compared to unoptimized medium. Supplementation of microbial phytases (fungal and bacterial) resulted in improved bioavailability of nutritional components with the concomitant liberation of inorganic phosphorus, reducing sugar, soluble protein and amino acids, thus mitigating anti-nutritional properties of phytic acid.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-016-2297-z
      Issue No: Vol. 181, No. 4 (2017)
  • Trypsin Slows the Aging of Mice due to Its Novel Superoxide Scavenging
    • Authors: Xin Li; Zichen Tang; Xinyue Pang; Chunyan Zhao; Xinling Li; Yunhong Liu
      Pages: 1549 - 1560
      Abstract: Abstract Trypsin is an endogenous enzyme that is generally used as a proteinase. Intriguingly, we found that trypsin had superoxide scavenging activity. In the current study, our results showed that trypsin scavenges superoxide in either intracorporal or extracorporal systems. In the light of the porcupine plots of trypsin compounds generated by ProDy, the copper ion binds to trypsin and accelerates the superoxide scavenging activity of trypsin by increasing the stability of the structure. Furthermore, the data on the age-related parameters showed that the aging of mice could be slowed by trypsin, at least in part, due to its superoxide scavenging activity. These results suggested that trypsin is an effective superoxide scavenger and has potential as a novel agent to promote health and improve aging-associated pathologies.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-016-2301-7
      Issue No: Vol. 181, No. 4 (2017)
  • Degradation of Lignin in Agricultural Residues by locally Isolated Fungus
           Neurospora discreta
    • Authors: Sirisha Pamidipati; Asma Ahmed
      Pages: 1561 - 1572
      Abstract: Abstract Locally isolated fungus, Neurospora discreta, was evaluated for its ability to degrade lignin in two agricultural residues: cocopeat and sugarcane bagasse with varying lignin concentrations and structures. Using Klason’s lignin estimation, high-performance liquid chromatography, and UV-visible spectroscopy, we found that N. discreta was able to degrade up to twice as much lignin in sugarcane bagasse as the well-known white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and produced nearly 1.5 times the amount of lignin degradation products in submerged culture. Based on this data, N. discreta is a promising alternative to white rot fungi for faster microbial pre-treatment of agricultural residues. This paper presents the lignin degrading capability of N. discreta for the first time and also discusses the difference in biodegradability of cocopeat and sugarcane bagasse as seen from the analysis carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-016-2302-6
      Issue No: Vol. 181, No. 4 (2017)
  • Secretory Expression, Purification, Characterization, and Application of
           an Aspergillus oryzae Prolyl Aminopeptidase in Bacillus subtilis
    • Authors: Kai-Dao Wang; Ke-Hong Wang; Nan-Di Zhou; Ya-Ping Tian
      Pages: 1611 - 1623
      Abstract: Abstract cDNA coding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was cloned from Aspergillus oryzae and over expressed in Bacillus subtilis with a 6×His tag in N-terminus. The recombinant prolyl aminopeptidase was secreted to extracellular by adding 2 mM CaCl2 and 5% D-sorbitol in TB medium; the enzyme activity in fermented supernatant increased from 7.2 to 41.5 U mL−1. It has been purified 4.3-fold through Ni-chelating affinity chromatography with a recovery of 47.3%. The purified enzyme is stable below 50 °C and within pH 6–11, and with the highest activity at pH 7.5 and 50 °C. Several kinds of salt can activate enzyme activity in a certain concentration and the relative activity was 127.02% even when the concentration of NaCl reached 4.36 M. It cleaved N-terminal Pro residues from many peptides but shown different hydrolysis rates for various Pro-X dipeptides or peptides which are of different lengths. It combined with alkaline protease and leucine aminopeptidase to hydrolyze casein, many free amino acid especially proline and small peptide of hydrolysate increased significantly.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-016-2305-3
      Issue No: Vol. 181, No. 4 (2017)
  • Evaluation of the Expression of Amyloid Precursor Protein and the Ratio of
           Secreted Amyloid Beta 42 to Amyloid Beta 40 in SH-SY5Y Cells Stably
           Transfected with Wild-Type, Single-Mutant and Double-Mutant Forms of the
           APP Gene for the Study of Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology
    • Abstract: Abstract Neuroblastoma cell lines such as SH-SY5Y are the most frequently utilized models in neurodegenerative research, and their use has advanced the understanding of the pathology of neurodegeneration over the past few decades. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), several pathogenic mutations have been described, all of which cause elevated levels of pathological hallmarks such as amyloid-beta (Aβ). Although the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease is well known, familial AD only accounts for a small number of cases in the population, with the rest being sporadic AD, which contains no known mutations. Currently, most of the in vitro models used to study AD pathogenesis only examine the level of Aβ42 as a confirmation of successful model generation and only perform comparisons between wild-type APP and single mutants of the APP gene. Recent findings have shown that the Aβ42/40 ratio in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a better diagnostic indicator for AD patients than is Aβ42 alone and that more extensive Aβ formation, such as accumulation of intraneuronal Aβ, Aβ plaques, soluble oligomeric Aβ (oAβ), and insoluble fibrillar Aβ (fAβ) occurs in TgCRND8 mice expressing a double-mutant form (Swedish and Indiana) of APP, later leading to greater progressive impairment of the brain. In this study, we generated SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected separately with wild-type APP, the Swedish mutation of APP, and the Swedish and Indiana mutations of APP and evaluated the APP expression as well as the Aβ42/40 ratio in those cells. The double-mutant form of APP (Swedish/Indiana) expressed markedly high levels of APP protein and showed a high Aβ2/40 ratio compared to wild-type and single-mutant cells.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17
  • A Review of the Anaerobic Digestion of Fruit and Vegetable Waste
    • Abstract: Abstract Fruit and vegetable waste is an ever-growing global question. Anaerobic digestion techniques have been developed that facilitate turning such waste into possible sources for energy and fertilizer, simultaneously helping to reduce environmental pollution. However, various problems are encountered in applying these techniques. The purpose of this study is to review local and overseas studies, which focus on the use of anaerobic digestion to dispose fruit and vegetable wastes, discuss the acidification problems and solutions in applying anaerobic digestion for fruit and vegetable wastes and investigate the reactor design (comparing single phase with two phase) and the thermal pre-treatment for processing raw wastes. Furthermore, it analyses the dominant microorganisms involved at different stages of digestion and suggests a focus for future studies.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17
  • Influences of Media Compositions on Characteristics of Isolated Bacteria
           Exhibiting Lignocellulolytic Activities from Various Environmental Sites
    • Abstract: Abstract Efficient isolation of lignocellulolytic bacteria is essential for the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, bacteria with cellulolytic, xylanolytic, and lignolytic activities were isolated from environmental sites such as mountain, wetland, and mudflat using isolation media containing the combination of lignocellulose components (cellulose, xylan, and lignin). Eighty-nine isolates from the isolation media were characterized by analyzing taxonomic ranks and cellulolytic, xylanolytic, and lignolytic activities. Most of the cellulolytic bacteria showed multienzymatic activities including xylanolytic activity. The isolation media without lignin were efficient in isolating bacteria exhibiting multienzymatic activities even including lignolytic activity, whereas a lignin-containing medium was effective to isolate bacteria exhibiting lignolytic activity only. Multienzymatic activities were mainly observed in Bacillus and Streptomyces, while Burkholderia was the most abundant genus with lignolytic activity only. This study provides insight into isolation medium for efficient isolation of lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2474-8
  • A Method for Microalgae Proteomics Analysis Based on Modified Filter-Aided
           Sample Preparation
    • Authors: Song Li; Xupeng Cao; Yan Wang; Zhen Zhu; Haowei Zhang; Song Xue; Jing Tian
      Abstract: Abstract With the fast development of microalgal biofuel researches, the proteomics studies of microalgae increased quickly. A filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) method is widely used proteomics sample preparation method since 2009. Here, a method of microalgae proteomics analysis based on modified filter-aided sample preparation (mFASP) was described to meet the characteristics of microalgae cells and eliminate the error caused by over-alkylation. Using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as the model, the prepared sample was tested by standard LC-MS/MS and compared with the previous reports. The results showed mFASP is suitable for most of occasions of microalgae proteomics studies.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2473-9
  • Biodegradation of BTEX Aromatics by a Haloduric Microbial Consortium
           Enriched from a Sediment of Bohai Sea, China
    • Authors: Yue Deng; Fenglong Yang; Chunping Deng; Jinshui Yang; Jing Jia; Hongli Yuan
      Abstract: Abstract This study focused on a haloduric BTEX-degrading microbial consortium EC20 enriched from Bohai Sea sediment. EC20 degraded 87% of BTEX at 435 mg L−1 initial concentration (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes in equal proportions) in the presence of 3.4% NaCl. 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-DGGE profiles revealed that the dominant bacteria in EC20 were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes at the phylum level, and Pseudomonas, Mesorhizobium, Achromobacter, Stenotrophomonas, and Halomonas at the genus level. PCR detection of genes coding the key enzymes which participated in BTEX degradation pathways showed that the enriched consortium EC20 contained TOL pathway and TOD pathway to initiate biodegradation of BTEX.
      PubDate: 2017-04-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2471-y
  • Effects of Feedstock Sources on Inoculant Acclimatization: Start-up
           Strategies and Reactor Performance
    • Authors: Qian Yang; Liang-Huan Wei; Wei-Zun Li; Yu Chen; Mei-Ting Ju
      Abstract: Abstract Different inoculum sources and acclimatization methods result in different substrate adaptation and biodegradability. To increase straw degradation rate, shorten the digester start-up time, and enhance the biogas production, we domesticated anaerobic sludge by adding microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). During acclimatization, the start-up strategies and reactor performance were investigated to analyze changes in feedstock adaption, biodegradability, and methanogen activity. The effect of the domesticated inoculum was evaluated by testing batch un-pretreated corn stover with a dewatered sludge (DS)-domesticated inoculum as a control. The results showed that (1) using MCC as a substrate rapidly improved microorganism biodegradability and adaptation. (2) MCC as domesticated substrate has relatively stable system and high mass conversion, but with low buffer capacity. (3) Macro- and micronutrients should be added for improving the activity of methanogenic and system’s buffer capacity. (4) Using the domesticated inoculums and batch tests to anaerobically digest untreated corn stover yielded rapid biogas production of 292 mL, with an early peak value on the first day. The results indicated that cultivating directional inoculum can efficiently and quickly start-up digester. These investigated results to promote anaerobic digestion of straw for producing biogas speed up the transformation of achievements of biomass solid waste utilization have a positive promoting significance.
      PubDate: 2017-04-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2460-1
  • Carcinogenic Activities and Sperm Abnormalities of Methicillin Resistance
           Staphylococcus aureus and Inhibition of Their Virulence Potentials by
    • Authors: Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed El-Gendy; Khaled G. Abdel-Wahhab; Fathia A. Mannaa; Ayman A. Farghaly; Ahmed M. A. El-Bondkly
      Abstract: Abstract This investigation aimed to study the in vivo harmful effects of the subcutaneous injection of different methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus extracts (MRSA2, MRSA4, MRSA10, MRSA69, MRSA70, MRSA76, and MRSA78). Such strains represented the highest minimum inhibition concentration toward methicillin with various multidrug-resistant patterns. The obtained results revealed that rats injected with the MRSA4 extract died immediately after the last dose indicating the high cytotoxicity of MRSA4 strain (100% mortality). While the mortalities in other groups injected by the other MRSA extracts ranged from 50 to 75%. In comparison with the normal animal group, all MRSA extracts induced a hepatotoxic effect which was indicated from the significant (p < 0.01) increases in the activities of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) enzymes. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) combined with a partial nephrotoxicity that was monitored from the significant elevation of serum urea concentration. While serum creatinine levels did not affect. Similarly, a significant elevation was recorded in serum levels of tumor biomarkers (alpha fetoprotein; AFP, carcinoembryonic antigen; CEA, and lactate dehydrogenase; LDH) reflecting their carcinogenic potential. On the other hand, the percentage of micronuclei (MN) in polychromatic erythrocytes from bone marrow cells was statistically significant in all groups as compared to the control group. The percentage of sperm abnormalities was statistically significant compared to the control. Different types of head abnormalities and coiled tail were recorded. Consequently, the current study focused on fighting MRSA virulence factors by the new compound ayamycin, which proved to be potent anti-virulence factor against all MRSA strains under study by significant decreasing of their streptokinase activities, hemolysin synthesis, biofilm formation, and their cell surface hydrophobicity.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2467-7
  • Development of an Agrobacterium -Mediated Transformation Method and
           Evaluation of Two Exogenous Constitutive Promoters in Oleaginous Yeast
           Lipomyces starkeyi
    • Authors: Xinping Lin; Sasa Liu; Ruiqi Bao; Ning Gao; Sufang Zhang; Rongqian Zhu; Zongbao Kent Zhao
      Abstract: Abstract Oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi, a promising strain of great biotechnical importance, is able to accumulate over 60% of its cell biomass as triacylglycerols (TAGs). It is promising to directly produce the derivatives of TAGs, such as long-chain fatty acid methyl esters and alkanes, in L. starkeyi. However, techniques for genetic modification of this oleaginous yeast are lacking, thus, further research is needed to develop genetic tools and functional elements. Here, we used two exogenous promoters (pGPD and pPGK) from oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides to establish a simpler Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) method for L. starkeyi. Hygromycin-resistant transformants were obtained on antibiotic-contained plate. Mitotic stability test, genotype verification by PCR, and protein expression confirmation all demonstrated the success of this method. Furthermore, the strength of these two promoters was evaluated at the phenotypic level on a hygromycin-gradient plate and at the transcriptional level by real-time quantitative PCR. The PGK promoter strength was 2.2-fold as that of GPD promoter to initiate the expression of the hygromycin-resistance gene. This study provided an easy and efficient genetic manipulation method and elements of the oleaginous yeast L. starkeyi for constructing superior strains to produce advanced biofuels.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2469-5
  • Microplate-Based Evaluation of the Sugar Yield from Giant Reed, Giant
           Miscanthus and Switchgrass after Mild Chemical Pre-Treatments and
           Hydrolysis with Tailored Trichoderma Enzymatic Blends
    • Authors: Stefano Cianchetta; Luca Bregoli; Stefania Galletti
      Abstract: Abstract Giant reed, miscanthus, and switchgrass are considered prominent lignocellulosic feedstocks to obtain fermentable sugars for biofuel production. The bioconversion into sugars requires a delignifying pre-treatment step followed by hydrolysis with cellulase and other accessory enzymes like xylanase, especially in the case of alkali pre-treatments, which retain the hemicellulose fraction. Blends richer in accessory enzymes than commercial mix can be obtained growing fungi on feedstock-based substrates, thus ten selected Trichoderma isolates, including the hypercellulolytic strain Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30, were grown on giant reed, miscanthus, or switchgrass-based substrates. The produced enzymes were used to saccharify the corresponding feedstocks, compared to a commercial enzymatic mix (6 FPU/g). Feedstocks were acid (H2SO4 0.2–2%, w/v) or alkali (NaOH 0.02–0.2%, w/v) pre-treated. A microplate-based approach was chosen for most of the experimental steps due to the large number of samples. The highest bioconversion was generally obtained with Trichoderma harzianum Or4/99 enzymes (78, 89, and 94% final sugar yields at 48 h for giant reed, miscanthus, and switchgrass, respectively), with significant increases compared to the commercial mix, especially with alkaline pre-treatments. The differences in bioconversion yields were only partially caused by xylanases (maximum R 2 = 0.5), indicating a role for other accessory enzymes.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2470-z
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Heriot-Watt University
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