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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2353 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.571
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 44  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1599-0291 - ISSN (Online) 0273-2289
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Design of Dense Brush Conformation Bearing Gold Nanoparticles as
           Theranostic Agent for Cancer
    • Abstract: Dense brush conformation–bearing theranostic agents are emerging as drug delivery systems due to their higher ability to escape from reticuloendothelial system uptake which prolongs their in vivo circulation time. With the aim of developing dual therapy agent, 13-nm gold nanoparticles’ (AuNPs) surfaces were coated with different amounts of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (SH-PEG-NH2) to obtain dense brush conformation–bearing theranostic agents. Among the 14 different theranostic agent candidates prepared, the one hosting 1819 PEG per particle was selected as the most promising theranostic agent candidate based on structural conformation, stability, size, zeta potential, hemocompatibility, cell inhibition, and cell death pathway towards MCF-7 cell line. To test drug delivery efficiency of the developed PEGylated AuNP and to improve efficacy of the treatment, apoptotic peptide (AP) was covalently conjugated to NH2 terminus of the PEG in various ratios to yield AuNP-AP conjugate. Among the prepared conjugates, the one having 1 nmol of peptide per milliliter of AuNP yielded the most promising results based on the same criteria as employed for PEGylated AuNPs. Besides, incorporation of AP to AuNP returned in superior efficacy of AP since it was possible to achieve 50% cell death with 1000 times less amount of AP alone.
      PubDate: 2019-10-11
       
  • Characterization of the Furfural and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)
           Metabolic Pathway in the Novel Isolate Pseudomonas putida ALS1267
    • Abstract: The genes involved in the aerobic bacterial metabolism of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) have been characterized in two species, Pseudomonas putida Fu1 and Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14. A third furan-metabolizing strain, Pseudomonas putida ALS1267, was recently identified that grows robustly on both furfural and HMF as sole carbon sources, with a growth rate of 0.250 h−1 on furfural and 0.311 h−1 on HMF, and we have characterized the genes involved in furfural and HMF metabolism in this bacterium. Unlike C. basilensis HMF14, which contains separate furfural and HMF operons, P. putida ALS1267 contains one contiguous 18.1-kb operon, which harbors all of the furfural- and HMF-metabolizing genes except for one, the hmfH gene that encodes HMF/furfural oxidoreductase and has both HMF acid oxidase and furfural/HMF dehydrogenase activity. The 18.1-kb operon was cloned into P. putida KT2440, which cannot metabolize furans, enabling growth on furfural as the sole carbon source with a growth rate of 0.340 h−1. The clone did not allow P. putida KT2440 to metabolize HMF, most likely due to the lack of the hmfH gene. No hmfH homolog was identified in P. putida ALS1267, suggesting that another gene in the ALS1267 genome provides this function.
      PubDate: 2019-10-11
       
  • Characterization of Glucokinase Catalysis from a Pseudo-Dimeric View
    • Abstract: Glucose phosphorylation by glucokinase exhibits a sigmoidal dependency on substrate concentration regardless of its simple structure. Dimorph mechanism suggested the existence of two enzymatic states with different catalytic properties, which has been shown to be plausible by structural analysis. However, the dimorph mechanism gives rise to a complicated or non-explicit non-closed mathematical form. It is neither feasible to apply the dimorph mechanism in effector characterizations. To improve the area of glucokinase study with stronger theoretical support and less complication in computation, we proposed the investigation of the enzyme from a pseudo-dimeric angle. The proposed mechanism started from the idealization of two monomeric glucokinase as a dimeric complex, which significantly simplified the glucose phosphorylation kinetics, while the differences in enzyme reconfiguration caused by variable substrates and effectors have been successfully characterized. The study presented a simpler and more reliable way in studying the properties of glucokinase and its effectors, providing guidelines of effector developments for hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia treatment.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • In Vitro Fabrication and Biocompatibility Assay of a Biomimetic
           Osteoblastic Niche
    • Abstract: A novel HAp-CS/Gel biomimetic osteoblastic niche was fabricated by freeze-drying, and its mechanical strength and biocompatibility were characterized. HAp-CS/Gel scaffolds in various ratios of 100:5, 100:10, and 100:20 (CS/Gel to HAp) were prepared by freeze-drying prior to chemical cross-linking followed by infrared spectrum analysis, EDS, FITR, SEM, fluorescence microscopy, MTT, and ALP experiments. Results from the infrared spectrum analysis showed that HAp doping remained the surface morphology and the architecture of scaffold with interconnected pores in the size range of 135 to 150 μm. The HAp doping ratio of 100:20 was found to be optimal based on its high porosity of 90%, better water uptake folds of 19.1. In addition, EDS and FITR analyses demonstrated that HAps were uniformly distributed on the surface of a scaffold with aggregates and particles, which has sufficient roughness for cell attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts. Under SEM and fluorescent microscopy, osteoblasts seeded onto the scaffold showed evenly distributed viable cells, which is believed to form a biomimetic niche. In the present study, we further demonstrate that osteoblasts can maintain their function and grow well on the scaffold through MTT and ALP tests. Thus, the scaffold has favorable physical properties and biocompatibility to support the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and further to support the constructs of biomimetic osteoblastic niche.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Biotransformation of Isoeugenol into Vanillin Using Immobilized
           Recombinant Cells Containing Isoeugenol Monooxygenase Active Aggregates
    • Abstract: For efficiently enhancing the activity of isoeugenol monooxygenase, a whole cell overproducing active aggregate IEM720-18A was successfully fabricated via the fusion of amphiphilic short peptide 18A (EWLKAFYEKVLEKLKELF) and isoeugenol monooxygenase and then efficiently expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Such resulting bacteria, E. coli BL21 (DE3) harboring pET30a-IEM720-18A was applied in the biotransformation of isoeugenol to vanillin with the optimization of cultivation conditions. Our results revealed that the vanillin concentration reached to the highest level (14.5 mmol/L) under the optimized reaction conditions including 1.5-g cells containing active aggregate of IEM720-18A, 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 100 mmol/L isoeugenol, 50 mmol/L glycine-sodium hydroxide buffer (pH 10.5) in 10 mL reaction volume, and 200 rpm at 25 °C for 36 h. Moreover, the active aggregate IEM720-18A was immobilized with 100 mmol/L glutaraldehyde at 4 °C to improve the operational stability. The highest activity could be achieved when the reactions were carried out at 25 °C and the relative activity of the immobilized enzyme maintained over 60% after seven recycles. Our study provides a new approach to the biotransformation of isoeugenol into vanillin.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Capacitive Sensor to Monitor Enzyme Activity by Following Degradation of
           Macromolecules in Real Time
    • Abstract: A capacitive sensor was developed to analyze the presence and enzymatic activity of a model protease from standard solutions by following the degradation of the substrate in real time. The enzyme was chosen based on its specific digestion of the hinge region of immunoglobulin G (IgG). Real-time enzyme activity was monitored by measuring the change in capacitance (∆C) based on the release of IgG fragments after enzymatic digestion by the enzyme. The results indicated that the developed capacitive system might be used successfully for label-free and real-time monitoring of enzymatic activity of different enzymes in a sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive manner in biotechnological, environmental, and clinical applications.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • A Case Study on Converting Organic Farm Waste Vegetables to Biogas Using a
           Cartridge Design Anaerobic Digester
    • Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of multiple waste vegetables collected from an organic farm in Central Illinois was carried out using a new cartridge design anaerobic digestion system. Waste vegetables, including carrot, cucumber, bell pepper, onion, lettuce, and potato, were chopped and then mixed together to be used as the digestion feedstock. Three cartridges in the digestion chamber were rotated every week. Results showed that the system was stable, in terms of biogas and methane yields, ammonium-nitrogen concentration, and pH value, throughout the 90-day operation. On average, the daily and accumulative methane yield were 23.38 L/day/kg-VS and 490.98 L/kg-VS (21-day retention time), respectively. Rotation of cartridge significantly affected methane yield, methane concentration in biogas, and hydrogen sulfide concentration in biogas. Especially, the average hydrogen sulfide concentration decreased from 1145 ppm, to 695 ppm, and then to 539 ppm, in biogas samples taken on 2 days, 4 days, and 7 days after rotation. No liquid waste was generated throughout the test. A rough estimate of the potential biogas yield shows that if all the waste vegetables and crop residues collected from this farm were used in this new anaerobic digestion system, US$4711 in energy can be saved in a year.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Effect of Novel Pretreatment of Steam Explosion Associated with Ammonium
           Sulfite Process on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Straw
    • Abstract: Effective pretreatment process to improve enzymatic saccharification and decrease inhibitors generation is a key operation involved in the lignocellulosic bioconversion. The pretreatment of steam explosion associated with ammonium sulfite (SEAS) process was carried out to investigate the effect on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation production as a combinatorial pretreatment. Results showed that after pretreatment (1.0 MPa, 30 min, 20%w/w ammonium sulfite added), the phenolic inhibitors derived from lignin significantly removed (37.8%), which transformed to chemical humic acid (humic acid and fulvic acid) mostly. Sugar conversion (glucan (77.8%) and xylan (73.3%)) and ethanol concentration (40.8 g/L) of combinatorial pretreated samples were increased by 24.7% and 33.8%, respectively, compared with steam explosion (SE) pretreated samples. FT-IR and elemental analysis results indicated that the lignin structure changed and aromatization degree increased after SEAS pretreatment. In addition, the ratio of C/N decreased and compost maturity degree increased with the holding time. The effect on the growth of wheat seedlings of soluble fulvic acid solution from combinatorial pretreatment was investigated, where below 1% (w/w) concentration did contribute to growth. Therefore, one-step chemical pretreatment process could be provided for inhibitors removal, enzymatic saccharification increase, and chemical humic acid formation as well.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Enhanced Low Molecular Weight Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid Production in
           Recombinant Bacillus subtilis 1A751 with Zinc Ion
    • Abstract: Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a novel biodegradable polyamide material. Microbial fermentation is the only way to produce γ-PGA, but the molecular weight of γ-PGA varied depending on different strains and culture conditions used. The molecular weight of γ-PGA is a main factor affecting the utilization of γ-PGA. It is urgent to find an efficient way to prepare γ-PGA with specific molecular weight, especially low molecular weight. Bacillus subtilis ECUST is a glutamate-dependent strain that produces γ-PGA. In this study, a recombinant B. subtilis harboring the γ-PGA synthase gene cluster pgsBCAE of our preciously identified γ-PGA–producing B. subtilis ECUST was constructed. Assay of γ-PGA contents and properties showed that recombinant B. subtilis 1A751-pBNS2-pgsBCAE obtained the ability to synthesize γ-PGA with low molecular weight (about 10 kDa). The excessive addition of glutamate inhibited the γ-PGA synthesis, while the addition of Zn2+ could promote the synthesis of γ-PGA by increasing the transcription of pgsB but had no effect on the molecular weight of synthesized γ-PGA. Under optimized conditions, γ-PGA produced by recombinant B. subtilis 1A751-pBNS2-pgsBCAE increased from initial 0.54 g/L to 3.9 g/L, and the glutamate conversion rate reached 78%. Recombinant B. subtilis 1A751-pBNS2-pgsBCAE has the potential for efficient preparation of low molecular weight γ-PGA.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Bioconversion of Poplar Wood Hemicellulose Prehydrolysate to Microbial Oil
           Using Cryptococcus curvatus
    • Abstract: Poplar wood hemicellulose prehydrolysate was used for microbial oil production using an oleaginous microorganism Cryptococcus curvatus. Initially, the effect of substrate concentration and nitrogen content was investigated on synthetic media. Then poplar wood prehydrolysate without detoxification was used as substrate in the fermentation. The result showed that this strain is capable of consuming both hexose and pentose sugars, a challenge in fermentation of hemicellulosic streams. It was able to accumulate 36.98% of lipid and the fermentation resulted in 13.78 g/L of biomass and 5.13 g/L of lipid under optimum conditions after 164 h of fermentation. The lipid product obtained was characterized in terms of their fatty acid profiles. Overall, this study shows that it is possible to produce microbial oil from a sustainable renewable feedstock like poplar wood hemicellulose prehydrolysate. This robust strain used has the ability to grow on industrially produced hemicellulose which can help in the development of an integrated biorefinery, where all the three components of lignocellulosic biomass are utilized.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Activity-Structure Study on the Peptide Fraction of AG2: a Potent In Vitro
           Transfection Agent
    • Abstract: Gemini-based amphiphiles are candidates for biomedical applications. In fact, most of the gemini compounds described in the literature have been prepared to be used as new synthetic vectors in gene transfection. Our group carried out an activity-structure study starting from the structure of the gemini [AG2-C18/]2, which is an effective in vitro transfection reagent. We synthesized a series of novel amphiphilic amino acid derivatives of low molecular weight, named AGn-Cm (N), in which the same apolar region (m) of oleic or palmitic acid was maintained and the peptide region was modified by amino acid insertions, deletions, and substitutions. We also determined the transfection efficiency, critical micelle concentration, particle size, and ζ-potential for these derivatives. Amphiphiles AG10-C16 and AG10-C18 were more active at a lower N/P ratio than AG2-C18. These amphiphiles showed no activity when lysine was replaced by ornithine, and the activity of all derivatives increased when there were more ornithine residues and a W/O = 1 ratio in the peptide region. It can be said that for AG10-C16, these two structural requirements on the amino acid portion predominated over the type of aliphatic chain used.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Partitioning of Recombinant Pseudomonas putida POS-F84 Proline
           Dehydrogenase in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems: Optimization Using Response
           Surface Methodology
    • Abstract: Empirical modeling the partition behavior and recovery of a recombinant Pseudomonas putida POS-F84 proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) was carried out by response surface methodology (RSM). Polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG-1000) concentration, sodium carbonate concentration, and pH, which were the most important factors, were chosen for modeling the partition feature of enzyme. The adequacy of the models was investigated by means of variance analysis. Also, to confirm the efficiency of the ATPS in partition and purification of recombinant ProDH, purity and enzymatic activity was studied. After numerical optimization, an optimal ATPS composed of 14.33% PEG-1000 and 11.79% sodium carbonate at pH 7.48 was achieved. Yield, purification factor, and recovery were 81.41%, 60.82, and 270.82%, respectively. Purified recombinant ProDH was found as a single protein band into the upper PEG-rich phase and the specific activity was calculated to be 46.23 ± 2.1 U/mg. Collectively, our data showed that the RSM could be an appropriate and powerful tool to define the best ATPS system for recovery and purification of P. putida ProDH.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Accumulation of Lipids and Triglycerides in Isochrysis galbana Under
           Nutrient Stress
    • Abstract: This study examines the relationship between the algal biomass as well as lipid and triglyceride contents in Isochrysis galbana and variation in nutrient culture conditions such as phosphorus concentration and iron concentration. From the selected experiments, a clear algal growth drop expressed by number of cells, optical density and dried weight, as well strongly participated in the lipid and triglyceride cumulation, which show a positive significant effect on lipid productivity and triglyceride productivity. In the first experiment of this study, the phosphorus concentration in the medium was reduced to 75%, 50%, and 25% and complete absence (0%) of the original concentration in Walne’s medium, whereas the iron concentration was kept constant in the medium. The next experiment, the optimum phosphorus concentration (25%) granting high lipid product was tested with different concentrations of iron from 100 to 0% with five concentrations. Though, the algal growth nonsignificant affected, abundant increases in lipids and triglyceride contents (49.5% and 14.7% of dry weight respectively) was noticed at the concentration of phosphorus of culture medium was decreased to (25%). However, hyperaccumulations of lipid and triglyceride (60.3% and 18.4% on the basis of dry weight, respectively) were acquired by the incorporation of 25% phosphorus and 25% iron. The simple regression analysis suggested the combination effect of phosphorus limitation and iron deprivation on lipid and triglyceride cumulation, and it was not as substantial as to phosphorus starvation tension.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Simultaneous Production of Lipids and Carotenoids by the Red Yeast
           Rhodotorula from Waste Glycerol Fraction and Potato Wastewater
    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of simultaneous biosynthesis of lipids and carotenoids by the Rhodotorula yeast strains in media with waste glycerol and deproteinized potato wastewater and to determine the level of pollution reduction by media. On the basis of results obtained during the yeast microcultures in the Bioscreen C system, it was found that potato wastewater and glycerol can be used as components of media for Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Rhodotorula gracilis yeast strains. The amount of glycerol added to media higher than 10% significantly decreased the growth rate of yeast. The results of yeast culture in the laboratory shaker flasks showed a possibility of simultaneous production of lipids and carotenoids by R. glutinis, R. mucilaginosa, and R. gracilis yeast strains during cultivation in media containing only waste glycerol and deproteinized potato wastewater. A higher intracellular lipid content (approximately 15 g/100 gd.w.) was obtained for R. mucilaginosa and R. gracilis yeast biomass after cultivation in experimental media with waste glycerol and potato wastewater. In conclusion, the yeast grown in media with potato wastewater supplemented with 3% or 5% glycerol synthesized carotenoids, and their content in biomass did not exceed 230 μg/gd.w.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Efficient Removal of Metolachlor and Bacterial Community of Biofilm in
           Bioelectrochemical Reactors
    • Abstract: The microbial fuel cell (MFC) provides an inexhaustible electron acceptor to generate current and enhance the degradation of organic compounds. In MFCs with metolachlor as the sole carbon source, the degradation efficiency accelerated by 98%, with 61–76% of enhancement for the degradates, ethane sulfonic acid and oxanilic acid, respectively. According to quantifying primary metabolites of deschloro and metolachlor-2-hydroxyas, dechlorination and alcoholization were deemed as antecedent steps of metolachlor bioelectrochemical degradation. The energy recovery was infeasible by sole addition of metolachlor (at 13 ± 4 °C from equivalent weight of 0.224 mg). In MFCs with metolachlor and sodium acetate as the concomitant carbon sources, the electricity generation recovered to a level comparable to the controls, instead of increasing the removal efficiency of metolachlor. These results suggest that a low-efficiently direct electron transfer occurred between electricigens and metolachlor degraders. The Illumina sequencing showed that species of Paracoccus and Aquamicrobium played a potential degradation effect, while Comamonas sp. replaced Geobacter sp. as the predominant electricigen after addition of metolachlor. This study demonstrates that MFCs could be used as a promising alternative for treatment of chloroacetanilide herbicide contaminated wastewaters by means of a rapidly established active bacterial community. Graphical .
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Urine NMR Metabolomic Study on Biochemical Activities to Investigate the
           Effect of P. betle Extract on Obese Rats
    • Abstract: The present studies are to evaluate the ability of PB to induce weight loss and urine metabolite profile of Piper betle L. (PB) leaf extracts using metabolomics approach. Dried PB leaves were extracted with ethanol 70% and the studies were performed in different groups of rats fed with high fat (HFD) and normal diet (ND). Then, fed with the PB extract with 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg and two negative control groups given water (WTR). The body weights were monitored and evaluated. Urine was collected and 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach was used to detect the metabolite changes. Results showed that PB-treated group demonstrated inhibition of body weight gain. The trajectory of urine metabolites showed that PB-treated group gave the different distribution from week 12 to 16 compared with the control groups. In 1H NMR metabolomic approach analysis, the urine metabolites gave the best separation in principle component 1 and 3, with 40.0% and 9.56% of the total variation. Shared and unique structures (SUS) plot model showed that higher concentration PB-treated group was characterized by high level of indole-3-acetate, aspartate, methanol, histidine, and creatine, thus caused an increased the metabolic function and maintaining the body weight of the animals treated.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Purification and Partial Characterization of Peroxidases from Three Food
           Waste By-Products: Broad Bean Pods, Pea Pods, and Artichoke Stems
    • Abstract: In this study, peroxidases (PODs) from three waste by-products: broad bean pods (BBP), pea pods (PP), and artichoke stems (ARS) were purified and their optimal conditions were determined for the first time. The purification process resulted in 4.32, 7.21, and 8.9% of POD recoveries for PP, ARS, and BBP, respectively. They were purified 2.12-, 32.97-, and 10-fold with specific activities of 27.26, 266.43, and 27 U/mg of protein, respectively. Analysis of their optimal conditions showed that POD purified from BBP and PP exhibited the highest activity at 60 °C temperature and pH 6 and 8 with strong affinity with catechol substrate (Km of 0.356 and 0.189 mM; Vmax of 0.08 and 0.041 μM/min for BBP and PP, respectively). The highest activity of ARS POD was obtained under the following conditions: temperature at 50 °C, pH from 6 to 8, and guaiacol as substrate (Km 0.375 mM; Vmax 0.012 μM/min). Apart from giving the opportunity for recycling the food industry wastes, the studied waste by-products could represent an alternative source of PODs that could find several applications in the biotechnological, chemical, and food industries.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Polyhydroxybutyrate/Chitosan 3D Scaffolds Promote In Vitro and In Vivo
           Chondrogenesis
    • Abstract: The articular cartilage is an avascular and aneural tissue and its injuries result mostly in osteoarthritic changes and formation of fibrous tissue. Efforts of scientists worldwide are focused on restoration of cartilage with increase in life quality of patients. Novel polymeric polyhydroxybutyrate/chitosan (PCH) porous 3D scaffolds were developed and characterized. The rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were seeded in vitro on PCH scaffolds by a simple filtration of MSCs suspension over scaffolds using syringe. The chondrogenesis of cell-scaffold constructs was carried out in supplemented chondrogenic cultivation medium. After 2 and 4 weeks of in vitro culturing cell-scaffold constructs in chondrogenic differentiation medium, the cartilage extracellular matrix components like glycosaminoglycans and collagens were identified in scaffolds by biochemical assays and histological and immunohistochemical staining. Preliminary in vivo experiments with acellular scaffolds, which filled the artificially created cartilage defect in sheep knee were done and evaluated. Cells released from the bone marrow cavity have penetrated into acellular PCH scaffold in cartilage defect and induced tissue formation similar to hyaline cartilage. The results demonstrated that PCH scaffolds supported chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. Acellular PCH scaffolds were successfully utilized in vivo for reparation of artificially created knee cartilage defects in sheep and supported wound healing and formation of hyaline cartilage-like tissue.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Biogas Plasticization Coupled Anaerobic Digestion: Anaerobic Pump
           Calorimetry
    • Abstract: This paper presents the quantitative bomb calorimetric high heat values (HHV) for residue samples collected from the Anaerobic Pump (®TAP) and a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) anaerobically digesting a 50:50 wastewater sludge substrate. TAP, an advanced anaerobic digestion (AD) process, features biogas plasticization that greatly increases gas production and leaves a mineralized residual. Measured residue HHVs are compared to HHV estimates from literature empirical relationships. Two empirical formulations, the Meraz thermodynamic formulation (with 7.4% moisture) (Meraz et al. The Chemical Educator, 7(2), 66–70, (2002) and the Channiwala Universal formulation (Channiwala et al. Fuel, 81(8), 1051–1063, (2002), compared favorably (within ± 3% mean value) with the bomb measured HHV values. A stoichiometric ICC description for Ucells is derived. The thermodynamic formation potentials of all measured residues are derived including Ucells. An empirical method was used to calculate the entropy of formation (∆fS) for all residues and Ucells. Krevelen plots show residue molar ratios of oxygen and hydrogen to carbon (H/C, O/C) are linearly correlated with HHV and formation potentials (∆fG’, ∆fH’, ∆fS’) with strong statistical coefficients of determination (R2). Residue H/C and O/C ratios fell across the peat classification on the biomass coalification diagram. A wide AD methane fermentation zone ≤ 18.6 MJ/kg is identified. The methods and correlation relationships presented enable the computation of accurate HHV and thermodynamic formation potentials without the necessity of direct thermal measurement. These quantitative results confirm that steady state AD of a well-known heterogeneous solid substrate (WWTP sludge) is a linear thermodynamic process.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Counteracting Effect of Charged Amino Acids Against the Destabilization of
           Proteins by Arginine
    • Abstract: Studies on osmolyte-induced effects on proteins help in enhancing protein stability under stressed conditions for various applications. Using mixtures of osmolytes could indeed widen their applications. The combinatorial effects of osmolytes with methylamines are majorly found in the literature; however, such studies are limited on the amino acid class of osmolytes. The present study examines the effect of charged amino acids Arg, Asp, and Lys on the stability of RNase A and α-LA. The thermal stabilities of the proteins in the presence of osmolytes are monitored by absorption changes, and the structural changes are analyzed using fluorescence quenching and near-UV circular dichroism (CD). These results are compared with our previous report on the effect of Glu. Arg destabilizes both the proteins whereas Asp, Lys, and Glu stabilize the proteins. The extent of stability provided by Asp and Glu is almost same and higher than Lys in RNase A. However, the stability acquired in the presence of Asp and Lys is comparable for α-LA and Glu provides higher stability. Further, the quenching and CD results suggest that the addition of amino acids do not alter the structure of the proteins significantly. The counteracting abilities of the stabilizing amino acids (stAAs) against Arg are then investigated. The results show that Glu could counteract Arg at the lowest fraction in the mixture. Lys requires nearly equimolar concentration whereas Asp needs almost double the concentration to counteract Arg induced destabilization of the proteins. At higher concentrations, the counteracting ability of Asp and Lys is similar for both the proteins. The counteracting ratio might slightly vary among the proteins, and it is not necessary that the amino acid providing higher stability to the protein could more effectively counteract Arg. This could be due to the change in the extent of preferential hydration of the proteins by stAAs in the presence of Arg. The results suggest that the addition of stAAs could be an effective strategy to increase the protein stability in biotechnology and biopharma applications.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
 
 
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