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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.571
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 44  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1599-0291 - ISSN (Online) 0273-2289
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Author Correction: Drier Climatic Conditions Increase Withanolide Content
           of Withania coagulans Enhancing its Inhibitory Potential against Human
           Prostate Cancer Cells
    • Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the image of Figure 1 and in Table 4. The corrected version of the figure and table is shown here.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Application of Acid and Cold Stresses to Enhance the Production of
           Clavulanic Acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus
    • Abstract: Clavulanic acid (CA) is frequently prescribed for treatment of bacterial infections. Despite the large number of studies concerning CA production, there is still a need to search for more effective and productive processes because it is mainly produced by biochemical route and is chemically unstable. This paper evaluates the influence of acid and cold stresses on CA production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in bench scale stirred tank bioreactor. Four batch cultures were conducted at constant pH (6.8 or 6.3) and temperature (30, 25, or 20 °C) and five batch cultures were performed with application of acid stress (pH reduction from 6.8 to 6.3), cold stress (reduction from 30 to 20 °C), or both. The highest maximum CA concentration (684.4 mg L−1) was obtained in the culture conducted at constant temperature of 20 °C. However, the culture under acid stress, in which the pH was reduced from 6.8 to 6.3 at a rate of 0.1 pH unit every 6 h, provided the most promising result, exhibiting a global yield coefficient of CA relative to cell formation (YCA/X) of 851.1 mgCA gX−1. High YCA/X values indicate that a small number of cells are able to produce a large amount of antibiotic with formation of smaller amounts of side byproducts. This could be especially attractive for decreasing the complexity and cost of the downstream processing, enhancing CA production.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Cholestanoheterocyclic Steroids as
           Anticancer Agents
    • Abstract: Modification of steroid molecules by introducing heterocyclic ring into the core structure of steroids has been utilized as an attractive approach for either cancer prognosis or diagnosis. Several new cholestanoheterocyclic steroids were synthesized, and analytical and spectral data proved the validity of the novel synthesized steroid derivatives. The cytotoxicity of synthesized compounds 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 13, 15b, and 16b was evaluated using human colorectal cancer HCT 116 and Caco-2, cervical cancer HeLa, hepatoma HepG2, and breast cancer MCF7 cell lines. Intriguingly, compound 13 has the highest cytotoxic effect when applied on the majority of cancer cells. In conclusion, compound 13 may be considered as a promising anticancer candidate against all cancer cell lines, because it recorded the lowest IC50 of the majority of the cancer cell lines used. Furthermore, a molecular docking study was employed to determine the binding modes against aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19), cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and B-cell lymphoma (BCL-2) proteins, which are major proteins involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Molecular docking analyses revealed that compounds 13, 3, and 5 (free energy of binding = − 9.2, − 9.1, and − 9.0 kcal/mol, respectively) were the best docked ligand against aromatase CYP19; compounds 16b, 3, 9, and 10 (free energy of binding = − 9.6, − 9.3, and − 9.2 kcal/mol, respectively) were the best docked ligand against CDK2, while compounds 15b, 16b, and 13 (free energy of binding = − 9.1, − 9.0, and− 8.7 kcal/mol, respectively) were the best docked ligand against BCL2. In conclusion, compounds 3, 13, and 16b were the most promising compounds with the lowest IC50s against most of the tested cancer cell lines, and they displayed the lowest binding energies, critical hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic interactions with the three molecular targets compared to other tested compounds.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Fabrication and Cytocompatibility Evaluation of Psyllium Husk
           (Isabgol)/Gelatin Composite Scaffolds
    • Abstract: Psyllium husk or isabgol contains xylan backbone linked with arabinose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid units (arabinoxylans). In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of a macroporous three-dimensional (3D) composite scaffold by mixing psyllium husk powder (PH) and gelatin (G) in different ratios, viz.100 PH, 75/25 PH/G, and 50/50 PH/G (w/w), using an EDC-NHS coupling reaction followed by freeze-drying method. The reaction was performed in aqueous as well as in alcoholic media to determine the most appropriate solvent system for this purpose. The mechanical strength of the scaffold system was improved from 151 to 438 kPa. The fabricated scaffolds exhibited enhanced structural stability, remarkable swelling capacity, and escalated cell growth and proliferation. ATR-FTIR analysis showed the presence of amide and ester bonds indicating covalent crosslinking. SEM micrographs revealed the porous nature of the scaffolds with pores ranging from 30 to 150 μm, and further pore size distribution curve indicated that 75/25 PH/G (w/w%) EDC-NHS-alcohol scaffold exhibited the best fit to the Gaussian distribution. Swelling capacity of the 100 PH EDC-NHS-alcohol scaffolds was found to be nearly 40% from its original weight in 48 h. MTT assay using fibroblast cells revealed ~ 80% cellular proliferation by 6th day within the fabricated scaffolds in comparison to control. Graphical ᅟ
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Adsorption Study of Acid Soluble Lignin Removal from Sugarcane Bagasse
           Hydrolysate by a Self-Synthesized Resin for Lipid Production
    • Abstract: An adsorption resin CX-6 was synthesized and used for acid soluble lignin (ASL) removal from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (SCBH). The adsorption conditions of pH value, amount of adsorbent, initial ASL concentration, and temperature on ASL adsorption were discussed. The results showed the adsorption capacity of ASL was negatively affected by increasing temperature, solution pH, and adsorbent dose, and was positively affected by increasing initial concentration. The maximum adsorption capacity of ASL was 135.3 mg/g at initial ASL concentration 6.46 g/L, adsorption temperature 298 K, and pH 1. Thermodynamic study demonstrated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Equilibrium and kinetics experiments were proved to fit the Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo-second-order model well, respectively. Fermentation experiment showed that the SCBH after combined overliming with resin adsorption as fermentation substrate for microbial lipid production by Trichosporon cutaneum and Trichosporon coremiiforme was as better as that of SCBH by combined overliming with active charcoal adsorption, and more efficient than that of SCBH only by overliming. Moreover, the regeneration experiment indicated that the CX-6 resin is easy to regenerate and its recirculated performance is stable. In conclusion, our results provide a promising adsorbent to detoxify lignocellulose hydrolysate for further fermentation.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Hydrolysis of Corn Stover by Talaromyces cellulolyticus Enzymes:
           Evaluation of the Residual Enzymes Activities Through the Process
    • Abstract: The obtainment of sugars from lignocellulosic residues represents a sustainable and versatile platform for the production of a number of bio-based products. Cellulases are a family of enzymes which can effectively hydrolyze the biomass polysaccharides at mild conditions. Cellulolytic fungi belonging to the genera Trichoderma and Aspergillus are the most commonly source of commercial cellulases used so far. More recently, Talaromyces cellulolyticus was also scored as a promising cellulases producer. In comparison to the Trichoderma and Aspergillus systems, Talaromyces enzymes have been less investigated. The present research dealt with the conversion of steam-pretreated corn stover by commercial blend of T. cellulolyticus enzymes with respect to the common blends. The paper also investigated the stability of the enzyme preparation and tested the use of additives (namely Tween 80, Tween 20, and BSA) to improve the enzymes performances and the hydrolysis efficiency. The results indicated that, at the same process conditions, T. cellulolyticus cellulases were more effective and yielded 20% more sugars compared to control blends. Furthermore, the cellulase components displayed a synergistic interaction with hemicellulases. The results indicate that cellulases from T. cellulolyticus are less affected by the high dry matter consistency and the use of additives could increase the total activity by around 50% and β-glucosidase capacity by 10–15%.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Effect of High Pressure on Paracoccus denitrificans Growth and
           Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production from Glycerol
    • Abstract: The performance of fermentation under non-conventional conditions, such as high pressure (HP), is a strategy currently tested for different fermentation processes. In the present work, the purpose was to apply HP (10–50 MPa) to fermentation by Paracoccus denitrificans, a microorganism able to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from glycerol. In general, cell growth and glycerol consumption were both reduced by HP application, more extensively at higher pressure levels, such as 35 or 50 MPa. PHA production and composition was highly dependent on the pressure applied. HP was found to decrease polymer titers, but increase the PHA content in cell dry mass (%), indicating higher ability to accumulate these polymers in the cells. In addition, some levels of HP affected PHA monomeric composition, with the polymer produced at 10 and 35 MPa showing considerable differences relative to the ones obtained at atmospheric pressure. Therefore, it is possible to foresee that the changes in polymer composition may also affect its physical and mechanical properties. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that HP technology (at specific levels) can be applied to P. denitrificans fermentations without compromising the ability to produce PHA, with potentially interesting effects on polymer composition.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • The Profile of Plasma Free Amino Acids in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with
           Insulin Resistance: Association with Microalbuminuria and Macroalbuminuria
           
    • Abstract: Altered plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) may predict the development of insulin resistance and other type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated comorbidities. To elucidate the role of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) profile as a biomarker for early detection of diabetic kidney disease, quantitative measurement of PFAAs profile was determined for 90 T2DM subjects, 30 were free of nephropathy, 30 with microalbuminuria, 30 with macroalbuminuria, and in addition to 30 healthy controls. The plasma levels of valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, citrulline, and total BCAAs were significantly increased in diabetic normoalbuminuria group when compared to controls. However, the total BCAAs level was significantly decreased in diabetic patients with micro and macroalbuminuria. Other amino acid plasma levels as tyrosine, arginine, ornithine, glycine, and the total AAAs level were significantly decreased in all diabetic subgroups compared to controls. Significant positive correlations between total BCAAs, valine, leucine, isoleucine, serum insulin, glucose, and HOMA-IR values in the diabetic normoalbuminuria group were found. The use of altered PFAAs profile as a prognostic factor in T2DM patients at risk for microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria might reduce or prevent the incidence of end-stage diabetic renal disease.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Expanding of Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol AcylTransferase (PDAT) from
           Saccharomyces cerevisiae as Multifunctional Biocatalyst with Broad Acyl
           Donor/Acceptor Selectivity
    • Abstract: Triacylglycerols are considered one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuels. Phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT), responsible for the last step of triacylglycerol synthesis in the acyl-CoA-independent pathway, has attracted much attention by catalyzing membrane lipid transformation. However, due to lack of biochemical and enzymatic studies, PDAT has not carried forward in biocatalyst application. Here, the PDAT from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The purified enzymes were studied using different acyl donors and acceptors by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. In addition of the preferred acyl donor of PE and PC, the results identified that ScPDAT was capable of using broad acyl donors such as PA, PS, PG, MGDG, DGDG, and acyl-CoA, and ScPDAT was more likely to use unsaturated acyl donors comparing 18:0/18:1 to 18:0/18:0 phospholipids. With regard to acyl acceptors, ScPDAT preferred 1,2 to 1,3-diacylglycerol (DAG), while 12:0/12:0 DAG was identified as the optimal acyl acceptor, followed by 18:1/18:1 and 18:1/16:0 DAG. Additionally, ScPDAT reveals esterification activity that can utilize methanol as acyl acceptor to generate fatty acid methyl esters. The results fully expand the enzymatic selectivity of ScPDAT and provide fundamental knowledge for synthesis of triacylglycerol-derived biofuels.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Determination of Fucose Concentration in a Lectin-Based Displacement
           Microfluidic Assay
    • Abstract: We compare three different methods to quantify the monosaccharide fucose in solutions using the displacement of a large glycoprotein, lactoferrin. Two microfluidic analysis methods, namely fluorescence detection of (labeled) lactoferrin as it is displaced by unlabeled fucose and the displacement of (unlabeled) lactoferrin in SPR, provide fast responses and continuous data during the experiment, theoretically providing significant information regarding the interaction kinetics between the saccharide groups and binding sites. For comparison, we also performed a static displacement ELISA. The stationary binding site in all cases was immobilized S2-AAL, a monovalent polypeptide based on Aleuria aurantia lectin. Although all three assays showed a similar dynamic range, the microfluidic assays with fluorescent or SPR detection show an advantage in short analysis times. Furthermore, the microfluidic displacement assays provide a possibility to develop a one-step analytical platform.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Fabrication of Organic Hec Nanocomposites Modified with Lysine as a
           Potential Adsorbent for Bilirubin Removal
    • Abstract: As one of the typical phyllosilicate clays, hectorite (Hec) has some excellent characteristics and has been greatly applied in adsorption field for the removal of dye, endotoxin, etc. In this study, organic Hec nanocomposites modified with l-Lysine (Lys/Hec NCs) were prepared via solution intercalation method for BR removal. The effects of ionic strength, pH values, initial concentration of BR, and BSA concentration on the adsorption capacity for BR of Lys/Hec NCs were investigated. Results indicated that the adsorption capacity for BR of nanocomposites could reach 40 mg/g when the initial bilirubin concentration was 200 mg/L. However, the adsorption amount of Lys/Hec NCs decreased with increasing the concentration of BSA, but Lys/Hec NCs could still maintain a higher adsorption rate. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms indicated that the adsorption process of Lys/Hec NCs agreed well with the pseudo-second-order model and the Langmuir isotherm, respectively. Moreover, Lys/Hec NCs also exhibited excellent cytocompatibility. These obtained results demonstrate that Lys/Hec NCs prepared in this study had great potential to be used in hemoperfusion.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Enhanced Performance of Rhizopus oryzae Lipase by Reasonable
           Immobilization on Magnetic Nanoparticles and Its Application in Synthesis
           1,3-Diacyglycerol
    • Abstract: Nano-sized Fe3O4 was synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and subsequently modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde to introduce aldehyde group on its surface. With the help of “interface activation” by adding sucrose esters-11 as surfactant, lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was successfully immobilized onto the carrier with great enhancement of activity. The hydrolysis activity of immobilized enzyme were 9.16 times and 31.6 times of free enzyme when p-nitrophenol butyrate and p-nitrophenol palmitate were used as substrates. The thermo-stability of immobilized enzyme was also enhanced compared to free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme was successfully applied in synthesis of 1,3-diacyglycerols (1,3-DAG). The specific esterification activity of immobilized enzyme was about 1.5 times of the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme showed good region-selectivity towards 1,3-diacyglycerols and retained nearly 80% of its activity after reused for 60 times, revealing a good industrial application prospect.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Synergism of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1, Cry2, and Vip3 Proteins in
           Spodoptera frugiperda Control
    • Abstract: The polyphagous caterpillar, Spodoptera frugiperda, has been controlled with either chemical insecticides or transgenic plants such as Bt maize that expresses the cry and/or vip genes of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium. Despite the efficiency of Bt toxins in lepidopteran control, populations resistant to Bt plants have emerged in different locations around the world. Thus, understanding how combined proteins interact against pests can assist resistance control and management. This work demonstrated the toxicity of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, Cry1Ea, Cry2Aa, Cry2Ab, Vip3Aa, and Vip3Ca in single and combined assays against S. frugiperda neonatal larvae. All protein mixtures had synergistic action in the control of the larvae. The Vip3Aa + Cry1Ab mixture had the highest toxicity, sequentially followed by Vip3Aa + Cry2Ab, Cry1Ab + Cry2Ab + Vip3Aa, Cry1Ea + Cry1Ca, Cry1Ab + Cry2Ab, Vip3Ca + Cry1Ea, and Vip3Ca + Cry1Ca. Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, and Vip3Aa bound to more than one site on the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of S. frugiperda. The Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins share binding site, while Cry1Ab does not share binding site with the Cry2Aa and Cry2Ab proteins. The Vip3Aa protein does not share receptors with the tested Cry1 and Cry2. The results suggest that combination these tested proteins may increase toxicity against S. frugiperda neonates.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Feasibility of Growing Chlorella sorokiniana on Cooking Cocoon Wastewater
           for Biomass Production and Nutrient Removal
    • Abstract: The feasibility of microalgae cultivation using cooking cocoon wastewater (CCW) collected from a silk production factory was investigated in this work. Results showed that Chlorella sorokiniana grew well on the CCW whether it was autoclaved or not. After 7-day cultivation, the biomass increased by 1.57, 2.78, 3.33, and 3.14 times, and by 3.65, 4.03, 3.27, and 2.82 times when this alga was cultivated in the raw CCW (R-CCW) and autoclaved CCW (A-CCW) at the initial dry cell densities of 0.01, 0.04, 0.08, and 0.16 g/L, respectively. The algal photosynthetic growth was not affected when this alga grew on the R-CCW at an initial dry cell density of ≥ 0.04 g/L, while it was significantly inhibited when the initial dry cell density was 0.01 g/L. Additionally, this alga could remove nutrients rapidly from the CCW, and the removal efficiency increased with the increase of initial dry cell density. Thus, it was concluded that the CCW could be used as a good-quality medium for the algal growth, which is worthy of further study and promotion.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Enabling Heterologous Synthesis of Lupulones in the Yeast Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae
    • Abstract: Lupulones, naturally produced by glandular trichomes of hop (Humulus lupulus), are prenylated phloroglucinol derivatives that contribute the bitter flavor of beer and demonstrate antimicrobial and anticancer activities. It is appealing to develop microbial cell factories such that lupulones may be produced via fermentation technology in lieu of extraction from limited plant resources. In this study, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformants harboring a synthetic lupulone pathway that consisted of five genes from hop were constructed. The transformants accumulated several precursors but failed to accumulate lupulones. Overexpression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl co-enzyme A reductase, the key enzyme in precursor formation in the mevalonate pathway, also failed to achieve a detectable level of lupulones. To decrease the consumption of the precursors, the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway was chemically downregulated by a small molecule ketoconazole, leading to successful production of lupulones. Our study demonstrated a combination of molecular biology and chemical biology to regulate the metabolism for heterologous production of lupulones. The strategy may be valuable for future engineering microbial process for other prenylated natural products.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Viability of Using Glycerin as a Co-substrate in Anaerobic Digestion of
           Sugarcane Stillage (Vinasse): Effect of Diversified Operational Strategies
           
    • Abstract: Vinasse, from sugar and ethanol production, stands out as one of the most problematic agroindustry wastes due to its high chemical oxygen demand, large production volume, and recalcitrant compounds. Therefore, the viability of using glycerin as a co-substrate in vinasse anaerobic digestion was tested, to increase process efficiency and biogas productivity. The effect of feeding strategy, influent concentration, cycle length, and temperature were assessed to optimize methane production. Glycerin (1.53% v/v) proved to be a good co-substrate since it increased the overall methane production in co-digestion assays. CH4 productivity enhanced exponentially as influent concentration increased, but when temperature was increased to 35 °C, biogas production was impaired. The highest methane productivity and yield were achieved using fed-batch mode, at 30 °C and at an organic loading rate of 10.1 kg COD m−3 day−1: 139.32 mol CH4 m−3 day−1, 13.86 mol CH4 kg CODapplied, and 15.30 mol CH4 kg CODremoved. Methane was predominantly produced through the hydrogenotrophic route. In order to treat all the vinasse produced by a mid-size sugar and ethanol plant, nine reactors with 7263.4 m3 each would be needed. The energy generated by burning the biogas in boilers would reach approximately 92,000 MW h per season and could save up to US$ 240,000.00 per month in diesel oil demand.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Magneto-Priming Improved Nutraceutical Potential and Antimicrobial
           Activity of Momordica charantia L. Without Affecting Nutritive Value
    • Abstract: The need for some economic strategies for increased growth and nutraceuticals of medicinal plants is well acknowledged now. It was hypothesized that external magnetic field treatment (MFT) of seeds affecting internal magnet of cells may affect growth and metabolism. In this study, seeds were subjected to pre-sowing magnetic field (50 mT at 5 mm for 5 s). At vegetative stage, the leaf growth, chlorophyll content, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), amino acids, proteins, flavonoids, soluble sugars, total soluble phenolics, carotenoids, anthocyanins, phenolic profile (HPLC based), and antimicrobial activity of leaves (in terms of the minimum inhibitory concentration against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were studied. Yield was evaluated for nutritive components in fruit (peel+pulp) and peel. MFT improved germination percentage, growth, leaf chlorophyll, antimicrobial activity, peel amino acids, phenolics, and POD with negligible effect on fruit nutritive value. Moreover, photosynthetic pigments and cinnamic acid exhibited direct correlation with antimicrobial potential against both pathogens. However, sinapic acid showed positive correlation against Staphylococcus aureus only. Cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, syringic acid, and quercetin were in direct correlation against Pseudomonas aeruginosa; it was directly correlated with total flavonoids too. In conclusion, magnetic field can be used to manipulate plant cell metabolism promising improvement of growth, antimicrobial activity, and phenolics of interest.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Potential of Microalgae Carotenoids for Industrial Application
    • Abstract: Microalgae cultivation, when compared to the growth of higher plants, presents many advantages such as faster growth, higher biomass productivity, and smaller land area requirement for cultivation. For this reason, microalgae are an alternative platform for carotenoid production when compared to the traditional sources. Currently, commercial microalgae production is not well developed but, fortunately, there are several studies aiming to make the large-scale production feasible by, for example, employing different cultivation systems. This review focuses on the main carotenoids from microalgae, comparing them to the traditional sources, as well as a critical analysis about different microalgae cultivation regimes that are currently available and applicable for carotenoid accumulation. Throughout this review paper, we present relevant information about the main commercial microalgae carotenoid producers; the comparison between carotenoid content from food, vegetables, fruits, and microalgae; and the great importance and impact of these molecule applications, such as in food (nutraceuticals and functional foods), cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries, feed (colorants and additives), and healthcare area. Lastly, the different operating systems applied to these photosynthetic cultivations are critically discussed, and conclusions and perspectives are made concerning the best operating system for acquiring high cell densities and, consequently, high carotenoid accumulation.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Homeologue Specific Gene Expression Analysis of Two Vital Carbon
           Metabolizing Enzymes—Citrate Synthase and NADP-Isocitrate
           Dehydrogenase—from Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L . ) Under Nitrogen Stress
           
    • Abstract: Citrate synthase (CS) and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) have been considered as candidate enzymes to provide carbon skeletons for nitrogen assimilation, i.e., production of 2-oxoglutarate required by the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase cycle. The CS and NADP-ICDH cDNAs were encoded for polypeptides of 402 and 480 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 53.01 and 45 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.08 and 5.98, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins in wheat across kingdoms confirmed the close relationship with Aegilops tauschii and Hordeum vulgare. Further, their amino acid sequences were demonstrated to have some conserved motifs such as Mg2+ or Mn2 binding site, catalytic sites, NADP binding sites, and active sites. In-silico-identified genomic sequences for the three homeologues A, B, and Dof CS and NADP-ICDH were found to be located on long arm of chromosomes 5 and 3, and sequence analysis also revealed that the three homeologues consisted of 13 and 15 exons, respectively. The total expression analysis indicated that both genes are ubiquitously expressed in shoot and root tissues under chronic as well as transient nitrogen stress. However, they are differentially and contrastingly expressed but almost in a coordinated manner in both the tissues. Under chronic as well as transient stress, both the genes in shoot tissue showed downregulation, lowest at 6 h of transient stress. However, in the root tissue, trend was found opposite except with exceptions. Moreover, all the three homeologues of both the genes were transcribed differentially, and the ratio of the individual homeologues transcripts to total homeologues transcripts also varied with the tissue, i.e., shoots or roots, as well as with nitrogen stress treatments. Thus, cDNA as well as genomic sequence information, apparent expression at different time point of nitrogen stress, and coordination between these enzymes would be ultimately linked to nitrate assimilation and nitrogen use efficiency in wheat.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Growth and Nutrient Utilization of Green Algae in Batch and Semicontinuous
           Autotrophic Cultivation Under High CO 2 Concentration
    • Abstract: The growth performance of Chlorella protothecoides, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and Chlorella sp. in autotrophic cultivation with 10% carbon dioxide (CO2) was evaluated. The biomass production of C. protothecoides, along with its carbon, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) utilization, in batch and semicontinuous autotrophic cultivation with 20% CO2 was also determined. Among the three algae species, C. protothecoides obtained the highest biomass yield (1.08 g/L) and P assimilation (99.4%). Compared with the CO2 flow rate and inoculation ratio in batch cultivation, light intensity considerably improved biomass yield, N and P assimilation, and CO2 utilization. In the semicontinuous cultivation of C. protothecoides, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 days kept the system at a stable running state, thereby demonstrating that an HRT of 8 days was better than an HRT of 5 days. Among the three N/P ratios for C. protothecoides in semicontinuous cultivation with 20% CO2, 2:1 provided the highest biomass productivity (0.19 g/L/day) and CO2 fixation rate (0.37 g/L/day). Therefore, this lower N/P ratio is more suitable than 10:1 and 50:1 for the growth of C. protothecoides with 20% CO2. Compared with the batch cultivation of C. protothecoides, semicontinuous cultivation improved the CO2 fixation rate (by 1.5–2 times) and CO2 utilization efficiency (by 3–6 times) of C. protothecoides.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
 
 
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