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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
  [SJR: 0.575]   [H-I: 80]   [44 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1599-0291 - ISSN (Online) 0273-2289
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Optimization of Cellulase Production by Halobacillus sp. QLS 31 Isolated
           from Lake Qarun, Egypt
    • Authors: Ahmed H. Korany; Amal E. Ali; Tamer M. Essam; Salwa A. Megahed
      Pages: 189 - 199
      Abstract: Abstract A halophilic cellulase-producing bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum Province, Egypt). Molecular identification based on 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing revealed 99% homology with Halobacillus sp. and hence was designated as Halobacillus sp. QLS 31. Medium composition and culture conditions were optimized for enhancing the production of cellulase enzyme using the Plackett-Burman statistical design. Ten variables were evaluated for their influence on cellulase production. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), and inoculum size were found to exert a significant effect on cellulase productivity by Halobacillus sp. QLS 31. The maximum specific activity of cellulase enzyme was 48.08 U/mg. Following the predicted conditions, a 7.5-fold increase in cellulase specific activity (175.47 U/mg) was achieved compared to the basal medium (23.19 U/mg) under the following optimized conditions: temperature (30 °C), fermentation time (2 days ), pH value (9), CMC concentration (1%), inoculum size (1%), yeast extract concentration (0.1%), ammonium sulfate ((NH3)2SO4) concentration (0.1%), sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (20%), and metal inducers: ZnSO4 (0.1%) and Ca/Mg ratio (0.01%). Thus, the results of this study provide an important basis for more efficient, cheap industrial cellulase production from halophilic Halobacillus sp. QLS 31.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2438-z
      Issue No: Vol. 183, No. 1 (2017)
  • Influence of Randomly Inserted Feruloyl Esterase A on β-Glucosidase
           Activity in Trichoderma reesei
    • Authors: YunHua Hou; Yang Pan; MengJie Yan; Huan He; QinZheng Yang; YaoHua Zhong
      Pages: 254 - 264
      Abstract: Abstract As a well-known industrial fungus for cellulase production, the strain RUT-C30 of Trichoderma reesei was selected to produce the feruloyl esterase A (FAEA) by a random integration protocol. The strong promoter of cellobiohydrolase 1 (cbh1) gene was used to drive the expression of FAEA. Using double-joint PCR protocol, Pcbh1-faeA-TtrpC expression cassette was successfully constructed and co-transformed into RUT C30 strain of T. reesei. One transformant with high feruloyl esterase yield (3.44 ± 0.16 IU/mL) was obtained through plate screening and named TrfaeA1. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of fermentation supernatant from transformant TrfaeA1 showed a distinct protein band appearing at the position of about 34 kDa, indicating that faeA gene has been successfully expressed in T. reesei. Compared with that in original RUT C30 strain, β-glucosidase production in transformant TrfaeA1 was significantly increased by about 86.4%, reaching 63.2 IU/mL due to the random insertion of faeA. Moreover, the total secretion protein and filter paper activities of the transformant TrfaeA1 were also improved by up to 5.5 and 4.3%, respectively. The present results indicated that the random insertion strategy could be an effective and feasible method to improve and optimize the cellulase system of filamentous fungi.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2442-3
      Issue No: Vol. 183, No. 1 (2017)
  • Immobilization of Recombinant Glucose Isomerase for Efficient Production
           of High Fructose Corn Syrup
    • Authors: Li-Qun Jin; Qi Xu; Zhi-Qiang Liu; Dong-Xu Jia; Cheng-Jun Liao; De-Shui Chen; Yu-Guo Zheng
      Pages: 293 - 306
      Abstract: Abstract Glucose isomerase is the important enzyme for the production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). One-step production of HFCS containing more than 55% fructose (HFCS-55) is receiving much attention for its industrial applications. In this work, the Escherichia coli harboring glucose isomerase mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T was immobilized for efficient production of HFCS-55. The immobilization conditions were optimized, and the maximum enzyme activity recovery of 92% was obtained. The immobilized glucose isomerase showed higher pH, temperature, and operational stabilities with a K m value of 272 mM and maximum reaction rate of 23.8 mM min−1. The fructose concentration still retained above 55% after the immobilized glucose isomerase was reused for 10 cycles, and more than 85% of its initial activity was reserved even after 15 recycles of usage at temperature of 90 °C. The results highlighted the immobilized glucose isomerase as a potential biocatalyst for HFCS-55 production.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2445-0
      Issue No: Vol. 183, No. 1 (2017)
  • “Neuronal-Like Differentiation of Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cell Line:
           Stimulation by Juglans regia L. Oil”
    • Authors: Varsha Singh; Mingma Sherpa
      Pages: 385 - 395
      Abstract: Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells have been extensively used for cell-based therapies especially in neuronal diseases. Studies still continue to delineate mechanisms involved in differentiating mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal cells under experimental conditions as they have low mortality rate and hence, the number of cells available for experiments is much more limited. Culturing and differentiating of neuronal cell is more challenging as they do not undergo cell division thus, bringing them to differentiate proves to be a difficult task. Here, the aim of this study is to investigate whether Juglans regia L. (walnut oil) differentiates multipotent, C3H10T1/2 cells, a murine mesenchymal stem cell line, into neuronal cells. A simple treatment protocol induced C3H10T1/2 cells to exhibit a neuronal phenotype. With this optimal differentiation protocol, almost all cells exhibited neuronal morphology. The cell bodies extended long processes. C3H10T1/2 cells were plated and treated with walnut oil post 24 h of plating. The treatment was given (with walnut oil treated cultures with or without control cultures) at different concentrations. The cultured cells were then stained with cresyl violet acetate solution which was used to stain the Nissl substance in the cytoplasm of the induced neuronal culture. The results indicated that the C3H10T1/2 cells differentiated into neuronal-like cells with long outgrowths of axon-like structures able to take up the cresyl violet acetate stain indicating their preliminary differentiation into neuronal-like morphology with walnut oil treatment. Treating the mesenchymal stem cells can in future establish a cultured mesenchymal stem cell line as neuronal differentiating cell line model.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2452-1
      Issue No: Vol. 183, No. 1 (2017)
  • Genome Annotation and Validation of Keratin-Hydrolyzing Proteolytic
           Enzymes from Serratia marcescens EGD-HP20
    • Authors: Priya Fuke; Vaibhav V. Gujar; Anshuman A. Khardenavis
      Abstract: Abstract Stabilization and utilization of poultry waste demand efficient biodegradation either by mixture of enzymes or by microbial system that can produce different types of protein-hydrolyzing enzymes. For utilization of this keratinous biomass, in the present study, genome was sequenced and annotated for a bacterium having multiple enzymatic options for hydrolysis of different soluble and insoluble protein fractions of poultry waste. Among the soluble protein substrates, optimum production of enzyme and soluble protein was observed in case of casein, whereas among the insoluble protein substrates, maximum production of enzyme was achieved when broken nails were used. Conditions for enhanced enzyme activity with concurrent degradation of keratin-rich poultry feather waste to protein-rich hydrolysate were optimized for different growth parameters. The bacterium grew well and highest protease production occurred in 144 h at mesophilic temperature (30 °C) and alkaline condition (pH 8–10) with enzyme activities of 134 and 168 U/mL, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2595-0
  • Purification and Characterization of a Naringinase from Cryptococcus
    • Authors: Nataliya Borzova; Olena Gudzenko; Lyudmila Varbanets
      Abstract: Abstract Naringinase which was extracted from the fermented broth of Cryptococcus albidus was purified about 42-folds with yield 0.7% by sulfate fractionation and chromatography on Toyopearl HW-60, Fractogel DEAE-650-s, and Sepharose 6B columns. Molecular weight of protein determined by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE was 50 kDa. Naringinase of C. albidus includes high content of the dicarbonic and hydrophobic amino acids. Enzyme contains also carbohydrate component, represented by mannose, galactose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, and glucose. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. Naringinase was found to exhibit specificity towards p-nitrophenyl-α-L-rhamnose, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucose, naringin, and neohesperidin. Its K m towards naringin was 0.77 mM and the V max was 36 U/mg. Naringinase was inhibited by high concentrations of reaction product—L-rhamnose. Enzyme revealed stability to 20% ethanol and 500 mM glucose in the reaction mixture that makes it possible to forecast its practical use in the food industry in the production of juices and wines.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2593-2
  • Colorimetric Detection of Unamplified Rift Valley Fever Virus Genetic
           Material Using Unmodified Gold Nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Abstract Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is considered an enzootic virus in Africa. RVFV has caused several outbreaks in Egypt, sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula and is responsible for high mortality in ruminants and haemorrhagic fever in severe human cases. Although there are several molecular and serological diagnostic techniques used to detect this arthropod-borne virus with high sensitivity and efficiency, there is a need for a fast and reliable field screening test for rapid outbreak recording and containment. In this study, we developed a prototype point-of-care diagnostic test specific for RVFV detection using unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that change colour in the presence of RVFV RNA, resulting in a simple but sensitive assay. The nanogold assay provides qualitative results showing the presence of the RVFV RNA in different sample types. The assay showed high accuracy and specificity, with a detection limit of 10 RNA copies/reaction, comparable with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The assay result could be determined within 30 min with no need for specific detection instruments. To our knowledge, this is the first field test prototype to directly detect the RNA of RVFV without amplification using AuNPs.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2592-3
  • Immunochemical Study of the Effect of F 2 Glc on Glycogen Synthase
           Translocation and Glycogen Synthesis in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes
    • Authors: J. M. Fernández-Novell; M. Díaz-Lobo
      Abstract: Abstract The compound 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-α-d-glucopyranosyl fluoride (F2Glc), which is a nonmetabolized superior glucose analogue, is a potent inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase and pharmacological properties are reported. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glycogen synthase (GS) are responsible of the degradation and synthesis, respectively, of glycogen which is a polymer of glucose units that provides a readily available source of energy in mammals. GP and GS are two key enzymes that modulate cellular glucose and glycogen levels; therefore, these proteins are suggested as potential targets for the treatment of diseases related to glycogen metabolism disorders. We studied by Western Blot technique that F2Glc decreased GP activity, and we also showed that F2Glc did not affect GS activity and its translocation from a uniform cytosolic distribution to the hepatocyte periphery, which is crucial for glycogen synthesis, using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence labeling techniques. F2Glc specifically inhibits glycogenolysis pathway and permits a greater deposition of glycogen. These observations open up the possibility of further develop drugs that act specifically on GP. The ability to selectively inhibit GP, which is a key enzyme for the release of glucose from the hepatic glycogen reserve, may represent a new approach for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2597-y
  • Characterization of Truncated dsz Operon Responsible for Dibenzothiophene
           Biodesulfurization in Rhodococcus sp. FUM94
    • Authors: Somayeh Khosravinia; Mahmood A. Mahdavi; Reza Gheshlaghi; Hesam Dehghani
      Abstract: Abstract Numerous desulfurizing bacteria from the Rhodococcus genus harbor conserved dsz genes responsible for the degradation of sulfur compounds through 4S pathway. This study describes a newly identified desulfurizing bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. FUM94, which unlike previously identified strains encodes a truncated dsz operon. DNA sequencing revealed a frameshift mutation in the dszA gene, which led to an alteration of 66 amino acids and deletion of other C-terminal 66 amino acids. The resulting DszA polypeptide was shorter than DszA in Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8 reference strain. Despite the truncation, desulfurizing activity of the operon was observed and attributed to the removal of an overlap of dszA and dszB genes, and lack of active site in the altered region. Desulfurization experiments resulted in specific production rate of 6.3 mmol 2-hydroxy biphenyl (kgDCW)−1 h−1 at 2 g l−1 biocatalyst concentration and 68.8% biodesulfurization yield at 20 g l−1 biocatalyst concentration, both at 271 μM dibenzothiophene concentration which is comparable to similar wild-type biocatalysts.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2596-z
  • Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Black Liquor Xylan by a Novel Xylose-Tolerant,
           Thermostable β-Xylosidase from a Tropical Strain of Aureobasidium
           pullulans CBS 135684
    • Authors: Wichanee Bankeeree; Rinji Akada; Pongtharin Lotrakul; Hunsa Punnapayak; Sehanat Prasongsuk
      Abstract: Abstract From three cell-associated β-xylosidases produced by Aureobasidium pullulans CBS 135684, the principal enzyme was enriched to apparent homogeneity and found to be active at high temperatures (60–70 °C) over a pH range of 5–9 with a specific activity of 163.3 units (U) mg−1. The enzyme was thermostable, retaining over 80% of its initial activity after a 12-h incubation at 60 °C, with half-lives of 38, 22, and 10 h at 60, 65, and 70 °C, respectively. Moreover, it was tolerant to xylose inhibition with a K i value of 18 mM. The K m and V max values against p-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside were 5.57 ± 0.27 mM and 137.0 ± 4.8 μmol min−1 mg−1 protein, respectively. When combining this β-xylosidase with xylanase from the same A. pullulans strain, the rate of black liquor xylan hydrolysis was significantly improved by up to 1.6-fold. The maximum xylose yield (0.812 ± 0.015 g g−1 dry weight) was obtained from a reaction mixture containing 10% (w/v) black liquor xylan, 6 U g−1 β-xylosidase and 16 U g−1 xylanase after incubation for 4 h at 70 °C and pH 6.0.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2598-x
  • Fed-Batch Strategies for Production of PHA Using a Native Isolate of
           Halomonas venusta KT832796 Strain
    • Authors: Angelina Stanley; H. N Punil Kumar; Sarma Mutturi; S. V. N Vijayendra
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) accumulation by Halomonas venusta KT832796, a moderate halophilic bacteria isolated from marine source was studied. Both nutritional requirements and process parameters for submerged cultivation of the organism in bioreactor have been standardized. From the shake flask studies, glucose and ammonium citrate as carbon and nitrogen source produced maximum PHA at a ratio 20 with 3.52 g/L of dry cell weight and 70.56% of PHA content. However, ammonium sulfate as the nitrogen source was found to be more suitable for fed-batch cultivation. Several feeding strategies including pH-based fed-batch and variants of pulse feeding were studied to improve the PHA levels. pH-based feeding, although improved PHA level to 26 g/L, most of the carbon flux was diverted towards biomass formation; hence, the percent PHA was only 39.15% of the dry cell weight. Maximum PHA of 33.4 g/L, which corresponded to 88.12% of the dry cell, was obtained from high concentration single pulse method. There was a net 8.65-fold increase in PHA using this feeding strategy when compared to batch studies. According to our knowledge, this is the highest amount of PHA reported for a Halomonas venusta strain.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2601-6
  • A Review of Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Organisms Using
           Whole-Cell and Cell-Free Systems
    • Authors: Baker A. Martin; Paul D. Frymier
      Abstract: Abstract Molecular hydrogen is a promising currency in the future energy economy due to the uncertain availability of finite fossil fuel resources and environmental effects from their combustion. It also has important uses in the production of fertilizers and platform chemicals as well as in upgrading conventional fuels. Conventional methods for producing molecular hydrogen from natural gas produce carbon dioxide and use a finite resource as feedstock. However, these issues can be overcome by using light energy from the Sun combined with microorganisms and their molecular machinery capable of photosynthesis. In the presence of light, the proteins involved in photosynthesis coupled with appropriate catalysts in higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria can produce molecular hydrogen, and optimization via genetic modifications and biomolecular engineering further improves production rates. In this review, we will discuss techniques that have been utilized to improve rates of hydrogen production in biological systems based on the protein machinery of photosynthesis coupled with appropriate catalysts. We will also suggest areas for improvement and future directions for work in the field.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2576-3
  • Antioxidant and Protective Effects of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi
           Against Doxorubicin-Induced Toxicity
    • Authors: Paola dos Santos da Rocha; Jaqueline Ferreira Campos; Valéria Nunes-Souza; Maria do Carmo Vieira; Ana Paula de Araújo Boleti; Luiza Antas Rabelo; Edson Lucas dos Santos; Kely de Picoli Souza
      Abstract: Abstract Doxorubicin is an anticancer drug whose toxic effects on non-cancer cells are associated with increased oxidative stress. This study investigated the chemical composition, antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi leaves (MESL) as well as effects against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in human erythrocytes, K562 human erythroleukemia cells, and mouse hearts. The chemical composition indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, and ascorbic acid. MESL showed antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals and inhibiting hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent, and was able to increase the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in human erythrocytes, without influencing the activity of enzyme catalase. The increase of oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde levels in erythrocytes incubated with doxorubicin was reduced by treatment with MESL. The cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin in erythroleukemia cells treated with MESL was unmodified. Additionally, the extract protected mice against the doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. In conclusion, the MESL exhibits antioxidant activity, reducing doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress without changing the anticancer action of the drug, and protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Hence, these findings suggest that these effects are via anti-oxidative by inhibiting free radicals, decreased oxidative stress, and increased antioxidant enzyme activity.
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2589-y
  • Prospective of Microbial Exopolysaccharide for Heavy Metal Exclusion
    • Authors: Bhavana V. Mohite; Sunil H. Koli; Chandrakant P. Narkhede; Sucheta N. Patil; Satish V. Patil
      Abstract: Abstract Metals as a resource are depleting, and on another side, it fetches serious environmental pollution causing a threat to human health and ecosystem. The heavy metal accumulation due to anthropogenic activities results in toxicological manifestation. The traditional methods of remediation are not cost effective, efficient, and ecofriendly which necessitate and motivate towards the safe, effective, and ecofriendly biological methods. The increasing presence of heavy metals in the microbial habitat compels the microbes to develop the ability to tolerate or resist the presence of heavy metals. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production is one of the strategies of microbes to fight against metal stress. EPS is a microbial biopolymer which is generally produced under stress from harsh environment and nutrition conditions. EPSs are cell-associated or secreted outside the cell and comprised organic macromolecules such as polysaccharides, proteins, and phospholipids in addition to some non-polymeric molecules. EPSs work as competent biosorbents with an anionic reactant group that effectively sequesters cationic heavy metals by electrostatic interactions. The present paper summarizes the EPSs with its types, role, and biosynthesis and an endeavor to elucidate the interaction mechanism of EPSs with heavy metal with supportive and distinctive applications for heavy metal exclusion. The review concluded with the current challenges and future prospects to make the EPS an efficient biosorbent.
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2591-4
  • Immune TB Antibody Phage Display Library as a Tool To Study B Cell
           Immunity in TB Infections
    • Authors: Nurul Hamizah Hamidon; Siti Suraiya; Maria E. Sarmiento; Armando Acosta; Mohd Nor Norazmi; Theam Soon Lim
      Abstract: Abstract B cells and in particular antibodies has always played second fiddle to cellular immunity in regard to tuberculosis (TB). However, recent studies has helped position humoral immunity especially antibodies back into the foray in relation to TB immunity. Therefore, the ability to correlate the natural antibody responses of infected individuals toward TB antigens would help strengthen this concept. Phage display is an intriguing approach that can be utilized to study antibody-mediated responses against a particular infection via harvesting the B cell repertoire from infected individuals. The development of disease-specific antibody libraries or immune libraries is useful to better understand antibody-mediated immune responses against specific disease antigens. This study describes the generation of an immune single-chain variable fragment (scFv) library derived from TB-infected individuals. The immune library with an estimated diversity of 109 independent clones was then applied for the identification of monoclonal antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis α-crystalline as a model antigen. Biopanning of the library isolated three monoclonal antibodies with unique gene usage. This strengthens the role of antibodies in TB immunity in addition to the role played by cellular immunity. The developed library can be applied against other TB antigens and aid antibody-derived TB immunity studies in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2582-5
  • In Vitro Evaluation and Statistical Optimization of Antimicrobial Activity
           of Prunus cerasoides Stem Bark
    • Authors: D. S. Arora; Himadri Mahajan
      Abstract: Abstract Nature is a generous source of compounds with the potential for prevention of infections. Antimicrobial screening of aqueous extract from bark of wild Himalayan cherry (Prunus cerasoides) was carried out against various pathogenic microorganisms with inhibition zone ranging from 19 to 24 mm. An optimization strategy, which included classical method and statistical method (RSM), was applied to optimize the effect of process variables. Fifteen percent plant material extracted at 40 °C for 60 min and at its natural pH (4.5) exhibited best antimicrobial activity with an average zone of inhibition ranging from 19 to 29 mm. Statistical optimization using RSM further enhanced the activity by 1.09–1.24 folds. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract against different microorganism ranged from 1 to 10 mg/ml. The aqueous extract was found to be reasonably thermostable at boiling temperature for 1 h. Viable cell count (VCC) studies of the extract showed it to be bactericidal in nature. Further, the aqueous extract was found to be neither cytotoxic nor mutagenic, when evaluated by MTT assay and Ames mutagenicity test. The results suggest that the aqueous extract of P. cerasoides could be a potential source to obtain new antimicrobials and effective herbal medicines to combat the problem of ever emerging microbial resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2571-8
  • Co-production of Fructooligosaccharides and Levan by Levansucrase from
           Bacillus subtilis natto with Potential Application in the Food Industry
    • Authors: Gabrielly Terassi Bersaneti; Nicole Caldas Pan; Cristiani Baldo; Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi
      Abstract: Abstract Fructooligosaccharides and levan have a wide range of applications in the food industry due to their physiological and functional properties. The enzymatic synthesis of these molecules exhibits great advantages when compared with microbial fermentation. In this study, the production of levansucrase from Bacillus subtilis natto and its utilization in fructooligosaccharides and levan syntheses using different reaction conditions were described. The best condition for levansucrase production was 420.7 g L−1 of sucrose at pH 7.0, which reached 23.9 U ml−1 of transfructosylation activity. In a bioreactor, the highest production of fructooligosaccharides was 41.3 g L−1 using a medium containing 350 g L−1 sucrose at 35 °C for 36 h. The enzymatic synthesis of levan resulted in 86.9 g L−1 when conditions similar to those used for fructooligosaccharides synthesis were applied. These results indicate that the levansucrase from B. subtilis natto could be applied for the co-production of fructooligosaccharides and levan, which are biomolecules that have health benefits and are used successfully in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2587-0
  • Development of an Amperometric Biosensor Platform for the Combined
           Determination of l -Malic, Fumaric, and l -Aspartic Acid
    • Authors: Désirée L. Röhlen; Johanna Pilas; Michael J. Schöning; Thorsten Selmer
      Abstract: Abstract Three amperometric biosensors have been developed for the detection of l-malic acid, fumaric acid, and l -aspartic acid, all based on the combination of a malate-specific dehydrogenase (MDH, EC and diaphorase (DIA, EC The stepwise expansion of the malate platform with the enzymes fumarate hydratase (FH, EC and aspartate ammonia-lyase (ASPA, EC resulted in multi-enzyme reaction cascades and, thus, augmentation of the substrate spectrum of the sensors. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in presence of the cofactor β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and the redox mediator hexacyanoferrate (III) (HCFIII). The amperometric detection is mediated by oxidation of hexacyanoferrate (II) (HCFII) at an applied potential of + 0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl. For each biosensor, optimum working conditions were defined by adjustment of cofactor concentrations, buffer pH, and immobilization procedure. Under these improved conditions, amperometric responses were linear up to 3.0 mM for l-malate and fumarate, respectively, with a corresponding sensitivity of 0.7 μA mM−1 (l-malate biosensor) and 0.4 μA mM−1 (fumarate biosensor). The l-aspartate detection system displayed a linear range of 1.0–10.0 mM with a sensitivity of 0.09 μA mM−1. The sensor characteristics suggest that the developed platform provides a promising method for the detection and differentiation of the three substrates.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2578-1
  • Malachite Green and Crystal Violet Decolorization by Ganoderma lucidum and
           Pleurotus ostreatus Supernatant and by rGlLCC1 and rPOXA 1B Concentrates:
           Molecular Docking Analysis
    • Authors: Edwin D. Morales-Álvarez; Claudia M. Rivera-Hoyos; Sergio A. Poveda-Cuevas; Edwin A. Reyes-Guzmán; Aura M. Pedroza-Rodríguez; Edgar A. Reyes-Montaño; Raúl A. Poutou-Piñales
      Abstract: Abstract Laccases catalyze the oxidation of various aromatic organic compounds concomitantly with molecular oxygen reduction to water. Triphenylmethane dyes are synthetic compounds widely used in diverse industries. Their removal from effluents is difficult, due to their high degree of structural complexity; hence, their high concentration in effluents cause a negative impact on the environment. In the present work, molecular docking was used to evaluate interactions between rGlLCC1 or rPOXA 1B enzymes with Crystal Violet (CV) or Malachite Green (MG) dyes. In addition, removal tests of the two dyes were performed. Van der Waals interactions were obtained for only the CV dye for both GlLCC1 and POXA 1B enzymes. Nevertheless, in the GlLCC1 model, two π-π interactions were observed. For the MG dye only, Van der Waals interactions were obtained. Moreover, amino acid composition interacting in each model with each dye was similar. It is important to highlight that by molecular docking, none of the estimated ligand configurations generated hydrogen bonds. Thus, explaining the difficulty to degrade CV and MG. Regarding CV, maximum decolorization percentage was 23.6 ± 1.0% using Ganoderma lucidum supernatant and 5.0 ± 0.5% with Pleurotus ostreatus supernatant. When using recombinant laccase enzyme concentrates, decolorization percentages were 9.9 ± 0.1 and 7.5 ± 1.0% for rGlLCC1 and rPOXA 1B, respectively. On the other hand, for the MG dye, maximum decolorization percentages were 52.1 ± 5.1 and 2.3 ± 0.2% using G. lucidum and P. ostreatus concentrates, respectively. Whereas with recombinant laccase enzymatic concentrates, values of 9.4 ± 0.8% were obtained, with rGlLCC1, and 2.1 ± 0.1% when using rPOXA 1B. These findings represent an important step in bioremediation processes improvement and efficiency of industry-generated products, using environmentally friendly alternatives.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2560-y
  • Potential of Mangrove-Associated Endophytic Fungi for Production of
           Carbohydrolases with High Saccharification Efficiency
    • Authors: M. M. C. Maroldi; V. M. Vasconcellos; P. T. Lacava; C. S. Farinas
      Abstract: Abstract The endophytic fungi represent a potential source of microorganisms for enzyme production. However, there have been only few studies exploiting their potential for the production of enzymes of industrial interest, such as the (hemi)cellulolytic enzymatic cocktail required in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Here, a collection of endophytic fungi isolated from mangrove tropical forests was evaluated for the production of carbohydrolases and performance on the hydrolysis of cellulose. For that, 41 endophytic strains were initially screened using a plate assay containing crystalline cellulose as the sole carbon source and the selected strains were cultivated under solid-state fermentation for endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and xylanase enzyme quantification. The hydrolysis of a cellulosic material with the enzymes from endophytic strains of the Aspergillus genus resulted in glucose and conversion values more than twofold higher than the reference strains (Aspergillus niger F12 and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30). Particularly, the enzymes from strains A. niger 56 (3) and A. awamori 82 (4) showed a distinguished saccharification performance, reaching cellulose conversion values of about 35% after 24 h. Linking hydrolysis performance to the screening steps played an important role towards finding potential fungal strains for producing enzymatic cocktails with high saccharification efficiency. These results indicate the potential of mangrove-associated endophytic fungi for production of carbohydrolases with efficient performance in the hydrolysis of biomass, thus contributing to the implementation of future biorefineries.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2590-5
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