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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.571
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 45  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1599-0291 - ISSN (Online) 0273-2289
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • New Insight on a Combination of Policosanol and 10-Dehydrogingerdione
           Phytochemicals as Inhibitors for Platelet Activation Biomarkers and
           Atherogenicity Risk in Dyslipidemic Rabbits: Role of CETP and PCSK9
    • Authors: Mohamed Mahmoud Elseweidy; Rawia sarhan Amin; Hebatallah Husseini Atteia; Reham Raafat El-Zeiky; Naif A. Al-Gabri
      Pages: 805 - 815
      Abstract: Platelet markers [soluble p selectin (sP-selectin) and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L)] are associated with platelet activation and cardiovascular risk. Both policosanol and 10-dehydrogingerdione are natural products with proven CETP inhibitory and antiatherogenic effects. Present work aimed mainly to investigate the levels of platelet activation biomarkers in the serum of dyslipidemic rabbits and the potential of these phytochemicals either alone or in a combination form to protect against atherogenicity. Additionally, this work clarified their effect on PCSK9, a key player in atherosclerosis progression. Daily administration of policosanol and/or 10-dehydrogingerdione at a dose level 10 mg/kg bw resulted in a CETP inhibitory activity, increasing HDL-C level. This protective effect was associated with improvement in lipid profile components and a reduction in PCSK9 level. Interestingly, this combination strengthened the CETP inhibitory activity of these phytochemicals, leading to a greater increase in serum HDL-C level than monotherapy. However, this combination did not enhance the reduction in PCSK9 level. Both drugs also decreased platelet activation and inflammation markers such as sCD40L, sP-selectin, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and their combination showed a synergistic effect. Therefore, such phytochemicals may be regarded as promising agents in the protection against atherothrombosis risk.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2776-5
      Issue No: Vol. 186, No. 4 (2018)
  • Investigation of Binding Affinity Between Prokaryotic Proteins (AHU-IHF)
           and DNAs: Steered Molecular Dynamics Approach
    • Authors: Hung Nguyen; Tri Pham; Hoang Linh Nguyen; Tuyn Phan
      Pages: 834 - 846
      Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the binding affinity between the prokaryotic proteins—AHU-IHF proteins (AHU (AHU2, TR3, and AHU6) and IHF (IHF-WT and IHF-βE44A))—and DNAs (DNA, H′-DNA, and H′44A-DNA) by using the steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation and the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method. The gained results show that although the fluctuation of the pulling force yielded the change of the pulling work, the higher pulling work of the AHU/DNA complexes in comparison to those of the IHF/DNA complexes is not only dependent on the pulling force but also controlled by the change of the trajectory in SMD simulation process. In this study, the pulling work profile not only described the pulling pathway of the complexes but also reflected the hindered process of DNAs when AHU-IHF proteins come out from the binding pocket of DNAs. Additionally, the binding free energy (estimated by the MM-PBSA method) is more confident in giving a true effect to the experimental results in comparison to the pulling force and the pulling work values. These results have also shown a fact that the AHU/DNA complexes were more stable than the IHF/DNA complexes.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2735-1
      Issue No: Vol. 186, No. 4 (2018)
  • The Influence of Nonionic Surfactant Adsorption on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of
           Oil Palm Fruit Bunch
    • Authors: Jatuporn Parnthong; Suratsawadee Kungsanant; Sumaeth Chavadej
      Pages: 895 - 908
      Abstract: Nonionic surfactants have been utilized to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. However, the role of surfactant adsorption affecting enzymatic hydrolysis has not been elaborated well. In this work, nonionic surfactants differing in their molecular structures, namely the polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), the secondary alcohol ethoxylate (Tergitol 15-S-9), and the branched alcohol ethoxylate (Tergitol TMN-6), were studied for their effects on the enzymatic hydrolysis of palm fruit bunch (PFB). The PFB was pretreated with a 10% w/v sodium hydroxide solution and then hydrolyzed using the cellulase enzyme from Trichoderma reesei (ATCC 26921) at 50 °C and pH 5. The optimal conditions providing similar yields of reducing sugar required Tween 80 and Tergitol TMN-6 at 0.25% w/v, while Tergitol 15-S-9 was required at 0.1% w/v. All the surfactants improved the enzymatic conversion efficiency and reduced unproductive binding of the enzyme to lignin. In addition, the adsorption isotherm of cellulase was fit well by the Freundlich isotherm, while adsorption of the three nonionic surfactants agreed well with the Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption capacities of the three nonionic surfactants were consistent with their enhancement efficiencies in hydrolysis. The critical micelle concentration was observed as a key property of nonionic surfactant for adsorption capacity.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2783-6
      Issue No: Vol. 186, No. 4 (2018)
  • Enhanced Production of Crude Violacein from Glucose in Escherichia coli by
           Overexpression of Rate-Limiting Key Enzyme(S) Involved in Violacein
    • Authors: Yikang Zhou; Ming-Yue Fang; Gang Li; Chong Zhang; Xin-Hui Xing
      Pages: 909 - 916
      Abstract: Crude violacein, consisting of violacein and deoxyviolacein, displays many attractive bio-activities in the field of drug therapy. To produce crude violacein from an industrially economic carbon source, we firstly introduced the violacein pathway into Escherichia coli B8/pTRPH1, which was previously engineered to accumulate tryptophan from glucose. A crude violacein production capacity of 0.25 g L−1 OD600−1 was obtained using glucose-containing medium. By further overexpressing each of the five genes involved in violacein synthesis pathway, VioE was found as the rate-limiting step for the violacein production. The optimal strain of B8/pTRPH1-pVio-VioE was then used for fed-batch fermentation in a 5-L bioreactor and a crude violacein titer of 4.45 g L−1, as well as a productivity of 98.7 mg L−1 h−1, was obtained. This engineered strain showed the highest violacein titer and productivity reported so far. Our optimal strain of E. coli B8/pTRPH1-pVio-VioE by overexpression of the rate-limiting VioE in violacein synthesis pathway was a potential violacein producer by directly using glucose for industrial application.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2787-2
      Issue No: Vol. 186, No. 4 (2018)
  • Correlation Between Size and Activity Enhancement of Recombinantly
           Assembled Cellulosomes
    • Authors: Long Chen; Xin Ge
      Pages: 937 - 948
      Abstract: As multienzyme complexes, cellulosomes hydrolyze cellulosic biomass with high efficiency, which is believed to be attributed to either one or both factors: (1) synergy among the catalytic and substrate-binding entities and (2) the large size of cellulosome complexes. Although the former factor has been extensively documented, the correlation between size and specific activity of cellulosomes is still elusive to date. In this study, primary and secondary scaffoldins with 1, 3, or 5 copies of type I/II cohesin domains were recombinantly synthesized and various cellulosomes carrying 1, 3, 5, 9, 15, or 25 molecules of cellulase mixtures of family 5, 9, and 48 glycoside hydrolases were assembled. In addition, the assembled complex was annexed to cellulose with the aid of a family 3a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM3a). Measuring cellulolytic hydrolysis activities of assembled cellulosomes on crystalline Avicel revealed that higher degree of cellulosome complexity resulted in more efficient cellulose hydrolysis with plateaued synergic effects after the cellulosome size reaches certain degree.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2786-3
      Issue No: Vol. 186, No. 4 (2018)
  • Activity Essential Residue Analysis of Taxoid 10β-O-Acetyl Transferase
           for Enzymatic Synthesis of Baccatin
    • Authors: Lin-Feng You; Tao Wei; Qian-Wang Zheng; Jun-Fang Lin; Li-Qiong Guo; Bing-Hua Jiang; Jia-Jun Huang
      Pages: 949 - 959
      Abstract: Taxoid 10β-O-acetyl transferase (DBAT) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the famous anticancer drug paclitaxel, which catalyses the formation of baccatin III from 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB). However, the activity essential residues of the enzyme are still unknown, and the acylation mechanism from its natural substrate 10-deacetylbaccatin III and acetyl CoA to baccatin III remains unclear. In this study, the homology modelling, molecular docking, site-directed mutagenesis, and kinetic parameter determination of the enzyme were carried out. The results showed that the enzyme mutant DBATH162A resulted in complete loss of enzymatic activity, suggesting that the residue histidine at 162 was essential to DBAT activity. Residues D166 and R363 which were located in the pocket of the enzyme by homology modelling and molecular docking were also important for DBAT activity through the site-directed mutations. Furthermore, four amino acid residues including S31 and D34 from motif SXXD, D372 and G376 from motif DFGWG also played important roles on acylation. This was the first report of the elucidation of the activity essential residues of DBAT, making it possible for the further structural-based re-design of the enzyme for efficient biotransformation of baccatin III and paclitaxel.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2789-0
      Issue No: Vol. 186, No. 4 (2018)
  • Schizosaccharomyces pombe as an Efficient Yeast to Convert Sugarcane
           Bagasse Pretreated with Ionic Liquids in Ethanol
    • Authors: Andria Tura; Roselei Claudete Fontana; Marli Camassola
      Pages: 960 - 971
      Abstract: Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with ionic liquids (ILs) has been extensively studied, being regarded as one of the most promising methods for obtaining fermentable sugars. In this research, it was investigated the production of ethanol from sugars released from sugarcane bagasse pretreated with the ionic liquids [C4mim][OAc] and [C2mim][OAc], hydrolysed with Penicillium echinulatum enzymes and using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Yields of about 43 and 56% of ethanol were observed for S. cerevisiae and biomass pretreated with [C2mim][OAc] and [C4mim][OAc], respectively. S. pombe yielded 52 and 78% ethanol for [C2mim][OAc] and [C4mim][OAc], respectively. These results indicate that S. pombe showed best performance for alcoholic fermentation from sugars released from pretreated biomass by ILs.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2788-1
      Issue No: Vol. 186, No. 4 (2018)
  • Enhancing the Production of d -Mannitol by an Artificial Mutant of
           Penicillium sp. T2-M10
    • Authors: Rongting Duan; Hongtao Li; Hongyu Li; Linhuan Tang; Hao Zhou; Xueqiong Yang; Yabin Yang; Zhongtao Ding
      Pages: 990 - 998
      Abstract: d-Mannitol belongs to a linear polyol with six-carbon and has indispensable usage in medicine and industry. In order to obtain more efficient d-mannitol producer, this study has screened out a stable mutant Penicillium sp. T2-M10 that was isolated from the initial d-mannitol-produced strain Penicillium sp.T2-8 via UV irradiation as well as nitrosoguanidine (NTG) induction. The mutant had a considerable enhancement in yield of d-mannitol based on optimizing fermentation. The production condition was optimized as the PDB medium with 24 g/L glucose for 9 days. The results showed that the production of d-mannitol from the mutant strain T2-M10 increased 125% in contrast with the parental strain. Meanwhile, the fact that d-mannitol is the main product in the mutant simplified the process of purification. Our finding revealed the potential value of the mutant strain Penicillium sp. T2-M10 to be a d-mannitol-producing strain.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2791-6
      Issue No: Vol. 186, No. 4 (2018)
  • An Enzyme Immunoassay for Determining Immunoreactive Trypsinogen (IRT) in
           Dried Blood Spots on Filter Paper Using an Ultra-Microanalytical System
    • Authors: Elisa M. Castells Martínez; Ernesto Carlos González; Yileidis Tejeda; Amarilys Frómeta; Odalys Martín; Maryeris Espinosa; Lesley del Río; Pedro L. Pérez; Greilys Morejón; Yenitse Perea; Antonio Melchor
      Pages: 1034 - 1046
      Abstract: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder. It is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Early diagnosis of CF can be carried out by determining high immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) blood values in newborns. A simple sandwich-type ultramicroELISA assay (UMELISA®) has been developed for the measurement of IRT in dried blood spots on filter paper. Strips coated with a high affinity monoclonal antibody directed against IRT are used as solid phase, to ensure the specificity of the assay. The assay is carried out within 20 h. The useful rank of the curve is 0–500 ng/mL, and the lowest detectable concentration is 4.8 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were lower than 10%. The recovery mean value was 100.3 ± 11.2%. Cross-reactivity with proteins structurally related to IRT (α2-macroglobulin, α1-antitrypsin, and human chymotrypsin) was lower than the detection limit of the assay. Four thousand four hundred six newborn samples from the Cuban Newborn Screening Program were analyzed, and the mean IRT concentration was 12.8 ng/mL. Higher IRT values were obtained when samples were eluted overnight. Regression analysis showed a good correlation with the commercially available AutoDELFIA® Neonatal IRT kit (n = 3948, r = 0.885, ƙ = 0.976, p < 0.01). The analytical performance characteristics of our UMELISA® TIR Neonatal suggest that it can be used for the neonatal screening of CF.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2785-4
      Issue No: Vol. 186, No. 4 (2018)
  • Evaluation and Optimization of Organic Acid Pretreatment of Cotton Gin
           Waste for Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Bioethanol Production
    • Authors: Shitarashmi Sahu; Krishna Pramanik
      Pages: 1047 - 1060
      Abstract: This paper investigates the efficiency of the organic acids on the pretreatment of an industrially generated cotton gin waste for the removal of lignin, thereby releasing cellulose and hemicellulose as fermentable sugar components. Cotton gin waste was pretreated with various organic acids namely lactic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, and maleic acid. Among these, maleic acid was found to be the most efficient producing maximum xylose sugar (126.05 ± 0.74 g/g) at the optimum pretreatment condition of 150 °C, 500 mM, and 45 min. The pretreatment efficiency was comparable to the conventional dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment. A lignin removal of 88% was achieved by treating maleic acid pretreated biomass in a mixture of sodium sulfite and sodium chlorite. The pretreated biomass was further evaluated for the release of sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequently bioethanol production from hydrolysates. The maximum 686.13 g/g saccharification yield was achieved with maleic acid pretreated biomass which was slightly higher than the sulfuric acid (675.26 g/g) pretreated waste. The fermentation of mixed hydrolysates(41.75 g/l) produced 18.74 g/l bioethanol concentration with 2.25 g/l/h ethanol productivity and 0.48 g/g ethanol yield using sequential use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis yeast strains. The production of bioethanol was higher than the ethanol produced using co-culture in comparison to sequential culture. Thus, it has been demonstrated that the maleic acid pretreatment and fermentation using sequential use of yeast strains are efficient for bioethanol production from cotton gin waste.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2790-7
      Issue No: Vol. 186, No. 4 (2018)
  • Cantilever Functionalization Using Peroxidase Extract of Low Cost for
           Glyphosate Detection
    • Authors: Daniela Kunkel Muenchen; Janine Martinazzo; Alexandra Nava Brezolin; Alana Marie de Cezaro; Aline Andressa Rigo; Mateus Nava Mezarroba; Alexandra Manzoli; Fábio de Lima Leite; Juliana Steffens; Clarice Steffens
      Pages: 1061 - 1073
      Abstract: A cantilever nanobiosensor functionalized with vegetable source of peroxidase was developed as an innovative way for glyphosate herbicide detection over a wide concentration range (0.01 to 10 mg L−1) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. The extract obtained from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo source of peroxidase), with high enzymatic activity and stability has been used as bio-recognition element to develop a nanobiosensor. The polarization-modulated reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (PM-RAIRS) demonstrated the deposition of enzyme on cantilever surface using self-assembled monolayers (SAM) by the presence of the amide I and II bands. The detection mechanism of glyphosate was based on the changes in surface tension caused by the analyte adsorption, resulting in a conformational change in the enzyme structure. In this way, the results of nanobiosensor demonstrate the potential of the sensing device for detecting glyphosate with a detection limit of 0.028 mg L−1.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2799-y
      Issue No: Vol. 186, No. 4 (2018)
  • Expression of miRNAs Targeting mTOR and S6K1 Genes of mTOR Signaling
           Pathway Including miR-96, miR-557, and miR-3182 in Triple-Negative Breast
    • Authors: Javad Razaviyan; Razie Hadavi; Rezvan Tavakoli; Fereshteh Kamani; Maliheh Paknejad; Samira Mohammadi-Yeganeh
      Pages: 1074 - 1089
      Abstract: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive form of breast cancer. Aberrant expression of genes in mTOR pathway and their targeting miRNAs plays an important role in TNBC. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of mTOR and S6K1 and their targeting miRNAs in breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. miRNAs targeting 3′-UTR of mTOR and S6K1 mRNAs were predicted using bioinformatic algorithms. MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and MCF-10A as well as 20 TNBC samples were analyzed for gene and miRNA expression using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed for evaluation of candidate miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers. miR-96 and miR-557 targeting mTOR and S6K1 mRNAs, respectively, were selected, and miR-3182 was selected as the miRNA targeting both genes. The miRNAs were down-regulated in cell lines, while their target mRNAs were up-regulated. Similar findings were observed in clinical samples. The ROC curve analysis revealed decline in expression of these miRNAs. We suggest that miR-96, miR-557, and miR-3182 can be used as inhibitory agents for mTOR and S6K1 in TNBC-targeted therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2773-8
      Issue No: Vol. 186, No. 4 (2018)
  • Detection of Antibodies Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotypes A,
           O and Asia-1 by ELISA in Strip-Dried Samples from Vaccinated Bovines
    • Abstract: Antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes A, O and Asia-1 were detected by ELISA in liquid and strip-dried samples from vaccinated bovines. The results showed high concordance of the results in both types of serum samples (coefficient of correlation varied from 0.89 to 0.96). Stability studies showed that anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus antibodies can be detected in strip-dried serum samples stored at different temperatures on a level of that in native samples. Preliminary study in strip-dried whole blood samples demonstrated good potential of this sample pretreatment procedure for the following anti-foot-and-mouth virus antibodies testing.
      PubDate: 2018-12-10
  • Cytotoxic Tolerance of Healthy and Cancerous Bone Cells to Anti-microbial
           Phenolic Compounds Depend on Culture Conditions
    • Abstract: Carnosol and carnosic acid are polyphenolic compounds found in rosemary and sage with known anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial properties. Here, we addressed the potential use of carnosol and carnosic acid for in vitro bone tissue engineering applications, specifically depending on their cytotoxic effects on bone marrow stromal and stem cells, and osteosarcoma cells in monolayer and 3D cultures. Carnosol and carnosic acid displayed a bacteriostatic effect on Gram-positive bacteria, especially on S. aureus. The viability results indicated that bone marrow stromal cells and bone marrow stem cells were more tolerant to the presence of carnosol compared to osteosarcoma cells. 3D culture conditions increased this tolerance further for healthy cells, while not affecting the cytotoxic potential of carnosol for osteosarcoma cells. Carnosic acid was found to be more cytotoxic for all cell types used in the study. Results suggest that phenolic compounds might have potential use as anti-microbial and anti-carcinogenic agents for bone tissue engineering with further optimization for controlled release.
      PubDate: 2018-12-10
  • Gibberellin Promotes Cell Growth and Induces Changes in Fatty Acid
           Biosynthesis and Upregulates Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Genes in Chlorella
           vulgaris UMT-M1
    • Abstract: Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biofuels and nutritional inventions. Recent studies from our lab have shown that two plant hormones, auxin and jasmonic acid, influence microalgae growth and fatty acid accumulation. Therefore, in this study, a high oil-producing strain Chlorella vulgaris UMT-M1 was selected for hormonal study using gibberellin (GA). Exogenous GA3 was applied to early stationary culture of C. vulgaris UMT-M1. Results showed that GA3 gradually increases the cell density of C. vulgaris to up to 42% on days after treatment (DAT)-8 and also capable of delaying the algal senescence. However, the increment in cell density did not enhance the total oil production albeit transient modification of fatty acid compositions was observed for saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids. This illustrates that GA3 only promotes cell division and growth but not the oil accumulation. In addition, application of GA3 in culture medium was shown to promote transient increment of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids from DAT-4 to DAT-6 and these changes are correlated with the expression of β-ketoacyl ACP synthase I (KAS I) gene.
      PubDate: 2018-12-10
  • Immunomodulatory Effects of Monascus spp.-Fermented Sacccharina japonica
           Extracts on the Cytokine Gene Expression of THP-1 Cells
    • Abstract: The immunomodulatory effects of Monascus-fermented Saccharina japonica extract on anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression of THP-1 cells were evaluated. Extracts of fermented samples showed higher phenolic, flavonoid, protein, and reducing sugar contents than unfermented one. Fermented samples were rich in many bioactive compounds determined by GC-MS analyses and showed cell viability greater than 85% in MTS assay. Regarding the anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory activities of the different samples, Q-PCR analyses revealed that IL-10 gene expression in THP-1 cells was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in cells treated with the SjMp or SjMk sample than those treated with the unfermented sample. Cells treated with the SjMp extract or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher relative gene expression of IL-4 cytokine than cells treated with SjMk or SjU extracts. The relative gene expression of IFN-α was higher in cells treated with SjMp followed by LPS, SjMk, and SjU. TGF-β expression was higher in LPS-stimulated cells followed by SjMk and other samples. Cells treated with SjMp exhibited significantly higher pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and NF-κB) cytokine gene expression than cells treated with SjU. These results revealed that extracts from S. japonica fermented with Monascus spp. regulate cytokine gene expression. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-12-10
  • Drier Climatic Conditions Increase Withanolide Content of Withania
           coagulans Enhancing Its Inhibitory Potential Against Human Prostate Cancer
    • Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths in men and there is a growing interest in identifying natural compounds for its management. We analyzed bioactive withanolides in Withania coagulans from 11 different sites in Pakistan and evaluated the antiprostate cancer activities of leaf extracts from two sites with the greatest amounts. Total withanolide concentration differed by ~ 17-fold between sites, ranging from 1.01 ± 0.01 mg/g dry weight (mean ± SE) at Jand to 16.83 ± 0.02 mg/g at Mohmand Agency. Different tissues varied in their total withanolide content with roots having the least (0.42 ± 0.07 mg/g dry weight) and leaves the most (2.45 ± 0.45 mg/g). We found strong inverse correlations between site annual precipitation versus withanolide amounts in fruits (r = − 0.84, P = 0.001), leaves (r = − 0.88, P < 0.001), roots (r = − 0.91, P < 0.001), and total (r = − 0.89, P < 0.001), but not stems (r = − 0.20, P = 0.556). Extracts made from Mianwali and Mohmand Agency leaves possessed high anticancer activity in terms of increased induction of apoptosis and decreased cell viability, cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of different prostate cancer cell lines. These results are useful for the selection of withanolide-rich germplasm with potent anticancer properties.
      PubDate: 2018-12-10
  • Effects of Heat Treatment on the Structural Characteristics and Antitumor
           Activity of Polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa
    • Abstract: This study investigated the effects of heat treatment on structural characteristics and in vitro antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa. GFP-4 (extracted at 4 °C), GFP-4-80 (80 °C treatment on GFP-4) and GFP-80 (extracted at 80 °C) were prepared, and the chemical composition analysis showed that their total sugar contents were all higher than 90%, high-performance gel-permeation chromatography (HPGPC), ion chromatography (IC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results demonstrated that GFP-4 were degraded and denatured after 80 °C heat treatment, MTT and JC-1 results showed that GFP-4 exhibited higher inhibitory effects on HepG2 cells in vitro than GFP-4-80 and GFP-80. Our study suggested that heat treatment at 80 °C on polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa would destroy their structure and attenuate their antitumor effects.
      PubDate: 2018-12-10
  • Improving Soluble Expression of Tyrosine Decarboxylase from Lactobacillus
           brevis for Tyramine Synthesis with High Total Turnover Number
    • Authors: Mingyang Jiang; Guochao Xu; Jie Ni; Kai Zhang; Jinjun Dong; Ruizhi Han; Ye Ni
      Abstract: The soluble expression of tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) in heterologous host is often challenging. Here, acidic condition was found to be favorable for improving the soluble expression of TDC from Lactobacillus brevis in Escherichia coli, while addition of carbohydrates (such as glucose, arabinose, and fructose) was vital for decreasing the insoluble fraction. By simple pH control and addition of glucose, the specific activity of TDC in crude extract was enhanced to 46.3 U mg−1, 3.67-fold of that produced from LB medium. Optimization of the reaction conditions revealed that Tween-80 was effective in improving the tyramine production catalyzed by TDC, especially at high tyrosine loadings. As much as 400 mM tyrosine could be completely converted into tyramine with a substrate to catalyst ratio of 29.0 g g−1 and total turnover number of 23,300. This study provides efficient strategies for the highly soluble expression of TDC and biocatalytic production of tyramine.
      PubDate: 2018-12-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2925-x
  • Susceptibility of 99m Tc-Ciprofloxacin for Common Infection Causing
           Bacterial Strains Isolated from Clinical Samples: an In Vitro and In Vivo
    • Authors: Syed Ali Raza Naqvi; Samina Roohi; Hassina Sabir; Sohail Anjum Shahzad; Aysha Aziz; Rashid Rasheed
      Abstract: 99mTc-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy is useful in the detection of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections and also for differentiating the infection from aseptic inflammation. However, due to growing bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the 99mTc-ciprofloxacin no longer can be effective in broad-spectrum infection imaging as it is gradually losing specificity. In this study, we are presenting our findings regarding the in vitro and in vivo susceptibility of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aurous, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains which were isolated from clinical samples. The results of radiosynthesis of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin showed more the 95% radiochemical purity and less than 5% radioactive impurities. In vitro 99mTc-ciprofloxacin susceptibility test showed that E. coli offered more resistant to 99mTc-ciprofloxacin as compared to S. aurous and P. aeruginosa. In vivo study using bacterial infection induced rabbit model also revealed lowest uptake by E. coli lesion. The T/NT values were obtained 1.96 ± 0.15 in the case of E. coli; 2.81 ± 0.51 in the case of S. aurous; and 2.32 ± 0.66 in the case of P. aeruginosa at 4 h post-injection. The SPECT infection imaging of S. aurous, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa bacterial infection induced rabbit models also indicated the clear accumulation in S. aurous and P. aeruginosa lesions while negligible uptake by E. coli lesion further verify the in vitro and in vivo susceptibility profile. On the bases of the results obtained, the 99mTc-ciprofloxacin showed selective and poor broad spectrum SPECT infection imaging.
      PubDate: 2018-12-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2915-z
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