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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
  [SJR: 0.575]   [H-I: 80]   [42 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1599-0291 - ISSN (Online) 0273-2289
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Steered Molecular Dynamics for Investigating the Interactions Between
           Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (IRK) and Variants of Protein Tyrosine
           Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)
    • Authors: Hung Nguyen; Nhat Do; Tuyn Phan; Tri Pham
      Pages: 401 - 413
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study is to use steered molecular dynamics to investigate the dissociation process between IRK and PTP1Bs for wild type and five mutants (consisting of p.D181E, p.D181A, p.Q262A, p.D181A-Y46F, and p.D181A-Q262A). The gained results are observed not only the unbinding mechanism of IRK-PTP1B complexes came from pulling force profile, number of hydrogen bonds, and interaction energy between IRK and PTP1Bs but also described PTP1B’s point mutations could variably change its binding affinity towards IRK. Additionally, the binding free energy calculated by Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) is also revealed that electrostatic energy and polar solvation energy mainly made up the binding free energy of PTP1B-IRK complexes.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2549-6
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • In Vitro Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of
           3,5,4′-Trihydroxy-6,7-Methylenedioxyflavone- O -Glycosides and Their
           Aglycone from Leaves of Polygonum tinctorium Lour
    • Authors: Shota Tokuyama-Nakai; Hideto Kimura; Tomoe Ishihara; Mitsuo Jisaka; Kazushige Yokota
      Pages: 414 - 431
      Abstract: Abstract Polygonum tinctorium Lour (indigo plant) has been regarded as a useful medicinal plant for traditional herbal medicine. The polyphenolic fraction of indigo leaves exhibited anti-inflammatory activities as determined by the suppressed synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in cultured RAW264 macrophage cells. The acid hydrolysate of the fraction showed much more potent effect than the unhydrolyzed one. In sharp contrast, those fractions of indigo stems had almost no effect. 3,5,4′-Trihydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone (TMF)-O-glycosides and tryptanthrin were detected exclusively in the extracts of the leaves. The isolated flavonol species were furthermore tested for their anti-inflammatory activities against the synthesis of NO and prostaglandin E2 in the cultured macrophage cells. More potent anti-inflammatory effects were recognized with different aglycones of flavonols than their flavonol O-glycosides. Although the inhibitory effects of TMF were less effective than those of tryptanthrin, the levels of flavonol O-glycosides with TMF were much more abundant than those of tryptanthrin in the leaves. Oral administration of the fraction containing flavonol O-glycosides with TMF into mice revealed the detection of free TMF in the blood circulation, indicating that the aglycone moiety can be cleaved by digestive enzymes and absorbed in the gut. Alternatively, the assay of hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity revealed that the isolated species of flavonol O-glycosides with TMF and their aglycone had appreciable antioxidant activities. Taken together, our findings suggest that the predominant flavonol O-glycosides with TMF as an aglycone could be promising natural agents for the application to herbal medicine, nutraceuticals, and food additives.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2555-8
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effects of Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment on Enzymatic Hydrolysis and
           Physicochemical Changes of Corncobs
    • Authors: Saksit Imman; Navadol Laosiripojana; Verawat Champreda
      Pages: 432 - 443
      Abstract: Abstract Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment is an efficient chemical-free strategy for enhancing enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass for conversion to fuels and chemicals in biorefinery. In this study, effects of LHW on removals of hemicelluloses and lignin from corncobs were studied under varying reaction conditions. LHW pretreatment at 160 °C for 10 min promoted the highest levels of hemicellulose solubilization into the liquid phase, resulting into the maximized pentose yield of 58.8% in the liquid and more than 60% removal of lignin from the solid, with 73.1% glucose recovery from enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass using 10 FPU/g Celluclast™. This led to the maximal glucose and pentose recoveries of 81.9 and 71.2%, respectively, when combining sugars from the liquid phase from LHW and hydrolysis of the solid. Scanning electron microscopy revealed disruption of the intact biomass structure allowing increasing enzyme’s accessibility to the cellulose microfibers which showed higher crystallinity index compared to the native biomass as shown by x-ray diffraction with a marked increase in surface area as revealed by BET measurement. The work provides an insight into effects of LHW on modification of physicochemical properties of corncobs and an efficient approach for its processing in biorefinery industry.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2541-1
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Comparison of Flow Cytometry and ELASA for Screening of Proper Candidate
           Aptamer in Cell-SELEX Pool
    • Authors: Maryam Sadat Nabavinia; Fahimeh Charbgoo; Mona Alibolandi; Fatemeh Mosaffa; Aida Gholoobi; Mohammad Ramezani; Khalil Abnous
      Pages: 444 - 452
      Abstract: Abstract Aptamers are single-stranded RNA or DNA, which bind to their target with high affinity and specificity. Method of isolating aptamers against cell surface protein is called cell-SELEX. Common approach for monitoring cell-SELEX developed aptamers is flow cytometry. Since flow cytometry is costly and requires sophisticated equipments, we suggested implementing easy access, high throughput enzyme-link apta-sorbent assay test (ELASA) to confirm the specificity of aptamers selected through cell-SELEX process. In this regard, we compared ELASA and flow cytometry techniques in order to screen potent candidate aptamers against A2780 Rcis cell line, which were selected by cell-SELEX. The obtained results demonstrated that both ELASA and flow cytometry are identical in terms of sensivity and precision for aptamers selection. Then it could be concluded that ELASA method could be used as a versatile, inexpensive procedure for in vito evaluation of isolated aptamers from cell-SELEX based process.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2548-7
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Thermal Pretreatment of Harvest Residues and Their Use in Anaerobic
           Co-digestion with Dairy Cow Manure
    • Authors: Đurđica Kovačić; Davor Kralik; Daria Jovičić; Slavko Rupčić; Brigita Popović; Marina Tišma
      Pages: 471 - 483
      Abstract: Abstract Several batch experiments were conducted on the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cow manure (DCM) with three harvest residues (HR) (soybean straw, sunflower stalks, and corn stover). The influence of thermal pretreatment of HR on biogas production was investigated, where the HR were thermally pretreated at two different temperatures: T = 121 °C and T = 175 °C, during t = 30 and t = 90 min, respectively. All anaerobic co-digestion batch experiments were performed simultaneously under thermophilic regime, at T = 55 °C. Biogas and methane yields were significantly improved in experiments performed with corn stover thermally pretreated at 175 °C for 30 min (491.37 cm3/g VS and 306.96 cm3/g VS, respectively), if compared to experiments performed with untreated corn stover. The highest VS and COD removal rates were also observed in the same group of experiments and were 34.5 and 50.1%, respectively. The highest biogas and methane yields with soybean straw (418.93 cm3/g VS and 261.44 cm3/g VS, respectively) were obtained when soybean straw pretreated at 121 °C during 90 min. The highest biogas and methane yields with sunflower stalk (393.28 cm3/g VS and 245.02 cm3/g VS, respectively) were obtained when sunflower stalk was pretreated at 121 °C during 90 min.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2559-4
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Biocatalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA Ethyl Ester
           with a Newly Isolated Sphingomonas aquatilis
    • Authors: Shaozhou Zhu; Ying Shi; Xinyu Zhang; Guojun Zheng
      Pages: 500 - 512
      Abstract: Abstract 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACCA) and its derivatives are essential pharmacophoric unit that widely used in drug research and development. Specifically, (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester (vinyl-ACCA) is a key chiral intermediate in the synthesis of highly potent hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitors such as asunaprevir and simeprevir. Developing strategies for the asymmetric synthesis of vinyl-ACCA is thus extremely high demand. In this study, 378 bacterial strains were isolated from soil samples using N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester as the sole carbon source and were screened for esterase activity. Fourteen of which worked effectively for the asymmetric synthesis of (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-1-vinyl ACCA ethyl ester. The strain CY-2, identified as Sphingomonas aquatilis, which showed the highest stability and enantioselectivity was selected as whole cell biocatalyst for further study. A systematic study of all factors influencing the enzymatic hydrolysis was performed. Under optimized conditions, resolution of rac-vinyl-ACCA to (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-1-vinyl ACCA ethyl ester with 88.2% ee and 62.4% conversion (E = 9) was achieved. Besides, S. aquatilis was also used to transform other 10 different substrates. Notably, it was found that 7 of them could be stereoselectively hydrolyzed, especially for (1R,2S)-1-amino-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester hydrochloride (99.6% ee, E>200). Our investigations provide a new efficient whole cell biocatalyst for resolution of ACCA and might be developed for industry application.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2567-4
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Bioethanol Production from Soybean Residue via Separate Hydrolysis and
           Fermentation
    • Authors: Trung Hau Nguyen; Chae Hun Ra; In Yung Sunwoo; Pailin Sukwong; Gwi-Taek Jeong; Sung-Koo Kim
      Pages: 513 - 523
      Abstract: Abstract Bioethanol was produced using polysaccharide from soybean residue as biomass by separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). This study focused on pretreatment, enzyme saccharification, and fermentation. Pretreatment to obtain monosaccharide was carried out with 20% (w/v) soybean residue slurry and 270 mmol/L H2SO4 at 121 °C for 60 min. More monosaccharide was obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis with a 16 U/mL mixture of commercial enzymes C-Tec 2 and Viscozyme L at 45 °C for 48 h. Ethanol fermentation with 20% (w/v) soybean residue hydrolysate was performed using wild-type and Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM 1129 adapted to high concentrations of galactose, using a flask and 5-L fermenter. When the wild type of S. cerevisiae was used, an ethanol production of 20.8 g/L with an ethanol yield of 0.31 g/g consumed glucose was obtained. Ethanol productions of 33.9 and 31.6 g/L with ethanol yield of 0.49 g/g consumed glucose and 0.47 g/g consumed glucose were obtained in a flask and a 5-L fermenter, respectively, using S. cerevisiae adapted to a high concentration of galactose. Therefore, adapted S. cerevisiae to galactose could enhance the overall ethanol fermentation yields compared to the wild-type one.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2565-6
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Oleaginous Microalgae from Dairy Farm Wastewater for Biodiesel Production:
           Isolation, Characterization and Mass Cultivation
    • Authors: Zheng Sun; Xiao-peng Fang; Xiao-yang Li; Zhi-gang Zhou
      Pages: 524 - 537
      Abstract: Abstract Producing biodiesel from microalgae grown in wastewater is environment-friendly and cost-effective. The present study investigated the algae found in wastewater of a local dairy farm for their potential as biodiesel feedstocks. Thirteen native algal strains were isolated. On the basis of morphology and 16S/18S rRNA gene sequences, one strain was identified to be a member of cyanobacteria, while other 12 strains belong to green algae. After screening, two Scenedesmus strains out of the 13 microalgae isolates demonstrated superiority in growth rate, lipid productivity, and sedimentation properties, and therefore were selected for further scale-up outdoor cultivation. Both Scenedesmus strains quickly adapted to the outdoor conditions, exhibiting reasonably good growth and strong anti-contamination capabilities. In flat-plate photobioreactors (PBRs), algal cells accumulated predominantly neutral lipids that accounted for over 60% of total lipids with almost 70% being triacylglycerol. In addition, Scenedesmus obliquus had a high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, of which the amount of oleic acid (C18:1) was up to 27.11%. Based on these findings, the dairy farm wastewater-isolated Scenedesmus strains represent promising sources of low-cost, high-quality oil for biofuel production.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2564-7
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Optimization of Enzyme Co-Immobilization with Sodium Alginate and
           Glutaraldehyde-Activated Chitosan Beads
    • Authors: Sinem Diken Gür; Neslihan İdil; Nilüfer Aksöz
      Pages: 538 - 552
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, two different materials—alginate and glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan beads—were used for the co-immobilization of α-amylase, protease, and pectinase. Firstly, optimization of multienzyme immobilization with Na alginate beads was carried out. Optimum Na alginate and CaCl2 concentration were found to be 2.5% and 0.1 M, respectively, and optimal enzyme loading ratio was determined as 2:1:0.02 for pectinase, protease, and α-amylase, respectively. Next, the immobilization of multiple enzymes on glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan beads was optimized (3% chitosan concentration, 0.25% glutaraldehyde with 3 h of activation and 3 h of coupling time). While co-immobilization was successfully performed with both materials, the specific activities of enzymes were found to be higher for the enzymes co-immobilized with glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan beads. In this process, glutaraldehyde was acting as a spacer arm. SEM and FTIR were used for the characterization of activated chitosan beads. Moreover, pectinase and α-amylase enzymes immobilized with chitosan beads were also found to have higher activity than their free forms. Three different enzymes were co-immobilized with these two materials for the first time in this study.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2566-5
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Production of Fumaric Acid by Bioconversion of Corncob Hydrolytes Using an
           Improved Rhizopus oryzae Strain
    • Authors: Xuefeng Wu; Qing Liu; Yongdong Deng; Xiaoju Chen; Zhi Zheng; Shaotong Jiang; Xingjiang Li
      Pages: 553 - 569
      Abstract: Abstract The use of microorganism fermentation for production of fumaric acid (FA), which is widely used in food, medicine, and other fields, can provide technical support for the FA industry. In this study, we aimed to increase the titer of FA production by using an improved Rhizopus oryzae WHT5, which was domesticated to obtain a furfural-resistant strain in corncob hydrolytes. The metabolic pathways and metabolic network of this strain were investigated, and the related enzymes and metabolic flux were analyzed. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that the R. oryzae WHT5 strain produced FA mainly through two pathways. One occurred in the cytoplasm and the other was a mitochondrial pathway. The key parameters of the fermentation process were analyzed. The FA titer was 49.05 g/L from corncob hydrolytes using R. oryzae WHT5 in a 7-L bioreactor. The use of a furfural-resistant strain developed through domestication effectively increased the titer of FA. This capacity of the microorganisms to produce high amounts of FA by bioconverting corncob hydrolyte can be further applied for industrial production of FA.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2554-9
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Heterologous Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Lactococcus lactis
           for Acetaldehyde Detoxification at Low pH
    • Authors: Yunbin Lyu; Gisèle LaPointe; Lei Zhong; Jing Lu; Chong Zhang; Zhaoxin Lu
      Pages: 570 - 581
      Abstract: Abstract Aldehyde dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.1.x) can catalyze detoxification of acetaldehydes. A novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (istALDH) from the non-Saccharomyces yeast Issatchenkia terricola strain XJ-2 has been previously characterized. In this work, Lactococcus lactis with the NIsin Controlled Expression (NICE) System was applied to express the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (istALDH) in order to catalyze oxidation of acetaldehyde at low pH. A recombinant L. lactis NZ3900 was obtained and applied for the detoxification of acetaldehyde as whole-cell biocatalysts. The activity of IstALDH in L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) reached 36.4 U mL−1 when the recombinant cells were induced with 50 ng mL−1 nisin at 20 °C for 2 h. The IstALDH activity of recombinant L. lactis cells showed higher stability at 37 °C and pH 4.0 compared with the crude enzyme. L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) could convert acetaldehyde at pH 2.0 while the crude enzyme could not. Moreover, the resting cells of L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) showed a 2.5-fold higher activity and better stability in catalyzing oxidation of acetaldehyde at pH 2.0 compared with that of Escherichia coli expressing the IstALDH. Taken together, the L. lactis cells expressing recombinant IstALDH are potential whole-cell biocatalysts that can be applied in the detoxification of aldehydes.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2573-6
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Genome-Wide Survey and Characterization of Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene
           Family in Brassica napus and Its Parental Species
    • Authors: Yufei Xue; Baojun Chen; Rui Wang; Aung Naing Win; Jiana Li; Yourong Chai
      Pages: 582 - 598
      Abstract: Abstract Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oilseed crop worldwide, and fatty acid (FA) compositions determine the nutritional and economic value of its seed oil. Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) play a pivotal role in regulating FA compositions, but to date, no comprehensive genome-wide analysis of FAD gene family in rapeseed and its parent species has been reported. In this study, using homology searches, 84, 45, and 44 FAD genes were identified in rapeseed, Brassica rapa, and Brassica oleracea genomes, respectively. These FAD genes were unevenly located in 17 chromosomes and 2 scaffolds of rapeseed, 9 chromosomes and 1 scaffold of B. rapa, and all the chromosomes of B. oleracea. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the soluble and membrane-bound FADs in the three Brassica species were divided into four and six subfamilies, respectively. Generally, the soluble FADs contained two conserved histidine boxes, while three highly conserved histidine boxes were harbored in membrane-bound FADs. Exon-intron structure, intron phase, and motif composition and position were highly conserved in each FAD subfamily. Putative subcellular locations of FAD proteins in three Brassica species were consistent with those of corresponding known FADs. In total, 25 of simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were found in FAD genes of the three Brassica species. Transcripts of selected FAD genes in the three species were examined in various organs/tissues or stress treatments from NCBI expressed sequence tag (EST) database. This study provides a critical molecular basis for quality improvement of rapeseed oil and facilitates our understanding of key roles of FAD genes in plant growth and development and stress response.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2563-8
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Improved Treatment and Utilization of Rice Straw by Coprinopsis cinerea
    • Authors: Wenming Zhang; Sihua Wu; Liyin Cai; Xiaole Liu; Hao Wu; Fengxue Xin; Min Zhang; Min Jiang
      Pages: 616 - 629
      Abstract: Abstract As one of the most abundant renewable resources, rice straw is an attractive lignocellulosic material for animal feeding or for the production of biochemical. An appropriate pre-treatment technique is essential for converting rice straw to rich fodder or biofuel. Based on previous work, Coprinopsis cinerea can grow on rice straw medium and therefore it is useful for the treatment of rice straw. However, little is known regarding its degradation systems and nutrition values. In this study, we firstly found that C. cinerea could grow rapidly on rice straw without any additives by the production of a series of enzymes (laccase, cellulase, and xylanase) and that the microstructure and contents of rice straw changed significantly after being treated by C. cinerea. We propose that a possible underlying mechanism exists in the degradation. Moreover, C. cinerea has a high nutrition value (23.5% crude protein and 22.2% total amino acids). Hence, fermented rice straw with mycelium could be a good animal feedstuff resource instead of expensive forage. The direct usage of C. cinerea treatment is expected to be a practical, cost-effective, and environmental-friendly approach for enhancing the nutritive value and digestibility of rice straw.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2579-0
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Synthesis of Geraniol Esters in a Continuous-Flow Packed-Bed Reactor of
           Immobilized Lipase: Optimization of Process Parameters and Kinetic
           Modeling
    • Authors: Harshada M. Salvi; Manoj P. Kamble; Ganapati D. Yadav
      Pages: 630 - 643
      Abstract: Abstract With increasing demand for perfumes, flavors, beverages, and pharmaceuticals, the various associated industries are resorting to different approaches to enhance yields of desired compounds. The use of fixed-bed biocatalytic reactors in some of the processes for making fine chemicals will be of great value because the reaction times could be reduced substantially as well as high conversion and yields obtained. In the current study, a continuous-flow packed-bed reactor of immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) was employed for synthesis of various geraniol esters. Optimization of process parameters such as biocatalyst screening, effect of solvent, mole ratio, temperature and acyl donors was studied in a continuous-flow packed-bed reactor. Maximum conversion of ~ 87% of geranyl propionate was achieved in 15 min residence time at 70 °C using geraniol and propionic acid with a 1:1 mol ratio. Novozym 435 was found to be the most active and stable biocatalyst among all tested. Ternary complex mechanism with propionic acid inhibition was found to fit the data.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2572-7
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Purification, Characterization of Amylase from Indigenously Isolated
           Aureobasidium pullulans Cau 19 and Its Bioconjugates with Gold
           Nanoparticles
    • Authors: Y.R. Mulay; R.L. Deopurkar
      Pages: 644 - 658
      Abstract: Abstract The amylase from Aureobasidium pullulans Cau 19 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sephadex G-100 chromatography with a 9.25-fold increase in specific activity as compared to crude enzyme. Km and turn over values of the enzyme were 6.25 mg/mL and 5.0 × 102/min, respectively. Effect of different metal ions on the purified enzyme was investigated; 1 mM calcium (Ca) and cobalt (Co) enhanced enzyme activity by twofold; copper (Cu) had no effect on the activity of the enzyme. Mercury (Hg) 1 mM caused 90% inactivation whereas iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) caused 10 to 16% inhibition. Amylase from A. pullulans Cau 19 was bioconjugated to gold nanoparticles synthesized using the biomass of A. pullulans Cau 19. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the conjugation of the enzyme to the gold nanoparticles. Though, only 20% of the added enzyme was adsorbed/conjugated on gold nanoparticles, 80% of the adsorbed activity could be estimated in the assay. The conjugated enzyme exhibited better tolerance to a broad pH range of 3.0–9.0 and higher temperatures compared with native enzyme.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2575-4
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Polyesters from Macrolactones Using Commercial Lipase NS 88011 and Novozym
           435 as Biocatalysts
    • Authors: André Eliezer Polloni; Viviane Chiaradia; Eduardo Moresco Figura; João Pedro De Paoli; Débora de Oliveira; J. Vladimir de Oliveira; Pedro Henrique Hermes de Araujo; Claudia Sayer
      Pages: 659 - 672
      Abstract: Abstract The demand for environmentally friendly products allied with the depletion of natural resources has increased the search for sustainable materials in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Polyesters are among the most widely used biodegradable polymers in biomedical applications. In this work, aliphatic polyesters (from globalide and ω-pentadecalactone) were synthesized using a new commercial biocatalyst, the low-cost immobilized NS 88011 lipase (lipase B from Candida antarctica immobilized on a hydrophobic support). Results were compared with those obtained under the same conditions using a traditional, but more expensive, commercial biocatalyst, Novozym 435 (lipase B from C. antarctica immobilized on Lewatit VP OC). When NS 88011 was used in the polymerization of globalide, longer reaction times (240 min)—when compared to Novozym 435—were required to obtain high yields (80–90 wt%). However, higher molecular weights were achieved. When poly(ω-pentadecalactone) was synthesized, high yields and molecular weights (130,000 g mol−1) were obtained and the enzyme concentration showed strong influence on the polyester properties. This is the first report describing NS 88011 in polymer synthesis. The use of this cheaper enzymatic preparation can provide an alternative for polyester synthesis via enzymatic ring-opening polymerization.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2583-4
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Synthesis of Chitin Oligosaccharides Using Dried Stenotrophomonas
           maltophilia Cells Containing a Transglycosylation Reaction-Catalyzing β
           -N- Acetylhexosaminidase as a Whole-Cell Catalyst
    • Authors: Asaki Uehara; Narumi Takahashi; Mei Moriyama; Takako Hirano; Wataru Hakamata; Toshiyuki Nishio
      Pages: 673 - 684
      Abstract: Abstract Bacterial strain NYT501, which we previously isolated from soil, was identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and it was confirmed that this strain produces an intracellular β-N-acetylhexosaminidase exhibiting transglycosylation activity. Several properties of this enzyme were characterized using a partially purified enzyme preparation. Using N,N′-diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc)2 and N,N′,N″-triacetylchitotriose (GlcNAc)3 as substrates and dried cells of this bacterium as a whole-cell catalyst, chitin oligosaccharides of higher degrees of polymerization were synthesized. (GlcNAc)3 was generated from (GlcNAc)2 as the major transglycosylation product, and a certain amount of purified sample of the trisaccharide was obtained. By contrast, in the case of the reaction using (GlcNAc)3 as a substrate, the yield of higher-degree polymerization oligosaccharides was comparatively low.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2585-2
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Biogas Production from Distilled Grain Waste by Thermophilic Dry Anaerobic
           Digestion: Pretreatment of Feedstock and Dynamics of Microbial Community
    • Authors: Ting-Ting Wang; Zhao-Yong Sun; Yu-Lian Huang; Li Tan; Yue-Qin Tang; Kenji Kida
      Pages: 685 - 702
      Abstract: Abstract Distilled grain waste (DGW) eluted from the Chinese liquor making process poses potential serious environmental problems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of converting DGW to biogas by thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion. To improve biogas production, the effects of dilute H2SO4 and thermal pretreatment on DGW were evaluated by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The results indicate that 90 °C thermal pretreatment provided the highest methane production at 212.7 mL/g-VTSadd. The long-term thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion process was conducted in a 5-L separable flask for more than 3 years at a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg-sludge/d, using synthetic waste, untreated and 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW as the feedstock, respectively. A higher methane production, 451.6 mL/g-VTSadd, was obtained when synthetic waste was used; the methane production decreased to 139.4 mL/g-VTSadd when the untreated DGW was used. The 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW increased the methane production to 190.5 mL/g-VTSadd, showing an increase of 36.7% in methane production compared with that using untreated DGW. The microbial community structure analysis indicates that the microbial community in the thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion system maintained a similar structure when untreated or pretreated DGW was used, whereas the structure differed significantly when synthetic waste was used as the feedstock.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2557-6
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Previously Undescribed Antibacterial Polyketides from Heterotrophic
           Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Associated with Seaweed Padina gymnospora
    • Authors: Kajal Chakraborty; Bini Thilakan; Vamshi Krishna Raola
      Pages: 716 - 732
      Abstract: Abstract A heterotrophic marine bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from seaweed Padina gymnospora exhibited broad spectra of antibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The seaweed-associated B. amyloliquefaciens was recognized to possess functional type I polyketide synthase-1 (pks-1) gene, and was used to isolate four homologous compounds with polyketide frameworks. The compounds were characterized as 11-(15-butyl-13-ethyl-tetrahydro-12-oxo-2H-pyran-13-yl) propyl-2-methylbenzoate (1), 9-(tetrahydro-12-isopropyl-11-oxofuran-10-yl)-ethyl-4-ethoxy-2-hydroxybenzoate (2), 12-(aminomethyl)-11-hydroxyhexanyl-10-phenylpropanoate (3), and 7-(14-hydroxypropan-13-yl)-8-isobutyl-7,8-dihydrobenzo[c]oxepin-1(3H)-one (4) by comprehensive nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic experiments. The compounds 1–4 displayed significant antibacterial activities against clinically important pathogens V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus (inhibitory zone diameter of ≥15 mm, 100 mcg on disk). The electronic and hydrophobic parameters appeared to hold a conspicuous part in directing the antibacterial properties of the compounds. This study revealed seaweed-associated B. amyloliquefaciens as potential source of antimicrobial polyketides for pharmaceutical applications.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2562-9
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Material Utilization of Organic Residues
    • Authors: Jan Christoph Peinemann; Daniel Pleissner
      Pages: 733 - 745
      Abstract: Abstract Each year, 1.3 billion tons of food waste is generated globally. This waste traces back to industrial and agricultural producers, bakeries, restaurants, and households. Furthermore, lignocellulosic materials, including grass clippings, leaves, bushes, shrubs, and woods, appear in large amounts. Depending on the region, organic waste is either composted, burned directly, or converted into biogas. All of the options set aside the fact that organic residues are valuable resources containing carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and phosphorus. Firstly, it is clear that avoidance of organic residues is imperative. However, the residues that accumulate nonetheless should be utilized by material means before energy production is targeted. This review presents different processes for the microbial utilization of organic residues towards compounds that are of great importance for the bioeconomy. The focus thereby is on the challenges coming along with downstream processing when the utilization of organic residues is carried out decentralized. Furthermore, a future process for producing lactic acid from organic residues is sketched.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2586-1
      Issue No: Vol. 184, No. 2 (2018)
       
 
 
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