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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2350 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover APOPTOSIS
  [SJR: 1.554]   [H-I: 87]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-675X - ISSN (Online) 1360-8185
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Prodigiosin stimulates endoplasmic reticulum stress and induces autophagic
           cell death in glioblastoma cells
    • Authors: Shu-Yu Cheng; Nan-Fu Chen; Hsiao-Mei Kuo; San-Nan Yang; Chun-Sung Sung; Ping-Jyun Sung; Zhi-Hong Wen; Wu-Fu Chen
      Abstract: Prodigiosin, a secondary metabolite isolated from marine Vibrio sp., has antimicrobial and anticancer properties. This study investigated the cell death mechanism of prodigiosin in glioblastoma. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive primary cancer of the central nervous system. Despite treatment, or standard therapy, the median survival of glioblastoma patients is about 14.6 month. The results of the present study clearly showed that prodigiosin significantly reduced the cell viability and neurosphere formation ability of U87MG and GBM8401 human glioblastoma cell lines. Moreover, prodigiosin with fluorescence signals was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and found to induce excessive levels of autophagy. These findings were confirmed by observation of LC3 puncta formation and acridine orange staining. Furthermore, prodigiosin caused cell death by activating the JNK pathway and decreasing the AKT/mTOR pathway in glioblastoma cells. Moreover, we found that the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine reversed prodigiosin induced autophagic cell death. These findings of this study suggest that prodigiosin induces autophagic cell death and apoptosis in glioblastoma cells.
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1456-9
       
  • Critical contribution of RIPK1 mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and
           oxidative stress to compression-induced rat nucleus pulposus cells
           necroptosis and apoptosis
    • Authors: Songfeng Chen; Xiao Lv; Binwu Hu; Lei Zhao; Shuai Li; Zhiliang Li; Xiangcheng Qing; Hongjian Liu; Jianzhong Xu; Zengwu Shao
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate whether RIPK1 mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contributed to compression-induced nucleus pulposus (NP) cells necroptosis and apoptosis, together with the interplay relationship between necroptosis and apoptosis in vitro. Rat NP cells underwent various periods of 1.0 MPa compression. To determine whether compression affected mitochondrial function, we evaluated the mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), mitochondrial ultrastructure and ATP content. Oxidative stress-related indicators reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were also assessed. To verify the relevance between oxidative stress and necroptosis together with apoptosis, RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1(Nec-1), mPTP inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA), antioxidants and small interfering RNA technology were utilized. The results established that compression elicited a time-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated oxidative stress. Nec-1 and CsA restored mitochondrial function and reduced oxidative stress, which corresponded to decreased necroptosis and apoptosis. CsA down-regulated mitochondrial cyclophilin D expression, but had little effects on RIPK1 expression and pRIPK1 activation. Additionally, we found that Nec-1 largely blocked apoptosis; whereas, the apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK increased RIPK1 expression and pRIPK1 activation, and coordinated regulation of necroptosis and apoptosis enabled NP cells survival more efficiently. In contrast to Nec-1, SiRIPK1 exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In summary, RIPK1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a crucial role in NP cells necroptosis and apoptosis during compression injury. The synergistic regulation of necroptosis and apoptosis may exert more beneficial effects on NP cells survival, and ultimately delaying or even retarding intervertebral disc degeneration.
      PubDate: 2018-04-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1455-x
       
  • Feasibility study of stain-free classification of cell apoptosis based on
           diffraction imaging flow cytometry and supervised machine learning
           techniques
    • Authors: Jingwen Feng; Tong Feng; Chengwen Yang; Wei Wang; Yu Sa; Yuanming Feng
      Abstract: This study was to explore the feasibility of prediction and classification of cells in different stages of apoptosis with a stain-free method based on diffraction images and supervised machine learning. Apoptosis was induced in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells by cis-platinum (DDP). A newly developed technique of polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry (p-DIFC) was performed to acquire diffraction images of the cells in three different statuses (viable, early apoptotic and late apoptotic/necrotic) after cell separation through fluorescence activated cell sorting with Annexin V-PE and SYTOX® Green double staining. The texture features of the diffraction images were extracted with in-house software based on the Gray-level co-occurrence matrix algorithm to generate datasets for cell classification with supervised machine learning method. Therefore, this new method has been verified in hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis model of HL-60. Results show that accuracy of higher than 90% was achieved respectively in independent test datasets from each cell type based on logistic regression with ridge estimators, which indicated that p-DIFC system has a great potential in predicting and classifying cells in different stages of apoptosis.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1454-y
       
  • Long noncoding RNAs in the mTOR signaling network: biomarkers and
           therapeutic targets
    • Authors: Tinglei Huang; Meiling Wang; Bo Huang; Augustus Chang; Feng Liu; Yanjie Zhang; Bin Jiang
      Abstract: As an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) related kinase family, the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays vital roles in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, participating in different cellular processes including cell survival, metabolism and proliferation. Aberrant activity of this signaling pathway may lead to oncogenesis. Over the last two decades, great progress has been made in the understanding of mTOR activation and how its response is counteracted for maintaining tissue homeostasis. Besides regulatory proteins and microRNAs, long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is another emerging critical layer of the intricate modulatory architecture for the control of the mTOR signaling circuit. Also, the production of numerous lncRNAs is induced by mTOR treatment. These findings offer new perspectives for designing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In this review, we summarize the interactions between the mTOR signaling pathway and lncRNAs in the development and progression of various types of tumors, focusing on the mechanisms of these interactions, and also discuss the potential use of lncRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for malignancies.
      PubDate: 2018-03-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1453-z
       
  • Correction to: Licarin A induces cell death by activation of autophagy and
           apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells
    • Authors: Uma Maheswari; Krishna Ghosh; Sudha Rani Sadras
      Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1452-0
       
  • Dysregulated genes and miRNAs in the apoptosis pathway in colorectal
           cancer patients
    • Authors: Martha L. Slattery; Lila E. Mullany; Lori C. Sakoda; Roger K. Wolff; Wade S. Samowitz; Jennifer S. Herrick
      Abstract: Apoptosis is genetically regulated and involves intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. We examined 133 genes within these pathways to identify whether they are expressed differently in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and normal tissue (N = 217) and if they are associated with similar differential miRNA expression. Gene expression data (RNA-Seq) and miRNA expression data (Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0) were generated. We focused on dysregulated genes with a fold change (FC) of > 1.50 or < 0.67, that were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. miRNA:mRNA seed-region matches were determined. Twenty-three genes were significantly downregulated (FC < 0.67) and 18 were significantly upregulated (FC > 1.50). Of these 41 genes, 11 were significantly associated with miRNA differential expression. BIRC5 had the greatest number of miRNA associations (14) and the most miRNAs with a seed-region match (10). Four of these matches, miR-145-5p, miR-150-5p, miR-195-5p, and miR-650, had a negative beta coefficient. CSF2RB was associated with ten total miRNAs (five with a seed-region match, and one miRNA, miR-92a-3p, with a negative beta coefficient). Of the three miRNAs associated with CTSS, miR-20b-5p, and miR-501-3p, had a seed-region match and a negative beta coefficient between miRNA:mRNA pairs. Several miRNAs that were associated with dysregulated gene expression, seed-region matches, and negative beta coefficients also were associated with CRC-specific survival. Our data suggest that miRNAs could influence several apoptosis-related genes. BIRC5, CTSS, and CSF2R all had seed-region matches with miRNAs that would favor apoptosis. Our study identifies several miRNA associated with apoptosis-related genes, that if validated, could be important therapeutic targets.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1451-1
       
  • Role of p62 in the regulation of cell death induction
    • Authors: Lihong Fan; Shutao Yin; Enxiang Zhang; Hongbo Hu
      Abstract: p62 is a multifunctional adaptor protein implicated in various cellular processes. It has been found to regulate selective autophagy, cell survival, cell death, oxidative stress, DNA repair and inflammation, and to play a role in a number of diseases, such as tumourigenesis, Paget’s disease of bone, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, and obesity. Cell death induction is an important cellular process. The dysregulation of cell death induction is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as cancer, neurodegeneration diseases, and diabetes. In this review, we discuss the functional role of p62 in inducing cell death in response to multiple stimuli, and we summarize the potential signaling pathways that contribute to this regulation. Given the important role of p62 in regulating cell death, p62 is considered to be a reasonable target for managing cell death dysregulation-related pathogenic conditions. A better understanding of the role of p62 and its related mechanisms in regulating cell death is necessary for the more precise utilization of p62 as a target for treating relevant diseases.
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1445-z
       
  • Licarin A induces cell death by activation of autophagy and apoptosis in
           non-small cell lung cancer cells
    • Authors: Uma Maheswari; Krishna Ghosh; Sudha Rani Sadras
      Abstract: Lung cancer has a relatively poor prognosis with a low survival rate and drugs that target other cell death mechanism like autophagy may help improving current therapeutic strategy. This study investigated the anti-proliferative effect of Licarin A (LCA) from Myristica fragrans in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines—A549, NCI-H23, NCI-H520 and NCI-H460. LCA inhibited proliferation of all the four cell lines in a dose and time dependent manner with minimum IC50 of 20.03 ± 3.12, 22.19 ± 1.37 µM in NCI-H23 and A549 cells respectively. Hence NCI-H23 and A549 cells were used to assess the ability LCA to induce autophagy and apoptosis. LCA treatment caused G1 arrest, increase in Beclin 1, LC3II levels and degradation of p62 indicating activation of autophagy in both NCI-H23 and A549 cells. In addition, LCA mediated apoptotic cell death was confirmed by MMP loss, increased ROS, cleaved PARP and decreased pro-caspase3. To understand the role of LCA induced autophagy and its association with apoptosis, cells were analysed following treatment with a late autophagy inhibitor-chloroquine and also after Beclin 1 siRNA transfection. Data indicated that inhibition of autophagy resulted in reduced anti-proliferative as well as pro-apoptotic ability of LCA. These findings confirmed that LCA brought about autophagy dependent apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells and hence it may serve as a potential drug candidate for non-small cell lung cancer therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1449-8
       
  • Epirubicin induces apoptosis in osteoblasts through death-receptor and
           mitochondrial pathways
    • Authors: Tzu-Ching Huang; Pu-Rong Chiu; Wen-Tsan Chang; Bau-Shan Hsieh; Yu-Ci Huang; Hsiao-Ling Cheng; Li-Wen Huang; Yu-Chen Hu; Kee-Lung Chang
      Abstract: Epirubicin is an anthracycline and is widely used in tumor treatment, but has toxic and undesirable side effects on wide range of cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Osteoblasts play important roles in bone development and in supporting HSC differentiation and maturation. It remains unknown whether epirubicin-induced bone loss and hematological toxicity are associated with its effect on osteoblasts. In primary osteoblast cell cultures, epirubicin inhibited cell growth and decreased mineralization. Moreover, epirubicin arrested osteoblasts in the G2/M phase, and this arrest was followed by apoptosis in which both the extrinsic (death receptor-mediated) and intrinsic (mitochondrial-mediated) apoptotic pathways were evoked. The factors involved in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway were increased FasL and FADD as well as activated caspase-8. Those involved in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway were decreased Bcl-2; increased reactive oxygen species, Bax, cytochrome c; and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3. These results demonstrate that epirubicin induced osteoblast apoptosis through the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, leading to the destruction of osteoblasts and consequent lessening of their functions in maintaining bone density and supporting hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and maturation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1450-2
       
  • Effect of phosphorylation and single nucleotide polymorphisms on caspase
           substrates processing
    • Authors: Sonu Kumar; Piotr Cieplak
      Abstract: Posttranslational modifications that involve either reversible covalent modification of proteins or irreversible proteolysis are central to the regulation of key cellular mechanisms, including apoptosis, cell-cycle regulation and signal transduction. There is mounting evidence suggesting cross-talk between proteases and kinases. For instance: caspases, a class of proteases involved in programmed cell death—apoptosis, cleave a large set of various types of proteins. Simultaneously, kinases restrict caspase activity by phosphorylating their protein substrates in the vicinity of cleavage site. In addition, the caspase cleavage pattern in target proteins may be modified as a result of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding gene. This may either create a novel cleavage site, or increase/decrease the cleavage efficiency of a substrate. Such point mutations are often associated with the onset of disease. In this study, we predicted how phosphorylation and SNPs affect known human caspase proteolytic events collected in the CASBAH and Degrabase databases by applying Random Forest caspases’ substrates prediction method, as implemented in the CaspDB, and the molecular dynamics free energy simulations approach. Our analysis confirms several experimental observations. Phosphorylation could have both positive or negative regulatory effects depending on its position with respect to the caspase cleavage site. For instance, we demonstrate that phosphorylation at P1′ is the most detrimental for proteolytic efficiency of caspases. Phosphorylation at the P2 and P2′ positions also negatively affect the cleavage events. In addition, we uncovered SNPs in 11 caspase substrates capable of completely abolishing the cleavage site due to polymorphism at the P1 position. The findings presented here may be useful for determining the link between aberrant proteolysis and disease.
      PubDate: 2018-02-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1442-2
       
  • Hypertonicity primes malignant melanoma cells for apoptosis
    • Authors: Diana Nicoleta Calance; Charlotte Steixner; Stefanie Gross; Beatrice Schuler-Thurner; Gertrud Knoll; Martin Ehrenschwender
      Abstract: The tumor environment critically influences responsiveness of cancer cells to chemotherapies, most of which activate the mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) apoptotic cascade to kill malignant cells. Especially skin tumors encounter an environment with remarkable biophysical properties. Cutaneous accumulation of Na+ locally establishes osmotic pressure gradients in vivo (hypertonicity or hyperosmotic stress), but whether cutaneous hypertonicity is a factor that modulates the responsiveness of skin cancers to therapeutic apoptosis-induction has thus far not been investigated. Here, we show that hyperosmotic stress lowers the threshold for apoptosis induction in malignant melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. Hypertonic conditions enforce addiction to BCL-2-like proteins to prevent initiation of the mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) apoptotic pathway. Essentially, hyperosmotic stress primes mitochondria for death. Our work identifies osmotic pressure in the tumor microenvironment as a cell extrinsic factor that modulates responsiveness of malignant melanoma cells to therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1446-y
       
  • Dynamic changes and molecular analysis of cell death in the spinal cord of
           SJL mice infected with the BeAn strain of Theiler’s murine
           encephalomyelitis virus
    • Authors: Ingo Gerhauser; Lin Li; Dandan Li; Stephanie Klein; Suliman Ahmed Elmarabet; Ulrich Deschl; Arno Kalkuhl; Wolfgang Baumgärtner; Reiner Ulrich; Andreas Beineke
      Abstract: Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis (TME) is caused by the TME virus (TMEV) and represents an important animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Oligodendroglial apoptosis and reduced apoptotic elimination of encephalitogenic leukocytes seem to participate in autoimmune demyelination in MS. The present study quantified apoptotic cells in BeAn–TMEV-induced spinal cord white matter lesions at 14, 42, 98, and 196 days post infection (dpi) using immunostaining. Apoptotic cells were identified by transmission electron microscopy and double-immunofluorescence. The mRNA expression of apoptosis-related genes was investigated using microarray analysis. Oligodendroglial apoptosis was already detected in the predemyelinating phase at 14 dpi. Apoptotic cell numbers peaked at 42 dpi and decreased until 196 dpi partly due to reduced T cell apoptosis. In addition to genes involved in the classical pathways of apoptosis induction, microarray analysis detected the expression of genes related to alternative mechanisms of cell death such as pyroptosis, necroptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Consequently, oligodendroglial apoptosis is involved in the initiation of the TME demyelination process, whereas the development of apoptosis resistance of T cells potentially favors the maintenance of inflammation and myelin loss.
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1448-9
       
  • Plagioneurin B, a potent isolated compound induces apoptotic signalling
           pathways and cell cycle arrest in ovarian cancer cells
    • Authors: Noraziah Nordin; Nazia Abdul Majid; Rozana Othman; Fatima Abdelmutaal Ahmed Omer; Muhammad Nazil Afiq Nasharuddin; Najihah Mohd Hashim
      Abstract: Plagioneurin B belongs to acetogenin group has well-established class of compounds. Acetogenin group has attracted worldwide attention in the past few years due their biological abilities as inhibitors for several types of tumour cells. Plagioneurin B was isolated via conventional chromatography and tested for thorough mechanistic apoptosis activity on human ovarian cancer cells (CAOV-3). Its structure was also docked at several possible targets using Autodock tools software. Our findings showed that plagioneurin B successfully inhibits the growth of CAOV-3 cells at IC50 of 0.62 µM. The existence of apoptotic bodies, cell membrane blebbing and chromatin condensation indicated the hallmark of apoptosis. Increase of Annexin V-FITC bound to phosphatidylserine confirmed the apoptosis induction in the cells. The apoptosis event was triggered through the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways via activation of caspases 8 and 9, respectively. Stimulation of caspase 3 and the presence of DNA ladder suggested downstream apoptotic signalling were initiated. Further confirmation of apoptosis was conducted at the molecular levels where up-regulation in Bax, as well as down-regulation of Bcl-2, Hsp-70 and survivin were observed. Plagioneurin B was also seen to arrest CAOV-3 cells cycle at the G2/M phase. Docking simulation of plagioneurin B with CD95 demonstrated that the high binding affinity and hydrogen bonds formation may explain the capability of plagioneurin B to trigger apoptosis. This study is therefore importance in finding the effective compound that may offer an alternative drug for ovarian cancer treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1447-x
       
  • Synergistic effect of the pro-apoptosis peptide kla-TAT and the cationic
           anticancer peptide HPRP-A1
    • Authors: Cuihua Hu; Xiaolong Chen; Yibing Huang; Yuxin Chen
      Abstract: In this study, a peptide–peptide co-administration therapy between hybrid peptide kla-TAT and cationic anticancer peptide HPRP-A1 was designed to increase the anticancer activity of the combination peptides through synergistic effect. kla is a pro-apoptotic peptide which could induce rapid cancer cell apoptosis by disruption the mitochondrial membrane when internalized the cells. To enhance more kla peptides pass through cell membrane, a double improvement strategy was designed by chemically conjugation with cell penetration peptide TAT as well as co-administration with cationic membrane active peptide HPRP-A1, and the double anticancer mechanism of the kla-TAT peptide and HPRP-A1 including membrane disruption and apoptosis induction was verified through in vitro experiments. The CompuSyn synergism/antagonism analysis showed that kla-TAT acted synergistically with HPRP-A1 against a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell line. The anticancer activities of the two peptides were dramatically increased by co-administration, under the mechanism of cell membrane disruption, caspase-dependent apoptosis induction, as well as cyclin-D1 down-regulation based G1 phase arrest. We believe that the synergic therapeutic strategy would be a meaningful method for the anticancer peptides used in cancer treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1443-1
       
  • Baculovirus-based gene silencing of Humanin for the treatment of pituitary
           tumors
    • Authors: María Florencia Gottardo; Matías L. Pidre; Camila Zuccato; Antonela S. Asad; Mercedes Imsen; Gabriela Jaita; Marianela Candolfi; Víctor Romanowski; Adriana Seilicovich
      Abstract: Pituitary tumors are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms. Humanin (HN) and Rattin (HNr), a rat homolog of HN, are short peptides with a cytoprotective action. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether endogenous HNr plays an antiapoptotic role in pituitary tumor cells. Thus, we used RNA interference based on short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeted to HNr (shHNr). A plasmid including the coding sequences for shHNr and dTomato fluorescent reporter gene was developed (pUC-shHNr). Transfection of somatolactotrope GH3 cells with pUC-shHNr increased apoptosis, suggesting that endogenous HNr plays a cytoprotective role in pituitary tumor cells. In order to evaluate the effect of blockade of endogenous HNr expression in vivo, we constructed a recombinant baculovirus (BV) encoding shHNr (BV-shHNr). In vitro, BV-shRNA was capable of transducing more than 80% of GH3 cells and decreased HNr mRNA. Also, BV-shHNr increased apoptosis in transduced GH3 cells. Intratumor injection of BV-shHNr to nude mice bearing s.c. GH3 tumors increased the number of apoptotic cells, delayed tumor growth and enhanced survival rate, suggesting that endogenous HNr may be involved in pituitary tumor progression. These preclinical data suggests that the silencing of HN expression could have a therapeutic impact on the treatment of pituitary tumors.
      PubDate: 2018-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1444-0
       
  • Piperazine clubbed with 2-azetidinone derivatives suppresses
           proliferation, migration and induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer
           HeLa cells through oxidative stress mediated intrinsic mitochondrial
           pathway
    • Authors: Rashmin Khanam; Raj Kumar; Iram Iqbal Hejazi; Syed Shahabuddin; Ramovatar Meena; Vikrant Jayant; Prabhat Kumar; Abdul Roouf Bhat; Fareeda Athar
      Abstract: Piperazine scaffolds or 2-azetidinone pharmacophores have been reported to show anti-cancer activities and apoptosis induction in different types of cancer cells. However, the mechanistic studies involve in induction of apoptosis addressing these two moieties for human cervical cancer cells remain uncertain. The present study emphasizes on the anti-proliferating properties and mechanism involved in induction of apoptosis for these structurally related azoles derivatives in HeLa cancer cells. 1-Phenylpiperazine clubbed with 2-azetidione derivatives (5a–5h) were synthesized, characterized using various spectroscopic techniques and evaluated for their in-vitro anti-proliferative activities and induction of apoptosis. Further, we also evaluated oxidative stress generated by these synthetic derivatives (5a–5h). Cell viability studies revealed that among all, the compound N-(3-chloro-2-(3-nitrophenyl)-4-oxoazetidin-1-yl)-2-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl) acetamide 5e remarkably inhibited the growth of HeLa cells in a concentration dependent manner having IC50 value of 29.44 ± 1.46 µg/ml. Morphological changes, colonies suppression and inhibition of migration clearly showed the antineoplasicity in HeLa cells treated with 5e. Simultaneously, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation and cell-cycle arrest showed ongoing apoptosis in the HeLa cancer cells induced by compound 5e in concentration dependent manner. Additionally, generation of intracellular ROS along with the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential supported that compound 5e caused oxidative stress resulting in apoptosis through mitochondria mediated pathway. Elevation in the level of cytochrome c and upregulation in expression of caspase-3 clearly indicated the involvement of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death. In brief; compound 5e could serve as a promising lead for the development of an effective antitumor agent. Graphical
      PubDate: 2018-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1439-x
       
  • Negative regulators of cell death pathways in cancer: perspective on
           biomarkers and targeted therapies
    • Authors: Ali Razaghi; Kirsten Heimann; Patrick M. Schaeffer; Spencer B. Gibson
      Abstract: Cancer is a primary cause of human fatality and conventional cancer therapies, e.g., chemotherapy, are often associated with adverse side-effects, tumor drug-resistance, and recurrence. Molecularly targeted therapy, composed of small-molecule inhibitors and immunotherapy (e.g., monoclonal antibody and cancer vaccines), is a less harmful alternative being more effective against cancer cells whilst preserving healthy tissues. Drug-resistance, however, caused by negative regulation of cell death signaling pathways, is still a challenge. Circumvention of negative regulators of cell death pathways or development of predictive and response biomarkers is, therefore, quintessential. This review critically discusses the current state of knowledge on targeting negative regulators of cell death signaling pathways including apoptosis, ferroptosis, necroptosis, autophagy, and anoikis and evaluates the recent advances in clinical and preclinical research on biomarkers of negative regulators. It aims to provide a comprehensive platform for designing efficacious polytherapies including novel agents for restoring cell death signaling pathways or targeting alternative resistance pathways to improve the chances for antitumor responses. Overall, it is concluded that nonapoptotic cell death pathways are a potential research arena for drug discovery, development of novel biomarkers and targeted therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1440-4
       
  • Correction to: Combined gene expression and proteomic analysis of EGF
           induced apoptosis in A431 cells suggests multiple pathways trigger
           apoptosis
    • Authors: Ibrahim Alanazi; Esmaeil Ebrahimie; Peter Hoffmann; David L. Adelson
      Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The affiliation of first author Dr. Ibrahim Alanazi was incorrect.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1431-x
       
  • Identifying and monitoring neurons that undergo metamorphosis-regulated
           cell death (metamorphoptosis) by a neuron-specific caspase sensor (Casor)
           in Drosophila melanogaster
    • Authors: Gyunghee Lee; Jaeman Kim; Yujin Kim; Siuk Yoo; Jae H. Park
      Abstract: Activation of caspases is an essential step toward initiating apoptotic cell death. During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, many larval neurons are programmed for elimination to establish an adult central nervous system (CNS) as well as peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, their neuronal functions have remained mostly unknown due to the lack of proper tools to identify them. To obtain detailed information about the neurochemical phenotypes of the doomed larval neurons and their timing of death, we generated a new GFP-based caspase sensor (Casor) that is designed to change its subcellular position from the cell membrane to the nucleus following proteolytic cleavage by active caspases. Ectopic expression of Casor in vCrz and bursicon, two different peptidergic neuronal groups that had been well-characterized for their metamorphic programmed cell death, showed clear nuclear translocation of Casor in a caspase-dependent manner before their death. We found similar events in some cholinergic neurons from both CNS and PNS. Moreover, Casor also reported significant caspase activities in the ventral and dorsal common excitatory larval motoneurons shortly after puparium formation. These motoneurons were previously unknown for their apoptotic fate. Unlike the events seen in the neurons, expression of Casor in non-neuronal cell types, such as glial cells and S2 cells, resulted in the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates, preventing its use as a caspase sensor in these cell types. Nonetheless, our results support Casor as a valuable molecular tool not only for identifying novel groups of neurons that become caspase-active during metamorphosis but also for monitoring developmental timing and cytological changes within the dying neurons.
      PubDate: 2017-12-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1435-6
       
  • A triazole-conjugated benzoxazone induces reactive oxygen species and
           promotes autophagic apoptosis in human lung cancer cells
    • Authors: Chang-Heng Hsieh; Jing-Ping Wang; Chien-Chih Chiu; Chun-Yen Liu; Ching-Fa Yao; Kang Fang
      Abstract: Numerous approaches suggested that compounds with conjugated triazole moieties or benzoxazone pharmacores are effective to antagonize proliferation of human tumors. The current study reported that a synthetic triazole-conjugated benzoxazone, 4-((5-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-3-yl)-methyl)-7-methoxy-2H-benzo[b][1,4]-oxazin-3(4H)-one (BTO), inhibited growth rates of human non-small cell lung cancer cells. The cytotoxicity can be enhanced with increasing drug concentrations. More evidence supported that the induced reactive oxygen species lead to ultimate apoptotic cell death by recruiting autophagy. The mechanistic pathway as elucidated involved tumor suppressor p53 activation and LC3-1 conversion followed by PARP and procaspase-3 cleavage. Autophagy inhibition reverted apoptotic death and restored cell viabilities. BTO suppressed the development of A549 cell xenograft tumors by activating autophagy and apoptosis simultaneously. As an efficient tumor growth inhibitor with relatively small molecular weight, BTO is a viable addition to the existing list of lung cancer treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1432-9
       
 
 
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