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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover APOPTOSIS
  [SJR: 1.554]   [H-I: 87]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-675X - ISSN (Online) 1360-8185
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Negative regulators of cell death pathways in cancer: perspective on
           biomarkers and targeted therapies
    • Authors: Ali Razaghi; Kirsten Heimann; Patrick M. Schaeffer; Spencer B. Gibson
      Abstract: Abstract Cancer is a primary cause of human fatality and conventional cancer therapies, e.g., chemotherapy, are often associated with adverse side-effects, tumor drug-resistance, and recurrence. Molecularly targeted therapy, composed of small-molecule inhibitors and immunotherapy (e.g., monoclonal antibody and cancer vaccines), is a less harmful alternative being more effective against cancer cells whilst preserving healthy tissues. Drug-resistance, however, caused by negative regulation of cell death signaling pathways, is still a challenge. Circumvention of negative regulators of cell death pathways or development of predictive and response biomarkers is, therefore, quintessential. This review critically discusses the current state of knowledge on targeting negative regulators of cell death signaling pathways including apoptosis, ferroptosis, necroptosis, autophagy, and anoikis and evaluates the recent advances in clinical and preclinical research on biomarkers of negative regulators. It aims to provide a comprehensive platform for designing efficacious polytherapies including novel agents for restoring cell death signaling pathways or targeting alternative resistance pathways to improve the chances for antitumor responses. Overall, it is concluded that nonapoptotic cell death pathways are a potential research arena for drug discovery, development of novel biomarkers and targeted therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1440-4
       
  • Autophagy inhibits high glucose induced cardiac microvascular endothelial
           cells apoptosis by mTOR signal pathway
    • Authors: Zheng Zhang; Shenwei Zhang; Yong Wang; Ming Yang; Ning Zhang; Zhitao Jin; Liping Ding; Wei Jiang; Junke Yang; Zhimin Sun; Chunguang Qiu; Taohong Hu
      Pages: 1510 - 1523
      Abstract: Abstract Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) dysfunction is an important pathophysiological event in the cardiovascular complications induced by diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully clarified. Autophagy is involved in programmed cell death. Here we investigated the potential role of autophagy on the CMECs injury induced by high glucose. CMECs were cultured in normal or high glucose medium for 6, 12 and 24 h respectively. The autophagy of CMECs was measured by green fluorescence protein (GFP)-LC3 plasmid transfection. Moreover, the apoptosis of CMEC was determined by flow cytometry. Furthermore, 3-Methyladenine (3MA), ATG7 siRNA and rapamycin were administrated to regulate the autophagy state. Moreover, Western blotting assay was performed to measure the expressions of Akt, mTOR, LC3 and p62. High glucose stress decreased the autophagy, whereas increased the apoptosis in CMECs time dependently. Meanwhile, high glucose stress activated the Akt/mTOR signal pathway. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitor, 3-MA and ATG7 siRNA impaired the autophagy and increased the apoptosis in CMECs induced by high glucose stress. Conversely, rapamycin up-regulated the autophagy and decreased the apoptosis in CMECs under high glucose condition. Our data provide evidence that high glucose directly inhibits autophagy, as a beneficial adaptive response to protect CMECs against apoptosis. Furthermore, the autophagy was mediated, at least in part, by mTOR signaling.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1398-7
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 12 (2017)
       
  • Anisodamine inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3
           inflammasome activation in rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury
    • Authors: Xiaopeng Yuan; Yitao Zheng; Chuanbao Chen; Changxi Wang
      Pages: 1524 - 1531
      Abstract: Abstract Anisodamine protects against free radical-induced cellular damage. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of anisodamine on rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (RIAKI). C57BL/6 J mice, TXNIP−/− and NLRP3 −/− (both were C57BL/6 J background) mice were used to construct RIAKI model. Anisodamine administration was performed on RIAKI mice only. Mice were divided into control, TXNIP-KD (knock down), LNPR3-KD, and anisodamine group (n = 15 in each group). The renal injury, renal function, renal tubular cells apoptosis and expression of Caspase-1, ASC, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers IRE-1α, CHOP, and ATF4, and interleukin (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-18) were detected. The knock down of TXNIP or NLRP3 expression in mice showed protective effect against RIAKI pathogenesis, as compared with the RIAKI mice. The expression of Caspase-1, ASC, and interleukins, renal injury, renal tubular cells apoptosis in TXNIP-KD and LNPR3-KD mice were significantly inhibited in comparison with the RIAKI mice. Moreover, anisodamine treatment reduced expression of ER stress markers IRE-1α, CHOP, and ATF4, TXNIP and NLRP3, as well as ACS, Caspase-1, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-18, showing moderate protective effect on the changes of above factors comparing with TXNIP or NLRP3 knock down. This study declared that anisodamine showed protective effect on RIAKI model may by inhibiting ER stress associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1414-y
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 12 (2017)
       
  • The muscle regulatory transcription factor MyoD participates with p53 to
           directly increase the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member
           PUMA
    • Authors: Terri J. Harford; Greg Kliment; Girish C. Shukla; Crystal M. Weyman
      Pages: 1532 - 1542
      Abstract: Abstract The muscle regulatory transcription factor MyoD is a master regulator of skeletal myoblast differentiation. We have previously reported that MyoD is also necessary for the elevated expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA, and the ensuing apoptosis, that occurs in a subset of myoblasts induced to differentiate. Herein, we report the identification of a functional MyoD binding site within the extended PUMA promoter. In silico analysis of the murine PUMA extended promoter revealed three potential MyoD binding sites within 2 kb of the transcription start site. Expression from a luciferase reporter construct containing this 2 kb fragment was enhanced by activation of MyoD in both myoblasts and fibroblasts and diminished by silencing of MyoD in myoblasts. Experiments utilizing truncated versions of this promoter region revealed that the potential binding site at position − 857 was necessary for expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis confirmed binding of MyoD to the DNA region encompassing position − 857. The increase in MyoD binding to the PUMA promoter as a consequence of culture in differentiation media (DM) was comparable to the increase in MyoD binding at the myogenin promoter and was diminished in myoblasts silenced for MyoD expression. Finally, ChIP analysis using an antibody specific for the transcription factor p53 demonstrated that, in myoblasts silenced for MyoD expression, p53 binding to the PUMA promoter was diminished in response to culture in DM. These data indicate that MyoD plays a direct role in regulating PUMA expression and reveal functional consequences of MyoD expression on p53 mediated transcription of PUMA.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1423-x
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 12 (2017)
       
  • The Btk-dependent PIP5K1γ lipid kinase activation by Fas counteracts
           FasL-induced cell death
    • Authors: Aurélie Rossin; Nadia Lounnas; Jérôme Durivault; Giorgia Miloro; Laurent Gagnoux-Palacios; Anne-Odile Hueber
      Pages: 1344 - 1352
      Abstract: Abstract The Fas/FasL system plays a critical role in death by apoptosis and immune escape of cancer cells. The Fas receptor being ubiquitously expressed in tissues, its apoptotic-inducing function, initiated upon FasL binding, is tightly regulated by several negative regulatory mechanisms to prevent inappropriate cell death. One of them, involving the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Btk, was reported mainly in B cells and only poorly described. We report here that Btk negatively regulates, through its tyrosine kinase activity, the FasL-mediated cell death in epithelial cell lines from colon cancer origin. More importantly, we show that Btk interacts not only with Fas but also with the phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, PIP5K1γ, which, upon stimulation by Fas ligand, is responsible of a rapid and transient synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). This production requires both the presence and the tyrosine kinase activity of Btk, and participates in the negative regulation of FasL-mediated cell death since knocking down PIP5K1γ expression significantly strengthens the apoptotic signal upon FasL engagement. Altogether, our data demonstrate the cooperative role of Btk and PIP5K1γ in a FasL-induced PI(4,5)P2 production, both proteins participating to the threshold setting of FasL-induced apoptotic commitment in colorectal cell lines.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1415-x
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Novel histone deacetylase 8-selective inhibitor 1,3,4-oxadiazole-alanine
           hybrid induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells
    • Authors: Vijaya Rao Pidugu; Nagendra Sastry Yarla; Anupam Bishayee; Arunasree M. Kalle; Alapati Krishna Satya
      Pages: 1394 - 1403
      Abstract: Abstract Identification of isoform-specific histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is a significant advantage to overcome the adverse side effects of pan-HDACi for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. We have designed, and synthesized novel 1,3,4 oxadiazole with glycine/alanine hybrids as HDAC8-specific inhibitors and preliminary evaluation has indicated that 1,3,4 oxadiazole with alanine hybrid [(R)-2-amino-N-((5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl)propanamide (10b)] to be a potent HDAC8 inhibitor. In the present study, the in vitro efficacy of the molecule in inhibiting the cancer cell proliferation and the underlying molecular mechanism was studied. 10b inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer cells, with a lower IC50 of 230 and 1000 nM, respectively, compared to K562, COLO-205 and HepG2 cells and was not cytotoxic to normal breast epithelial cells, MCF10A. 10b was specific to HDAC8 and did not affect the expression of other class I HDACs. Further, a dose-dependent increase in H3K9 acetylation levels demonstrated the HDAC-inhibitory activity of 10b in MDA-MB-231 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated a dose-dependent increase and decrease in the percent apoptotic cells and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively, when treated with 10b. Immunoblot analysis showed a modulation of Bax/Bcl2 ratio with a decrease in Bcl2 expression and no change in Bax expression. 10b treatment resulted in induction of p21 and inhibition of CDK1 proteins along with cytochrome c release from mitochondria, activation of caspases-3 and -9 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase leading to apoptotic death of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells. In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrated the efficacy of 10b as an anticancer agent against breast cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1410-2
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Caspase cleavage of Mcl-1 impairs its anti-apoptotic activity and
           proteasomal degradation in non-small lung cancer cells
    • Authors: Ting Wang; Zhiwei Yang; Yimeng Zhang; Xiang Zhang; Lei Wang; Shengli Zhang; Lintao Jia
      Abstract: Abstract Global cleavage of cellular proteins by activated caspases is a hallmark of apoptosis, which causes biochemical collapse of the cell. Recent studies suggest that, rather than completely destroying a protein, caspase cleavage can confer novel characteristics or functions. In this respect, the post-caspase role of Bcl-2 family proteins remains uncharacterized. Here, we showed that Mcl-1, a pro-survival member of the Bcl-2 family, was cleaved by caspase-3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells undergoing chemotherapeutic agent-triggered apoptosis. Caspase cleavage partially impaired the anti-apoptotic activity of Mcl-1 by reducing its mitochondrial localization and impeding its association with the permeability transition pore-forming protein Bak. However, the stability of cleaved Mcl-1 was markedly enhanced because it was more refractory to ubiquitination-dependent proteasomal degradation, thereby improving cell viability to a greater extent than full-length Mcl-1 when transiently expressed in NSCLC cells. These findings shed new light on the role of Mcl-1 in apoptosis and suggest potential novel targets for optimizing the tumoricidal capacity of chemotherapy.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1436-5
       
  • SDF-1 induces TNF-mediated apoptosis in cardiac myocytes
    • Authors: Andrew A. Jarrah; Martina Schwarskopf; Edward R. Wang; Thomas LaRocca; Ashwini Dhume; Shihong Zhang; Lahouria Hadri; Roger J. Hajjar; Alison D. Schecter; Sima T. Tarzami
      Abstract: Abstract Chemokines are small secreted proteins with chemoattractant properties that play a key role in inflammation. One such chemokine, Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) also known as CXCL12, and its receptor, CXCR4, are expressed and functional in cardiac myocytes. SDF-1 both stimulates and enhances the cellular signal which attracts potentially beneficial stem cells for tissue repair within the ischemic heart. Paradoxically however, this chemokine is known to act in concert with the inflammatory cytokines of the innate immune response which contributes to cellular injury through the recruitment of inflammatory cells during ischemia. In the present study, we have demonstrated that SDF-1 has dose dependent effects on freshly isolated cardiomyocytes. Using Tunnel and caspase 3-activation assays, we have demonstrated that the treatment of isolated adult rat cardiac myocyte with SDF-1 at higher concentrations (pathological concentrations) induced apoptosis. Furthermore, ELISA data demonstrated that the treatment of isolated adult rat cardiac myocyte with SDF-1 at higher concentrations upregulated TNF-α protein expression which directly correlated with subsequent apoptosis. There was a significant reduction in SDF-1 mediated apoptosis when TNF-α expression was neutralized which suggests that SDF-1 mediated apoptosis is TNF-α-dependent. The fact that certain stimuli are capable of driving cardiomyocytes into apoptosis indicates that these cells are susceptible to clinically relevant apoptotic triggers. Our findings suggest that the elevated SDF-1 levels seen in a variety of clinical conditions, including ischemic myocardial infarction, may either directly or indirectly contribute to cardiac cell death via a TNF-α mediated pathway. This highlights the importance of this receptor/ligand in regulating the cardiomyocyte response to stress conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1438-3
       
  • Caspase cleavage of transcription factor Sp1 enhances apoptosis
    • Authors: Behzad Torabi; Samuel Flashner; Kate Beishline; Aislinn Sowash; Kelly Donovan; Garrett Bassett; Jane Azizkhan-Clifford
      Abstract: Abstract Sp1 is a ubiquitous transcription factor that regulates many genes involved in apoptosis and senescence. Sp1 also has a role in the DNA damage response; at low levels of DNA damage, Sp1 is phosphorylated by ATM and localizes to double-strand break sites where it facilitates DNA double-strand-break repair. Depletion of Sp1 increases the sensitivity of cells to DNA damage, whereas overexpression of Sp1 can drive cells into apoptosis. In response to a variety of stimuli, Sp1 can be regulated through proteolytic cleavage by caspases and/or degradation. Here, we show that activation of apoptosis through DNA damage or TRAIL-mediated activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway induces caspase-mediated cleavage of Sp1. Cleavage of Sp1 was coincident with the appearance of cleaved caspase 3, and produced a 70 kDa Sp1 product. In vitro analysis revealed a novel caspase cleavage site at aspartic acid 183. Mutation of aspartic acid 183 to alanine conferred resistance to cleavage, and ectopic expression of the Sp1 D183A rendered cells resistant to apoptotic stimuli, indicating that Sp1 cleavage is involved in the induction of apoptosis. The 70 kDa product resulting from caspase cleavage of Sp1 comprises amino acids 184–785. This truncated form, designated Sp1-70C, which retains transcriptional activity, induced apoptosis when overexpressed in normal epithelial cells, whereas Sp1D183A induced significantly less apoptosis. Together, these data reveal a new caspase cleavage site in Sp1 and demonstrate for the first time that caspase cleavage of Sp1 promotes apoptosis.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1437-4
       
  • Correction to: Combined gene expression and proteomic analysis of EGF
           induced apoptosis in A431 cells suggests multiple pathways trigger
           apoptosis
    • Authors: Ibrahim Alanazi; Esmaeil Ebrahimie; Peter Hoffmann; David L. Adelson
      Abstract: Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The affiliation of first author Dr. Ibrahim Alanazi was incorrect.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1431-x
       
  • Identifying and monitoring neurons that undergo metamorphosis-regulated
           cell death (metamorphoptosis) by a neuron-specific caspase sensor (Casor)
           in Drosophila melanogaster
    • Authors: Gyunghee Lee; Jaeman Kim; Yujin Kim; Siuk Yoo; Jae H. Park
      Abstract: Abstract Activation of caspases is an essential step toward initiating apoptotic cell death. During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, many larval neurons are programmed for elimination to establish an adult central nervous system (CNS) as well as peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, their neuronal functions have remained mostly unknown due to the lack of proper tools to identify them. To obtain detailed information about the neurochemical phenotypes of the doomed larval neurons and their timing of death, we generated a new GFP-based caspase sensor (Casor) that is designed to change its subcellular position from the cell membrane to the nucleus following proteolytic cleavage by active caspases. Ectopic expression of Casor in vCrz and bursicon, two different peptidergic neuronal groups that had been well-characterized for their metamorphic programmed cell death, showed clear nuclear translocation of Casor in a caspase-dependent manner before their death. We found similar events in some cholinergic neurons from both CNS and PNS. Moreover, Casor also reported significant caspase activities in the ventral and dorsal common excitatory larval motoneurons shortly after puparium formation. These motoneurons were previously unknown for their apoptotic fate. Unlike the events seen in the neurons, expression of Casor in non-neuronal cell types, such as glial cells and S2 cells, resulted in the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates, preventing its use as a caspase sensor in these cell types. Nonetheless, our results support Casor as a valuable molecular tool not only for identifying novel groups of neurons that become caspase-active during metamorphosis but also for monitoring developmental timing and cytological changes within the dying neurons.
      PubDate: 2017-12-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1435-6
       
  • Molecular docking studies of bioactive compounds from Annona muricata Linn
           
    • Authors: Mohamad Norisham Mohamad Rosdi; Shahkila Mohd Arif; Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar; Siti Aisyah Razali; Razauden Mohamed Zulkifli; Harisun Ya’akob
      Abstract: Abstract Annona muricata Linn or usually identified as soursop is a potential anticancer plant that has been widely reported to contain valuable chemopreventive agents known as annonaceous acetogenins. The antiproliferative and anticancer activities of this tropical and subtropical plant have been demonstrated in cell culture and animal studies. A. muricata L. exerts inhibition against numerous types of cancer cells, involving multiple mechanism of actions such as apoptosis, a programmed cell death that are mainly regulated by Bcl-2 family of proteins. Nonetheless, the binding mode and the molecular interactions of the plant’s bioactive constituents have not yet been unveiled for most of these mechanisms. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the binding interaction of ten bioactive phytochemicals of A. muricata L. to three Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins viz. Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1 using an in silico molecular docking analysis software, Autodock 4.2. The stability of the complex with highest affinity was evaluated using MD simulation. We compared the docking analysis of these substances with pre-clinical Bcl-2 inhibitor namely obatoclax. The study identified the potential chemopreventive agent among the bioactive compounds. We also characterized the important interacting residues of protein targets which involve in the binding interaction. Results displayed that anonaine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, showed a high affinity towards the Bcl-2, thus indicating that this compound is a potent inhibitor of the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic family of proteins.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1434-7
       
  • A triazole-conjugated benzoxazone induces reactive oxygen species and
           promotes autophagic apoptosis in human lung cancer cells
    • Authors: Chang-Heng Hsieh; Jing-Ping Wang; Chien-Chih Chiu; Chun-Yen Liu; Ching-Fa Yao; Kang Fang
      Abstract: Abstract Numerous approaches suggested that compounds with conjugated triazole moieties or benzoxazone pharmacores are effective to antagonize proliferation of human tumors. The current study reported that a synthetic triazole-conjugated benzoxazone, 4-((5-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-3-yl)-methyl)-7-methoxy-2H-benzo[b][1,4]-oxazin-3(4H)-one (BTO), inhibited growth rates of human non-small cell lung cancer cells. The cytotoxicity can be enhanced with increasing drug concentrations. More evidence supported that the induced reactive oxygen species lead to ultimate apoptotic cell death by recruiting autophagy. The mechanistic pathway as elucidated involved tumor suppressor p53 activation and LC3-1 conversion followed by PARP and procaspase-3 cleavage. Autophagy inhibition reverted apoptotic death and restored cell viabilities. BTO suppressed the development of A549 cell xenograft tumors by activating autophagy and apoptosis simultaneously. As an efficient tumor growth inhibitor with relatively small molecular weight, BTO is a viable addition to the existing list of lung cancer treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1432-9
       
  • Linear ubiquitin chain induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth
    • Authors: Zhoushuai Qin; Wandong Jiang; Guifen Wang; Ying Sun; Wei Xiao
      Abstract: Abstract Ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an important role in DNA damage response. Ectopic expression of PCNA fused at either terminus with ubiquitin (Ub) lacking two C-terminal glycine residues induces translesion DNA synthesis which resembles synthesis mediated by PCNA monoubiquitination. PCNA fused with Ub containing the C-terminal Gly residues at the C-terminus can be further polyubiquitinated in a Gly-dependent manner, which inhibits cell proliferation and induces ATR-dependent replication checkpoint. In this study, we surprisingly found that PCNA fused to a head-to-tail linear Ub chain induces apoptosis in a Ub chain length-dependent manner. Further investigation revealed that the apoptotic effect is actually induced by the linear Ub chain independently from PCNA, as the Ub chain fused to GFP or an epitope tag still efficiently induces apoptosis. It is revealed that the artificial linear Ub chain differs from endogenously encoded linear Ub chains in that its Ubs contain a Ub-G76S substitution, making the Ub chain resistant to cleavage by deubiquitination enzymes. We demonstrated in this study that ectopic expression of the artificial Ub chain alone in cultured human cancer cells is sufficient to inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model, making the linear Ub chain a putative anti-cancer agent.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1433-8
       
  • Apoptosis turns 21
    • Authors: Arjan W. Griffioen; Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1430-y
       
  • Bromoethylindole (BEI-9) redirects NF-κB signaling induced by
           camptothecin and TNFα to promote cell death in colon cancer cells
    • Authors: Rupak Chowdhury; Dominique Gales; Paloma Valenzuela; Sonni Miller; Teshome Yehualaeshet; Upender Manne; Giulio Francia; Temesgen Samuel
      Abstract: Abstract Chemotherapeutic regimens containing camptothecin (CPT), 5-fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin are used to treat advanced colorectal cancer. We previously reported that an indole derivative, 3-(2-bromoethyl)indole (BEI-9), inhibited the proliferation of colon cancer cells and suppressed NF-κB activation. Here, we show that a combination of BEI-9 with either CPT or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) enhances cell death. Using colorectal cancer cells, we examined the activation of NF-κB by drugs, the potential of BEI-9 for inhibiting drug-induced NF-κB activation, and the enhancement of cell death by combination treatments. Cells were treated with the chemotherapeutic drugs alone or in combination with BEI-9. NF-κB activation, cell cycle profiles, DNA-damage response, markers of cell death signaling and targets of NF-κB were evaluated to determine the effects of single and co-treatments. The combination of BEI-9 with CPT or TNFα inhibited NF-κB activation and reduced the expression of NF-κB-responsive genes, Bcl-xL and COX2. Compared to CPT or BEI-9 alone, sequential treatment of the cells with CPT and BEI-9 significantly enhanced caspase activation and cell death. Co-treatment with TNFα and BEI-9 also caused more cytotoxicity than TNFα or BEI-9 alone. Combined BEI-9 and TNFα enhanced cell death through caspase activation and cleavage of the switch-protein, RIP1 kinase. BEI-9 reduced the expression of COX2 both alone and in combination with CPT or TNF. We postulate that BEI-9 enhances the effects of these drugs on cancer cells by turning off or redirecting NF-κB signaling. Therefore, the combination of BEI-9 with drugs that activate NF-κB needs to be evaluated for clinical applications.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1427-6
       
  • LncRNA MEG3 inhibit endometrial carcinoma tumorigenesis and progression
           through PI3K pathway
    • Authors: Kai-Xuan Sun; Dan-Dan Wu; Shuo Chen; Yang Zhao; Zhi-Hong Zong
      Abstract: Abstract Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNA molecules more than 200 nucleotides in length that do not encode proteins. Recent studies have reported increasing numbers of functional lncRNAs. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is a maternally imprinted gene encoding an lncRNA that plays a tumor suppressor role in various tumors. However, there has been rare report on mechanism of tumorigenesis and progression of endometrial carcinoma. In the present study, we found significantly lower MEG3 expression in endometrial carcinoma tissues than in normal endometrial tissues. MEG3 overexpression inhibited endometrial cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis; promoted apoptosis; and inhibited the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/m-TOR signaling pathway. RNA immunoprecipitation assay (RIP) showed that MEG3 can combine directly with PI3K. Tumor xenograft implantation in nude mice showed that MEG3 could significantly suppress tumor growth. These findings provide potential new therapeutic targets for treating endometrial cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1426-7
       
  • Inhibitors of apoptosis: clinical implications in cancer
    • Authors: Mervat S. Mohamed; Mai K. Bishr; Fahad M. Almutairi; Ayat G. Ali
      Abstract: Abstract Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family comprises a group of endogenous proteins that function as main regulators of caspase activity and cell death. They are considered the main culprits in evasion of apoptosis, which is a fundamental hallmark of carcinogenesis. Overexpression of IAP proteins has been documented in various solid and hematological malignancies, rendering them resistant to standard chemotherapeutics and radiation therapy and conferring poor prognosis. This observation has urged their exploitation as therapeutic targets in cancer with promising pre-clinical outcomes. This review describes the structural and functional features of IAP proteins to elucidate the mechanism of their anti-apoptotic activity. We also provide an update on patterns of IAP expression in different tumors, their impact on treatment response and prognosis, as well as the emerging investigational drugs targeting them. This aims at shedding the light on the advances in IAP targeting achieved to date, and encourage further development of clinically applicable therapeutic approaches.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1429-4
       
  • Procaspase-activating compound-1 induces apoptosis in Trypanosoma cruzi
    • Authors: Emanuella de Castro; Thamile Luciane Reus; Alessandra Melo de Aguiar; Andrea Rodrigues Ávila; Tatiana de Arruda Campos Brasil de Souza
      Abstract: Abstract Some therapeutics for parasitic, cardiac and neurological diseases activate apoptosis. Therefore, the study of apoptotic proteins in pathogenic organisms is relevant. However, the molecular mechanism of apoptosis in unicellular organisms remain elusive, despite morphological evidence of its occurrence. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, metacaspase 3 (TcMCA3), seems to have a key role in parasite apoptosis. Accordingly, this work provides data concerning TcMCA3 regulation through its interaction with procaspase-activating compound 1 (PAC-1), a procaspase 3 activator. Indeed, PAC-1 reduced T. cruzi epimastigote viability with an IC50 of 14.12 µM and induced loss of mitochondrial potential and exposure of phosphatidylserine, features of the apoptotic process. Notwithstanding, those PAC-1-inducible effects were not conserved in metacyclic trypomastigotes. Moreover, PAC-1 reduced the viability of mammalian cells with a greater IC50 (25.70 µM) compared to T. cruzi epimastigotes, indicating distinct modes of binding between caspases and metacaspases. To shed light on the selectivity of metacaspases and caspases, we determined the structural features related to the PAC-1 binding sites in both types of proteins. These data are important for improving the understanding of the apoptosis pathway in T. cruzi so that TcMCA3 could be better targeted with future pharmaceuticals.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1428-5
       
  • Remote ischemic preconditioning protects human neural stem cells from
           oxidative stress
    • Authors: Ayako Motomura; Mikiko Shimizu; Akira Kato; Kazuya Motomura; Akane Yamamichi; Hiroko Koyama; Fumiharu Ohka; Tomohide Nishikawa; Yusuke Nishimura; Masahito Hara; Tetsuya Fukuda; Yasuhiko Bando; Toshihide Nishimura; Toshihiko Wakabayashi; Atsushi Natsume
      Abstract: Abstract In previous clinical trials, we showed that remote ischemic preconditioning (rIPC) reduced myocardial damage in children undergoing treatment for congenital heart defects and postoperative renal failure in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. In rabbit experiments, pre-treatment with plasma and plasma dialysate (obtained using 15-kDa cut-off dialysis membrane) from donor rabbits subjected to rIPC similarly protected against cardiac infarction. However, the protective substances containing in rIPC plasma have been unknown. In the present study, we showed that rIPC plasma exerted anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects on human neural stem cells under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) that mimics brain ischemia. Additionally, we applied the sample to the liquid chromatography integrated with mass spectrometry to identify candidate key molecules in the rIPC plasma and determine its role in protecting neural stem cells from OGD-induced cell death. Thioredoxin increased significantly after rIPC compared to pre-IPC. Pretreatment with thioredoxin, the antioxidant protein, markedly protected human neural stem cells from OGD-induced cell death. The effect of thioredoxin on brain ischemia in animals should be further evaluated. However, the present study first evaluated the effect of rIPC in the ischemic cellular model.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1425-8
       
 
 
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