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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2353 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover APOPTOSIS
  [SJR: 1.554]   [H-I: 87]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-675X - ISSN (Online) 1360-8185
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • AMPK is activated early in cerebellar granule cells undergoing apoptosis
           and influences VADC1 phosphorylation status and activity
    • Authors: A. Bobba; E. Casalino; G. Amadoro; V. A. Petragallo; A. Atlante
      Pages: 1069 - 1078
      Abstract: Abstract The neurodegeneration of cerebellar granule cells, after low potassium induced apoptosis, is known to be temporally divided into an early and a late phase. Voltage-dependent anion channel-1 (VDAC1) protein, changing from the closed inactive state to the active open state, is central to the switch between the early and late phase. It is also known that: (i) VDAC1 can undergo phosphorylation events and (ii) AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the sensor of cellular stress, may have a role in neuronal homeostasis. In the view of this, the involvement of AMPK activation and its correlation with VDAC1 status and activity has been investigated in the course of cerebellar granule cells apoptosis. The results reported in this study show that an increased level of the phosphorylated, active, isoform of AMPK occurs in the early phase, peaks at 3 h and guarantees an increase in the phosphorylation status of VDCA1, resulting in a reduced activity of this latter. However this situation is transient in nature, since, in the late phase, AMPK activation decreases as well as the level of phosphorylated VDAC1. In a less phosphorylated status, VDAC1 fully recovers its gating activity and drives cells along the death route.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1389-8
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 9 (2017)
       
  • Fluoxetine induces apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress via
           mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and histone hyperacetylation
           in SK-N-BE(2)-M17 human neuroblastoma cells
    • Authors: Ji Hyun Choi; Yeon Ju Jeong; Ah-Ran Yu; Kyung-Sik Yoon; Wonchae Choe; Joohun Ha; Sung Soo Kim; Eui-Ju Yeo; Insug Kang
      Pages: 1079 - 1097
      Abstract: Abstract Fluoxetine (FLX) is an antidepressant drug that belongs to the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. FLX is known to induce apoptosis in multiple types of cancer cells. In this study, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of FLX were investigated in SK-N-BE(2)-M17 human neuroblastoma cells. FLX induced apoptotic cell death, activation of caspase-4, -9, and -3, and expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated proteins, including C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Inhibition of ER stress by treatment with the ER stress inhibitors, salubrinal and 4-phenylbutyric acid or CHOP siRNA transfection reduced FLX-induced cell death. FLX induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) family, p38, JNK, and ERK, and an upstream kinase apoptosis signal kinase 1 (ASK1). Inhibition of MAPKs and ASK1 reduced FLX-induced cell death and CHOP expression. We then showed that FLX reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ER stress inhibitors as well as MAPK inhibitors ameliorated FLX-induced loss of MMP. Interestingly, FLX induced hyperacetylation of histone H3 and H4, upregulation of p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT), and downregulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Treatment with a HAT inhibitor anacardic acid or p300 HAT siRNA transfection blocked FLX-induced apoptosis in SK-N-BE(2)-M17 cells. However, FLX did not induce histone acetylation and anacardic acid had no protective effect on FLX-induced cell death and CHOP expression in MYCN non-amplified SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma and MYCN knockdowned SK-N-BE(2)-M17 cells. These findings suggest that FLX induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma through ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction via the ASK1 and MAPK pathways and through histone hyperacetylation in a MYCN-dependent manner.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1390-2
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 9 (2017)
       
  • Multi-targeted therapy of everolimus in Kaposi’s sarcoma associated
           herpes virus infected primary effusion lymphoma
    • Authors: Suchitra Mohanty; Amit Kumar; Piyanki Das; Sushil Kumar Sahu; Tathagata Choudhuri
      Pages: 1098 - 1115
      Abstract: Abstract Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV) infected primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare aggressive form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of B cells. KSHV latent and lytic antigens modulate several host cellular signalling pathways especially mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), STAT-3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) for rapid tumor progression and immune evasion. Current chemotherapeutic strategies are becoming ineffective as they kill only dividing cells and inefficient to target molecular pathways crucial for active virus replication and its survival. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor in inducing apoptosis of PEL cells. Dose-dependent treatment of everolimus triggered mitochondria-mediated caspase-dependent apoptosis in PEL cells. Everolimus downregulated KSHV latent antigen expression with concurrent blocking of lytic reactivation for active virus replication. Everolimus also inhibited latent antigen mediated constitutively active STAT-3 and NF-κB signalling. We co-cultured everolimus treated PEL cells with immature dendritic cells and found activation of dendritic cells with increase in surface expression of CD86 and HLA-DR. As everolimus targets and disrupts KSHV antigens as well as antigen facilitated multiple signalling pathways necessary for KSHV survival and maintenance of infection with synchronised boosting of immune system against viral infection, it can be a better therapeutic approach towards treatment of PEL.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1391-1
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 9 (2017)
       
  • Acquisition of anoikis resistance promotes alterations in the Ras/ERK and
           PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and matrix remodeling in endothelial cells
    • Authors: Ana Paula de Sousa Mesquita; Silvana de Araújo Lopes; Paulo Castanho A. Pernambuco Filho; Helena B. Nader; Carla Cristina Lopes
      Pages: 1116 - 1137
      Abstract: Abstract Anoikis is a programmed cell death induced upon cell detachment from extracellular matrix. Anoikis resistance is a critical mechanism in tumor metastasis. Cancer cells deregulate and adapt their metabolism to survive in the absence of adhesion, spreading metastases to distant organs. These adaptations include abnormal regulation of growth factor receptors activating prosurvival signaling pathways, such as the Ras/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways, and extracellular matrix remodeling, leading to metastasis by an increase of invasiveness and inhibiting anoikis. This study investigates the possible involvement of ECM components and signaling pathways in the regulation of resistance to anoikis in endothelial cells (EC). Endothelial cells submitted to stressful conditions by blocking adhesion to substrate (anoikis resistance) display an up-regulation of Ras/ERK and PI3k/Akt pathways by high expression of Ras, ERK, PI3K (p110α) and Akt (Thr 308). After ERK and PI3K inhibiting, all EC-derived cell lines studied showed lower growth, a decrease in invasive potential and a higher rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, anoikis-resistant cell lines display a decrease in the expression of fibronectin, collagen IV and hyaluronic acid and an increase in the expression of laminin, perlecan, αv, β3, α5 and β1 integrins subunits, hyaluronidades 1, 2 and 3 and metalloproteinases 2 and 9. These results indicate that the acquisition of anoikis resistance induced remodeling of the extracellular matrix and overexpression of the PI3K/Akt and Ras/ERK pathway components. Acquisition of resistance to anoikis is a potentially crucial step in endothelial cell transformation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1392-0
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 9 (2017)
       
  • Astragalus polysaccharides inhibits cell growth and pro-inflammatory
           response in IL-1β-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes by enhancement
           of autophagy via PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibition
    • Authors: Qingliang Meng; Xuzhao Du; Huilian Wang; Huimin Gu; Junping Zhan; Zipeng Zhou
      Pages: 1138 - 1146
      Abstract: Abstract The hyperplastic growth of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and inflammatory response are pathological hallmarks of RA. It has been reported that Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) possess appreciable anti-inflammatory activity against adjuvant-induced arthritis. Nevertheless, little is known about the role and detailed mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of APS in RA. This study demonstrated that administration of APS dose-dependently impaired cell viability, increased cell apoptosis by decreasing Bcl-2 expression, increasing Bax expression and Caspase3 activity in IL-1β-stimulated RSC-364 cells and RA-FLS. Simultaneously, IL-1β-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was significantly decreased after APS treatment. Furthermore, preconditioning with APS dramatically enhanced autophagy activity by increasing Beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3I expression coupled with decreasing p62 expression and augmenting the number of LC3 puncta in IL-1β-stimulated RSC-364 cells. More importantly, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) partly abolished APS-triggered inhibitory effects on cell growth and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. APS also repressed the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in IL-1β-stimulated RSC-364 cells. Moreover, treatment with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), an activator of PI3K/Akt signaling, partly reversed the therapeutic effects of APS in IL-1β-stimulated RSC-364 cells. Collectively, we concluded that APS might attenuate the pathological progression of RA by exerting the pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects in IL-1β-stimulated FLSs by regulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR-autophagy pathway.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1387-x
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 9 (2017)
       
  • Anisodamine inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3
           inflammasome activation in rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury
    • Authors: Xiaopeng Yuan; Yitao Zheng; Chuanbao Chen; Changxi Wang
      Abstract: Abstract Anisodamine protects against free radical-induced cellular damage. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of anisodamine on rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (RIAKI). C57BL/6 J mice, TXNIP−/− and NLRP3 −/− (both were C57BL/6 J background) mice were used to construct RIAKI model. Anisodamine administration was performed on RIAKI mice only. Mice were divided into control, TXNIP-KD (knock down), LNPR3-KD, and anisodamine group (n = 15 in each group). The renal injury, renal function, renal tubular cells apoptosis and expression of Caspase-1, ASC, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers IRE-1α, CHOP, and ATF4, and interleukin (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-18) were detected. The knock down of TXNIP or NLRP3 expression in mice showed protective effect against RIAKI pathogenesis, as compared with the RIAKI mice. The expression of Caspase-1, ASC, and interleukins, renal injury, renal tubular cells apoptosis in TXNIP-KD and LNPR3-KD mice were significantly inhibited in comparison with the RIAKI mice. Moreover, anisodamine treatment reduced expression of ER stress markers IRE-1α, CHOP, and ATF4, TXNIP and NLRP3, as well as ACS, Caspase-1, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-18, showing moderate protective effect on the changes of above factors comparing with TXNIP or NLRP3 knock down. This study declared that anisodamine showed protective effect on RIAKI model may by inhibiting ER stress associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1414-y
       
  • The muscle regulatory transcription factor MyoD participates with p53 to
           directly increase the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member
           PUMA
    • Authors: Terri J. Harford; Greg Kliment; Girish C. Shukla; Crystal M. Weyman
      Abstract: Abstract The muscle regulatory transcription factor MyoD is a master regulator of skeletal myoblast differentiation. We have previously reported that MyoD is also necessary for the elevated expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA, and the ensuing apoptosis, that occurs in a subset of myoblasts induced to differentiate. Herein, we report the identification of a functional MyoD binding site within the extended PUMA promoter. In silico analysis of the murine PUMA extended promoter revealed three potential MyoD binding sites within 2 kb of the transcription start site. Expression from a luciferase reporter construct containing this 2 kb fragment was enhanced by activation of MyoD in both myoblasts and fibroblasts and diminished by silencing of MyoD in myoblasts. Experiments utilizing truncated versions of this promoter region revealed that the potential binding site at position − 857 was necessary for expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis confirmed binding of MyoD to the DNA region encompassing position − 857. The increase in MyoD binding to the PUMA promoter as a consequence of culture in differentiation media (DM) was comparable to the increase in MyoD binding at the myogenin promoter and was diminished in myoblasts silenced for MyoD expression. Finally, ChIP analysis using an antibody specific for the transcription factor p53 demonstrated that, in myoblasts silenced for MyoD expression, p53 binding to the PUMA promoter was diminished in response to culture in DM. These data indicate that MyoD plays a direct role in regulating PUMA expression and reveal functional consequences of MyoD expression on p53 mediated transcription of PUMA.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1423-x
       
  • Protodioscin ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation and histology
           outcome in Complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis rats
    • Authors: Jia-Yu Liu; Ya-Ling Hou; Rong Cao; Hong Xia Qiu; Guo-Hua Cheng; Ran Tu; Li Wang; Jun-Li Zhang; Dan Liu
      Abstract: Abstract Protective effect of protodioscin or methyl protodioscin against inflammation had been reported in various inflammation diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effect of protodioscin against Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis rats. Rats randomly divided into model groups were injected with CFA, companied with different dose of protodioscin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight). The histology, changes in biochemical parameters and inflammatory cytokines expression were detected for anti-inflammation effect evaluation of protodioscin. CFA treatment induced arthritic rats with swelling paw, ankle inflammation, and area of lymphocyte infiltration, upregulated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, cyclo-oxygenase 2, and IL-6 as well as prostaglandin E2), articular elastase, myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidase and nitrite oxide levels, downregulated glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. In contrast, protodioscin ameliorated all the changes induced by CFA in rats, suggesting the anti-inflammatory effect of protodioscin. We concluded that protodioscin administration into CFA-induced arthritis rats protected against CFA-induced oxidative stress, neutrophil infiltration, and inflammation, suggesting the anti-inflammatory effect and the therapeutic potential of protodioscin for arthritis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1420-0
       
  • Piperlongumine induces G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in
           cholangiocarcinoma cells through the ROS-JNK-ERK signaling pathway
    • Authors: Sunisa Thongsom; Wipa Suginta; Kyung Jin Lee; Han Choe; Chutima Talabnin
      Abstract: Abstract Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive, metastatic bile duct cancer. CCA is difficult to diagnose, and responds poorly to current radio- and chemo-therapy. Piperlongumine (PL) is a naturally-occurring small molecule selectively toxic to cancer cells by targeting reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we demonstrated the potential anticancer activity of PL in CCA. PL markedly induced death in CCA cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner through the activation of caspase-3 and PARP. PL also stimulated ROS accumulation in CCA. Co-exposure of PL with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine or GSH completely blocked PL-induced apoptosis in CCA cell lines. Increased p21 via the p53-independent pathway in PL-treated CCA cells led to G2/M phase arrest and cell apoptosis. In addition, the study showed that PL trigger CCA cell lines death through JNK-ERK activation. Furthermore, the different antioxidant capacity of CCA cell lines also indicates the susceptibility of the cells to PL treatment. Our findings reveal that PL exhibits anti-tumor activity and has potential to be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against CCA.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1422-y
       
  • Peroxynitrite induces apoptosis of mouse cochlear hair cells via a
           Caspase-independent pathway in vitro
    • Authors: Zhixin Cao; Qianqian Yang; Haiyan Yin; Qi Qi; Hongrui Li; Gaoying Sun; Hongliang Wang; Wenwen Liu; Jianfeng Li
      Abstract: Abstract Peroxynitrite (ONOO−) is a potent and versatile oxidant implicated in a number of pathophysiological processes. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ONOO− on the cultured cochlear hair cells (HCs) of C57BL/6 mice in vitro as well as the possible mechanism underlying the action of such an oxidative stress. The in vitro primary cultured cochlear HCs were subjected to different concentrations of ONOO−, then, the cell survival and morphological changes were examined by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the apoptosis was determined by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUNT nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, the mRNA expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Caspase-9, Apaf1, Bcl-2, and Bax were analyzed by RT-PCR, and the protein expressions of Caspase-3 and AIF were assessed by immunofluorescence. This work demonstrated that direct exposure of primary cultured cochlear HCs to ONOO− could result in a base-to-apex gradient injury of HCs in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, ONOO− led to much more losses of outer hair cells than inner hair cells mainly through the induction of apoptosis of HCs as evidenced by TEM and TUNEL assays. The mRNA expressions of Caspase-8, Caspase-9, Apaf1, and Bax were increased and, meanwhile, the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 was decreased in response to ONOO− treatment. Of interesting, the expression of Caspase-3 had no significant change, whereas, the expression alteration of AIF was observed. These results suggested that ONOO− can effectively damage the survival of cochlear HCs via triggering the apoptotic pathway. The findings from this work suggest that ONOO−-induced apoptosis is mediated, at least in part, via a Caspase-independent pathway in cochlear HCs.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1417-8
       
  • The induction of apoptosis and autophagy in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells
           by combined treatment with vitamin C and polysaccharides extracted from
           Grifola frondosa
    • Authors: Fei Zhao; Jin Zhao; Lei Song; Ya-Qing Zhang; Zhong Guo; Ke-Hu Yang
      Abstract: Abstract Polysaccharides extracted from the mushroom Grifola frondosa (GFP) are a potential anticancer agent. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of GFP and vitamin C (VC) alone and in combination on the viability of human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells. Studies designed to detect cell apoptosis and autophagy were also conducted to investigate the mechanism. Results from the cell viability assay indicated that a combination of GFP (0.2 or 0.25 mg/mL) and VC (0.3 mmol/L) (GFP/VC) led to 52.73 and 53.93% reduction in cell viability of SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells separately after 24 h. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that GFP/VC treatment induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and apoptosis occurred in approximately 43.62 and 42.46% of the SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells separately. Moreover, results of Hoechst33258 and monodansylcadaverine staining, and transmission electron microscopy, showed that GFP/VC induced apoptosis and autophagy in SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells. Western blot analysis showed changes in the expression of apoptosis-related proteins [upregulation of BAX and caspase-3, downregulation of Bcl-2, and activation of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase] and autophagy protein markers (upregulation of beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain-3). We also demonstrated that the expression of both Akt and p-Akt was enhanced, suggesting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway might not be involved in this process. Our study shows that the combined application of GFP and VC induced cell apoptosis and autophagy in vitro, and might have antitumor activity in vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1421-z
       
  • Protective effects of carbenoxolone, an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, against
           chemical induced dry eye syndrome
    • Authors: Yoon-Ju Na; Kyoung-Jin Choi; Sung Bum Park; Hye-Rim Sung; Won Hoon Jung; Hee Youn Kim; Sang Dal Rhee; Ki Young Kim
      Abstract: Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a disorder of the eye due to tear deficiency or excessive evaporation that causes damage to the eye and is associated with discomfort and dryness. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that converts inactive cortisone to active cortisol. Recently, 11β-HSD1 has been expressed in human and rodent eyes and has been recognized as a target of glaucoma. In this study, the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of topical carbenoxolone, an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, were investigated in benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-treated human conjunctival epithelial cells and a rat DES model. In the in vitro study, carbenoxolone dose-dependently inhibited cell death and 11β-HSD1 activity in BAC-treated human conjunctival epithelial cells. For the in vivo study, carbenoxolone or a solvent was administered to the BAC-induced DES model twice daily. BAC-treated rat eyes showed significant increases in ocular surface damage, a reduction of tears, decrease corneal thickness, corneal basement membrane destruction, apoptosis in the conjunctival epithelium, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and 11β-HSD1. These effects of BAC were reversed by topical carbenoxolone treatment. These results demonstrate that carbenoxolone can prevent DES by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and cell death of the corneal and conjunctival epithelium via inhibition of both 11β-HSD1 activity and expression in the eyes of BAC-treated rats. It is suggested that topical 11β-HSD1 inhibitors may provide a new therapeutic window in the prevention and/or treatment of DES. Graphical
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1419-6
       
  • The Btk-dependent PIP5K1γ lipid kinase activation by Fas counteracts
           FasL-induced cell death
    • Authors: Aurélie Rossin; Nadia Lounnas; Jérôme Durivault; Giorgia Miloro; Laurent Gagnoux-Palacios; Anne-Odile Hueber
      Abstract: Abstract The Fas/FasL system plays a critical role in death by apoptosis and immune escape of cancer cells. The Fas receptor being ubiquitously expressed in tissues, its apoptotic-inducing function, initiated upon FasL binding, is tightly regulated by several negative regulatory mechanisms to prevent inappropriate cell death. One of them, involving the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Btk, was reported mainly in B cells and only poorly described. We report here that Btk negatively regulates, through its tyrosine kinase activity, the FasL-mediated cell death in epithelial cell lines from colon cancer origin. More importantly, we show that Btk interacts not only with Fas but also with the phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, PIP5K1γ, which, upon stimulation by Fas ligand, is responsible of a rapid and transient synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). This production requires both the presence and the tyrosine kinase activity of Btk, and participates in the negative regulation of FasL-mediated cell death since knocking down PIP5K1γ expression significantly strengthens the apoptotic signal upon FasL engagement. Altogether, our data demonstrate the cooperative role of Btk and PIP5K1γ in a FasL-induced PI(4,5)P2 production, both proteins participating to the threshold setting of FasL-induced apoptotic commitment in colorectal cell lines.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1415-x
       
  • mPGES-1-derived prostaglandin E2 stimulates Stat3 to promote podocyte
           apoptosis
    • Authors: Jing Yu; Yimei Wu; Lu Wang; Wen Zhang; Man Xu; Jiayu Song; Yu Fu; Yiyun Cui; Wei Gong; Shuzhen Li; Weiwei Xia; Songming Huang; Aihua Zhang; Zhanjun Jia
      Abstract: Abstract We previously reported that microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) contributed to adriamycin (Adr)-induced podocyte apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we studied the role of mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade in activating Stat3 signaling and the contribution of Stat3 in PGE2- and Adr-induced podocyte apoptosis. In murine podocytes, PGE2 dose- and time-dependently increased the phosphorylation of Stat3 in line with the enhanced cell apoptosis and reduced podocyte protein podocin. In agreement with the increased Stat3 phosphorylation, Stat3-derived cytokines including IL-6, IL-17, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 were significantly upregulated following PGE2 treatment. By application of a specific Stat3 inhibitor S3I-201, PGE2-induced podocyte apoptosis was largely abolished in parallel with a blockade of podocin reduction. Next, we observed that Adr treatment also enhanced p-Stat3 and activated mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade. Blockade of Stat3 by S3I-201 significantly ameliorated Adr-induced cell apoptosis and podocin reduction. More interestingly, silencing mPGES-1 in podocytes by mPGES-1 siRNA blocked Adr-induced increments of Stat-3 phosphorylation, PGE2 production, and Stat3-derived inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, this study suggested that mPGES-1-derived PGE2 could activate Stat3 signaling to promote podocyte apoptosis. Targeting mPGES-1/PGE2/Stat3 signaling might be a potential strategy for the treatment of podocytopathy.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1418-7
       
  • 20(S)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β, 12β, 20-triol negatively regulates
           activation of STAT3 and ERK pathways and exhibits anti-cancer effects in
           HepG2 cells
    • Authors: Hui-Han Ai; Zi-Long Zhou; Lu-Guo Sun; Mei-Ting Yang; Wei Li; Chun-Lei Yu; Zhen-Bo Song; Yan-Xin Huang; Yin Wu; Lei Liu; Xiao-Guang Yang; Yu-Qing Zhao; Yong-Li Bao; Yu-Xin Li
      Abstract: Abstract The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6), via activating its downstream JAK/STAT3 and Ras/ERK signaling pathways, is involved in cell growth, proliferation and anti-apoptotic activities in various malignancies. To screen inhibitors of IL-6 signaling, we constructed a STAT3 and ERK dual-pathway responsive luciferase reporter vector (Co.RE). Among several candidates, the natural compound 20(S)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β, 12β, 20-triol (25-OCH3-PPD, GS25) was identified to clearly inhibit the luciferase activity of Co.RE. GS25 was confirmed to indeed inhibit activation of both STAT3 and ERK pathways and expression of downstream target genes of IL-6, and to predominantly decrease the viability of HepG2 cells via induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, GS25 showed preferential inhibition of HepG2 cell viability relative to normal liver L02 cells. Further investigation showed that GS25 could not induce apoptosis and block activation of STAT3 and ERK pathways in L02 cells as efficiently as in HepG2 cells, which may result in differential effects of GS25 on malignant and normal liver cells. In addition, GS25 was found to potently suppress the expression of endogenous STAT3 at a higher concentration and dramatically induce p38 phosphorylation in HepG2 cells, which could mediate its anti-cancer effects. Finally, we demonstrated that GS25 also inhibited tumor growth in HepG2 xenograft mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that GS25 elicits its anti-cancer effects on HepG2 cells through multiple mechanisms and has the potential to be used as an inhibitor of IL-6 signaling. Thus, GS25 may be developed as a treatment for hepatocarcinoma with low toxicity on normal liver tissues as well as other inflammation-associated diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1416-9
       
  • The immune response to secondary necrotic cells
    • Authors: Monika Sachet; Ying Yu Liang; Rudolf Oehler
      Abstract: Abstract When apoptotic cells are not cleared in an efficient and timely manner, they progress to secondary necrosis and lose their membrane integrity. This results in a leakage of immunostimulatory, danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), similar to accidental (or primary) necrosis. However, primary necrosis is a sudden event with an inadvertent release of almost unmodified DAMPs. Secondary necrotic cells, in contrast, have gone through various modifications during the process of apoptosis. Recent research revealed that the molecules released from the cytoplasm or exposed on the cell surface differ between primary necrosis, secondary necrosis, and regulated necrosis such as necroptosis. This review gives an overview of these differences and focusses their effects on the immune response. The implications to human physiology and diseases are manifold and will be discussed in the context of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and autoimmunity.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1413-z
       
  • KH-TFMDI, a novel sirtuin inhibitor, alters the cytoskeleton and
           mitochondrial metabolism promoting cell death in Leishmania amazonensis
    • Authors: Brunno Renato Farias Verçoza; Joseane Lima Prado Godinho; Sara Teixeira de Macedo-Silva; Kilian Huber; Franz Bracher; Wanderley de Souza; Juliany Cola Fernandes Rodrigues
      Abstract: Abstract Treatment of leishmaniasis involves the use of antimonials, miltefosine, amphotericin B or pentamidine. However, the side effects of these drugs and the reports of drug-resistant parasites demonstrate the need for new treatments that are safer and more efficacious. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a new class of compounds with potential to treat leishmaniasis. Herein, we evaluated the effects of KH-TFMDI, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, on Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The IC50 values of this compound for promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes were 1.976 and 1.148 μM, respectively, after 72 h of treatment. Microscopic analyses revealed that promastigotes became elongated and thinner in response to KH-TFMDI, indicating changes in cytoskeleton organization. Immunofluorescence microscopy, western blotting and flow cytometry using an anti-acetylated tubulin antibody revealed an increase in the expression of acetylated tubulin. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy revealed several ultrastructural changes, such as (a) mitochondrial swelling, followed by the formation of many vesicles inside the matrix; (b) presence of lipid bodies randomly distributed through the cytoplasm; (c) abnormal chromatin condensation; and (d) formation of blebs on the plasma membrane. Physiological studies for mitochondrial function, flow cytometry with propidium iodide and TUNEL assay confirmed the alterations in the mitochondrial metabolism, cell cycle, and DNA fragmentation, respectively, which could result to cell death by mechanisms related to apoptosis-like. All these together indicate that histone deacetylases are promising targets for the development of new drugs to treat Leishmania, and KH-TFMDI is a promising drug candidate that should be tested in vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1397-8
       
  • Amelioration of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by chlorogenic acid
           through endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition
    • Authors: Yi-Chun Wang; Jing Dong; Jing Nie; Ji-Xiang Zhu; Hui Wang; Qiong Chen; Jun-Yi Chen; Jia-Mei Xia; Wei Shuai
      Abstract: Abstract To investigate the inhibitory effects of chlorogenic acid on pulmonary fibrosis and the internal mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. 30 male BALB/C mice were randomized into 5 groups: control group, pulmonary fibrosis model group, low, middle and high dose of chlorogenic acid groups. Mice in pulmonary fibrosis model group were administered 5.0 mg/kg bleomycin with intracheal instillation and mice in 3 chlorogenic acid groups were treated with chlorogenic acid every day for 28 days after bleomycin administration. Lung tissue histology was observed using HE staining. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts were isolated and cultured. The expressions of fibrosis related factors (α-SMA and collagen I), as well as ER stress markers (CHOP and GRP78) were determined by both real-time PCR assay and Western blotting, while the expressions of other ER stress signaling pathway factors PERK, IRE-1, ATF-6 and protein levels of caspase-12, caspase-9, caspase-3, PARP were determined by Western blotting. RLE-6TN cell line induced by TGF-β1 was also used to verify the amelioration effects in vitro study. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, TUNEL staining was used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Expressions of collagen I, α-SMA, GRP78, and CHOP were significantly inhibited by chlorogenic acid in dose-dependent manner. Similarly, decreasing levels of cleaved caspase-12, caspase-9, caspase-3 and increasing level of uncleaved PARP were observed in chlorogenic acid groups compared with those in the fibrosis group both in vivo and in vitro. Chlorogenic acid could also significantly down-regulate the level of phosphorylation of PERK and cleaved ATF-6 in vivo study. Moreover, MTT assay demonstrated chlorogenic acid could enhance proliferation of RLE-6TN cells induced by TGFβ1 in vitro. And the apoptosis assays indicated that chlorogenic acid could significantly inhibit cell apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro studies. Chlorogenic acid could inhibit the pulmonary fibrosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition in vivo and in vitro.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1393-z
       
  • Structural aspects of transglutaminase 2: functional, structural, and
           regulatory diversity
    • Authors: Chang Sup Lee; Hyun Ho Park
      Abstract: Abstract Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multi-functional protein that has both protein cross-linking and guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis activities. The activities of this protein are controlled by many cellular factors, including calcium (Ca2+) and GTP, and have been implicated in several physiological activities, including apoptosis, angiogenesis, wound healing, cellular differentiation, neuronal regeneration, and bone development. TG2 is linked to many human diseases such as inflammatory disease, celiac disease, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, tissue fibrosis, and various cancers and is one of the most dynamic enzymes in terms of its functions, structures, and regulatory mechanisms. The aim of this review was to summarize the functional, structural, and regulatory diversity of TG2, with a particular focus on the structure of TG2.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1396-9
       
  • Bisdemethoxycurcumin sensitizes cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells to
           chemotherapy by inhibition of CA916798 and PI3K/AKT signaling
    • Authors: Hai-Jing Wang; Zai-Xing Yang; Xiao-Tian Dai; Yong-Feng Chen; He-Ping Yang; Xiang-Dong Zhou
      Abstract: Abstract Curcumin, a dietary supplement or herbal medicine from Curcuma longa, has shown antitumor activity in different cancer cell lines and clinical trials. CA916798, a novel protein, is overexpressed in multidrug-resistant tumor cells. This study aimed to assess the effects of curcumin on regulating chemosensitivity in cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Human cisplatin-sensitive A549 and cisplatin-resistant A549/CDDP lung adenocarcinoma cells were treated with curcumin to assess cell viability and gene modulations using quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. CA916798 shRNA and point mutations were used to assess the CA916798 functions and phosphorylation sites. Bisdemethoxycurcumin sensitized cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells to various chemotherapeutic agents, including cisplatin. Bisdemethoxycurcumin reduced the levels of CA916798 mRNA and protein in A549 and A549/CDDP cells, while it also suppressed phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling. CA916798, as a downstream gene, interacted with AKT after bisdemethoxycurcumin treatment in A549 and A549/CDDP cells. Moreover, A549/CDDP cells expressing the point-mutated CA916798-S20D protein were more resistant to cisplatin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, whereas tumor cells expressing CA916798-S20A, CA916798-S31A, CA916798-S60A, CA916798-S93A, or CA916798-T97A (different sites of amino acid phosphorylation) showed similar sensitivity or resistance to cisplatin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, compared with the control cells. Bisdemethoxycurcumin is able to sensitize cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells to chemotherapeutic agents by inhibition of CA916798 and PI3K/AKT activities. Moreover, phosphorylation of CA916798 at the S20 residue plays a critical role in mediating bisdemethoxycurcumin antitumor activity.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1395-x
       
 
 
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