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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
  [SJR: 0.992]   [H-I: 87]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-9699 - ISSN (Online) 0003-6072
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Special Issue: the 3rd meeting of the Bergey’s International Society for
           Microbial Systematics (BISMIS)
    • Authors: Brian P. Hedlund; Iain C. Sutcliffe; Martha E. Trujillo
      Pages: 1245 - 1246
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0935-2
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 10 (2017)
  • The value of cultures to modern microbiology
    • Authors: Brian Austin
      Pages: 1247 - 1256
      Abstract: Abstract Since the late nineteenth century, pure cultures have been regarded as the cornerstone of bacteriology. However, not all bacteria will multiply sufficiently to produce visible colonies on solid media; some cells will produce micro-colonies that are invisible to the naked eye. Moreover, the proportion of culturable cells that produce visible growth will vary according to the species and the state of the cells—are they actively growing or comparatively inactive' The latter have a poorer rate of recovery in terms of cultivability. It is unclear whether or not an individual colony is always derived from a single cell; it is possible that organisms in close proximity to each other may multiply and come together to produce single colonies. Then, the resultant growth will most certainly be derived from more than one initial cell. Although it is generally assumed that streaking and re-streaking on fresh media will purify any culture, there is evidence for microbial consortia interacting to form what appear to be single pure cultures. As so-called pure cultures underpin traditional microbiology, it is relevant to understand that the culture does not necessarily contain clones of identical bacteria, but that there may be variation in the genetic potential of the component cells, i.e. the cells are not homogeneous. Certainly, many bacteria change rapidly upon culturing, with some becoming bigger and less active. It is difficult to be sure if these changes reflect a loss or change of DNA or whether standard culturing methods select faster growing cells that are effectively not representative of the environment from which they were derived. These concepts are reviewed with an emphasis on bacterial fish pathogens.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0840-8
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 10 (2017)
  • The current status of cyanobacterial nomenclature under the
           “prokaryotic” and the “botanical” code
    • Authors: Aharon Oren; Stefano Ventura
      Pages: 1257 - 1269
      Abstract: Abstract Cyanobacterial taxonomy developed in the botanical world because Cyanobacteria/Cyanophyta have traditionally been identified as algae. However, they possess a prokaryotic cell structure, and phylogenetically they belong to the Bacteria. This caused nomenclature problems as the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; the “Botanical Code”) differ from those of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP; the “Prokaryotic Code”). While the ICN recognises names validly published under the ICNP, Article 45(1) of the ICN has not yet been reciprocated in the ICNP. Different solutions have been proposed to solve the current problems. In 2012 a Special Committee on the harmonisation of the nomenclature of Cyanobacteria was appointed, but its activity has been minimal. Two opposing proposals to regulate cyanobacterial nomenclature were recently submitted, one calling for deletion of the cyanobacteria from the groups of organisms whose nomenclature is regulated by the ICNP, the second to consistently apply the rules of the ICNP to all cyanobacteria. Following a general overview of the current status of cyanobacterial nomenclature under the two codes we present five case studies of genera for which nomenclatural aspects have been discussed in recent years: Microcystis, Planktothrix, Halothece, Gloeobacter and Nostoc.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0848-0
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 10 (2017)
  • A proposal for a portal to make earth’s microbial diversity easily
           accessible and searchable
    • Authors: Boris A. Vinatzer; Long Tian; Lenwood S. Heath
      Pages: 1271 - 1279
      Abstract: Abstract Estimates of the number of bacterial species range from 107 to 1012. At the pace at which descriptions of new species are currently being published, the description of all bacterial species on earth will only be completed in thousands of years. However, even if one day all species were named and described, these names and descriptions would still be of little practical value unless they could be easily searched and accessed, so that novel strains could be easily identified as members of any of these species. To complicate the situation further, many of the currently known species contain significant genotypic and phenotypic diversity that would still be missed if description of microbial diversity were limited to species. The solution to this problem could be a database in which every bacterial species and every intra-specific group is anchored to a genome-similarity framework. This ideal database should be searchable using complete or partial genome sequences as well as phenotypes. Moreover, the database should include functions to easily add newly sequenced novel strains, automatically place them into the genome-similarity framework, identify them as members of an already named species, or tag them as members of yet to be described species or new intra-specific groups. Here, we propose the means to develop such a database by taking advantage of the concept of genome sequence similarity-based codes, called Life Identification Numbers or LINs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0849-z
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 10 (2017)
  • A large-scale evaluation of algorithms to calculate average nucleotide
    • Authors: Seok-Hwan Yoon; Sung-min Ha; Jeongmin Lim; Soonjae Kwon; Jongsik Chun
      Pages: 1281 - 1286
      Abstract: Abstract Average nucleotide identity (ANI) is a category of computational analysis that can be used to define species boundaries of Archaea and Bacteria. Calculating ANI usually involves the fragmentation of genome sequences, followed by nucleotide sequence search, alignment, and identity calculation. The original algorithm to calculate ANI used the BLAST program as its search engine. An improved ANI algorithm, called OrthoANI, was developed to accommodate the concept of orthology. Here, we compared four algorithms to compute ANI, namely ANIb (ANI algorithm using BLAST), ANIm (ANI using MUMmer), OrthoANIb (OrthoANI using BLAST) and OrthoANIu (OrthoANI using USEARCH) using >100,000 pairs of genomes with various genome sizes. By comparing values to the ANIb that is considered a standard, OrthoANIb and OrthoANIu exhibited good correlation in the whole range of ANI values. ANIm showed poor correlation for ANI of <90%. ANIm and OrthoANIu runs faster than ANIb by an order of magnitude. When genomes that are larger than 7 Mbp were analysed, the run-times of ANIm and OrthoANIu were shorter than that of ANIb by 53- and 22-fold, respectively. In conclusion, ANI calculation can be greatly sped up by the OrthoANIu method without losing accuracy. A web-service that can be used to calculate OrthoANIu between a pair of genome sequences is available at For large-scale calculation and integration in bioinformatics pipelines, a standalone JAVA program is available for download at
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0844-4
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 10 (2017)
  • Phylogenomic resolution of the bacterial genus Pantoea and its
           relationship with Erwinia and Tatumella
    • Authors: Marike Palmer; Emma T. Steenkamp; Martin P. A. Coetzee; Wai-Yin Chan; Elritha van Zyl; Pieter De Maayer; Teresa A. Coutinho; Jochen Blom; Theo H. M. Smits; Brion Duffy; Stephanus N. Venter
      Pages: 1287 - 1309
      Abstract: Abstract Investigation of the evolutionary relationships between related bacterial species and genera with a variety of lifestyles have gained popularity in recent years. For analysing the evolution of specific traits, however, a robust phylogeny is essential. In this study we examined the evolutionary relationships among the closely related genera Erwinia, Tatumella and Pantoea, and also attempted to resolve the species relationships within Pantoea. To accomplish this, we used the whole genome sequence data for 35 different strains belonging to these three genera, as well as nine outgroup taxa. Multigene datasets consisting of the 1039 genes shared by these 44 strains were then generated and subjected to maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses, after which the results were compared to those using conventional multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) and ribosomal MLSA (rMLSA) approaches. The robustness of the respective phylogenies was then explored by considering the factors typically responsible for destabilizing phylogenetic trees. We found that the nucleotide datasets employed in the MLSA, rMLSA and 1039-gene datasets contained significant levels of homoplasy, substitution saturation and differential codon usage, all of which likely gave rise to the observed lineage specific rate heterogeneity. The effects of these factors were much less pronounced in the amino acid dataset for the 1039 genes, which allowed reconstruction of a fully supported and resolved phylogeny. The robustness of this amino acid tree was also supported by different subsets of the 1039 genes. In contrast to the smaller datasets (MLSA and rMLSA), the 1039 amino acid tree was also not as sensitive to long-branch attraction. The robust and well-supported evolutionary hypothesis for the three genera, which confidently resolved their various inter- and intrageneric relationships, represents a valuable resource for future studies. It will form the basis for studies aiming to understand the forces driving the divergence and maintenance of lineages, species and biological traits in this important group of bacteria.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0852-4
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 10 (2017)
  • Practically delineating bacterial species with genealogical concordance
    • Authors: Stephanus N. Venter; Marike Palmer; Chrizelle W. Beukes; Wai-Yin Chan; Giyoon Shin; Elritha van Zyl; Tarren Seale; Teresa A. Coutinho; Emma T. Steenkamp
      Pages: 1311 - 1325
      Abstract: Abstract Bacterial species are commonly defined by applying a set of predetermined criteria, including DNA–DNA hybridization values, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, phenotypic data as well as genome-based criteria such as average nucleotide identity or digital DNA-DNA hybridization. These criteria mostly allow for the delimitation of taxa that resemble typical bacterial species. Their application is often complicated when the objective is to delineate new species that are characterized by significant population-level diversity or recent speciation. However, we believe that these complexities and limitations can be easily circumvented by recognizing that bacterial species represent unique and exclusive assemblages of diversity. Within such a framework, methods that account for the population processes involved in species evolution are used to infer species boundaries. A method such as genealogical concordance analysis is well suited to delineate a putative species. The existence of the new taxon is then interrogated using an array of traditional and genome-based characters. By making use of taxa in the genera Pantoea, Paraburkholderia and Escherichia we demonstrate in a step-wise process how genealogical concordance can be used to delimit a bacterial species. Genetic, phenotypic and biological criteria were used to provide independent lines of evidence for the existence of that taxon. Our six-step approach to species recognition is straightforward and applicable to bacterial species especially in the post-genomic era, with increased availability of whole genome sequences. In fact, our results indicated that a combined genome-based comparative and evolutionary approach would be the preferred alternative for delineating coherent bacterial taxa.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0869-8
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 10 (2017)
  • The impact of culturomics on taxonomy in clinical microbiology
    • Authors: Rita Abou Abdallah; Mamadou Beye; Awa Diop; Sofiane Bakour; Didier Raoult; Pierre-Edouard Fournier
      Pages: 1327 - 1337
      Abstract: Abstract Over the past decade, new culture methods coupled to genome and metagenome sequencing have enabled the number of isolated bacterial species with standing in nomenclature to rise to more than 15,000 whereas it was only 1791 in 1980. ‘Culturomics’, a new approach based on the diversification of culture conditions, has enabled the isolation of more than 1000 distinct human-associated bacterial species since 2012, including 247 new species. This strategy was demonstrated to be complementary to metagenome sequencing for the exhaustive study of the human microbiota and its roles in health and diseases. However, by identifying a large number of new bacterial species in a short time, culturomics has highlighted a need for taxonomic approaches adapted to clinical microbiology that would include the use of modern and reproducible tools, including high throughput genomic and proteomic analyses. Herein, we review the development of culturomics and genomics in the clinical microbiology field and their impact on bacterial taxonomy.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0871-1
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 10 (2017)
  • Changes in structure and function of bacterial communities during coconut
           leaf vermicomposting
    • Authors: Murali Gopal; Shrikant S. Bhute; Alka Gupta; S. R. Prabhu; George V. Thomas; William B. Whitman; Kamlesh Jangid
      Pages: 1339 - 1355
      Abstract: Abstract To understand bacterial community dynamics during the vermicomposting of lignin-rich coconut leaves using an indigenous isolate of an epigeic earthworm, Eudrilus sp., we employed amplicon-based pyrosequencing of the V1 to V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Total community DNA was isolated from two separate vermicomposting tanks in triplicate at four different stages of the process: pre-decomposition (15th day), initial vermicomposting (45th day), 50–70% vermicomposting (75th day) and mature vermicompost (105th day). Alpha diversity measurements revealed an increase in bacterial diversity till the 75th day, which then declined in the mature vermicompost. Beta diversity comparisons showed formation of distinct, stage-specific communities. In terms of relative abundance, the Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, TM7 and WS3 groups increased until the 50–70% vermicomposting stage (p = 0.05). During the same time, the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria decreased. In contrast, the levels of Firmicutes increased throughout the 105-day vermicomposting process. The distribution of the most abundant OTUs revealed that each stage of the vermicomposting process possessed its own unique microbiome. Predictions based on the OTUs present by PICRUSt suggested a functional shift in the microbiome during vermicomposting. Enzymes and pathways of lipid and lignin metabolism were predicted to be initially abundant, but by the end of the process, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and plant beneficial properties were enriched. The study revealed that bacterial communities undergo a continuous change throughout the vermicomposting process and that certain OTUs associated with specific stages could be targets for further improvements in the process.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0894-7
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 10 (2017)
  • Microbial taxonomy in the era of OMICS: application of DNA sequences,
           computational tools and techniques
    • Authors: Nitish Kumar Mahato; Vipin Gupta; Priya Singh; Rashmi Kumari; Helianthous Verma; Charu Tripathi; Pooja Rani; Anukriti Sharma; Nirjara Singhvi; Utkarsh Sood; Princy Hira; Puneet Kohli; Namita Nayyar; Akshita Puri; Abhay Bajaj; Roshan Kumar; Vivek Negi; Chandni Talwar; Himani Khurana; Shekhar Nagar; Monika Sharma; Harshita Mishra; Amit Kumar Singh; Gauri Dhingra; Ram Krishan Negi; Mallikarjun Shakarad; Yogendra Singh; Rup Lal
      Pages: 1357 - 1371
      Abstract: Abstract The current prokaryotic taxonomy classifies phenotypically and genotypically diverse microorganisms using a polyphasic approach. With advances in the next-generation sequencing technologies and computational tools for analysis of genomes, the traditional polyphasic method is complemented with genomic data to delineate and classify bacterial genera and species as an alternative to cumbersome and error-prone laboratory tests. This review discusses the applications of sequence-based tools and techniques for bacterial classification and provides a scheme for more robust and reproducible bacterial classification based on genomic data. The present review highlights promising tools and techniques such as ortho-Average Nucleotide Identity, Genome to Genome Distance Calculator and Multi Locus Sequence Analysis, which can be validly employed for characterizing novel microorganisms and assessing phylogenetic relationships. In addition, the review discusses the possibility of employing metagenomic data to assess the phylogenetic associations of uncultured microorganisms. Through this article, we present a review of genomic approaches that can be included in the scheme of taxonomy of bacteria and archaea based on computational and in silico advances to boost the credibility of taxonomic classification in this genomic era.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0928-1
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 10 (2017)
  • Uliginosibacterium sangjuense sp. nov., isolated from sediment of the
           Nakdong River
    • Authors: Ji-Hye Han; Kiwoon Baek; Young-Hee Ahn; Wook Jae Lee; Mi-Hwa Lee
      Abstract: Abstract A Gram-negative, aerobic, motile by flagella, and light yellow bacterium, designated SS1-76T, was isolated from sediment of the Nakdong River in Sangju-si, Republic of Korea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate SS1-76T belongs to the genus Uliginosibacterium of the family Rhodocyclaceae, exhibiting high sequence similarity with the type strains of Uliginosibacterium gangwonense 5YN10-9T (96.0%) and Uliginosibacterium paludis KBP-13T (94.9%). Strain SS1-76T contains ubiquinone-8 as a respiratory quinone and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c), C16:0, and C14:0 as major fatty acids. The cellular polar lipids are composed of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and unidentified aminophospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 65.3 mol%. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic evidence clearly indicated that strain SS1-76T represents a novel species of the genus Uliginosibacterium, for which the name Uliginosibacterium sangjuense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SS1-76T (= KCTC 52159T = JCM 31375T).
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0946-z
  • Verrucosispora rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from mangrove rhizosphere
    • Authors: Qing-yi Xie; Xiao-dong Bao; Qing-yu Ma; Fan-dong Kong; Man-li Zhou; Bing Yan; You-xing Zhao
      Abstract: Abstract An actinomycete strain, 2603PH03T, was isolated from a mangrove rhizosphere soil sample collected in Wenchang, China. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain 2603PH03T indicated high similarity to Verrucosispora gifthornensis DSM 44337T (99.4%), Verrucosispora andamanensis (99.4%), Verrucosispora fiedleri MG-37T (99.4%) and Verrucosispora maris AB18-032T (99.4%). The cell wall was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and glycine. The major menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), with MK-9(H2), MK-10(H2), MK-9(H10) and MK-10(H6) as minor components. The characteristic whole cell sugars were found to be xylose and mannose. The phospholipid profile was found to contain phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 70.1 mol%. The results of physiological and biochemical tests and low DNA-DNA relatedness readily distinguished the isolate from the closely related species. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic data, strain 2603PH03T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Verrucosispora, for which the name Verrucosispora rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2603PH03T (=CCTCC AA 2016023T = DSM 45673T).
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0933-4
  • Biodiversity and ecology of flower-associated actinomycetes in different
           flowering stages of Protea repens
    • Authors: Zander R. Human; Casparus J. Crous; Francois Roets; Stephanus N. Venter; Michael J. Wingfield; Z. Wilhelm de Beer
      Abstract: Abstract Actinomycete bacteria have previously been reported from reproductive structures (infructescences) of Protea (sugarbush/suikerbos) species, a niche dominated by fungi in the genera Knoxdaviesia and Sporothrix. It is probable that these taxa have symbiotic interactions, but a lack of knowledge regarding their diversity and general ecology precludes their study. We determined the diversity of actinomycetes within Protea repens inflorescence buds, open inflorescences, young and mature infructescences, and leaf litter surrounding these trees. Since the P. repens habitat is fire-prone, we also considered the potential of these bacteria to recolonise infructescences after fire. Actinomycetes were largely absent from flower buds and inflorescences but were consistently present in young and mature infructescences. Two Streptomyces spp. were the most consistent taxa recovered, one of which was also routinely isolated from leaf litter. Lower colonisation rates were evident in samples from a recently burnt site. One of the most consistent taxa isolated from older trees in the unburnt site was absent from this site. Our findings show that P. repens has a distinct community of actinomycetes dominated by a few species. These communities change over time and infructescence developmental stage, season and the age of the host population. Mature infructescences appear to be important sources of inoculum for some of the actinomycetes, seemingly disrupted by fire. Increased fire frequency limiting maturation of P. repens infructescences could thus impact future actinomycete colonisation in the landscape. Streptomyces spp. are likely to share this niche with the ophiostomatoid fungi, which merits further study regarding their interactions and mode of transfer.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0942-3
  • SParticle, an algorithm for the analysis of filamentous microorganisms in
           submerged cultures
    • Authors: Joost Willemse; Ferhat Büke; Dino van Dissel; Sanne Grevink; Dennis Claessen; Gilles P. van Wezel
      Abstract: Abstract Streptomycetes are filamentous bacteria that produce a plethora of bioactive natural products and industrial enzymes. Their mycelial lifestyle typically results in high heterogeneity in bioreactors, with morphologies ranging from fragments and open mycelial mats to dense pellets. There is a strong correlation between morphology and production in submerged cultures, with small and open mycelia favouring enzyme production, while most antibiotics are produced mainly in pellets. Here we describe SParticle, a Streptomyces Particle analysis method that combines whole slide imaging with automated image analysis to characterize the morphology of submerged grown Streptomyces cultures. SParticle allows the analysis of over a thousand particles per hour, offering a high throughput method for the imaging and statistical analysis of mycelial morphologies. The software is available as a plugin for the open source software ImageJ and allows users to create custom filters for other microbes. Therefore, SParticle is a widely applicable tool for the analysis of filamentous microorganisms in submerged cultures.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0939-y
  • Plantactinospora solaniradicis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated
           from the root of a tomato plant ( Solanum lycopersicum L.)
    • Authors: Wenchao Li; Xiaowei Guo; Linlin Shi; Junwei Zhao; Liangliang Yan; Xiaotong Zhong; Chen Zhang; Yufei Chen; Xiangjing Wang; Wensheng Xiang
      Abstract: Abstract A Gram-positive, non-motile actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-FJL1T, was isolated from tomato root (Solanum lycopersicum L.) collected from Harbin, Heilongjiang province, north China. The strain formed single spores with smooth surfaces from substrate mycelia. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NEAU-FJL1T should be affiliated with the genus Plantactinospora and forms a distinct branch with its close neighbour Plantactinospora soyae NEAU-gxj3T (99.2% sequence similarity). The cell wall was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole cell sugars were identified as xylose, glucose, arabinose and galactose. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H4). The phospholipid profile was found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major fatty acids were identified as C15:0, iso-C16:0, anteiso-C17:0, C17:0 and iso-C15:0. With reference to phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA–DNA hybridization results, strain NEAU-FJL1T can be distinguished from its most closely related strain and classified as a new species, for which the name Plantactinospora solaniradicis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-FJL1T (= DSM 100596T = CGMCC 4.7284T).
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0943-2
  • Molecular diversity and phylogeny of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum
           strains associated with Trifolium repens plants in Romania
    • Authors: Rodica C. Efrose; Craita M. Rosu; Catalina Stedel; Andrei Stefan; Culita Sirbu; Lucian D. Gorgan; Nikolaos E. Labrou; Emmanouil Flemetakis
      Abstract: Abstract The symbiotic nitrogen fixing legumes play an essential role in sustainable agriculture. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is one of the most valuable perennial legumes in pastures and meadows of temperate regions. Despite its great agriculture and economic importance, there is no detailed available information on phylogenetic assignation and characterization of rhizobia associated with native white clover plants in South-Eastern Europe. In the present work, the diversity of indigenous white clover rhizobia originating in 11 different natural ecosystems in North-Eastern Romania were assessed by a polyphasic approach. Initial grouping showed that, 73 rhizobial isolates, representing seven distinct phenons were distributed into 12 genotypes, indicating a wide phenotypic and genotypic diversity among the isolates. To clarify their phylogeny, 44 representative strains were used in sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene and IGS fragments, three housekeeping genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and two symbiosis-related genes (nodA and nifH). Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) phylogeny based on concatenated housekeeping genes delineated the clover isolates into five putative genospecies. Despite their diverse chromosomal backgrounds, test strains shared highly similar symbiotic genes closely related to Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii. Phylogenies inferred from housekeeping genes were incongruent with those of symbiotic genes, probably due to occurrence of lateral transfer events among native strains. This is the first polyphasic taxonomic study to report on the MLSA-based phylogenetic diversity of indigenous rhizobia nodulating white clover plants grown in various soil types in South-Eastern Europe. Our results provide valuable taxonomic data on native clover rhizobia and may increase the pool of genetic material to be used as biofertilizers.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0934-3
  • Quantitative physiology and elemental composition of Kluyveromyces lactis
           CBS 2359 during growth on glucose at different specific growth rates
    • Authors: Oscar Dias; Thiago O. Basso; Isabel Rocha; Eugénio C. Ferreira; Andreas K. Gombert
      Abstract: Abstract The yeast Kluyveromyces lactis has received attention both from academia and industry due to some important features, such as its capacity to grow in lactose-based media, its safe status, its suitability for large-scale cultivation and for heterologous protein synthesis. It has also been considered as a model organism for genomics and metabolic regulation. Despite this, very few studies were carried out hitherto under strictly controlled conditions, such as those found in a chemostat. Here we report a set of quantitative physiological data generated during chemostat cultivations with the K. lactis CBS 2359 strain, obtained under glucose-limiting and fully aerobic conditions. This dataset serve as a basis for the comparison of K. lactis with the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in terms of their elemental compositions, as well as for future metabolic flux analysis and metabolic modelling studies with K. lactis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0940-5
  • Virulence analysis of Staphylococcus aureus in a rabbit model of infected
           full-thickness wound under negative pressure wound therapy
    • Authors: Daohong Liu; Zhirui Li; Guoqi Wang; Tongtong Li; Lihai Zhang; Peifu Tang
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus in a controlled animal study using the standard sterile gauze and negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), including activation of agr, gene expression and production of virulence foctors and depth of bacterial invasion. The tissue specimens were harvested on days 0 (6 h after bacterial inoculation), 2, 4, 6, and 8 at the center of wound beds. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was performed to obtain bioluminescent images which were used to measure the depth of bacterial invasion. The agrA expression of S.aureus and the transcription and production of virulence factors including Eap, Spa and α-toxin were significantly different. The bacterial invasion depth was significantly less with effect of NPWT. The markedly different activation of quorum sensing systems that enable cell-to-cell communication and regulation of numerous colonization and virulence factors result in distinct gene expression and pathogenicity over time in different microenvironment. Thus, the agr system represents a fundamental regulatory paradigm that can encompass different adaptive strategies and accommodate horizontally acquired virulence determinants.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0938-z
  • Detection of human antibodies binding with smooth and rough LPSs from
           Proteus mirabilis O3 strains S1959, R110, R45
    • Authors: J. Gleńska-Olender; K. Durlik; I. Konieczna; P. Kowalska; J. Gawęda; W. Kaca
      Abstract: Abstract Bacteria of the genus Proteus of the family Enterobacteriaceae are facultative human pathogens responsible mainly for urinary tract and wound infections, bacteremia and the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We have analyzed and compared by ELISA the titer of antibodies in plasmas of healthy individuals and in sera of rheumatoid arthritis patients recognizing a potential host cross-reactive epitope (lysine-galacturonic acid epitopes) present in Proteus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In our experiments LPSs isolated from two mutants of smooth Proteus mirabilis 1959 (O3), i.e. strains R110 and R45, were used. R110 (Ra type mutant) is lacking the O-specific polysaccharide, but possesses a complete core oligosaccharide, while R45 (Re type) has a reduced core oligosaccharide and contains two 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid residues and one of 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinopyranose residues. Titer of P. mirabilis S1959 LPS-specific-antibodies increased with the age of blood donors. RA and blood donors’ sera contained antibodies against S and Ra and Re type of P. mirabilis O3 LPSs. Antibodies recognizing lysine-galacturonic acid epitopes of O3 LPS were detected by ELISA in some plasmas of healthy individuals and sera of rheumatoid arthritis patients. RA patients antibodies reacting with P. mirabilis S1959 S and R LPSs may indicate a potential role of anti-LPS antibodies in molecular mimicry in RA diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0937-0
  • Zinc oxide nanoparticle inhibits the biofilm formation of Streptococcus
    • Authors: Purnita Bhattacharyya; Bikash Agarwal; Madhurankhi Goswami; Debasish Maiti; Sunandan Baruah; Prosun Tribedi
      Abstract: Abstract Biofilms are structured consortia of microbial cells that grow on living and non living surfaces and surround themselves with secreted polymers. Infections with bacterial biofilms have emerged as a foremost public health concern because biofilm growing cells can be highly resistant to both antibiotics and host immune defenses. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been reported as a potential antimicrobial agent, thus, in the current study, we have evaluated the antimicrobial as well as antibiofilm activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae which is a significant cause of disease. Zinc oxide nanoparticles showed strong antimicrobial activity against S. pneumoniae, with an MIC value of 40 μg/ml. Biofilm inhibition of S. pneumoniae was also evaluated by performing a series of experiments such as crystal violet assay, microscopic observation, protein count, EPS secretion etc. using sub-MIC concentrations (3, 6 and 12 µg/ml) of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The results showed that the sub-MIC doses of zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited significant anti-biofilm activity against S. pneumoniae, with maximum biofilm attenuation found at 12 μg/ml. Taken together, the results indicate that zinc oxide nanoparticles can be considered as a potential agent for the inhibition of microbial biofilms.
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0930-7
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