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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.392]   [H-I: 16]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Gasification and reforming of biomass and waste samples by means of a
           novel catalyst
    • Abstract: Abstract This study conducted gasification and catalytic reforming experiments with the expectation of obtaining new advantages on energy recovery and aimed for the development of an effective catalyst. Initially, the use of thermal gasification technology for waste treatment in line with waste-to-energy strategies was reviewed. Technological systems which have gasification were classified and their current status was discussed. Then, the results of gasification and reforming experiments showed that product gas with 50 % H2 or more was obtained using a Ni catalyst on a mesoporous silica–based SBA-15 support (NiO/SBA-15), which we newly developed. Experiments using wood feedstock revealed that H2 production by the catalyst was better when the NiO content was 20 % (W/W) or more than when another catalyst or the Ni catalyst with a lower Ni loading was used. Tar formation as a by-product was also well controlled by the catalyst, and use of a catalyst with 40 % NiO reduced the tar concentration to less than 0.2 g/ \( {\text{m}}^{3}_{\text{N}} \) . Experiments using a mixed feedstock of wood and RPF resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon concentration because of insufficient reforming. This finding suggests that future work is required to find a better solution to wood and RPF co-gasification.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20
  • Study of nitrogen oxide absorption in the calcium sulfite slurry
    • Abstract: Abstract Experiments were conducted using a bubbling reactor to investigate nitrogen oxide absorption in the calcium sulfite slurry. The effects of CaSO3 concentration, NO2/NO mole ratio and O2 concentrations on NO2 and SO2 absorption efficiencies were investigated. Five types of additives, including MgSO4, Na2SO4, FeSO4, MgSO4/Na2SO4 and FeSO4/Na2SO4, had been evaluated for enhancing NO2 absorption in CaSO3 slurry. Results showed that CaSO3 concentration had significant impact on NO2 and SO2 absorption efficiencies, and the highest absorption efficiencies of SO2 and NO2 could reach about 99.5 and 75.0 %, respectively. Furthermore, the NO2 absorption was closely related to the NO2/NO mole ratio, and the existence of NO2 in flue gas may promote NO absorption. The presence of O2 in simulated flue gas was disadvantage for NO x removal because it can oxidize sulfite to sulfate. It was worth pointing out that FeSO4/Na2SO4 was the best additive among those investigated additives, as the NO2 removal efficiency was significantly increased from 74.8 to 95.0 %. IC and in situ FTIR results suggest that the main products were NO3 − and NO2 − in liquid phase and N2O, N2O5 and HNO3 in gas phase during the CaSO3 absorption process.
      PubDate: 2016-07-11
  • TG-DSC and FTIR study on pyrolysis of irradiation cross-linked
    • Abstract: Abstract Irradiation cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) and irradiation cross-linked polyethylene with carbon black filler (CB-PEX) are two types of scraps, generated in electric cable production. Their pyrolysis is studied in this work using instrumental TG\DSC\FTIR techniques and kinetic analysis. The experiments are performed at a constant heating rate of 10 °C/min in nitrogen flow at atmospheric pressure. It is found that the main pyrolysis stage is in the temperature range of 395–503 °C for PEX, and in range of 408–515 °C for CB-PEX. In the main pyrolysis stage, CB-PEX requires more external heat than PEX does. Olefins are the major products of pyrolysis for both materials, but they are quite different in their composition and molecular weight distribution. PEX can be converted almost quantitatively into volatile compounds. CB-PEX has a stronger coking tendency, as well as a larger residue composed of carbon black.
      PubDate: 2016-07-09
  • Energy recovery and greenhouse gas reduction potential from food waste in
    • Abstract: Abstract Waste-to-energy is one effective waste management approach for a sustainable society. The purpose of this study was to clarify the potential for energy recovery and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction that could be achieved by introducing anaerobic digestion (AD) facilities in the process of reconstructing aging incineration facilities in Japan. Using statistical data from 1068 incineration facilities, four future scenarios were considered and compared with the current situation. As results, compared with the current situation the amount of electricity generated could increase by 60 % in 2030, by combining AD facilities for food waste with new, high-efficiency incineration facilities for remaining municipal solid waste (MSW). From a life cycle perspective, net energy recovery in 2030 was approximately three times greater than in 2011, and GHG emission could be reduced by 27 %. The introduction of AD facilities is attractive for small authorities, which currently treat <100 t/day of MSW through incineration facilities without energy recovery. An AD facility is also beneficial for large authorities. On the contrary, in middle-scale authorities that treat 100–299 t/day of MSW, the reconstruction of incineration facilities to include electricity production capabilities requires careful consideration, because it will significantly influence energy recovery and GHG reduction effects.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08
  • Residual organic fluorinated compounds from thermal treatment of PFOA,
           PFHxA and PFOS adsorbed onto granular activated carbon (GAC)
    • Abstract: Abstract Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) adsorbed onto granular activated carbon (GAC) were thermally treated in N2 gas stream. The purpose was to assess the fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) during thermal regeneration of GAC, which had been used for water treatment. Mineralized F, residual PFASs including short-chained species, and volatile organic fluorine (VOF) were determined. In a temperature condition of 700 °C, VOF were 13.2, 4.8, and 5.9 % as for PFOA, PFHxA, and PFOS. However, the VOF decreased to 0.1 %, if the GAC and off-gas were kept at 1000 °C. No PFASs remained in GAC at 700–1000 °C; at the same time, short-chained PFASs were slightly detected in the aqueous trapping of off-gas at 800 and 900 °C conditions. The destruction of PFASs on GAC could be perfect if the temperature is higher than 700 °C; however, the process is competitive against volatile escape from GAC. Destruction in gaseous phase needs a temperature as high as 1000 °C. Destruction of PFASs on the surface of GAC, volatile escape from the site, and thermolysis in gas phase should be considered, as to thermal regeneration of GAC.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05
  • Carbon dioxide utilization with carbonation using industrial
           waste-desulfurization gypsum and waste concrete
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, we propose a process making calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate and recovering absorbent using ammonia absorbent, carbon dioxide, and industrial waste. The main objective of this study is to confirm the possibility of carbon capture and utilization based on waste materials. We assumed desulfurization gypsum and construction waste (ready mixed concrete washing water, waste concrete, etc.) are CaSO4, Ca(OH)2, respectively. And concentration of simulated carbon dioxide gas was 15 vol% similar to flue gas. Calcium carbonate was produced by combination reaction between ionic CO2 in absorbent and metal ion in the solid waste. Experiments were conducted at normal temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the generated products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Optimization of the food waste water incineration with respect to CO and
           NO x emission characteristics
    • Abstract: Abstract The incineration of food waste water in conjunction with the domestic waste is getting attention as a food waste water treatment method, due to its low treatment cost and high efficiency. Many studies verified that the ammonia in the food waste water served as a reducing agent to suppress the generation of NOx when the food waste water was injected and incinerated. However, they have not revealed the correlation between the change in the concentration of the CO and NOx by the influence of the solid matters contained in the food waste water on the incineration of the wastes. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum amount of the food waste water injected through four nozzles in the primary and secondary incineration chambers and to assess the correlation between the concentration of CO and NOx in accordance with the food waste water injection in each chamber of the incinerator. For the study, four food waste water injection nozzles were installed; two (A and B) at the top of the primary incineration chamber and the other two (C and D) in the secondary incineration chamber. The correlation between the change in the concentration of CO and NOx was studied adjusting the amount of the food waste water injected through the nozzles. From the result, Case II showed the concentration of CO and NOx as 1.8–10 and 14–26 ppm, respectively, while Case I showed that of CO and NOx as 15–30 and 9–18 ppm, respectively. Those levels are well below the Korean emission criteria, 50 ppm for CO and 80 ppm for NOx. Based on the results, it is evident there is a certain trade-off between emission of CO and NOx, and Case II which has relatively low concentration of CO is easier and cheaper to control.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Proximate composition of household waste and applicability of waste
           management technologies by source separation in Hanoi, Vietnam
    • Abstract: Abstract The organic fraction of municipal solid wastes in Southeast Asia, which has a high moisture content, accounts for a large proportion of total waste. Local governments need to pay adequate attention to the composition of wastes to determine alternative waste management technologies. This study proposed the use of a triangle diagram to describe changes in proximate composition and rates of successful source separation of municipal solid waste and to identify technical challenges about alternative waste management technologies such as incineration, composting, and refuse-derived fuel production based on physical and proximate composition analysis of household waste sampled in Hanoi, Vietnam, as a case study. The analysis indicated the effectiveness of different types of source separation as well as different levels of successful achievement of source separation as an adjustment mechanism for the proximate composition of waste. Proper categorization of wastes for source separation is necessary for the appropriate use of alternative waste management technologies. The results showed that, at a source separation rate of just greater than 0.52 in a three-way separation scheme, the waste separated as combustible waste would be suitable for incineration with energy recovery. Based on well-designed schemes of source separation, alternative waste management technologies can be applied.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Decomposition of asbestos by a supernatant used for immobilization of
           heavy metals in fly ash
    • Abstract: Abstract A supernatant solution, obtained after immobilization of heavy metals involved in fly ashes by a solution of sulfur and calcium hydroxide, was re-used for immobilization of heavy metals and decomposition of asbestos in construction materials. Asbestos was decomposed to more than 99.9 % by mixing it with the supernatant in a ball mill at room temperature. The decomposition of asbestos was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a phase contrast microscope after staining the asbestos with solutions of different diffractive indexes and a scanning electron microscope. XRD indicated complete disappearance of specific main peaks of asbestos: chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite and tremolite. Heavy metals such as chromium(VI) and lead(II) in fly ashes were completely immobilized by the supernatant. It is the first time that a solution obtained after the treatment of wasted fly ash is recycled for decomposition of hazardous waste materials such as asbestos.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Recycling of cathode ray tube panel glasses as aggregates of concrete
           blocks and clay bricks
    • Abstract: Abstract While the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel containing lead could be transported to a smelting facility to recover lead, which could be an available option in domestic, a proper technology to recycle a CRT panel must be developed. Thus, it was suggested that CRT panel glass be used as aggregates of concrete blocks and clay bricks. Samples of blocks and bricks were fabricated with CRT powders and tested to measure their strength and absorption rate to determine their qualities, and environmental soundness was determined by measuring the leaching rate of hazardous metals. For concrete blocks, CRT panel glass powders incorporated as aggregates up to 40 % replacing stone powder was proposed as the proper condition for manufacturing blocks. Around 2 % of CRT panel incorporated into clay brick to substitute Kaoline was suggested to fabricate the best quality of clay brick. Results of leaching test met the criteria with much less concentration of hazardous metals, even lead compound containing in the CRT funnel. To conclude, the use of CRT panel powder after crushing it to the proper size as an aggregate of concrete blocks or clay bricks could be one of the appropriate alternatives to recycle for CRT glass waste being generated drastically in a short term.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Feasibility assessment of thermophilic anaerobic digestion process of food
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, a lab-scale thermophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste collected from G-district in Seoul was performed to assess its feasibility and applicability in field-scale biogas plants. Monitoring parameters included biogas production, methane composition, pH, alkalinity, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Accumulation of VFA caused successive depression in pH, which inhibited microbial activity of methane-forming microorganisms. Signals of biological instability and inhibition of methanogenesis suggest possible process failure, as indicated by reduction in methane production. Results revealed that modifications in certain conditions, such as decreased organic loading rate (OLR) or additional insertion of alkalinity, must be made for its application in industrial-scale biogas plants, and that thermophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste may not be feasible without any modification.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Quantitative analysis of food products allocation into food consumption
           styles for material flow analysis of food
    • Abstract: Abstract To provide effective food and food waste policies, it is necessary to quantitatively assess food and food waste flows. Expenditure has been previously used for calculating allocation factors for material flow analysis, but using the price of food products for quantitative study is inadequate because price also encompasses the cost of food processing and services. In this study, weight-based food allocation factors were calculated based on consumption style to provide the first step for future material flow analysis of food. We used Family Income and Expenditure Survey data, unit price data, composition of food items data, and food weight change from cooking. As a result, the allocation factors of food products for meals at home, convenience meals, and meals outside the home were calculated to be 81, 8, and 11 %, respectively. It differs largely from expenditure-based allocation factors. To verify these findings, we calculated material cost ratios for food prices using the gap between weight-based and expenditure-based allocation factors, and compared the results with actual material cost ratios. The results of this study are expected to be used for tracing food and food waste flows and also for evaluating food consumption’s impact on the environment.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • A study on torrefaction characteristics of waste sawdust in an auger type
    • Abstract: Abstract Torrefaction is thermo-chemical process which can improve solid fuel quality as well as grindability. In previous studies, torrefaction has been studied mainly for removal of moisture and for improving grindability. In this experiment, the characteristics of torrefied waste sawdust were studied especially for its energy yield. Hence, torrefaction was performed on varying reaction temperatures (200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300 °C) and solid residence time (10, 30, 60 min). The results indicated that the yield of torrefaction decreases with increasing temperature and residence time. It was found that above 280 °C, the yield got remarkably decreased. The lowest yield was obtained at the residence time of 60 min. It was also noticed that the HHV of torrefied samples increases with increasing temperature. The highest HHV was found to be 26.09 MJ/kg which was obtained at 60 min and 300 °C. However, the highest energy yield was obtained to be 104.17 % which was noticed at 30 min and 260 °C.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Solid recovery rate of food waste recycling in South Korea
    • Abstract: Abstract Source-separated collection system of household food waste has been implemented national wide in South Korea. Food waste recycling rate that means conversion rate to recycle is over 90 % in present. However, over the value of 90 %, we need to enhance the efficiency of food waste recycling process. We analyzed material flow of 24 food waste recycling facilities and calculated solid recovery rate to key-process. We found that 3–13 % of the solids from food waste outflows with foreign materials and 27–33 % of the solids outflow with wastewater. As a result, solid recovery rates are 65.3, 60.9, and 56.3 % in wet feed facility, dry feed facility, and composting facility, respectively. Alternative ways to recovery solid from wastewater or collection tools to exclude plastic bags, salt, and moisture content are required to make food waste recycling more efficient.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • The application and evaluation research of coffee residue ash into mortar
    • Abstract: Abstract Coffee residue is usually regarded as a kind of agriculture waste; as its quantity increases the treatment of coffee residue will become an environmental problem. This research is innovative in that it derives the possibility of recycle application using coffee residue ash for cement replacement. In this research, coffee residue is burned in an electronic oven to three kinds of coffee residue ash at 500, 600 and 700 °C, and then appropriate apparatus is used to check the chemical and physical properties of these three types of coffee residue ash. After a general comparison, this study selected 500 and 600 °C coffee residue ashes with 2, 3, 5, 10 and 15 % cement replacements to make 5 cm3 cube mortar specimen to test different curing ages’ compressive strength. Through measurement and experiment, this research found that the compressive strength decreased by adding 500 or 600 °C coffee residue ash into the mortar. By considering waste reduction and practice application, this research derives that using the 600 °C coffee residue ash with 10 % replacement is better than others application, such using result also can get valuable efficiencies of financial and CO2 reduction.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Enhancement of biogas production potential from Acacia leaf waste using
           alkaline pre-treatment and co-digestion
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this research was to evaluate possibility of utilizing Acacia leaves (A. mangium and A. auriculiformis), which is an agro-industrial waste from the pulp and paper industry. The effects of alkaline pre-treatment and co-digestion with Napier grass for the enhancement of biogas production from Acacia leaf waste (ALW) were investigated. Six continuous stirred tank reactors with a working volume of 5 L were carried out at the laboratory scale. The results showed that pre-treatment of Acacia leaf waste (pretreated ALW) by soaking in 3 % NaOH for 48 h increased the biogas and methane productivity to 0.200 and 0.117 m3/kgVSadded compared to 0.098 and 0.048 m3/kgVSadded of raw ALW digestion, respectively. Meanwhile, the co-digestion of Acacia leaves with different proportions of Napier grass at ratios of 1:1–1:3 in volatile solid basis also increased the production of biogas and its productivity. The maximum gas production yields of 0.424 and 0.268 m3/kgVSadded for biogas and methane were obtained at 1:3 ratio. This finding affirms the potential of ALW and its possibility to use as biogas feedstock in both single and co-substrate with Napier grass.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Recycling of combined coal-biomass ash from electric power plant waste as
           a cementitious material: characteristics and improvement
    • Abstract: Abstract Combined coal-biomass ash has an enormous impact on environmental quality near electric power plants. This paper describes an alternative to disposal in which the ash is used to produce cementitious materials. Ash was obtained from combustion of coal and biomass containing four mass ratios of anthracite, bitumen, rice husks, and eucalyptus bark. The cement-forming properties were systematically characterized including compressive strength development, durability, and expansion in water. The ash samples were ground to increase the specific surface area, and then used to partially replace ASTM Type I Portland cement in mixtures containing 15, 30, or 45 % ash by mass. The water-binder material's (Portland cement with or without combined coal-biomass ash) ratios (w/c) were held constant at 45, 55, or 65 % by mass. Types A, B, and D ash behaved similarly, while the properties of type C ash were slightly different. Increasing the ash fraction in Portland cement mixtures increased the water requirement and resulted in lower compressive strength. Thorough mechanical grinding reduced the porosity and significantly enhanced the material properties.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Preparation of MgCr 2 O 4 from waste tannery solution and effect of
           sulfate, chloride, and calcium on leachability of chromium
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a study regarding the preparation of MgCr2O4 from waste tannery solution, and chromium leaching behavior is also investigated with varying amounts of sulfate, chloride and calcium. The phase transformation, crystallinity index and crystallite diameter were characterized using XRD, FT-IR and thermal analysis. A well-crystallized MgCr2O4 was successfully prepared at 1400 °C. The sintering temperature had a major impact on the formation of MgCr2O4 compared with sintering time. The MgCr2O4 phase was observed initially at 400 °C and its crystallite diameter increased with increasing temperature. The concentration of total chromium leached and Cr(VI) decreased gradually with increasing temperature. The considerable amount of Cr(VI) was found in the leachate at 300–500 °C caused by Cr(VI) intermediary products. Sulfate and chlorine could impact the transformation efficiency of chromium adversely, and chlorine has a more significant effect than sulfate. The presence of calcium disturbed the formation of MgCr2O4 and new chromium species (CaCrO4) appeared, which resulted in a sharp increase in the concentration of leached Cr(VI). Incorporating Cr(III) into the MgCr2O4 spinel for reusable products reduced its mobility significantly. This was demonstrated to be a promising strategy for the disposal of chromium containing waste resource.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Potential methane yield of food waste/food waste leachate from the
           biogasification facilities in South Korea
    • Abstract: Abstract This study was to find out potential of methane yield on food waste and food waste leachate as biomass in Korea. The seven biogasification facilities were selected for comparison of theoretical methane yield and actual methane yield. The theoretical methane yield was calculated based on organic constituents (carbohydrate, protein, fat) and based on element analysis. The actual methane yield was investigated based on volatile solids and CODcr. Theoretical methane yields by organic constituents were 0.52 Sm3CH4/kg VS and 0.35 Sm3CH4/kg CODcr and these by element analysis were 0.53 Sm3CH4/kg VS and 0.36 Sm3CH4/kg CODcr. Actual methane yields were 0.36 Sm3CH4/kg VSin and 0.26 Sm3CH4/kg CODcrin. Considering the average removal efficiency of organic materials of seven FWL biogasification facilities, actual methane yields were 0.48 Sm3CH4/kg VSrem and 0.33 Sm3CH4/kg CODcrrem. Methane yield by organic constituents is very similar to that by element analysis and actual methane yields of volatile solids and CODcr were similar to theoretical value. The actual methane yield in this study showed approximated boundary values with previous other references which conducted in lab-scale or biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. In conclusion, Korean food waste and food waste leachate have sufficient potential of methane yield in the ongoing biogasification facilities.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Gasification applicability study of polyurethane solid refuse fuel
           fabricated from electric waste by measuring syngas and nitrogenous
           pollutant gases
    • Abstract: Abstract To recycle polyurethane foam waste generated from electric appliance recycling centers for use as fuel in a gasification process, polyurethane solid refuse fuel fabricated as pellets was analyzed for the characteristics of elemental composition, proximate analysis, heating value, and thermo-gravimetric testing. It has a high heating value of 29.06 MJ/kg with a high content of combustibles, which could be feasibly used in any thermal process. However, the nitrogen content, of up to 7 %, was comparably higher than for other fuels such as coal, biomass, and refuse-derived fuel, and may result in the emission of nitrogenous pollutant gases of HCN and NH3. By conducting gasification experiments on polyurethane solid refuse fuel in a fixed-bed reactor, a syngas with a heating value of 9.76 kJ/m3 and high content of both H2 and CO were produced with good gasification efficiency; carbon conversion 54 %, and cold gas efficiency 60 %. The nitrogenous pollutant gases in syngas were measured at the concentrations of 160 ppm hydrogen cyanide and 40 ppm ammonia, which may have to be reduced using proper cleaning technologies prior to the commercialization of gasification technology for polyurethane waste.
      PubDate: 2016-05-19
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Heriot-Watt University
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