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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.449]   [H-I: 22]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Recycling of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic using supercritical and
           subcritical fluids
    • Authors: Idzumi Okajima; Takeshi Sako
      Pages: 15 - 20
      Abstract: Abstract The recycling of waste plastics is important for the prevention of the exhaustion of fossil resources. In this paper, recycling techniques of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) using supercritical and subcritical fluids were reviewed. The matrix resin of CFRP such as epoxy resin or resol resin was decomposed by supercritical and subcritical fluids, and the carbon fiber without thermal damage was recovered from CFRP. Mainly, water or alcohol was used as decomposition medium.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0412-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Investigating the length of data collection period with respect to rate
           constant in the first-order decay model
    • Authors: Hugon Kim; Chunhyun Paik; Yongjoo Chung; Young Jin Kim
      Pages: 32 - 37
      Abstract: Abstract The first-order decay model is the only highly recommended method for estimating landfill gas emissions from solid waste disposal sites according to 2006 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Guidelines. It is also encouraged to collect relevant activity data over the past 50 years to apply the first-order decay model. Even though it is beneficial to facilitate the accuracy of landfill gas emissions estimation, it may not be an easy task to collect reliable data for such a long period of time. It is discussed in this study that a data collection over a shorter period of time may yield a comparable accuracy for emissions estimation depending on methane generation rate or half-life of landfill wastes. Based on the analysis of mathematical properties of the first-order decay model, the estimation accuracy with respect to the length of data collection period has been investigated. Finally, it is also proposed how to estimate the amount of landfill gas emissions and analyze the level of estimation accuracy considering the length of time period since the deposition of wastes.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0378-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Sequential production of pyrolytic oil and biodiesel from oil-bearing
    • Authors: Eilhann E. Kwon; Bokseong Kim; Sungpyo Kim
      Pages: 38 - 45
      Abstract: Abstract Oil extraction from the oil-bearing biomass and waste materials has been considered as one of the biggest challenges in the biodiesel production process because it has been considered as the most energy- and cost-demanding step. This work provides a promising approach for the direct transformation without oil extraction from calcined montmorillonite clay (CMC) and microalgae by means of the non-catalytic thermo-chemical process in conjunction with the real continuous flow system. The introduced method showed the high tolerance of water, impurities, and free fatty acids (FFAs), which enable the combination of the esterification of FFAs and transesterification of triglycerides into a single step without the lipid extraction. For example, this study showed that the maximum achievable yield of biodiesel via the introduced methodology was 97 ± 0.5 % at the temperature regime of 380–480 °C and this biodiesel yield was enhanced in the presence of CO2. Thus, the introduced methodology for producing biodiesel could be an alternative way of the methanol liquefaction and transesterification under supercritical conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0374-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Mercury flows in a zinc smelting facility in South Korea
    • Authors: David Chung; Hyo-Hyun Choi; Hye-Young Yoo; Ji-Young Lee; Sun-Kyoung Shin; Jung Min Park; Junbeum Kim
      Pages: 46 - 54
      Abstract: Abstract To prepare for the international mercury convention, the characteristics of mercury emissions from a zinc smelting facility in South Korea have been reviewed and a material flow analysis (MFA) has been conducted in this research. As inputs into the mercury MFA study, zinc ores and sulfuric acid were examined, whereas wastewater sludge, effluence water, spent catalyst, and emissions from the casting and roasting processes were examined as outputs. Mercury concentrations extracted from end products like zinc ingots, cadmium ingots, and sulfuric acid were then analyzed. Our results showed that the wastewater sludge discharged from the zinc smelting process had a relatively higher concentration of mercury, indicating that the concentration of mercury was further enriched in the wastewater sludge. The wastes discharged through the zinc smelting process should be thoroughly controlled, as results of the MFA showed that approximately 89 % of the mercury contained in the original input was later found in the waste. According to this study, the higher the concentration of mercury within zinc ores at the input stage, the higher is the mercury concentration found in the wastewater sludge at the output stage.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0381-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Preparation of biochar catalyst with saccharide and lignocellulose
           residues of corncob degradation for corncob hydrolysis into furfural
    • Authors: Qing-yan Liu; Fang Yang; Xiao-feng Sun; Zhi-hua Liu; Gang Li
      Pages: 134 - 143
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presented a novel process for production of furfural by hydrothermal degradation of corncob over biochar catalyst, in which it was prepared with the recycling degradation solution and lignocellulosic solid residues. The biochar catalyst was papered by lignocellulose residues and concentrated saccharide solution, and then impregnated in 0.5 mol/L sulphuric acid at room temperature for 24 h assisted by the ultrasonic vibration. In the system of recycling, 8.8 % lignocellulose residues and 100 % concentrated saccharide solution from corncob hydrolysis have been recycled. Hydrolysis of corncob was carried out at 180 °C for duration of 170 min over the biochar catalyst. The experimental results have shown that the furfural yield of up to 37.75 % and overall corncob conversion rate of 62.00 % could be achieved under optimum operating conditions for the catalysts preparation and the corncob hydrolysis. It is believed that the acid density of 4.27 mmol/g of biochar catalyst makes the SO3H groups cleave β-1,4 glycosidic linkages effectively and hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose to water-soluble sugars, as well as to facilitate dehydration of xylose to give the product of furfural.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0392-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Waste rechargeable electric lamps: characterisation and recovery of lead
           from their lead-acid batteries
    • Authors: Mary B. Ogundiran; Tordue G. Buluku; Joshua O. Babayemi; Oladele Osibanjo
      Pages: 163 - 171
      Abstract: Abstract Electrical electronics constitute a significant quantity of municipal solid wastes which are discarded after use in open dumpsites especially in the developing countries. The aim of this study was to characterise the material and chemical components, evaluate current management practices and investigate recovery of lead from battery electrodes (BEs) of waste rechargeable electric lamps (RLs). Twenty-six waste RLs of different models were sampled in Nigeria and characterised. Their BEs were analysed for Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe after acid digestion. Questionnaires were distributed to unselected respondents to assess usage and disposal of the lamps. Reaction of citric acid solutions with Pb in the presence of H2O2 was used for the recovery of Pb. 69 % of the respondents disposed their waste RLs in open dumpsites. The mean ± SD concentrations of Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe in the BEs were 600 ± 0.2 g/kg, 65.4 ± 40 mg/kg, 5.05 ± 4.0 mg/kg, 6.81 ± 5.0 mg/kg, 5.98 ± 3.0 mg/kg, 50.0 ± 30 mg/kg and 40.2 ± 35 mg/kg, respectively. The results show that the batteries are lead-acid batteries which require management. At the optimal conditions of S/L = 0.14, temperature = 20 °C and leaching time = 5 h, about 95 % Pb was recovered in form of lead citrate from the battery. High recovery of Pb is possible with simple and environment-friendly reactions.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0394-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Investigations on enhanced in situ bioxidation of methane from landfill
           gas (LFG) in a lab-scale model
    • Authors: D. N. K. Nair; E. J. Zachariah; P. Vinod
      Pages: 172 - 179
      Abstract: Abstract The performance of an exogenous bacterium, Methylobacterium extorquens, in inducing bioxidation of methane from landfill gas (LFG) was assessed in a laboratory scale bioreactor. The study show that enhanced oxidation of methane is attained when the bacteria are introduced into the landfill soil. The maximum percentage reduction of methane fraction from LFG when the bioreactor was inoculated with the methanotrophic bacteria was 94.24 % in aerobic treatment process and 99.97 % in anaerobic process. In the experiments with only the indigenous microorganisms present in the landfill soil, the maximum percentage reduction of methane for the same flow rate of LFG was 59.67 % in aerobic treatment and 45 % in anaerobic treatment. The methane oxidation efficiency of this exogenous methanotrophic bacterium can be considered to be the optimum in anaerobic condition and at a flow rate of 0.6 L/m2/min when the removal percentage is 99.95 %. The results substantiate the use of exogenous microorganisms as potential remediation agents of methane in LFG.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0397-4
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Community-based solid waste bank program for municipal solid waste
           management improvement in Indonesia: a case study of Padang city
    • Authors: Slamet Raharjo; Toru Matsumoto; Taufiq Ihsan; Indriyani Rachman; Luciana Gustin
      Pages: 201 - 212
      Abstract: Abstract Indonesia has a regulation UU No. 18/2008 which changes the paradigm from waste dumping to recycling. The purpose of this study is to understand the achievement and obstacles of community-based waste recycling through the solid waste bank (SW bank) program and its potency to improve the local MSW management in Indonesia. SW bank program is a unique organization developed among Indonesian communities to facilitate citizen participation in solid waste recycling. The banking system is adopted, and the community deposits the wastes instead of money. Case study was done for Padang city. The existing condition in 2013 suggests that the amount of solid waste recycled by SW bank activity was only 0.05 % of the total MSW generation. This condition results in 35 % waste without proper treatment. To improve the existing condition, development scenario is planned for 15 years. This development scenario may result in the increase of recycling amount of SW bank activity to 6 % of the total MSW generation in 2028. SWOT analysis suggests that some strategies such as creating a local regulation may be adopted to utilize the potency of SW bank for local MSW management improvement.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0401-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Speciation of the radioactive nuclides in incinerator fly ash of municipal
           solid waste using sequential extractions
    • Authors: Yuki Iwahana; Atsushi Ohbuchi; Yuya Koike; Masaru Kitano; Toshihiro Nakamura
      Pages: 226 - 234
      Abstract: Abstract The radioactive nuclides in the incinerator fly ashes from municipal solid waste sampled in June 2006 were analyzed with γ-ray spectrometry. The incinerator ashes were collected in northern Kyushu, Japan. Potassium-40, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra and 228Th were identified and quantified in the γ-ray spectra of fly ash. Gamma-ray spectrometry was combined with a modified sequential extraction procedure based on the Tessier method used for the analysis of radioactive nuclides in fly ash. The crystalline phases and the elemental composition of fly ash were determined by using powder X-ray diffractometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. After sequential extraction, most of 40K and 137Cs and part of 210Pb mainly existed as water-soluble salts, while 226Ra, 228Ra and 228Th were enriched in the residual material of fly ash, especially depending on basicity (Ca/Si ratio) of MSW. Although, 210Pb and stable Pb are isotopes of each other, the distribution of 210Pb is different from that of stable Pb. The differences in the chemical states of 210Pb and stable Pb might result from their distinct origins; 210Pb originates from the decay of 222Rn and is associated with aerosols, whereas stable Pb is mainly derived from relatively inert chemical forms.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0408-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Pb-Laden CRT glass as classifying hazardous waste definition or exemption
           in landfill disposal in China
    • Authors: Hefeng Gao; Yufei Yang; Qifei Huang; Qi Wang
      Pages: 241 - 246
      Abstract: Abstract Disposal of waste CRT glass is now an urgent environmental protection issue. We collected waste CRT glass from monochrome and color television sets, analyzed their chemical compositions using X-ray fluorescence, and studied the leaching characteristics of Pb in the glass using sulfuric and nitric acids and acetic acid buffer leaching toxicity tests. The results showed that the order of the Pb leaching levels was color panel glass < monochrome glass < color funnel glass. The average Pb concentrations leached in sulfuric and nitric acids from color funnel and panel glasses and from monochrome funnel and panel glasses did not exceed the regulatory limits for Pb according to the China Identification Standards for Hazardous Waste—Identification for Extraction Toxicity. Only the average concentration of Pb leached in acetic acid buffer from color funnel glass exceeded the regulatory levels for Pb while those from other glasses were lower than 1 mg/L. Monochrome panel and funnel glasses and color panel glass can be disposed off as common industrial solid waste or co-disposed off with municipal solid waste. Color funnel glass, however, should be managed and disposed off in strict conformity with the requirements for hazardous waste disposal.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0411-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Bioleaching of copper from metal concentrates of waste printed circuit
           boards by a newly isolated Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain Z1
    • Authors: Chong Yang; Nengwu Zhu; Weihang Shen; Ting Zhang; Pingxiao Wu
      Pages: 247 - 255
      Abstract: Abstract The goal of this study is to determine the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain Z1 in bioleaching of metal concentrates of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs). The influences of initial pH, initial Fe(II) concentration, metal concentrates dosage, inoculation quantity and particle size on the bioleaching process were investigated and optimum conditions were determined. The results showed that 92.57 % copper leaching efficiency was achieved within 78 h in a two-step process, and 85.24 % aluminum and 95.18 % zinc were leached out after 183 h under the optimum conditions of initial pH 2.25, initial Fe(II) 9 g/L, metal concentrates dosage 12 g/L, inoculation quantity 10 % and particle size 0.178–0.250 mm. It demonstrated that metals could be efficiently leached from metal concentrates by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Z1 and the bioleaching period was reduced 81–78 h. Therefore, the strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Z1 could be suggested as a potential strain to bioleach metals from metal concentrates of waste PCBs.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0414-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Regeneration performance of spent granular activated carbon for tertiary
           treatment of dyeing wastewater by Fenton reagent and hydrogen peroxide
    • Authors: Quanyuan Chen; Huanhuan Liu; Zaifu Yang; Dejun Tan
      Pages: 256 - 264
      Abstract: Abstract The efficacy of Fenton reagent and hydrogen peroxide for the regeneration of saturated granular activated carbon with biological effluent of dyeing wastewater was compared based on adsorption–oxidation recycle experiments. The catalytic performance of granular activated carbon and the necessity of ferrous ions were discussed. It was demonstrated that Fenton reagent or H2O2 was effective in destroying toxic organics and removing organic pollutants from the surface of granular activated carbon. The regeneration efficiency of granular activated carbon was about 50 % with Fenton reagent or H2O2 evaluated by chemical oxygen demand removals in adsorption. However, the synergic catalysis of granular activated carbon and ferrous ions enhanced the mineralization of organic pollutants and resulted in a higher regeneration efficiency of granular activated carbon evaluated by total organic carbon removals in adsorption compared with H2O2 alone.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0410-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Radon diffusion and exhalation from mortar modified with fly ash: waste
           utilization and benefits in construction
    • Authors: Amit Kumar; R. P. Chauhan
      Pages: 318 - 325
      Abstract: Abstract The utilization of fly ash in construction and cement industry increases from last few decades. But the question on utilization of fly ash for construction purpose was raised by many investigators as it causes a source of radioactive gas radon and increase in the gamma dose. In order to optimize the utilization of fly ash in cement with additional benefit of reducing radon diffusion coefficient and exhalation rate were studied. The compressive strength of mortar is the key factor for cement industry, thus it should not be sacrificed for utilization of fly ash. Keeping this in mind, compressive strength, porosity, radon diffusion and exhalation rate study was carried out through the mortar reinforced with the blending of fly ash with cement. The results indicated decrease in effective radon diffusion coefficient from 0.363 × 10−7 to 0.013 × 10−7 m2/s for fly ash up to 50 % substitution. The addition of fly ash in cement first decreased the radon exhalation rates up to 25 % substitution then increases and similar trends were observed for compressive strength. Thus, the addition of fly ash exerts a positive effect up to a 20–25 % replacement beyond which it may introduce negative effect depending upon the level of substitution.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0424-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Nature and extent of unauthorized waste dump sites in and around Bangalore
    • Authors: H. N. Chanakya; Shwetmala; T. V. Ramachandra
      Pages: 342 - 350
      Abstract: Abstract Bangalore city generates around 3600 tons/day of solid waste and a major constituent is organic (>70 %). The quantum of wastes generated is far greater than the capacity of the permitted waste treatment and disposal sites. As these sites are quite far-off, many of the trucks dump at unauthorized locations to reduce their transportation costs or meet their daily targets. To understand overall patterns, sources and reasons for dumping, an attempt is made to find the locations, composition and to assess the area of garbage spread at unauthorized dumps in and around the city. The field survey was conducted during August 2010 to April 2012 wherein the accuracy of three techniques (visual estimates, step measurement and Google Earth) was assessed to rapidly estimate area of garbage spread. The total number of unauthorized dumps located outside the core area was 393 and inside core area was 303. The results indicated that the visual estimates to determine the location and area of garbage spread were better in identifying locations of unauthorized dumps in a very short while and can be deployed to assess performance of various mega-cities in transition to good solid-waste management.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0423-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Characterization and quantification of solid waste generation in the Niger
           Delta Region of Nigeria: a case study of Ogbe-Ijoh community in Delta
    • Authors: I. H. Owamah; O. C. Izinyon; P. Igbinewekan
      Pages: 366 - 373
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, the composition, characteristics and generation rates of solid waste (SW) in Ogbe-Ijoh community were investigated to provide reliable data that would foster the effective management of solid wastes in the sub-region for the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. Results from the study show that majority of the solid waste was organic (77 % by weight). The recyclable waste (paper, plastic and metal) comprised 14 % by weight of the waste composition. Household attitudes to solid waste management (SWM) as obtained from questionnaire survey have a positive correlation with results from the waste characterization study and show that the community lacks effective SWM programs. The solid waste stream in Ogbe-Ijoh community is similar to the solid waste stream of developing countries in Asia and Africa, but somewhat unique in composition and generation rate. An estimated solid waste generation rate of 1.04 kg/person/day was obtained for Ogbe-Ijoh community. Negative and positive correlations were obtained, respectively, for household size, and income in relation to solid waste generation.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0426-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Hydro-thermal reaction according to the CaO/SiO 2  mole-ratio in
           silico-manganese slag
    • Authors: Sunmi Choi; Jinman Kim; Sangyoon Oh; Dongyeop Han
      Pages: 374 - 381
      Abstract: Abstract SiMn slag is a by-product of the production of ferroalloy, and has a chemical composition that could be used as a cement admixture. It is not currently being used in this way due to its low reactivity. The reason why SiMn slag shows this low chemical activity is that it becomes crystalline during slow cooling after it is discharged. In this study, rapid cooling was achieved by a water quenching method (the slag was dumped into water) so that the amorphous content would be high. Then its hydration activity was experimentally verified. Mortar-bars of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), cured under three conditions, were used as standards for comparison with those of SiMn-slag powder cured under dry-air, wet and autoclave conditions. Though the SiMn bars showed very low activity at first, they showed outstanding hydration activity after autoclaving. This indicated that using SiMn slag as a Si source for hydro-thermal reactions is appropriate. In addition, from the results of tests evaluating the optimum amount of slag proper for a hydro-thermal reaction, it was confirmed that cement of the greatest strength developed under the condition that CaO/SiO2 at a mole-ratio of 1.0, was used to replace 83 % of the OPC.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0431-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Bio-oil production from pyrolysis of waste sawdust with catalyst ZSM-5
    • Authors: Eunjung Kim; Hyungbae Gil; Sangwon Park; Jinwon Park
      Pages: 423 - 431
      Abstract: Abstract Slow pyrolysis is characterized by a low heating rate and high reaction time. The products are bio-char, bio-oil and bio-gas. In bio-oil, there are a variety of chemical compounds. Leading aromatic chemicals such as furfural, creosol and catechol were a focus of this study. In non-catalytic conditions, the slow pyrolysis temperature was 350, 400, 450, 500, and 550 °C. The experiment was conducted in catalytic condition using ZSM-5 catalyst to produce more aromatic chemicals. In this research the slow pyrolysis experiment was conducted in non-catalytic and catalytic conditions. In non-catalytic condition, a large amount of bio-oil was produced at 500 °C. The peak area of furfural, which is a valuable organic chemical, was highest value at 400 °C. In the catalytic condition the temperature was fixed at 400, and 500 °C. The result analysis evaluated the mass yield of bio-oil and GC–MS data for quantitative and qualitative analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0438-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Optimization of bio-drying of kitchen waste: inoculation, initial moisture
           content and bulking agents
    • Authors: Xiao Song; Jiao Ma; Jiandong Gao; Yanbo Liu; Yongce Hao; Wei Li; Ruhai Hu; Aimin Li; Lei Zhang
      Pages: 496 - 504
      Abstract: Abstract Bio-drying has been proved to be a promising method for treatment of MSW (municipal solid waste) and sewage sludge due to its high energy efficiency and low operating cost. In this study, bio-drying was adopted to treat kitchen waste, which has quite different features from MSW and sewage sludge. The main operating factors of bio-drying, including sludge inoculation, initial moisture content, and different bulking agents, were systematically investigated. The trial with a high inoculation ratio showed a shorter lag phase and better temperature profile, thus resulting in a better drying performance with higher evaporation efficiency. Furthermore, 71.7 % of initial moisture content, which is relatively higher than the values reported in other studies, was found to be favorable for microbial activity, which could save the operating cost by reducing bulking agent in bio-drying of kitchen waste. Among the tested bulking agents (i.e., corncob, sawdust, and straw), straw was found to be the best in terms of better temperature profile and water removal efficiency due to its high water absorption capacity and the proper FAS. These results will provide some valuable information for efficient bio-drying of the kitchen waste.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0450-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • An overview of electronic waste recycling in Vietnam
    • Authors: Huynh Trung Hai; Ha Vinh Hung; Nguyen Duc Quang
      Pages: 536 - 544
      Abstract: Abstract Electronic waste (e-waste) is a rising issue in Vietnam, due to a dramatic increase in the waste volume, and the lack of recovering materials. This research provides an overview of e-waste in Vietnam, which is currently considered to be hazardous waste. This paper also discusses the recycling technologies and perspective of e-waste recycling in the near future. It has been shown that Vietnam can only recover some common materials (such as iron, copper, aluminum, etc.) from e-waste with low efficiency. The recovering process can cause serious impacts on the environment and public health. In addition, the parts of e-waste that are not recycled in Vietnam have been illegally exported to other countries. It violates the BASEL Convention and causes a loss of an important “urban resource”. Recycling e-waste had not been regulated by Vietnamese government for a long time. As a result, this type of waste got under the control of informal sector. To respond to this situation, the Extended Producer Responsibility system will be applied in Vietnam in 2016. Due to the introduction of the new legislation, there would be an important reform in the recycling sector that is expected to increase the efficiency of the recycling system.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0448-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
  • Role of ferric oxide in abiotic humification enhancement of organic matter
    • Authors: Yingchao Zhang; Dongbei Yue; Xufei Lu; Kaiyun Zhao; Hong Ma
      Pages: 585 - 591
      Abstract: Abstract The significance of humification pathway as promoted by metallic oxides has previously been well investigated using a model system containing humus precursors. Metallic oxides, co-existing with organic matter in nature, are capable of promoting humification of organic matter to different degrees. This study is an investigation into the role of ferric oxide in the process of humification, based on the degree of darkening for humus precursors. Glucose (Glu), glycine (Gly) and catechol (Cat) were introduced as humification model precursors, and the role of ferric oxide in different periods of humification was discussed by characterizing humification degree in terms of dissolved organic carbon, ratio of Fulvic acids (FA) to Humic acids (HA), and E 600. Valence changes of Fe were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that ferric oxide was effective on the conversion from FA to HA, and the effectiveness grew as the ferric oxide concentration increased. A higher pH value was more conducive to form dark substances. Amounts of Fe with various valences changed remarkably after humification, suggesting that ferric oxide was involved in the humification reaction.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0435-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
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Heriot-Watt University
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