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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.449]   [H-I: 22]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Recycling of biodiesel fuel wastewater for use as a liquid fertilizer for
           hydroponics
    • Authors: Jiro Kohda; Yasuhisa Nakano; Akimitsu Kugimiya; Yu Takano; Takuo Yano
      Pages: 999 - 1007
      Abstract: Wastewater is discharged during washing processes in the production of biodiesel fuel (BDF) using alkaline catalysts. It can be recycled as a liquid fertilizer for hydroponics by adding essential components for plant growth. The effects of the liquid fertilizer on plant growth were investigated. Liquid fertilizer containing a smaller amount of the BDF wastewater had a similar effect on plant growth as the standard nutrient solutions. This result reveals that BDF wastewater can be recycled for use as a liquid fertilizer for hydroponics. However, fertilizer with a larger amount of the BDF wastewater showed poor and varied plant growth due to the growth of microorganisms in the contaminated wastewater. Hence, when BDF wastewater becomes contaminated during storage, sterilization is necessary to recycle it as a liquid fertilizer. Moreover, contamination during storage should be avoided for successful recycling.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0545-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Recovery of rare-earth elements from neodymium magnets using molten salt
           electrolysis
    • Authors: Y. Kamimoto; T. Itoh; K. Kuroda; R. Ichino
      Pages: 1017 - 1021
      Abstract: Rare-earth elements are used in neodymium magnets, and these elements are critical to Japanese industry. In this study, we focused on the electrochemical behavior of neodymium magnets for the recovery of rare-earth elements using molten salt electrolysis. The influence of the rare-earth elemental composition of the neodymium magnets on their anodic polarization behavior and oxidation mechanism was studied. The use of potentiostatic electrolysis enabled selective leaching of rare-earth elements from neodymium magnets in the potential range from −1.8 to −0.8 V. The oxidation potential limits the oxidation stage, enabling rare-earth elements to be leached from mixed neodymium magnets simultaneously.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0563-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Characterizations of biochar from hydrothermal carbonization of exhausted
           coffee residue
    • Authors: Daegi Kim; Kwanyong Lee; Daeun Bae; Ki Young Park
      Pages: 1036 - 1043
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to produce renewable energy from exhausted coffee residue, which is a form of biomass. As coffee preference continues to increase, the importation of coffee beans has been increasing sharply. However, the amount of coffee that is actually consumed is only about 0.2% of coffee beans, while the spent coffee beans are discarded in the form of exhausted coffee residue. Hydrothermal carbonization is a method of producing an improved fuel from renewable energy sources by changing the physical and chemical properties of biochars. Biochars were obtained from a variety of reaction temperatures during hydrothermal carbonization and analyzed using elemental analysis, ultimate analysis, and calorific value measurement. The atomic C/O and C/H ratios of all obtained biochars decreased and were found to be similar to those of lignite and sub-bituminous coal. The highest energy recovery efficiency of biochar indicates that the optimum reaction temperature for hydrothermal carbonization was between 210 and 240 °C, which produced biochars with calorific value of approximately 26–27 MJ/kg. The spectra of biochars obtained from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed fewer C–O and aliphatic C–H functional groups, but more carbonyl C=O functional groups and aliphatic CH x groups. The results of this study indicate that hydrothermal carbonization can be used as an effective means to generate highly energy-efficient renewable fuel resources from coffee residue. The thermogravimetric analysis provided the changing combustion characteristics due to increased fixed carbon content.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0572-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Psychological driving forces behind households’ behaviors toward
           municipal organic waste separation at source in Vietnam: a structural
           equation modeling approach
    • Authors: Le Thi Thanh Loan; Hisako Nomura; Yoshifumi Takahashi; Mitsuyasu Yabe
      Pages: 1052 - 1060
      Abstract: Most recent municipal organic waste-separation at source (MOW-SAS) programs that have been introduced in developing countries remain pilot programs, but have not fully developed into sustainable municipal solid-waste management strategies. The city of Hoi An, Vietnam, implemented a mandatory MOW-SAS program in 2012. Using Structural Equation Modeling, this study investigates the psychological driving forces behind households’ behaviors toward the MOW-SAS program. This study finds that moral norm (moral perception of what is good or bad), attitude toward sorted waste, and situational factors (issues concerning physically sorting garbage, such as time, space, and lack of family cooperation) can significantly affect household behaviors toward MOW-SAS. It confirms the need for supplying frequent environmental educational campaigns and highlighting the benefits of MOW-SAS programs. Moreover, the study finds that households’ system trust in local authority concerning the MOW-SAS program is an important driving force behind the behavior. Therefore, recommendation is also made on the need to develop strong leadership in local authorities through improving: (1) reliability (ability to effectively treat sorted waste), (2) legitimacy (punitive measures for non-participants), and (3) effectiveness (dissemination of information about the benefits of MOW-SAS programs) for promoting MOW-SAS.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0587-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Simultaneous removal of SO 2 and PAHs by adding calcium-based additives
           during sewage sludge incineration in a fluidized bed incinerator
    • Authors: Lin-Bo Qin; Jun Han; Wang-Sheng Chen; Ge-Ge Wang; Guang-Qian Luo; Hong Yao
      Pages: 1061 - 1068
      Abstract: In this paper, the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by adding calcium-based additives [CaO, Ca(OH)2, and CaCO3] during sewage sludge incineration was investigated in a fluidized bed incinerator. The effects of the types, CaO/S (mole ratio) and particle size of calcium-based additives on PAHs or PAHs Toxic Equivalent Quantity concentrations (TEQs) were also considered. The experimental results indicated that CaO had a better performance of reducing SO2 and PAHs emission, and the removal efficiencies of SO2, PAHs and PAHs TEQs at 850 °C were 86.89, 38.88 and 75.19%, respectively. Meanwhile, the increase of CaO/S and decrease of particle size were beneficial for suppressing PAHs formation and capturing SO2. Moreover, the adsorption and catalytic effect of calcium-based additives were regarded as inhibiting PAHs formation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0592-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Numerical study of heat transfer characteristics of char from waste tire
           pyrolysis
    • Authors: Hoon Chae Park; Hang Seok Choi; Yeon-Ho Kwak
      Pages: 1077 - 1084
      Abstract: To investigate heat transfer of char from waste tire pyrolysis, the cooling of char was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics. To scrutinize the heat transfer characteristics, bed height, temperature of cooling wall, and mixing time were selected as calculation parameters. From the results, increasing the char bed height from 0.005 to 0.02 m, the total heat transfer is decreased as from 45.5 to 26.5 J. As the char bed height is further increased from 0.02 to 0.06 m, the total heat transfer is decreased from 26.5 to 9.1 J. The char bed height affects the total heat transfer significantly. The total heat transfer decreases from 15.9 to 14.0 J as the temperature of cooling wall increases from 273.15 to 323.15 K. The total heat transfer mildly depends on the temperature of cooling wall. The particle mixing time increases from 10 to 120 s and the total heat transfer decreases from 28.6 to 22.6 J. It is noted that the particle contact is enhanced between char particles as well as the particles and cooling wall as the particle mixing time decreases. Consequently, heat transfer is augmented.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0598-0
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Recycling nickel from spent catalyst of Phu My fertilizer plant as a
           precursor for exhaust gas treatment catalysts preparation
    • Authors: Nguyen Le-Phuc; Thuy Ngoc Luong; Tri Van Tran; Yen Thi Hai Pham; Phuong Thuy Ngo; Sura Nguyen
      Pages: 1085 - 1092
      Abstract: In this study, a very promising way of treating and recycling spent nickel catalysts of fertilizer plants in Vietnam was proposed. Firstly, nickel was recovered from spent catalyst using HNO3—leaching process. Results show that nickel recovery of over 90% with a purity of over 90% can be achieved with HNO3 2.1–2.5 M at 100 °C in 75 min. The residue after leaching is not considered as a hazardous waste according to the Vietnamese regulations. Then, the leachate solution was used as a precursor to prepare a model catalyst for exhaust gas (CO, HC, NOx) treatment. In comparison with the catalyst prepared from the commercial nickel nitrate solution, the catalyst synthesized from recovered nickel exhibits similar properties and activities. The influence of Ni loading of Ni/alumina catalyst as well as the modification of active phase by some metals addition (Mn, Ba, Ce) was also investigated. It is feasible to modify active phase by transition metals such as Mn, Ba, and Ce for complete oxidation of CO and HC at 270 °C and a reduction of NOx below 350 °C at high volumetric flow condition (GHSV = 110.000 h−1).
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0609-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Raw material potential of recyclable materials for fiber composites: a
           review study
    • Authors: Anna Keskisaari; Timo Kärki
      Pages: 1136 - 1143
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate waste streams as a source of recyclable raw material for fiber composite production. Globally, vast volumes of waste are produced daily that are not recycled effectively. In this work, three different raw material sources are examined; industrial, construction and municipal solid waste streams. All three sources produce wastes that are currently underutilized. Usage areas for the waste material include use as a reinforcing fiber, as part of the plastic matrix or as a filler. The industrial sector produces more homogenous waste, while waste from municipalities is mixed. Irregular material flow, the varying condition of the waste and different pretreatments used pose difficulties for recycling. Furthermore, some materials are industry-specific and may be produced in only certain areas. Despite these difficulties, huge amount of potentially useful exploitable waste is available and using different waste streams as a part of wood-plastic composite production can reduce waste volumes disposed to landfill.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0511-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A study on the characteristics of particulate matter in the syngas
           produced from the waste gasification with cleaning systems for energy
           utilization
    • Authors: Jaehong Min; Sung-Bang Nam; Na-Rang Kim; Dong-Ju Kim; Young-Sik Yoon; Soo-Nam Park; Jae-Hoi Gu
      Pages: 1155 - 1165
      Abstract: The high quality of syngas from gasification and cleaning systems can be utilized for energy generation or commodity chemicals. To evaluate the quality of syngas from waste gasification and to obtain design factors for commercial scale, we identified the characteristics of particles depending on the cleaning units in pilot scale. The particle size distribution, amount of particles and heavy metals were analyzed at gasifier and each cleaning unit which are quenching scrubber, venturi scrubber, neutralization scrubber, desulfurization scrubber, and wet electrostatic precipitator. As a result, about 99.98 % of the particles were removed through 5 cleaning systems, from 51,226 mg/Nm3 at gasifier to 12 mg/Nm3 at WESP, and were ostensibly undetectable. Moreover, the minimum size of particles that could be eliminated was different depending on wet cleaning systems. The particle size at 90 % in the cumulative was generated up to 24.029 µm at the gasifier and the removed particle size distribution at WESP ranged from 0.370 to 12.795 µm. From the particulate matters point of view, the syngas from waste gasification with cleaning systems can be properly utilized for energy recovery systems. Graphical
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0501-4
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Application of system dynamics modeling for evaluation of different
           recycling scenarios in Singapore
    • Authors: Apostolos Giannis; Miaoju Chen; Ke Yin; Huanhuan Tong; Andrei Veksha
      Pages: 1177 - 1185
      Abstract: The influence of socioeconomic factors, such as population and rapid economic growth, and the change of consumption and living patterns make waste management in Singapore, a complex issue. Due to limited land and resources, the solid waste management scheme requires a comprehensive approach. Therefore, system dynamics (SD) modeling was applied to assess alternative strategies for solid waste management by interconnecting landfill capacity and recycling efficiency with reference to the projection on waste generation. Nine different scenarios were investigated to identify the best approach to maintain environmental sustainability without inhibiting the economic growth. Four subsystems (i.e., population, economy, waste recycling, and waste disposal) have been incorporated into the SD model to broaden the effectiveness of the waste management system. Research findings revealed that a high economic pattern and a high recycling rate are recommended to satisfy the requirements for economic growth and environmental sustainability while extending landfill capacity for waste disposal. Even though the balance of expenditure could be increased by the high recycling rate, it meets the need for long-term incineration and landfill planning.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0503-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Study on a novel pneumatic stratified vibration sorting method of waste
           plastic films
    • Authors: Xianhai Yang; Xiang Cheng; Qian Li; Xia Liu
      Pages: 1186 - 1193
      Abstract: Waste plastic films introduce serious pollution and need to be separated and collected for recycling. Aiming at highly efficient sorting of waste plastic films, a kind of novel pneumatic stratified vibration sorting method of waste plastic films is proposed combining with the characteristics of pneumatic sorting and linear reciprocating vibration mechanism. The kinematic model of waste plastic films on the vibrating bed is established to study the kinematic characteristics of waste plastic films in the separating process. The effects of the directional angle of the vibration, the inclined angle of the vibration bed, the crank, the air speed, the critical rotational speed of the motor, and motion parameters on sliding trajectories of waste plastic films on the stratified vibration bed have been analyzed. Then, the optimum process parameters are determined. Based on the analyses, the prototype has been designed. The virtual prototype is created and simulated by software ADAMS. The results have verified the theoretical analyses. It shows the introduced pneumatic stratified vibration sorting method has a higher efficiency than conventionally compound sorting methods.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0504-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Crystalline phase evolution behavior and physicochemical properties of
           glass–ceramics from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash
    • Authors: Jingde Luan; Meiyun Chai; Rundong Li; Pengfei Yao; Lei Wang; Shaobai Li
      Pages: 1204 - 1210
      Abstract: Appropriate management and treatment of fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plant have become an urgent environmental protection problem. In this study, glass–ceramics have been prepared from MSW incineration fly ash and the SiO2 with different blending ratios ( \( {\text{BR}}_{{{\text{SiO}}_{ 2} }} \) ). With the increase in \( {\text{BR}}_{{{\text{SiO}}_{ 2} }} \) , the main crystalline phase of glass–ceramics was converted from gehlenite and pseudowollastonite into wollastonite. The texture was gradually formed in the surface of glass–ceramics due to the mutual arrangement of crystal particles and the decrease in the number and size of the gaps. Because of the mineral evolution and the microstructure change, the compressive strength and water absorption were significantly improved from 8.40 to 18.82 MPa and from 6.83 to 0.44 wt%, respectively, when \( {\text{BR}}_{{{\text{SiO}}_{ 2} }} \) was in the range from 19 to 44 wt%. If \( {\text{BR}}_{{{\text{SiO}}_{ 2} }} \)  >29 wt%, the prepared glass–ceramics had good corrosion resistance in 10 % H2SO4 solution and 10 % NaOH solution, respectively. Therefore, glass–ceramics prepared from MSW incineration fly ash can be used as ceramic tile for building and decoration.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0506-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The impact on the effects of leachate concentrates recirculation for
           different fill age waste
    • Authors: Dongmei Wang; Dan Liu; Lixia Tao; Zhi Li
      Pages: 1211 - 1219
      Abstract: To improve the effects of leachate concentrates recirculation, the quality of effluent is studied from three columns with different fill age waste. The leachate concentrate from a landfill in Chengdu is used for the recirculation experiments with columns of the 1, 5 and 15 years fill age waste, respectively. The characteristics of organic matter, salinity and heavy metals from the effluent are discussed, and the recirculation effect of different landfill bodies is evaluated based on the Gray Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The results show that 1a fill age waste column is in methanogenic stage, with a best NO3 − removal rate of 88 %, but worst removal capacity for other indicators. The 5a fill age waste column is approximate to stabilization, and the removal capacity of the organic matter, salinity, Cr and Ni is poor. The 15a waste column has a good adsorption and complexion capacity, with the removal rate of 90, 78, 93 and 78 % of the organic matter, salinity Cr, and Ni, respectively, at the early stage, but would be approximate to or arrive at saturation with increase of recirculation time. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the effluent water effect is best for the 15a fill age waste column.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0508-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Rockwool waste in fly ash geopolymer composites
    • Authors: Paivo Kinnunen; Juho Yliniemi; Bob Talling; Mirja Illikainen
      Pages: 1220 - 1227
      Abstract: Mineral wool waste is often considered unrecyclable, due to its difficult-to-process physical composition, and potential microbial contamination in the post-consumer products. Total mineral wool waste generated in the EU is growing continuously and is currently over 2.3 Mt annually, volumetrically accounting for the largest single waste source in some landfills. Here, we take advantage of the alkali-soluble nature of the rockwool waste, and use a combined mixing and dissolution method to prepare this otherwise unusable waste for geopolymerization, with up to 33 % inclusion in the final product. This mixing and dissolution step enables sufficiently high solids content to form a castable geopolymer paste, which forms a rigid matrix and a compressive strength of 12.8 MPa, sufficient for structural applications. This is the first time mineral wool waste has been used as a geopolymer precursor. FESEM and XRD analysis of the formed products were performed to verify geopolymer formation. Using the preparation reported here, otherwise unrecyclable mineral wool waste can potentially be turned into a valuable raw material for geopolymer materials.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0514-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Integrated process development for the recovery of Europium and Yttrium
           from waste fluorescent powder
    • Authors: Ching-Hwa Lee; Ching-Hua Liao; Srinivasa R. Popuri; Chi-En Hung
      Pages: 1235 - 1243
      Abstract: Fluorescent powder plays an important role in the modern electronic lighting products. During the production of electronic lighting products, a large amount of waste fluorescent powder is generated. The major rare earth composition of this waste fluorescent powder is Europium (Eu) and Yttrium (Y), both being valuable resources worthy of the recycling process. To recover (Eu) and (Y) from the fluorescent powder, an integrated leaching method is adopted in this study. Leaching tests are performed and optimized with the use of various leaching reagents. Reagents such as HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, and NaOH are used along with the method of varying the leaching time and solid/liquid ratios at 27 and 70 °C. The result of leaching tests shows that the Eu and Y present in the waste fluorescent powder can be 100 % leached using 1 N sulfuric acid under the conditions of 1 h leaching time, 3 g/50 mL solid/liquid ratio, and 70 °C temperature. The optimal leaching solution is subjected to crystallization and replacement process to recover Eu and Y and achieved maximum recovery of 79 and 47 % Eu and Y, respectively. Further, the recovery efficiency of Eu and Y are compared with various precipitating reagents such as sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium sulfate, potassium sulfate, ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium sulfate, and achieved 100 % with sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate. The recovery efficiency of Eu and Y is also achieved to be 100 % with pH adjustment method.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0515-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Medium-scale gasification of oil palm empty fruit bunch for power
           generation
    • Authors: Muhammad Afif Ariffin; Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood; Zambri Harun; Ramizi Mohamed
      Pages: 1244 - 1252
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the performance of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) gasification using a medium-scale downdraft gasifier for power generation. The EFB gasification process was carried out at a feed rate of 126 kg/h within operating temperatures of 850–950 °C. The gasification performance was monitored based on the syngas composition, syngas calorific value (CV) and the gasification cold gas efficiency (CGE). The results show that the EFB gasification performance increases with the increasing of the operating temperature, especially in terms of the syngas CV and the gasification CGE. Operating temperature of 850–950 °C is found to be the ideal temperature range for the EFB gasification process in this medium-scale gasifier to obtain a favourable syngas CV and gasification CGE for engine application. The EFB gasification also produces a relatively low-tar syngas yield and is expected to generate 106 kWe of electricity at a temperature and feed rate of 900 °C and 126 kg/h, respectively. Based on the analysis, the EFB gasification using a medium-scale downdraft gasifier is a very promising process for power generation due to its favourable gasification performance.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0518-8
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The seasonal effects of manure management and feeding strategies on
           hydrogen sulphide emissions from stored dairy manure
    • Authors: Fetra J. Andriamanohiarisoamanana; Yushi Sakamoto; Takaki Yamashiro; Seiichi Yasui; Masahiro Iwasaki; Ikko Ihara; Takehiro Nishida; Kazutaka Umetsu
      Pages: 1253 - 1260
      Abstract: The influence of temperature and storage time on hydrogen sulphide (H2S) emissions from two different dairy manures was investigated over four seasons in 2012. Two separate experiments were conducted using dairy manure; (1) water baths at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C that were incubated for 15 h, and (2) 28-day batch experiment under room temperature. The headspace H2S concentration increased exponentially after 15 °C and reached a maximum of 3.1 mg/L at 30 °C. After the 4th day of storage, dairy manure emitted an average of 3.6 mg/L of H2S. However, a small decrease was observed on the 28th day, with a concentration of 2.8 mg/L. Under natural conditions, dairy manure emitted significantly lower H2S values during winter than during spring, summer and autumn when manure is widely used as fertiliser. Furthermore, regardless of the incubation temperature and storage time, manure from cows fed with concentrate-based feed emitted much higher H2S (6.5 times) than from cows fed with forage-based feed. These results indicated that the emissions of H2S from dairy manure could be managed by feeding cows minimal concentrate feed and by handling manure at cooler temperatures or lengthening the retention time.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0519-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Antibiotic removal from waste milk by electrochemical process: degradation
           characteristics in concentrated organic solution
    • Authors: Yumika Kitazono; Ikko Ihara; Kiyohiko Toyoda; Kazutaka Umetsu
      Pages: 1261 - 1269
      Abstract: The use of antibiotics in lactating dairy cows produces waste milk containing antibiotic residues. Antibiotics have been one of the emerging pollutants in the environment. Waste milk is a concentrated wastewater because it contains organic matter at high concentrations. The objective was to clarify the removal characteristics of chlortetracycline and cefazolin contained in waste milk using the electrochemical oxidation by a comparative study with in aqueous solution. This paper discussed partial and preferential oxidation of the antibiotic dissolved in milk to reduce the energy consumption during the treatment. The preferential degradation of antibiotic as a target compound on the basis of pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics led the charge saving treatment. The results indicated that the electrochemical oxidation can effectively treat the low levels of the antibiotic residues even in concentrated wastewater not only in usual dilute solutions.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0517-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Utilization of coal gangue for the production of brick
    • Authors: Hongliang Xu; Wenjuan Song; Wenbo Cao; Gang Shao; Hongxia Lu; Daoyuan Yang; Deliang Chen; Rui Zhang
      Pages: 1270 - 1278
      Abstract: Coal gangue, an industrial solid waste discarded from coal mining and processing, was used as the sole raw material to prepare brick. The coal gangue was crushed, homogenized, milled and then pressed into green compacts. The dried compacts were sintered at different temperatures for 2 h. The obtained brick samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and physico-mechanical properties. Results indicate that bricks are composed of glassy phase, crystals of quartz, mullite, cordierite, as well as pores. The phase components, microstructure, and physico-mechanical properties of the bricks vary significantly with the sintering temperature. The linear shrinkage, bulk density, compressive strength, and flexural strength increase gradually with the sintering temperature enhancing from 900 to 1100 °C, and rise sharply to the maximums at 1200 °C, then drop considerably at 1250 °C. The water absorption value exhibits an opposite tendency. Bricks meeting the Chinese Standard GB 5101-2003 were sintered at 1100–1250 °C. The brick sintered at 1200 °C possesses the optimal properties, with the water absorption and compressive strength values of 3.65 % and 45.61 MPa, respectively. The radioactivity index and leaching toxicity of sintered bricks prepared under the optimum condition were all below the corresponding standards.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0521-0
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Status of waste tires’ recycling for material and energy resources
           in Taiwan
    • Authors: Wen-Tien Tsai; Chien-Cheng Chen; Yu-Quan Lin; Chen-Feng Hsiao; Chi-Hung Tsai; Ming-Hsien Hsieh
      Pages: 1288 - 1294
      Abstract: Motor vehicles are indicative of transportation facilities in every country. In this regard, tires are important commodities of domestic and international trade due to their major material compositions (i.e., rubber, carbon black and steel coil). However, improper treatment of waste tires, once they have been removed from discarded (end-of-life) vehicles without the possibility of being retreaded, will lead to the problems of environmental health and fire hazard. The waste tires’ recycling in Taiwan started in the late 1980s’ demonstrating that the regulatory and subsidiary policies had significant impacts on its success. The objective of this paper was to update the status of waste tires’ recycling in Taiwan. Furthermore, this paper also presented a successful case regarding the waste tires’ pyrolysis plant in Taiwan, which may be the first commercial operation system through continuous process. Under the 16-year promotion of waste tires’ recycling, the tire-derived materials from the certified recycling volume of waste tires (100,000–120,000 metric tons) have been almost utilized to rubber recycling and energy recovery. Finally, some prospects were addressed to increase the economic value and resource recycling rate of waste tires through green procurement and innovative technologies in Taiwan.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0500-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
 
 
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