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Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management    [5 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2187 journals]   [SJR: 0.327]   [H-I: 13]
  • Optimization of effective composting process of oil palm industrial waste
           by lignocellulolytic fungi
    • Abstract: Abstract A batch study was carried out to optimize four process parameters such as particle size (1–5 mm), pH (4–7), mix ratio (1:1–1:3) of substrates (empty fruit bunch, EFB and palm oil mill effluent, POME) and supplementary nutrient as non-food cassava starch (0–2 % w/w). The parameters were evaluated based on the results of electrical conductivity, protein content, organic matter and C/N ratio for an effective composting process. The total period of composting was 35–40 days, a shorter time than the traditional composting process (>60 days). The results showed that the 2-mm particle size of EFB was most suitable to grow microbes, gave the highest protein of 85 g kg−1 and degraded fastest (lowest C/N ratio of 16). Substrate ratio 1:3 (EFB and POME) and pH 5.0 were found to be favorable for mature compost through faster degradation (final C/N ratio almost 17) and microbial growth (around 130 g kg−1 of protein). Moreover, non-food cassava used as supplementary nutrients for initial microbial growth was evaluated and did not significantly affect the results.
      PubDate: 2014-01-23
       
  • Recycling and pollution control of the End of Life Vehicles in China
    • Abstract: Abstract The quantity of vehicles has increased rapidly in recent years in China; however, the recycling of End of Life Vehicles (ELV) faces several problems and barriers including the collection difficulty and the environmental pollution caused by improper dismantling. In this paper, based on analysis of the basic situation regarding management and recycling of ELV in China, the ELV flow was introduced, and the potential ELV quantity was estimated. The current management regulations and policies were summarized, and dismantling and pollution control technologies for ELV recycling were introduced, too. It was suggested that with the rapid growth of ELV quantities, more regulations will be enacted, and the recycling network will be more effective; the dismantling technology and pollution control measures will be upgraded, and the recycling and remanufacturing industries will be more combined. The government should pay more attention to improve the management and supervision of, and encourage the development of, high level enterprises.
      PubDate: 2014-01-10
       
  • Combination of X-ray transmission and eddy-current testing for the
           closed-loop recycling of aluminum alloys
    • Abstract: Abstract In general, aluminum alloys at industrial end-of-life are considerably recycled into aluminum alloys, but they are mostly recycled as alloys for casting because their acceptable concentration limits are not strictly designated and not comparable with those of wrought alloys. This means that recycling from end-of-life wrought alloys to cast alloys has been practiced instead of closed-loop recycling from end-of-life wrought alloys to wrought alloys. The energy required for producing aluminum from recycled aluminum is only 5 % of the energy required for producing aluminum from bauxite. In addition, refining material into wrought aluminum alloys requires many primary aluminum ingots. In terms of saving energy and resources, it would be better if we could conduct closed-loop recycling from end-of-life wrought alloys to wrought alloys. In this study, a combination of X-ray transmission and eddy-current testing is examined with the aim of sorting wrought aluminum alloys. The seven types of wrought aluminum alloys were only sorted into three groups by using X-ray transmission testing and eddy-current testing, while they were sorted into six groups by using a combination of X-ray transmission and eddy-current testing.
      PubDate: 2014-01-10
       
  • Erratum to: Organizing preliminary storage sites of organic material,
           waste fuels and recyclables and their separating distance from populated
           areas
    • PubDate: 2014-01-08
       
  • Characterization of ship breaking industry in Bangladesh
    • Abstract: Abstract Dismantling (or “breaking”) of ships invigorates global shipping by replacing older ships and recycling or reusing as much as 95 % of their materials. Recently, Bangladesh is dominating global ship breaking. Here, we aimed basically at expounding the inflows of the ship breaking industry (SBI) in Bangladesh from the perspectives of origin, types, and lifespan of dismantled ships in order to develop a better understanding of this industry. The inflows in SBI have been increasing and the tonnage dismantled rose to a record high of 2,308,525 LDT (light displacement tonnage) in 2009. Interestingly, ships dismantled in Bangladesh were relatively younger having the mean age of 27 years. Of the outflows from ships dismantled, reusable/recyclable steel comprised 85 % of the total weight of ships; the rest were machinery, hardware, fittings, and consumable items. The major hurdle we faced was the unwillingness of stakeholders in disclosing available but relevant information due to widespread suspicion. We suggest that keeping organized records and their disclosure is critical to developing a comprehensive understanding of this industry. We are hopeful that this research will pave the path for continued objective scientific investigations into the contributions, both positive and negative, as well as the evolution of SBI in Bangladesh.
      PubDate: 2014-01-08
       
  • Dechlorination and decomposition of Aroclor 1242 in real waste transformer
           
    • Abstract: Abstract This research was done to assess the dechlorination and decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in real waste transformer oil through a modified domestic microwave oven (MDMW). The influence of microwave power (200–1000 W), reaction time (30–600 s), polyethylene glycol (PEG) (1.5–7.5 g), iron powder (0.3–1.5 g), NaOH (0.3–1.5 g), and H2O (0.4–2 ml) were investigated on the decomposition efficiency of PCBs existing in real waste transformer oil with MDMW. Obtained data indicate that PEG and NaOH have the greatest influence on decomposition of PCBs; while, iron did not influence, and H2O decreased, the decomposition efficiency of PCBs. Experimental data also indicated that with the optimum amount of variables through a central composites design method (PEG = 5.34 g, NaOH = 1.17 g, Fe = 0.6 g, H2O = 0.8 ml and microwave power 800 W), 78 % of PCBs was degraded at a reaction time of about 6 min. In addition, the PCBs decomposition without using water increased up to 100 % in the reactor with the MDMW at 6 min. Accordingly, results showed that MDMW was a very efficient factor for PCBs decomposition from waste transformer oil. Also, using microwave irradiation, availability and inexpensive materials (PEG, NaOH), and iron suggest this method as a fast, effective, and cheap method for PCB decomposition of waste oils.
      PubDate: 2013-12-27
       
  • Total lead content and its bioaccessibility in base materials of low-cost
           plastic toys bought on the Beijing market
    • Abstract: Abstract The neurological hazards of lead are well-known. Few studies have focused on lead content in plastic toys, especially in China. Therefore, this study aimed to determine total lead content in low-cost plastic toys bought in Beijing, based on the bioaccessibility (BA) of lead through an in vitro leaching method. A total of 27 of the 72 items (37.5 %) examined exceeded the American toy safety limit (100 mg/kg), but HCl extraction results showed that all the samples met the Chinese standard (<90 mg/kg). The BA of lead ranged from 0.80 to 8.86 %, with averages of 1.53 ± 0.74, 3.65 ± 1.28, 4.09 ± 1.83 and 2.62 ± 0.82 % for diluted HCl and three other leaching solutions, respectively. Our results indicated that the bioavailability risk of lead in plastic toys might be underestimated, as the HCl extraction was regulated under the standard procedures of toy safety testing. Total Pb content measurement combined with RIVM methods would be helpful in efforts to reduce children’s exposure to toxic heavy metals.
      PubDate: 2013-12-25
       
  • Case study on municipal solid waste management in Vavuniya township:
           practices, issues and viable management options
    • Abstract: Abstract Economic development and population growth in Vavuniya (a strategically important city connecting the towns in the south, west, and the previously conflict ravaged areas in the Northern and Eastern Provinces of Sri Lanka) has been anticipated since the cessation of an ethnic conflict in May 2009 with a concurrent increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. This paper describes the present problems and issues faced by Vavuniya township and discusses strategies to introduce, plan, and implement a source separation (SS) program as one option that could be economically and technically feasible. MSW has a high content of biodegradable matter (62–66 % by weight). Currently in Vavuniya SS does not take place, the availability of collection vehicles is insufficient, collection frequency by the Vavuniya Urban Council varies considerably among different areas, and open dumping is practiced at a remote site (Pampaimadu; about 14 km from Vavuniya Town) without disposal fees. Moreover, the existing composting projects have been abandoned. Introduction of SS programs along with regular monitoring is crucial (to enhance the recycling of recyclables and to promote composting of biodegradable wastes). Also the present collection system and the availability of collection vehicles should be improved, and that the abandoned composting projects should be revived, at least until the SS programs are successful.
      PubDate: 2013-12-25
       
  • Co-composting of poultry manure with other agricultural wastes: process
           performance and compost horticultural use
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate the composting process of poultry manure mixed with other complementary organic wastes. Two mixtures (treatment 1 and 2) were prepared with corn bare cobs, sawdust, shavings and manure. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter loss, total organic carbon, solved organic carbon, N loss, ammonium and nitrate concentration, laccase activity and respiration indices were analyzed. These variables showed similar tendencies during the composting process in both treatments. A peak of biological activity, organic matter mineralization and salt release was observed after 6 days of the process. Treatment 2 showed a higher concentration of solved organic carbon and higher organic matter loss than in the mixture with less manure (treatment 1). Laccase activity increased when solved organic carbon decreased. Compost from treatment 1 showed lower phytotoxic effects than that from treatment 2, probably because of a low salt content. In conclusion, it was observed that 60 % content of poultry manure in the mixture does not affect the composting process. However, the final product is not as good for agricultural purposes as a mixture with a lower manure content. Finally, it can be stated that the valorization of these wastes in the form of compost adds value to the materials, closing the biogeochemical nutrient cycle.
      PubDate: 2013-12-21
       
  • Review of municipal solid waste management options in Malaysia, with an
           emphasis on sustainable waste-to-energy options
    • Abstract: Abstract A beautiful and clean environment is the desire of every society. Malaysia is facing an uncontrolled increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation due to population growth, economic advancement, and industrialization, but the current, most common waste disposal practice of landfilling is not sustainable. The increasing standard of living also saps more energy from the power generation systems in which fossil fuels are the major source of fuel for the plants. Malaysia generates about 0.5–1.9 kg/capita/day of MSW; a total of about 25,000 tonnes/day of MSW is currently generated and is estimated to exceed 30,000 tonnes/day by 2020. Malaysian MSW is mainly composed of 45 % food waste, 24 % plastic, 7 % paper materials, 6 % metal, 4 % wood and 3 % glass, which are commingled, and is thus characterised by 52–66 % moisture content. Currently, 80–95 % of collected MSW is landfilled and 5 % is recycled, while composting and energy recovery are rarely practiced. This paper reviews the solid waste practice in Malaysia and looks into alternative management options for sustainability. Malaysia MSW represents recyclable power and energy potential if properly sorted. This study considered the practice of sorting at the source and the use of combustible MSW components as fuel to generate heat for a hybrid solar, flue gas, chimney power plant.
      PubDate: 2013-12-18
       
  • Recycling scrap automotive heat shield insulation material
    • Abstract: Abstract Automotive heat shields are usually composed of two metal sheets enclosing an insulating material with a paper-like texture that contains refractory ceramic particles. This article discusses the results achieved by recycling the scrap automotive insulation that is discarded in landfills, using the same concept as paper recycling. For comparison with the original product, tests of thickness, bulk density, weight loss on ignition, tensile strength, compressibility, and recovery were performed on recycled materials produced in a so-called “manual” process (involving little automation and performed in adapted facilities) without pressing, and pressed once, twice, and four times. Materials recycled in a so-called “industrial” process (in a paper recycling plant) without pressing, and pressed once were also tested. The recycled materials can be considered approved with respect to the main requirement, thermal insulation, since they dissipated the under-hood temperature by more than 300 °C (like the original product). Like the heat insulation tests, the thermogravimetric analysis suggested that the recycled materials showed higher stability than the original product. Thermogravimetric, microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses indicated that the structural and compositional characteristics of the original product were preserved after recycling.
      PubDate: 2013-12-18
       
  • Effects of nitrate concentration on biohydrogen production and substrate
           utilization in dark-fermentation
    • Abstract: Abstract Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the nitrate (NO3 −) concentration on the hydrogen production and substrate utilization in a dark fermentation process. The nitrate concentration was varied from 0 to 5,000 mg L−1 in experiments with a mixed culture of anaerobic sludge. Anaerobic sludge was treated with 2 M HCl at pH 2 for the enhanced biohydrogen production. With added NO3 − concentration of 0 g/L, the maximum hydrogen production was 2.2 mol-H2 mol- glucose−1. But, an increase in NO3 − concentration, the hydrogen production decreased to 0.3 from 2.2 mol-H2 mol- glucose−1 at 4,000 mg NO 3 −  L−1. But, in all conditions, more than 90 % of initially added glucose (10 g L−1) was removed and the microbial community structures were observed similarly in every condition and main germinated species was detected as Clostridium perfringens by DNA cloning. As a result, it was confirmed that the high nitrate concentration at the initial stage, glucose was utilized for nitrate removal reaction than hydrogen production.
      PubDate: 2013-12-13
       
  • The feasibility of converting solid waste into refuse-derived fuel 5 via
           mechanical biological treatment process
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of our study was to investigate the feasibility of utilizing solid waste after mechanical biological treatment (MBT) processing at a landfill site in Phitsanulok, Thailand, as refuse-derived fuel 5 (RDF-5). The waste composition, and physical and chemical characteristics of each waste fraction were determined to evaluate the suitability of the waste for recycling and reuse as RDF-5. Results showed that after MBT processing, the solid waste >40 mm in size was observed to have 33.8 MJ/kg of calorific value. The average concentrations of heavy metals were also found to be within the acceptable limit for plastic waste combustion, thus proving that MBT-processed solid waste >40 mm in size has high potential for use as RDF-5. The optimal weight ratio of MBT-processed solid waste and crude oil sludge for transformation into RDF-5 was found to be 80:20. With this optimum ratio, the average calorific values of the RDF-5 were determined to be 47 MJ/kg, with sulfur and chlorine contents of 0.16 and 0.74 %, respectively. The characteristics of the produced RDF-5 could meet the specified ASTM standards in terms of calorific value (>15 MJ/kg), and sulfur and chlorine contents. In addition, the compressive strength of the produced RDF-5 was also found to be suitable for compact storage and transportation without any damage. Finally, the energy production cost from this RDF-5 process was estimated as USD $0.05/kWh.
      PubDate: 2013-12-12
       
  • Effect of leachate recirculation on the migration of copper and zinc in
           municipal solid waste and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash
           co-disposed landfill
    • Abstract: Abstract Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash was allowed to be disposed of with municipal solid waste (MSW) in landfill sites in the recently enacted standard of China. In this study, three sets of simulated landfill reactors, namely, conventional MSW landfill (CL), conventional MSWI bottom ash and MSW co-disposed landfill (CCL), and leachate recirculated MSWI bottom ash and MSW co-disposed landfill (RCL), were operated to investigate the environmental impact of the co-disposal. The effect of leachate recirculation on the migration of Cu and Zn in the co-disposed landfill was also presented. The results showed that the co-disposal of MSWI bottom ash with MSW would not enhance the leaching of Cu and Zn from landfill. However, the co-disposal increased the Cu and Zn contents of the refuse in the bottom layer of the landfill from 56.7 to 65.3 mg/kg and from 210 to 236 mg/kg, respectively. The recirculation of the leachate could further increase the Cu and Zn contents of the refuse in the bottom layer of the landfill to 72.9 and 441 mg/kg, respectively. Besides these observations, the results also showed that the co-disposed landfill with leachate recirculation could facilitate the stabilization of the landfill.
      PubDate: 2013-12-05
       
  • Assessment of compost quality for its environmentally safe use by means of
           an ecotoxicological test on a soil organism
    • Abstract: Abstract A research project was carried out to evaluate toxicological effects of compost addition to agricultural soil using the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Annellida) as a representative organism of the soil fauna. Moreover, the correlation between compost biochemical stabilization and toxicity at different phases of the composting process was assessed. Samples were collected from three composting plants at three different maturation levels (beginning of the composting process, intermediate compost after bio-oxidation, and mature refined compost). Two tests were performed: a standard chronic solid-phase test and an acute solid-phase test (developed originally by the authors). In the first test, the measured end-points were mortality, growth and reproduction; while in the second test earthworms’ behavior was evaluated. The chosen compost concentrations in soil ranged from 2.5 to 100 %, with the aim of obtaining the toxicological parameters (LC50) and to mimic real agricultural dosages for the lower concentrations. Results indicated an increase in compost toxicity with greater compost concentrations; in particular, agricultural compost dosage below 10 % showed no toxicity. Moreover, toxicity did not decrease during composting; intermediate compost showed the highest LC50 values. As a consequence, no correlation was ascertained between the results of ecotoxicological analysis and waste biochemical stability parameters during the composting process.
      PubDate: 2013-12-04
       
  • Humification index of composts originating from three types of woody
           biomass
    • Abstract: Abstract Composting is a good method for recycling surplus manure and stabilizing organic matter from biowastes. Compost is used as a soil amendment and recently, for restoration of vegetation in barren areas. We investigated the relationship between the type of woody biomass (using Robinia pseudoacacia, Japanese larch and apple) and the humification index (HI) of the resulting compost. This study evaluated the difference in HI between the three compost types, and the structural features of composts and extracted humic acids (HAs). The HIs for R. pseudoacacia and apple were larger than that for Japanese larch after composting for 11 months. The structural features of the Japanese larch compost were also different from the apple and R. pseudoacacia, with a very high carbon/nitrogen ratio. The average molecular weights and ultraviolet–visible spectra (A600/C) of HAs extracted from composting samples at 0 and 11 months indicate that the humification rate of Japanese larch was slower than that of R. pseudoacacia and apple. During composting, the average molecular weights of apple and R. pseudoacacia decreased, while their A600/C values increased, but the reverse was observed for Japanese larch. The humification rate was found to depend on the type of woody biomass being composted.
      PubDate: 2013-12-04
       
  • Review of environmental aspects and waste management of stone cutting and
           fabrication industries
    • Abstract: Abstract Iran is the second largest stockholder of construction stones with 10 % of world production ;and there are more than 4000 stone cutting and fabrication industries (SCFIs). In the processing of raw stones, a considerable part of stone is turned into waste. Generated wastes include excess parts of different stones and sludge. The present paper reviews the state of SCFIs waste management using multiple data sources including site, analysis of effluent and sludge samples, and conducting interviews with people who are involved in 286 SCFIs in Qom and Tabriz. The results revealed that currently almost 35 to 52.5 % of raw stones were converted to solid wastes depending on stone cutting and processing methods, type of stones and their quality, which seemed a high percentage. Also, the effluents between 0.8 and 2.8 m3 were generated per ton of processed stone. Based on the analysis of heavy metals with atomic absorption spectroscopy, sludge samples contained a considerable amount of Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd. It was also found that the lack of specific recycling, reuse and disposal programs and suitable supervision has led to uncontrolled disposal of stone wastes and sludge in different areas. However, there are good opportunities for reuse and recycling of the SCFIs wastes.
      PubDate: 2013-11-26
       
  • Measurement and management of hospital waste in southern Iran: a case
           study
    • Abstract: Abstract One of the requirements for development of human societies is the establishment of new healthcare centers. A variety of wastes are generated in healthcare centers depending on the type of activities. This study was conducted to identify, measure and manage different types of hospital wastes as a case study in a hospital located in southern Iran. For this purpose, a questionnaire was initially designed and distributed among the relevant experts to survey the current trend of waste management in the hospital in terms of waste collection, storage and disposal. Afterwards, the hospital waste was sampled during two seasons of fall and winter. The samples were weighted for seven consecutive days in the middle of each season. Approximately, 10 % of the total waste bags per day collected round the clock were selected for further analysis. The obtained results indicated that infectious-hazardous and pseudo-household wastes were, respectively, about 3.79 kg/day/bed, 1.36 kg/day/bed and 2.43 kg/day/bed of the total generated waste in the hospital. As the research findings suggest, proper separation of infectious and pseudo-household wastes at the source would be an essential step towards mitigating environmental and health risks and minimizing the cost of the hospital waste management.
      PubDate: 2013-11-22
       
  • Cobalt separation from waste mobile phone batteries using selective
           precipitation and chelating resin
    • Abstract: Abstract Separation of cobalt from mixed-waste mobile phone batteries containing LiCoO2 cathodic active material was investigated using selective precipitation and chelating resin. Cobalt was recovered from the active powder materials containing 47 % Co oxide together with Mn, Cu, Li, Al, Fe, and Ni oxides. The metal ions were leached sufficiently using 4 M HCl. The metal ions detected spectrophotometrically were removed from the leaching solution by selective precipitation at pH 5.5, with cobalt loss of 27.5 %. Conditions for achieving a recovery of Co in the filtrate by chelating resin were determined experimentally by varying the pH and time of the reaction, as well as the initial resin-to-liquid ratio. The cobalt was efficiently determined by absorption spectrometry at λ max 510 nm. Chelating polyamidoxime resin was synthesized by polymerization of acrylonitrile and followed by amidoximation reaction. Physically cross-linked gel of polyacrylonitrile was made by a cooling technique.
      PubDate: 2013-11-12
       
  • Color analysis of combustion ashes of seawater-soaked wood: estimation of
           salt concentration
    • Abstract: Abstract The color of wood ash is normally white, but black color ash was observed when seawater-soaked wood was combusted. In order to check the conditions for generation of black ash, we examined both ashing temperatures from 500 to 800 °C and seawater salt densities for wood soaking. As seawater salt densities rose, the ash color got black at ashing temperatures of 500 and 700 °C. The colors of the ash were analyzed by a spectrophotometer, and color space L* a* b* was measured. The L* value and wood ash yield showed a negative correlation when the ashing temperature was at 600 °C. Salt concentration in wood (SC) was practicably estimated from the L* value (R 2 = 0.51) by the approximation formula [SC (%) = 11.82e−0.038L*]. By scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, black ash of 600 °C was fully covered by translucent material. It was composed of Na, Mg and Cl by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, and seemed to be crystallized seawater salt. Washed black ash was also observed by SEM, translucent seawater salt was removed and the wood tissue was observed. Black ash was found to be carbonized wood tissue residue, and it was generated when seawater salt exists with a woody biomass.
      PubDate: 2013-11-06
       
 
 
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