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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.449]   [H-I: 22]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2341 journals]
  • Resource-availability scenario analysis for formal and informal recycling
           of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment in China
    • Authors: Habuer; Jun Nakatani; Yuichi Moriguchi
      Pages: 599 - 611
      Abstract: Abstract In strategic end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EoL EEE) management, it has become important to not only avoid the negative environmental impacts but also enhance the positive effects of secondary resource utilization. This is especially true in emerging countries such as China, where medium- to long-term increases in the amount of EoL EEE generation are projected. This study aims to assess the resource availability potential for EoL EEE recycling based on penetration scenarios for formal and/or informal treatment options in China. We categorized substances contained in EoL television sets and personal computers into environmental, resource, and economic aspects under consideration of product transitions. Barium and copper have a high negative potential impact on human health and/or the ecosystem. Focusing on metals with a high resource potential, the resource availability is assessed under different treatment options using characterization factors identified through a life-cycle impact assessment method, the ReCiPe 2008. The results suggest that copper and lead recycling could alleviate the increase in mining costs of resource utilization. Scenario analysis for penetration of formal and informal recycling options indicated that the difference in the alleviated mining costs between the status quo and short-term transition projections until 2030 corresponds to 2.1–2.4 billion dollars.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0452-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Leaching behavior of some demolition wastes
    • Authors: N. Saca; Al. Dimache; L. R. Radu; I. Iancu
      Pages: 623 - 630
      Abstract: Abstract Demolition wastes may be used in different civil engineering applications as road constructions, concrete, and embankments or landfill. Regardless its application, leaching tests of the waste should be carried out to assess concentrations of pollutants. Concrete, brick and mixture of concrete, bricks, tiles and ceramics wastes were subject to percolation test—CEN/TS 14405, and batch test—SR EN 12457. The leachates were analyzed with respect to concentration of inorganic elements—arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, zinc, fluoride, chloride and sulfate, and organic compounds (phenol index). The concentrations of elements in leachates were compared with the limit values of European regulation for the acceptance of inert wastes at landfills. Generally, the releases of inorganic species in leachates were below limits values. Some waste leachates obtained by percolation and batch test had high values for phenol index.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0459-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Extrication of biodiesel feedstock from early stage of food waste
           liquefaction
    • Authors: Ghufran Redzwan; Maridah Mohd Amin; Nur Nabiha Zulkarnain; Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor; Mohamad Suffian Mohamad Annuar; Zul Ilham
      Pages: 676 - 681
      Abstract: Abstract Biodiesel is commonly produced from vegetable oils, mostly edible and more expensive than petroleum diesel. By considering the cost of the conversion processes, cheap feedstock such as triglycerides and fatty acids (FA) extracted from early stage of food waste liquefaction has become a better choice than vegetable oils, as it could provide high yield of biodiesel without any compromise to food supply and other resources. In this study, FA from early stage of food waste liquefaction was extracted and tested for use as feedstock for biodiesel synthesis. The raw material was not pretreated but extraction was done by dry and wet methods. It was found that wet method could minimized the lost of short and medium-chained FA as well as reducing the number of steps required, thus, yielding higher amount of FA as feedstock. The effects of mixing, methanol ratio, reaction time and catalyst content were investigated for the acid-catalyzed esterification. The maximum biodiesel conversion obtained was 97.4 %.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0463-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Thermogravimetric and XRD study of the effects of chloride salts on the
           thermal decomposition of mercury compounds
    • Authors: Tao Zhao; Xingrun Wang; Xiaojin Yang; Xianghua Yan; Zhiqiang Nie; Qifei Huang
      Pages: 712 - 717
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the effects of chloride salt (MgCl2, CaCl2 or NaCl) addition on the thermal decomposition of five inorganic mercury compounds (HgCl2, HgS, Hg(NO3)2·H2O, HgO, and HgSO4) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Mercury-contaminated soil samples collected from Inner Mongolia were used to verify the results. The desorption temperatures of the mercury compounds increased in the following order: HgCl = HgCl2 < HgS < Hg(NO3)2·H2O < HgO < HgSO4. Among the chloride salts, MgCl2 had the greatest effect on thermal desorption of the mercury compounds, with the greatest reduction in the initial temperature of thermal desorption. After MgCl2 treatment, the mercury removal rates for the soil were 65.67–81.35 % (sample A), 70.74–84.91 % (sample B), and 69.08 % (sample C). The increase in the mercury removal rate for sample C with addition of MgCl2 was particularly large (34.96–69.08 %). X-Ray diffraction analysis of white crystals from the thermal desorption with MgCl2 indicated that MgCl2 promoted conversion of the mercury compounds in the soil to mercury(II) chloride and dimercury dichloride. This transformation is beneficial for applying thermal desorption to remedy mercury-contaminated soils and treat of mercury containing waste.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0468-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Comprehensive modeling of HFC-23 incineration in a CDM incinerator
    • Authors: Misoo Shin; Dongsoon Jang; Yongguk Lee; Yongju Kim; Eungyong Kim
      Pages: 754 - 762
      Abstract: Abstract Considering that a significant part of used refrigerants have to be destroyed in an environmentally friendly manner together with the high global warming potential (GWP) of HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), the development of a proper incineration method of HFCs becomes one of the viable methods in the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry. To this end, in this study, the development of a comprehensive modeling of CHF3 (HFC-23 or R-23) incineration is made to assist in the proper design and determination of optimal operating condition of a practical HFCs incinerator, since the refrigerant of CHF3 is one of typical HFCs. For this, numerical investigation was performed by the development of a predictive model for the thermal destruction of the CHF3 using CH4–air flames in an incinerator designed for CDM (clean development mechanism) project. First of all, comparison between calculation and operation data was made to evaluate the program developed in this study. Numerical calculation of CHF3–CH4–air flame predicts successfully the operation data of a CDM incinerator such as temperature, CHF3 destruction rate more than 99.99 % and other species concentrations such as CO and NO at the exit of the incinerator. Further parametric study was performed also in terms of important variables such as excess air, amount of steam and incinerator size. In general, the results obtained appear physically acceptable and give a clear physical insight into the role of the important variables. Further work is strongly recommended for the development of a general turbulent reaction model for the thermal destruction of HFCs, especially for the condition of non-equilibrium turbulent reaction dominance.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0476-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Possible use of sludge ash as filler in natural rubber
    • Authors: Weenusarin Intiya; Uthai Thepsuwan; Chakrit Sirisinha; Pongdhorn Sae-Oui
      Pages: 774 - 781
      Abstract: Abstract Potential use of sludge ash as a filler in NR was studied. In this study, two grades of sludge ash namely SA-300 and SA-700 were prepared by sintering sludge waste obtained from concentrated natural rubber (NR) latex production at 300 and 700 °C, respectively. Properties of NR filled with various contents of SA-300 and SA-700 were then investigated and compared with those of NR filled with precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The results reveal that, regardless of the filler type, both scorch time (t s1) and optimum cure time (t c90) decrease whereas hardness and modulus increase with increasing filler loading. At a given loading, both SA-300 and SA-700 give shorter scorch time and cure time with higher hardness and modulus than CaCO3. Due to their higher specific surface area and greater cure activation efficiency, SA-300 and SA-700 provide better reinforcement, i.e., greater tensile strength; tear strength and abrasion resistance than CaCO3. Taken as a whole, it could be said that the two grades of sludge ash could be utilized as rubber fillers with economic advantage.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0480-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Removal of mercury using processes involving sulfuric acid during zinc
           production in an imperial smelting process (ISP) plant
    • Authors: Masaki Takaoka; Daisuke Hamaguchi; Ryuhei Shinmura; Tomoo Sekiguchi; Hiroyuki Tokuichi
      Pages: 863 - 869
      Abstract: Abstract Mercury emissions from non-ferrous metal industries are a major environmental concern. Because of the large differences in mercury emission factors depending on the kind of metal ore and the details of the smelting process, detailed information on the behavior of mercury is required to control the mercury emissions. In this study, we investigated removal of mercury using processes involving sulfuric acid during zinc production in an imperial smelting process (ISP) plant in Japan. The total mercury concentration in the flue gases in the chimneystack was found to be in the range 1.7–6.1 μg/N m3. Metallic mercury was the predominant mercury species in the flue gases in the chimneystack. The distribution of mercury in this plant was as follows: 89.1 % in the sludge, 9.29 % in the fly ash, 1.51 % in the sulfuric acid product, and 0.059 % in the flue gases. The overall efficiency of mercury removal by mass was therefore 99.92 %. The overall emission factor was 0.0088 g per ton of zinc produced, which is lower than that reported for other zinc smelting plants. Consequently, the combination of double gas coolers and double wet electrostatic precipitators described in this study is comparable to advanced Boliden-Norzink technology for mercury removal.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0489-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Successful plant scale production of solid propellant recycling from
           obsolete ammunition
    • Authors: Yong-Ho Shim; Ji-Tae Kim
      Pages: 898 - 905
      Abstract: Abstract Solid propellant for rocket motor consists of a mixture of oxidizer with aluminum powder cured in poly-butadiene (PB) binder. Ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4, AP) is commonly used oxidizer in many propulsion systems as solid propellant. An aged propulsion engine of the rocket motor is discarded through the waste processing procedure by open burning or open detonation. Meanwhile, recycling AP is economically interesting issue as it is filled more than 70 % in one unit of rocket motor. Although industries and military institutes have invested in R&D to remove PB binder or recycle AP oxidizer, developed process were rarely industrialized due to economic problem. Here we report an automated, self-contained and environmentally responsible AP recovery technology which process has recently been developed and proven to be a cost-effective recycling program of obsolete ammunition.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0495-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Comparative study of torrefaction of empty fruit bunches and palm kernel
           shell
    • Authors: Jeeban Poudel; Tae-In Ohm; Jae Hoi Gu; Myung Chul Shin; Sea Cheon Oh
      Pages: 917 - 927
      Abstract: Abstract This paper describes the effect of torrefaction on the characteristics of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm kernel shell (PKS). The torrefaction of EFB and PKS was investigated in a horizontal tubular reactor at a temperature ranging from 150 to 600 °C, for torrefaction residence time varying from 0 to 50 min. The torrefied products were characterized in terms of their elemental composition, energy yield, ash content and volatile fraction. The present study developed the torrefaction kinetics of EFB and PKS in a thermogravimetric analyzer to obtain the kinetic parameters. EFB and PKS exhibited excellent energy yield values. The gaseous products from torrefaction of EFB and PKS were also analyzed. Furthermore, the study reveals that the carbon content increases with an increasing torrefaction temperature but the O/C ratio, hydrogen and oxygen content decrease for both EFB and PKS. The energy yield and mass yield were found to decrease with an increase in the torrefaction temperature while the higher heating value (HHV) increased. From this study, torrefaction temperature between 290 and 320 °C is the optimum torrefaction temperature for EFB while torrefaction temperature between 300 and 320 °C is the optimum torrefaction temperature for PKS.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0492-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Preparation of light weight constructional materials from chrome
           containing buffing dust solid waste generated in leather industry
    • Authors: K. Sivaprakash; P. Maharaja; S. Pavithra; R. Boopathy; G. Sekaran
      Pages: 928 - 938
      Abstract: Abstract An alternative and environmentally benign method of disposing the buffing dust, generated from leather industry was carried out in the present investigation. The buffing dust (finished solid waste) was charred in a controlled oxygen atmosphere by coupled pyrolysis and the resultant material was gauged for the application of light weight cement blocks. The results confirmed that, at a flow rate of 1 LPM oxygen supplied for 30 min produced nanostructured fibrous carbon material which was further confirmed through SEM and EDX analyses. Iron nanoparticles were used to inhibit the conversion of trivalent chromium to hexavalent chromium in fibrous carbon before being utilized for making light weight cement block. The addition of iron nanoparticles supplements the mechanical strength by compositional bonding in cement block. The XRD results elucidate that the hexavalent chromium has reduced to trivalent chromium due to the addition of iron nanoparticles in the residue material. The as-prepared light weight cement blocks were fabricated (7 cm × 7 cm × 7 cm) for compression test, simultaneously cement block devoid of iron nanoparticles was prepared as a control. The compressive strength of the light weight cement block comprising of iron nanoparticles (20.7 kN/cm2) was found to be higher than the block without iron nanoparticles (3.82 kN/cm2).
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0494-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of practicing safety features for hospital waste collection
           among Iran’s public hospitals
    • Authors: Mohammad Arab; Hossein Safari; Hamed Zandian; Farhad Habibi Nodeh
      Pages: 939 - 945
      Abstract: Abstract Hospital waste management is imperative due to its impending health hazards. This study was meant to evaluate the strong safety awareness of cleaning workers at the time of hospital waste collection. Additionally, determining the correlation between demographic variables with average score of the strong safety awareness as well as the correlation between provision of training for workers with score of strong safety awareness were among the main goals of the present study. This descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study was carried out in 2014. Data were collected using a questionnaire. 150 subjects were selected using simple random sampling, and finally 135 questionnaires were analysable. Findings indicated that 33.3 % of the studied hospitals showed good situation (score >30), 55.5 % with moderate (scored 26–30), and 11.2 % had weak situation concerning the practice of safety features in waste collection. Furthermore, there has been statistically a significant correlation between education, age, work experience, and workers training with strong safety awareness. In general, executing standards, removing shortages, establishing monitoring and observation systems, using young workers beside experienced ones, and paying attention to their needs will help them consider safety points for hospital waste collection.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0496-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Quality improvement of recycled aggregates using the acid treatment method
           and the strength characteristics of the resulting mortar
    • Authors: Ha-Seog Kim; Byoungil Kim; Kee-Seog Kim; Jin-Man Kim
      Pages: 968 - 976
      Abstract: Abstract This study was conducted with the aim to chemically remove the cement paste attached to the aggregate surface using acidic substances. Sulfuric and hydrochloric acids were used as the acidic substances, and after analyzing the quality characteristics of the aggregates following the acid treatment, a mortar test was performed using the aggregates. The results showed that the acid-treated recycled aggregates were superior to the original aggregates and the recycled aggregates that were manufactured using natural water in terms of density, absorption ratio and solid volume percentage. Based on this, it was determined that acid treatment was effective in improving the quality of recycled fine aggregates. In addition, the results of reviewing the strength characteristics of the mortar obtained using the acid-treated aggregates showed that the residue substances remaining in the recycled fine aggregates after reacting with the cement paste had a negative impact on the concrete strength. Based on this, it was determined that in case of improving the quality of recycled aggregates by acid treatment, there needs to be strict management of the products of the reaction with the acid in order for the aggregates to be used in structural construction.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0497-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Alkaline hydrolysis of PVC-coated PET fibers for simultaneous recycling of
           PET and PVC
    • Authors: Shogo Kumagai; Suguru Hirahashi; Guido Grause; Tomohito Kameda; Hiroshi Toyoda; Toshiaki Yoshioka
      Abstract: Abstract Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) woven fibers are one of the hardest-to-recycle polymeric materials. Herein we investigate the possibility of recycling both PVC and PET through alkaline hydrolysis of PET. The coated woven fabrics were treated with NaOH, hydrolyzing the PET fibers into water-soluble sodium terephthalate, while the PVC could be removed by filtration. The PET fibers were completely hydrolyzed between 120 and 180 °C in the presence of 1 M NaOH solution, quantitatively yielding terephthalic acid. A minimum PVC dechlorination rate of 1% was simultaneously achieved at 120 °C. Furthermore, no alkaline hydrolysis of the plasticizer contained in the PVC, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, was observed. Thus, the possibility of simultaneously recycling PET and PVC from PVC-coated woven fabrics was demonstrated. Kinetic analyses of PET hydrolysis and PVC dechlorination revealed that the simultaneously occurring reaction processes did not affect the progress of each other. Thus, the absence of interactions between PET, PVC, or their degradation products enables the design of a simplified recycling process without considering the interactions between the materials derived from coated woven fabrics.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0614-4
       
  • Physico-chemical characterization of municipal solid waste from Tricity
           region of Northern India: a case study
    • Authors: Rishi Rana; Rajiv Ganguly; Ashok Kumar Gupta
      Abstract: Abstract An integrated solid waste management system is an effective method for controlling the huge volumes of solid waste generated in urban locales in India. The success of the integrated solid waste management system depends upon the amount and type generated from different sources for better facilitating of the appropriate management system. In this context, characterization studies are often performed on urban solid waste generated to enable suitable decision making for proper management of solid waste generated. The paper presents the characterization of urban solid wastes generated from the Tricity region of Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula in India. The present study characterizes the physical and chemical properties of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generated in all the three study locations for different socio-economic groups. In general, the MSW generation from the Tricity of Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula account for approximately 680 tons per day (TPD) of solid waste (380 TPD in Chandigarh, 150 TPD in Mohali and 150 TPD in Panchkula). The characterization of the three cities indicates that MSW generated from all the three cities have high proportions of biodegradables [52% Chandigarh (CHD), 46.7% Mohali (MOH) and 42.6% Panchkula (PKL)] with inert fraction as (27% in CHD, 28.6% in MOH and 28.46% in PKL). The calorific value of the MSW generated varies from 1929 kcal/Kg for CHD, 1801 kcal/Kg for MOH and 1542 kcal/Kg for PKL with average moisture content of about 50% in CHD, 46% in MOH and 40% in PKL. Chemical characterization results of MSW reveal variation in elemental carbon with carbon fraction reported being 34.18% in CHD, 33.8% in MOH and 31.9% in PKL city. In the context of the characterization study, the paper also proposes suitable alternatives to the existing MSW management practices including composting, vermicomposting, setting up of a formal recycling unit and installation of bio-methanation plant along with the existing refuse derived fuel (RDF) plant as a comprehensive process for handling the municipal solid waste generated in the Tricity region.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0615-3
       
  • Investigating utility level of waste disposal methods using multicriteria
           decision-making techniques (case study: Mazandaran-Iran)
    • Authors: Fereshteh Mirzazadeh; Farhad Hadinejad; Narges Akbarpour Roshan
      Abstract: Abstract Regardless of collection and disposal systems of wastes, which are the main causes of pollution in cities and villages, attention to the health and hygiene of a society is not possible. Hence, we try to identify the most appropriate waste disposal method considering geographical and environmental conditions of Mazandaran province using multicriteria decision-making techniques (Analytical Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process), in an applied and descriptive research. To do so, we, first, identified the most effective alternatives and criteria in the field of waste disposal by taking into account the region’s environmental and geographical conditions through library studies and investigating various internal and external sources. Then, after compilation of questionnaires and distributing them among experts of municipalities and governor of the province, we determined effectiveness of the criteria and utility of the alternatives using the mentioned techniques. Our findings suggest that soil type and water level are the most important factors in selecting waste disposal method and recycling is the most appropriate waste disposal method in Mazandaran province.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0611-7
       
  • The development and prospects of the waste electrical and electronic
           equipment recycling system in Taiwan
    • Authors: Chii-Pwu Cheng; Tien-Chin Chang
      Abstract: Abstract Since the European Union (EU) promulgated the Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (January 2003) on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in 2002, various governments around the world have developed WEEE recycling systems and promoted the concept of extended producer responsibility (EPR). In 1997, the Taiwan government has implemented the 4-in-1 Recycling Program, which uses recycling funds as its financial base. The following year 1998, the program incorporated a WEEE-based recycling managerial system, which involves confirming the payers of the recycling funds and slightly adjusting the relevant recycling measures to effectively estimate the number of electrical and electronic equipment items produced on a yearly basis and their annual recycling volumes. These statistics ensure the effective management of WEEE. This study explored the development of Taiwan’s WEEE recycling system and proposed improvements to the system. The current findings provide a reference for other state governments to establish their own WEEE recycling systems.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0612-6
       
  • A review of waste prevention through 3R under the concept of circular
           economy in China
    • Authors: Lili Liu; Yangyang Liang; Qingbin Song; Jinhui Li
      Abstract: Abstract The large waste generation has become one of the worldwide environmental problems. Circular economy has been seen as a way to tackle its urgent problems of environmental degradation and source scarcity. In recent years, under the concepts of circular economy, waste prevention through “Reduce, Reuse and Recycle” (3R) rules have attracted a broad concern in China. China has made some great achievements on waste management, and at the same time is facing many challenges. It is very necessary to share the management experiences and practices with the scholars and managers in other countries. This review covered the current situation and progress of circular economy development from the perspective of the legal regime and project practices, and the recycling practices of typical waste. The typical household wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), e-waste, and end of life vehicles (ELV), were studied as the typical cases. Based on an examination of the statistical results, we also identified the potential problems and challenges for waste prevention through 3R in China. Finally, we provided some effective measures to further improve the waste management and recycling in China.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0606-4
       
  • Electronic waste and informal recycling in Kathmandu, Nepal: challenges
           and opportunities
    • Authors: Keshav Parajuly; Khim B. Thapa; Ciprian Cimpan; Henrik Wenzel
      Abstract: Abstract In the absence of relevant policies and supporting infrastructure, many developing countries are struggling to establish a resource-oriented waste management system. In countries like Nepal, where informal recycling practices are prevalent, the lack of understanding of the existing system hinders any advancement in this sector. We characterize the informal recycling chain in Kathmandu, where a workforce of more than 10,000 people handles the recyclable items in various waste streams, including electronic waste (e-waste). A field study, supported by key informant interviews, questionnaire surveys, and site observations was conducted to understand the local recycling sector, the lifecycle of electronic products, and the relevant stakeholders. E-waste is found to be an integral part of the existing solid waste management chain and, therefore, needs to be addressed collectively. We identify the challenges and opportunities towards building a sustainable system for managing e-waste, and offer propositions for a resource-oriented waste management system. This study can serve as a baseline for future research on informal waste recycling, e-waste in particular, in Nepal and similar developing economies that have not attracted a lot of attention until now.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0610-8
       
  • Studies on thermo-chemical treatment of recycled concrete fine aggregates
           for use in concrete
    • Authors: G. Santha Kumar; A. K. Minocha
      Abstract: Abstract The presence of cement paste is the most important factor affecting the quality of recycled concrete fine aggregates. This study aims to develop the thermo-chemical treatment for the purpose of removal of the cement paste adhering to recycled concrete fine aggregates. This study involves assessing the effectiveness of thermo-chemical treatment and comparing its efficiency with thermal and chemical treatments. The results of the investigation elucidate the influence of these treatments on the performances of recycled concrete fine aggregates as well as influence of using treated and untreated recycled concrete fine aggregates on the characteristics of concrete. The results revealed that the thermo-chemical treatment experiences the satisfactory performances in improving the quality of recycled concrete fine aggregates and such treated recycled concrete fine aggregates used in concrete contribute to considerable improvement in strength characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0604-6
       
  • Recycling nickel from spent catalyst of Phu My fertilizer plant as a
           precursor for exhaust gas treatment catalysts preparation
    • Authors: Nguyen Le-Phuc; Thuy Ngoc Luong; Tri Van Tran; Yen Thi Hai Pham; Phuong Thuy Ngo; Sura Nguyen
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, a very promising way of treating and recycling spent nickel catalysts of fertilizer plants in Vietnam was proposed. Firstly, nickel was recovered from spent catalyst using HNO3—leaching process. Results show that nickel recovery of over 90% with a purity of over 90% can be achieved with HNO3 2.1–2.5 M at 100 °C in 75 min. The residue after leaching is not considered as a hazardous waste according to the Vietnamese regulations. Then, the leachate solution was used as a precursor to prepare a model catalyst for exhaust gas (CO, HC, NOx) treatment. In comparison with the catalyst prepared from the commercial nickel nitrate solution, the catalyst synthesized from recovered nickel exhibits similar properties and activities. The influence of Ni loading of Ni/alumina catalyst as well as the modification of active phase by some metals addition (Mn, Ba, Ce) was also investigated. It is feasible to modify active phase by transition metals such as Mn, Ba, and Ce for complete oxidation of CO and HC at 270 °C and a reduction of NOx below 350 °C at high volumetric flow condition (GHSV = 110.000 h−1).
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0609-1
       
 
 
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