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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.449]   [H-I: 22]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Studies on thermo-chemical treatment of recycled concrete fine aggregates
           for use in concrete
    • Authors: G. Santha Kumar; A. K. Minocha
      Pages: 469 - 480
      Abstract: The presence of cement paste is the most important factor affecting the quality of recycled concrete fine aggregates. This study aims to develop the thermo-chemical treatment for the purpose of removal of the cement paste adhering to recycled concrete fine aggregates. This study involves assessing the effectiveness of thermo-chemical treatment and comparing its efficiency with thermal and chemical treatments. The results of the investigation elucidate the influence of these treatments on the performances of recycled concrete fine aggregates as well as influence of using treated and untreated recycled concrete fine aggregates on the characteristics of concrete. The results revealed that the thermo-chemical treatment experiences the satisfactory performances in improving the quality of recycled concrete fine aggregates and such treated recycled concrete fine aggregates used in concrete contribute to considerable improvement in strength characteristics.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0604-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
  • A new approach to metal- and polymer-recovery from metallized plastic
           waste using mechanical treatment and subcritical solvents
    • Authors: Fabian Knappich; Martin Schlummer; Andreas Mäurer; Harald Prestel
      Abstract: Galvanized or “chromium-plated” plastics are well known to the consumer from the automotive sector and sanitary area. Polymers such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) are typically coated with a layer system of chromium, nickel and copper to obtain the characteristic optical surface and resistance properties. Due to the complex manufacturing process and high quality requirements, the production of these plastic metal composites generates 10–30% of rejects. We, therefore, developed an innovative process cascade for the recovery of both components (metal and polymer) applying established technologies (mechanical pre-treatment, classification, melt filtration, CreaSolv® Process) and were able to obtain ABS regranulate having excellent properties regarding the characteristic values for strength but slight compromises in impact characteristics. Blends with different amounts of virgin ABS, virgin PC and recycled ABS material as well as the pure cases were successfully re-metallized, all of them passing adhesion test, thermal shock resistance and CASS test. The high purity of the recovered materials led to increased redemption prices for metal and polymer by a factor of 6 and 2.5, respectively. Thus, the value added of metallized plastic waste is maximized, revealing a highly positive economic prognosis of a commercial implementation of the developed process—even at moderate scale.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0717-6
  • Life cycle assessment of management alternatives for sludge from sewage
           treatment plants in Chile: does advanced anaerobic digestion improve
           environmental performance compared to current practices'
    • Authors: Javier Cartes; Patricio Neumann; Almudena Hospido; Gladys Vidal
      Abstract: Sludge generation is currently one of the most important issues for sewage treatment plants in Chile. In this work, the life cycle environmental impacts of four sludge management scenarios were studied, focusing on the comparison of current practices and advanced anaerobic digestion (AD) using a sequential pre-treatment (PT). The results show that AD scenarios presented lower potential impacts than lime stabilization scenarios in all assessed categories, including climate change, abiotic depletion, acidification, and eutrophication in terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems. The overall environmental performance of advanced digestion was similar to conventional digestion, with the main difference being a decrease in the climate change potential and an increase in the abiotic depletion potential. Acidification and eutrophication categories showed similar performances in both conventional and advanced AD. The effect of PT in the AD scenarios was related to energy recovery, sludge transport requirements and nutrient loads in the sludge and supernatant after digestate dewatering. Considering the results, PT could be a useful strategy to promote sludge valorization and decrease the environmental burdens of sludge management in Chile compared to the current scenario.
      PubDate: 2018-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0714-9
  • Key factors in levels of public satisfaction with urban waste collection
           in a northern Spain city
    • Authors: Julio César Puche Regaliza; Arturo Alvear González; Santiago Aparicio Castillo; Pablo Arranz Val; Fernando Lara Ortega
      Abstract: Levels of public satisfaction among the inhabitants of Burgos with their urban waste collection service are analyzed by comparing satisfaction levels in 2006 and in 2016, as well as the homogeneity of these satisfaction levels in the different areas of the city into which it was divided in 2016. To do so, an empirical exploratory analysis is completed on a representative sample of the population. A regression model is used to identify the significant factors from among all of the factors in the analysis. Then, a predictive model is defined that increases the probability of successful decision-making among the managers responsible for this service. The results provide support for one of the starting hypotheses, considering the daily collection of organic waste, the daily collection of selective waste, the capacity of organic waste containers, the proximity of organic waste containers, the cleanliness of pavements and the cleanliness of walkways as significant factors in the evaluation of public satisfaction. With these factors, the predictive model offers us a certainty index of 66.26% in its predictions.
      PubDate: 2018-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0713-x
  • Comparative fertilizer properties of digestates from mesophilic and
           thermophilic anaerobic digestion of dairy manure: focusing on plant growth
           promoting bacteria (PGPB) and environmental risk
    • Authors: Guangdou Qi; Zhifei Pan; Yasuha Sugawa; Fetra J. Andriamanohiarisoamanana; Takaki Yamashiro; Masahiro Iwasaki; Keiko Kawamoto; Ikko Ihara; Kazutaka Umetsu
      Abstract: The fertilizer properties of anaerobic digestate depend on the feedstock and operating conditions of digestion. In this study, the comparative fertilizer properties of mesophilic and thermophilic digestates from dairy manure were evaluated for plant nutrient contents, and special attention was paid to plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). Two digestates contained similar plant nutrient contents, while the thermophilic digestate contained higher contents of NH4+–N. The quantity of Bacillus and Pseudomonas in the mesophilic digestate was significantly higher than in the thermophilic digestate. Furthermore, Bacillus showed siderophore production and antifungal activity (43.5–75.3%), and Pseudomonas showed siderophore and phytohormone production (4.2–75.2 µg ml−1). One phosphate solubilizing isolate was also detected in the mesophilic digestate. These results indicated that two digestates showed different fertilizer properties with respect to nutrient contents and PGPB, and digestates had the potential to increase the availability of phosphorus and iron in the soil, both to provide phytohormones to plant roots and protect plants from fungal phytopathogens. The contents of indicator bacteria and heavy metals were analyzed to determine their environmental risk, and the results showed a high reduction in indicator bacteria and lower levels of heavy metals than in other feedstocks.
      PubDate: 2018-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0708-7
  • Study on desulfurization performance of MnO 2 -based activated carbon from
           waste coconut shell for diesel emissions control
    • Authors: Xuecheng Liu; Lin Liu; Yugo Osaka; Hongyu Huang; Zhaohong He; Yu Bai; Shijie Li; Jun Li; Huhetaoli
      Abstract: Increasing concern about the air pollution caused by sulfur dioxide (SO2) from diesel exhaust has resulted in the improvement of low-temperature desulfurization materials for the combined SO2 trap. In this study, coconut shell activated carbon (AC) is pretreated by nitric acid to prepare MnO2-based activated carbon materials for SO2 removal. The prepared materials are characterized intensively by SEM, TEM, BET, XRD, FTIR, and XPS. The SO2 capture capacity of these materials are measured at low temperature by thermogravimetry, and the SO2 equilibrium adsorption characteristic is also investigated. The results show that the concentrations of nitric acid do not significantly change the textural properties of MnO2-based AC materials. The content of surface-oxygenated groups (carbonyl carbon and transition) initially increases with the HNO3 concentration rising and reaches the maximum value when the HNO3 concentration is 10 mol/L, resulting in the enhancement of the SO2 capture capacity. SO2 capture capacity of MnO2-based activated carbon decreases after regeneration and keeps stable after several cycles of thermal regeneration. The experimental data for SO2 adsorption on MnO2-based AC composite can fit the Freundlich model well in comparison with Langmuir model.
      PubDate: 2018-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0710-0
  • Contribution to closing the loop on waste materials: valorization of
           bottom ash from waste-to-energy plants under a life cycle approach
    • Authors: M. Margallo; R. Aldaco; A. Bala; P. Fullana; A. Irabien
      Abstract: Incineration has undergone several technology improvements, reducing air emissions and increasing the efficiency of energy and material recovery; however, there is still a long way to go. To analyze the environmental impacts of waste incineration, this study assessed 15 waste fractions that compose municipal waste in Spain, which are grouped as non-inert materials (plastics, paper, cardboard and organic matter), unburned materials (glass and Al) and ferrous materials. Additionally, this paper evaluates the valorization of bottom ash (BA) to produce steel, aluminum and cement in these recycled/recoverable waste fractions. The results depend on the input waste composition and the heating value (HHV) and showed that ferrous and unburned materials had the worst environmental performance due to the null HHV. The valorization of BA in steel, Al and cement production significantly reduced the environmental impact and the consumption of resources. BA recycling for secondary steel and Al production would improve the environmental performance of the combustion of unburned materials and ferrous materials, whereas the use of BA in cement production diminished the consumption of NR for non-inert materials. This is of great interest for organic matter and PC, waste with a low energy production and high heavy metal and sulfur content.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0709-6
  • Time-series analysis of excess mercury in China
    • Authors: Habuer; Yingjun Zhou; Masaki Takaoka
      Abstract: In October 2013, China signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury as the 30th signatory state, and its implementation will have a significant impact on the development, use, and management of mercury. Therefore, estimating excess mercury has become extremely important for providing fundamental information for strategic mercury management, such as planning the necessary storage capacity and the timeline for taking appropriate actions. In this study, quantitative information on past and current domestic supply and demand and on excess mercury over a 55-year period (1996–2050) in China was assessed through maximum and minimum scenario analyses. The total mercury supply increased markedly between 1996 and 2016, particularly during the 3 most recent years. The total demand for mercury during the same period increased gradually compared to the total supply. The amount of annual excess mercury has grown rapidly since 2014, from 636 –756 tons in 2013 to 2725–2845 tons in 2016. The minimum excess mercury scenario shows that cumulative excess mercury will continue to decline from 2017 on, and will reach one-third of 2016 levels in 2050. The cumulative amount in 2050 in the maximum scenario will be 3.5 times higher than that in the minimum scenario. The method applied would be useful for policymakers in other countries that are facing similar problems.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0712-y
  • Review on the innovative uses of steel slag for waste minimization
    • Authors: Yogesh Nathuji Dhoble; Sirajuddin Ahmed
      Abstract: Piles of steel slag, a solid waste generated from the iron and steel industry, could be seen due to no utility found for the past century. Steel slag has now gained much attention because of its new applications. The properties of slag greatly influence its use and thus had got varied applications. The chemical composition of steel slag varies as the mineral composition of raw material such as iron ore and limestone varies. This paper reviews the characteristics of steel slag and its usage. The paper reviews recent developments in well-known applications to the steel slag such as aggregate in bituminous mixes, cement ingredient, concrete aggregate, antiskid aggregate, and rail road ballast. This paper also reviews novel uses such as mechanomutable asphalt binders, building material, green artificial reefs, thermal insulator, catalyst and ceramic Ingredient. The review is also done on utilization of solid waste for waste management by the novel methods like landfill daily cover material, sand capping, carbon sequestration, water treatment and solid waste management. Review also shows recovery of pure calcium carbonate and heavy metals from slag, providing opportunity for revenue generation. Steel slag once traded as free to use by steel industries is now sold in the market at some price. Its utilization is of great economic significance as it also contributes to the reduction of solid waste.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0711-z
  • Influence of combustion temperature on the performance of sewage sludge
           ash as a supplementary cementitious material
    • Authors: Drazen Vouk; Domagoj Nakic; Nina Stirmer; Christopher Cheeseman
      Abstract: The potential for using sewage sludge ash (SSA) as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) has been investigated. Controlled combustion of sewage sludge collected in Croatia from two wastewater treatment plants produced SSA with different characteristics. These were used to substitute for cement in mortar samples. The chemical composition and physical properties of SSA depend on wastewater composition, the sludge treatment process and the combustion temperature. These factors influence the suitability of SSA to be used as a SCM. For three different combustion temperatures (800, 900 and 1000 °C), it was concluded that properties of fresh mortar were not affected while in the hardened state, the most favorable combustion temperature is 900 °C regarding mechanical properties. Regardless of combustion temperature, for all types of SSA used in mortars as cement replacement (up to 30%), the average decrease in both compressive and flexural strength values was less than 8% for every 10% of added SSA. The results presented indicate that using up to 20% replacement of cement by SSA produces mortars that meet the specific technical requirements analyzed in this work.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0707-8
  • Development of a leaching assessment framework for the utilization of coal
           ash at South Korean mine reclamation sites
    • Authors: Hanna Cho; Joo-Yang Park
      Abstract: Coal-based power generates large quantities of coal ash in South Korea. However, coal ash recycling is still inactive and most wasted coal ash is buried in landfills. Recently, beneficial uses of coal ash such as in mine reclamation sites has been increasingly considered; however, as a result of legal limitations due to environmental concerns, the utilization of coal ash at mine reclamation sites has procrastinated. Consequently, to resolve this issue, the relevant environmental impact of coal ash must be considered. Therefore, a leaching assessment framework to assess the environmental impact of coal ash utilization at South Korean mine reclamation sites is presented. The framework was used to identify leaching mechanisms and support an assessment of the environmental impact of coal ash usage at mine reclamation sites in South Korea. This framework could provide guidance with regard to designing more realistic leaching procedures appropriate for all mine conditions and could support the development of regulations and protocols for future environment-friendly coal ash usage.
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0704-y
  • Closing the material cycle of biomass-derived fly ashes: a regional case
           study of natural ageing in Finland
    • Authors: H. Soininen; K. Manskinen; T. Ranta
      Abstract: The amount of biomass-derived ashes is expected to rise in the EU due to targets to increase the use of renewable energy resources. To promote the reuse of biomass ashes, a regional case study of natural ageing of approximately 1 year was carried out on two landfill fly ash materials originating from wood and wood/peat. The results showed that leaching behaviour differed considerably between the fly ashes. Natural ageing had beneficial effects on the leaching properties of wood fly ash. The leached concentrations of sulphate, chloride, Cr and Mo decreased significantly in this residue. In peat and wood-derived fly ash, natural ageing decreased the leaching of Cr, but had no significant effect on the leaching of Mo and chloride. It was also notable that the leaching of sulphate increased in wood/peat fly ash by more than 130%, exceeding the upper limit value given in national legislation for a paved structure. To comply with the limit values of national legislation concerning the recovery of waste in earth construction, natural ageing alone was not shown to be a sufficient method to reduce the leaching of harmful elements in biomass-derived fly ashes and, thus, further treatments are required.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0705-x
  • Anaerobic co-digestion of tannery waste water and tannery solid waste
           using two-stage anaerobic sequencing batch reactor: focus on performances
           of methanogenic step
    • Authors: Shifare Berhe; Seyoum Leta
      Abstract: In this study, anaerobic co-digestion of the tannery waste water (TWW) and tannery solid waste (TSW) with four TWW to TSW mixing ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75) was carried out using semi-continuous two-phase anaerobic sequencing batch reactor system under mesophilic temperature (38 ± 2 °C). During the experimental study, effluents resulted from previously optimized acidogenic reactors were used to feed subsequent methanogenic reactors and then operated at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20, 15 and 10 days and equivalent organic loading rate. The findings revealed that methanogenic reactor of 50:50 (TWW:TSW) treating the effluent from previously optimized acidogenic step exhibits best process performances in terms of daily biogas (415 ml/day), methane production (251 ml/day), methane content (60.5%) and COD removal efficiency (75%) when operated at HRT of 20 days. Process stability of methanogenic step also evaluated and the obtained results showed suitable pH (6.8), no VFA accumulation, i.e., VFA/Alkalinity (0.305), alkalinity (3210 mgCaCO3/l) and ammonia (246 mg/l with in optimum operating range). In general, improved process stability as well as performance was achieved during anaerobic co-digestion of TWW with TSW compared to mono-digestion of TWW.
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0706-9
  • Preparation and characterization of mesoporous γ-Al 2 O 3 recovered from
           aluminum cans waste and its use in the dehydration of methanol to dimethyl
    • Authors: Adel Abdelkader; Ahmed I. Osman; Samih A. Halawy; Mohamed A. Mohamed
      Abstract: The present study includes synthesis of two γ-Al2O3 samples from waste aluminum cans using a simple precipitation method. Precipitation was carried out using two different precipitating agents (i.e. NaOH and NH4OH). The two prepared alumina samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 adsorption–desorption techniques. Surface acidity of γ-Al2O3 samples was measured by adsorption of two different probe molecules (i.e. pyridine and dimethyl pyridine) followed by desorption measurements using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Catalytic activity of the two prepared alumina samples towards the dehydration of methanol (to dimethyl ether) was studied in a fixed bed reactor at 300 °C. For comparison reasons, commercial γ-Al2O3 sample was, also, tested for the same catalytic reaction under the same conditions. Results showed that the alumina sample prepared using NaOH as a precipitating agent exhibited a better catalytic activity and stability compared with that prepared using NH4OH and showed a similar activity as the commercial γ-Al2O3 sample.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0702-0
  • Matrix method for evaluation of existing solid waste management system in
           Himachal Pradesh, India
    • Authors: Anchal Sharma; Rajiv Ganguly; Ashok Kumar Gupta
      Abstract: Effective management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is an essential function of the city municipal corporation. The present study reports on the existing solid waste management practices in four major cities of Himachal Pradesh (Sunder Nagar, Mandi, Baddi and Solan) in India, and suggests solutions for better management of the MSW generated at these locations. The overall generation of Municipal Solid Waste in Himachal Pradesh (HP) is 350 tons per day (TPD) of which the selected sites accounts for about 25% of the total MSW generated in the state. The collection efficiency of generated MSW in the study regions varies from 60 to 70%. Evaluation of the existing Solid Waste Management (SWM) practices at these study locations was determined using the ‘wasteaware’ benchmark indicators, which incorporate parameters integrating both qualitative and quantitative indicators for comparing the efficiency of municipal solid waste management system. Further, a simple matrix method has been utilized for comparing the efficiency of the management of the MSW generated at these four selected sites in Himachal Pradesh. Using the matrix method, it was observed that Sunder Nagar and Mandi towns received an overall score of 36% and Solan and Baddi 32%, respectively. The overall results suggest that existing solid waste management practices in four study locations are very poor and need considerable improvement. Some key recommendations have been proposed for the better management MSW at the four study locations in HP.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0703-z
  • Development of intelligent sorting system realized with the aid of
           laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and hybrid preprocessing
           algorithm-based radial basis function neural networks for recycling black
           plastic wastes
    • Authors: Seok-Beom Roh; Sang-Beom Park; Sung-Kwun Oh; Eun-Kyu Park; Woo Zin Choi
      Abstract: Plastic recycling has been the key issue for reducing environmental problems and resolving resource depletion. To improve the recovery rate of plastics, the plastic wastes are correctly identified according to their resin type. However, the identification system, which is able to identify black plastics according to not only the type of black plastics but also the grade of resins correctly, has not been introduced. In this paper, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, intelligent algorithms and preprocessing algorithms are used to improve the identification of black plastics such as polypropylene, polystyrene (PS), and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is capable of obtaining the characteristic spectrum regardless of material’s physical state. To extract the new features which are very valuable to improving learning performance, increasing computational efficiency, and building better generalization models from the obtained spectra through laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, the hybrid preprocessing algorithm, composed of principal component analysis and independent component analysis, is used. In addition, the intelligent algorithm named the extended radial basis function neural networks inheriting the advantages of fuzzy theory and neural networks is used to identify black plastic samples into several categories with respect to their resins. The proposed identification system, composed of three parts such as laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, hybrid preprocessing algorithms, and an efficient intelligent classification algorithm, is able to show the synergy effect on the black plastic identification problem. From several experimental results, it can be seen that the identification system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and the intelligent algorithm is used for identification of black plastics by resin type.
      PubDate: 2018-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0701-1
  • Recycling of waste biomass and mineral powder for preparation of
           potassium-enriched compost
    • Authors: B. B. Basak
      Abstract: An attempt was made to recycle waste biomass and mineral powder (waste mica) as an alternative source of potassium (K) through composting technology. Two different waste biomass, isabgol straw and palmarosa distillation waste along with two levels of waste mica (2 and 4% as K) were used for preparation of enriched composts. A notable decrease of C:N ratio was observed at the end of the composting (150 days) as an indicator of compost maturity. The mature composts were evaluated for K-supplying capacity through laboratory leaching and soil incubation study. Significantly higher water-soluble K released initially followed by a sharp decrease up to 21 days of leaching thereafter gradually decreased up to 35 days of leaching. Water-soluble K was released from K-enriched (mica charged) compost significantly higher than the ordinary compost throughout the leaching period. Soil incubation study also revealed that application of K-enriched compost greatly improved the available K (water soluble and exchangeable) pools in K-deficient soil which indicated that a considerable amount of K releases during composting. Therefore, K-enriched compost could be an effective alternative of costly commercial K fertilizer and eco-friendly approach to utilize low-cost waste mineral powder and plant residue.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0699-4
  • Trace chemical partitioning in construction and demolition debris fines:
           process and market implications
    • Authors: Jing Su; Steven J. Laux; Timothy G. Townsend
      Abstract: Construction and demolition debris (CDD) fines, a residue generated from mechanized CDD recycling, can often be beneficially reused. Concentrations of chemicals of potential concern in CDD fines should be evaluated prior to being reintroduced into the environment to assess risk and make informed decisions about appropriate reuse opportunities. The distribution of trace chemicals in CDD fines as a function of particle size was measured to evaluate if concentrations in the bulk material can be reduced by removing certain particle size ranges through screening. Chemicals of potential concern, including arsenic, lead, sulfate and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), were characterized in four different size fractions (19–4.8 mm, 4.8–0.84 mm, 0.84–0.3 mm, < 0.3 mm) of CDD fine samples collected from 12 US CDD recycling facilities throughout the US. Results revealed that aluminum, arsenic and chromium concentrations were distributed evenly throughout all four size fractions. As for the remaining chemicals, most samples had lower concentrations in the 19–4.8 mm size range. In some samples and for certain chemicals, removal of the finer size fractions reduced overall concentrations in CDD fines, suggesting that additional processing may be worth further investigation.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0700-2
  • Assessment of solid waste generation and greenhouse gas emission potential
           in Yangon city, Myanmar
    • Authors: Maw Maw Tun; Dagmar Juchelková
      Abstract: Due to booming economy, growing population and rapid urbanization, solid waste generation in the cities of developing countries has significantly increased. Yangon is the largest and most densely populated city, with over five million residents in Myanmar. Open dumping is the major waste disposal method and recycling sector remains at an early development stage. With increasing waste generation, current waste management activities in Yangon have significant environmental impacts. Therefore, the study developed two linear models to predict annual solid waste generation, regarding per capita waste generation, population growth scenarios, literacy rates and gross domestic products. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Institute for Global Environmental Strategies calculation methods were used for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission prediction from recycling, waste transportation and final disposal sites (FDSs). As a result, the total annual waste generation and GHG emission in 2015 may double over the next decade. Two major FDSs, Htawe Chaung and Hteinpin, may contribute waste disposal of 272–797 kilotons per year and emit 177–518 Gg of CO2-eq per year by 2025. The assessment of annual solid waste generation and GHG emission potential may offer advantages in assisting development of waste management plans in Yangon.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0697-y
  • Development of a recycling solution for waste thermoset material: waste
           source study, comminution scheme and filler characterization
    • Authors: Fabien Bernardeau; Didier Perrin; Anne-Sophie Caro-Bretelle; Jean-Charles Benezet; Patrick Ienny
      Abstract: End of life electrical equipment is a continuously increasing source of waste in our modern society, and constitute an environmental problem. Understanding this type of waste flow is important to devise proper dismantlement and sorting strategies, and to maximize the material recovery rate and valorization. In this work, a waste pool constituted of electrical meter was studied. The specificities of this equipment in term of design were enlightened, and the overall material composition was determined. An emphasis was put on the characterization of the plastic fraction, both in term of plastic type and presence of regulated substances. It revealed that this fraction is mostly composed of phenolic molding compound (PMC), a thermoset material, which is troublesome in term of recycling. A material valorization solution through mechanical recycling is proposed, consisting in using PMC as functional filler in a thermoplastic matrix. A comminution scheme to obtain such filler is presented in this work, and the comminuted products are characterized. Through 2 or 3 steps of comminution, particle size below 50 µm can be obtained, which is expected to be a sufficient size for incorporation in a thermoplastic matrix.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0698-x
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