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Tijdschrift voor praktijk ondersteuning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tijdschrift voor Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tijdschrift voor Urologie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 1)
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 8)
TOP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.844, h-index: 9)
Topics in Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 76)
Topoi     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.202, h-index: 5)
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.375, h-index: 13)
Transformation Groups     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.926, h-index: 19)
Transgenic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.877, h-index: 58)
Transition Metal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 41)
Transition Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 6)
Translational Behavioral Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, h-index: 7)
Translational Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 6)
Translational Stroke Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 12)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 46)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 42)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Trauma und Berufskrankheit     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
Tree Genetics & Genomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 29)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 52)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 9)
Tribology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.428, h-index: 56)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 26)
Tropical Plant Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 10)
Tropical Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 8)
Tumor Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.977, h-index: 43)
Ukrainian Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.276, h-index: 11)
Universal Access in the Information Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 19)
Updates in Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 15)
Urban Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 23)
Urban Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 16)
Uro-News     Hybrid Journal  
Urolithiasis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Urologic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.921, h-index: 45)
uwf UmweltWirtschaftsForum     Hybrid Journal  
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 36)
Verslaving     Hybrid Journal  
Vestnik St. Petersburg University: Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.278, h-index: 4)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 34)
Vietnam J. of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Virchows Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 72)
Virologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.353, h-index: 9)
Virtual Reality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 24)
Virus Genes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.839, h-index: 42)
Visual Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Vocations and Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 7)
Voluntas: Intl. J. of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 23)
Waste and Biomass Valorization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 10)
Water History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.221, h-index: 3)
Water Quality, Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.349, h-index: 47)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.761, h-index: 70)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 17)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 55)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 38)
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.332, h-index: 38)
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift Education     Hybrid Journal  
Wiener Klinisches Magazin     Hybrid Journal  
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.328, h-index: 23)
Wireless Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 65)
Wireless Personal Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.322, h-index: 29)
Wirtschaftsdienst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.206, h-index: 5)
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wirtschaftsrechtliche Blätter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
wissen kompakt     Hybrid Journal  
WMU J. of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wohnrechtliche Blätter     Hybrid Journal  
Wood Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.808, h-index: 43)
World J. of Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.561, h-index: 49)
World J. of Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 14)
World J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.451, h-index: 106)
World J. of Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.463, h-index: 59)
World Wide Web     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1, h-index: 21)
Wuhan University J. of Natural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.149, h-index: 11)
ZDM     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.496, h-index: 14)
Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 38)
Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Zeitschrift für Bildungsforschung     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Versicherungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 2)
Zeitschrift fur Energiewirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Epileptologie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 4)
Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 6)
Zeitschrift für Europäisches Unternehmens- und Verbraucherrecht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Zeitschrift für Herz-,Thorax- und Gefäßchirurgie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.114, h-index: 5)
Zeitschrift für Hochschulrecht, Hochschulmanagement und Hochschulpolitik: zfhr     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift fur Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Zeitschrift für Politikberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 31)
Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie. Mit Beiträgen aus Umweltmedizin und Sozialmedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 9)
Zoological Letters     Open Access  

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Journal Cover   Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.392]   [H-I: 16]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Investigating the performance of aerobic, semi-aerobic, and anaerobic
           bioreactor landfills for MSW management in developing countries
    • Abstract: Abstract Three different laboratory bioreactors, each duplicated, with dimensions 0.5 × 0.5 × 1 m were set up and monitored for 160 days. Municipal Solid Wastes with an organic content of ~80 % and a density of 550 kg/m3 were placed in bioreactors. Fresh leachate collected from waste collection vehicles was used with a recirculation rate of 28 L/day. Aerobic bioreactors were aerated at a rate of 0.15–0.24 L/min/kg of waste. Almost the same level of treatment was observed in terms of chemical oxygen demand reduction of leachate, which was in the range of 91–93 %. However, for anaerobic bioreactor, it took almost twice the time, 160 vs. 76 days, to reach the same level of treatment and stabilization. The behavior of semi-aerobic bioreactor was somewhere between the aerobic and anaerobic ones. Total biogas production for anaerobic bioreactors was 90 L/kg of waste, which contained 57–63 % methane. Methane concentration measured in semi-aerobic bioreactor was below 5 %. The main advantage of aerobic bioreactor was the fast rate of the process, while for semi-aerobic bioreactor, it was the elimination of the need for energy to maintain aerobic conditions, and for anaerobic bioreactor it was the production of biogas and potential energy recovery.
      PubDate: 2015-03-20
  • Method to estimate the required oxygen amount and aeration period for the
           completion of landfill aeration
    • Abstract: Abstract To reliably predict field operation performance derived from lab-based tests, it is very important to observe and consider all the specific landfill-site properties. The purpose of this study was to suggest and discuss the availability of batch and lysimeter tests to estimate the oxygen amount and the aeration period. To achieve this purpose, a comparison between lab test (batch and lysimeter tests) and full-scale applications was conducted. This study showed that aerobic batch and lysimeter tests could be used to estimate the amount of oxygen (mg-O2/g-DM) required to bio-stabilize landfilled wastes within a short period of time. In addition, aeration periods necessary to reach the target value can be calculated by a first-order kinetic depending on moisture content. Therefore, this study suggests that when applying in situ aeration processes to field-scale landfills, the amount of aeration required to bio-stabilize landfilled wastes has to be determined by the aerobic batch test, and then the aeration period required to reach the target value can be calculated by a reliable monitoring of the oxygen concentration in a landfill site in combination with the first-order kinetic.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17
  • Physical containment of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash by
           accelerated carbonation
    • Abstract: Abstract Accelerated carbonation of municipal solid waste incineration residues is effective for immobilizing heavy metals. In this study, the contribution of the physical containment by carbonation to immobilization of some heavy metals was examined by some leaching tests and SEM–EDS analysis of untreated, carbonated, and milled bottom ash after carbonation that was crushed with a mortar to a mean particle size of approximately 1 μm. The surface of carbonated bottom ash particles on SEM images seemed mostly coated, while there were uneven micro-spaces on the surface of the untreated bottom ash. Results of Japan Leaching Test No. 18 (JLT18) for soil pollution showed that milling carbonated bottom ash increased the pH and EC. The leaching concentration of each element tended to be high for untreated samples, and was decreased by carbonation. However, after the milling of carbonated samples, the leaching concentration became high again. The immobilization effect of each element was weakened by milling. The ratio of physical containment effect to immobilization effects by accelerated carbonation was calculated using the results of JLT18. The ratio for each element was as follows: Pb: 13.9–69.0 %, Cu: 12.0–49.1 %, Cr: 24.1–99.7 %, Zn: 20.0–33.3 %, and Ca: 28.9–63.4 %.
      PubDate: 2015-03-15
  • Characterizing and quantifying solid waste of rural communities
    • Abstract: Abstract Solid waste management and disposal are a global challenge. Also, in spite of rapid urbanization over recent decades, about 47 % (3.31 billion) of the world’s population and 31 % (23.59 million) of Iran’s population are still living in rural areas. Nevertheless, survey on characterization, quantification, and management of rural communities’ household solid waste is rare in both developed and developing countries. Therefore, determining the quantity and quality (composition) of household solid waste of rural communities in the northwest of Iran was the main objective of the present work. The result showed that the average daily per capita of household waste generation was 0.259 kg/cap-day. About 50.98 % of total generated waste in the studied villages was organic and food waste, while paper and cardboard, plastics, metals, rubber, textiles, glass, woods, and other waste materials constituted 6.07, 13.58, 0.47, 1.57, 12.53, 2.09, 0.44, and 12.27 %, respectively. Bulk density of the waste was determined as 211.31 kg/m3. In addition, moisture content and chemical characteristics (food and organic fraction) of the generated waste including the amount of carbon, nitrogen, phosphor, and ash were 57.05, 54.02, 1.74, 0.34, and 34.07 %, respectively. According to the results of this study and the survey in the available related literature, it could be concluded that solid waste generation rates in rural communities are less than that in urban areas and the composition and density of generated waste vary not only between rural and urban areas, but also between different rural communities with various geographical, economic, cultural, social, etc., conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-03-11
  • Global Environment Facility’s support for sustainable waste
    • Abstract: Abstract From the global perspective, the issue of waste management is becoming increasingly important. Given the increasing amount and diversifying content of waste, countries should seek out sustainable waste management options, which protect both local and global environments. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), a public financial institution, has supported sustainable waste management in developing countries in achieving global environmental benefits. The GEF’s support for sustainable waste management, from its pilot phase to the end of the fifth replenishment period, has amounted to 118 projects across the globe. Harmful chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and “waste to energy” initiatives have been the main focuses of the GEF’s support. The GEF’s investment in sustainable waste management has increased in recent years, partly due to the fact that countries are required to manage Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) wastes in an environmentally safe manner in compliance with the Stockholm Convention on POPs. The GEF is poised to enhance its support for sustainable waste management in the future by mobilizing other financing, integrating multiple focal areas, expanding viewpoints to sustainable cities, and reinforcing its results-based management.
      PubDate: 2015-03-04
  • Estimating industrial solid waste and municipal solid waste data at high
           resolution using economic accounts: an input–output approach with
           Australian case study
    • Abstract: Abstract In publicly available waste reports only the totals of waste produced for municipal, or industry waste typically feature. The types of waste generated and the generating industry sector are usually omitted. We propose the direct inputs waste estimation methodology to create a detailed estimate of municipal solid waste and industrial solid waste for an economy (including sectoral and waste type disaggregation) using a top-down estimation methodology that links the aforementioned limited publicly available waste data with an input–output table’s direct inputs (A) matrix. We then provide an application of the direct inputs waste estimation methodology upon the 2008 waste generation of Australia resulting in a 344 industry sector and 14 waste type data set. The resulting estimation gives unique insights into Australian waste generation; including the large C&I tonnages of waste estimated to be produced from the Service sectors such as the Education, Hospitality, and Health sectors as well as the large amount of food waste produced throughout the economy.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Experimental study of rubber tire aggregates effect on compressive and
           dynamic load-bearing properties of cylindrical concrete specimens
    • Abstract: Abstract Sustainable development has become a major focus for engineers and planners as part of their collective efforts in finding, developing and integrating environmental-friendly solutions for material recycling and waste management into design and construction of civil engineering infrastructure. In the past three decades, there has been an increase in recycling and application of waste materials into the concrete to decrease costs and improve material properties of the concrete. Significant growth in automobile manufacturing industry and increased rubber tire supply for vehicles suggested the application of waste tire particles as concrete aggregates to minimize the ecological footprint of the rubber tire waste due to its recycling process difficulties. In this paper, the effect of rubber tire particles on compressive and dynamic strength of concrete specimens with different particle percentiles was tested on more than 55 cylindrical specimens. To achieve the optimal mix design properties of rubber tire concrete specimens, both fine and coarse aggregates got replaced by fine and coarse rubber particles. Introduction of rubber tire particles as coarse and fine aggregate reduces the brittleness of the concrete and provides more flexible aggregate bonding which ultimately improves the dynamic resistance of the concrete. It increases the concrete workability and provides environmental-friendly and cost-effective solutions in using recycled materials for concrete construction applications.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24
  • Rare earth element recovery potentials from end-of-life hybrid electric
           vehicle components in 2010–2030
    • Abstract: Abstract Increasing attention is currently given to the management of end-of-life (EoL) hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), because approximately two decades have passed since they were first introduced to the market. A HEV would be one of the largest consumers of rare earth elements (REEs), and hence represents the greatest potential for REE recovery in the future. The purpose of this study is to clarify the present and future recovery potential of REEs that are disposed of as EoL HEVs. This study first estimated the numbers of EoL HEVs during fiscal years (FYs) 2010–2030, and then clarified the potential for recovery of REEs from two HEV-specific components—the hybrid transmission and NiMH battery unit. The results suggest that 0.51–0.65 million HEVs will reach the EoL stage in FY2030, compared with only 11,000 HEVs in FY2010. As of FY2030, REE recovery potentials will increase to 220 tons and 2900 tons for EoL hybrid transmission and NiMH battery units, respectively. A total of 49,000 tons of REEs will be contained within HEV-specific components of HEVs still in use. Moreover, the potential for recovery of REEs from EoL hybrid transmissions and NiMH battery units is estimated to equal 35.4 and 92.1 % of respective demand.
      PubDate: 2015-02-19
  • Recycling rate and target setting: challenges for standardized measurement
    • Abstract: Abstract The recycling rate is one of the most widely used indicators for monitoring progress in waste recycling and resource-saving activities. Basically, the recycling rate is calculated as the proportional value (%) of waste recycled from the total waste generated. An increase in this indicator usually means that the progress is being made in recycling activities. However, many countries define and calculate the recycling rate in many different ways. Recycling rates take many forms and levels of waste recovered, such as recovery rate, collection rate, diversion rate, and cyclic use rate. Such diverse definitions and lack of standardized measurements for the recycling rate often require careful treating of the recycling rate value to avoid incorrect or confusing comparison and interpretation. In the Asian context, disparities in defining the recycling rate are even more pronounced. This is mainly because of the prevalent presence of informal recycling sector in Asia, which often go unrecorded. This paper highlights the need for a standardized measurement of recycling rate in Asia for careful target setting of 3R policy and monitoring the progress of 3R in the region.
      PubDate: 2015-02-18
  • Destruction of organic Cl and Br compounds through incineration enhanced
           by alkali and alumina addition
    • Abstract: Abstract Thermochemical destruction of organic Cl and Br compounds in a combustion system was studied. A Cl compound and three Br compounds, namely, 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB), 1,2,4,5-tetrabromobenzene (TeBB), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) were used. The samples on a boat were combusted at 600 °C followed by gas combustion at 800, 900, and 1,100 °C. An off-gas was adsorptively collected and introduced into a Cl and Br detector by thermal desorption. The destruction efficiency was evaluated using the organic halogen residual ratio (OX-RR) (μg g−1). Halogenated benzene compounds such as TeCB and TeBB were destructed moderately (OX-RR for these compounds at 800, 900 and 1,100 °C was 112, 35 and 32 μg g−1 and 258, 57 and 48 μg g−1, respectively); on the other hand, the destruction of TBBPA and DBDE, namely fire retardants, was difficult (OX-RR at 800 °C for these compounds was 7,159 and 718 μg g−1, respectively). Addition of an alkali and an alumina to a sample enhanced the destruction of organic compounds drastically by several times. This destruction enhancement occurred at temperature as low as 600 °C. Such chemical halogen control is effective to thermal destruction of organic Cl and Br compounds.
      PubDate: 2015-02-15
  • Quantitative analysis of food products allocation into food consumption
           styles for material flow analysis of food
    • Abstract: Abstract To provide effective food and food waste policies, it is necessary to quantitatively assess food and food waste flows. Expenditure has been previously used for calculating allocation factors for material flow analysis, but using the price of food products for quantitative study is inadequate because price also encompasses the cost of food processing and services. In this study, weight-based food allocation factors were calculated based on consumption style to provide the first step for future material flow analysis of food. We used Family Income and Expenditure Survey data, unit price data, composition of food items data, and food weight change from cooking. As a result, the allocation factors of food products for meals at home, convenience meals, and meals outside the home were calculated to be 81, 8, and 11 %, respectively. It differs largely from expenditure-based allocation factors. To verify these findings, we calculated material cost ratios for food prices using the gap between weight-based and expenditure-based allocation factors, and compared the results with actual material cost ratios. The results of this study are expected to be used for tracing food and food waste flows and also for evaluating food consumption’s impact on the environment.
      PubDate: 2015-02-12
  • Future sewage sludge generation and sewer pipeline extension in
           economically developing ASEAN countries
    • Abstract: Abstract Levels of future generation of sewage sludge must be ascertained to ensure safe and effective waste management, particularly for economically developing countries such as those of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), where wastewater treatment will increase profoundly in the near future. This study estimated the quantity of sewage sludge generation in ASEAN during 2010–2050. Parameters used in the scenario analysis include population (P), per-capita gross domestic product (GDPpc), rate of population in residences connected to wastewater treatment plants (P wwtp %), and sewage sludge generation per capita (SSpc). High sewerage penetration scenarios indicate that the sewage sludge in the ASEAN countries is expected to increase to 24–40 million tonnes per annum (Mt/a) by 2050. Indonesia might contribute the greatest amount of 17.04 Mt/a at mid-century, followed by the Philippines and Vietnam. Because of its small population, Brunei Darussalam will contribute the least. Sewage pipeline length has also been estimated. High-penetration scenarios indicate that the sewer network in ASEAN will surge to 2.3–7 million km long. Because sewage sludge management and development of wastewater infrastructure will play important roles in the ASEAN region, these findings will be informative for wastewater management policies and practices in Southeast Asia.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05
  • Empirical analysis of reward to return: based on case studies of lunch
           boxes in Japan
    • Abstract: Abstract To recycle or reuse used containers, it is necessary first to collect them. One way to do this is to give rewards to persons who return used packaging and containers to designated places. Many Japanese university cooperatives use recyclable lunch boxes for take-out food, and they collect used boxes in a variety of ways, including such reward giving. By analyzing the responses of university cooperatives to questionnaires on the ways that they collect used recyclable lunch boxes, this study examines the effect of this reward giving on the collection rate. The study results suggest that cash rewards are more effective in increasing the rate of return of used containers than setting up collection boxes that offer no rewards upon return, or giving point-based rewards.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05
  • Revisiting estimates of municipal solid waste generation per capita and
           their reliability
    • Abstract: Abstract Per capita municipal solid waste (MSW) generation, a core indicator of environmental pressure, is a useful measure for evaluating the intensity of waste generation over time and comparing the intensities among cities or countries. We provide an overview of global data on MSW generation per capita at the national and local levels. Although the legal definition of MSW varies from country to country, we conceptualize MSW simply as the waste managed by or for municipalities as a public service. We note the current challenges in estimating MSW generation per capita in developing countries, including a lack of equipment (e.g., weighbridges), lower rates of MSW collection efficiency, and rural–urban migration, all of which may have negative effects on data reliability. Incomplete data compilation systems at the national level also result in lower reliability and reduce the comparability of national data. We suggest technical solutions for estimating MSW generation per capita at the local and national levels to improve reliability and comparability of data.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05
  • Heavy metal mobility and potential availability in animal manure: using a
           sequential extraction procedure
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, dairy cow manure, goat manure, and chicken manure were collected from three farms and analyzed to find out the concentration of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The concentration and potential of mobility and availability of heavy metals were studied in the animal manure samples. BCR Sequential extraction procedure was used to determine the binding forms of the metals. In this study, pseudo total concentrations of Mn and Zn were found out to be predominant in all the types of animal manure samples. According to the results, it was traced that Cr, Cu, and Ni were observed to be at the second highest level while Cd, Co, and Pb were seen at the lowest level in all the manure samples. When extractable amounts of heavy metals are taken into consideration, it is seen that the amount of the mobile fractions of heavy metals except for Cr and Ni are higher in comparison with that of immobile fraction in all the animal manure samples. It was also viewed that Mn, Cd, and Zn are more available in dairy cow manure and chicken manure whereas Cd, Co, and Mn are more available in goat manure.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
  • Quantifying the distribution of critical metals in conventional passenger
           vehicles using input-driven and output-driven approaches: a comparative
    • Abstract: Abstract Critical metals are used increasingly in vehicle manufacturing. For more sustainable use of these metals, it is important to understand their distribution in vehicles. In this paper, we present a comparative study examining the distribution of critical metals in conventional passenger vehicles. We identified two existing approaches to estimate the amounts of critical metals used in one passenger vehicle: input-driven and output-driven approach, and compared the results of 25 metals among five studies. In general, the results were found to be scattered. Cu, Mn, Sr and Sb were found with the highest median masses per vehicle. The median masses of eight metals (Nb, Zr, Co, La, Mo, Nd, Ce, and Ag in descending order) were around or below 10 g per vehicle and those of 13 metals (Pd, Ta, Pr, Ga, Sm, Y, W, Au, Gd, Dy, In, Pt, and Tb in descending order) were below 1 g per vehicle. Top three subsystems and parts containing the largest mass of critical metals in sum were presented. Our research provides a consolidated summary of existing information on the critical metal distribution in conventional passenger vehicles and suggests improvements for future studies on this topic.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
  • Preparation of MgCr 2 O 4 from waste tannery solution and effect of
           sulfate, chloride, and calcium on leachability of chromium
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a study regarding the preparation of MgCr2O4 from waste tannery solution, and chromium leaching behavior is also investigated with varying amounts of sulfate, chloride and calcium. The phase transformation, crystallinity index and crystallite diameter were characterized using XRD, FT-IR and thermal analysis. A well-crystallized MgCr2O4 was successfully prepared at 1400 °C. The sintering temperature had a major impact on the formation of MgCr2O4 compared with sintering time. The MgCr2O4 phase was observed initially at 400 °C and its crystallite diameter increased with increasing temperature. The concentration of total chromium leached and Cr(VI) decreased gradually with increasing temperature. The considerable amount of Cr(VI) was found in the leachate at 300–500 °C caused by Cr(VI) intermediary products. Sulfate and chlorine could impact the transformation efficiency of chromium adversely, and chlorine has a more significant effect than sulfate. The presence of calcium disturbed the formation of MgCr2O4 and new chromium species (CaCrO4) appeared, which resulted in a sharp increase in the concentration of leached Cr(VI). Incorporating Cr(III) into the MgCr2O4 spinel for reusable products reduced its mobility significantly. This was demonstrated to be a promising strategy for the disposal of chromium containing waste resource.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
  • Recycling of cathode ray tube panel glasses as aggregates of concrete
           blocks and clay bricks
    • Abstract: Abstract While the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel containing lead could be transported to a smelting facility to recover lead, which could be an available option in domestic, a proper technology to recycle a CRT panel must be developed. Thus, it was suggested that CRT panel glass be used as aggregates of concrete blocks and clay bricks. Samples of blocks and bricks were fabricated with CRT powders and tested to measure their strength and absorption rate to determine their qualities, and environmental soundness was determined by measuring the leaching rate of hazardous metals. For concrete blocks, CRT panel glass powders incorporated as aggregates up to 40 % replacing stone powder was proposed as the proper condition for manufacturing blocks. Around 2 % of CRT panel incorporated into clay brick to substitute Kaoline was suggested to fabricate the best quality of clay brick. Results of leaching test met the criteria with much less concentration of hazardous metals, even lead compound containing in the CRT funnel. To conclude, the use of CRT panel powder after crushing it to the proper size as an aggregate of concrete blocks or clay bricks could be one of the appropriate alternatives to recycle for CRT glass waste being generated drastically in a short term.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20
  • The application and evaluation research of coffee residue ash into mortar
    • Abstract: Abstract Coffee residue is usually regarded as a kind of agriculture waste; as its quantity increases the treatment of coffee residue will become an environmental problem. This research is innovative in that it derives the possibility of recycle application using coffee residue ash for cement replacement. In this research, coffee residue is burned in an electronic oven to three kinds of coffee residue ash at 500, 600 and 700 °C, and then appropriate apparatus is used to check the chemical and physical properties of these three types of coffee residue ash. After a general comparison, this study selected 500 and 600 °C coffee residue ashes with 2, 3, 5, 10 and 15 % cement replacements to make 5 cm3 cube mortar specimen to test different curing ages’ compressive strength. Through measurement and experiment, this research found that the compressive strength decreased by adding 500 or 600 °C coffee residue ash into the mortar. By considering waste reduction and practice application, this research derives that using the 600 °C coffee residue ash with 10 % replacement is better than others application, such using result also can get valuable efficiencies of financial and CO2 reduction.
      PubDate: 2015-01-17
  • Recycling of combined coal-biomass ash from electric power plant waste as
           a cementitious material: characteristics and improvement
    • Abstract: Abstract Combined coal-biomass ash has an enormous impact on environmental quality near electric power plants. This paper describes an alternative to disposal in which the ash is used to produce cementitious materials. Ash was obtained from combustion of coal and biomass containing four mass ratios of anthracite, bitumen, rice husks, and eucalyptus bark. The cement-forming properties were systematically characterized including compressive strength development, durability, and expansion in water. The ash samples were ground to increase the specific surface area, and then used to partially replace ASTM Type I Portland cement in mixtures containing 15, 30, or 45 % ash by mass. The water-binder material's (Portland cement with or without combined coal-biomass ash) ratios (w/c) were held constant at 45, 55, or 65 % by mass. Types A, B, and D ash behaved similarly, while the properties of type C ash were slightly different. Increasing the ash fraction in Portland cement mixtures increased the water requirement and resulted in lower compressive strength. Thorough mechanical grinding reduced the porosity and significantly enhanced the material properties.
      PubDate: 2015-01-06
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