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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.449]   [H-I: 22]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Environmental impact and mechanical behavior study of experimental road
           made with river sediments: recycling of river sediments in road
    • Authors: Abdelhafid Kasmi; Nor-Edine Abriak; Mahfoud Benzerzour; Hassane Azrar
      Pages: 1405 - 1414
      Abstract: Dredging operations are necessary to maintain harbour activities, to prevent floods, and to restore ecosystem. These sediments after dredging are considered as waste, and their management is a complex problem. In the context of sustainable development, traditional solutions, such as dumping, will be more and more regulated. More than ever with the shortage of aggregates from quarries, dredged sediment could constitute a new granular material source for Civil Engineering domain. The principal objective of this works is to use dredged river sediments in the road construction. This study consists to determine the physical–chemical, geotechnical, and environmental impact characteristics of raw river sediments. To improve the mechanical performance of this river material be used in road construction, a treatment by the hydraulic binder in combination with granular corrector has been proposed. The impacts of the treated material on the environment have been evaluated. The last part of this study focuses on the realization of an experimental road with the designed mixes in the laboratory. The validation of mechanical characteristics and the study of the environmental impacts have been made on core samples from the experimental road. The monitoring of the quality of the percolating water and runoff water has been explored. The obtained results in laboratory and in situ are promising for potential use of river sediments in foundation layer of the road construction.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0529-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
  • Reduction of hazardous elements contained in sewage sludge incineration
    • Authors: Kenichiro Inoue; Tsutomu Uchida
      Pages: 1488 - 1494
      Abstract: Research and experimental studies were carried out in relation to reduction of hazardous elements contained in sewage sludge incineration ash. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 69 Japanese municipalities with sewage sludge incineration facilities. Selenium content in bag filter ash and ceramic filter ash was relatively higher than that in ash of cyclone and electrostatic precipitators. It was assumed that selenium vaporized in the furnace was due to adsorb in the fly ash on filter when passing through the low-temperature filter. To reduce high boiling point heavy metals in the ash, sewage sludge and incineration ash were heated up using a small muffle furnace. As the result, the chrome and nickel contents were reduced. A decrease in the surface area of ash and the reduction of elements occurred at the same time in sewage sludge and incineration ashes tested in this study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0520-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
  • Palladium recovery from monolithic ceramic capacitors by leaching, solvent
           extraction and reduction
    • Authors: Danilo Fontana; Massimiliana Pietrantonio; Stefano Pucciarmati; Giorgia Nadia Torelli; Chiara Bonomi; Federica Masi
      Abstract: Palladium finds a remarkable use in electronic devices and catalysts; therefore, an efficient and complete recovery from the containing secondary materials assumes a great relevance. The present paper discusses recovery of palladium (Pd) contained in monolithic ceramic capacitors from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) of electrical and electronic equipment by hydrometallurgical techniques. Samples, after a milling step, were leached by aqua regia varying the operative conditions. Parameters such as lixiviant concentration, solid/liquid ratio and temperature were investigated. Pd was separated from the leach solution by solvent extraction using Aliquat 336 as an extractant in limonene. This solvent was studied as alternative to the usual ones because it is a renewable organic diluent, with low-toxicity and easily available. After the extraction the organic phase was treated with sodium borohydride to precipitate metallic palladium obtaining a recovery rate of 83% with a purity grade of 98.8%. Based on the results of the present study, a process flow sheet was proposed for industrial implementation.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0684-3
  • Remarks on four novel landfill mining case studies in Estonia and Sweden
    • Authors: Marika Hogland; Dace Āriņa; Mait Kriipsalu; Yahya Jani; Fabio Kaczala; André Luís de Sá Salomão; Kaja Orupõld; Kaur-Mikk Pehme; Vita Rudoviča; Gintaras Denafas; Juris Burlakovs; Zane Vincēviča-Gaile; William Hogland
      Abstract: In common sense, a landfill is a place where the life cycle of products ends. Landfill mining (LFM) mostly deals with former dumpsites and derived material may have a significant importance for the circular economy. Deliverables of recently applied LFM projects in Sweden and Estonia have revealed the potential and problems for material recovery. There are 75–100 thousand old landfills and dumps in the Baltic Sea Region, and they pose environmental risks to soil, water and air by pollution released from leachate and greenhouse gas emissions. Excavation of landfills is potential solution for solving these problems, and at the same time, there are perspectives to recover valuable lands and materials, save expenses for final coverage of the landfills and aftercare control. The research project “Closing the Life Cycle of Landfills—Landfill Mining in the Baltic Sea Region for Future” included investigation at four case studies in Estonia and Sweden: Kudjape, Torma, Högbytorp and Vika landfills. Added value of this research project is characterization of waste fine fraction material, determination of concentration for most critical and rare earth elements. The main results showed that both, coarse and fine, fractions of waste might have certain opportunities of recovery.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0683-4
  • Chemical characterization and toxicity assessment for the sustainable
           management of end of life cathode ray tubes
    • Authors: Alessandra Cesaro; Alessandra Marra; Vincenzo Belgiorno; Antonietta Siciliano; Marco Guida
      Abstract: Cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors represent currently one of the most produced category of electronic waste. In CRTs most of the glass components contain lead, posing serious concern for its possible release during improper management of end-of-life devices. Nevertheless the fluorescent powders, forming a layer on CRT panel glass, may cause further adverse effects on the environment. Although lead leachability from CRT glass is well known, the hazard for the release of the fluorescent powders into the environment has not been evaluated, as the ecotoxicity potential of this matrix is not fully understood yet. The aim of the present study was to characterize both leaded glass and fluorescent powder toxicity potential for the sustainable management of waste CRTs. Representative samples of both matrices were collected at a full-scale treatment plant and analysed by their metal content as well as their ecotoxicological properties, to identify the potential for hazard. Experimental results indicated that both leaded glass and fluorescent powders are characterized by a wide variety of metals, differently influencing their potential for hazard. Ecotoxicological responses further suggest that the environmental burdens associated with the management of these matrices can be limited through the implementation of strategies reducing the formation of leachates, pointing out the urgent need for both policies and techniques promoting resource recovery from this class of electronic waste.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0685-2
  • Balancing the energy demand by a resource circulation project in Daejeon,
    • Authors: Krishna Lal Chhetri; Jae-Hyuk Hyun; Goo-Hwang Jung
      Abstract: Demand for sustainable renewable energy is on an increase worldwide, whereas the supply is limited. This paper analyses the feasibility of generating electricity and supplying the surplus steam to Daeduk Industrial Complex, by incinerating the combustible municipal waste generated in Daejeon Metropolitan City. The economic feasibility of surplus biogas generated from the anaerobic digestion of food waste and food waste leachate has been analysed. This study estimated resource circulation facility to supply 23,200 m3/day of biogas generated to Daejeon Combined Heat and Power plant. By 2023, it is expected to supply 25.7 tons of steam per hour all year round. The additional steam demand in Daeduk Industrial Complex is estimated as 101,537 tons/year. Surplus biogas will be supplied through an additional 960-m new installation. The cost of biogas is estimated at 30% of the unit biogas production cost. Daejeon Combined Heat and Power plant expects to make 60% additional profit, and Daeduk Industrial Complex and the communities nearby expect to achieve 10% cost savings. It also reduces the dependence of energy on fossil fuels, contributes to national environmental energy policy in reduction in greenhouse gases, creates competitiveness in local business and reduces corporate tax and generates revenue.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0681-6
  • Electrodeposition of rare-earth elements from neodymium magnets using
           molten salt electrolysis
    • Authors: Y. Kamimoto; T. Itoh; G. Yoshimura; K. Kuroda; T. Hagio; R. Ichino
      Abstract: Rare-earth element is an important target for recycling in Japan. In our previous work, we demonstrated the selective leaching of rare-earth elements from waste neodymium magnets using chloride molten salt electrolysis. In this study, we investigated the electrodeposition of rare-earth elements using liquid metal as a cathode. The reduction potential obtained using a liquid-zinc electrode was higher than that obtained using a solid molybdenum electrode. A zinc–rare-earth alloy was formed as the electrodeposit. The total rare-earth element content of the electrodeposit was more than 99.8 mass% without zinc and other composition of electrolysis. The activity of rare-earth elements decreased upon alloy formation, suggesting that the oxidation rate of electrodeposited alloy will be decreased.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0682-5
  • Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge, direct action of
           Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans or only the impact of pH'
    • Authors: Akbar Ghavidel; Sumayyah Naji Rad; Hosein Ali Alikhani; Meraj Sharari; Alireza Ghanbari
      Abstract: The bioleaching process comprises two mechanisms: direct action of the bacteria and indirect effect of low pH. In this work, the effect of bacteria and the effect of low pH on dissolution of the metals were compared. To study these two mechanisms, bioleaching and the chemical treatment were operated simultaneously at the same pH. Results showed that the effect of bacteria played the main role in dissolution of metals, and regarding metal dissolution, there was a significant difference between these two effects. Although the chemical leaching by means of low pH could dissolve metals, the metals are dissolved mainly by the function of the bacteria rather than dissolution because of low pH. Bioleaching could dissolve Cd (71.90%), Mn (92.5%) and Zn (89.14%), whereas the chemical leaching could dissolve Cd (22.03%), Mn (25.06%) and Zn (14.23%). These results indicate that the main cause of metal dissolution during the bioleaching treatment is the unique impact of bacterial activity, which changes the redox state of the metal rendering them to a more soluble form.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0680-7
  • Processes in informal end-processing of e-waste generated from personal
           computers in Vietnam
    • Authors: Chung Duc Tran; Stefan Petrus Salhofer
      Abstract: Informal treatment of e-waste plays an important role in many countries which have no or weak formal waste management structures. One of the challenges for assessing informal e-waste recycling technologies is to identify their disadvantages and potential technology improvement. The analysis of informal recycling processes starts with a balance of input and output materials for each of the processes. Main obstacles are the fact that in most cases, mixed or variety materials serve as input and, secondly by nature, the informal sector does not systematically measure and monitor the process. This study presents the processes and available data for informal e-waste recycling of desktop personal computer as it consists of components made of plastic and many metals within the Vietnamese context. To identify the most relevant processes, critical flows and technology gap, two scenarios are compared: (1) current situation in which recycling activities are taken in recycling craft villages and (2) appropriately selected BAT. The selected materials from e-waste cover a wide range of recycling processes and technologies: Printed Circuit Board treatment, metal (ferrous metal, aluminum and copper) and plastic recycling.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0678-1
  • The development of landfill operation and management in Indonesia
    • Authors: Edi Munawar; Y. Yunardi; Jakob Lederer; Johann Fellner
      Abstract: The enactment of the Waste Act in 2008 represents a milestone in Indonesian waste management legislation, particularly in relation to landfill operation and management. The act requires landfill operators to close open dumps and replace them with new landfills that must operate in an environmentally sound manner. This paper investigates current landfill operation and management practices in Indonesia, highlights shortcomings with respect to the requirements of the act, and discusses potential solutions that may improve the current practice. For this purpose, 12 municipal solid-waste landfills in major cities have been investigated. The results of this investigation indicate that all of the observed landfills operated as “controlled dumps” rather than sanitary sites as required by the act. The main reasons for these non-satisfactory landfilling practices are the insufficient financial resources for landfill operation and management, and scavenging activities at the sites. These problems could be alleviated through generating revenue from recycling materials separated at the landfill site. Formalizing waste recycling by licensing scavengers and buying out the recyclables by the landfill operator could generate essential revenues for a more environmentally friendly landfill operation and management.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0676-3
  • Effectiveness of interventions to induce waste segregation by households:
           evidence from a randomized controlled trial in Mozambique
    • Authors: Tomoyuki Hosono; Keitaro Aoyagi
      Abstract: The City Council of Maputo (CMM) and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) began a pilot project to introduce segregated waste discharge in households and its collection in a suburb of Maputo City, Mozambique, in 2014. After an initial rollout of the program showed low household-level compliance with the new waste segregation requirements, CMM and JICA conducted a randomized control trial (RCT) to evaluate potential measures to induce more cooperation from households. The study was a parallel group comparison with three interventions (i.e., household goods exchange, segregation buckets provision, and periodic home visit instruction). In total, 1000 target households (sample size of 250 households for each group) were randomly allocated out of 1817 eligible households in the target area. The analysis found each applied intervention to be effective, the households with interventions were 7.5–10.6% points more likely to segregate the waste compared with the control group (significant at 1% level), and 267.4–386.1 g/households/2 weeks of target recyclables was incrementally discharged from the intervention groups, while that of the control group was 25.57 g/household/2 weeks (significant at 1–10% levels). However, cost-effectiveness of the pilot project and the applied interventions was low when compared with the other recycling pilot projects attempted in the project.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0677-2
  • Comparative analysis of physicochemical, nutrient, and spectral properties
           of agricultural residue biochars as influenced by pyrolysis temperatures
    • Authors: T. Bera; T. J. Purakayastha; A. K. Patra; S. C. Datta
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to assess the physicochemical, nutrient, and spectral properties of biochar prepared from four major agricultural residues of India [rice straw (RSB), wheat straw (WSB), maize stover (MSB), and pearl millet stover (PSB)] at three (400, 500, and 600 °C) pyrolysis temperatures. Pyrolysis temperatures and residue types profoundly influenced biochar properties, for instance, PSB biochar had the greatest pH (10.75 ± 0.01), calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE) (47.8 ± 0.5), and carbonate (CO 3 = ) content (432 ± 17 meq kg−1). Irrespective of residue, greater pyrolysis temperature improves the biochars’ acid-neutralizing capacity by increasing pH in water (pHw), CCE, and CO 3 =  content. The CCE of biochar showed a significant positive correlation with pHw (R 2 = 0.51, p < 0.001) and ash content of biochar (R 2 = 0.54, p < 0.001). A great amount of water-soluble potassium (20.6–29.5 g kg−1) in all the biochars made them suitable for supplying potassium to plants. Infrared spectroscopy explained the functional group formation, while XRD revealed mineral formation in the biochar. Thus, depending on the requirement, diverse properties of biochar can be prepared by designing residue type and pyrolysis temperature suitable for application in a specific soil to alleviate nutrient deficiency and improve soil productivity.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0675-4
  • A grey-relation-based method (GRM) for thermogravimetric (TG) data
    • Authors: Yanqiu Long; Qinghai Li; Hui Zhou; Aihong Meng; Yanguo Zhang
      Abstract: Thermogravimetric analyzer was applied to analyze 22 solid materials and their mixtures at a heating rate of 10 K min−1 under nitrogen atmosphere. A grey-relation-based method for thermogravimetric (TG) data analysis was proposed, which introduced a mass loss vector (MLV) as numeric form of TG curves and calculated grey relations between MLVs of different materials as criterion. The method was applied to TG data, exemplifying its applications in classification of some solid wastes, simulation of biomass based on three compositions and interaction analysis of two materials. The results indicated that paper category could be represented by cellulose below 673 K while textile category could be represented by cellulose and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). 12 kinds of biomass could be simulated with all relation values larger than 0.92 between experimental and calculated data. Influences of interaction between PVC, paper and poplar wood were quantitatively analyzed, which showed less influence between paper and poplar than PVC and poplar.
      PubDate: 2017-10-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0665-6
  • Drying characteristics of thickened sewage sludge in oil vacuum
           evaporation system
    • Authors: Seok-Hwan Kim; Byung-Ran Lim; Soo-Koo Lee
      Abstract: In the current work, drying characteristics of thickened sludge was investigated with respect to drying conditions in oil vacuum evaporation system. The drying characteristics were confirmed by measuring the amount of condensate with 1-min interval. Results showed that the type of mixing oil changed thermal characteristics. The evaporation rate and drying efficiencies of waste cooking oil showed better results rather than other refined oils. From the TG and DTA test results, the ignition temperature varied depending on oil type. The ignition temperature of drying sludge with refined oil was lower than that with waste cooking oil and raw sludge. The moisture content of dried sludge mixed with oil was less than 3%, however, the sludge dried without any oil showed much higher moisture content of 53.7%. This study showed that sludge-derived fuel from the newly developed oil vacuum drying process can be widely used as a renewable energy source.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0671-8
  • Recycling of an acrylate–glass fiber reinforced polyester composite
    • Authors: Gregor Kočevar; Andrej Kržan
      Abstract: Recycling possibilities were evaluated for a composite waste composed of glass fiber reinforced polyester bound to a layer of crosslinked polymethylmethacrylate. Grinding allowed removal of a majority of glass fibers; however, the two constituent materials remained bonded. The ground material was extruded as filler with polypropylene, polymethylmethacrylate, and acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, allowing maximum filling of 90, 60, and 70%, respectively. The highly filled materials had acceptable impact resistance but possessed processing limitations. Alternatively, the ground waste was mixed with unsaturated polyester resins, compacted and crosslinked to yield boards of various dimensions. With 10% resin addition, crosslinking at 80 °C and compression moulding at pressures above 200 bar boards comparable to wood particleboards were prepared. Mechanical properties, water uptake, and resistance to solvents of the boards were determined. Larger boards prepared by this method were successfully used in an industrial test production of bathtubs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0673-6
  • Survey of quantity and management condition of end-of-life tires in Iran:
           a case study in Tabriz
    • Authors: Mahsa Zarei; Hassan Taghipour; Yousef Hassanzadeh
      Abstract: Once a tire is removed from a vehicle without the possibility of being remounted for continued on-road use, it is defined as waste and called end-of-life tire (ELT). ELTs are non-biodegradable, cannot be compressed and occupy large amount of space in landfills. Dumped tires provide breeding grounds for vectors and rodents and are susceptible to fire hazards. Numerous actions have been taken to manage ELTs worldwide; however, in Iran, there has not been much attention given to the issue. The goal of this study was to survey quantity and management conditions of ELTs and present managing principles according to the environmental and health aspects in Iran (a case study in Tabriz). The amount of ELTs in Iran was estimated by considering the production, import, export and life of tires. Next the current ELT management condition in Tabriz City was investigated using a checklist, observation, site visiting and interview. Then by considering scientific sources and also, according to experiences in other countries and current conditions, managing principles were suggested. Results showed that 198,346–339,678 tonnes of ELTs have been produced in Iran during 2003–2015 that equals 2.95–4.52 kg per capita per year. The amount of ELTs has had almost increasing trend during last 13 years. About 6390 tonnes of ELTs annually in Tabriz City are landfilled or dumped, which can create great hazards to the health and environment. Based on the results of this study, for improving the current condition of ELTs, first, the ELT production must be reduced and then ELTs must be reused or recycled. Moreover, landfilling of ELTs should be banned gradually and extended producer responsibility (EPR) system must be implemented for their management.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0674-5
  • Sago pith waste ash as a potential raw material for ceramic and geopolymer
    • Authors: Mohamad Rohaidzat bin Mohamed Rashid; Mustafa Juma A. Mijarsh; Hazman Seli; Megat Azmi Megat Johari; Zainal Arifin Ahmad
      Abstract: This study focuses on the potential usage of sago pith waste ash (SPWA) obtained from sago pith waste (SPW) calcined from 500 to 1000 °C. SPWA was characterized by TGA/DTA, XRD, XRF, FTIR, and FESEM incorporating with EDX. About 4% of SPWA was generated from each tonne of SPW at 700 °C as the optimum calcination temperature as indicated by thermal analysis. The phases found in SPWA at calcination temperatures of less than 800 °C are quartz, calcite, and magnesite. XRF analysis found that SPWA was mainly composed of CaO and SiO2 with the presence of other oxides such as MgO, Fe2O3, and Al2O3. Both CaO and SiO2 are very significant oxides as they can be used as an alternative binder for the synthesis of geopolymer products, especially in combination with other ashes such as fly ash (FA). Geopolymers fabricated from FA partially substituted with SPWA showed a 5% increase in compressive strength. Therefore, the benefits of SPWA are twofold: first, as a resource of renewable energy generated through the burning of SPW which can be utilized by related industries, and second, SPWA itself becomes a potential raw material for the production of ceramic and geopolymer products.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0672-7
  • Policy-making coordination of municipal solid waste policies in China: a
           content analysis
    • Authors: Zhiyong He; Zhujie Chu; Mengyang Zhao; Jun Zhuang; Feiren Liu
      Abstract: Massive urbanization and rapid development of urban economy have increased the generation of municipal solid waste in China. Like all developing countries, the Chinese government has endeavored to enact some policies for municipal solid waste with a goal to reduce its negative impacts on the natural environment and public health. Here, the purpose of this paper is to retrospectively examine the policy-making coordination of municipal solid waste policies (MSWPs). This was done through proposing an analytical framework, which was made up of policy level, policy subject, and policy tools. To achieve this, 421 MSWPs were gathered from January 1, 1981 to March 1, 2015. It was found that the coordination of policy levels is strong after 2000. However, the coordination between policy subjects is weak. The main reason is that “fragmented authoritarianism” produces inter-ministerial competition which creates power struggles obstructing proper coordination among policy subjects. The coordination of policy tools is strong.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0668-3
  • Potential recyclable materials derived from riverine litter at log boom
           Sungai Batu in Kuala Lumpur
    • Authors: Nur Khaliesah Abdul Malik; Latifah Abd Manaf
      Abstract: Monitoring the riverine litter was essential for the aesthetical value and reducing the negative impacts toward the human health, environment and socio-economic aspects. Riverine litter is mainly made up from the land-based sources. The lack of historical data on riverine litter generation and composition can affect the efficiency of policy makers in making any decision on riverine litter management plan. The purpose of this study is to assess the quantification of types and abundance of riverine litter at log boom Sungai Batu in Kuala Lumpur. The field sampling has been conducted for 14 days of operation day at log boom Sungai Batu, Kuala Lumpur, within the period month of March until April. The quantification of riverine litter and its composition was based on the time interval during the operation day. The result shows that the Event 3 has recorded the high abundance of riverine litter with 4654.6 kg/operation day. This study also shows that the river is highly dominated with plastic waste with 39% (62.96 ± 15.38 kg/operation day). This study provides the baseline information for the local authority and relevant agencies in reducing the riverine litter which subsequently provide a sustainable environmental and socio-economic condition.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0670-9
  • Announcement
    • PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0669-2
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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