for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

We no longer collect new content from this publisher because the publisher has forbidden systematic access to its RSS feeds.
Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.449]   [H-I: 22]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Soil contamination by halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from
           open burning of e-waste in Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana)
    • Authors: Nguyen Minh Tue; Akitoshi Goto; Shin Takahashi; Takaaki Itai; Kwadwo Ansong Asante; Kei Nomiyama; Shinsuke Tanabe; Tatsuya Kunisue
      Pages: 1324 - 1332
      Abstract: Abstract Detailed composition of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs) generated during informal recycling of e-waste and their toxic relevance are still poorly understood. This study investigated the occurrence of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in surface soil samples from the Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site (Accra, Ghana) using quantitative gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional GC–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC–ToFMS) profiling. The results of GC–MS analysis showed elevated concentrations in open e-waste burning areas (160–220 and 19–46 ng/g dry weight for Cl- and Br-PAHs, respectively) with substantial contribution from unidentified compounds (respectively, more than 36 and 70%, based on the total areas of potential peaks). Cl- and Br-PAHs from e-waste burning had a distinctive composition dominated by ring–ring compounds. Several homologue groups not monitored with GC–MS were found using GC × GC–ToFMS: PAHs with up to 5Cl or 3Br, mixed halogenated PAHs and chlorinated methylPAHs. The dioxin-like toxic equivalents of the identified Cl-/Br-PAHs in soils, estimated from their in vitro AhR agonist potencies relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, were much lower than the range reported for chlorinated and brominated dioxins. However, the toxicity of the unidentified halogenated PAHs remained unclear.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0568-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • PCBs, PBDEs and dioxin-related compounds in floor dust from an informal
           end-of-life vehicle recycling site in northern Vietnam: contamination
           levels and implications for human exposure
    • Authors: Shin Takahashi; Nguyen Minh Tue; Chika Takayanagi; Le Huu Tuyen; Go Suzuki; Hidenori Matsukami; Pham Hung Viet; Tatsuya Kunisue; Shinsuke Tanabe
      Pages: 1333 - 1341
      Abstract: Abstract Floor dusts from Vietnamese end-of-life vehicle (ELV)-processing households were investigated to elucidate the contamination levels and exposure risk of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dioxin-related compounds (DRCs). The concentrations were in order of PBDEs (260–11,000, median 280 ng/g overall) > PCBs (19–2200, median 140 ng/g) > dioxin-like PCBs (8.8–450, median 22 ng/g) ≫ polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs, 2000–28,000, median 8500 pg/g) > polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, 440–4100, median 1800 pg/g) > MoBPCDD/Fs (1.9–1200, median 250 pg/g). Concentrations of PCBs and DRCs were higher than those reported for Vietnamese urban houses, indicating ELV processing as a significant source of these contaminants. Higher concentrations of PCBs relative to PBDEs suggest the abundance of old electrical capacitors/transformers in ELVs. The PBDD/F and PCDD/F profiles were indicative of DecaBDE-containing materials and combustion sources, respectively. PBDFs, PCDFs and DL-PCBs were the most important dioxin-like toxic equivalent (TEQ) contributors. The estimated PCB and TEQ intake doses from dust ingestion approached or exceeded the reference doses for children living in some ELV-processing households, indicating potential health risk. More comprehensive risk assessment of the exposure to PCBs and DRCs is required for residents of informal ELV recycling sites.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0571-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • In-use polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) stocks and atmospheric
           emissions in Japan
    • Authors: Nguyen Thanh Dien; Yasuhiro Hirai; Shin-ichi Sakai
      Pages: 1342 - 1350
      Abstract: Abstract We estimated the in-use stocks of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Japan using a population balance model. The estimation is based on the domestic demand of PBDEs and the assumed survival rate of these products. Two cases relevant to the future regulation of commercial deca-BDE are considered, namely (1) deca-BDE declines at the same rate as the current rate of decline, and (2) deca-BDE is discontinued after 2020. The estimates of the decreasing rates of in-use penta-, octa-, and deca-BDE stocks were proportional with the measured decreases in the atmospheric concentrations of these substances. The in-use penta- and octa-BDE stocks could be depleted in the near future (500 and 60 tonne in 2013, and an estimated 20 and <1 tonne in 2020, respectively). Relevant to case 1, the in-use stocks of deca-BDE-containing products would be 28,000 tonne in 2013 and an estimated 1900 tonne in 2040, providing an ongoing source of deca-BDE emission to the environment. On the other hand, relevant to case 2, most of the deca-BDE would be phased out by 2040. The atmospheric emissions of deca-BDE were predicted at 84–841 kg/year in 2013 and an estimated 43–425 kg/year in 2020.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0608-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Municipal solid waste composition and food loss reduction in Kyoto City
    • Authors: Tetsuji Yamada; Misuzu Asari; Takahiro Miura; Tomoyuki Niijima; Junya Yano; Shin-ichi Sakai
      Pages: 1351 - 1360
      Abstract: Abstract For 35 years, Kyoto City has conducted detailed household waste composition surveys under the guidance of Kyoto University by dividing household waste into approximately 400 categories. In addition, the city has conducted detailed composition surveys of commercial waste generated by businesses. These surveys show that food loss accounts for approximately 40% of total waste, of which leftovers and untouched food account for about 40% in both households and business facilities. Consequently, the annual generation of household and commercial food loss is estimated at about 30,000 tons. Various efforts have been made to reduce waste, including food loss, but further reduction in environmental burden is needed. Thus, Kyoto City revised the ordinance for waste reduction, and in March 2015, formulated a new municipal waste management plan. The plan not only includes the 2Rs (reduce, reuse), but also, for the first time in Japan, sets quantitative targets for reducing food loss. Kyoto City must ensure that the necessary waste reduction measures are clearly explained to the residents and business operators. To ensure that this plan is successful, it is important to clarify concrete actions that residents and business operators should implement, along with their effects.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0643-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of concrete production with solid residues obtained from
           fluidized-bed incineration of MSW-derived solid recovered fuel (SRF)
    • Authors: Maria Cristina Collivignarelli; Alessandro Abbà; Sabrina Sorlini; Matteo Bruggi
      Pages: 1374 - 1383
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of solid residues derived from municipal solid waste-derived solid recovered fuel incinerated in a circulating fluidized-bed boiler for concrete production. The concrete mixtures casted by partially replacing the natural aggregates with bottom ash (27 %) and exhausted sand (13 %), according to the European standards for concrete, may be classified in the C16/20 class. The leaching tests performed on monolithic concrete samples showed that the concentrations measured in the leachates were lower than limit values for waste recovery, with the only exception of nickel for the mixture made with the exhausted sand.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0523-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Performance of combined ozone and zirconium tetrachloride in stabilized
           landfill leachate treatment
    • Authors: Salem S. Abu Amr; Siti Nor Farhana Zakaria; Hamidi Abdul Aziz
      Pages: 1384 - 1390
      Abstract: Abstract The current study investigated the performance of combined ozonation and zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl4) for an anaerobic stabilized landfill leachate treatment. The effectiveness of ZrCl4 dosage [COD0/ZrCl4 ratio (g/g)], pH variation, and reaction time during ozonation were evaluated to obtain the optimal operational conditions of ozone (O3)/ZrCl4 oxidation process. The maximum removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color were 88 and 100 %, respectively, at 1/2 g zirconium tetrachloride dosage (COD0/ZrCl4), pH 6, and 90 min reaction time, whereas 79 % removal for ammonia (NH3–N) was obtained at pH 11. Biodegradability (BOD5/COD) was improved from 0.07 to 0.09 and 0.34 after treatment with O3 alone and O3/ZrCl4, respectively. Treatments using ozonation alone and zirconium alone were performed and compared with the results obtained from the treatment with the new catalytic ozone method (O3/ZrCl4). The new oxidation method (i.e., O3/ZrCl4) obtained better removal efficiencies for organic substances and ammonia and this method reported better biodegradability ratio compared with other related processes. The O3/ZrCl4 process is also more efficient than O3/Fenton and O3/persulfate for stabilizing leachate treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0524-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Identification and thermomechanical characterization of polymers recovered
           from mobile phone waste
    • Authors: P. Sarath; Sateesh Bonda; Smita Mohanty; Sanjay K. Nayak
      Pages: 1391 - 1399
      Abstract: Abstract The plastic components from waste mobile phones were sorted and characterized using visual, spectroscopic and thermal methods. The sustainable strength of the recovered plastics was investigated by comparing their mechanical and thermal properties with commercially used reference materials. The results revealed that the recovered polymers have significant potential to be reused. However, some properties, such as impact strength and tensile modulus, are significantly low compared to virgin materials and need further improvement. The samples were also tested for brominated flame retardants (BFRs) using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry technique, and the results indicated the absence of BFR in recovered plastics; hence, these can be processed without any risk of BFR toxicity.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0525-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • TG-DSC and FTIR study on pyrolysis of irradiation cross-linked
           polyethylene
    • Authors: Yuying Du; Xuguang Jiang; Guojun Lv; Yuqi Jin; Fei Wang; Yong Chi; Jianhua Yan; Alfons Buekens
      Pages: 1400 - 1404
      Abstract: Abstract Irradiation cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) and irradiation cross-linked polyethylene with carbon black filler (CB-PEX) are two types of scraps, generated in electric cable production. Their pyrolysis is studied in this work using instrumental TG\DSC\FTIR techniques and kinetic analysis. The experiments are performed at a constant heating rate of 10 °C/min in nitrogen flow at atmospheric pressure. It is found that the main pyrolysis stage is in the temperature range of 395–503 °C for PEX, and in range of 408–515 °C for CB-PEX. In the main pyrolysis stage, CB-PEX requires more external heat than PEX does. Olefins are the major products of pyrolysis for both materials, but they are quite different in their composition and molecular weight distribution. PEX can be converted almost quantitatively into volatile compounds. CB-PEX has a stronger coking tendency, as well as a larger residue composed of carbon black.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0530-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Environmental impact and mechanical behavior study of experimental road
           made with river sediments: recycling of river sediments in road
           construction
    • Authors: Abdelhafid Kasmi; Nor-Edine Abriak; Mahfoud Benzerzour; Hassane Azrar
      Pages: 1405 - 1414
      Abstract: Abstract Dredging operations are necessary to maintain harbour activities, to prevent floods, and to restore ecosystem. These sediments after dredging are considered as waste, and their management is a complex problem. In the context of sustainable development, traditional solutions, such as dumping, will be more and more regulated. More than ever with the shortage of aggregates from quarries, dredged sediment could constitute a new granular material source for Civil Engineering domain. The principal objective of this works is to use dredged river sediments in the road construction. This study consists to determine the physical–chemical, geotechnical, and environmental impact characteristics of raw river sediments. To improve the mechanical performance of this river material be used in road construction, a treatment by the hydraulic binder in combination with granular corrector has been proposed. The impacts of the treated material on the environment have been evaluated. The last part of this study focuses on the realization of an experimental road with the designed mixes in the laboratory. The validation of mechanical characteristics and the study of the environmental impacts have been made on core samples from the experimental road. The monitoring of the quality of the percolating water and runoff water has been explored. The obtained results in laboratory and in situ are promising for potential use of river sediments in foundation layer of the road construction.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0529-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Distribution of remaining Cd in MSWI fly ash washed with nitric acid
    • Authors: Xue Zhao; Li-ao Wang; Lei Wang; Wei Zhang
      Pages: 1415 - 1422
      Abstract: Abstract Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is by-product and hazardous waste produced from MSWI plant. In the MSWI fly ash there are high contents heavy metals, among which cadmium (Cd) is more active and toxic. Although inorganic acid leaching is an effective way to remove heavy metals out from the MSWI fly ash and nitric acid has great efficiency for Cd removal, little literature reported the redistribution of remaining Cd in the MSWI fly ash. This investigation focused on the change of different factions (exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe–Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and residual) of Cd in treated (i.e. washed with nitric acid) MSWI fly ash. Sequence extraction procedures (SEP) have been used to derive different fractions of Cd, results indicated that fractions of Cd have changed significantly after nitric acid washing procedures. Due to the changes of main compounds and microstructures stable Cd (bound to organic matter and residual) had opportunity to leach out, which resulted in a higher potential risk (or higher bioavailability index) for living creatures, although the total amount of Cd decreased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and images of scanning electron microscope (SEM) proved these changes in washed MSWI fly ash.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0535-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Spatial simulation and LCA evaluation on the plastic waste recycling
           system in Tianjin
    • Authors: Richao Cong; Toru Matsumoto; Wenchao Li; He Xu; Takamasa Hayashi; Changjun Wang
      Pages: 1423 - 1436
      Abstract: Abstract With the rapid economic development in China, the amount of plastic waste (PW) generated has greatly increased and much of the waste is currently not treated. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from recycling of PW, we estimated the PW flow and considered methods to improve the household PW recycling system in Tianjin by adjusting processes during transportation and establishing a PW recycling factory in Zi’ya Industrial Park. The goal of the study was to identify reasonable improvements for the recycling system and clarify the environmental load. Geographic information system (GIS) technology was used to simulate transport processes for comparing GHG emissions from the transport processes between the present case and an improved case. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare GHG emissions between a projected scenario and a baseline scenario. Estimated GHG emissions during transport processes in the improved case were reduced by about 12,197 t CO2 eq per year compared to the present case, equivalent to about 65.9 % of the total emissions in the present case. GHG emissions in the projected scenario were about 101,738 t CO2 eq less per year than the baseline scenario, equivalent to about 75.5 % of the total emissions in the baseline scenario.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0538-4
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Formation of persistent chlorinated aromatic compounds in simulated and
           real fly ash from iron ore sintering
    • Authors: Yibo Zhang; Lina Liu; Yifei Sun; Rong Zhu; Xingbao Gao; Jingling Yang; Zhiqiang Han; Hui Wang
      Pages: 1437 - 1445
      Abstract: Abstract Effects of carbon concentration and Cu additive in simulated fly ash (SFA) and real fly ash (RFA) on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), chlorobenzenes, and polychlorinated biphenyls which were all regarded as persistent chlorinated aromatics in iron ore sintering were investigated. In the annealing process of SFA with various carbon contents, the yield of chlorinated aromatics and the I-TEQ obtained their maximum at 10 wt% carbon content. Active carbon in SFA acted as the carbon source as well as an adsorbent which led to higher production of PCDD/F in solid phase at 10 wt% carbon content. The increase of carbon content will be beneficial on the formation of 2,3,7,8-Chloro-substituted PCDF compared with 2,3,7,8-Chloro-substituted PCDD. In addition, the CuCl2·2H2O was a much more powerful catalyst in the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds compared with elementary Cu, since it served as both a catalyst and a chlorine donor. However, the RFA behaved similarly with SFA with elementary Cu in the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds. The effect of carbon content and copper additives on formation of 2,3,7,8-chloro-substituted congeners displayed similar characteristics with the tetra- to octa-PCDD/F isomers and even the total PCDD/Fs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0537-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Application of ameliorated wood pulp to recover Cd(II), Pb(II), and Ni(II)
           from e-waste
    • Authors: Shilpa Varshney; Priyanka Jain; Shalini Srivastava
      Pages: 1446 - 1456
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, dl-malic acid and hydrogen peroxide were used as leaching agents to remove metals from e-waste (printed-circuit boards) and itaconic acid-grafted poly(vinyl alcohol)-encapsulated wood pulp (IA-g-PVA-en-WP) to uptake metals from leachate with high proficiency [11.63 mg g−1; 93.03 % for Cd(II), 11.90 mg g−1; 95.18 % for Pb(II), and 12.14 mg g−1; 97.08 % for Ni(II)]. Metals were recovered from the loaded biosorbent by desorption studies. The standard analytical techniques, such as elemental analysis, Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, were used to characterize the recovering agent (biosorbent). At equilibrium, the metal uptake data were fitted to Langmuir and D–R isotherms (R 2 > 0.99) significantly, revealing, the homogeneous distribution of active sites on biosorbent’s backbone. The possible mechanism appeared to be ion exchanges of metal ions with H+ together with binding over functionalities (COO−). Dimensionless equilibrium parameter (R L) showed the favourability of metal uptake at lower concentration, while mean adsorption energy (E) certified the physical binding of metal on functionalities which was further confirmed by sticking probability and activation energy parameters. Reusability studies were also conducted to state the performance of biosorbent.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0539-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • BMP estimation of landfilled municipal solid waste by multivariate
           statistical methods using specific waste parameters: case study of a
           sanitary landfill in Turkey
    • Authors: Ilker Sel; Mehmet Çakmakcı; Bestamin Özkaya; Fatih Güreli
      Pages: 1479 - 1487
      Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this study was to determine whether methane potential of waste could be estimated more easily by a limited number of waste characterization variables. 36 samples were collected from 12 locations and 3 waste depths in order to represent almost all waste ages at the landfill. Actual remaining methane potential of all samples was determined by the biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The cumulative methane production of closed landfill (cLF) samples reached 75–125 mL at the end of experiment duration, while the samples from active landfill (aLF) produced in average 216–266 mL methane. The average experimental k and L 0 values of cLF and aLF were determined by non-linear regression using BMP data with first-order kinetic equation as 0.0269 day−1–30.38 mL/g dry MSW and 0.0125 day−1–102.1 mL/g dry MSW, respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyze the results for cLF and aLF along with BMP results. Three PCs for the data set were extracted explaining 72.34 % variability. The best MLR model for BMP prediction was determined for seven variables (pH–Cl–TKN–NH4–TOC–LOI–Ca). R 2 and Adj. R 2 values of this best model were determined as 80.4 and 75.3 %, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0543-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Reduction of hazardous elements contained in sewage sludge incineration
           ash
    • Authors: Kenichiro Inoue; Tsutomu Uchida
      Pages: 1488 - 1494
      Abstract: Abstract Research and experimental studies were carried out in relation to reduction of hazardous elements contained in sewage sludge incineration ash. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 69 Japanese municipalities with sewage sludge incineration facilities. Selenium content in bag filter ash and ceramic filter ash was relatively higher than that in ash of cyclone and electrostatic precipitators. It was assumed that selenium vaporized in the furnace was due to adsorb in the fly ash on filter when passing through the low-temperature filter. To reduce high boiling point heavy metals in the ash, sewage sludge and incineration ash were heated up using a small muffle furnace. As the result, the chrome and nickel contents were reduced. A decrease in the surface area of ash and the reduction of elements occurred at the same time in sewage sludge and incineration ashes tested in this study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0520-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Survey of quantity and management condition of end-of-life tires in Iran:
           a case study in Tabriz
    • Authors: Mahsa Zarei; Hassan Taghipour; Yousef Hassanzadeh
      Abstract: Abstract Once a tire is removed from a vehicle without the possibility of being remounted for continued on-road use, it is defined as waste and called end-of-life tire (ELT). ELTs are non-biodegradable, cannot be compressed and occupy large amount of space in landfills. Dumped tires provide breeding grounds for vectors and rodents and are susceptible to fire hazards. Numerous actions have been taken to manage ELTs worldwide; however, in Iran, there has not been much attention given to the issue. The goal of this study was to survey quantity and management conditions of ELTs and present managing principles according to the environmental and health aspects in Iran (a case study in Tabriz). The amount of ELTs in Iran was estimated by considering the production, import, export and life of tires. Next the current ELT management condition in Tabriz City was investigated using a checklist, observation, site visiting and interview. Then by considering scientific sources and also, according to experiences in other countries and current conditions, managing principles were suggested. Results showed that 198,346–339,678 tonnes of ELTs have been produced in Iran during 2003–2015 that equals 2.95–4.52 kg per capita per year. The amount of ELTs has had almost increasing trend during last 13 years. About 6390 tonnes of ELTs annually in Tabriz City are landfilled or dumped, which can create great hazards to the health and environment. Based on the results of this study, for improving the current condition of ELTs, first, the ELT production must be reduced and then ELTs must be reused or recycled. Moreover, landfilling of ELTs should be banned gradually and extended producer responsibility (EPR) system must be implemented for their management.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0674-5
       
  • Sago pith waste ash as a potential raw material for ceramic and geopolymer
           fabrication
    • Authors: Mohamad Rohaidzat bin Mohamed Rashid; Mustafa Juma A. Mijarsh; Hazman Seli; Megat Azmi Megat Johari; Zainal Arifin Ahmad
      Abstract: Abstract This study focuses on the potential usage of sago pith waste ash (SPWA) obtained from sago pith waste (SPW) calcined from 500 to 1000 °C. SPWA was characterized by TGA/DTA, XRD, XRF, FTIR, and FESEM incorporating with EDX. About 4% of SPWA was generated from each tonne of SPW at 700 °C as the optimum calcination temperature as indicated by thermal analysis. The phases found in SPWA at calcination temperatures of less than 800 °C are quartz, calcite, and magnesite. XRF analysis found that SPWA was mainly composed of CaO and SiO2 with the presence of other oxides such as MgO, Fe2O3, and Al2O3. Both CaO and SiO2 are very significant oxides as they can be used as an alternative binder for the synthesis of geopolymer products, especially in combination with other ashes such as fly ash (FA). Geopolymers fabricated from FA partially substituted with SPWA showed a 5% increase in compressive strength. Therefore, the benefits of SPWA are twofold: first, as a resource of renewable energy generated through the burning of SPW which can be utilized by related industries, and second, SPWA itself becomes a potential raw material for the production of ceramic and geopolymer products.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0672-7
       
  • Policy-making coordination of municipal solid waste policies in China: a
           content analysis
    • Authors: Zhiyong He; Zhujie Chu; Mengyang Zhao; Jun Zhuang; Feiren Liu
      Abstract: Abstract Massive urbanization and rapid development of urban economy have increased the generation of municipal solid waste in China. Like all developing countries, the Chinese government has endeavored to enact some policies for municipal solid waste with a goal to reduce its negative impacts on the natural environment and public health. Here, the purpose of this paper is to retrospectively examine the policy-making coordination of municipal solid waste policies (MSWPs). This was done through proposing an analytical framework, which was made up of policy level, policy subject, and policy tools. To achieve this, 421 MSWPs were gathered from January 1, 1981 to March 1, 2015. It was found that the coordination of policy levels is strong after 2000. However, the coordination between policy subjects is weak. The main reason is that “fragmented authoritarianism” produces inter-ministerial competition which creates power struggles obstructing proper coordination among policy subjects. The coordination of policy tools is strong.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0668-3
       
  • Potential recyclable materials derived from riverine litter at log boom
           Sungai Batu in Kuala Lumpur
    • Authors: Nur Khaliesah Abdul Malik; Latifah Abd Manaf
      Abstract: Abstract Monitoring the riverine litter was essential for the aesthetical value and reducing the negative impacts toward the human health, environment and socio-economic aspects. Riverine litter is mainly made up from the land-based sources. The lack of historical data on riverine litter generation and composition can affect the efficiency of policy makers in making any decision on riverine litter management plan. The purpose of this study is to assess the quantification of types and abundance of riverine litter at log boom Sungai Batu in Kuala Lumpur. The field sampling has been conducted for 14 days of operation day at log boom Sungai Batu, Kuala Lumpur, within the period month of March until April. The quantification of riverine litter and its composition was based on the time interval during the operation day. The result shows that the Event 3 has recorded the high abundance of riverine litter with 4654.6 kg/operation day. This study also shows that the river is highly dominated with plastic waste with 39% (62.96 ± 15.38 kg/operation day). This study provides the baseline information for the local authority and relevant agencies in reducing the riverine litter which subsequently provide a sustainable environmental and socio-economic condition.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0670-9
       
  • Announcement
    • PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0669-2
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.158.212.93
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016