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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.449]   [H-I: 22]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Recycling of biodiesel fuel wastewater for use as a liquid fertilizer for
    • Authors: Jiro Kohda; Yasuhisa Nakano; Akimitsu Kugimiya; Yu Takano; Takuo Yano
      Pages: 999 - 1007
      Abstract: Abstract Wastewater is discharged during washing processes in the production of biodiesel fuel (BDF) using alkaline catalysts. It can be recycled as a liquid fertilizer for hydroponics by adding essential components for plant growth. The effects of the liquid fertilizer on plant growth were investigated. Liquid fertilizer containing a smaller amount of the BDF wastewater had a similar effect on plant growth as the standard nutrient solutions. This result reveals that BDF wastewater can be recycled for use as a liquid fertilizer for hydroponics. However, fertilizer with a larger amount of the BDF wastewater showed poor and varied plant growth due to the growth of microorganisms in the contaminated wastewater. Hence, when BDF wastewater becomes contaminated during storage, sterilization is necessary to recycle it as a liquid fertilizer. Moreover, contamination during storage should be avoided for successful recycling.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0545-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • Characterizations of biochar from hydrothermal carbonization of exhausted
           coffee residue
    • Authors: Daegi Kim; Kwanyong Lee; Daeun Bae; Ki Young Park
      Pages: 1036 - 1043
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to produce renewable energy from exhausted coffee residue, which is a form of biomass. As coffee preference continues to increase, the importation of coffee beans has been increasing sharply. However, the amount of coffee that is actually consumed is only about 0.2% of coffee beans, while the spent coffee beans are discarded in the form of exhausted coffee residue. Hydrothermal carbonization is a method of producing an improved fuel from renewable energy sources by changing the physical and chemical properties of biochars. Biochars were obtained from a variety of reaction temperatures during hydrothermal carbonization and analyzed using elemental analysis, ultimate analysis, and calorific value measurement. The atomic C/O and C/H ratios of all obtained biochars decreased and were found to be similar to those of lignite and sub-bituminous coal. The highest energy recovery efficiency of biochar indicates that the optimum reaction temperature for hydrothermal carbonization was between 210 and 240 °C, which produced biochars with calorific value of approximately 26–27 MJ/kg. The spectra of biochars obtained from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed fewer C–O and aliphatic C–H functional groups, but more carbonyl C=O functional groups and aliphatic CH x groups. The results of this study indicate that hydrothermal carbonization can be used as an effective means to generate highly energy-efficient renewable fuel resources from coffee residue. The thermogravimetric analysis provided the changing combustion characteristics due to increased fixed carbon content.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0572-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • Psychological driving forces behind households’ behaviors toward
           municipal organic waste separation at source in Vietnam: a structural
           equation modeling approach
    • Authors: Le Thi Thanh Loan; Hisako Nomura; Yoshifumi Takahashi; Mitsuyasu Yabe
      Pages: 1052 - 1060
      Abstract: Abstract Most recent municipal organic waste-separation at source (MOW-SAS) programs that have been introduced in developing countries remain pilot programs, but have not fully developed into sustainable municipal solid-waste management strategies. The city of Hoi An, Vietnam, implemented a mandatory MOW-SAS program in 2012. Using Structural Equation Modeling, this study investigates the psychological driving forces behind households’ behaviors toward the MOW-SAS program. This study finds that moral norm (moral perception of what is good or bad), attitude toward sorted waste, and situational factors (issues concerning physically sorting garbage, such as time, space, and lack of family cooperation) can significantly affect household behaviors toward MOW-SAS. It confirms the need for supplying frequent environmental educational campaigns and highlighting the benefits of MOW-SAS programs. Moreover, the study finds that households’ system trust in local authority concerning the MOW-SAS program is an important driving force behind the behavior. Therefore, recommendation is also made on the need to develop strong leadership in local authorities through improving: (1) reliability (ability to effectively treat sorted waste), (2) legitimacy (punitive measures for non-participants), and (3) effectiveness (dissemination of information about the benefits of MOW-SAS programs) for promoting MOW-SAS.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0587-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • Simultaneous removal of SO 2 and PAHs by adding calcium-based additives
           during sewage sludge incineration in a fluidized bed incinerator
    • Authors: Lin-Bo Qin; Jun Han; Wang-Sheng Chen; Ge-Ge Wang; Guang-Qian Luo; Hong Yao
      Pages: 1061 - 1068
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by adding calcium-based additives [CaO, Ca(OH)2, and CaCO3] during sewage sludge incineration was investigated in a fluidized bed incinerator. The effects of the types, CaO/S (mole ratio) and particle size of calcium-based additives on PAHs or PAHs Toxic Equivalent Quantity concentrations (TEQs) were also considered. The experimental results indicated that CaO had a better performance of reducing SO2 and PAHs emission, and the removal efficiencies of SO2, PAHs and PAHs TEQs at 850 °C were 86.89, 38.88 and 75.19%, respectively. Meanwhile, the increase of CaO/S and decrease of particle size were beneficial for suppressing PAHs formation and capturing SO2. Moreover, the adsorption and catalytic effect of calcium-based additives were regarded as inhibiting PAHs formation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0592-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • Raw material potential of recyclable materials for fiber composites: a
           review study
    • Authors: Anna Keskisaari; Timo Kärki
      Pages: 1136 - 1143
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate waste streams as a source of recyclable raw material for fiber composite production. Globally, vast volumes of waste are produced daily that are not recycled effectively. In this work, three different raw material sources are examined; industrial, construction and municipal solid waste streams. All three sources produce wastes that are currently underutilized. Usage areas for the waste material include use as a reinforcing fiber, as part of the plastic matrix or as a filler. The industrial sector produces more homogenous waste, while waste from municipalities is mixed. Irregular material flow, the varying condition of the waste and different pretreatments used pose difficulties for recycling. Furthermore, some materials are industry-specific and may be produced in only certain areas. Despite these difficulties, huge amount of potentially useful exploitable waste is available and using different waste streams as a part of wood-plastic composite production can reduce waste volumes disposed to landfill.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0511-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • A study on the characteristics of particulate matter in the syngas
           produced from the waste gasification with cleaning systems for energy
    • Authors: Jaehong Min; Sung-Bang Nam; Na-Rang Kim; Dong-Ju Kim; Young-Sik Yoon; Soo-Nam Park; Jae-Hoi Gu
      Pages: 1155 - 1165
      Abstract: The high quality of syngas from gasification and cleaning systems can be utilized for energy generation or commodity chemicals. To evaluate the quality of syngas from waste gasification and to obtain design factors for commercial scale, we identified the characteristics of particles depending on the cleaning units in pilot scale. The particle size distribution, amount of particles and heavy metals were analyzed at gasifier and each cleaning unit which are quenching scrubber, venturi scrubber, neutralization scrubber, desulfurization scrubber, and wet electrostatic precipitator. As a result, about 99.98 % of the particles were removed through 5 cleaning systems, from 51,226 mg/Nm3 at gasifier to 12 mg/Nm3 at WESP, and were ostensibly undetectable. Moreover, the minimum size of particles that could be eliminated was different depending on wet cleaning systems. The particle size at 90 % in the cumulative was generated up to 24.029 µm at the gasifier and the removed particle size distribution at WESP ranged from 0.370 to 12.795 µm. From the particulate matters point of view, the syngas from waste gasification with cleaning systems can be properly utilized for energy recovery systems. Graphical
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0501-4
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • Study on a novel pneumatic stratified vibration sorting method of waste
           plastic films
    • Authors: Xianhai Yang; Xiang Cheng; Qian Li; Xia Liu
      Pages: 1186 - 1193
      Abstract: Abstract Waste plastic films introduce serious pollution and need to be separated and collected for recycling. Aiming at highly efficient sorting of waste plastic films, a kind of novel pneumatic stratified vibration sorting method of waste plastic films is proposed combining with the characteristics of pneumatic sorting and linear reciprocating vibration mechanism. The kinematic model of waste plastic films on the vibrating bed is established to study the kinematic characteristics of waste plastic films in the separating process. The effects of the directional angle of the vibration, the inclined angle of the vibration bed, the crank, the air speed, the critical rotational speed of the motor, and motion parameters on sliding trajectories of waste plastic films on the stratified vibration bed have been analyzed. Then, the optimum process parameters are determined. Based on the analyses, the prototype has been designed. The virtual prototype is created and simulated by software ADAMS. The results have verified the theoretical analyses. It shows the introduced pneumatic stratified vibration sorting method has a higher efficiency than conventionally compound sorting methods.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0504-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • Crystalline phase evolution behavior and physicochemical properties of
           glass–ceramics from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash
    • Authors: Jingde Luan; Meiyun Chai; Rundong Li; Pengfei Yao; Lei Wang; Shaobai Li
      Pages: 1204 - 1210
      Abstract: Abstract Appropriate management and treatment of fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plant have become an urgent environmental protection problem. In this study, glass–ceramics have been prepared from MSW incineration fly ash and the SiO2 with different blending ratios ( \( {\text{BR}}_{{{\text{SiO}}_{ 2} }} \) ). With the increase in \( {\text{BR}}_{{{\text{SiO}}_{ 2} }} \) , the main crystalline phase of glass–ceramics was converted from gehlenite and pseudowollastonite into wollastonite. The texture was gradually formed in the surface of glass–ceramics due to the mutual arrangement of crystal particles and the decrease in the number and size of the gaps. Because of the mineral evolution and the microstructure change, the compressive strength and water absorption were significantly improved from 8.40 to 18.82 MPa and from 6.83 to 0.44 wt%, respectively, when \( {\text{BR}}_{{{\text{SiO}}_{ 2} }} \) was in the range from 19 to 44 wt%. If \( {\text{BR}}_{{{\text{SiO}}_{ 2} }} \)  >29 wt%, the prepared glass–ceramics had good corrosion resistance in 10 % H2SO4 solution and 10 % NaOH solution, respectively. Therefore, glass–ceramics prepared from MSW incineration fly ash can be used as ceramic tile for building and decoration.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0506-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • Rockwool waste in fly ash geopolymer composites
    • Authors: Paivo Kinnunen; Juho Yliniemi; Bob Talling; Mirja Illikainen
      Pages: 1220 - 1227
      Abstract: Abstract Mineral wool waste is often considered unrecyclable, due to its difficult-to-process physical composition, and potential microbial contamination in the post-consumer products. Total mineral wool waste generated in the EU is growing continuously and is currently over 2.3 Mt annually, volumetrically accounting for the largest single waste source in some landfills. Here, we take advantage of the alkali-soluble nature of the rockwool waste, and use a combined mixing and dissolution method to prepare this otherwise unusable waste for geopolymerization, with up to 33 % inclusion in the final product. This mixing and dissolution step enables sufficiently high solids content to form a castable geopolymer paste, which forms a rigid matrix and a compressive strength of 12.8 MPa, sufficient for structural applications. This is the first time mineral wool waste has been used as a geopolymer precursor. FESEM and XRD analysis of the formed products were performed to verify geopolymer formation. Using the preparation reported here, otherwise unrecyclable mineral wool waste can potentially be turned into a valuable raw material for geopolymer materials.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0514-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • The seasonal effects of manure management and feeding strategies on
           hydrogen sulphide emissions from stored dairy manure
    • Authors: Fetra J. Andriamanohiarisoamanana; Yushi Sakamoto; Takaki Yamashiro; Seiichi Yasui; Masahiro Iwasaki; Ikko Ihara; Takehiro Nishida; Kazutaka Umetsu
      Pages: 1253 - 1260
      Abstract: Abstract The influence of temperature and storage time on hydrogen sulphide (H2S) emissions from two different dairy manures was investigated over four seasons in 2012. Two separate experiments were conducted using dairy manure; (1) water baths at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C that were incubated for 15 h, and (2) 28-day batch experiment under room temperature. The headspace H2S concentration increased exponentially after 15 °C and reached a maximum of 3.1 mg/L at 30 °C. After the 4th day of storage, dairy manure emitted an average of 3.6 mg/L of H2S. However, a small decrease was observed on the 28th day, with a concentration of 2.8 mg/L. Under natural conditions, dairy manure emitted significantly lower H2S values during winter than during spring, summer and autumn when manure is widely used as fertiliser. Furthermore, regardless of the incubation temperature and storage time, manure from cows fed with concentrate-based feed emitted much higher H2S (6.5 times) than from cows fed with forage-based feed. These results indicated that the emissions of H2S from dairy manure could be managed by feeding cows minimal concentrate feed and by handling manure at cooler temperatures or lengthening the retention time.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0519-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • Antibiotic removal from waste milk by electrochemical process: degradation
           characteristics in concentrated organic solution
    • Authors: Yumika Kitazono; Ikko Ihara; Kiyohiko Toyoda; Kazutaka Umetsu
      Pages: 1261 - 1269
      Abstract: Abstract The use of antibiotics in lactating dairy cows produces waste milk containing antibiotic residues. Antibiotics have been one of the emerging pollutants in the environment. Waste milk is a concentrated wastewater because it contains organic matter at high concentrations. The objective was to clarify the removal characteristics of chlortetracycline and cefazolin contained in waste milk using the electrochemical oxidation by a comparative study with in aqueous solution. This paper discussed partial and preferential oxidation of the antibiotic dissolved in milk to reduce the energy consumption during the treatment. The preferential degradation of antibiotic as a target compound on the basis of pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics led the charge saving treatment. The results indicated that the electrochemical oxidation can effectively treat the low levels of the antibiotic residues even in concentrated wastewater not only in usual dilute solutions.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0517-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • Utilization of coal gangue for the production of brick
    • Authors: Hongliang Xu; Wenjuan Song; Wenbo Cao; Gang Shao; Hongxia Lu; Daoyuan Yang; Deliang Chen; Rui Zhang
      Pages: 1270 - 1278
      Abstract: Abstract Coal gangue, an industrial solid waste discarded from coal mining and processing, was used as the sole raw material to prepare brick. The coal gangue was crushed, homogenized, milled and then pressed into green compacts. The dried compacts were sintered at different temperatures for 2 h. The obtained brick samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and physico-mechanical properties. Results indicate that bricks are composed of glassy phase, crystals of quartz, mullite, cordierite, as well as pores. The phase components, microstructure, and physico-mechanical properties of the bricks vary significantly with the sintering temperature. The linear shrinkage, bulk density, compressive strength, and flexural strength increase gradually with the sintering temperature enhancing from 900 to 1100 °C, and rise sharply to the maximums at 1200 °C, then drop considerably at 1250 °C. The water absorption value exhibits an opposite tendency. Bricks meeting the Chinese Standard GB 5101-2003 were sintered at 1100–1250 °C. The brick sintered at 1200 °C possesses the optimal properties, with the water absorption and compressive strength values of 3.65 % and 45.61 MPa, respectively. The radioactivity index and leaching toxicity of sintered bricks prepared under the optimum condition were all below the corresponding standards.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0521-0
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • Lead acid battery recycling and material flow analysis of lead in Korea
    • Authors: Kwang-Pil Jeong; Jeong Gon Kim
      Abstract: Abstract Korean automobile industry was the fifth largest in the world in 2014, and there was a steady demand for batteries that are essential for automobile production. The battery used in automobile production is a lead acid battery, and since 2010, Korea has been conducting material flow analysis for major industrial-related materials such as lead. Lead material flow had focused on the production of raw and base materials and the battery production, which is one of the intermediate products. Many of these products were exported. Most of the primary leads used in the production of the basic materials were smelted with imported lead ores. Compared to the production capacity of secondary lead companies in Korea, a number of used batteries collected in Korea were insufficient, and the shortages were dependent on imports. 94.7% of the base materials were used for battery production through first processed products as metal, and 5.3% was used as an oxide. In addition, lead is a globally important environmental regulatory substance, and Korea has also managed the recycling of lead acid batteries. 98.2% of the leads collected through recycling process were reintroduced into the base material as the secondary lead.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0649-6
  • Synthesis and characterization of drinking water treatment plant
           sludge-incorporated Portland cement
    • Authors: Mohammed Dahhou; Mohammed El Moussaouiti; Muhammad Azeem Arshad; Souad Moustahsine; Mohamed Assafi
      Abstract: Abstract Kinetic analysis of thermally activated phase transformations in drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) sludge suggests its applicability in the materials of construction. The suggested prediction has already been verified on the sludge-based bricks. The present study deals with incorporating the same sludge in the raw meal for the synthesis of Portland cement clinkers. For this purpose, two raw meals are prepared with varying sludge loadings. The sludge effect on reactivity of the crude mixture is evaluated on the basis of the free lime content sintered at various elevated temperatures. The results of chemical and mineralogical and scanning electron microscopic analyses reveal fine mineralogical contents of Portland clinkers calcined at 1450 and 1500 °C. Moreover, the cements prepared from these clinkers by the introduction of certain proportions of gypsum, depict significant durability. The obtained results elucidate that the studied DWTP sludge-incorporated Portland cement shows considerable potential to be commercialized.
      PubDate: 2017-07-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0650-0
  • A progress indicator-based assessment guide for integrated municipal
           solid-waste management systems
    • Authors: Sarah ElSaid; El-Houssaine Aghezzaf
      Abstract: Abstract Managing municipal solid waste is a major concern for cities around the world. Particularly urban communities with developing economies are urged to improve their waste management practices, and set up appropriate waste management systems. Waste management is a city-specific topic; there is no ideal solution that can be operationalized everywhere. In developing cities, municipalities and decision makers need simple and effective indicators to assess the sustainability of their current waste management systems, and set a performance reference point. The current study investigates available literature and suggests a list of measurable sustainability indicators which are specific to solid-waste management. The list encompasses 27 indicators that cover the building blocks of an integrated solid-waste management system, i.e., collection and sorting, recycling, composting, energy recovery, and landfilling. An assessment tool is developed through a five-point Likert scale, evaluating these indicators. Case studies of Cairo and Brussels were analyzed. The outcomes of this analysis can be used as a benchmark on a local level in planning, clarifying policy objectives, and setting priorities.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0647-8
  • Analyzing composition and generation rates of biomedical waste in selected
           hospitals of Uttarakhand, India
    • Authors: Vikas Thakur; A. Ramesh
      Abstract: Abstract In India, a few studies have been conducted for analyzing the generation rates and composition of medical waste (MW). Inadequate information about the amount and composition of MW results in ineffective management practices. The present study seeks to evaluate healthcare waste (HCW) generation rates by healthcare facilities (HCFs) available in Uttarakhand, a northern state of India. Study also focuses on modeling the quantity of different types of MW generated at various HCFs and determining significant factors contributing towards MW generation. Seasonal variation in amount of MW generated from various HCFs has also been considered. To achieve these objectives, cross-sectional as well as longitudinal data have been collected from various HCFs in Uttarakhand, India. The survey revealed that around 36% of the total HCFs did not segregate their MW as per policy guidelines. Cross-sectional data for May 2015 were collected from 75 HCFs to analyze and model the composition and quantity of HCW generated. Multiple Linear Regression and Artificial Neural Network techniques were applied to model cross-sectional data. In the composition of the overall MW, ‘yellow waste’ carries the maximum share, followed by ‘red waste’ and then the ‘blue waste’. In addition, the ‘type of HCF’ and ‘bed occupancy’ have been modeled as the important factors, contributing towards the MW generations rates. Longitudinal data for 2 years (2013 and 2014) were collected to examine seasonal variation in HCW generation rates using polynomial regression analysis. Result shows that MW quantity also varies with the change in the season. Findings of the study will help hospitals and waste treatment facilities to predict amount of waste that may be generated, and plan resources towards efficient handling and disposal of MW.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0648-7
  • Market potential of biomethane as alternative transportation fuel in South
    • Authors: Ji Hye Jo; Woong Kim
      Abstract: Abstract This study estimated domestically available energy amount of biomethane including landfill gas (LFG) as a transportation fuel by 2035. The amount of available energy that could be supplied was predicted through four stages of ‘theoretical-’, ‘geographical-’, ‘technical-’, and ‘market potential’ by considering geographical, technical, economic conditions, etc. Energy efficiency and added value of biomethane are largely influenced by the site conditions and the neighboring infrastructures. So, how much of the natural gas used in transportation could be substituted with biomethane was examined by setting limits to the amount of organic wastes generated within urban areas. As a result, the market potential of biomethane including landfill gas was approximately 331 × 106 Nm3/year, corresponding to 25% of the natural gas supply for transportation, which could be replaced by biomethane. Assuming that 2% of natural gas for transportation is replaced by biomethane, it corresponds to 29 × 106 Nm3/year (approximately 9% of market potential of biomethane). However, RFS annual mixing rate may be increased upon introduction and the growth rate of the natural gas supply for transport would be higher than that of market potential of biomethane calculated in this study.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0646-9
  • Performance of recycled ceramic waste as aggregates in hot mix asphalt
    • Authors: Ratnasamy Muniandy; Dhieyatul Husna Ismail; Salihudin Hassim
      Abstract: Abstract Ceramic waste materials from the production of titles has increased over the years. Preliminary studies on the properties of ceramics showed that this material can be incorporated into asphalt mixtures as aggregates. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing ceramic materials from tile manufacturing firms. A study was undertaken to look into the performance of crushed ceramics that were incorporated in asphalt mixtures to replace the conventional granite aggregates from sizes 5.0 mm down including the 75 micron filler. The replacement was done proportionally with a 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% percent by weight of granite aggregates. The outcome of the study showed that the performance of recycled ceramic aggregates in hot mix asphalt (HMA) reached an optimum at about 20% which means there is a great potential for the use of it in asphalt mixtures. The Marshall stability showed an increment of about 25% while the resilient modulus strength improved by 13.5% as compared with the control specimen. All samples were analyzed at various proportions of ceramic–granite aggregate combination and were observed that a 20% use of 5 mm down ceramic aggregates blended with granite aggregates produce higher strength HMA.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0645-x
  • Analytical study of power generation efficiency of WtE systems operating
           in Tokyo special ward district
    • Authors: Yasuo Shino
      Abstract: Abstract This paper attempts to present a fundamental system analysis for the performances of currently operating waste-to-energy incinerators in Tokyo special ward district. Firstly, it is stated that the gross thermal efficiency η G of any steam turbine generation system could be expressed as a product of four parameters: the boiler efficiency η b, turbine steam utilization fraction R t, heat cycle constant R h, and turbine generator chamber efficiency η tg. Secondly, reliable heat inputs to waste-to-energy systems were established by the ideal boiler efficiencies η b,ids which are based on the versatility of the standardized combustion gas properties, to avoid totally depending on the conventional low calorific value measurements of the fed-waste which occasionally include dubious results. Thirdly, the achievement of technological progress of power generation in waste-to-energy systems over the past 3 decades was reviewed. The advantage of 4 MPa class incinerators (installed after 2001) over 3 MPa class incinerators (installed before 1999) in η G by 33.1% on average was clarified. Fourthly, the difference in operational modes which affects the η G was studied to seek for the optimum operation in terms of energy recovery. In conclusion, this paper evaluated that the overall η G of the 20 incinerators in FY2015 proved to be 15.0%.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0632-2
  • Variability of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions continuously
           measured in solid waste incinerators
    • Authors: Eunhwa Choi; Heesang Eum; Yong-Seok Seo; Seung-Muk Yi; Hyeyoung Lee
      Abstract: Abstract Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide were continuously measured and variability of emission factors (EFs) was evaluated in five municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) and four industrial waste incinerators (IWIs) from 24 to 86 days between 2008 and 2011. N2O EFs were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and mean N2O EFs were 7.1, 107, 127, 219 g N2O/ton waste combusted in MWIs with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx control, MWIs with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), IWIs with SNCR, and a MWI using fluidized bed with SNCR, respectively. Climate-relevant CO2 EFs ranged from 0.45 to 0.72 ton CO2/ton waste combusted in MWIs. Maximum values of upper limit for 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of N2O EFs estimated in each MWIs with SCR, MWIs with SNCR, IWIs with SNCR were 185, 94, 101% of mean N2O EFs, respectively. Meanwhile, maximum values of upper limit for 95% CIs of CO2 EFs were much lower as between 18 and 36% in those facilities. 84% CIs of mean N2O EFs in MWIs with SNCR and IWIs with SNCR were overlapped indicating those values are not significantly different.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0644-y
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