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 Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management   [SJR: 0.449]   [H-I: 22]   [3 followers]  Follow         Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)    ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957    Published by Springer-Verlag  [2335 journals]
recycling in Dong Mai, Northern Vietnam
• Authors: Takashi Fujimori; Akifumi Eguchi; Tetsuro Agusa; Nguyen Minh Tue; Go Suzuki; Shin Takahashi; Pham Hung Viet; Shinsuke Tanabe; Hidetaka Takigami
Pages: 599 - 607
PubDate: 2016-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0527-7
Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2016)

• Rare earth element recovery potentials from end-of-life hybrid electric
vehicle components in 2010–2030
• Authors: Junya Yano; Takanori Muroi; Shin-ichi Sakai
Pages: 655 - 664
Abstract: Abstract Increasing attention is currently given to the management of end-of-life (EoL) hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), because approximately two decades have passed since they were first introduced to the market. A HEV would be one of the largest consumers of rare earth elements (REEs), and hence represents the greatest potential for REE recovery in the future. The purpose of this study is to clarify the present and future recovery potential of REEs that are disposed of as EoL HEVs. This study first estimated the numbers of EoL HEVs during fiscal years (FYs) 2010–2030, and then clarified the potential for recovery of REEs from two HEV-specific components—the hybrid transmission and NiMH battery unit. The results suggest that 0.51–0.65 million HEVs will reach the EoL stage in FY2030, compared with only 11,000 HEVs in FY2010. As of FY2030, REE recovery potentials will increase to 220 tons and 2900 tons for EoL hybrid transmission and NiMH battery units, respectively. A total of 49,000 tons of REEs will be contained within HEV-specific components of HEVs still in use. Moreover, the potential for recovery of REEs from EoL hybrid transmissions and NiMH battery units is estimated to equal 35.4 and 92.1 % of respective demand.
PubDate: 2016-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0360-4
Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2016)

• Experimental study of rubber tire aggregates effect on compressive and
dynamic load-bearing properties of cylindrical concrete specimens
• Authors: Hossein Ataei
Pages: 665 - 676
Abstract: Abstract Sustainable development has become a major focus for engineers and planners as part of their collective efforts in finding, developing and integrating environmental-friendly solutions for material recycling and waste management into design and construction of civil engineering infrastructure. In the past three decades, there has been an increase in recycling and application of waste materials into the concrete to decrease costs and improve material properties of the concrete. Significant growth in automobile manufacturing industry and increased rubber tire supply for vehicles suggested the application of waste tire particles as concrete aggregates to minimize the ecological footprint of the rubber tire waste due to its recycling process difficulties. In this paper, the effect of rubber tire particles on compressive and dynamic strength of concrete specimens with different particle percentiles was tested on more than 55 cylindrical specimens. To achieve the optimal mix design properties of rubber tire concrete specimens, both fine and coarse aggregates got replaced by fine and coarse rubber particles. Introduction of rubber tire particles as coarse and fine aggregate reduces the brittleness of the concrete and provides more flexible aggregate bonding which ultimately improves the dynamic resistance of the concrete. It increases the concrete workability and provides environmental-friendly and cost-effective solutions in using recycled materials for concrete construction applications.
PubDate: 2016-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0362-2
Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2016)

• Physical containment of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash by
accelerated carbonation
• Authors: Shogo Sakita; Kazuyuki Nishimura
Pages: 687 - 694
Abstract: Abstract Accelerated carbonation of municipal solid waste incineration residues is effective for immobilizing heavy metals. In this study, the contribution of the physical containment by carbonation to immobilization of some heavy metals was examined by some leaching tests and SEM–EDS analysis of untreated, carbonated, and milled bottom ash after carbonation that was crushed with a mortar to a mean particle size of approximately 1 μm. The surface of carbonated bottom ash particles on SEM images seemed mostly coated, while there were uneven micro-spaces on the surface of the untreated bottom ash. Results of Japan Leaching Test No. 18 (JLT18) for soil pollution showed that milling carbonated bottom ash increased the pH and EC. The leaching concentration of each element tended to be high for untreated samples, and was decreased by carbonation. However, after the milling of carbonated samples, the leaching concentration became high again. The immobilization effect of each element was weakened by milling. The ratio of physical containment effect to immobilization effects by accelerated carbonation was calculated using the results of JLT18. The ratio for each element was as follows: Pb: 13.9–69.0 %, Cu: 12.0–49.1 %, Cr: 24.1–99.7 %, Zn: 20.0–33.3 %, and Ca: 28.9–63.4 %.
PubDate: 2016-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0369-8
Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2016)

• Method to estimate the required oxygen amount and aeration period for the
completion of landfill aeration
• Authors: Nam-Hoon Lee; Jin-Kyu Park; Jong-Yun Kang; Jeong-Hee Kang
Pages: 695 - 702
Abstract: Abstract To reliably predict field operation performance derived from lab-based tests, it is very important to observe and consider all the specific landfill-site properties. The purpose of this study was to suggest and discuss the availability of batch and lysimeter tests to estimate the oxygen amount and the aeration period. To achieve this purpose, a comparison between lab test (batch and lysimeter tests) and full-scale applications was conducted. This study showed that aerobic batch and lysimeter tests could be used to estimate the amount of oxygen (mg-O2/g-DM) required to bio-stabilize landfilled wastes within a short period of time. In addition, aeration periods necessary to reach the target value can be calculated by a first-order kinetic depending on moisture content. Therefore, this study suggests that when applying in situ aeration processes to field-scale landfills, the amount of aeration required to bio-stabilize landfilled wastes has to be determined by the aerobic batch test, and then the aeration period required to reach the target value can be calculated by a reliable monitoring of the oxygen concentration in a landfill site in combination with the first-order kinetic.
PubDate: 2016-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0370-2
Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2016)

• Investigating the performance of aerobic, semi-aerobic, and anaerobic
bioreactor landfills for MSW management in developing countries
• Authors: M. Ahmadifar; Majid Sartaj; M. Abdallah
Pages: 703 - 714
Abstract: Abstract Three different laboratory bioreactors, each duplicated, with dimensions 0.5 × 0.5 × 1 m were set up and monitored for 160 days. Municipal Solid Wastes with an organic content of ~80 % and a density of 550 kg/m3 were placed in bioreactors. Fresh leachate collected from waste collection vehicles was used with a recirculation rate of 28 L/day. Aerobic bioreactors were aerated at a rate of 0.15–0.24 L/min/kg of waste. Almost the same level of treatment was observed in terms of chemical oxygen demand reduction of leachate, which was in the range of 91–93 %. However, for anaerobic bioreactor, it took almost twice the time, 160 vs. 76 days, to reach the same level of treatment and stabilization. The behavior of semi-aerobic bioreactor was somewhere between the aerobic and anaerobic ones. Total biogas production for anaerobic bioreactors was 90 L/kg of waste, which contained 57–63 % methane. Methane concentration measured in semi-aerobic bioreactor was below 5 %. The main advantage of aerobic bioreactor was the fast rate of the process, while for semi-aerobic bioreactor, it was the elimination of the need for energy to maintain aerobic conditions, and for anaerobic bioreactor it was the production of biogas and potential energy recovery.
PubDate: 2016-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0372-0
Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2016)

• New kinetic modelling parameters for composting process
• Authors: Recep Kulcu
Pages: 734 - 741
Abstract: Abstract This study aims to assess the composting process of sawdust, wheat-straw and chicken manure and to define the best blend proportion as a function of organic matter loss. Chicken manure, sawdust, and wheat-straw were mixed at different ratios and composted in reactors. The obtained outcomes revealed that the optimum mixture ratio was found in a mixture of 60 % chicken manure, 30 % sawdust, and 10 % wheat-straw. Three kinetic parameters were used in the models including daily process average temperature, area characterized by temperatures under the process temperature curve, and area characterized by temperatures between the ambient and process temperature (ALAT) as an alternative of process temperature. In addition to these statistical values, modelling efficiency was defined. Statistical analyses revealed that all the evaluated models were found suitable for this study; however, when ALAT was used as a function of temperature, the predictability level of all the models improved.
PubDate: 2016-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0376-9
Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2016)

• Evaluation on the applicability of dry processed bottom ash as lightweight
aggregate for construction fields
• Authors: Joung-Soo Sun; Jin-Man Kim; Jong-Hyun Sung
Pages: 752 - 762
Abstract: Abstract Currently, wet bottom ash is not sufficiently utilized due to its content of unburned coal, chloride and moisture. In contrast, bottom ash discharged from the recently introduced dry process spends a longer time on the clinker conveyer in the lower part of the boiler and consequently contains a significantly smaller amount of unburned coal. Consequently, it has high potential for use as a lightweight aggregate for construction material because of properties such as high porosity, low unburned coal content, non-chloride, and non-moisture. However, it is not frequently used for construction because the ash particle has a flat and thin shape, coarse surface and unfavorable structural strength. Against this backdrop, this study has conducted a range of experiments to identify the shapes, structure, density, absorption, percentage of floating particles, unit volume weight, solid volume, characteristics of air bubbles and micro pores, crushing strength of bottom ash, and the following results were observed. Though the dry bottom ash has sharp and angular edges, its flat and thin shapes lead to vulnerable structures. Dry bottom ash of the size of 0.6 mm or larger has 50–60 % of the total pore rate and 30–50 % of the closed pore rate. Considering these qualities, by removing the relatively fragile surface parts and making the particles more globular, dry bottom ash can be used as a lightweight aggregate for construction field having outstanding performance in terms of light weight and insulation.
PubDate: 2016-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0367-x
Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2016)

• New technology and application of brick making with coal fly ash
• Authors: Ling Wang; He Sun; Zhihui Sun; Enqing Ma
Pages: 763 - 770
Abstract: Abstract China has ranked first in the coal fly ash emission in the world. The multipurpose use of the fly ash from power plant waste is always an important topic for the Chinese environmental protection, which has drawn the concern of the government, scientific research departments, manufacturing enterprises and industry experts. This paper introduces an experimental research on how to recycle fly ash effectively, a kind of new technology of making bricks by which fly ash content could be amounted to 50–80 %. The article introduces raw materials of fly ash brick, production process and key control points. It introduces how to change the technical parameters of the existing brick-making mechanical device, optimize the parameters combination and improve the device performance. High-content fly ash bricks are manufactured, which selects wet fly ash from power plants, adding aggregate with reasonable ratio and additives with reasonable dosage, and do the experimental research on manufactured products for properties, production technology and selection about technology parameters of production equipment. All indexes of strength grade, freezing-thawing resisting, and other standards of the studied bricks reached the national standards for building materials industry.
PubDate: 2016-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0368-9
Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2016)

• The mixing and segregation characteristics of rice straw in a cylindrical
bubbling fluidized bed
• Authors: Jae Gyu Hwang; Hang Seok Choi; Jun Hwa Kwon
Pages: 771 - 780
Abstract: Abstract In the present study, an experiment was performed to investigate the mixing and segregation characteristics of standard sand and rice straw particles in a cylindrical bubbling fluidized bed. The mass ratio (rice straw/standard sand = 0.5–1.25 %) of two particles and superficial gas velocity (0.13–0.18 m/s) were changed as experimental variables. The pressure drop curve and Kramer’s equation were used to determine the minimum fluidization velocity and mixing index, respectively. In all cases, the mixing index was the lowest at U/U mf = 1.15. Based on the point of U/U mf = 1.15, the segregation region and mixing region were observed. In the segregation region, mass ratio of 0.75 % showed the lowest mixing index. At the U/U mf = 1.23 which was selected as the starting of fast pyrolysis considering residence time and the previous fast pyrolysis experiment, mass ratio of 1.25 % showed the highest mixing index which was 0.90.
PubDate: 2016-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0384-9
Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2016)

• Door-to-door measurement of household waste arisings in selected towns in
Malaysia
• Authors: Kohei Watanabe; Dani Irwan; Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri
Pages: 781 - 789
Abstract: Abstract To establish the per capita household waste arisings, door-to-door measurement of discharged waste was carried out. Survey was done in four 2-week phases over a period of 13 months. A questionnaire survey was also carried out to obtain data on household size and other household characteristics as well as the extent of reduce and recycle activities. The results showed that there is a big variance among households on waste arisings, and that household size is an important socio-economic factor in determining per capita waste generation.
PubDate: 2016-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0379-6
Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2016)

• Characterizing and quantifying solid waste of rural communities
• Authors: Hassan Taghipour; Zahra Amjad; Hassan Aslani; Feridoun Armanfar; Reza Dehghanzadeh
Pages: 790 - 797
Abstract: Abstract Solid waste management and disposal are a global challenge. Also, in spite of rapid urbanization over recent decades, about 47 % (3.31 billion) of the world’s population and 31 % (23.59 million) of Iran’s population are still living in rural areas. Nevertheless, survey on characterization, quantification, and management of rural communities’ household solid waste is rare in both developed and developing countries. Therefore, determining the quantity and quality (composition) of household solid waste of rural communities in the northwest of Iran was the main objective of the present work. The result showed that the average daily per capita of household waste generation was 0.259 kg/cap-day. About 50.98 % of total generated waste in the studied villages was organic and food waste, while paper and cardboard, plastics, metals, rubber, textiles, glass, woods, and other waste materials constituted 6.07, 13.58, 0.47, 1.57, 12.53, 2.09, 0.44, and 12.27 %, respectively. Bulk density of the waste was determined as 211.31 kg/m3. In addition, moisture content and chemical characteristics (food and organic fraction) of the generated waste including the amount of carbon, nitrogen, phosphor, and ash were 57.05, 54.02, 1.74, 0.34, and 34.07 %, respectively. According to the results of this study and the survey in the available related literature, it could be concluded that solid waste generation rates in rural communities are less than that in urban areas and the composition and density of generated waste vary not only between rural and urban areas, but also between different rural communities with various geographical, economic, cultural, social, etc., conditions.
PubDate: 2016-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0365-z
Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2016)

• Life cycle assessment of solid refuse fuel production from MSW in Korea
• Authors: Sora Yi; Yong-Chul Jang
Abstract: Abstract Solid refuse fuel (SRF) produced from waste materials is a promising fuel that can be utilized for energy recovery in industries. This study considered both characterization and weighting modeling as life cycle assessment (LCA) results. This study aimed to analyze the flows of materials and energy and to evaluate the environmental impact of SRF plants using LCA and compared them with an incineration plant. Based on the results of material and energy flow analysis, SRF products had various energy potentials depending on the treatment method of municipal solid waste (MSW) and replaced the current fossil fuels by SRF combustion. Global impacts were mainly influenced by energy consumption, especially drying methods in the production of SRF, and affected the results of the weighting analysis. The SRF plant with a bio-drying option was evaluated as the best effective practice in the weighting analysis. The LCA results in this study indicated 0.021–9.88 points according to drying methods for SRF production and 1.38 points for incineration. In the sensitivity analysis, the environmental impact of SRF production was found to be significantly affected by the drying methods for MSW and the utilization of fossil energy. Thus, improvement of the drying options could significantly reduce the environmental impact.
PubDate: 2016-09-16
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0541-9

• A charge model for household waste management services: a case study of
Tehran municipality
• Authors: Mohammad Reza Nazari; Khalil Kalantari; Iraj Ghasemi; Mahdi Jalili Ghazizade
Abstract: Abstract In practice, it is difficult to implement Pay-As-You-Throw charge systems based on accurate estimates of waste generation. In many cities, this is made impossible, due to lack of technical and administrative infrastructure and cultural considerations, especially in developing countries. This paper presents an alternative two-component charge model that is the combination of cost-accounting technique of Waste Management Services (WMSs) and econometric functions of waste generation. Practical and computation steps considered by the model are presented as a proposal to reform the current system of waste charge in Tehran municipality. The presented model is simple to implement and resolves some of the disadvantages of the traditional methods of waste charge systems, including insufficient revenue to cover the cost of waste management and unfairness related to social inequality.
PubDate: 2016-09-09
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0542-8

• BMP estimation of landfilled municipal solid waste by multivariate
statistical methods using specific waste parameters: case study of a
sanitary landfill in Turkey
• Authors: Ilker Sel; Mehmet Çakmakcı; Bestamin Özkaya; Fatih Güreli
Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this study was to determine whether methane potential of waste could be estimated more easily by a limited number of waste characterization variables. 36 samples were collected from 12 locations and 3 waste depths in order to represent almost all waste ages at the landfill. Actual remaining methane potential of all samples was determined by the biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The cumulative methane production of closed landfill (cLF) samples reached 75–125 mL at the end of experiment duration, while the samples from active landfill (aLF) produced in average 216–266 mL methane. The average experimental k and L 0 values of cLF and aLF were determined by non-linear regression using BMP data with first-order kinetic equation as 0.0269 day−1–30.38 mL/g dry MSW and 0.0125 day−1–102.1 mL/g dry MSW, respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyze the results for cLF and aLF along with BMP results. Three PCs for the data set were extracted explaining 72.34 % variability. The best MLR model for BMP prediction was determined for seven variables (pH–Cl–TKN–NH4–TOC–LOI–Ca). R 2 and Adj. R 2 values of this best model were determined as 80.4 and 75.3 %, respectively.
PubDate: 2016-09-08
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0543-7

• Life cycle assessment of biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil
in Okayama City
• Authors: Jinmei Yang; Takeshi Fujiwara; Qijin Geng
Abstract: Abstract A life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed to make clear of the actual environment impacts from conversation of waste cooking oil (WCO) to biodiesel fuel (BDF) in Okayama. A scenario analysis is carried out based on different participation rate of residents who separate WCO from general waste, corresponding to different BDF utilisation rate in transportation system. Sub scenarios complying with different gas emission standards regarding vehicles are designed as well. Afterwards, life cycle impact assessment is conducted to focus on global warming, acidification, and urban air pollution. Overall improvement of almost all kinds of life cycle inventories is significant when diesel is replaced with BDF, demonstrating that a shift from WCO-to-incineration to WCO-to-BDF is more beneficial. Under carbon neutral, compared to base scenario (S0), about 746.05 ton CO2 emission will be reduced annually in the scenario with 100 % BDF utilisation in vehicles (S4). Meanwhile, total external cost in three environmental impacts (EI) sharply reduces by 51.90 %, showing much economic sustainability in S4. Moreover, the manufacturing cost for producing one litter WCO-to-BDF is 97.32 Yen. Sensitivity analysis shows that the gas emission standard regarding vehicles had much bigger effect on EI than BDF manufacturing process in this research.
PubDate: 2016-09-06
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0540-x

• Application of ameliorated wood pulp to recover Cd(II), Pb(II), and Ni(II)
from e-waste
• Abstract: Abstract In this study, dl-malic acid and hydrogen peroxide were used as leaching agents to remove metals from e-waste (printed-circuit boards) and itaconic acid-grafted poly(vinyl alcohol)-encapsulated wood pulp (IA-g-PVA-en-WP) to uptake metals from leachate with high proficiency [11.63 mg g−1; 93.03 % for Cd(II), 11.90 mg g−1; 95.18 % for Pb(II), and 12.14 mg g−1; 97.08 % for Ni(II)]. Metals were recovered from the loaded biosorbent by desorption studies. The standard analytical techniques, such as elemental analysis, Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, were used to characterize the recovering agent (biosorbent). At equilibrium, the metal uptake data were fitted to Langmuir and D–R isotherms (R 2 > 0.99) significantly, revealing, the homogeneous distribution of active sites on biosorbent’s backbone. The possible mechanism appeared to be ion exchanges of metal ions with H+ together with binding over functionalities (COO−). Dimensionless equilibrium parameter (R L) showed the favourability of metal uptake at lower concentration, while mean adsorption energy (E) certified the physical binding of metal on functionalities which was further confirmed by sticking probability and activation energy parameters. Reusability studies were also conducted to state the performance of biosorbent.
PubDate: 2016-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0539-3

• Gasification and reforming of biomass and waste samples by means of a
novel catalyst
• Authors: Katsuya Kawamoto; Baowang Lu
Abstract: Abstract This study conducted gasification and catalytic reforming experiments with the expectation of obtaining new advantages on energy recovery and aimed for the development of an effective catalyst. Initially, the use of thermal gasification technology for waste treatment in line with waste-to-energy strategies was reviewed. Technological systems which have gasification were classified and their current status was discussed. Then, the results of gasification and reforming experiments showed that product gas with 50 % H2 or more was obtained using a Ni catalyst on a mesoporous silica–based SBA-15 support (NiO/SBA-15), which we newly developed. Experiments using wood feedstock revealed that H2 production by the catalyst was better when the NiO content was 20 % (W/W) or more than when another catalyst or the Ni catalyst with a lower Ni loading was used. Tar formation as a by-product was also well controlled by the catalyst, and use of a catalyst with 40 % NiO reduced the tar concentration to less than 0.2 g/ $${\text{m}}^{3}_{\text{N}}$$ . Experiments using a mixed feedstock of wood and RPF resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon concentration because of insufficient reforming. This finding suggests that future work is required to find a better solution to wood and RPF co-gasification.
PubDate: 2016-07-20
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0533-9

• Study of nitrogen oxide absorption in the calcium sulfite slurry
• Authors: Ye Sun; Yuan Meng; Xiaoyan Guo; Tianle Zhu; Hongju Liu; Wenpei Li
Abstract: Abstract Experiments were conducted using a bubbling reactor to investigate nitrogen oxide absorption in the calcium sulfite slurry. The effects of CaSO3 concentration, NO2/NO mole ratio and O2 concentrations on NO2 and SO2 absorption efficiencies were investigated. Five types of additives, including MgSO4, Na2SO4, FeSO4, MgSO4/Na2SO4 and FeSO4/Na2SO4, had been evaluated for enhancing NO2 absorption in CaSO3 slurry. Results showed that CaSO3 concentration had significant impact on NO2 and SO2 absorption efficiencies, and the highest absorption efficiencies of SO2 and NO2 could reach about 99.5 and 75.0 %, respectively. Furthermore, the NO2 absorption was closely related to the NO2/NO mole ratio, and the existence of NO2 in flue gas may promote NO absorption. The presence of O2 in simulated flue gas was disadvantage for NO x removal because it can oxidize sulfite to sulfate. It was worth pointing out that FeSO4/Na2SO4 was the best additive among those investigated additives, as the NO2 removal efficiency was significantly increased from 74.8 to 95.0 %. IC and in situ FTIR results suggest that the main products were NO3 − and NO2 − in liquid phase and N2O, N2O5 and HNO3 in gas phase during the CaSO3 absorption process.
PubDate: 2016-07-11
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0526-8

• Residual organic fluorinated compounds from thermal treatment of PFOA,
PFHxA and PFOS adsorbed onto granular activated carbon (GAC)
• Authors: Nobuhisa Watanabe; Shusuke Takemine; Katsuya Yamamoto; Yuki Haga; Mitsuyasu Takata
Abstract: Abstract Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) adsorbed onto granular activated carbon (GAC) were thermally treated in N2 gas stream. The purpose was to assess the fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) during thermal regeneration of GAC, which had been used for water treatment. Mineralized F, residual PFASs including short-chained species, and volatile organic fluorine (VOF) were determined. In a temperature condition of 700 °C, VOF were 13.2, 4.8, and 5.9 % as for PFOA, PFHxA, and PFOS. However, the VOF decreased to 0.1 %, if the GAC and off-gas were kept at 1000 °C. No PFASs remained in GAC at 700–1000 °C; at the same time, short-chained PFASs were slightly detected in the aqueous trapping of off-gas at 800 and 900 °C conditions. The destruction of PFASs on GAC could be perfect if the temperature is higher than 700 °C; however, the process is competitive against volatile escape from GAC. Destruction in gaseous phase needs a temperature as high as 1000 °C. Destruction of PFASs on the surface of GAC, volatile escape from the site, and thermolysis in gas phase should be considered, as to thermal regeneration of GAC.
PubDate: 2016-07-05
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0532-x

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