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Tijdschrift voor praktijk ondersteuning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tijdschrift voor Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tijdschrift voor Urologie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 1)
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 8)
TOP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.844, h-index: 9)
Topics in Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 76)
Topoi     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.202, h-index: 5)
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.375, h-index: 13)
Transformation Groups     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.926, h-index: 19)
Transgenic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.877, h-index: 58)
Transition Metal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 41)
Transition Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 6)
Translational Behavioral Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, h-index: 7)
Translational Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 6)
Translational Stroke Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 12)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 46)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 42)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Trauma und Berufskrankheit     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
Tree Genetics & Genomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 29)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 52)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 9)
Tribology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.428, h-index: 56)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 26)
Tropical Plant Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 10)
Tropical Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 8)
Tumor Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.977, h-index: 43)
Ukrainian Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.276, h-index: 11)
Universal Access in the Information Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 19)
Updates in Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 15)
Urban Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 23)
Urban Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 16)
Uro-News     Hybrid Journal  
Urolithiasis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Urologic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.921, h-index: 45)
uwf UmweltWirtschaftsForum     Hybrid Journal  
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 36)
Verslaving     Hybrid Journal  
Vestnik St. Petersburg University: Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.278, h-index: 4)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 34)
Vietnam J. of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Virchows Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 72)
Virologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.353, h-index: 9)
Virtual Reality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 24)
Virus Genes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, h-index: 42)
Visual Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Vocations and Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 7)
Voluntas: Intl. J. of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 23)
Waste and Biomass Valorization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 10)
Water History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.221, h-index: 3)
Water Quality, Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.349, h-index: 47)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.761, h-index: 70)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 17)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 55)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 38)
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.332, h-index: 38)
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift Education     Hybrid Journal  
Wiener Klinisches Magazin     Hybrid Journal  
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.328, h-index: 23)
Wireless Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 65)
Wireless Personal Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.322, h-index: 29)
Wirtschaftsdienst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.206, h-index: 5)
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Wirtschaftsrechtliche Blätter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
wissen kompakt     Hybrid Journal  
WMU J. of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wohnrechtliche Blätter     Hybrid Journal  
Wood Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.808, h-index: 43)
World J. of Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.561, h-index: 49)
World J. of Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 14)
World J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.451, h-index: 106)
World J. of Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.463, h-index: 59)
World Wide Web     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1, h-index: 21)
Wuhan University J. of Natural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.149, h-index: 11)
ZDM     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.496, h-index: 14)
Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 38)
Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Zeitschrift für Bildungsforschung     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Versicherungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 2)
Zeitschrift fur Energiewirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Epileptologie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 4)
Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 6)
Zeitschrift für Europäisches Unternehmens- und Verbraucherrecht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Zeitschrift für Herz-,Thorax- und Gefäßchirurgie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.114, h-index: 5)
Zeitschrift für Hochschulrecht, Hochschulmanagement und Hochschulpolitik: zfhr     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift fur Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Zeitschrift für Politikberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 31)
Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie. Mit Beiträgen aus Umweltmedizin und Sozialmedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 9)
Zoological Letters     Open Access  

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Journal Cover   Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.392]   [H-I: 16]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • The development of low cost adsorbents from clay and waste materials: a
    • Abstract: Abstract Increased energy consumption due to industrial growth has increased the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission being released into the atmosphere. CO2 emission is a type of greenhouse gas which is a major cause of global warming. Since the issue of CO2 emissions has drawn much attention in recent years, the development of CO2 capture technology has become a necessity. Although CO2 adsorbents are still at the early development stage, it has been suggested that CO2 adsorbents are the most effective technology in controlling CO2 emissions. Solid adsorbents have great potential as an alternative method to conventional adsorbents in adsorbing CO2. In this paper, low cost adsorbents including activated carbon, zeolites, mesoporous silica and clays are discussed in terms of adsorbent preparation methods and CO2 adsorption capacity. The low cost adsorbents are mainly derived from waste materials such as fly ash, steel slag, red mud, bagasses wastes and wood wastes. Besides that, natural resources such as clays have also been applied as low cost CO2 adsorbents. Surface modifications have also been applied to the low cost adsorbents, including metal ion exchange and amine impregnation to enhance CO2 adsorption capacity. In the last section, the current status of CO2 adsorbents is summarized and future trends are discussed briefly to predict the potential materials which can be applied as CO2 adsorbents.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19
  • Mechanochemical degradation of hexachlorobenzene using Mg/Al 2 O 3 as
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present work, we investigate the destruction efficiency of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by milling with various reagents in a planetary ball mill under different milling conditions. Under the same conditions of mill rotary rate and charge ratio, the mixture of magnesium powder and aluminum oxide (Mg/Al2O3) was found best in promoting the destruction of HCB, which can be completed destroyed after 90 min grinding at a charge ratio of 20:1 (reagent/HCB, m/m), a ball mass/reagent mass ration of 30:1 and a mill rotation speed of 550 rpm. The ground samples were characterized and analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, gas chromatography (GC), X-ray diffraction and ion chromatography. The intermediate products, such as pentachlorobenzene, tetrachlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene isomers, dichlorobenzene and monochlorobenzene were detected by GC. Then the main dechlorination path way for HCB was proposed. With a series of verification experiments, the final degradation products of HCB were amorphous carbon and inorganic chlorine. Based on this study, Mg/Al2O3 has the potential to complete the innocuous treatment of chlorinated compounds.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19
  • Evaluation of waste slags produced by zinc industry in bituminous hot
    • Abstract: Abstract Owing to the large amount of waste slags produced by zinc industry, it has become necessary to recycle it in some areas. Road construction has significant potential for the use of waste materials because more material is always needed. In this study, the engineering behaviour of asphalt concrete was investigated using mineral aggregates with waste slag, which is a by-product of the zinc–lead production industry. The asphalt concrete tested in this study was fabricated using 25, 50, 75 and 100 % mixing ratios instead of the conventional fine mineral aggregate (11, 22, 33 and 44 % rate of total aggregate mixture) to determine the possibility of using slags in the binder course of bituminous hot mixtures. The asphalt concretes, made of waste slags and conventional asphalt concrete, were evaluated in terms of their fundamental engineering properties such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (MQ), bulk specific gravity, air voids and voids filled with bitumen in the total mix characteristics. The results indicate that the addition of waste slag as mineral aggregate improves the engineering characteristic performance and that it can be used in bituminous hot mixtures. In addition, principal component analyses were applied to examine the significance of each Marshall parameter, and a regression model was developed to estimate the MQ value using effective parameters.
      PubDate: 2015-05-17
  • Valorization of fish by-products: rheological, textural and
           microstructural properties of mackerel skin gelatins
    • Abstract: Abstract The fish processing industry generates significant amounts of waste which is usually discarded. The present study investigated the recovery of gelatins from Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) skins after pre-treatment with different environmentally friendly organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, tartaric or malic acid). The chemical composition, the rheological and the textural properties as well as the microstructural characteristics of the extracted gelatins were analysed and compared to commercial bovine hide gelatin. Although the organic acid used in the pre-treatment step did not affect the extraction yield and the chemical composition of the prepared gelatins, differences were observed in terms of rheology and texture. The highest gel strength (P < 0.05) was observed with gelatins extracted after pre-treatment with acetic, citric and malic acids (71–80 g). From an industrial point of view, gelatin can be extracted using any of these organic acids with similar yield. However, in order to obtain better rheological and textural properties the use of acetic, citric or malic acid in the pre-treatment step is recommended.
      PubDate: 2015-05-15
  • Investigations on enhanced in situ bioxidation of methane from landfill
           gas (LFG) in a lab-scale model
    • Abstract: Abstract The performance of an exogenous bacterium, Methylobacterium extorquens, in inducing bioxidation of methane from landfill gas (LFG) was assessed in a laboratory scale bioreactor. The study show that enhanced oxidation of methane is attained when the bacteria are introduced into the landfill soil. The maximum percentage reduction of methane fraction from LFG when the bioreactor was inoculated with the methanotrophic bacteria was 94.24 % in aerobic treatment process and 99.97 % in anaerobic process. In the experiments with only the indigenous microorganisms present in the landfill soil, the maximum percentage reduction of methane for the same flow rate of LFG was 59.67 % in aerobic treatment and 45 % in anaerobic treatment. The methane oxidation efficiency of this exogenous methanotrophic bacterium can be considered to be the optimum in anaerobic condition and at a flow rate of 0.6 L/m2/min when the removal percentage is 99.95 %. The results substantiate the use of exogenous microorganisms as potential remediation agents of methane in LFG.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13
  • Effect of pretreatment techniques on food waste solubilization and biogas
           production during thermophilic batch anaerobic digestion
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to optimize the alkaline, ultrasonication, and thermal pretreatment in order to enhance the solubilization of food waste (FW) for the production of volatile fatty acids, hydrogen, and methane in thermophilic batch anaerobic digestion. Initially, the effect of pretreatment techniques in the acidogenic phase was studied, and the optimal combinations of different conditions were determined. It was found that each pretreatment technique affected food waste solubilization differently. Alkaline pretreatment increased hydrogen yield in the acidogenic sludge by four times over control. COD solubilization was increased by 47 % when FW pre-heated at 130 °C for 60 min. Ultrasonication at 20 kHz and 45 min reduced processing time to 38 h from the 60–80 h needed in normal operation. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize a combination of alkaline, ultrasonication, and thermal pretreatment. Optimized conditions were applied to methanogenic single-stage thermophilic AD process, and their impact on biogas production was monitored. Results showed that FW heated at 130 °C for 50 min geminates biogas production compared to control experiment. In conclusion, a short thermal pretreatment regime could significant affect biogas production in single-stage thermophilic AD.
      PubDate: 2015-05-08
  • Waste rechargeable electric lamps: characterisation and recovery of lead
           from their lead-acid batteries
    • Abstract: Abstract Electrical electronics constitute a significant quantity of municipal solid wastes which are discarded after use in open dumpsites especially in the developing countries. The aim of this study was to characterise the material and chemical components, evaluate current management practices and investigate recovery of lead from battery electrodes (BEs) of waste rechargeable electric lamps (RLs). Twenty-six waste RLs of different models were sampled in Nigeria and characterised. Their BEs were analysed for Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe after acid digestion. Questionnaires were distributed to unselected respondents to assess usage and disposal of the lamps. Reaction of citric acid solutions with Pb in the presence of H2O2 was used for the recovery of Pb. 69 % of the respondents disposed their waste RLs in open dumpsites. The mean ± SD concentrations of Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe in the BEs were 600 ± 0.2 g/kg, 65.4 ± 40 mg/kg, 5.05 ± 4.0 mg/kg, 6.81 ± 5.0 mg/kg, 5.98 ± 3.0 mg/kg, 50.0 ± 30 mg/kg and 40.2 ± 35 mg/kg, respectively. The results show that the batteries are lead-acid batteries which require management. At the optimal conditions of S/L = 0.14, temperature = 20 °C and leaching time = 5 h, about 95 % Pb was recovered in form of lead citrate from the battery. High recovery of Pb is possible with simple and environment-friendly reactions.
      PubDate: 2015-05-05
  • Electro-dissolution of metal scrap anodes for nickel ion removal from
           metal finishing effluent
    • Abstract: Abstract This contribution reports a novel and cost efficient strategy for nickel ion removal from metal finishing effluents by electro-dissolution of scrap aluminium and iron sacrificial anodes. Electro-coagulation of effluent was carried out at 30 mA/cm2 current density for 60 min. The nickel ion concentration of electroplating effluent was analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. SEM images of iron and aluminium scrap anodes were critically analysed. Parameters such as heavy metal removal, anode dissolution rate with respect to heavy metal removal, reaction kinetics and cost estimation have been elaborately studied. Electro-coagulation at 30 mA/cm2 for 60 min using iron and aluminium scrap anodes resulted in 95.9 and 94.1 % nickel ion reduction, respectively, with 0.0094 and 0.0053 g/ppm dissolution rates. The energy consumption for scrap aluminium and iron anodes was 0.0547 kWh/L. Loose internal bonding and spongy surface morphology of used metal scrap render high porosity and active surface area, enhancing reaction rate. Low cost and ready availability of waste scrap makes the process of electro-coagulation economically viable. Thus, the findings from this contribution point decisively at the superiority of waste metal scrap-based anodes for economic and environmentally sustainable heavy metal ion removal from metal finishing effluent.
      PubDate: 2015-04-25
  • Evaluation of metals in the residue of paper sludge after recovery of pulp
           components using an ionic liquid
    • Abstract: Abstract The quantity of sludge produced by the paper industry in Japan in 2011 was estimated to be 27.91 million tons wet weight. This amount is the third largest among all industrial wastes. To explore ways of reusing recovered paper pulp and safely disposing of the residue, we investigated the distribution of metals in the process of recovery of pulp from two types of paper sludge using an ionic liquid. 32 and 46 % of pulp from paper sludge A and B was recovered using ionic liquid, respectively; the resultant weight reduction of the solid mass was comparable to that of incineration. There were virtually no heavy metals but aluminum in the recovered pulp, which makes its reuse viable at present. The characteristics of the metals in the residues differed according to the treatment used and properties of the paper sludge. Copper accounted for ~10 % in the ionic liquid used for recovery of pulp from the paper sludges. This suggests that [bmIm]Cl has the potential to dissolve a specific amount of copper compared to other metals.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23
  • Life cycle assessment and valuation of the packaging waste recycling
           system in Belgium
    • Abstract: Abstract This study analyses the packaging waste management system in Belgium. Waste management operations involve a significant number of processes associated with energy consumption and emission of pollutants in air and water. To assess the impact on the environment of the several waste management operations, a life cycle assessment was developed. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. A comparison between two scenarios was developed. The first scenario comprised the packaging waste management system in operation in 2010. This system comprises the waste management operations envisaging the recycling of the packaging materials. The second scenario was developed based on the hypothesis that there was no recycling system and all packaging waste would be collected in the refuse collection system. An environmental valuation was performed to convert the environmental results into a common unit (EUR). To accomplish this valuation, three methods were used: Ecocost, Ecovalue and Stepwise. These methods were developed in Europe and follow different methodologies. The environmental results were compared using the three methods and they were consistent with the conclusion that the recycling scenario (i.e. the actual situation in 2010) is more environmentally sound.
      PubDate: 2015-04-22
  • Non-sterile simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of corn leaves
           and stalks to l -lactic acid without external nutrient addition
    • Abstract: Abstract Fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass requires auxiliary materials, including nutrients, to ensure the proliferation of microorganisms. Nutrients are usually inexpensive, but their contribution to the cost is considerable because of the very low prices of fermentation products, such as bio-ethanol. Using substances present in native lignocellulosic biomass as nutrients for fermentation was proposed and demonstrated. Leaves and stalks of corn plants were used as biomass, and nutrients were recovered as a nutrient solution by soaking them in water before alkaline peroxide pretreatment. Pretreated biomass and the nutrient solution derived from the same lot were used for non-sterile simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and thermophilic l-lactic acid fermentation (SSF). Using the nutrient solution in the saccharification step did not impact sugar recovery, and instead improved sugar yields because of the presence of eluted sugars in the solution. The l-lactic acid yield of 0.33 g g−1 based on native biomass weight indicated that the nutrient solution functioned as a source of nutrients and sugars, especially as a source of essential phosphorus. Comparatively, autoclaved SSF yielded less or no l-lactic acid, indicating an apparent inhibitive effect derived from the nutrient solution on bacterial growth.
      PubDate: 2015-04-22
  • Preparation of biochar catalyst with saccharide and lignocellulose
           residues of corncob degradation for corncob hydrolysis into furfural
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presented a novel process for production of furfural by hydrothermal degradation of corncob over biochar catalyst, in which it was prepared with the recycling degradation solution and lignocellulosic solid residues. The biochar catalyst was papered by lignocellulose residues and concentrated saccharide solution, and then impregnated in 0.5 mol/L sulphuric acid at room temperature for 24 h assisted by the ultrasonic vibration. In the system of recycling, 8.8 % lignocellulose residues and 100 % concentrated saccharide solution from corncob hydrolysis have been recycled. Hydrolysis of corncob was carried out at 180 °C for duration of 170 min over the biochar catalyst. The experimental results have shown that the furfural yield of up to 37.75 % and overall corncob conversion rate of 62.00 % could be achieved under optimum operating conditions for the catalysts preparation and the corncob hydrolysis. It is believed that the acid density of 4.27 mmol/g of biochar catalyst makes the SO3H groups cleave β-1,4 glycosidic linkages effectively and hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose to water-soluble sugars, as well as to facilitate dehydration of xylose to give the product of furfural.
      PubDate: 2015-04-22
  • Influence of MSWI bottom ash used as unbound granular material on the
           corrosion behaviour of reinforced concrete
    • Abstract: Abstract The reutilisation of MSWI natural weathered bottom ash (WBA) in many applications such as road and underground constructions, embankments or as an aggregate replacement is a common practice in many developed countries. Its potential environmental risk has regularly been evaluated from the point of view of the leaching of heavy metals and metalloids. Nevertheless, the influence over steel rebar when reinforced concrete is exposed to the contact with WBA has been poorly assessed before. In this study, it has been possible to evaluate in terms of days the probability of corrosion in a common case of WBA reutilisation, which is in contact with reinforced concrete formulated with conventional Portland cement. The corrosion monitoring indicates that the probability of corrosion of steel rebar is higher than 90 % with a corrosion rate (CI) estimated to be 11.6 µm year−1. The aggressive conditions imposed by WBA suppose an important withdrawal if the application of reutilisation involves contact with steel rebar.
      PubDate: 2015-04-19
  • Conversion of dry leaves into hydrochar through hydrothermal carbonization
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study a carbon-rich product was achieved by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of dead leaves at different treatment temperatures of 200–250 °C. Biomass was treated with hot deionized water for 30 min. The main objective of this study was to calculate the energy generation capability of dead leaves hydrochar by HTC process. The secondary objective was to analyze the physiochemical properties of hydrochar. There was a significant increase in the energy content and energy yield while decrease in yield of hydrochar was observed with increase in temperature. Surface area of hydrochar was maximum of 2.09 m2/g which was obtained when heated at 250 °C. Feedstock was having pore diameter of 8.26 nm which begin to increase on heating. The highest was reported at 220 °C of 21.79 with 163 % of increase. At 220 °C pore volume was also highest of 9.86 × 10−3. The highest energy content of 19.98 MJ/kg was obtained when the feedstock was heated at 240 °C which showed 21 % increase in energy content compared to that of raw biomass. Similarly, energy yield was also highest (91.67 %) at 240 °C. Therefore, it can be concluded that high-energy content hydrochar can be recovered when carbonized at 240 °C.
      PubDate: 2015-04-18
  • Biodegradation characteristics of organic matters in swine carcasses under
           different initial operating conditions of simulated anaerobic lysimeter
    • Abstract: Abstract This study was aimed to investigate the biodegradation characteristics of organic matters in swine carcasses. The lysimeters were simulated with different initial operating conditions: 30 % volumetric moisture content and no sludge addition for lysimeter A (control), 30 % volumetric moisture content and anaerobic sludge addition for lysimeter B, and 40 % volumetric moisture content and anaerobic sludge addition for lysimeter C. The degradation efficiency (18.4 %) of lysimeter B was higher than that (15.2 %) of lysimeter A due to anaerobic sludge addition. Lysimeter B showed higher CH4 yield (15.6 L/kg VS) and CH4 production rate (0.41 L/kg VS days) compared to lysimeter A by 31 % and 14 %, respectively. In addition, the degradation efficiency improved from 18.4 % (lysimeter B) to 26.3 % (lysimeter C) by increasing volumetric moisture content. The CH4 yield (22.9 L/kg VS) and CH4 production rate (0.68 L/kg VS days) of lysimeter C were higher than those of lysimeter B, respectively. Total organic carbon (TOC) removed in lysimeter C was converted to leachate (20.3 %) and gas (6.0 %), whose values were higher than those of lysimeter A and B. These results demonstrated that the proper control of initial operating conditions could accelerate the anaerobic degradation of organic matters in swine carcasses.
      PubDate: 2015-04-18
  • Life cycle assessment of bio-sludge for disposal with different
           alternative waste management scenarios: a case study of an olefin factory
           in Thailand
    • Abstract: Abstract Bio-sludge generated from wastewater treatment plants is typically disposed of in landfills. Among the pressure of environmental problems, alternative options for bio-sludge disposal have been proposed. In addition to landfills, burning sludge in cement kilns and composting are new options for managing bio-sludge in Thailand. The objective of this study is to evaluate the environmental impact of alternative waste management practices for bio-sludge, including landfilling with landfill gas utilization systems, cement kilns, and composting, compared with conventional landfills. The environmental impact from each scenario was calculated at midpoints and damage levels using the IMPACT 2002+ method. The results indicate that landfilling with landfill gas utilization systems shows the greatest potential for greenhouse gas reduction compared with conventional landfills. The cement kiln option has the highest potential for aquatic acidification, terrestrial acidification and nitrification. While the fertilizer option has lowest potential for those impacts, the potential for aquatic eutrophication and terrestrial ecotoxicity is highest in this option. Finally, the endpoint analysis showed that the fertilizer option has a high performance in regard to human health and climate change, and it was recommended for selection as a first priority for bio-sludge disposal in Thailand.
      PubDate: 2015-04-18
  • Hydrometallurgical processing of Nd–Fe–B magnets for Nd
    • Abstract: Abstract An evaluation of various metal purification processes subsequent to the leaching processing of the neodymium (Nd) product from neodymium–iron–boron (Nd–Fe–B) magnets has been conducted. These post-leaching purification processes included precipitation; replacement and electrolysis were studied in order to check the purity of the recovered neodymium. A hydrometallurgical investigation was adopted to digest the metal content of the scrap Nd–Fe–B magnets for the recovery of valuable Nd metal and other metals such as Fe, B, Co and Ni. The effect of leaching conditions such as solid-to-liquid ratio and temperature were optimized and 100 % Nd, 100 % Fe, 100 % B and 85.87 % Co leaching efficiencies were achieved under these conditions. The coating material of the magnet, Ni, achieved 50 % impregnation after increasing the reaction temperature to 70 °C. The metals present in the optimal leaching solution were recovered 99 % by pH adjustment. However, the replacement had the highest separation efficiency for the recovery of Nd metal. Further, the optimal leaching Nd–Fe–B solution was subjected to the electrolysis processes in order to verify the recovery efficiency for all metals.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17
  • Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and economic analysis of alternative
           treatments of solid waste from city markets in Vietnam
    • Abstract: Abstract We utilize life cycle assessment to trace conversion of degradable organic carbon (DOC) contained in organic waste from city markets in Da Nang, Vietnam. Our methodology makes explicit the process of conversion of DOC under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, as well as the balance of nutrients. Greenhouse gas emissions were calculated for six alternative scenarios: (i) anaerobic landfilling (current situation); (ii) semi-aerobic landfilling; (iii) landfill gas capture; (iv) composting; (v) pre-composting before landfill; and (vi) biogas production. We calculate that 1 t of waste in anaerobic landfilling emits 1.70 t CO2-eq. with life-cycle perspective. Lowest emission occurs in biogas scenario with 0.26 t CO2-eq./t. Composting occupies an intermediate position with 0.39 t CO2-eq./t. Likewise, we estimate that cost of emission reduction in solid waste sector of Vietnam is 15.13 US$/t CO2-eq., given by alternative of composting and taking anaerobic landfilling as reference. On the other hand, if social cost of carbon (SCC) is incorporated lowest cost to treat 1 t of waste is given by composting and semi-aerobic landfilling at discount rate of 5 %. However, using lower discount rates, and consequently higher values of SCC, composting and biogas production become the alternatives with lowest treatment costs.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16
  • Pilot study of intense dewatering of urban sewage sludge
    • Abstract: Abstract Urban sewage sludge treatment has become a severe problem due to its large quantities and enrichment with heavy metals, refractory organic contaminants and pathogenic bacteria. Accordingly, it is essential to develop an effective and low-cost intense dewatering technique to decrease sludge water content so that it can be easily treated by subsequent incineration, landfilling or composting. In this study, a new intense sludge dewatering technique using conditioner of coagulant and flocculant (polyacrylamide) mixture and the diaphragm filter press was developed and investigated systematically by measuring the water content, calorific value and coliform bacteria in the sludge and investigating the dewatering efficiency under different conditions. The results showed that the water content of the sludge was effectively reduced from 80 % to the minimum of 43.6 % by adding conditioners and subsequent dewatering using the diaphragm press. Moreover, the low calorific value of dewatered sludge increased significantly from that of the original sludge, and was conducive to subsequent incineration. The water content of the dewatered sludge cake decreased to less than 25 % after being kept in the open air for 9 days. Therefore, it is proposed that this technique be applied to large-scale engineering applications.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16
  • The mixing and segregation characteristics of rice straw in a cylindrical
           bubbling fluidized bed
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present study, an experiment was performed to investigate the mixing and segregation characteristics of standard sand and rice straw particles in a cylindrical bubbling fluidized bed. The mass ratio (rice straw/standard sand = 0.5–1.25 %) of two particles and superficial gas velocity (0.13–0.18 m/s) were changed as experimental variables. The pressure drop curve and Kramer’s equation were used to determine the minimum fluidization velocity and mixing index, respectively. In all cases, the mixing index was the lowest at U/U mf = 1.15. Based on the point of U/U mf = 1.15, the segregation region and mixing region were observed. In the segregation region, mass ratio of 0.75 % showed the lowest mixing index. At the U/U mf = 1.23 which was selected as the starting of fast pyrolysis considering residence time and the previous fast pyrolysis experiment, mass ratio of 1.25 % showed the highest mixing index which was 0.90.
      PubDate: 2015-04-11
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