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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.392]   [H-I: 16]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2281 journals]
  • Crystalline phase evolution behavior and physicochemical properties of
           glass–ceramics from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash
    • Abstract: Appropriate management and treatment of fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plant have become an urgent environmental protection problem. In this study, glass–ceramics have been prepared from MSW incineration fly ash and the SiO2 with different blending ratios ( \( {\text{BR}}_{{{\text{SiO}}_{ 2} }} \) ). With the increase in \( {\text{BR}}_{{{\text{SiO}}_{ 2} }} \) , the main crystalline phase of glass–ceramics was converted from gehlenite and pseudowollastonite into wollastonite. The texture was gradually formed in the surface of glass–ceramics due to the mutual arrangement of crystal particles and the decrease in the number and size of the gaps. Because of the mineral evolution and the microstructure change, the compressive strength and water absorption were significantly improved from 8.40 to 18.82 MPa and from 6.83 to 0.44 wt%, respectively, when \( {\text{BR}}_{{{\text{SiO}}_{ 2} }} \) was in the range from 19 to 44 wt%. If \( {\text{BR}}_{{{\text{SiO}}_{ 2} }} \)  >29 wt%, the prepared glass–ceramics had good corrosion resistance in 10 % H2SO4 solution and 10 % NaOH solution, respectively. Therefore, glass–ceramics prepared from MSW incineration fly ash can be used as ceramic tile for building and decoration.
      PubDate: 2016-04-28
  • Study on a novel pneumatic stratified vibration sorting method of waste
           plastic films
    • Abstract: Waste plastic films introduce serious pollution and need to be separated and collected for recycling. Aiming at highly efficient sorting of waste plastic films, a kind of novel pneumatic stratified vibration sorting method of waste plastic films is proposed combining with the characteristics of pneumatic sorting and linear reciprocating vibration mechanism. The kinematic model of waste plastic films on the vibrating bed is established to study the kinematic characteristics of waste plastic films in the separating process. The effects of the directional angle of the vibration, the inclined angle of the vibration bed, the crank, the air speed, the critical rotational speed of the motor, and motion parameters on sliding trajectories of waste plastic films on the stratified vibration bed have been analyzed. Then, the optimum process parameters are determined. Based on the analyses, the prototype has been designed. The virtual prototype is created and simulated by software ADAMS. The results have verified the theoretical analyses. It shows the introduced pneumatic stratified vibration sorting method has a higher efficiency than conventionally compound sorting methods.
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
  • Application of system dynamics modeling for evaluation of different
           recycling scenarios in Singapore
    • Abstract: The influence of socioeconomic factors, such as population and rapid economic growth, and the change of consumption and living patterns make waste management in Singapore, a complex issue. Due to limited land and resources, the solid waste management scheme requires a comprehensive approach. Therefore, system dynamics (SD) modeling was applied to assess alternative strategies for solid waste management by interconnecting landfill capacity and recycling efficiency with reference to the projection on waste generation. Nine different scenarios were investigated to identify the best approach to maintain environmental sustainability without inhibiting the economic growth. Four subsystems (i.e., population, economy, waste recycling, and waste disposal) have been incorporated into the SD model to broaden the effectiveness of the waste management system. Research findings revealed that a high economic pattern and a high recycling rate are recommended to satisfy the requirements for economic growth and environmental sustainability while extending landfill capacity for waste disposal. Even though the balance of expenditure could be increased by the high recycling rate, it meets the need for long-term incineration and landfill planning.
      PubDate: 2016-04-27
  • The effects of using reprocessable material on the durability and
           mechanical properties of landfill leachate collection HDPE pipes
    • Abstract: This paper investigated the durability and mechanical properties of landfill leachate collection HDPE pipes which had been made of different weight percent amounts of virgin and reprocessable HDPE compounds (VC and RC). Durability is reported base on the chemical properties, obtained through oxidative induction time (OIT) and melt flow index (MFI) measurements, at the temperature of 50 °C and over a period of 12 months immersion in a synthetic leachate. Mechanical properties are also described according to tensile and pressure tests which had been conducted on the pipes samples. All of the factors were examined had been affected by the addition of RC, but for the special combination the antioxidant depletion was significantly affected by the experimental aging condition and no important changes had been observed in the other pipe properties. The results from OIT tests indicate that the rate of antioxidant depletion is reduced by an increase in the weight percent amounts of RC, during the experimental aging condition. This reduction is probably attributed to the extraction of antioxidants from RC in their recovery process. Finally, although these results are related to the particular HDPE compound, antioxidant formulation and condition examined, but it can be said that the use of clean own reprocessable material for the production of landfill leachate pipes shall be permitted without limitations.
      PubDate: 2016-04-25
  • A study on the characteristics of particulate matter in the syngas
           produced from the waste gasification with cleaning systems for energy
    • Abstract: The high quality of syngas from gasification and cleaning systems can be utilized for energy generation or commodity chemicals. To evaluate the quality of syngas from waste gasification and to obtain design factors for commercial scale, we identified the characteristics of particles depending on the cleaning units in pilot scale. The particle size distribution, amount of particles and heavy metals were analyzed at gasifier and each cleaning unit which are quenching scrubber, venturi scrubber, neutralization scrubber, desulfurization scrubber, and wet electrostatic precipitator. As a result, about 99.98 % of the particles were removed through 5 cleaning systems, from 51,226 mg/Nm3 at gasifier to 12 mg/Nm3 at WESP, and were ostensibly undetectable. Moreover, the minimum size of particles that could be eliminated was different depending on wet cleaning systems. The particle size at 90 % in the cumulative was generated up to 24.029 µm at the gasifier and the removed particle size distribution at WESP ranged from 0.370 to 12.795 µm. From the particulate matters point of view, the syngas from waste gasification with cleaning systems can be properly utilized for energy recovery systems. Graphical
      PubDate: 2016-04-22
  • Status of waste tires’ recycling for material and energy resources
           in Taiwan
    • Abstract: Motor vehicles are indicative of transportation facilities in every country. In this regard, tires are important commodities of domestic and international trade due to their major material compositions (i.e., rubber, carbon black and steel coil). However, improper treatment of waste tires, once they have been removed from discarded (end-of-life) vehicles without the possibility of being retreaded, will lead to the problems of environmental health and fire hazard. The waste tires’ recycling in Taiwan started in the late 1980s’ demonstrating that the regulatory and subsidiary policies had significant impacts on its success. The objective of this paper was to update the status of waste tires’ recycling in Taiwan. Furthermore, this paper also presented a successful case regarding the waste tires’ pyrolysis plant in Taiwan, which may be the first commercial operation system through continuous process. Under the 16-year promotion of waste tires’ recycling, the tire-derived materials from the certified recycling volume of waste tires (100,000–120,000 metric tons) have been almost utilized to rubber recycling and energy recovery. Finally, some prospects were addressed to increase the economic value and resource recycling rate of waste tires through green procurement and innovative technologies in Taiwan.
      PubDate: 2016-04-19
  • Physicochemical properties of slags produced at various amounts of iron
           addition in lead smelting
    • Abstract: In the process of lead production from lead-bearing materials generated in copper metallurgy, a large amount of hazardous waste in the form of slag is produced. To assess the effect of the slag on the environment, its physicochemical properties were determined. In this study, the following methods were used: wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Bunte-Baum-Reerink method to determine softening and melting points, as well as viscosity examination and leaching tests. The measurements were performed on the slag produced with two different amounts of iron addition to the lead smelting process. The resulting slags, an oxide rich phase slag and a sulfide rich phase slag have different compositions and physicochemical properties. It was found that the increase in iron addition causes an increase in the softening melting point of the oxide rich phase slag by about 100 °C, and a twofold increase in the viscosity of both slag phases. The increase in iron addition also results in the decrease in As leachability and increase in Zn, Fe, and Cu leachability from the slags. Slag produced with increased iron addition has a greater impact on the environment.
      PubDate: 2016-04-18
  • Comparative study of torrefaction of empty fruit bunches and palm kernel
    • Abstract: This paper describes the effect of torrefaction on the characteristics of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm kernel shell (PKS). The torrefaction of EFB and PKS was investigated in a horizontal tubular reactor at a temperature ranging from 150 to 600 °C, for torrefaction residence time varying from 0 to 50 min. The torrefied products were characterized in terms of their elemental composition, energy yield, ash content and volatile fraction. The present study developed the torrefaction kinetics of EFB and PKS in a thermogravimetric analyzer to obtain the kinetic parameters. EFB and PKS exhibited excellent energy yield values. The gaseous products from torrefaction of EFB and PKS were also analyzed. Furthermore, the study reveals that the carbon content increases with an increasing torrefaction temperature but the O/C ratio, hydrogen and oxygen content decrease for both EFB and PKS. The energy yield and mass yield were found to decrease with an increase in the torrefaction temperature while the higher heating value (HHV) increased. From this study, torrefaction temperature between 290 and 320 °C is the optimum torrefaction temperature for EFB while torrefaction temperature between 300 and 320 °C is the optimum torrefaction temperature for PKS.
      PubDate: 2016-04-16
  • Evaluation of practicing safety features for hospital waste collection
           among Iran’s public hospitals
    • Abstract: Hospital waste management is imperative due to its impending health hazards. This study was meant to evaluate the strong safety awareness of cleaning workers at the time of hospital waste collection. Additionally, determining the correlation between demographic variables with average score of the strong safety awareness as well as the correlation between provision of training for workers with score of strong safety awareness were among the main goals of the present study. This descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study was carried out in 2014. Data were collected using a questionnaire. 150 subjects were selected using simple random sampling, and finally 135 questionnaires were analysable. Findings indicated that 33.3 % of the studied hospitals showed good situation (score >30), 55.5 % with moderate (scored 26–30), and 11.2 % had weak situation concerning the practice of safety features in waste collection. Furthermore, there has been statistically a significant correlation between education, age, work experience, and workers training with strong safety awareness. In general, executing standards, removing shortages, establishing monitoring and observation systems, using young workers beside experienced ones, and paying attention to their needs will help them consider safety points for hospital waste collection.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15
  • The effects of external costs on the system selection for treatment and
           disposal of municipal solid wastes: a deterministic case study for a
    • Abstract: Selecting a system for treatment and disposal of municipal solid wastes (i.e., selection of the capacity, location and type of the processes and management programs) is the key factor which determines the cost of the municipal solid waste management applications. In these applications, every process and management program is an individual economic activity, and they cause not only private costs and benefits but also external costs and benefits in different levels. In the current decision making applications, however, the final decisions for the system selection are mostly taken by the decision makers without considering external costs and/or benefits. In this paper, a new cost optimization model approach which theoretically has to give same decision results at every run under the same model conditions was used to determine an appropriate system for treatment and disposal of municipal solid wastes in a large region. Firstly the solutions were obtained for the case that the objective function included only private (internal) costs and benefits. Then, different scenarios that include external costs obtained from the literature were applied and the solutions were compared with the previous ones. Results showed that different final decisions could be obtained for some scenarios at the same model conditions. These differences were analyzed in terms of the total cost of the system, and it was observed that an annual reduction between 1 and 8 Euro/person could be obtained with respect to the first decision. The effect of these external cost-related reductions in the annual total cost of the system was calculated as earnings in the range of 2–13 %. On the other hand, a Monte Carlo simulation which was applied for the range of the external costs indicated some meaningful inconsistency between the values of the study and the literature. All these findings refer to need for a new comprehensive decision making application for real external costs of the study area before final decision. In conclusion, it can be said that this deterministic approach might be useful for environmental managers and decision makers in terms of reduction the total cost and the external costs of the system before final decisions.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15
  • Quality improvement of recycled aggregates using the acid treatment method
           and the strength characteristics of the resulting mortar
    • Abstract: This study was conducted with the aim to chemically remove the cement paste attached to the aggregate surface using acidic substances. Sulfuric and hydrochloric acids were used as the acidic substances, and after analyzing the quality characteristics of the aggregates following the acid treatment, a mortar test was performed using the aggregates. The results showed that the acid-treated recycled aggregates were superior to the original aggregates and the recycled aggregates that were manufactured using natural water in terms of density, absorption ratio and solid volume percentage. Based on this, it was determined that acid treatment was effective in improving the quality of recycled fine aggregates. In addition, the results of reviewing the strength characteristics of the mortar obtained using the acid-treated aggregates showed that the residue substances remaining in the recycled fine aggregates after reacting with the cement paste had a negative impact on the concrete strength. Based on this, it was determined that in case of improving the quality of recycled aggregates by acid treatment, there needs to be strict management of the products of the reaction with the acid in order for the aggregates to be used in structural construction.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15
  • Successful plant scale production of solid propellant recycling from
           obsolete ammunition
    • Abstract: Solid propellant for rocket motor consists of a mixture of oxidizer with aluminum powder cured in poly-butadiene (PB) binder. Ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4, AP) is commonly used oxidizer in many propulsion systems as solid propellant. An aged propulsion engine of the rocket motor is discarded through the waste processing procedure by open burning or open detonation. Meanwhile, recycling AP is economically interesting issue as it is filled more than 70 % in one unit of rocket motor. Although industries and military institutes have invested in R&D to remove PB binder or recycle AP oxidizer, developed process were rarely industrialized due to economic problem. Here we report an automated, self-contained and environmentally responsible AP recovery technology which process has recently been developed and proven to be a cost-effective recycling program of obsolete ammunition.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12
  • Preparation of light weight constructional materials from chrome
           containing buffing dust solid waste generated in leather industry
    • Abstract: An alternative and environmentally benign method of disposing the buffing dust, generated from leather industry was carried out in the present investigation. The buffing dust (finished solid waste) was charred in a controlled oxygen atmosphere by coupled pyrolysis and the resultant material was gauged for the application of light weight cement blocks. The results confirmed that, at a flow rate of 1 LPM oxygen supplied for 30 min produced nanostructured fibrous carbon material which was further confirmed through SEM and EDX analyses. Iron nanoparticles were used to inhibit the conversion of trivalent chromium to hexavalent chromium in fibrous carbon before being utilized for making light weight cement block. The addition of iron nanoparticles supplements the mechanical strength by compositional bonding in cement block. The XRD results elucidate that the hexavalent chromium has reduced to trivalent chromium due to the addition of iron nanoparticles in the residue material. The as-prepared light weight cement blocks were fabricated (7 cm × 7 cm × 7 cm) for compression test, simultaneously cement block devoid of iron nanoparticles was prepared as a control. The compressive strength of the light weight cement block comprising of iron nanoparticles (20.7 kN/cm2) was found to be higher than the block without iron nanoparticles (3.82 kN/cm2).
      PubDate: 2016-04-07
  • Determination of the knowledge of e-waste disposal impacts on the
           environment among different educational and income levels in China, Laos,
           and Thailand
    • Abstract: E-waste is one of the fast growing wastes in the solid waste stream in the urban environment. It has become a widely recognized social and environmental problem; therefore, proper management is vital to protecting the fragile environment from its improper disposal. Questionnaire surveys were conducted to determine the knowledge of environmental impacts of e-waste disposal as it relates to mobile phones among different educational and income levels in China, Laos, and Thailand. The results revealed that respondents’ educational level was positively correlated with their knowledge of how to improve environmental conditions (P105) (r = 0.072, n = 2045, p < 0.01). Respondents’ income level was negatively correlated with their knowledge of the status of environmental conditions (P104) (r = −0.151, n = 1836, p < 0.01). Gaps were detected at the educational and income levels of Thai and Chinese respondents in their knowledge about existing e-waste-related laws and how to improve environmental conditions. Thus, efforts to bridge the gaps through initiating proper educational programs in these two countries were necessary.
      PubDate: 2016-04-07
  • Decomposition of asbestos by a supernatant used for immobilization of
           heavy metals in fly ash
    • Abstract: A supernatant solution, obtained after immobilization of heavy metals involved in fly ashes by a solution of sulfur and calcium hydroxide, was re-used for immobilization of heavy metals and decomposition of asbestos in construction materials. Asbestos was decomposed to more than 99.9 % by mixing it with the supernatant in a ball mill at room temperature. The decomposition of asbestos was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a phase contrast microscope after staining the asbestos with solutions of different diffractive indexes and a scanning electron microscope. XRD indicated complete disappearance of specific main peaks of asbestos: chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite and tremolite. Heavy metals such as chromium(VI) and lead(II) in fly ashes were completely immobilized by the supernatant. It is the first time that a solution obtained after the treatment of wasted fly ash is recycled for decomposition of hazardous waste materials such as asbestos.
      PubDate: 2016-04-06
  • Triboelectrostatic separation for PP and ABS plastics in end of life
           passenger vehicles
    • Abstract: The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are global concerns because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. Passenger vehicles constitute the largest group of automotive, whereas PP and ABS plastics account for a large proportion in exterior and interior parts of passenger cars. In this study, the triboelectrostatic separation of PP and ABS plastics from the end-of-life passenger vehicles was investigated based on high-voltage triboelectrostatic separation technology. The systemic factors that affect sorting result were identified according to the analysis, including electrostatic voltage, friction rotating drum rolling speed, feed speed, rolling speed of rotating roll electrode, the spacing between square electrode and rotating roll electrode, and the angle of the square electrode. Reasonable ranges of the six factors were determined via single factor preliminary experiments; the effects of the factors and their interactions on the sorting results were also analyzed based on the factorial experiments. Mathematical models were established to demonstrate the sorting process of PP and ABS, and the optimum sorting process parameters of the two plastics were obtained. Experimental results showed that the sorting rate of PP and ABS plastics reached more than 60 %, and purity exceeded 95 %.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05
  • Removal of mercury using processes involving sulfuric acid during zinc
           production in an imperial smelting process (ISP) plant
    • Abstract: Mercury emissions from non-ferrous metal industries are a major environmental concern. Because of the large differences in mercury emission factors depending on the kind of metal ore and the details of the smelting process, detailed information on the behavior of mercury is required to control the mercury emissions. In this study, we investigated removal of mercury using processes involving sulfuric acid during zinc production in an imperial smelting process (ISP) plant in Japan. The total mercury concentration in the flue gases in the chimneystack was found to be in the range 1.7–6.1 μg/N m3. Metallic mercury was the predominant mercury species in the flue gases in the chimneystack. The distribution of mercury in this plant was as follows: 89.1 % in the sludge, 9.29 % in the fly ash, 1.51 % in the sulfuric acid product, and 0.059 % in the flue gases. The overall efficiency of mercury removal by mass was therefore 99.92 %. The overall emission factor was 0.0088 g per ton of zinc produced, which is lower than that reported for other zinc smelting plants. Consequently, the combination of double gas coolers and double wet electrostatic precipitators described in this study is comparable to advanced Boliden-Norzink technology for mercury removal.
      PubDate: 2016-04-02
  • Sintering characteristics of CaO-rich municipal solid waste incineration
           fly ash through the addition of Si/Al-rich ash residues
    • Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the fast disposal of hazardous municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in China. However, fly ash produced in grate incinerator (GFA) is rich in CaO and chlorides, which promote the formation of toxic hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and ash agglomeration during the thermal process, inhibiting the thermal disposal of GFA. In this study, sintering characteristics of CaO-rich GFA were improved by adding Si/Al-rich MSWI ash residues. According to the results, ash agglomeration was well suppressed during thermal treatment of the mixed ash. Si/Al/Fe-compounds competed with un-oxidized Cr-compounds to react with CaO and suppressed Cr(VI) formation. Meanwhile, chlorides in GFA facilitated heavy metal volatilization from added ashes to the secondary fly ash, favoring the recovery of these metals. Ca-aluminosilicates was found as the main mineral phase in the thermally treated mixed ash, which has attractive potential for applications. The formation of the aluminosilicates made the heavy metals that remained in the treated mixed ash more stable than the thermally treated single ash.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
  • Non-sterile simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of corn leaves
           and stalks to l -lactic acid without external nutrient addition
    • Abstract: Fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass requires auxiliary materials, including nutrients, to ensure the proliferation of microorganisms. Nutrients are usually inexpensive, but their contribution to the cost is considerable because of the very low prices of fermentation products, such as bio-ethanol. Using substances present in native lignocellulosic biomass as nutrients for fermentation was proposed and demonstrated. Leaves and stalks of corn plants were used as biomass, and nutrients were recovered as a nutrient solution by soaking them in water before alkaline peroxide pretreatment. Pretreated biomass and the nutrient solution derived from the same lot were used for non-sterile simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and thermophilic l-lactic acid fermentation (SSF). Using the nutrient solution in the saccharification step did not impact sugar recovery, and instead improved sugar yields because of the presence of eluted sugars in the solution. The l-lactic acid yield of 0.33 g g−1 based on native biomass weight indicated that the nutrient solution functioned as a source of nutrients and sugars, especially as a source of essential phosphorus. Comparatively, autoclaved SSF yielded less or no l-lactic acid, indicating an apparent inhibitive effect derived from the nutrient solution on bacterial growth.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
  • Effect of multi-factors interaction on trace lead equilibrium during
           municipal solid waste incineration
    • Abstract: The thermodynamic equilibrium of trace lead during the waste incineration was calculated on the basis of the minimization of the total Gibbs energy. The effect of incineration condition and MSW components on Pb distribution was investigated mainly in the view of the interaction of related elements. In the oxygen-rich condition, incineration temperature affects Pb distribution by the interaction of Cl, Ca and Na. In the fuel-rich condition, incineration temperature affects Pb distribution directly by the thermal transition of PbS(s) to PbCl(g) and the thermal transition of PbCl(g) to Pb(g). Air ratio has significant effect on Pb distribution by the interaction of H, O and Cl. The liberated Cl in oxidizing condition is far less than that in reducing condition. Na has the top priority to bond with Cl, than Ca only at low temperature and H only at high temperature, so the effect of Cl on Pb distribution depends on the content of Na and Ca. S promotes Pb volatilization by the interaction with Na in oxygen-rich and chlorine-poor condition and depresses Pb volatilization by the formation of PbS(s) directly without interaction with other elements in fuel-rich condition.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
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