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Zeitschrift für Hochschulrecht, Hochschulmanagement und Hochschulpolitik: zfhr     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
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Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
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Zoomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 24)
Zorg en Financiering     Hybrid Journal  

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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management     [SJR: 0.327]   [H-I: 13]
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]
  • Recycling of combined coal-biomass ash from electric power plant waste as
           a cementitious material: characteristics and improvement
    • Abstract: Combined coal-biomass ash has an enormous impact on environmental quality near electric power plants. This paper describes an alternative to disposal in which the ash is used to produce cementitious materials. Ash was obtained from combustion of coal and biomass containing four mass ratios of anthracite, bitumen, rice husks, and eucalyptus bark. The cement-forming properties were systematically characterized including compressive strength development, durability, and expansion in water. The ash samples were ground to increase the specific surface area, and then used to partially replace ASTM Type I Portland cement in mixtures containing 15, 30, or 45 % ash by mass. The water-binder material's (Portland cement with or without combined coal-biomass ash) ratios (w/c) were held constant at 45, 55, or 65 % by mass. Types A, B, and D ash behaved similarly, while the properties of type C ash were slightly different. Increasing the ash fraction in Portland cement mixtures increased the water requirement and resulted in lower compressive strength. Thorough mechanical grinding reduced the porosity and significantly enhanced the material properties.
      PubDate: 2015-01-06
  • Engineering properties of insulation material made with cotton waste and
           fly ash
    • Abstract: Huge amounts of cotton and fly ash wastes are disposed in countries all over the world. The majority of cotton wastes and fly ash are abandoned. It is a big problem to propose utilization of these by-products from the aspects of disposal, environmental pollution, and health hazards. This paper presents a parametric experimental study which investigates the potential use of cotton waste and fly ash in combination for producing a new low-cost and lightweight composite as a building material. The physical and mechanical properties of concrete mixes containing cotton waste and fly ash are investigated. The compressive strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and water absorption properties of this proposed material conform to relevant standards. The thermal insulation test of the proposed material was also carried out. The cotton waste and fly ash block house has been found to be superior to the concrete block house for sustained comfortable indoor temperatures. The process undertaken can be easily applied in classic brick plants. It yields a lighter weight composite having potential to be used for walls as an economical alternative to concrete blocks, ceiling panels, sound barrier panels, etc.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Reactivation and recycling of spent carbon using solvent desorption
           followed by thermal treatment (TR)
    • Abstract: This study demonstrated a technique to regenerate spent activated carbon using solvent desorption followed by thermal decomposition of pollutants. Dichloromethane is used as solvent for desorption and thermal reactor under inert (N2, CO2) atmosphere used for thermal reactivation of the spent carbon. Physical, chemical, functional chemistry and thermal behavior of the samples before and after treatment are featured by means of pH, bulk density, moisture content, ash content, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric differential thermal analysis. The adsorptive property of the activated spent carbon is quantified using methylene blue and iodine as model compounds. After reactivation, methylene blue and iodine number adsorption is improved from 5 to 96 % and from 10 to 99 %, respectively. This regenerated carbon applied for paper mill and pharmaceutical effluents. 95 and 94 % of the COD reduction and color removal are observed by spent reactivated carbon.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Mechanical properties and sliding wear behavior of jatropha seed cake
           waste/epoxy composites
    • Abstract: Jatropha seed cake particulate (JSCP)-reinforced epoxy composites were prepared by open mold resin casting method. The influence of JSCP on mechanical and dry sliding wear properties of epoxy was experimentally investigated as per the ASTM standards. Dry sliding wear test was conducted for these composites at a constant sliding distance of 500 m with different sliding velocities and applied loads by a pin-on-disc wear test machine. The results revealed that incorporation of JSCP decreased the specific wear rate and coefficient of friction while improving the mechanical properties. The composite reinforced with 40 wt% of JSCP exhibited better mechanical properties and wear behavior compared to the neat epoxy and other compositions of JSCP/epoxy composites. The results of this study indicate that jatropha seed cake powder can be used as biosolid lubricant filler for epoxy.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Utilization of seeds from tomato processing wastes as raw material for oil
    • Abstract: The increase of waste quantities from tomato processing industry is an important ecological and also financial problem. Seeds are the major component of this waste and one valuable alternative of transforming them into raw materials is oil extraction. The isolated oil can be used for nutritive or industrial purposes. In this research, the influence of some extraction parameters (time, solvent and granularity of tomato milled seeds) on the fatty acid (FA) composition, water content and water reaction rate has been evaluated. The FA composition of tomato seed oil, determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, has shown a high content of linoleic acid (20.8–39.9 mg/mL), followed by palmitic acid (6.3–19.3 mg/mL), oleic acid (2.5–14.2 mg/mL), linolenic acid (0.7–4.9 mg/mL), stearic acid (0.1–0.8 mg/mL), palmitoleic acid (0.03–0.5 mg/mL), arachidic acid (0.08–0.4 mg/mL), myristic acid (0.05–0.2 mg/mL) and margaric acid (0.02–0.11 mg/mL). The oil content of tomato seeds was registered in the range of 13.3–19.3 %. For evaluation of water content, a method using Karl Fischer titration (KFT) has been established. Comparing with the physical methods that do not distinguish the water content from volatile matter, KFT is an important technique, very accurate, that determines water content by a chemical reaction.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Optimization of effective composting process of oil palm industrial waste
           by lignocellulolytic fungi
    • Abstract: A batch study was carried out to optimize four process parameters such as particle size (1–5 mm), pH (4–7), mix ratio (1:1–1:3) of substrates (empty fruit bunch, EFB and palm oil mill effluent, POME) and supplementary nutrient as non-food cassava starch (0–2 % w/w). The parameters were evaluated based on the results of electrical conductivity, protein content, organic matter and C/N ratio for an effective composting process. The total period of composting was 35–40 days, a shorter time than the traditional composting process (>60 days). The results showed that the 2-mm particle size of EFB was most suitable to grow microbes, gave the highest protein of 85 g kg−1 and degraded fastest (lowest C/N ratio of 16). Substrate ratio 1:3 (EFB and POME) and pH 5.0 were found to be favorable for mature compost through faster degradation (final C/N ratio almost 17) and microbial growth (around 130 g kg−1 of protein). Moreover, non-food cassava used as supplementary nutrients for initial microbial growth was evaluated and did not significantly affect the results.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Hexavalent chromium pollution caused by dumped chromium slag at the urban
           park in Tokyo
    • Abstract: In January 2013, a high concentration of hexavalent chromium was detected in the meltwater at an urban park in Tokyo. A chromate manufacturing plant operated at this location until 1972. The highest concentration value showed was in excess of up to 740 times the Japanese regulation value (0.05 mg L−1). Although 40 years have passed since dumping, highly polluted groundwater is still found today. Heavy rain or snowfall is a trigger for the outbreak of Cr(VI) pollution in this area.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Effects of nitrate concentration on biohydrogen production and substrate
           utilization in dark-fermentation
    • Abstract: Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the nitrate (NO3 −) concentration on the hydrogen production and substrate utilization in a dark fermentation process. The nitrate concentration was varied from 0 to 5,000 mg L−1 in experiments with a mixed culture of anaerobic sludge. Anaerobic sludge was treated with 2 M HCl at pH 2 for the enhanced biohydrogen production. With added NO3 − concentration of 0 g/L, the maximum hydrogen production was 2.2 mol-H2 mol- glucose−1. But, an increase in NO3 − concentration, the hydrogen production decreased to 0.3 from 2.2 mol-H2 mol- glucose−1 at 4,000 mg NO 3 −  L−1. But, in all conditions, more than 90 % of initially added glucose (10 g L−1) was removed and the microbial community structures were observed similarly in every condition and main germinated species was detected as Clostridium perfringens by DNA cloning. As a result, it was confirmed that the high nitrate concentration at the initial stage, glucose was utilized for nitrate removal reaction than hydrogen production.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Effects of sintering temperature on the characteristics of solar panel
           waste glass in the production of ceramic tiles
    • Abstract: This study employs the following operating conditions: constant pressure (5 MPa), sintering temperature (800–1100 °C), sintering time (2 h), percentage of solar panel waste glass by weight (0–40 %), and the rate of heating was 5 °C/min, to fabricate clay tiles. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, and mechanical strength. Fired samples were microstructurally analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Increasing the temperature resulted in a rise in the resistance to abrasion in the tiles. Solar panel waste glass promotes a more effective melting of quartz, leading to a more abundant and less viscous liquid phase, which accelerates the sintering kinetics. In conclusion, solar panel waste glass can be used at 30–40 % with tolerable modifications of the technological behavior and performance of ceramic tiles. Solar panel waste glass has a high content of total fluxing oxides that favor the maturation of the ceramic tile at lower sintering temperatures. Therefore, this waste glass is a good substitute for feldspar in stoneware tile products, as it satisfies the most demanding requirements of the CNS 3299 standard.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Recycling scrap automotive heat shield insulation material
    • Abstract: Automotive heat shields are usually composed of two metal sheets enclosing an insulating material with a paper-like texture that contains refractory ceramic particles. This article discusses the results achieved by recycling the scrap automotive insulation that is discarded in landfills, using the same concept as paper recycling. For comparison with the original product, tests of thickness, bulk density, weight loss on ignition, tensile strength, compressibility, and recovery were performed on recycled materials produced in a so-called “manual” process (involving little automation and performed in adapted facilities) without pressing, and pressed once, twice, and four times. Materials recycled in a so-called “industrial” process (in a paper recycling plant) without pressing, and pressed once were also tested. The recycled materials can be considered approved with respect to the main requirement, thermal insulation, since they dissipated the under-hood temperature by more than 300 °C (like the original product). Like the heat insulation tests, the thermogravimetric analysis suggested that the recycled materials showed higher stability than the original product. Thermogravimetric, microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses indicated that the structural and compositional characteristics of the original product were preserved after recycling.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Evaluation of solid product obtained from tire-derived fuel (TDF)
           pyrolysis as carbon black
    • Abstract: The main focus of this study was quality improvement of solid product obtained from tire-derived fuel (TDF) pyrolysis to use it as a substitute for commercial carbon blacks. First of all, TDF samples were analyzed by means of proximate and ultimate analysis, heating value, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. They were then pyrolyzed at a 400 °C pyrolysis temperature with 5 °C/min heating rate. After that, a two-stage improvement was performed on solid product to reduce its sulfur and ash content to that of commercial carbon black. As a result of this improvement process, the sulfur and ash content of the solid product was reduced to 0.22 and 0.27 % from 1.71 and 12.14 %, respectively. In addition, the XRD, SEM, atomic force microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area, oil adsorption number and ICP-MS/MS analyses were performed for all products. The results were compared with different commercial carbon blacks. It was determined that the properties of the improved products were similar to those of commercial carbon blacks. These results suggest that improved pyrolytic product of TDF can be used as a raw material by industries such as tire, plastic and paint manufacturing.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Erratum to: Case study on municipal solid waste management in Vavuniya
           township: practices, issues and viable management options
    • PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Combination of X-ray transmission and eddy-current testing for the
           closed-loop recycling of aluminum alloys
    • Abstract: In general, aluminum alloys at industrial end-of-life are considerably recycled into aluminum alloys, but they are mostly recycled as alloys for casting because their acceptable concentration limits are not strictly designated and not comparable with those of wrought alloys. This means that recycling from end-of-life wrought alloys to cast alloys has been practiced instead of closed-loop recycling from end-of-life wrought alloys to wrought alloys. The energy required for producing aluminum from recycled aluminum is only 5 % of the energy required for producing aluminum from bauxite. In addition, refining material into wrought aluminum alloys requires many primary aluminum ingots. In terms of saving energy and resources, it would be better if we could conduct closed-loop recycling from end-of-life wrought alloys to wrought alloys. In this study, a combination of X-ray transmission and eddy-current testing is examined with the aim of sorting wrought aluminum alloys. The seven types of wrought aluminum alloys were only sorted into three groups by using X-ray transmission testing and eddy-current testing, while they were sorted into six groups by using a combination of X-ray transmission and eddy-current testing.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Development of wear resistant coatings using LD slag premixed with Al 2 O
    • Abstract: Linz–Donawitz slag (LDS) is a major solid waste generated in huge quantities during steel making. It comes from slag formers, such as burned lime/dolomite and from oxidizing of silica, iron, etc., while refining the iron into steel in the LD furnace. This work aims at utilization of waste LDS to develop surface coatings by plasma spraying technique. This technology has the advantage of being able to process various low-grade ore minerals to obtain value-added products and also to deposit materials, generating near homogeneous coatings with the desired microstructure. Coatings prepared for this investigation are characterized in terms of their thickness and adhesion strength. Coatability of LDS is assessed by finding deposition efficiency. Erosion wear characteristics of these coatings are also studied. Premixing of Al2O3 powder with LDS is found to substantially improve the interfacial adhesion, and the maximum adhesion strength of 33.77 MPa is recorded in such coatings with 30 wt% of Al2O3 content in the LDS–Al2O3 mix. It is found that the operating power levels of the plasma torch affect the adhesion strength, coating deposition efficiency and mean thickness of the coatings. This work opens up a new avenue for utilization of LD slag as a potential coating material.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Utilization of chemically modified apple juice industrial waste for
           removal of Ni 2+ ions from aqueous solution
    • Abstract: Present study was carried out to evaluate feasibility of apple pomace (AP) and its chemical modification with succinic anhydride for removal of Ni2+ ions from water. Maximum adsorption capacity (q max) of AP and chemically modified apple pomace (CMAP) were found to be 83.33 and 256.41 mg g−1, respectively, using Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Negative zeta potential was increased about 44 % on the surface of AP after chemical modification. The amount of adsorbent dose and time were decreased from 0.8 to 0.4 g and 120 to 30 min, respectively. Plausible mechanism supported by FTIR data showed that –OH, –COO, –CO, –C–O–C, –CONH2 and –NH2 groups were involved in adsorption of Ni2+ ions by coordinate bonding with lone pair of negatively charged oxygen and nitrogen groups for AP and CMAP. Negative value of ∆H° indicated exothermic nature of reaction and adsorption decreased as temperature increases from 303 to 333 K. Desorption and regeneration study revealed that CMAP was reused in three cycles, which make biosorbent more economical. By surface modification of AP, adsorption capacity was increased about 3.0-fold than unmodified one.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • An overview of e-waste management in China
    • Abstract: China is one of the largest manufacturers and consumers of electronic products, thus consequently generating a large amount of e-wastes, while the processes of treatment and recycling of e-wastes has resulted in severe adverse environmental and human health impacts in China. Hence, e-waste management in China has aroused widespread concern around the world. In recent years, central and local governments have made great efforts to improve e-waste management in China. New regulations and enterprise cooperation have been encouraged. Considering these developments, an overview is necessary to analyze the current state as well as new possible solutions and challenges regarding e-waste management in China. This study shows that the amount of e-wastes collected and dismantled and the growth rate of five major electronic equipment types from 2000 to 2012 increased sharply. Barriers and suggested solutions related to China’s e-wastes are identified and discussed, followed by policy implications towards improving the overall eco-efficiency of e-wastes.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Assessment of healthcare waste management practices and associated
           problems in Isfahan Province (Iran)
    • Abstract: Few studies have paid close attention to a regional (provincial scale) healthcare waste management, particularly in Iran. An inventory of all 58 healthcare facilities in the province of Isfahan was performed and the results were analyzed using statistical procedures. The results indicated that 36.2, 4.6, and 59.2 % of total wastes produced were infectious, sharp, and general wastes, respectively. Only 20.7 % of medical centers had designated collection vehicles. As for the treatment of medical wastes, only 6.9 % of centers were equipped with autoclave. In terms of tonnage about 10 % of infectious and sharp wastes were treated by incinerators. Collected wastes from 70.7 % of facilities were landfilled in separate trenches, while collected wastes from the remaining 29.3 % centers were disposed together (mixed) with the municipal wastes at the same landfill trenches. The waste generation rates for total waste, general waste, infectious, and sharp wastes were 3.03, 1.84, 0.75, and 0.17 kg/active bed/day, respectively. The main drawbacks of the existing waste management system are the lack of any program for waste minimization, commingling of hazardous and non-hazardous portions of wastes generated at healthcare centers, and the lack of resources (appropriate treatment equipment such as autoclaves and incinerators) and trained personnel.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Nutrient recovery from compostable fractions of municipal solid wastes
           using vermitechnology
    • Abstract: Vermicomposting of organic fraction of compostable municipal waste solids (CMWS) spiked with cow dung at ratio 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % was done using earthworm Eisenia fetida. Pre-composting for 3 weeks followed by vermicomposting caused decrease (fold) in pH (1.06–1.17), organic carbon (1.07–1.36) and C:N ratio (1.60–2.89) and substantial increase (fold) in total N (1.50–2.45), total phosphorous (1.37–1.96), total potassium (1.12–2.09) and trace elements—Ca, Fe, Mn and Zn (1.02–1.32) in waste mixtures. The wastes with 40–60 % fraction of CMWS showed high decomposition and mineralization rate than other treatments. The biomass gain and cocoon production in E. fetida were also monitored in all experimental vermibeds. The earthworm showed better growth rate and reproduction pattern in vermibeds with 40–60 % CMWS. The C:N ratio and chemical composition of end product suggested the suitability of vermicomposting technique to recover valuable plant nutrients from negligible community waste solids for sustainable soil fertility management programme.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Total lead content and its bioaccessibility in base materials of low-cost
           plastic toys bought on the Beijing market
    • Abstract: The neurological hazards of lead are well-known. Few studies have focused on lead content in plastic toys, especially in China. Therefore, this study aimed to determine total lead content in low-cost plastic toys bought in Beijing, based on the bioaccessibility (BA) of lead through an in vitro leaching method. A total of 27 of the 72 items (37.5 %) examined exceeded the American toy safety limit (100 mg/kg), but HCl extraction results showed that all the samples met the Chinese standard (<90 mg/kg). The BA of lead ranged from 0.80 to 8.86 %, with averages of 1.53 ± 0.74, 3.65 ± 1.28, 4.09 ± 1.83 and 2.62 ± 0.82 % for diluted HCl and three other leaching solutions, respectively. Our results indicated that the bioavailability risk of lead in plastic toys might be underestimated, as the HCl extraction was regulated under the standard procedures of toy safety testing. Total Pb content measurement combined with RIVM methods would be helpful in efforts to reduce children’s exposure to toxic heavy metals.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Proximate composition of household waste and applicability of waste
           management technologies by source separation in Hanoi, Vietnam
    • Abstract: The organic fraction of municipal solid wastes in Southeast Asia, which has a high moisture content, accounts for a large proportion of total waste. Local governments need to pay adequate attention to the composition of wastes to determine alternative waste management technologies. This study proposed the use of a triangle diagram to describe changes in proximate composition and rates of successful source separation of municipal solid waste and to identify technical challenges about alternative waste management technologies such as incineration, composting, and refuse-derived fuel production based on physical and proximate composition analysis of household waste sampled in Hanoi, Vietnam, as a case study. The analysis indicated the effectiveness of different types of source separation as well as different levels of successful achievement of source separation as an adjustment mechanism for the proximate composition of waste. Proper categorization of wastes for source separation is necessary for the appropriate use of alternative waste management technologies. The results showed that, at a source separation rate of just greater than 0.52 in a three-way separation scheme, the waste separated as combustible waste would be suitable for incineration with energy recovery. Based on well-designed schemes of source separation, alternative waste management technologies can be applied.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
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