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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.449]   [H-I: 22]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Application of the stoichiometric methane potential obtained by waste
           elemental analysis to landfill gas modeling
    • Authors: Seung-Kyu Chun
      Pages: 738 - 744
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of applying the stoichiometric methane potential using elemental analysis, to landfill gas modeling at the Sudokwon 2nd Landfill Site in South Korea, where most of the household and demolition waste from more than twenty million citizens is disposed. The used model structure is based on the first order decay equation. The theoretical stoichiometric methane potential was corrected by multiplying the ratio of decomposable carbon which was obtained by biochemical decomposable carbon test. Then the optimum reaction constant k was found by sensitivity analysis and the Monte Carlo method. Under these input conditions, the modeling results showed that the discrepancies between the measured and modeled values of total quantity of methane and the mean deviation were 1.6 and 3.2%, respectively. Thus, it can be established that the application of stoichiometric method using elemental analysis data could be a useful methods to apply to landfill gas modeling.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0633-1
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Gasification characteristics of biomass for tar removal by secondary
           oxidant injection
    • Authors: Se-Won Park; Jang-Soo Lee; Won-Seok Yang; Md Tanvir Alam; Yong-Chil Seo; Sang-Yeop Lee
      Pages: 823 - 831
      Abstract: Gasification experiments for sawdust were conducted using a fixed bed reactor at 900 °C by varying the secondary oxidant injection ratio to determine the optimal conditions for tar removal along with the enhancement of gasification efficiency. Secondary oxidant was injected as an oxidant at the top zone of the gasifier in varying ratios of 10–30% of the total amount of oxidant. This method was based on the primary method of tar removal and gasification efficiency improvement by thermal cracking of tar. Various gasification performance parameters were evaluated and tar content was estimated by measuring the fluctuation of weight of the activated carbon filter. The results showed that the concentration of tar in the producer gas decreased by injecting the secondary oxidant, even though syngas yield decreased. The recycling potential of the char produced in the gasification experiments was also assessed with the purpose of utilizing char as an adsorbent by determining its surface area and pore volume. The results demonstrated that the char produced from the gasification experiment had similar quality to that of the activated carbon used in this experiment.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0642-0
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Fly ash from biomass combustion as replacement raw material and its
           influence on the mortars durability
    • Authors: R. C. E. Modolo; L. Senff; V. M. Ferreira; L. A. C. Tarelho; C. A. M. Moraes
      Pages: 1006 - 1015
      Abstract: Several types of industrial solid waste have been used as byproducts in the construction and materials industries. Some of the applications seem to be required from the environmental point of view as a contribution to circular economy. Nevertheless, durability of materials should be assessed to avoid future problems. This work evaluated the fly ash from forest biomass combustion as a potential additive replacing calcite in Portland cement-based mortars. Cement-based mortar formulations were prepared and characterized in the fresh and hardened states. In particular, the durability of samples cured for 1 year was assessed based on sulfate attack. Mortars cured for 360 days were pre-weighted and then totally immersed in a solution containing a well-defined concentration of sulfate. Seven-day immersion + drying cycles were carried out, and weight was determined after each cycle. Liquid solutions containing sulfate were renewed every 14 days. One set sample was kept soaked in tap water to be used as reference. The results revealed that replacing 20% of calcite by fly ash seems to be a suitable alternative concerning mechanical strength. However, sulfate attack tests showed that strength rapidly deteriorates using fly ashes as a replacement raw material.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0662-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Drying characteristics of thickened sewage sludge in oil vacuum
           evaporation system
    • Authors: Seok-Hwan Kim; Byung-Ran Lim; Soo-Koo Lee
      Pages: 1085 - 1089
      Abstract: In the current work, drying characteristics of thickened sludge was investigated with respect to drying conditions in oil vacuum evaporation system. The drying characteristics were confirmed by measuring the amount of condensate with 1-min interval. Results showed that the type of mixing oil changed thermal characteristics. The evaporation rate and drying efficiencies of waste cooking oil showed better results rather than other refined oils. From the TG and DTA test results, the ignition temperature varied depending on oil type. The ignition temperature of drying sludge with refined oil was lower than that with waste cooking oil and raw sludge. The moisture content of dried sludge mixed with oil was less than 3%, however, the sludge dried without any oil showed much higher moisture content of 53.7%. This study showed that sludge-derived fuel from the newly developed oil vacuum drying process can be widely used as a renewable energy source.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0671-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Survey of quantity and management condition of end-of-life tires in Iran:
           a case study in Tabriz
    • Authors: Mahsa Zarei; Hassan Taghipour; Yousef Hassanzadeh
      Pages: 1099 - 1105
      Abstract: Once a tire is removed from a vehicle without the possibility of being remounted for continued on-road use, it is defined as waste and called end-of-life tire (ELT). ELTs are non-biodegradable, cannot be compressed and occupy large amount of space in landfills. Dumped tires provide breeding grounds for vectors and rodents and are susceptible to fire hazards. Numerous actions have been taken to manage ELTs worldwide; however, in Iran, there has not been much attention given to the issue. The goal of this study was to survey quantity and management conditions of ELTs and present managing principles according to the environmental and health aspects in Iran (a case study in Tabriz). The amount of ELTs in Iran was estimated by considering the production, import, export and life of tires. Next the current ELT management condition in Tabriz City was investigated using a checklist, observation, site visiting and interview. Then by considering scientific sources and also, according to experiences in other countries and current conditions, managing principles were suggested. Results showed that 198,346–339,678 tonnes of ELTs have been produced in Iran during 2003–2015 that equals 2.95–4.52 kg per capita per year. The amount of ELTs has had almost increasing trend during last 13 years. About 6390 tonnes of ELTs annually in Tabriz City are landfilled or dumped, which can create great hazards to the health and environment. Based on the results of this study, for improving the current condition of ELTs, first, the ELT production must be reduced and then ELTs must be reused or recycled. Moreover, landfilling of ELTs should be banned gradually and extended producer responsibility (EPR) system must be implemented for their management.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0674-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Solar pyrolysis of scrap tire: optimization of operating parameters
    • Authors: M. A. Rahman; M. A. Aziz
      Pages: 1207 - 1215
      Abstract: Pyrolysis of scrap tire using concentrated solar radiation is a novel way to upgrade feedstock. In this investigation, best operating condition for maximizing pyro-oil yield was determined. The parameters varied were the temperature of the reactor, flow rate of nitrogen gas and size of the feed particles. The maximum pyro-oil yield was 52 wt% at 400 °C of reactor temperature and nitrogen flow rate of 6 lpm for a feed size of 4 cm3. The pyro-oil and char were characterized according to ASTM standards. This research showed the feasibility of converting scrap tire into pyro-oil by using solar energy via pyrolysis and analysis showed the potential of pyro-oil and char as a valuable source of chemicals. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0686-1
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Eco-efficient recycling of drinking water treatment sludge and glass
           waste: development of ceramic bricks
    • Authors: Olga Kizinievič; Viktor Kizinievič; Renata Boris; Giedrius Girskas; Jurgita Malaiškienė
      Pages: 1228 - 1238
      Abstract: Current management for drinking water treatment sludge and glass waste is insufficient, and a new method is needed. We sought to develop a new approach for effective management. This work analyses the application possibilities of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) and windows glass waste (GW) to be used for the production of ceramic products. DWTS and GW are renewable, ecological and economical waste additives which save raw materials. Ceramic body with (40–60) of DWTS and (10–40) of GW additives have been burnt at 900 and 1000 °C temperatures. It is determined that DWTS and GW have an impact on physical–mechanical properties of ceramic body (density, compressive strength, water absorption, porosity) and change macro- and microstructure. DWTS additive also acts as natural colouring pigment. The work proposes eco-efficient application way of drinking water treatment sludge and windows glass waste, it solves exportation of DWTS and GW to landfills problems and positively affects regional ecological balance.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0688-z
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Microwave-enhanced sub-critical hydrolysis of rice straw to produce
           reducing sugar catalyzed by ionic liquid
    • Authors: Jinyang Chen; Chao Zhang; Mingli Li; Jingmin Chen; Yingdi Wang; Fengfan Zhou
      Pages: 1364 - 1370
      Abstract: The grain industry produces a great amount of rice straw, one of agricultural wastes. Because cellulose and hemicelluloses are rich in straw, it is also a main renewable biomass resource which can be converted to ethanol fuel. An effective and profitable process at relatively mild temperature under microwave heating with green solvent of ionic liquid ([Amim]Cl) as catalyst to produce reducing sugars from the hydrolysis of straw has both economical and environmental benefit. When the straw was hydrolyzed at relatively mild temperatures ranging from 140 to 220 °C and autogenous pressure by the intensification of microwave heating, the main hydrolysis products were determined to be glucose and xylose. With weight ratio of water/straw 40, weight content of ionic liquid (IL) in IL–water mixture 10%, temperature 180 °C and reaction time 60 min, the yield of glucose and xylose can attain 29.1 and 24.3%, respectively. The new method can not only obtain high yield of reducing sugar owing to their low degradation, but also remain high efficiency with microwave heating intensification and IL [Amin]Cl as catalyst.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0628-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Erratum to: Quality improvement of recycled fine aggregate using steel
           ball with the help of acid treatment
    • Authors: Ha-Seog Kim; Jin-Man Kim; Byoungil Kim
      Pages: 1371 - 1371
      Abstract: There is a need to promote high-value added utilization of recycled aggregates, considering the aspect of effective use. It should be noted, however, that recycled fine aggregates are generally low in quality due to the presence of cement paste attached to the aggregate surface.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0664-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Environmentally sustainable applications of agro-based spent mushroom
           substrate (SMS): an overview
    • Authors: Fatimah Hafifah Mohd Hanafi; Shahabaldin Rezania; Shazwin Mat Taib; Mohd Fadhil Md Din; Masahito Yamauchi; Mariko Sakamoto; Hirofumi Hara; Junboum Park; Shirin Shafiei Ebrahimi
      Abstract: Agricultural wastes such as lignocellulosic residues are renewable resources can be used for mushroom cultivation. Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is defined as leftover of biomass generated by commercial mushroom industries after harvesting period of mushroom. Mushroom cultivation using agricultural wastes promises a good quality of SMS for producing beneficial products such as animal feeding and fertilizers. Based on the published papers, the major applications of SMS are animal feedstock, fertilizer, energy production and wastewater treatment. For instance, some species of mushroom such as Pleurotus spp. and Agaricus bisporus are suitable for applications of ruminant feedstock and fertilizers. This paper reviews the recent studies about the beneficial usage of SMS which is considered as a waste since 2013.
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0739-0
  • Application of analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to assess options of
           energy recovery from municipal solid waste: a case study in Tehran, Iran
    • Authors: Afshin Khoshand; Hamidreza Kamalan; Hamidreza Rezaei
      Abstract: In the current study, a model was established based on AHP method for assessment of different alternatives for energy recovery from the waste in Tehran. The selected criteria include water quality, soil quality, air quality, habitat depletion, occupational health and safety, aesthetic, noise, technical feasibility, and economic issues. To establish a database for an assessment in this case study, a questionnaire survey for lay person and institutional experts in central Tehran municipality was carried out. Determining the relative importance of each alternative of energy recovery from waste (including LFG energy, anaerobic digestion, incineration, TPS Termiska gasification, and Columbus Battelle gasification) in terms of each criterion was assessed. Finally, to ascertain the robustness of the obtained results, sensitivity analyses were performed. The results indicated the best suitable alternative is anaerobic digestion due to better environmental and economic aspects comparing to the other options while LFG energy was ranked as the last alternative due to significant environmental challenges. Moreover, the results of sensitivity analyses show anaerobic digestion is the most stable alternative in comparison to the other alternatives and LFG energy is the least stable alternative with great weights fluctuations.
      PubDate: 2018-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0736-3
  • Anaerobic digestion of fish waste and seagrass/macroalgae: potential
           sustainable waste management for tropical Small Island Developing States
    • Authors: Nadeem Nazurally
      Abstract: This study presents the preliminary investigation of the biogas production potential from fish wastes (FW) and seagrass (SG) mixed with macroalgae (MA). Substrates were prepared for total solids of 10–12% and were analysed in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) assays. The inoculum used in all BMPs was acclimated sludge in a ratio of 1:3 for inoculum to substrate on a mass basis. There were effectively four vessel reactors (VRs) with different compositions: VR1 100% fish wastes, VR2 60% fish wastes and 40% seagrass/macroalgae, VR3 40% fish wastes and 60% seagrass/macroalgae, and VR4 100% seagrass/macroalgae. VR5 acted as control with 100% inoculum. The maximum cumulative biogas productions (CBPs) reached 8288 ml for VR1, 8410 ml for VR2, 4236 ml for VR3 and 2746 ml for VR4 with a concentration of methane gas of 61.1, 65.07, 68.07, and 53.28%, respectively. One-way ANOVA test results (p < 0.05) indicated that there was significant difference in the variations in VS, salinity, COD, soluble COD and cumulative biogas production amongst the test vessel reactors. This potential for biogas production represents a clean source of cheap fuel for sustainable development in Small Island Developing States having aquaculture and seafood industries along coastal regions.
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0738-1
  • Laboratory investigation on high- and low-temperature performances of
           asphalt mastics modified by waste oil shale ash
    • Authors: Wensheng Wang; Yongchun Cheng; Guojin Tan; Ziyu Liu; Chenglin Shi
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to use two kinds of waste oil shale ash (OSA) as partial replacements of conventional mineral filler for evaluating high- and low-temperature performances of asphalt mastics. First, asphalt mastics with conventional mineral filler replacement by OSA (OSA/MF) of 0, 10, 15, 30% by volume based on filler–asphalt (F/A) ratios of 0.8, 1.1, 1.4 were prepared. Then, based on the measured penetration, softening point and ductility of modified asphalt mastics, the overall desirability analysis was adopted to determine the optimal OSA/MF. Subsequently, the high-temperature and low-temperature properties of asphalt mastics with the optimal OSA/MF were studied through dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and bending beam rheometer (BBR) tests. Results indicated that OSA could improve the high-temperature stability but reduces the temperature susceptibility of asphalt mastics, whereas the asphalt consistency is influenced insignificantly. Besides, the high- and low-temperature properties of asphalt mastics could be improved by the addition of OSA and the oil shale semi-coke (OSSC) modified asphalt mastic is slightly better than oil shale fly ash (OSFA) modified asphalt mastic in some aspects. Based on these results, the optimum F/A ratios could be obtained to enhance the high-temperature and low-temperature properties of asphalt mastics.
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0737-2
  • Approach to the management of magnesium slag via the production of
           Portland cement clinker
    • Authors: Haoxin Li; Yuyan Huang; Xiaojie Yang; Zhengwu Jiang; Zhenghong Yang
      Abstract: This work aims to develop another approach to the management of magnesium slag (MS) via the production of Portland cement clinker. Thus, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% limestone was replaced by MS and the clinker was sintered. The burnability of the clinker, immobilization of heavy metals in the clinker, crystalline phases, micrograph of the clinker, the setting time of paste, compressive strength and leachability of heavy metals in the hardened paste were investigated to assess the feasibility of disposing the MS via production of Portland cement clinker. The results show that MS is favourable for improving the burnability of the clinker. The heavy metals from MS are stabilized/immobilized in clinker. MgO and CaF2 in MS increase the quantity of the liquid phase. All major phases of Portland cement appear in all clinkers with MS. However, the content of C3S in the clinker is related to the MS content. Less than 30% MS shortens the setting times of cement and increases the compressive strength for the increment of the C3S content in these clinkers. Excessive MgO and CaF2 lead to the decrease of C3S and appearance of unconventional cement phases of α-C2S and γ-C2S in MS4 and MS5. Thus, the setting times of MS4 and MS5 are prolonged, and their compressive strengths are also reduced. Heavy metals in clinkers are immobilized or stabilized in hydrated matrices. MS disposal via the production of Portland cement as a raw material alternative is also environmentally safe.
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0735-4
  • Landfill leachate assessment by hydrological and geophysical data: case
           study NamSon, Hanoi, Vietnam
    • Authors: N. V. Giang; K. Kochanek; N. T. Vu; N. B. Duan
      Abstract: The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of the NamSon landfill on subsurface geological structure and hydrological environment by geophysical techniques and hydrochemical analysis of surface and groundwater. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), self-potential (SP) and very low frequency (VLF) methods were used for the investigation of geological structure near the landfill. Three profiles (900 m long in total) of the two-dimensional ERT, VLF density sections and 180 SP data points scattered throughout the study area near the disposal site constituted the basis of the data used in analysis. Additionally, surface water and groundwater samples were collected from six sites in the area for the chemical analysis. Interpretations of geophysical data show a low resistivity zone (< 15 Ωm), which appears to be a fully saturated zone with leachate from landfill. The results of the geophysical investigations are not always fully confirmed by the results of hydrochemical analysis. The quality of water in the vicinity of the landfill dramatically decreased over the year (2015–2016) and actions should be taken to inverse this negative trend.
      PubDate: 2018-04-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0732-7
  • Socio-demographic determinants of municipal waste generation: case study
           of the Czech Republic
    • Authors: Kristýna Rybová; Jan Slavík; Boris Burcin; Jana Soukopová; Tomáš Kučera; Alena Černíková
      Abstract: Increasing pressure of the European Union on diverting municipal waste from landfills requires an active role of households and commands a radical change of their behavior. Knowledge of behavioral patterns enables an effective design of municipal waste management systems. Based on several factors influencing environmental behavior, this paper aims at analyzing differences in municipal waste generation among Czech municipalities using socio-demographic factors. A set of 12 characteristics for 5445 Czech municipalities was investigated. Using ordinary least squares regression, we developed a model with eight indicators describing household size, gender, completed education level and diverse housing characteristics. Even though the model explains only 5.1% of waste generation variability among Czech municipalities, it is statistically significant. Other factors such as age or population density do not improve the model significantly. The resulting model will be used as a basis for further spatial analysis.
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0734-5
  • Tailoring mesoporosity of poly(furfuryl alcohol)-based activated carbons
           and their ability to adsorb organic compounds from water
    • Authors: Ewa Lorenc-Grabowska; Piotr Rutkowski
      Abstract: In this work it was shown that polymers can be recycled into a promising adsorbent for organic dyes and phenols waste removal. For this, a series of activated carbons (ACs) were produced from mixture of ferrocene or titanium acetylacetonate with poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) by steam activation. The introduction of ferrocene as Fe precursor was found to be an efficient catalyst in mesoporosity development during carbonization and subsequent steam activation at 850 °C, whereas the polymer based only and titanium-doped ACs are typically microporous. The porous structure parameters were determined from nitrogen adsorption isotherms measured at 77 K. Scanning electron microscopy was applied to monitor the metal distribution of metal-loaded char and the surface morphology of activated carbons. The adsorption capacity was found to be dependent mainly on pore size distribution. In the case of phenol adsorption, the adsorption was defined by volume of pore with size 0.8–1.4 nm; whereas, for Congo red best fit was observed for volume of pore with size 2–5 nm.
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0733-6
  • Establishment of unit generation rates of building debris in Kathmandu
           Valley, Nepal, after the Gorkha earthquake
    • Authors: Raju Poudel; Yasuhiro Hirai; Misuzu Asari; Shin-ichi Sakai
      Abstract: Significant quantities of building waste were generated from collapsed residential and dilapidated buildings as a result of the disastrous Gorkha earthquake in Nepal on April 25, 2015. In this study, in relation to the field damage investigation of the earthquake hit area and based on the building types, different types of building waste produced from each building are estimated and evaluated. An estimation procedure was established to assess the amount of debris resulting from earthquake. In Kathmandu Valley, different types of buildings generated different quantities of building waste per unit area, and the values for these building types ranged from 1.90 to 3.23 ton m− 2 in weight and 0.89 to 1.57 m3 m− 2 in volume respectively. Residential buildings in Nepal generated a larger amount of waste per unit area (ton m− 2) than buildings in Japan and China. Waste amounts (excluding that in the foundation) generated by public reinforced concrete buildings in Nepal were similar to the amounts generated by reinforced concrete buildings in Japan and China. Wooden buildings had the highest volume per unit area of building waste in Japan, as compared to those in Nepal and Sri Lanka. These results can be used to estimate the amount of building debris that must be cleared for emergency response after a disaster. This information is vital to pre-disaster planning to establish disaster management protocols for smooth recovery operations.
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0731-8
  • Utilization of post-production waste from fruit processing for energetic
           purposes: analysis of Polish potential and case study
    • Authors: Adam J. Lipiński; Seweryn Lipiński; Paweł Kowalkowski
      Abstract: There is no doubt that waste products from fruit and vegetable processing are difficult to manage. In that context, partial substitution of conventional energy substrates by industrial waste is an alternative, as it helps to utilize residues and at the same time to reduce the fixed cost of running business. The aim of the article is to analyse the possibilities of using fruit processing wastes for energy purposes in Poland. The assessment on a country scale was based on the data of the Central Statistical Office. Analogical analysis was based on the data collected from selected production plant. The obtained results show that the fruit processing waste can be successfully utilized for energy purposes. At the same time, problems of organizational nature should not be overlooked, as they can significantly decrease that potential. Although the amount of energy obtained from this source is basically negligible in the Polish energy balance, the environmental factor should not be ignored also. Therefore, the utilization of waste products from fruit processing should be a topic of interest, as it works in two ways, i.e., through reducing the amount of waste and increasing production of renewable energy.
      PubDate: 2018-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0729-2
  • Production of activated carbon from walnut shell by CO 2 activation in a
           fluidized bed reactor and its adsorption performance of copper ion
    • Authors: Long Wu; Zhongsheng Shang; Hui Wang; Wenjie Wan; Xinyuan Gao; Zhanyong Li; Noriyuki Kobayashi
      Abstract: Low-cost and effective activated carbon for copper ion adsorption was prepared from walnut shell by CO2 activation in a fluidized bed. The effects of activation temperature and activation time on the specific surface area and yield were investigated. The adsorption performance of copper ion on walnut shell-derived activated carbons was examined in details. BET, SEM, FT-IR and XPS were used to determine the pore structure, morphology and surface chemistry of activated carbons obtained. Under the optimal condition (i.e., activation temperature of 900 °C and activation time of 90 min) the activated carbon with maximum specific surface area of 1011 m2/g and largest pore volume of 0.65 cm3/g with uniform micropores structure (Vmicro/VTotal was more than 80%) could be produced. Changes in surface functional groups of activated carbon were observed, and the contents of carboxyl groups (–COOH) increased significantly after activation process, which is very favorable for copper ion adsorption. The kinetics for copper ion adsorption followed the Pseudo-second-order model.
      PubDate: 2018-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-018-0730-9
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