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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
   [5 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 0.327]   [H-I: 13]
  • Microstructure properties of waste tire rubber composites: an overview
    • Abstract: Abstract More than 1.5 billion tires are produced worldwide per year. This causes environmental pollution in the nature. Studies have shown that scrap tire rubbers can be used as aggregates in concrete mixtures and as modifiers in bituminous composites. Various studies were conducted for this reason and reported in the literature. The present study has been undertaken to examine the microstructure properties of rubberized asphalt and cement-based composites. Results showed that adhesion between rubber particles and cement matrix is significant for the final product properties. Also the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt composites can be improved with the addition of waste rubber into the mixture.
      PubDate: 2014-05-20
  • Generation and management of electrical–electronic waste (e-waste)
           in Turkey
    • Abstract: Abstract Today, technology is characterized with speed and consistent improvement concepts. The speed of this change and improvement causes devices out of date in a short time, and creates a new waste type related waste piles growing every day. Management of these wastes is critical both for their economic values and raw material sustainability; however for a rational sustainable waste management, we have to determine the amount of waste at first. Although it is known that massive amounts of e-waste are being generated worldwide, in a lot of countries there are no reliable results about these amounts. The potential of the communities generating e-waste changes depending on their technological tendency, life standards and especially for developing countries, scrap export. Half of Turkey’s population is younger than 30 and the country has a big group of potential technology users. There are nearly 67.7 million mobile phone subscribers countrywide. Besides, 47.2 % of the households have internet access, 58.9 % have computer, 90.77 % have television, 98.66 % have refrigerator and 95.06 % have washing machine. This study tries to explain the technological familiarity of Turkey’s population and their technological product possession together with related e-waste production potential. Study also calculates the estimated e-waste amounts raised by years.
      PubDate: 2014-05-13
  • Conductive pulp fiber sheet-prepared waste newspaper pulp fibers treated
           by electroless nickel plating and its electric field shielding effect
    • Abstract: Abstract In order to explore new applications of recovered waste paper, we prepared electrically conductive fibers by plating waste newspaper pulp (WNP) fibers. Further, we mixed them with unplated WNP fibers and filtered the mixture to obtain a conductive pulp fiber sheet, which was to be used for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) purposes. For the plating of WNP fibers, we used an electroless nickel plating method. We also plated pulp fibers recovered from fine paper, pulp fibers recovered from milk carton, and bleached softwood kraft pulp fibers, which were used for comparison with the plated WNP fibers. All of the four types of plated, recovered waste paper pulp fibers had high conductivity, i.e., an electrical conductivity of 0.1 S/m or more and a conductance of 0.02 S or more. The conductive pulp fiber sheet made of WNP fibers had an electric field shielding effect of 30 dB or more at 10–1000 MHz, provided that the ratio of the plated WNP fibers in the sheet was 40 % or more. Therefore, our conductive WNP fiber sheet is effective in EMC.
      PubDate: 2014-05-13
  • Prevention of waste from unsolicited mail in households: measuring the
           effect of anti-advertising stickers in Barcelona
    • Abstract: Abstract Unsolicited mail (also called junk mail) received by households is a potential source for the application of waste prevention measures. There are insufficient systematic studies on the potential reduction of this kind of waste and on the effects of certain policies for its reduction. The present research presents the results of an assessment of the effectiveness of anti-advertisement stickers in Barcelona, as a way of preventing waste generation. 50 households from 25 buildings were monitored during a period of 3 months. The retrieved advertising material was weighted and classified into addressed and unaddressed material, and into several categories of the activities being advertised. The number of units of advertising material was also calculated. The statistical analysis (which includes a pairwise analysis within buildings in order to isolate the effect of the sticker) concludes that the use of stickers could prevent between 0.31 and 0.36 kg/inhabitant/year, which represents around 43 % of all unsolicited advertising and 0.4 % of all paper waste generated in Barcelona.
      PubDate: 2014-05-13
  • Analysis of reduction stage of chemical looping packed bed reactor based
           on the reaction front distribution
    • Abstract: Abstract Traditional combustion of syngas derived from biomass has incurred numerous environmental problems, and syngas chemical looping combustion is environmentally friendly for syngas energy conversion. As a key part of chemical looping combustion, reactor configuration is noticeable. The dynamically operated packed bed reactor is an emerging conception applied to chemical looping combustion. Our attention is paid to the conversion of the oxygen carrier in the packed bed as the limited maximum conversion of the oxygen carrier in a packed bed is unclear. In this paper, the reaction front distribution during iron oxide reduced by CO is firstly proposed on the basis of chemical equilibrium and then validated by the effluent gas profile. Based on the reaction front distribution, the detail of the reduction stage in iron-based chemical looping combustion is analyzed to obtain the characteristics of reaction fronts. The reaction rates of reduction from Fe2O3 to Fe3O4, Fe3O4 to Fe0.947O and Fe0.947O to Fe are 5.280, 3.329 and 4.379 mol m−3 s−1, respectively. And the velocities of reaction front I, II, III are 0.605, 0.326, 0.044 cm min−1, respectively, which demonstrate the reaction front distribution. The methodology established in this paper can be used to study multiple reaction front system in the packed bed reactor.
      PubDate: 2014-05-10
  • Spatial characteristics of municipal solid waste generation and its
           influential spatial factors on a city scale: a case study of Xiamen, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Urban planners require an understanding of the spatial patterns of municipal solid waste generation to design policies for various locales within the city. Many of the previous studies used demographic and socioeconomic factors as the determinants, but few of them focused on the influential spatial factors such as land use and building coverage. In this study, we used global and local spatial autocorrelation tools to reveal the spatial pattern of MSW generation inside an island city in China. Correlation analysis and linear regression were then applied to identify influential factors including population, land use and building coverage. Results showed that (1) there were significant mirror global spatial autocorrelations for MSW quantities and densities; (2) local spatial autocorrelations revealed that the MSW hot spots were concentrated in the early industrial zones and the old downtown; and (3) total and seasonal MSW was predominantly determined by people’s socioeconomic activities better reflected by C&R land or commercial land and vacant land. Different sources of MSW had some distinctive significant influential factors which reflect their differences in socioeconomic activities. We believe that those significant models constructed from the identified influential spatial factors could provide quick, useful and low-cost decision support for MSW management.
      PubDate: 2014-05-09
  • Fuzzy optimization of a waste-to-energy network system in an
           eco-industrial park
    • Abstract: Abstract The Ulsan Eco-Industrial Park (EIP) in South Korea houses as many as 1,000 companies, which generate about 524,000 t/year of organic waste. Of this total, 34 % is recycled, 8 % is incinerated with energy recovery, and the rest (58 %) is disposed of by ocean dumping (45 %), landfilling (11 %), or incineration without energy recovery (2 %). Although 42 % of the total waste generated at Ulsan EIP is recycled for material and energy recovery, additional opportunities to recover energy from improperly disposed of or incompletely utilized waste are possible through existing waste-to-energy (WTE) networks. To find an optimal WTE network in the Ulsan EIP, a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming mathematical model was developed to meet energy supply and demand (in terms of both quantity and grade) while considering the satisfaction level of potential stakeholders (e.g., the EIP initiator and tenants). The developed model was applied to two different scenarios that considered the requirements of EIP tenants for waste treatment and energy recovery. Based on the satisfaction level of the stakeholders, the WTE networks were analyzed to establish an optimal WTE network with maximum energy production and a minimal payback period.
      PubDate: 2014-05-08
  • Use of waste copper slag, a sustainable material
    • Abstract: Abstract The utilization of solid waste is the challenge for the civil and environmental engineers to utilize the waste from different industry to excel the sustainable development, and in the same time, it is matching with the cost concern of the present materials. Copper slag is a by-product obtained during smelting and refining of copper. The waste copper slag can be used as abrasive tools, road construction, and ballast. Despite increasing rate of reusing copper slag, the huge amount of its annual production is disposed in dumps or stockpiles to date. One of the greatest potential applications for reusing copper slag is in cement and concrete production. Many researchers have investigated the use of copper slag in the production of cement, mortar, and concrete as mixed with lime stone powder, dust, cement replacement, use as partial replacement of coarse, and fine aggregates. The use of copper slag in cement and concrete provides potential environmental as well as economic benefits for all related industries, particularly in areas where a considerable amount of copper slag is produced. This paper reviews the application area of copper slag and its allowable use in different activities.
      PubDate: 2014-05-03
  • An overview of e-waste management in China
    • Abstract: Abstract China is one of the largest manufacturers and consumers of electronic products, thus consequently generating a large amount of e-wastes, while the processes of treatment and recycling of e-wastes has resulted in severe adverse environmental and human health impacts in China. Hence, e-waste management in China has aroused widespread concern around the world. In recent years, central and local governments have made great efforts to improve e-waste management in China. New regulations and enterprise cooperation have been encouraged. Considering these developments, an overview is necessary to analyze the current state as well as new possible solutions and challenges regarding e-waste management in China. This study shows that the amount of e-wastes collected and dismantled and the growth rate of five major electronic equipment types from 2000 to 2012 increased sharply. Barriers and suggested solutions related to China’s e-wastes are identified and discussed, followed by policy implications towards improving the overall eco-efficiency of e-wastes.
      PubDate: 2014-04-29
  • Overview on industrial recycling technologies and management strategies of
           end-of-life fluorescent lamps in Taiwan and other developed countries
    • Abstract: Abstract In Taiwan, fluorescent lamps are most commonly used luminescent material for lighting purposes. Under current regulations of the waste disposal act of Taiwan, manufacturers and importers of fluorescent lamps must pay a scrap lamp processing fee of $0.87 USD/kg to the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) to support recycling. After collection of this processing fee, the EPA is then responsible for managing the process. Currently, a maximum subsidy of $0.96 USD/kg can be obtained by an eligible recycling plant if its valuable-material recovery rate is greater than 90 % and the mercury recovery rate exceeds 50 % from end-of-life fluorescent lamps. The end-of-life fluorescent lamp recycling process consists of removing the aluminum cap and lead-containing glass on both ends of the straight tube by cutting and subsequently blowing off the fluorescent powder contained therein, collecting the mercury vapor and the powder, and distilling the powder to recover mercury. This paper introduces the related knowledge of the management of end-of-life fluorescent lamp tubes, the recycling or reprocessing technologies and policies in Taiwan and other nations, where the information is provided for authorities as reference material; subsequent policies can then be taken into effect to reduce the environmental impact of fluorescent lamp tubes on Taiwan.
      PubDate: 2014-04-23
  • Electromagnetic interference shielding boards produced using Tetra Paks
           waste and iron fiber
    • Abstract: Abstract Tetra Pak packages (Tetra paks) are one of typical paper/plastic/aluminum composites and widely used in soft drinks and dairy product markets. However, after its service life, serious environmental problems generate due to its non-biodegradable nature. In this paper, a novel electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding board was developed using recycled Tetra paks waste with addition of iron fibers. The influence of fiber loading level, fiber length and number of iron fiber layer within the matrix on EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) and volume resistivity (VR) was investigated. The results indicated that fiber loading level, fiber length and number of iron fiber layer affected EMI shielding properties significantly. SE increased with the increasing fiber loading, fiber length and number of fiber layer, and VR had an opposite tendency. For the board with 5 mm thickness, the percolation threshold of fiber loading was between 0.008 and 0.02 % (weight of iron fiber/weight of Tetra paks). The boards had excellent total EMI shielding performance in range of 9000 Hz–200 MHz and 600–1500 MHz. This value-added product could be used in packaging, construction and other application fields and exhibited both environmental and economic advantages. It also could be considered as a step toward paper/plastic/aluminum composite waste management and preventing municipal solid wastes environmental pollution.
      PubDate: 2014-04-22
  • Carbon fiber recovery using water and benzyl alcohol in subcritical and
           supercritical conditions for chemical recycling of thermoset composite
    • Abstract: Abstract Recovery of carbon fibers by recycling thermoset composites is highly desirable from both economic and environmental perspectives. This reduces waste disposal of scrap from production parts and end-of-life products. In this study, benzyl alcohol and water in subcritical and supercritical conditions were used to recover carbon fibers from composite materials for potential reuse in high-performance components. The reaction temperature and time duration were the experimental parameters. The methods were evaluated by measurement of the decomposition rate of epoxy resin, which reached up to 89.1 and 93.7 % with supercritical water and subcritical benzyl alcohol, respectively. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis showed complete separation of the composites as indicated by the clean recovered carbon fibers.
      PubDate: 2014-04-20
  • A novel solidification technique for fluorine-contaminated bassanite using
           waste materials in ground improvement applications
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigates the development of solidification technology, based on the formation of ettringite, for fluorine-contaminated bassanite using waste and recycled materials. Recycled bassanite is mixed with coal ash, blast furnace slag and furnace cement type B in varying proportions to obtain the optimal ettringite production, based on the chemical response. Leaching tests are performed on the different admixtures to measure the solubility of fluorine. Scan electron microscope and X-ray diffraction tests are conducted on the samples to explore the formation and intensity of ettringite. The results show that the suggested admixture has a significant effect on the production of ettringite and increasing the cement content in the admixture increases the formation of ettringite. The increase of the ratio of cement in the admixture has a clear effect on the production of ettringite and the reduction of fluorine solubility compared to the case of cement–bassanite mixture. Both size and length of ettringite crystals increase with an increase in the ratio of cement-admixture/bassanite and intensity of ettringite in the material matrix. The solubility of fluorine decreases with the increase of admixture content because of the concomitant increase in the production of ettringite. The dimensions of the ettringite crystals have a significant effect on the reduction of the solubility of fluorine, i.e., an increase in ettringite prisms size decreases the fluorine solubility. The investigated limits of the suggested admixture do not show any adverse effect on the geo-environmental properties in terms of fluorine release. The suggested admixture is recommended as a stabiliser material for soft clay soil because it is environmentally friendly, economical and meets the environmental standards.
      PubDate: 2014-04-20
  • Effect of pressure and temperature on the hydropyrolysis of cotton residue
    • Abstract: Abstract With growing concerns of fossil fuel resources availability and the volatility of crude oil price, it is becoming imperative day by day to utilize the renewable sources of energy in a sustainable, environment friendly and energy efficient manner. India is the world’s second largest producer of cotton after China. India also has several agricultural and forest residues, and cotton residue is one of the most abundant agricultural residues after rice and wheat residues. The hydropyrolysis of cotton residues has been carried out at various pressures (1, 20 and 40 bar) and temperatures (300, 350, 400 and 450 °C). The effects of temperature and pressure have been studied to understand their yield patterns, and it has been observed that 20 bar pressure and 400 °C are the optimum conditions. The thermogravimetric analysis shows that cotton residue has two significant decomposition temperatures. The SEM, XRD patterns and FT-IR spectra clearly indicate the decomposition of the macromolecular structure of the cotton residue and formation of low molecular weight hydrocarbons suitable for various applications.
      PubDate: 2014-04-16
  • Conversion of LDPE into transportation fuels by a two-stage process using
           Ni/Al-SBA-15 as catalyst
    • Abstract: Abstract Ni/Al-SBA-15 catalysts with Si/Al atomic ratios within the 20–135 range were prepared by a post synthesis grafting procedure, having nickel contents between 6 and 11 %. The addition of Ni to the Al-SBA-15 support caused a decrease of the BET surface area and pore volume. Additionally, larger Ni particles were attained over the catalysts with higher Si/Al atomic ratios, indicating the existence of some interaction between aluminium species and nickel particles. Ni/Al-SBA-15 catalysts displayed remarkable properties for the preparation of diesel fuels in the hydroreforming of the oils obtained from the LDPE thermal cracking. On increasing the Si/Al atomic ratios of the Ni/Al-SBA-15 catalysts, higher share of light and heavy diesel were attained, the sum reaching a maximum (67.3 %) for Ni/Al-SBA-15(70). This was caused by the higher extent of oligomerization reactions on enhancing the Si/Al atomic ratio. Additionally, around 85–90 % of the starting olefins were successfully hydrogenated and the aromatic content was rather low (below 5 %), without almost any polyaromatic compound (<0.1 %).
      PubDate: 2014-04-11
  • Characterization of green building materials manufactured from canola oil
           and natural zeolite
    • Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the feasibility and performance of building materials similar to gas concrete using epoxidized canola oil (ECO), fly ash (FA), natural clay (C) and natural zeolite (Z). In this study, ECO, C, FA [wastes produced in Afşin-Elbistan (Kahramanmaraş, Turkey) thermal power station] and Z are used for producing building material. FA, C and Z were used as raw materials for producing the samples. ECO was used for binding. Density, thermal conductivity and compressive-tensile strength were decreased with the increase of ECO, FA and Z at all levels of replacements. Moreover, increasing process temperatures decreased density, thermal conductivity and compressive-tensile strength. Abrasion loss and water absorption were increased with the increase of ECO, FA, Z ratios and process temperatures.
      PubDate: 2014-04-10
  • Recycling of stone cutting slurry in concrete mixes
    • Abstract: Abstract This research aims to study the possibility of recycling stone cutting slurry in concrete production as a replacement of potable mixing water. Physical and chemical characteristics of slurry were determined. The effects of replacements were investigated by measuring identifiable concrete and mortar parameters, such as workability, compressive, tensile, and flexural strength for concrete, and compressive, flexural strength and expansion due to alkali aggregate reactions for mortar. The results showed an improvement of all concrete and mortar characteristics: concrete compressive strength had increased by 21 %, flexural strength by 18 %, mortar compressive strength by 11 %, and flexural strength by 11.7 %. Slump values of concrete were reduced by 58 %. Such results emphasized the feasibility of reusing slurry sludge in concrete and mortar production.
      PubDate: 2014-04-08
  • A study on the drying characteristics from mixture of food waste and
           sawdust by using microwave/inner-cycle thermal-air drying process
    • Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this study is a development for recycling food waste by using the microwave/inner-cycle thermal-air drying process. And this research is also aiming to assess the quality of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) based on operating parameters such as different mixture ratios, the amounts of food waste (70–100 %) and sawdust (0–30 %). For homogeneous mixture of the food waste with combustible materials and better drying efficiency, foreign substances were removed. Also, to improve the drying efficiency and heating values of the food waste, experiments were carried out to dry a mixture of powder-type sawdust which is resized <2 mm of diameter. The microwave intensity and thermal air temperature were controlled 1 kW and 200 °C, respectively. The mixture of the food waste with sawdust (70:30) was dried using the microwave–thermal air (1 kW, 200 °C). The drying process led to the final moisture content of 5.8 %, which was the lowest level (required <10 %) with 10 min operating period. In this moisture content, lower heating value for the RDF was 5,660 kcal/kg. The food waste mixed with the waste sawdust was found to produce good-quality RDF that met the quality standard across all mixture ratios.
      PubDate: 2014-04-04
  • Developments in an industry-led R&amp;D program for recycling PVC
           products in Japan
    • Abstract: Abstract To facilitate recycling, not only R&D but also the creation of efficient recycling systems—collection and processing of recyclates as well as finding appropriate end-uses—is essentially important. PVC has a particular advantage in regards to mechanical recycling when compared to other major plastics. However, there is no one-size-fits-all approach to a solution. Specific situations of used or off-cut products and their applications need to be well studied. Vinyl industry in Japan has devoted itself for many years to the promotion of recycling of vinyl products. It started an R&D support program in 2007 and seven projects have been completed since then. Some of the new developments include mechanical recycling for products like wall covering and tarpaulin which were considered difficult to recycle in the past. Progress in chemical recycling has been made with a technology for the removal of chlorine from shredder dusts. Recovery of chlorine is a challenge for the future. Collaboration among the various players involved in the recycling of a specific product is essential for obtaining a successful result.
      PubDate: 2014-04-04
  • Erratum to: Organizing preliminary storage sites of organic material,
           waste fuels and recyclables and their separating distance from populated
    • PubDate: 2014-01-08
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