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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
   [4 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.327]   [H-I: 13]
  • Immobilization of copper ions laden kaolin waste: influence of thermal
           treatment on its immobilization in cement paste
    • Abstract: Abstract This work aims to study the influence of thermal treatment of Cu2+ laden kaolin wastes on its immobilization efficiency in cement paste. Compressive strength and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) of 5–20 % kaolin waste blended cement pastes were tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results illustrate that adsorption of Cu2+ ions modify the crystal structure of kaolinite mineral. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results indicate that the adsorption sites on the kaolin surface that were occupied with free water molecules have been replaced with Cu2+ ions adsorbed from aqueous solutions. The thermal treatment of kaolin waste improves fixation ratio of Cu2+ in cement pastes containing up to 20 % of thermally treated waste. This is due to: pozzolanic activity of calcined kaolin, conversion of leachable adsorbed Cu2+ ions into encapsulated unleachable phase that does not retard the hydration of cement as well as adsorption of much of leachable Cu2+ ions on surfaces of hydration products and occlusion in its lattice structure as illustrated from XRD, FTIR, thermogravimetric, scanning electron microscopy and TCLP results. The fixation ratio of Cu2+ in cement paste blended with 20 % of thermally treated kaolin waste, reaches maximum value of about 97 % compared to 82 % for cement paste blended with 20 % of untreated kaolin waste.
      PubDate: 2014-12-19
  • Evaluating the performance of 3R options to reduce landfill wastes using
           the 3R indicator (3RI): case study of polyethylene factories in Thailand
    • Abstract: Abstract Petrochemical wastes are generated in significant amounts, and most of them are considered to be hazardous. In this study, we investigated the potential of the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) strategy to help reduce landfill wastes from polyethylene factories in Thailand. The sources of industrial wastes were identified as follows: (1) production processes; (2) maintenance programs; (3) packaging; and (4) waste treatment systems. The existing waste management options primarily consisted of fuel substitution and fuel blending. After 3R options were proposed, the performance of selected 3R options was evaluated. In this study, a new metric, the 3R indicator (3RI), was introduced to indicate the performance of 3R options based on both quantitative and qualitative measurements. The 3RI performance analysis indicated that high-density polyethylene plant has 3RI = 3.52 with 87.83 % landfill waste reduction, linear low-density polyethylene plant has 3RI = 0.71 with 17.83 % landfill waste reduction and that linear density polyethylene plant has 3RI = 2.85 with 69.51 % landfill waste reduction. This indicator can be used to measure environmental progress in terms of reducing landfill waste based on the 3R strategy.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18
  • Study on integrated management of PCB containing waste and PCB
           contaminated waste: proposal of new congeners for quantification
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present study, new congeners were selected for the efficient management of PCB containing waste and PCB contaminated waste, and the applicability of these new indicators was confirmed. As a result, 8 indicator congeners and 4 index peaks which were named “Proposed new method 1” and “Proposed new method 2” were selected. For the assessment of a novel quantitative method, comparative tests using conventional methods were conducted, and the factors for total PCB were calculated for each method. Results from these tests showed that the average values for the factors of CEN/TC19/WG22, DIN 51527, and the test method by the disposal regulation for ocean dumping in Korea were 1.86, 3.47, and 2.52, respectively, while those for the proposed new method 1 and proposed new method 2 were 2.98 and 5.56, respectively. For PCB contaminated waste, the factor was found to be 1.99, 3.42, and 3.02 using the conventional methods, 2.67 using the proposed new method 1, and 5.57 using the proposed new method 2. It is expected that, in accordance with the results of the present study, the management of PCB waste can be integrated, regardless of the type of waste involved.
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
  • A survey on characteristics of leachate pond in an offshore municipal
           solid waste disposal site
    • Abstract: Abstract Leachate from a landfill is collected and flowed in leachate accumulation pond, and sent to treatment facility. However, leachate in the pond can be a source of complaints from residents due to off coloration or odor, particularly near heavily populated urban areas. In this study, for the purpose of appropriate control of leachate pond, pond water and sediment were sampled in an offshore municipal solid waste disposal site 2 years after the disposal site was closed, and analyzed some parameters to estimate their properties. The pond water had high alkalinity due to the disposal of incineration residues, and EC and CODMn were also high. On the other hand, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb did not exceed the Japanese effluent water standards. Total sulfide was detected from all sediment samples during the sampling period, and values in the summer were slightly higher than at other times. To investigate the stabilization of targeted disposal site, the relationships among cumulative liquid/solid ratio (L/S) with pH and Cl− elution after closing the site were examined. Both parameters showed a direct relationship with cumulative L/S ratio, which can be anticipated to continue increasing in the future.
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
  • Design and modeling of optimal distillation sequence for recovery of
           valuable components from a waste photoresist stripper
    • Abstract: Abstract Currently, waste photoresist stripper from the semiconductor industries is generally incinerated at high temperatures or processed as a high-calorie fuel, which can have adverse effects on the environment and economy. Recovery of valuable solvents from waste photoresist strippers is, therefore, very important for thin flat transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) manufactures to reduce the production costs and protect the environment against industrial waste. In the present work, systematic laboratory-scale distillation experiments were carried out to regenerate the organic solvents from the waste photoresist stripper and determine if they are feasible to recycle for commercial TFT-LCD grade chemicals: in particular, 1-hydroxyethylpiperazine and methyl diglycol were mainly tried to retrieve. Based on the experiment results, possible alternative distillation sequences were examined through intensive techno-economic analysis using a rigorous process simulator. As a result, an optimal distillation sequence and condition were drawn to separate valuable organic solvents from waste photoresist stripper for a commercial purpose recovery process.
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
  • Sintering characteristics of CaO-rich municipal solid waste incineration
           fly ash through the addition of Si/Al-rich ash residues
    • Abstract: Abstract Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the fast disposal of hazardous municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in China. However, fly ash produced in grate incinerator (GFA) is rich in CaO and chlorides, which promote the formation of toxic hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and ash agglomeration during the thermal process, inhibiting the thermal disposal of GFA. In this study, sintering characteristics of CaO-rich GFA were improved by adding Si/Al-rich MSWI ash residues. According to the results, ash agglomeration was well suppressed during thermal treatment of the mixed ash. Si/Al/Fe-compounds competed with un-oxidized Cr-compounds to react with CaO and suppressed Cr(VI) formation. Meanwhile, chlorides in GFA facilitated heavy metal volatilization from added ashes to the secondary fly ash, favoring the recovery of these metals. Ca-aluminosilicates was found as the main mineral phase in the thermally treated mixed ash, which has attractive potential for applications. The formation of the aluminosilicates made the heavy metals that remained in the treated mixed ash more stable than the thermally treated single ash.
      PubDate: 2014-12-12
  • Investigation of the combustion characteristics of municipal solid wastes
           and their hydrothermally treated products via thermogravimetric analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) for renewable solid fuel production. The properties of surrogate MSWs were greatly improved by hydrothermal treatment and were similar to those of coal-like fuel substances. These included increases in high heating value, fixed carbon, and carbon content. Furthermore, the combustion behavior of MSWs was studied to clarify the effects of hydrothermal treatment on the combustion behavior of treated MSWs. The treated MSWs were then compared to several types of coal, focusing on the combustion characteristics before and after hydrothermal treatment, by use of a thermogravimetric analyzer. After the hydrothermal treatment, the treated MSWs showed two combustion peaks corresponding to volatile release and char combustion, due to an increase of the fixed carbon. The char burn temperature, resulting in the second burning peak region of the treated MSW, was similar to that of Australian coal. The combustion behavior of MSW following hydrothermal treatment suggests that the MSWs were made more similar to coal during this process.
      PubDate: 2014-12-10
  • Hybrid cement-assisted dewatering, solidification and stabilization of
           sewage sludge with high organic content
    • Abstract: Abstract Sewage sludge with high organic content is particularly difficult to dewater before disposal in landfill. In this study, different hybrid cement binders were investigated to evaluate their ability to dewater the sewage sludge with high organic content. After 7 days of stabilization, the CASC (Mayenite/Sulfoaluminate cement) hybrid binder showed an excellent efficiency on both water content reduction and strength development; the water content and unconfined compressive strength value of solidified sludge reached 52.43 % and 109.55 kPa, respectively, at 8 % binder/sludge mass rate. The horizontal vibration leaching test (HJ 557-2009) indicated that leachability of heavy metals of the CASC-solidified sludge was far lower than that of non-solidified sludge and CAPC-solidified sludge. Furthermore, SEM and XRD analyses suggested that certain hydrates formed in the solidification process might have accelerated the depletion of interstitial water and strength development in the CASC-solidified sludge.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05
  • A systematic approach to projecting industrial solid waste generation by
           industrial sector in Shanghai
    • Abstract: Abstract The increasing volumes of industrial solid wastes (ISW) generated have become a serious issue in Shanghai, China. Knowing the volume of ISW that is to be generated in the future is considered a prerequisite for an effective reduction policy and the successful design of treatment facilities. It has been verified that the prediction of ISW generation has an inherent relationship with industrial restructuring caused by economic growth. This study contributes its efforts to develop a systematic approach involving a regional input–output analysis for the forecasting of ISW generation, taking into account the probable industrial restructuring developments. In the process, changes in the consumption patterns, export structure, and technical change are considered to be the important drivers. Further, a sensitivity analysis is carried out as well to investigate the influence of change in consumption on ISW generation. The case study of Shanghai provides for a feasible application of our model on a regional level until the year 2020.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03
  • Study on the characteristics of biomass for co-combustion in coal power
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, a torrefaction experiment was carried out using domestic woody biomass (waste wood and logging residue) and overseas herbaceous biomass (PKS: palm kernel shell and bagasse). Torrefaction was performed in a nitrogen atmosphere using a batch-type apparatus, either with changing torrefaction temperature or with changing duration at a constant temperature. Here, only the oxygen contained in the biomass was used in the torrefaction experiment. The physical and chemical properties of biomass fuels produced under various torrefaction conditions were investigated to determine their characteristics as fuels for coal firing power plant. Based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), proximate analysis of four kinds of biomass, and the result of varying the torrefaction temperature and duration, each of the biomass residues was torrefied for 30 min at a temperature range of 250–350 °C in an anaerobic conditions. Consequently, when compared with the raw material, each of the torrefied materials showed lower moisture and volatile matter content, fixed carbon and ash content, and higher calorific value.
      PubDate: 2014-11-29
  • Ammoniacal leaching and recovery of copper from alloyed low-grade e-waste
    • Abstract: Abstract The paper concerns a hydrometallurgical method for selective recovery of copper from low-grade electric and electronic wastes. The following consecutive stages were proposed: smelting of the scraps to produce Cu–Zn–Ag alloy, leaching of the alloy in ammoniacal solution, and selective copper electrowinning. Cu–Zn–Ag alloy was a polymetallic and five-phase system. It was leached in chloride, carbonate, sulfate and thiosulfate solutions. This resulted in the separation of the metals, wherein metallic tin and silver as well as lead salts remained in the slimes, while copper and zinc were transferred to the electrolyte. Copper was selectively recovered from the ammoniacal solutions by the electrolysis, leaving zinc ions in the electrolyte. The best conditions of the alloy treatment were obtained in the ammonia–carbonate system, where the final product was copper of high purity (99.9 %) at the current efficiency of 60 %. Thiosulfate solution was not applicable for the leaching of the copper alloy due to secondary reactions of the formation of copper(I) thiosulfate complexes and precipitation of copper(I) sulfide, both inhibiting dissolution of the metallic material.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26
  • Assessment of compost dosage in farmland through ecotoxicological tests
    • Abstract: Abstract A research project was carried out to evaluate ecotoxicological effects of mature compost addition to agricultural soil, using a battery of ecotoxicological tests. The following species were selected: plant of Lepidium sativum, earthworm Eisenia foetida, aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna and bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The tests were classified as “direct tests” using solid compost samples and “indirect tests” using compost leaching test eluate. The direct bioassays were performed using compost added to artificial soil in concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 100 % (w/w); the indirect ones considered compost eluate, added to a standard solution in the same concentrations used in the direct tests. Both tests aimed at obtaining the ecotoxicological parameters (LC50 and EC50). These values were then utilized to implement the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) analysis and extrapolate the Hazard Concentration (HC), a useful threshold to preserve the biodiversity of agricultural ecosystems. Results indicated an increase in compost toxicity with greater compost concentrations; in particular, for direct tests compost dosage below 10 % showed low toxicity, while for indirect ones the toxicity was higher. Furthermore, SSD analysis showed a Hazardous Concentration (HC5) for direct bioassays of 3.5 % and for indirect of 14 %.
      PubDate: 2014-11-25
  • Mercury and mercury-containing waste management in Japan
    • Abstract: Abstract Mercury used in products and industrial processes eventually enters the environment via the waste stream. Since the management of mercury waste should prioritize reducing the amount of mercury used in products and industrial processes, this paper first describes the trends in the demand for mercury. Recent mercury demand in Japan is small in comparison to the past and other countries, and is estimated to be 8 tons per year. To manage mercury and its waste stream, it is important to understand the material flow of mercury and the types and quantities of mercury waste. About 80 tons of mercury enter Japan annually, 52 tons are recovered, and 11–24 tons are disposed of in landfill sites. Since environmentally sound treatment and disposal of mercury waste are essential, we discuss the recycling of some mercury-add products and the current state of mercury waste and mercury disposal in Japan. The remaining issue that must be addressed in the management of mercury and mercury waste is its long-term storage or disposal.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20
  • TSP, PM 10 and health risk assessment for heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn,
           Cd, Pb) in the ambience of the production line for waste cathode ray tube
    • Abstract: Abstract Recently, a typical semi-automatic recycling line is proved to be a feasible method for resource recovery of raw material of waste CRTs. However, there are no relevant studies about health risk assessment of the particles and heavy metals diffused from this physical r ecycling process for CRTs. In this study, TSP, PM10 and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in the ambience of the workshop have been evaluated. The mean concentrations of TSP and PM10 in the workshop were 481.5 and 316.9 μg/m3, respectively. Meanwhile, it can be seen that Zn (8.1 and 7.9 μg/m3, respectively) was the most enriched metal in TSP and PM10, followed by Pb (3.2 and 3.0 μg/m3, respectively). Health risk assessment showed that the total hazard index was 3.29, exceeding the danger threshold. The health risk of different metals was Cr > Cd > Ni. In short, the research results show that mechanical–physical process for e-waste recycling do exist the pollutant mission. So the effective measures should be taken to reduce the harm of pollutants on the workers’ health.
      PubDate: 2014-11-18
  • Evaluation of an organic soil amendment generated from municipal solid
           waste seeded with activated sewage sludge
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the feasibility of using fresh activated sewage sludge as inoculum for the microbial valorization of segregated municipal solid waste and evaluated the quality of organic soil amendment generated. Organic fraction of municipal solid waste, which consisted of vegetative (vegetable, fruit and flower) wastes was seeded with activated sewage sludge and processed by rapid aerobic microbial treatment. Efficacy of microbial valorization process and quality of final product were assessed by physico-chemical analysis. Suitability of final product was assessed with regard to heavy metal content, pesticide residues, microbiological quality and phytotoxicity. Quality of the soil amendment generated was compared with the control product generated with a commercial microbial inoculum. Phytotoxicity experiments indicated the stimulatory effect of sewage sludge seeded soil amendment on plant growth but inhibition was observed in closed growth test due to the evolution of gaseous phytotoxic agents. The study suggests that segregated municipal solid waste can be effectively valorized with activated non-dewatered sewage sludge as inoculum and the quality of soil amendment generated was comparable to compost intended for unrestricted applications.
      PubDate: 2014-11-15
  • Effect of multi-factors interaction on trace lead equilibrium during
           municipal solid waste incineration
    • Abstract: Abstract The thermodynamic equilibrium of trace lead during the waste incineration was calculated on the basis of the minimization of the total Gibbs energy. The effect of incineration condition and MSW components on Pb distribution was investigated mainly in the view of the interaction of related elements. In the oxygen-rich condition, incineration temperature affects Pb distribution by the interaction of Cl, Ca and Na. In the fuel-rich condition, incineration temperature affects Pb distribution directly by the thermal transition of PbS(s) to PbCl(g) and the thermal transition of PbCl(g) to Pb(g). Air ratio has significant effect on Pb distribution by the interaction of H, O and Cl. The liberated Cl in oxidizing condition is far less than that in reducing condition. Na has the top priority to bond with Cl, than Ca only at low temperature and H only at high temperature, so the effect of Cl on Pb distribution depends on the content of Na and Ca. S promotes Pb volatilization by the interaction with Na in oxygen-rich and chlorine-poor condition and depresses Pb volatilization by the formation of PbS(s) directly without interaction with other elements in fuel-rich condition.
      PubDate: 2014-11-15
  • The effect of different moisture levels on the toluene desorption rates of
           modified natural zeolite during MW irradiation
    • Abstract: Abstract Regeneration of zeolite using microwave heating has been investigated focusing on the removal of toluene by desorption from zeolite samples. Studies were focused on the effect of physicochemical characteristics of three types of zeolite namely Na-rich natural zeolite (clinoptilolite), synthesized and heat treated on the toluene desorption ratio. In this work, it was shown that, in case of synthesized zeolite an increasing number of pores and their diffusion rate on the surface of samples caused by the sintering process resulted in an increase in the adsorption capacity compared to natural and heat-treated samples. The desorption experiment was carried out in MW irradiation time for about 1 h in which the temperature of zeolites samples was raised to almost 400 °C. Moisture had a significant effect on the desorption characteristics of zeolites. Maximum desorption ratios were obtained after approximately 30 min for heat-treated and synthesized samples when the moisture content was adjusted to 20 % of sample weight. In general, among the samples used in this study, synthesized zeolite showed the greatest absorption capacity and most efficient desorption ratio.
      PubDate: 2014-11-08
  • Recyclability of novel dynamically cured copolyester/epoxidized natural
           rubber blends
    • Abstract: Abstract Dynamically cured copolyester (COPE)/epoxidized natural rubber blends, with 50 mol % epoxide in the natural rubber (ENR-50), were prepared and the recyclability was investigated over 5 reprocessing cycles. It was found that stiffness, modulus, tensile strength, tension set value and hardness properties increased, while elongation at break and degree of swelling decreased with the count of reprocessing cycles. In addition, the recycled blends from reprocessing all had similar particle sizes of dispersed vulcanized rubber in the COPE matrix. It was also found that the thermomechanical properties observed by temperature scanning stress relaxation (TSSR) decreased with the reprocessing cycles. Furthermore, T g of the rubber phase shifted upwards with the reprocessing cycles, while T g , T m and crystallinity of the copolyester phase remained almost unchanged.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31
  • A new theory of the creation of biomethane from aluminium-containing
           inorganic wastes
    • Abstract: Abstract Energy by-products from the co-combustion of municipal solid waste with coal or biomass are monitored only in terms of oxides; the amount of metallic aluminium is not determined. When these energy by-products are deposited at landfills, the alkali metal compounds in landfill bodies undergo reactions with aluminium in the presence of water. This leads to the formation of hydrogen and its possible bioconversion into methane. The article summarises the findings of the possible development of methane and hydrogen from the ashes of 11 items of typical municipal waste containing aluminium, burned in power plants, which are then landfilled. The assessment of the new information on aluminium-waste reactions in landfill bodies and the metabolism of some bacteria may give rise to a new theory of the formation of the biomethane contained in the landfill gas.
      PubDate: 2014-10-25
  • Digestion reactions of paper sludge combustion ash in strong alkaline
           solutions at 60 °C
    • Abstract: Abstract Alkaline reactions of paper sludge combustion ash at low temperature (60 °C) were performed using a calcite-rich paper ash (PA 1) and a gehlenite-rich ash (PA 2). Strong alkaline conditions (8, 12, 16 M NaOH) were revealed at reaction times of 1–4 h and 12–24 h. Reactions were performed with pure ashes and in the presence of NaAlO2. The products were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM/EDX, gravimetry and chemical analysis. The conversion was found to proceed mainly in the period between 1 and 4 h. Portlandite and hydrogarnet were observed from PA 1 in 8 M NaOH. Onset of formation of Ca4Al2O6CO 3 . 11H2O beside Ca(OH)2 could be analyzed after reaction of PA 1 in 12 M and 16 M NaOH. Addition of NaAlO2 favored crystallization of hydrogarnet and Ca4Al2O6CO 3 . 11H2O. For PA 2 gehlenite remained stable, but a high portlandite fraction was observed. Addition of NaAlO2 yielded hydrogarnet beside gehlenite in 8 M NaOH. Higher alkalinities favored crystallization of Ca4Al2O6CO 3 . 11H2O and onset of dissolution of gehlenite. Finally transformation of Ca4Al2O6CO 3 . 11H2O into sodium aluminum silicate hydrate was observed. All results were discussed with regard to heavy metal distribution of the initial PA between the alkaline digestion solution and the products. In conclusion suitable applications of the products were proposed.
      PubDate: 2014-10-25
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