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Tropical Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 8)
Tumor Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.977, h-index: 43)
Ukrainian Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.276, h-index: 11)
Universal Access in the Information Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 19)
Updates in Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 15)
Urban Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 23)
Urban Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 16)
Urban Rail Transit     Open Access  
Uro-News     Hybrid Journal  
Urolithiasis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Urologic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.921, h-index: 45)
uwf UmweltWirtschaftsForum     Hybrid Journal  
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 36)
Verslaving     Hybrid Journal  
Vestnik St. Petersburg University: Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.278, h-index: 4)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 34)
Vietnam J. of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Virchows Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 72)
Virologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.353, h-index: 9)
Virtual Reality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 24)
Virus Genes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, h-index: 42)
Visual Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Vocations and Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 7)
Voluntas: Intl. J. of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 23)
Waste and Biomass Valorization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 10)
Water History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.221, h-index: 3)
Water Quality, Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.349, h-index: 47)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.761, h-index: 70)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 17)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 55)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 38)
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.332, h-index: 38)
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Wiener Klinisches Magazin     Hybrid Journal  
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.328, h-index: 23)
Wireless Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 65)
Wireless Personal Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.322, h-index: 29)
Wirtschaftsdienst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.206, h-index: 5)
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Wirtschaftsrechtliche Blätter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
wissen kompakt     Hybrid Journal  
WMU J. of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Wohnrechtliche Blätter     Hybrid Journal  
Wood Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.808, h-index: 43)
World J. of Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.561, h-index: 49)
World J. of Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 14)
World J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.451, h-index: 106)
World J. of Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.463, h-index: 59)
World Wide Web     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1, h-index: 21)
Wuhan University J. of Natural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.149, h-index: 11)
ZDM     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.496, h-index: 14)
Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 38)
Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Zeitschrift für Bildungsforschung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Versicherungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 2)
Zeitschrift fur Energiewirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Epileptologie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 4)
Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 6)
Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Zeitschrift für Herz-,Thorax- und Gefäßchirurgie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.114, h-index: 5)
Zeitschrift für Hochschulrecht, Hochschulmanagement und Hochschulpolitik: zfhr     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift fur Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Zeitschrift für Politikberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 31)
Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie. Mit Beiträgen aus Umweltmedizin und Sozialmedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 9)
Zoological Letters     Open Access  
Zoomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 26)
Zorg en Financiering     Hybrid Journal  

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Journal Cover   Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.392]   [H-I: 16]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2276 journals]
  • Beneficial utilization of a tuna processing by-product as fish-feed
    • Abstract: Abstract During tuna processing for human consumption, the fish are initially boiled in water, creating ~7000 tons of wastewater a year in Tosashimizu City, Japan. The wastewater (tuna broth; TB) is rich in free amino acids and peptides; therefore, we investigated two methods of utilizing it beneficially. In experiment 1, crude TB was used as a growth enhancer for two farmed species, juvenile yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). Juveniles of both species, fed commercial extruded pellets mixed with 300 mL TB, showed significantly better growth than the unsupplemented control group. In experiment 2, concentrated TB was used as a dietary ingredient for juvenile yellowtail to improve palatability and growth. Dietary preferences and growth were rated as follows: fish meal diet > soy protein concentrate (SPC) + TB diet > SPC + krill meal diet > SPC diet. The beneficial effects of TB as a dietary supplement were evident. Crude TB enhanced juvenile growth at minimal cost. Concentrated TB requires processing, with associated costs; however, it proved to be a valuable fish-feed supplement because of its high palatability and growth-promoting effect. The utilization of TB also contributes to reducing the environmental impact of fish wastewater.
      PubDate: 2015-11-17
  • Evaluation of biotechnological processes to obtain ethanol from recycled
           paper sludge
    • Abstract: Abstract Finding innovative solutions to manage waste and to expand the production of biofuels are some of the current challenges. Pulp and paper sectors, including recycled paper mills, produce a large amount of solid wastes, such as wastewater sludge containing non-recyclable short fibres. This study aimed to: (1) characterize recycled paper sludge; (2) define conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis and (3) evaluate two processes for ethanol production from the sludge: separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The waste showed a very high content of ash (58 %), which negatively affected enzyme action. A commercial enzyme cocktail (Cellic® CTec2) was used for the saccharification, at 43 °C and 6 % dosage. The highest ethanol yield (55.7 %) with shorter residence time (72 h) resulted from the SSF process. The best performance using the SHF process yielded 45.8 % after 84 h. Despite the intermediate results, sludge from pulp and paper mills could be an attractive raw material due to its low price and not requiring a pretreatment step for delignification. This application could be especially interesting for regions where the generation of paper sludge is high and the ethanol production capacity is still low, such as Asia.
      PubDate: 2015-11-09
  • Stepwise reduction kinetics of iron-based oxygen carriers by CO/CO 2
           mixture gases for chemical looping hydrogen generation
    • Abstract: Abstract Chemical looping hydrogen generation using iron oxides as oxygen carriers is a novel technology to convert carbonaceous substances into hydrogen. The reduction characteristics of oxygen carriers greatly impact the process efficiency. In this work, the oxygen carriers of Fe2O3 60wt%/Al2O3 were prepared by physical mixing method. The stepwise reduction kinetics of this material was investigated at 800–1000 °C in a TGA with a thermodynamics-controlled method. For this method, CO/CO2 mixture gases at the volume ratios of 0.11, 1, and 5.67 were selected as fuels to decouple the continuous reduction of Fe2O3→Fe into independent reductions, including Fe2O3→Fe3O4, Fe3O4→FeO and FeO→Fe with little mutual influences. The kinetic mechanisms of Fe2O3→Fe3O4, Fe3O4→FeO and FeO→Fe were well represented by the nucleation and grain-growth function, the diffusion-controlled function and the phase-boundary-controlled function, respectively. Fe3O4→FeO was determined as the rate-limiting step with a lower reaction rate constant (8.89 × 10−6–5.60 × 10−4 s−1) and a higher activation energy (234 kJ/mol). By means of XRD analysis, it was also found that Al2O3, usually regarded as the supported component, became active by forming FeAl2O4 with FeO. At 900–1000 °C, FeAl2O4 impacted on the reduction rate of Fe2+→Fe due to its lower reactivity.
      PubDate: 2015-11-06
  • Developing 3R policy indicators for Asia and the Pacific region:
           experience from Regional 3R Forum in Asia and the Pacific
    • Abstract: Abstract In developing Asia, policies and legislations to promote reduce, reuse and recycling (3Rs) of waste have gained much traction over the last 10 years. Henceforth, the focus of governmental efforts on the 3Rs will be on improving the policy implementation and managing the policy progress. To meet these ends, it is essential to set clear policy targets and review them regularly with a set of policy and performance indicators. Experiences from various Asian countries show different types and approaches taken toward developing these 3R indicators. To bring the 3R performance indicators to a standardized and comparable level among the member countries, the 5th Regional 3R Forum in Asia and the Pacific has proposed nine indicators. These indicators are recommended to consider the linkages with resource efficiency and the green economy, rather than just end-of-life product recycling. This paper describes the Asian experience and efforts to set core set of 3R policy indicators to monitor progress of 3R implementation at regional level.
      PubDate: 2015-11-03
  • Seasonal variations in organic materials and calorific values of Japanese
           cedar and cypress leaves
    • Abstract: Abstract We investigated the seasonal variations of organic materials and calorific values of the leaves of the Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and the Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa). While in April and May, the yields of alcohol–benzene extracts and Klason lignin of cedar and cypress leaves decreased; the yields of hemicellulose increased significantly compared with the annual average. The calorific values decreased simultaneously with the yields of alcohol–benzene extracts and Klason lignins of both types of leaves. The alcohol–benzene extracts yielded the highest calorific values (Japanese cedar, 33.4 ± 0.04 MJ/kg and Japanese cypress, 32.8 ± 0.37 MJ/kg), and hemicelluloses yielded the lowest calorific values of organic components (Japanese cedar, 12.8 ± 0.22 MJ/kg and Japanese cypress, 14.5 ± 1.02 MJ/kg). These results indicate that the changes of calorific values of these leaves are due to the changes of organic materials through the year.
      PubDate: 2015-11-03
  • Mechanism of hydrogen sulfide generation from a composite waste landfill
           site: a case study of the ‘Sudokwon Landfill Site’, Korea
    • Abstract: Abstract This study analyzes the mechanism of hydrogen sulfide generation in a composite landfill site where demolition and domestic wastes were deposited. The total amount of organic carbon recorded during the period 2000–2014 was 11.4 times that of SO4 2−. The amounts of organic carbon and SO4 2− removed through landfill gas were 16.0 and 6.1 %, respectively, during the same period. The COD/SO4 2− ratio of the leachate was 10.9 in 2001, which drastically decreased to 4.5 in 2007 by the increase in CH4 concentration; thereafter, no great variations in this ratio were observed up to 2014. It was found that the concentration of H2S sharply increased after methane concentrations reached their highest levels. The year around 2006 may be the equilibrium time point among the waste supply, LFG generation, and leachate water quality. In conclusion, if the ratio of landfill organic carbon to SO4 2− is about 10, and the COD/SO4 2− ratio is about 9 in the state of equilibrium, there appears to be no hindrance to the generation of CH4 and H2S.
      PubDate: 2015-10-22
  • Community activities in residential solid waste reduction in Tenggilis
           Mejoyo District, Surabaya City, Indonesia
    • Abstract: Abstract The main source of municipal solid waste in Indonesia is residential area. The Indonesian Government Regulation No. 81/2012 concerning Residential Solid Waste (RSW) Management and Similar Types of Solid Waste stipulates that every generator is obliged to perform separation and treatment. This study was aimed to determine RSW generation rate, reduction potential, and reduction activities by the community in Tenggilis Mejoyo District, Surabaya City. The RSW generation rate and composition were measured according to ASTM D5231-92 method. RSW reduction potential was determined based on weight percentage of recyclable RSW components. This study involved 100 householders, who were selected using stratified random approach based on the economical strata. This study resulted in RSW generation rate of 0.29 kg/person day, or a total of 16.84 tons/day. The RSW composition was dominated by biodegradable organics of 74.43 %, followed by plastic and paper waste materials. Estimated RSW reduction potential was 67.92 %. The RSW separation was only done by 37 % of respondents. Main reasons of the respondents for not implementing RSW separation were inavailability of time, laziness, and no use. Composting activity was conducted by 17 % respondents. This research further provides a recommendation for improving community participation in RSW reduction.
      PubDate: 2015-10-17
  • Analysis of environmental impacts of burial sites
    • Abstract: Abstract Foot and mouth disease and avian influenza are highly contagious. The foot and mouth disease virus can be transmitted in a number of ways, including close-contact animal-to-animal spread, long-distance aerosol spread, and fomites (inanimate objects, typically fodder and motor vehicles). Many burial sites were constructed in a short time to prevent the rapid spread of the Foot and mouth disease and avian influenza. These carcass burial sites pose a risk of secondary pollution because the sites were constructed without any appropriate or systematic management due to lack of time, equipment, and available labors. In 2011, more than 4700 carcass burial sites were constructed. Approximately 7 million poultry and 3.5 million livestock, including cattle and swine, were buried in farmland. Secondary pollution from these burial sites is a cause of concern. In practice, a number of burial sites were excavated, and the carcasses were reburied or disposed of elsewhere. To minimize risks to the environment and human health, the environmental impacts of the construction methods should be analyzed. This study used life cycle assessment methodology to investigate environmental impacts of the traditional carcass burial construction method and the redisposal construction using aerobic thermophilic microbes. All input data of raw materials and energy usage were collected, and an inventory was established. The burial process contributed to freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity potential, ozone depletion potential, and terrestrial ecotoxicity potential more than the redisposal process. However, the redisposal contributed to abiotic depletion potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential, human toxicity potential, and photochemical oxidant creation potential more than the burial process.
      PubDate: 2015-10-08
  • Bio-oil production from pyrolysis of waste sawdust with catalyst ZSM-5
    • Abstract: Abstract Slow pyrolysis is characterized by a low heating rate and high reaction time. The products are bio-char, bio-oil and bio-gas. In bio-oil, there are a variety of chemical compounds. Leading aromatic chemicals such as furfural, creosol and catechol were a focus of this study. In non-catalytic conditions, the slow pyrolysis temperature was 350, 400, 450, 500, and 550 °C. The experiment was conducted in catalytic condition using ZSM-5 catalyst to produce more aromatic chemicals. In this research the slow pyrolysis experiment was conducted in non-catalytic and catalytic conditions. In non-catalytic condition, a large amount of bio-oil was produced at 500 °C. The peak area of furfural, which is a valuable organic chemical, was highest value at 400 °C. In the catalytic condition the temperature was fixed at 400, and 500 °C. The result analysis evaluated the mass yield of bio-oil and GC–MS data for quantitative and qualitative analysis.
      PubDate: 2015-10-06
  • Leachate direct-discharge limits and incentives related to landfill
           aftercare costs
    • Abstract: Abstract Society needs sustainable methods for landfilling from an environmental perspective, but they have to be cost effective and affordable. Aftercare represents considerable costs within waste management system and costs can be expected to accrue over a long period of time showing the need to compare different management options. Direct-discharge limits for leachate COD and nitrogen are different in various (European) countries. When leachate COD or nitrogen has decreased at the latter part of the aftercare period, effluent limits 50 or 200 mg/l for COD and 10 or 70 mg/l for nitrogen have a considerable impact on period length. The objective of this paper is to discuss the effects of leachate discharge limits on landfill aftercare and leachate management costs in various conditions. Landfill simulator results and modelling are used to estimate leachate concentrations in three different scenarios. It is suggested that stricter discharge limits (shown before) impact on the costs of activated carbon filtration (1.4-fold) and biological treatment (1.1–1.24-fold). Stricter limits also extend the aftercare period length considerably, but with substantial water circulation the differences are clearly smaller. These results support the recent suggestion of aftercare incentives, and some details of applying these incentives in different conditions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-10-05
  • Utilization of granulated lead slag as a structural material in roads
    • Abstract: Abstract Pyrometallurgical processing of lead ores generates large amounts of slag which is stockpiled as chunk or granules. Romanian dump heaps of such slag produced in the period 1972–1998, occupy an area of 4522 m2 and a volume of 6616 m3. To assess the possibility of using this material in road construction, a complex characterisation of this waste has been carried out. X-ray diffraction, microcompositional and microstructural analysis revealed the presence of Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu sulfides, Fe, Ca, Si oxides and complex Mg, Al silicates etc. Following investigations were drawn several conclusions. According to the analysis of leachate specific indicators for the three types of slags analyzed (cooled slowly lead slag; granulated lead slag; deposited lead slag), granulated lead slag has the lowest lead content; value that exceeds the maximum allowed (current legislation). Analysis of acid drainage revealed that cooled slowly lead slag is not acid generating, granulated lead slag is uncertain and deposited lead slag is acid-generating. To determine the physico-mechanical and geotechnical properties Proctor compaction test, Californian index CBR test, permeability test and direct shear test were performed. Results from these investigations show an approximation of the values of granulated slag and sand .
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Mechanochemical degradation of hexachlorobenzene using Mg/Al 2 O 3 as
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present work, we investigate the destruction efficiency of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by milling with various reagents in a planetary ball mill under different milling conditions. Under the same conditions of mill rotary rate and charge ratio, the mixture of magnesium powder and aluminum oxide (Mg/Al2O3) was found best in promoting the destruction of HCB, which can be completed destroyed after 90 min grinding at a charge ratio of 20:1 (reagent/HCB, m/m), a ball mass/reagent mass ration of 30:1 and a mill rotation speed of 550 rpm. The ground samples were characterized and analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, gas chromatography (GC), X-ray diffraction and ion chromatography. The intermediate products, such as pentachlorobenzene, tetrachlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene isomers, dichlorobenzene and monochlorobenzene were detected by GC. Then the main dechlorination path way for HCB was proposed. With a series of verification experiments, the final degradation products of HCB were amorphous carbon and inorganic chlorine. Based on this study, Mg/Al2O3 has the potential to complete the innocuous treatment of chlorinated compounds.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Characterization and solidification/stabilization of iron-ore sintering
           gas cleaning residue
    • Abstract: Abstract With the air pollution control standards getting increasingly stricter, gas cleaning processes with higher capture efficiency of pollutants in iron-ore sintering gas cleaning were applied in China, and fine residue, an emerging hazardous waste containing high content of heavy metals as well as Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were produced. Disposal of the residues in secure landfill after adequate solidification/stabilization was the main solution. The feasibility of solidification/stabilization process using cement and chelating agent was investigated in this study. Leaching concentration of Lead (Pb) and Selenium (Se) exceeded the identification limit, and the content of PCDD/Fs was rather low, so the immobilization of Pb and Se was the main objective of solidification/stabilization. The result showed that leaching concentrations of Pb in the solidified products were lower than 5 mg/L when the addition of cement was 20 % or chelating agent 1 %. However, leaching concentration of Se fluctuated between 0.6 and 0.8 mg/L even the cement addition reached 45 % or chelating agent 3 %. Geochemical modelling using PHREEQC indicated that Se in the residue mainly existed as highly soluble SeO4 2−.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Decontamination and solidification of liquid radioactive waste using
           natural zeolite
    • Abstract: Abstract This study is based on evaluation of solidification methods for low-level radioactive liquid using natural zeolite. In classical method, LLW is decontaminated using zeolite and after the process spent zeolite becomes radioactive waste. After decontamination process, zeolite waste is solidified using cement, sand and water. In this method; liquid radioactive waste was used instead of water, natural zeolite was used instead of sand/aggregate and cement was used for binding the mixture in solidification process. In this study, leaching properties and strength of the solidified waste form were investigated for both techniques. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, the effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution’s pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLW were discussed in this paper.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Recycling and surface modification of waste bottom ash from coal power
           plants for the preparation of polypropylene and polyethylene composites
    • Abstract: Abstract The production of waste bottom ash (BA) from coal power plants in the west coast of South Korea has been a serious environmental problem to resolve. In this investigation, waste BA was recycled to prepare BA/polypropylene and BA/polyethylene composites, and their mechanical properties were compared. The hazardous metal content in the waste BA was minimal, and the waste BA was not contaminated by sea water. The surface of the BA was coated with one of three cationic surfactants, cetylpyridinium chloride, benzethonium chloride, or benzalkonium chloride, to improve the interface compatibility between the polymer matrices and BA surface. The mechanical properties of the BA composites decreased as the BA content increased and were dependent on the content of BA rather than on particle size. Coating surfactants onto BA significantly improved the mechanical properties, especially the compressive strength, of the BA composites. Finally, the BA composites were successfully applied in the fabrication of a car parking safety product that satisfied the required safety standards.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Household-level determinants of residential solid waste generation rates:
           a study from Nablus-Palestine
    • Abstract: Abstract In this work, we elucidate the relation of various household-level socioeconomic and demographic attributes with the residential per capita solid waste generation rate in the Nablus district of Palestine. The data collection phase entailed an extensive survey of 992 dwellings, thus probing and quantifying key socioeconomic and demographic indicators of each household. Meticulous estimation of the amount of waste generated by each household was conducted at the waste generation point. Relevant statistical tests (ANOVA and Pearson tests) were performed to identify the significant relationships between the socioeconomic/demographic variables and the residential per capita solid waste generation rate, as well as amongst the variables themselves. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the waste generation rate decreased as the family’s income decreased, as parents tended to spend more time at home, as the number of individuals living in the household increased, and as the household tended to purchase its grocery needs in just the needed quantities. Age of dwelling residents was also significant. By showing how these variables affect the waste generated per capita, an argument was made to support their consideration when designing future waste management systems, not only for Nablus, but also for many other cities with similar profiles.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Mercury and mercury-containing waste management in Japan
    • Abstract: Abstract Mercury used in products and industrial processes eventually enters the environment via the waste stream. Since the management of mercury waste should prioritize reducing the amount of mercury used in products and industrial processes, this paper first describes the trends in the demand for mercury. Recent mercury demand in Japan is small in comparison to the past and other countries, and is estimated to be 8 tons per year. To manage mercury and its waste stream, it is important to understand the material flow of mercury and the types and quantities of mercury waste. About 80 tons of mercury enter Japan annually, 52 tons are recovered, and 11–24 tons are disposed of in landfill sites. Since environmentally sound treatment and disposal of mercury waste are essential, we discuss the recycling of some mercury-add products and the current state of mercury waste and mercury disposal in Japan. The remaining issue that must be addressed in the management of mercury and mercury waste is its long-term storage or disposal.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Phenol removal from aqueous solution by adsorption onto solidified
           landfilled sewage sludge and its modified sludges
    • Abstract: Abstract This study addresses the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions using solidified landfilled sewage sludge and its modified sludges as adsorbents. After the sludge was characterized using instrumental techniques, adsorption studies were performed in a batch system, and the effects of various experimental parameters were evaluated upon phenol adsorption. The characterization results revealed that more irregular pores, higher surface roughness, and a greater content of oxygen-containing functional groups formed in adsorbents derived from ZnCl2 or ZnCl2 and H2SO4 activation. Batch experiments revealed that pH had the weakest effect on phenol adsorption, regardless of the adsorbent type. With increasing adsorbent dosage, the phenol adsorption capacity decreased, and the phenol adsorption rate gradually increased. The maximum adsorption capacity occurred within 120 min, and a first-order kinetic model best described the adsorption. The equilibrium data fitted both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models well, whereas a much higher adsorption capacity and better adsorption strength were observed for phenol adsorption onto adsorbents derived from ZnCl2 or ZnCl2 and H2SO4 activation. The results demonstrated that the solidified landfilled sewage sludge previously modified by activator treatment had a heterogeneous surface and was an effective adsorbent for phenol removal from aqueous solution.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Aerobic decomposition of food waste with different ratios of solids at
           ambient temperatures and evaluation of CO 2 emissions
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the recycling of organic matter in the food waste by degrading aerobically and evaluation of the CO2 emissions. With this aim, food waste with the content of 5–7–10 % TS was degraded aerobically. The pH in all the reactors was observed within the range of 6.5–7. The highest CO2 production rate was obtained from 5 % TS. Removal was achieved at the rates of 5 % TS and 57 % in COD and TOC. CO2 production rate was calculated as 38.53 g CO2/h/kg TOCw. Moreover, CO2 production potential of the food waste was identified. A batch, single-stage reactor was used to determine the food waste pre-treatment. Finally, food waste in landfill areas was recycled and evaluated by without taking.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Quantification of carbon emission of construction waste by using
           streamlined LCA: a case study of Shenzhen, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Currently, the majority of the construction waste (CW) has been collected without classification and simply disposed in China. To quantify the environmental impacts and provide reasonable policy recommendations, this paper conducted an assessment for the life cycle carbon emissions (CEs) for CW based on a streamlined life cycle assessment method. Three typical CW management approaches in Shenzhen City were selected to perform the case study and comparative analysis. The results show that scenario I with low recycling rate generates the largest CEs amount by 542.56 kg for 1 ton CW, followed by scenarios II and scenario III that generate 538.61 and 483.85 kg, respectively. In addition, the results show the material embody impact is the largest contributor to CEs for CW examined, accounting for 78 % of the total amount in the overall life cycle. Analysis results also show that wood, steel and concrete wastes are the top three contributors within nine materials, with proportions of 25, 23 and 13 %, respectively. Therefore, the most effective way to decrease the CEs of CW is minimizing the generation of CW, since the CEs of the majority of waste are not sensitive to alteration of treatment methods or recycling rate.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
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