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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.392]   [H-I: 16]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Carbon dioxide utilization with carbonation using industrial
           waste-desulfurization gypsum and waste concrete
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, we propose a process making calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate and recovering absorbent using ammonia absorbent, carbon dioxide, and industrial waste. The main objective of this study is to confirm the possibility of carbon capture and utilization based on waste materials. We assumed desulfurization gypsum and construction waste (ready mixed concrete washing water, waste concrete, etc.) are CaSO4, Ca(OH)2, respectively. And concentration of simulated carbon dioxide gas was 15 vol% similar to flue gas. Calcium carbonate was produced by combination reaction between ionic CO2 in absorbent and metal ion in the solid waste. Experiments were conducted at normal temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the generated products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Optimization of the food waste water incineration with respect to CO and
           NO x emission characteristics
    • Abstract: Abstract The incineration of food waste water in conjunction with the domestic waste is getting attention as a food waste water treatment method, due to its low treatment cost and high efficiency. Many studies verified that the ammonia in the food waste water served as a reducing agent to suppress the generation of NOx when the food waste water was injected and incinerated. However, they have not revealed the correlation between the change in the concentration of the CO and NOx by the influence of the solid matters contained in the food waste water on the incineration of the wastes. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum amount of the food waste water injected through four nozzles in the primary and secondary incineration chambers and to assess the correlation between the concentration of CO and NOx in accordance with the food waste water injection in each chamber of the incinerator. For the study, four food waste water injection nozzles were installed; two (A and B) at the top of the primary incineration chamber and the other two (C and D) in the secondary incineration chamber. The correlation between the change in the concentration of CO and NOx was studied adjusting the amount of the food waste water injected through the nozzles. From the result, Case II showed the concentration of CO and NOx as 1.8–10 and 14–26 ppm, respectively, while Case I showed that of CO and NOx as 15–30 and 9–18 ppm, respectively. Those levels are well below the Korean emission criteria, 50 ppm for CO and 80 ppm for NOx. Based on the results, it is evident there is a certain trade-off between emission of CO and NOx, and Case II which has relatively low concentration of CO is easier and cheaper to control.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Proximate composition of household waste and applicability of waste
           management technologies by source separation in Hanoi, Vietnam
    • Abstract: Abstract The organic fraction of municipal solid wastes in Southeast Asia, which has a high moisture content, accounts for a large proportion of total waste. Local governments need to pay adequate attention to the composition of wastes to determine alternative waste management technologies. This study proposed the use of a triangle diagram to describe changes in proximate composition and rates of successful source separation of municipal solid waste and to identify technical challenges about alternative waste management technologies such as incineration, composting, and refuse-derived fuel production based on physical and proximate composition analysis of household waste sampled in Hanoi, Vietnam, as a case study. The analysis indicated the effectiveness of different types of source separation as well as different levels of successful achievement of source separation as an adjustment mechanism for the proximate composition of waste. Proper categorization of wastes for source separation is necessary for the appropriate use of alternative waste management technologies. The results showed that, at a source separation rate of just greater than 0.52 in a three-way separation scheme, the waste separated as combustible waste would be suitable for incineration with energy recovery. Based on well-designed schemes of source separation, alternative waste management technologies can be applied.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Decomposition of asbestos by a supernatant used for immobilization of
           heavy metals in fly ash
    • Abstract: Abstract A supernatant solution, obtained after immobilization of heavy metals involved in fly ashes by a solution of sulfur and calcium hydroxide, was re-used for immobilization of heavy metals and decomposition of asbestos in construction materials. Asbestos was decomposed to more than 99.9 % by mixing it with the supernatant in a ball mill at room temperature. The decomposition of asbestos was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a phase contrast microscope after staining the asbestos with solutions of different diffractive indexes and a scanning electron microscope. XRD indicated complete disappearance of specific main peaks of asbestos: chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite and tremolite. Heavy metals such as chromium(VI) and lead(II) in fly ashes were completely immobilized by the supernatant. It is the first time that a solution obtained after the treatment of wasted fly ash is recycled for decomposition of hazardous waste materials such as asbestos.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Recycling of cathode ray tube panel glasses as aggregates of concrete
           blocks and clay bricks
    • Abstract: Abstract While the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel containing lead could be transported to a smelting facility to recover lead, which could be an available option in domestic, a proper technology to recycle a CRT panel must be developed. Thus, it was suggested that CRT panel glass be used as aggregates of concrete blocks and clay bricks. Samples of blocks and bricks were fabricated with CRT powders and tested to measure their strength and absorption rate to determine their qualities, and environmental soundness was determined by measuring the leaching rate of hazardous metals. For concrete blocks, CRT panel glass powders incorporated as aggregates up to 40 % replacing stone powder was proposed as the proper condition for manufacturing blocks. Around 2 % of CRT panel incorporated into clay brick to substitute Kaoline was suggested to fabricate the best quality of clay brick. Results of leaching test met the criteria with much less concentration of hazardous metals, even lead compound containing in the CRT funnel. To conclude, the use of CRT panel powder after crushing it to the proper size as an aggregate of concrete blocks or clay bricks could be one of the appropriate alternatives to recycle for CRT glass waste being generated drastically in a short term.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Feasibility assessment of thermophilic anaerobic digestion process of food
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, a lab-scale thermophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste collected from G-district in Seoul was performed to assess its feasibility and applicability in field-scale biogas plants. Monitoring parameters included biogas production, methane composition, pH, alkalinity, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Accumulation of VFA caused successive depression in pH, which inhibited microbial activity of methane-forming microorganisms. Signals of biological instability and inhibition of methanogenesis suggest possible process failure, as indicated by reduction in methane production. Results revealed that modifications in certain conditions, such as decreased organic loading rate (OLR) or additional insertion of alkalinity, must be made for its application in industrial-scale biogas plants, and that thermophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste may not be feasible without any modification.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Quantitative analysis of food products allocation into food consumption
           styles for material flow analysis of food
    • Abstract: Abstract To provide effective food and food waste policies, it is necessary to quantitatively assess food and food waste flows. Expenditure has been previously used for calculating allocation factors for material flow analysis, but using the price of food products for quantitative study is inadequate because price also encompasses the cost of food processing and services. In this study, weight-based food allocation factors were calculated based on consumption style to provide the first step for future material flow analysis of food. We used Family Income and Expenditure Survey data, unit price data, composition of food items data, and food weight change from cooking. As a result, the allocation factors of food products for meals at home, convenience meals, and meals outside the home were calculated to be 81, 8, and 11 %, respectively. It differs largely from expenditure-based allocation factors. To verify these findings, we calculated material cost ratios for food prices using the gap between weight-based and expenditure-based allocation factors, and compared the results with actual material cost ratios. The results of this study are expected to be used for tracing food and food waste flows and also for evaluating food consumption’s impact on the environment.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • A study on torrefaction characteristics of waste sawdust in an auger type
    • Abstract: Abstract Torrefaction is thermo-chemical process which can improve solid fuel quality as well as grindability. In previous studies, torrefaction has been studied mainly for removal of moisture and for improving grindability. In this experiment, the characteristics of torrefied waste sawdust were studied especially for its energy yield. Hence, torrefaction was performed on varying reaction temperatures (200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300 °C) and solid residence time (10, 30, 60 min). The results indicated that the yield of torrefaction decreases with increasing temperature and residence time. It was found that above 280 °C, the yield got remarkably decreased. The lowest yield was obtained at the residence time of 60 min. It was also noticed that the HHV of torrefied samples increases with increasing temperature. The highest HHV was found to be 26.09 MJ/kg which was obtained at 60 min and 300 °C. However, the highest energy yield was obtained to be 104.17 % which was noticed at 30 min and 260 °C.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Solid recovery rate of food waste recycling in South Korea
    • Abstract: Abstract Source-separated collection system of household food waste has been implemented national wide in South Korea. Food waste recycling rate that means conversion rate to recycle is over 90 % in present. However, over the value of 90 %, we need to enhance the efficiency of food waste recycling process. We analyzed material flow of 24 food waste recycling facilities and calculated solid recovery rate to key-process. We found that 3–13 % of the solids from food waste outflows with foreign materials and 27–33 % of the solids outflow with wastewater. As a result, solid recovery rates are 65.3, 60.9, and 56.3 % in wet feed facility, dry feed facility, and composting facility, respectively. Alternative ways to recovery solid from wastewater or collection tools to exclude plastic bags, salt, and moisture content are required to make food waste recycling more efficient.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • The application and evaluation research of coffee residue ash into mortar
    • Abstract: Abstract Coffee residue is usually regarded as a kind of agriculture waste; as its quantity increases the treatment of coffee residue will become an environmental problem. This research is innovative in that it derives the possibility of recycle application using coffee residue ash for cement replacement. In this research, coffee residue is burned in an electronic oven to three kinds of coffee residue ash at 500, 600 and 700 °C, and then appropriate apparatus is used to check the chemical and physical properties of these three types of coffee residue ash. After a general comparison, this study selected 500 and 600 °C coffee residue ashes with 2, 3, 5, 10 and 15 % cement replacements to make 5 cm3 cube mortar specimen to test different curing ages’ compressive strength. Through measurement and experiment, this research found that the compressive strength decreased by adding 500 or 600 °C coffee residue ash into the mortar. By considering waste reduction and practice application, this research derives that using the 600 °C coffee residue ash with 10 % replacement is better than others application, such using result also can get valuable efficiencies of financial and CO2 reduction.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Enhancement of biogas production potential from Acacia leaf waste using
           alkaline pre-treatment and co-digestion
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this research was to evaluate possibility of utilizing Acacia leaves (A. mangium and A. auriculiformis), which is an agro-industrial waste from the pulp and paper industry. The effects of alkaline pre-treatment and co-digestion with Napier grass for the enhancement of biogas production from Acacia leaf waste (ALW) were investigated. Six continuous stirred tank reactors with a working volume of 5 L were carried out at the laboratory scale. The results showed that pre-treatment of Acacia leaf waste (pretreated ALW) by soaking in 3 % NaOH for 48 h increased the biogas and methane productivity to 0.200 and 0.117 m3/kgVSadded compared to 0.098 and 0.048 m3/kgVSadded of raw ALW digestion, respectively. Meanwhile, the co-digestion of Acacia leaves with different proportions of Napier grass at ratios of 1:1–1:3 in volatile solid basis also increased the production of biogas and its productivity. The maximum gas production yields of 0.424 and 0.268 m3/kgVSadded for biogas and methane were obtained at 1:3 ratio. This finding affirms the potential of ALW and its possibility to use as biogas feedstock in both single and co-substrate with Napier grass.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Recycling of combined coal-biomass ash from electric power plant waste as
           a cementitious material: characteristics and improvement
    • Abstract: Abstract Combined coal-biomass ash has an enormous impact on environmental quality near electric power plants. This paper describes an alternative to disposal in which the ash is used to produce cementitious materials. Ash was obtained from combustion of coal and biomass containing four mass ratios of anthracite, bitumen, rice husks, and eucalyptus bark. The cement-forming properties were systematically characterized including compressive strength development, durability, and expansion in water. The ash samples were ground to increase the specific surface area, and then used to partially replace ASTM Type I Portland cement in mixtures containing 15, 30, or 45 % ash by mass. The water-binder material's (Portland cement with or without combined coal-biomass ash) ratios (w/c) were held constant at 45, 55, or 65 % by mass. Types A, B, and D ash behaved similarly, while the properties of type C ash were slightly different. Increasing the ash fraction in Portland cement mixtures increased the water requirement and resulted in lower compressive strength. Thorough mechanical grinding reduced the porosity and significantly enhanced the material properties.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Preparation of MgCr 2 O 4 from waste tannery solution and effect of
           sulfate, chloride, and calcium on leachability of chromium
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a study regarding the preparation of MgCr2O4 from waste tannery solution, and chromium leaching behavior is also investigated with varying amounts of sulfate, chloride and calcium. The phase transformation, crystallinity index and crystallite diameter were characterized using XRD, FT-IR and thermal analysis. A well-crystallized MgCr2O4 was successfully prepared at 1400 °C. The sintering temperature had a major impact on the formation of MgCr2O4 compared with sintering time. The MgCr2O4 phase was observed initially at 400 °C and its crystallite diameter increased with increasing temperature. The concentration of total chromium leached and Cr(VI) decreased gradually with increasing temperature. The considerable amount of Cr(VI) was found in the leachate at 300–500 °C caused by Cr(VI) intermediary products. Sulfate and chlorine could impact the transformation efficiency of chromium adversely, and chlorine has a more significant effect than sulfate. The presence of calcium disturbed the formation of MgCr2O4 and new chromium species (CaCrO4) appeared, which resulted in a sharp increase in the concentration of leached Cr(VI). Incorporating Cr(III) into the MgCr2O4 spinel for reusable products reduced its mobility significantly. This was demonstrated to be a promising strategy for the disposal of chromium containing waste resource.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Potential methane yield of food waste/food waste leachate from the
           biogasification facilities in South Korea
    • Abstract: Abstract This study was to find out potential of methane yield on food waste and food waste leachate as biomass in Korea. The seven biogasification facilities were selected for comparison of theoretical methane yield and actual methane yield. The theoretical methane yield was calculated based on organic constituents (carbohydrate, protein, fat) and based on element analysis. The actual methane yield was investigated based on volatile solids and CODcr. Theoretical methane yields by organic constituents were 0.52 Sm3CH4/kg VS and 0.35 Sm3CH4/kg CODcr and these by element analysis were 0.53 Sm3CH4/kg VS and 0.36 Sm3CH4/kg CODcr. Actual methane yields were 0.36 Sm3CH4/kg VSin and 0.26 Sm3CH4/kg CODcrin. Considering the average removal efficiency of organic materials of seven FWL biogasification facilities, actual methane yields were 0.48 Sm3CH4/kg VSrem and 0.33 Sm3CH4/kg CODcrrem. Methane yield by organic constituents is very similar to that by element analysis and actual methane yields of volatile solids and CODcr were similar to theoretical value. The actual methane yield in this study showed approximated boundary values with previous other references which conducted in lab-scale or biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. In conclusion, Korean food waste and food waste leachate have sufficient potential of methane yield in the ongoing biogasification facilities.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Recovery of uranium phosphate by a stepwise thermal treatment of
           uranium-bearing spent TBP
    • Abstract: Abstract A stepwise thermal treatment process for the recovery of uranium phosphate from uranium-dissolved spent TBP was demonstrated. The pathway of the reactions involved in the thermal decomposition and oxidation processes of uranium-bearing spent TBP was established based on the results of thermogravimetric analyses. Relatively low-temperature pyrolysis is required to avoid the condensation of corrosive phosphoric acid via vaporization. Low-temperature pyrolysis residue was analyzed and found to be composed of pyrocarbon, phosphorus oxide (P2O5) and two types of uranium phosphate (UP2O7 and UP4O12). Uranium pyrophosphate (UP2O7) was recovered from the burning out of pyrocarbon in the pyrolysis residue after the dissolution removal of phosphorus oxide in water. A substantial recovery of uranium by the proposed stepwise thermal treatment method was successfully demonstrated by a treatment of pyrolysis residue from a bench-scale low-temperature pyrolysis process.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Experimental and numerical calculations of waste R-134a thermal
           decomposition for energy and fluorine material recovery
    • Abstract: Abstract Considering the global warming potential of R-134a (C2H2F4) with the substantial generation of this refrigerant as waste material in various industrial sectors, the development of proper thermal destruction method of R-134a is of great practical significance. For this, experiment and numerical calculations have initially made for a tubular-type furnace in order to figure out the basic combustion characteristics of R-134a. A series of experimental investigations for the thermal decomposition of R-134a have been made as a function of wall temperature of tubular furnace and important reacting species such as O2 and H2O necessary for the decomposition of C2H2F4 into HF, CO2 and H2O. In general, the thermal decomposition of R-134a is successfully made for the condition of temperature above 800 °C with the supply of stoichiometric amount of O2 and these results are well agreed with numerical prediction. And this information is employed for the simulation of a full-scale, practical incinerator used for the CDM project. For this, numerical investigation has been made for a commercial-scale incinerator using CH4–air flames for the proper destruction C2H2F4 together with the control of pollutants such as CO and NO. In general, the destruction rate of C2H2F4 appears more than 99.99 % and the generation of CO and NO species appears rather sensitive to the operational condition such as amount of water vapor. The numerical method of HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons) thermal treatment shows high possibility as a viable tool for the proper design and optimal determination of the operational condition for a HFCs incinerator.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Empirical analysis of reward to return: based on case studies of lunch
           boxes in Japan
    • Abstract: Abstract To recycle or reuse used containers, it is necessary first to collect them. One way to do this is to give rewards to persons who return used packaging and containers to designated places. Many Japanese university cooperatives use recyclable lunch boxes for take-out food, and they collect used boxes in a variety of ways, including such reward giving. By analyzing the responses of university cooperatives to questionnaires on the ways that they collect used recyclable lunch boxes, this study examines the effect of this reward giving on the collection rate. The study results suggest that cash rewards are more effective in increasing the rate of return of used containers than setting up collection boxes that offer no rewards upon return, or giving point-based rewards.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Scenario analysis for recovery of rare earth elements from end-of-life
    • Abstract: Abstract End-of-life vehicles (ELVs) are increasingly being recognized as a possible future resource pool for rare earth elements (REEs). This study provides the amount of REEs that can be recovered from ELVs in Japan based on dismantling survey, chemical identification and substance flow analysis. The REEs were quantified from common passenger vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. We targeted 17 REEs in estimation of REE contents in ELVs. Four scenarios were developed to explore the recovery of REEs from ELVs. In these scenarios, NiMH batteries and motors containing NdFeB magnets were identified as target components due to they are main REEs carriers; we focused on interpretation of neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy) owing to they are two of the most critical REEs. The results suggest that 2700 (±500) tons of REEs can be recovered, of which 520 (±100) tons and 31 (±7) tons will be contributed by Nd and Dy in 2030. Meanwhile, the Dy recovered from ELVs can satisfy 23 % (±6 %) of the demand for NdFeB magnets and NiMH battery cells in automobile production of Japan; the Nd recovered from ELVs can satisfy 49 % (±9 %) of the production demands.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Gasification applicability study of polyurethane solid refuse fuel
           fabricated from electric waste by measuring syngas and nitrogenous
           pollutant gases
    • Abstract: Abstract To recycle polyurethane foam waste generated from electric appliance recycling centers for use as fuel in a gasification process, polyurethane solid refuse fuel fabricated as pellets was analyzed for the characteristics of elemental composition, proximate analysis, heating value, and thermo-gravimetric testing. It has a high heating value of 29.06 MJ/kg with a high content of combustibles, which could be feasibly used in any thermal process. However, the nitrogen content, of up to 7 %, was comparably higher than for other fuels such as coal, biomass, and refuse-derived fuel, and may result in the emission of nitrogenous pollutant gases of HCN and NH3. By conducting gasification experiments on polyurethane solid refuse fuel in a fixed-bed reactor, a syngas with a heating value of 9.76 kJ/m3 and high content of both H2 and CO were produced with good gasification efficiency; carbon conversion 54 %, and cold gas efficiency 60 %. The nitrogenous pollutant gases in syngas were measured at the concentrations of 160 ppm hydrogen cyanide and 40 ppm ammonia, which may have to be reduced using proper cleaning technologies prior to the commercialization of gasification technology for polyurethane waste.
      PubDate: 2016-05-19
  • Evaluation of environmental impacts of food waste management by material
           flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA)
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper focuses on the evaluation of potential environmental impacts of food waste management practices by material flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) during different life cycle stages toward the environmentally sustainable options for Daejeon Metropolitan City (DMC) in Korea. The MFA and LCA studies were conducted to examine different recycling facilities of food waste. The results of the LCA study indicate that, among the different recycling methodologies currently in practice in DMC, Scenario 4 (wet and dry feed site) conduced to higher global warming potential (GWP) and higher acidification potential (AP), whereas Scenarios 2 (wet feed site 1) and 3 (wet feed site 2) resulted in the lowest impact. This is mainly due to the emission caused during the treatment stage. For eutrophication potential (EP), Scenario 1 (composting site) contributed to higher environmental impacts due to the emission of ammonia generated during the treatment process, while in case of photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP), the collection stage for all recycling facilities led to higher impacts to the environment due to the combustion of fossil fuels. This study indicates that the proper disposal of the final residues, such as solid sludge and screened materials, could aid in reducing environmental burdens.
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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