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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
   [4 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.327]   [H-I: 13]
  • Decontamination and solidification of liquid radioactive waste using
           natural zeolite
    • Abstract: Abstract This study is based on evaluation of solidification methods for low-level radioactive liquid using natural zeolite. In classical method, LLW is decontaminated using zeolite and after the process spent zeolite becomes radioactive waste. After decontamination process, zeolite waste is solidified using cement, sand and water. In this method; liquid radioactive waste was used instead of water, natural zeolite was used instead of sand/aggregate and cement was used for binding the mixture in solidification process. In this study, leaching properties and strength of the solidified waste form were investigated for both techniques. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, the effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution’s pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLW were discussed in this paper.
      PubDate: 2014-08-15
  • Erratum to: Case study on municipal solid waste management in Vavuniya
           township: practices, issues and viable management options
    • PubDate: 2014-08-08
  • Evaluation and development of solid waste management plan: a case of Seoul
           for past and future 10 years
    • Abstract: Abstract For strategic planning of municipal solid waste management, the goals and action plans should be predicted and adopted after proper evaluations of the previous achievements. Thus, this long-term plans for past and future 10 years were evaluated and developed by completing the procedures for current and future status analysis, the evaluation of the 2nd Seoul Solid Waste Management Plan (SWMP), the development of the 3rd Seoul SWMP, expert forum, public hearing, and “Prior Environmental Review” of Korea Ministry of Environment. The greatest achievements during the 2nd Seoul SWMP (2002–2011) were good performances of waste treatment methods and their rates and greenhouse gas (GHG) saving effects. The 3rd Seoul SWMP induces three policy stances and six directions of waste management from 2012 to 2021 in Seoul. The project section in this plan is divided into six policy stages and eighteen action plants in whole. The goals of the 3rd plan are direct landfill 5.4 % and resource recovery 72 % by 2021. Optimization index analysis shows the increases of the index from 62.2 % in 2009 to 79.2 % in 2021. As well as optimization index analysis, further analysis results for public budget, GHG emissions, and job creation supports that the 3rd Seoul SWMP has been successfully planned. These findings suggest several courses of action for evaluation and development of long-term solid waste management plan in various countries.
      PubDate: 2014-08-05
  • Recovery of rare earth elements from waste fluorescent phosphors:
           Na2O       class="a-plus-plus">2 molten salt decomposition
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, an efficient recovery of rare earth elements from waste fluorescent phosphors has been reported and the novel process of alkali fusion and acid leaching has been proposed. The experimental results have shown that the key for efficient recycling is the complete dissolution of waste fluorescent phosphors. The Na2O2-to-waste mass ratio, calcination temperature and reactive time play considerable roles in rare earth elements extraction during the alkali fusion process. The optimal conditions in terms of temperature, time and Na2O2-to-waste mass ratio are 650 °C, 15 min and 2:1, respectively, under which more than 99.5 % rare earth elements are extracted. The possible reaction mechanism of alkali fusion has been proposed.
      PubDate: 2014-08-05
  • Study on optimal energy efficiency of a sludge drying-incineration
           combined system
    • Abstract: Abstract Thermal drying is a frequently used technology to further remove the water in dewatered sludge. However, it is an expensive solution due to its highly energy consumption. The combination of sludge drying and incineration system, in which, the energy generated from sludge incineration is reused to sludge drying, can largely save the energy consumption of sludge treatment facilities. A bench-scale paddle sludge dryer was built to study the drying characteristics of sludge. Results show that, a significant fluctuation of sludge drying rate and stirring power emerges at the moisture content of 55–65 %. An energy model was established based on a sludge drying and incineration project. The most reasonable dryness of sludge outlet from sludge dryer and input to sludge incinerator was analyzed, in the purpose of achieving optimal energy efficiency. The mono-incineration of dry sludge can be achieved at 850 °C combustion temperature, when sludge lower heating value (LHV) is about 11213 kJ/kg and moisture content is about 60 % w/w. The effect of operation conditions, including sludge moisture content, LHV, and operation load were analyzed based on the energy model. This energy model could be applied for the improvement of energy efficiency of sludge drying and incineration combined system.
      PubDate: 2014-07-30
  • Anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet tops silage and dairy cow manure
           under thermophilic condition
    • Abstract: Abstract The effects of co-digesting different proportions of sugar beet tops (SBT) silage (40, 60, 80 and, 100 %, wet weight basis) with cow manure and duration of storage of two types of SBT silage (silage I: storage time of 120 days and silage II: storage time of 210 days) on digester performance in terms of biogas production and volatile solids (VS) reduction were investigated. The highest methane (CH4) yields were obtained at the 40 % proportion treatments and were 0.422 and 0.377 l/g VS for silage I and II, respectively. The digestion systems failed at 80 and 100 % proportions of silage I and 100 % proportion of silage II. Furthermore, 40 % proportion treatments presented highest VS reductions among manure-silage mixtures (57.0 % for silage I and 57.4 % for silage II) while the control treatment (manure only) had the highest VS reduction (65.0 %) among all the treatments. Based on the results, the 40 % proportion of SBT silage was most efficient for methane production. Comparison of digester performance at 40 and 60 % proportions showed that no remarkable differences were observed between silage I and II, indicating that duration of storage of SBT did not have any appreciable effect on digester performance.
      PubDate: 2014-07-27
  • Detoxification effect of chlorination procedure on waste lead glass
    • Abstract: Abstract This work reports the detoxification effect of chlorinating volatilization procedure on waste lead glass. The effects of various reaction parameters on lead removal efficiencies were examined, and the optimal operation conditions were 1000 °C, 2 h, and 600 ± 50 Pa, respectively. Moreover, it was found that the residues could be safely applied in a wide range, e.g., for wollastonite synthesis by an environmental benign technique. Accordingly, the typical hazardous waste was successfully converted into a safe raw material for further industrial application.
      PubDate: 2014-07-20
  • The effects of solvents on the chemical decomposition of foamed phenol
           resin in high-temperature conditions
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, thermosetting resin such as foamed phenol resin (FPR) powder was solubilized and decomposed into their monomeric and oligomeric compounds in high temperature fluids. Solvents play important roles as stable physical medium at high temperature and reactive chemical reagents to accelerate decomposition reaction of the thermosetting resin. The decomposition of FPR into their monomers occurred by cleaving methylene bond of the resin selectively via the ionic reaction. The effects of solvent which has a hydroxyl group and methylene carbon atoms (high affinity with FPR) on the solubilization of FPR were confirmed by the reaction in high-temperature m-cresol and straight-chain alcohols. More than 90 % of FPR was solubilized in the reaction in m-cresol and 1-heptanol at 350 °C for 2 h suggesting the presence of the solubilization route other than methylene chain scission.
      PubDate: 2014-07-20
  • Comparison of solidification/stabilization of fly ash and air pollution
           control residues from municipal solid waste incinerators with and without
           cement addition
    • Abstract: Abstract Solidification/stabilization (S/S) of fly ash and air pollution control residues from MSWI was studied, with and without the use of cement. It appeared that metal and oxyanion leaching from these stabilised residues was comparable after 75 days of curing. Leaching of chloride and sulfate did not decrease by the addition of cement during S/S treatment. In an LCA perspective the environmental impact of the S/S treated mixtures with cement in the toxicity related impact categories was higher than the impact of the S/S treated mixtures without cement. Moreover, the production of cement for application in S/S also causes an impact in the impact categories climate change and terrestrial acidification. For environmental considerations in an LCA perspective S/S without cement should be preferred.
      PubDate: 2014-07-18
  • Repeatable use of wood ash to remove lead from contaminated water
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study conducted lead sorption experiments using wood ash to elucidate its capacity and mechanisms of lead removal, to evaluate the recovery of lead removed by wood ash and the reuse of wood ash residue left after lead recovery. The maximum lead removal capacity of wood ash was 3.08 mmol g−1, which was higher than previously reported values. An X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the lead phase removed by wood ash was mainly hydrocerussite probably resulting from the sequential reactions of wood ash with lead ions, dissolution of carbonate ions from wood ash, precipitation of cerussite reacting with lead ions and then alteration to hydrocerussite from cerussite. In addition to the precipitation of hydrocerussite, lead sorption by the acid-insoluble matter in wood ash was also evident. The percentage of lead removed by wood ash in pH 2 solution was very low at 17 %, whereas that at pH 6 was 99 %. Almost all lead removed by wood ash was easily recovered using 0.1 M HNO3, and the residue remaining after lead recovery was able to remove lead repeatedly at rates of 13–22 mg g−1.
      PubDate: 2014-07-15
  • Homogeneous acetylation of hemicelluloses from soy sauce residue in
           imidazolium-based ionic liquid
    • Abstract: Abstract The acetylation of hemicelluloses isolated from deoiled soy sauce residue by a novel process was achieved in a complete homogeneous imidazolium-based ionic liquid system with acetic anhydride for the first time. The key parameters of acetylation reaction were studied, which included the acetic anhydride/hydroxyl functionality in hemicellulose ratio, reaction time and temperature. The degree of substitution (DS) of acetylated hemicelluloses ranged between 0.67 and 1.68 as a function of experiment conditions. Under the optimal reaction conditions (14:1 molar ratio of acetic anhydride to hydroxyl functionality, 20 min reaction time and 100 °C reaction temperature) developed by orthogonal method, over 90 % hydroxyl groups in hemicelluloses were acetylated. The structural features of the acetylated hemicelluloses were characterized by means of SEM, FT-IR, TG and 13CNMR. The thermal stability of the acetylated hemicelluloses increased upon chemical modification. At the end of acetylation of hemicelluloses, the ionic liquid could be effectively recovered and reused for at least four times with similar DS values. This study presents a promising approach and green process to make use of soy sauce residue and other similar waste materials.
      PubDate: 2014-07-15
  • Modification of bitumen-based roof covering material by glass reinforced
           polyester recyclate
    • Abstract: Abstract In boat building industry, environmental legislations promoting recycling of thermoset composites have been the main driver globally. Recycling of glass-reinforced plastics (GRP), which is widely used in the industry, has been very problematic due to its inherent heterogeneous structure. Considering the urgent need of the industry, several investigations have been carried out to find the beneficial uses of GRP recyclate after mechanical recycling which is the most cost-effective technique. In this study that can be considered an effort to find proper way to recycle GRP containing polyester as the matrix, the recyclate of waste GRP boat material was adopted as modifier for bitumen-based roof covering materials. Fine grounded GRP recyclates were added to the hot bitumen mix with the dosages of 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 % as a part of roof covering material production process. Performances of the modified end product have been tested conventionally. The tests were also repeated for environmentally aged blends that contain 30 % of GRP recyclate. Results indicate that use of GRP recyclate in the modification of bitumen-based materials is an effective way to improve roof covering materials’ performance in terms of temperature susceptibility in particular and has the potential to solve the recycling problems of the industry.
      PubDate: 2014-07-15
  • Dynamic studies on lead volatilization from CaO–SiO       class="a-plus-plus">2–Al       class="a-plus-plus">2O       class="a-plus-plus">3 molten slag under N       class="a-plus-plus">2–CO–CO       class="a-plus-plus">2, N       class="a-plus-plus">2–HCl and N       class="a-plus-plus">2–H       class="a-plus-plus">2S gas atmospheres
    • Abstract: Abstract Dynamic studies on the volatilization of lead from CaO–SiO2–Al2O3 molten slags were conducted in a lab-scale melting furnace from 1623 to 1773 K under different mixed gas atmospheres of CO 0.05–0.3 atm to CO2 0–0.3 atm to N2 (balance), HCl 1.7 × 10−3–6.7 × 10−3 atm to N2 (balance), and H2S 3.0 × 10−4 to 1.7 × 10−3 atm to N2 (balance). The slag samples consisted of the mixed powders of 20–50 wt% CaO, 30–60 wt% SiO2, and 10–40 wt% Al2O3, containing 2000 ppm PbO.Results showed that the rates of volatilization of lead from the CaO–SiO2–Al2O3 molten slags under the N2–CO–CO2, N2–HCl, and N2–H2S gas atmospheres were higher than those under the simulated air (N2–O2), which increased with CO, HCl, and H2S partial pressures. At \(p_{{HCl}}\)  =  \(p_{H_{2}S}\)  = 1.7 × 10−3 atm, the apparent rate constants for the volatilization of lead under the N2–H2S and N2–HCl gas atmospheres were nearly equal, which increased with a rise in temperature. Results also showed that the rate of volatilization of lead from the molten slag decreased drastically with the increasing viscosity of the molten slag, in the viscosity range lower than 3 Pa s. Consequently, the volatilization of lead from the CaO–SiO2–Al2O3 molten slag was significantly influenced by CO, HCl, and H2S partial pressures and by the viscosity of the molten slag.
      PubDate: 2014-07-10
  • Gasification of waste rigid polyurethane foam: optimizing operational
    • Abstract: Abstract The influence of temperature and catalyst type on production of combustible gas during the air gasification of waste rigid polyurethane foam has been researched in a bench-scale plant. The results indicated that among ten selected catalysts, sodium hydroxide had the most positive effect on the yield of combustible gas. An orthogonal array experimental design based on four levels L16 (43) of three parameters was employed to optimize the gasification conditions. The results showed that the relative effectiveness of the parameters was ranked as: temperature > catalyst supplied > air gas flow rate. Subsequently, a series of process optimization experiments were conducted and the optimum operating conditions are found as follows: temperature was 1100 °C, catalyst supplied was 12.5 wt% of the raw material, and the air flow rate was 120 L/h.
      PubDate: 2014-07-10
  • An easier upgrading process of aluminum dross residue by screening
    • Abstract: Abstract Metallic aluminum in aluminum dross is recovered in Japan generally by physical separation, using the so-called Metal Reclamate Machine (MRM). A large amount of the residue containing oxides, metallic aluminum, nitrides and salts is unavoidably generated as a by-product of the MRM process. Since the metallic aluminum is much more viscous than the relatively brittle oxides and nitrides, it remains larger after crushing in the MRM. Using of an easier separation process for the recovery of metallic aluminum from the residue would promote sustainable recycling. The relationship between the composition and the grain size of the residue was investigated to develop an easier technique for upgrading aluminum dross residue. The mean sizes of studied residues were 100–200 µm. The residues larger than about 200 µm had higher metallic aluminum content, whereas their aluminum nitride and chlorine contents were lower. It was confirmed that the metallic aluminum content of the residue could be easily increased by the proposed screening process.
      PubDate: 2014-07-08
  • Characterization of residue from leached cathode ray tube funnel glass:
           reutilization as white carbon black
    • Abstract: Abstract Cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass remains an urgent environmental problem and is composed mainly of lead oxide and silicon oxide. In this research, the residue could be obtained from 2 h to 500 rpm activated CRT funnel glass after extracting lead via acid leaching under the conditions of HNO3 concentration 1.0 mol/L, leaching temperature 95 °C and leaching time 1 h. In order to reutilize the residue, its physico-chemical properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that the residue was an amorphous superfine powder with approximately 93 wt% silica oxide and specific surface area of more than 170 m2/g. It can be reutilized as white carbon black.
      PubDate: 2014-07-08
  • Assessment of the sustainability level of community waste recycling
           program in Malaysia
    • Abstract: Abstract A sustainable municipal waste recycling program is important to successfully increase the recycling rate in Malaysia. This paper evaluates and assesses the sustainability level of the recycling activities by Surau Al-Husna in Shah Alam, Malaysia. Five criteria were selected in the evaluation process. These criteria were divided into the continuous publicity of recycling programs, operation cost, participation rate/recyclables collection rate, dissemination of information regarding recycling and the enthusiasm level regarding environmental concerns. The results showed that Surau had a proper management system. However, several suggestions and recommendations were provided to improve the current recycling program. In conclusion, the Surau Al-Husna maintains sustainable recycling practices and is a good role model for sustainable recycling programs at the nationwide scale in Malaysia.
      PubDate: 2014-07-08
  • Persistent organic pollutant waste in China: a review of past experiences
           and future challenges
    • Abstract: Abstract As one of the world’s fastest developing countries, China is inevitably facing the problem of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Owing in part to an inadequate management framework, insufficient and improper disposal of POP waste has caused serious pollution problems. In this study, we discuss: (1) the generation, amount, and distribution of POP waste in China; (2) past experience with respect to POP treatment and existing problems in management of POP waste. Additionally, we put forward suggestions regarding POP management. The results showed that the total amount of pesticide POP waste was about 4,059–6,093 tons, and more than 2,750 tons pesticide waste have been disposed in recent years. The total amount of polychlorinated biphenyl waste with high concentrations was approximately 50,000 tons; some of them have been disposed by incineration. Dioxin released to the environment through waste was 4,979 g I-TEQ in 2004. To eliminate environmental risk of POP waste, a series of disposal activities have been conducted or planned, but the disposal technique was still single on the whole. Furthermore, we suggest the POP waste inventory should be elevated, and then taking measures to promote disposal and treatment of wastes and strengthening POP waste environmental regulatory capacity building. This work may contribute to understanding the current situation of POP waste, and to developing an inventory of POP waste in the country. Moreover, as there may be many similar situations worldwide, especially in developing countries, the Chinese POP management experience can also provide valuable information to control and manage POP waste.
      PubDate: 2014-07-02
  • Recycling of plastic packaging waste in Bandung City, Indonesia
    • Abstract: Abstract Economic growth, changing consumption and production patterns are resulting in rapid increase in the generation of plastic wastes, including plastic packaging waste (PPW). A variety of PPW is identified in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. In this paper, quantity and composition of PPW at generators (residential and nonresidential sectors) and at the informal sector of waste recycling were measured, and accordingly the flow of PPW within Bandung City, Indonesia was analyzed. Though the generation rate per capita is not so high (25.1 g per day), total PPW generated by 2.3 million inhabitants in Bandung becomes 58.4 tonnes per day (3.76 % of total MSW generated). Due to lack of integrated MSW management, most of PPW is neither collected properly nor disposed of in appropriate manner by the municipality. Collection of valuable wastes including PPW is done predominantly by the informal sector without regard to health and safety. It is predicted that total PPW recycled by various informal waste recycling players like scavengers, junkmen, intermediates, and dealers is 27.5 tonnes per day (64.6 % of total PPW generated). Interviews regarding the existing handling methods and incentives preferred by generators to increase the recycling rate are also presented.
      PubDate: 2014-07-01
  • Converting waste expanded polystyrene into polymeric azo dyes containing
           the sulfonamide group
    • Abstract: Abstract Using waste expanded polystyrene as raw materials, a series of polymeric azo dyes containing the sulfonamide group were prepared by chlorosulfonation, amidation, hydrolysis, diazotization and coupling reactions in this study. The main influence factors of each step reaction were discussed and the proper reaction conditions were obtained. The polymeric azo dyes prepared showed good thermal stabilities, and their 5 % weight loss temperatures were all higher than 350 °C. These polymeric dyes could solve in toluene at the room temperature. They showed different maximum absorption wavelengths in the ultraviolet–visible region and gave various colors. The relationships between colors and molecular structures of polymeric dyes were investigated. These polymeric azo dyes prepared have potential applications in dyeing polymer materials, such as plastic and fiber.
      PubDate: 2014-07-01
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