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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
   [4 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.327]   [H-I: 13]
  • Mercury and mercury-containing waste management in Japan
    • Abstract: Abstract Mercury used in products and industrial processes eventually enters the environment via the waste stream. Since the management of mercury waste should prioritize reducing the amount of mercury used in products and industrial processes, this paper first describes the trends in the demand for mercury. Recent mercury demand in Japan is small in comparison to the past and other countries, and is estimated to be 8 tons per year. To manage mercury and its waste stream, it is important to understand the material flow of mercury and the types and quantities of mercury waste. About 80 tons of mercury enter Japan annually, 52 tons are recovered, and 11–24 tons are disposed of in landfill sites. Since environmentally sound treatment and disposal of mercury waste are essential, we discuss the recycling of some mercury-add products and the current state of mercury waste and mercury disposal in Japan. The remaining issue that must be addressed in the management of mercury and mercury waste is its long-term storage or disposal.
      PubDate: 2014-11-20
  • TSP, PM 10 and health risk assessment for heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn,
           Cd, Pb) in the ambience of the production line for waste cathode ray tube
    • Abstract: Abstract Recently, a typical semi-automatic recycling line is proved to be a feasible method for resource recovery of raw material of waste CRTs. However, there are no relevant studies about health risk assessment of the particles and heavy metals diffused from this physical r ecycling process for CRTs. In this study, TSP, PM10 and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in the ambience of the workshop have been evaluated. The mean concentrations of TSP and PM10 in the workshop were 481.5 and 316.9 μg/m3, respectively. Meanwhile, it can be seen that Zn (8.1 and 7.9 μg/m3, respectively) was the most enriched metal in TSP and PM10, followed by Pb (3.2 and 3.0 μg/m3, respectively). Health risk assessment showed that the total hazard index was 3.29, exceeding the danger threshold. The health risk of different metals was Cr > Cd > Ni. In short, the research results show that mechanical–physical process for e-waste recycling do exist the pollutant mission. So the effective measures should be taken to reduce the harm of pollutants on the workers’ health.
      PubDate: 2014-11-18
  • Evaluation of an organic soil amendment generated from municipal solid
           waste seeded with activated sewage sludge
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the feasibility of using fresh activated sewage sludge as inoculum for the microbial valorization of segregated municipal solid waste and evaluated the quality of organic soil amendment generated. Organic fraction of municipal solid waste, which consisted of vegetative (vegetable, fruit and flower) wastes was seeded with activated sewage sludge and processed by rapid aerobic microbial treatment. Efficacy of microbial valorization process and quality of final product were assessed by physico-chemical analysis. Suitability of final product was assessed with regard to heavy metal content, pesticide residues, microbiological quality and phytotoxicity. Quality of the soil amendment generated was compared with the control product generated with a commercial microbial inoculum. Phytotoxicity experiments indicated the stimulatory effect of sewage sludge seeded soil amendment on plant growth but inhibition was observed in closed growth test due to the evolution of gaseous phytotoxic agents. The study suggests that segregated municipal solid waste can be effectively valorized with activated non-dewatered sewage sludge as inoculum and the quality of soil amendment generated was comparable to compost intended for unrestricted applications.
      PubDate: 2014-11-15
  • Effect of multi-factors interaction on trace lead equilibrium during
           municipal solid waste incineration
    • Abstract: Abstract The thermodynamic equilibrium of trace lead during the waste incineration was calculated on the basis of the minimization of the total Gibbs energy. The effect of incineration condition and MSW components on Pb distribution was investigated mainly in the view of the interaction of related elements. In the oxygen-rich condition, incineration temperature affects Pb distribution by the interaction of Cl, Ca and Na. In the fuel-rich condition, incineration temperature affects Pb distribution directly by the thermal transition of PbS(s) to PbCl(g) and the thermal transition of PbCl(g) to Pb(g). Air ratio has significant effect on Pb distribution by the interaction of H, O and Cl. The liberated Cl in oxidizing condition is far less than that in reducing condition. Na has the top priority to bond with Cl, than Ca only at low temperature and H only at high temperature, so the effect of Cl on Pb distribution depends on the content of Na and Ca. S promotes Pb volatilization by the interaction with Na in oxygen-rich and chlorine-poor condition and depresses Pb volatilization by the formation of PbS(s) directly without interaction with other elements in fuel-rich condition.
      PubDate: 2014-11-15
  • The effect of different moisture levels on the toluene desorption rates of
           modified natural zeolite during MW irradiation
    • Abstract: Abstract Regeneration of zeolite using microwave heating has been investigated focusing on the removal of toluene by desorption from zeolite samples. Studies were focused on the effect of physicochemical characteristics of three types of zeolite namely Na-rich natural zeolite (clinoptilolite), synthesized and heat treated on the toluene desorption ratio. In this work, it was shown that, in case of synthesized zeolite an increasing number of pores and their diffusion rate on the surface of samples caused by the sintering process resulted in an increase in the adsorption capacity compared to natural and heat-treated samples. The desorption experiment was carried out in MW irradiation time for about 1 h in which the temperature of zeolites samples was raised to almost 400 °C. Moisture had a significant effect on the desorption characteristics of zeolites. Maximum desorption ratios were obtained after approximately 30 min for heat-treated and synthesized samples when the moisture content was adjusted to 20 % of sample weight. In general, among the samples used in this study, synthesized zeolite showed the greatest absorption capacity and most efficient desorption ratio.
      PubDate: 2014-11-08
  • Recyclability of novel dynamically cured copolyester/epoxidized natural
           rubber blends
    • Abstract: Abstract Dynamically cured copolyester (COPE)/epoxidized natural rubber blends, with 50 mol % epoxide in the natural rubber (ENR-50), were prepared and the recyclability was investigated over 5 reprocessing cycles. It was found that stiffness, modulus, tensile strength, tension set value and hardness properties increased, while elongation at break and degree of swelling decreased with the count of reprocessing cycles. In addition, the recycled blends from reprocessing all had similar particle sizes of dispersed vulcanized rubber in the COPE matrix. It was also found that the thermomechanical properties observed by temperature scanning stress relaxation (TSSR) decreased with the reprocessing cycles. Furthermore, T g of the rubber phase shifted upwards with the reprocessing cycles, while T g , T m and crystallinity of the copolyester phase remained almost unchanged.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31
  • A new theory of the creation of biomethane from aluminium-containing
           inorganic wastes
    • Abstract: Abstract Energy by-products from the co-combustion of municipal solid waste with coal or biomass are monitored only in terms of oxides; the amount of metallic aluminium is not determined. When these energy by-products are deposited at landfills, the alkali metal compounds in landfill bodies undergo reactions with aluminium in the presence of water. This leads to the formation of hydrogen and its possible bioconversion into methane. The article summarises the findings of the possible development of methane and hydrogen from the ashes of 11 items of typical municipal waste containing aluminium, burned in power plants, which are then landfilled. The assessment of the new information on aluminium-waste reactions in landfill bodies and the metabolism of some bacteria may give rise to a new theory of the formation of the biomethane contained in the landfill gas.
      PubDate: 2014-10-25
  • Digestion reactions of paper sludge combustion ash in strong alkaline
           solutions at 60 °C
    • Abstract: Abstract Alkaline reactions of paper sludge combustion ash at low temperature (60 °C) were performed using a calcite-rich paper ash (PA 1) and a gehlenite-rich ash (PA 2). Strong alkaline conditions (8, 12, 16 M NaOH) were revealed at reaction times of 1–4 h and 12–24 h. Reactions were performed with pure ashes and in the presence of NaAlO2. The products were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM/EDX, gravimetry and chemical analysis. The conversion was found to proceed mainly in the period between 1 and 4 h. Portlandite and hydrogarnet were observed from PA 1 in 8 M NaOH. Onset of formation of Ca4Al2O6CO 3 . 11H2O beside Ca(OH)2 could be analyzed after reaction of PA 1 in 12 M and 16 M NaOH. Addition of NaAlO2 favored crystallization of hydrogarnet and Ca4Al2O6CO 3 . 11H2O. For PA 2 gehlenite remained stable, but a high portlandite fraction was observed. Addition of NaAlO2 yielded hydrogarnet beside gehlenite in 8 M NaOH. Higher alkalinities favored crystallization of Ca4Al2O6CO 3 . 11H2O and onset of dissolution of gehlenite. Finally transformation of Ca4Al2O6CO 3 . 11H2O into sodium aluminum silicate hydrate was observed. All results were discussed with regard to heavy metal distribution of the initial PA between the alkaline digestion solution and the products. In conclusion suitable applications of the products were proposed.
      PubDate: 2014-10-25
  • Mineralogical comparison of coal fly ash with soil for use in agriculture
    • Abstract: Abstract Mineralogical comparison of coal fly ash with soil and other material such as montmorillonite, charcoal was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) with EDS. Fly ash showed high thermal stability with least weight loss as observed in TGA and SEM graph indicated that flyash is composed of spherical structures with more surface area for interaction; XRD and EDS studies showed that amorphous content of ash consists of calcium oxide, potassium and major crystalline phases observed were quartz (SiO2) and aluminum silicon oxide (Al4.52Si1.48) and haematite (Fe2O3). Charcoal, was amorphous in nature consisting of carbon and graphite. Soil and montmorillonite showed similar results in XRD, FTIR and thermal analysis having porous nature with silica as major constituent. Fly ash was found to be alkaline in nature having pH 7.85 and electrical conductivity 0.14 µS/m, good water holding capacity (62 %) and various macro and micronutrients as compared to other material viz. soil, charcoal, montmorillonite and hence, its mineralogical composition ascertains its applicability as a carrier for different microbial inoculants for soil application in agriculture which can act as an economic source of nutrient supplement for crop plants.
      PubDate: 2014-10-24
  • Estimation of gypsum hemihydrate content in recycled gypsums derived from
           gypsum boards
    • Abstract: Abstract In order to utilize reclaimed gypsums (gypsum board waste) derived from waste plasterboards as geo-materials, thermal behaviors of the reclaimed gypsums and reagent gypsum are investigated in this paper. Furthermore, simple density measuring method of judging quality of the reclaimed gypsums is examined to determine the gypsum hemihydrate content. As the results, it was found that the dihydrate gypsum is changed into the hemihydrate gypsum under thermal condition of 90 °C and the hemihydrate gypsum is changed into anhydrite under that of 120 °C with heating of 24 h. The followings were clarified in this paper. The cement density measuring method was available in order to measure the density of reclaimed gypsums; that density depended on the drying conditions of the reclaimed gypsums; and the density measuring method was appropriate to estimate the gypsum hemihydrate content in reclaimed gypsums. Furthermore, it was found that the quality control method based on the density was effective by calculating the gypsum hemihydrate content from the density values of reclaimed gypsums.
      PubDate: 2014-10-24
  • Pt/ITQ-6 zeolite as a bifunctional catalyst for hydrocracking of waste
           plastics containing polystyrene
    • Abstract: Abstract Thermal and catalytic hydrocracking of polystyrene to fuels was compared. The use of a bifunctional (platinum and acidic sites) catalyst such as Pt/Ferrierite not only increases conversion but also selectivity to a wider and more interesting variety of products in the gasoline range (C5–C12). As polymer molecules present steric hindrance to access internal active sites in the catalyst, Pt/ITQ-6 was prepared by delamination to maximize the external surface of the catalyst while keeping its composition and type. Although Pt/ITQ-6 presented lower acidity than Pt/Ferrierite, it was mostly external and, thus, accessible to the reactants. In this way, Pt/ITQ-6 significantly improved activity and selectivity of Pt/Ferrierite. The performance of Pt/ITQ-6 when recycled polystyrene was used as reactant proved this catalyst is very promising for this application, although catalytic activity decreased as a consequence of plastic additives and impurities.
      PubDate: 2014-10-21
  • Emission of particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5 ) and elements from municipal
           solid waste incinerators
    • Abstract: Abstract To determine the concentration and behavior of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from municipal solid waste incineration, size-classified dust samples were collected from four incineration facilities using cascade impactors. The total dust and PM2.5 concentrations were 1.7–236 and 0–104 μg/Nm3, respectively, in the flue gas sampled from the stacks. The total dust concentration in the flue gas was 1/50 or less of the concentrations measured previously in the same facilities with the operation of an electrostatic precipitator. Each air pollution control device used in the facilities was evaluated from the perspective of PM2.5 removal. A bag filter, activated carbon tower and selective catalytic reduction were all considered to be effective. The removal efficiency of PM2.5 was more than 99.99 %. Analysis of the particle size distributions of the dust identified two peaks around 1 and 10 μm at the inlet of the BF. Based on the results of an elemental analysis of the dust, the particle size distributions of each element were also calculated. As a result, the emission of PM2.5 as primary particles from a state-of-the-art municipal solid waste incinerator was estimated to be very low.
      PubDate: 2014-10-21
  • Cotton shell utilization as a source of biomass energy for bio-oil by
           flash pyrolysis on electrically heated fluidized bed reactor
    • Abstract: Abstract Extensive concentration has been given to the development of renewable energy due to imminent demand of fossil fuels and environmental concerns over global warming. Biomass materials are used since millennia for meeting myriad human needs including energy. In this study, the pyrolysis characteristics of cotton shell were investigated to evaluate their potential use as source of bio-oil. Flash pyrolysis of the cotton shell was carried out on an electrically heated fluidized bed reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were investigated. In this study, the maximum yield of pyrolysis bio-oil 51.25 wt% can be obtained under the operation temperature of 450 °C, 1 mm particle size at sweep gas flow rate of 1.75 m3/h. The liquid product was analyzed for physical, elemental and chemical composition using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC) and 1H NMR spectroscopy.
      PubDate: 2014-10-19
  • Selection of management option for solid waste from olive oil industry
           using the analytical hierarchy process
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper considers the process of selecting a appropriate olive mill solid waste management option in Jordan. Six alternatives were found to be possible options for olive mill solid waste management. Those alternatives are: animal feed, energy recovery, extraction of useful materials, co-combustion, fertilizers, and disposal without treatment. Prioritization of these six alternatives was performed through the analytical hierarchy process. Management options were prioritized based on three criteria: environmental effects, economical benefits, and the technology involved. Priorities given to each of criteria were evaluated through soliciting experts and olive mills owners opinions. Analytical hierarchy process model results revealed that co-combustion option is most favorable followed by the animal feed alternative and lease favorable is disposal without treatment. Sensitivity of the proposed analytical hierarchy process model was addressed as the priorities may change. Model sensitivity analysis showed that our model decision is robust to moderate changes in priorities. Unless the environmental criteria given a very high priority, co-combustion remains as the most favorable management option.
      PubDate: 2014-10-19
  • Use of acid cation-exchange resin for catalytic conversion of soybean acid
           oil to biodiesel
    • Abstract: Abstract Soybean acid oil (SAO), a by-product of soybean oil refining, contains large amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs). In the present work, the esterification of FFAs in SAO with methanol over four strong acid cation-exchange resins to synthesize biodiesel was studied in a batch reactor. The effects of external and internal diffusion, catalyst amount, methanol/FFAs ratio, and temperature in the esterification over the optimal resin (LS-50) were assessed. After 140 min, the esterification reached equilibrium, and high FFAs conversion (91.02 %) was obtained under the optimized conditions. Based on the obtained data, the reaction kinetics was studied, and the kinetics of the optimized FFAs esterification catalyzed by LS-50 fitted well to the pseudo-homogeneous (P–H) kinetic model. LS-50 could be successfully reused for at least 8 cycles, and its deactivation mechanism was also investigated. The fuel property parameters of the synthesized biodiesel conformed to the standards for biodiesel in the US (ASTM D 6751-03).
      PubDate: 2014-10-18
  • Biodiesel production from waste shortening oil from instant noodle
    • Abstract: Abstract Waste shortening oil (WSO) from instant noodle factories was used for biodiesel production by transesterification using alkali as a catalyst in a laboratory scale. The effects of various parameters such as potassium hydroxide concentration, methanol/WSO molar ratio, temperature and reaction time on the biodiesel production were investigated. To determine the optimal operating condition for biodiesel production, potassium hydroxide concentration from 0.25 to 1.5 wt%, methanol/WSO molar ratio from 3:1 to 9:1, temperature from 35 to 65 °C and reaction time from 30 to 90 min were employed. The highest ester yield of biodiesel was obtained at the catalyst concentration of 1.0 wt% KOH, methanol/WSO molar ratio of 8:1, temperature of 55 °C, and reaction time of 60 min. Biodiesel obtained had many advantages such as high cetane number, low acid value and carbon residue and can be used as an alternative diesel without modifications to engine or injection system.
      PubDate: 2014-10-05
  • Characterization of lorry washing sludge
    • Abstract: Abstract The sludge generated by washing lorry refuse and some fractions of municipal solid waste have been studied, to justify that washing sludge presents no danger and can therefore be managed adequately in a landfill, as well as other municipal solid waste fractions. One problem attributed to this type of sludge is its high level of sulfide content, which causes this waste to be considered hazardous. The determination of sulfide content in the studied samples was carried out according to environmental protection agency methods 9030B and 9034, and the results show that the sulfide concentration in the sludge is less than other fractions of the municipal solid waste treatment plants, which can properly composted, in which sulfides are oxidized to sulfates. Lorry washing sludge could therefore be managed in a municipal solid waste treatment plant.
      PubDate: 2014-10-05
  • Phenol removal from aqueous solution by adsorption onto solidified
           landfilled sewage sludge and its modified sludges
    • Abstract: Abstract This study addresses the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions using solidified landfilled sewage sludge and its modified sludges as adsorbents. After the sludge was characterized using instrumental techniques, adsorption studies were performed in a batch system, and the effects of various experimental parameters were evaluated upon phenol adsorption. The characterization results revealed that more irregular pores, higher surface roughness, and a greater content of oxygen-containing functional groups formed in adsorbents derived from ZnCl2 or ZnCl2 and H2SO4 activation. Batch experiments revealed that pH had the weakest effect on phenol adsorption, regardless of the adsorbent type. With increasing adsorbent dosage, the phenol adsorption capacity decreased, and the phenol adsorption rate gradually increased. The maximum adsorption capacity occurred within 120 min, and a first-order kinetic model best described the adsorption. The equilibrium data fitted both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models well, whereas a much higher adsorption capacity and better adsorption strength were observed for phenol adsorption onto adsorbents derived from ZnCl2 or ZnCl2 and H2SO4 activation. The results demonstrated that the solidified landfilled sewage sludge previously modified by activator treatment had a heterogeneous surface and was an effective adsorbent for phenol removal from aqueous solution.
      PubDate: 2014-10-04
  • A comparison study on high-temperature water–gas shift reaction over
           Fe/Al/Cu and Fe/Al/Ni catalysts using simulated waste-derived synthesis
    • Abstract: Abstract A comparative study on Fe/Al, Fe/Al/Cu, and Fe/Al/Ni catalysts in high-temperature water–gas shift reaction (HT–WGS) using simulated waste-derived synthesis gas has been carried out. The metal oxide (Cu and Ni) and aluminum incorporated Fe catalysts were designed to get highly active HT–WGS catalysts. Despite the high CO concentration in the simulated waste-derived synthesis gas, Fe/Al/Cu catalyst exhibited the highest CO conversion (84 %) and 100 % selectivity to CO2 at a very high gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 40,057 h−1. The outstanding catalytic performance is mainly due to easier reducibility, the synergy effect of Cu and Al, and the stability of the magnetite.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Study on optimal energy efficiency of a sludge drying-incineration
           combined system
    • Abstract: Abstract Thermal drying is a frequently used technology to further remove the water in dewatered sludge. However, it is an expensive solution due to its highly energy consumption. The combination of sludge drying and incineration system, in which, the energy generated from sludge incineration is reused to sludge drying, can largely save the energy consumption of sludge treatment facilities. A bench-scale paddle sludge dryer was built to study the drying characteristics of sludge. Results show that, a significant fluctuation of sludge drying rate and stirring power emerges at the moisture content of 55–65 %. An energy model was established based on a sludge drying and incineration project. The most reasonable dryness of sludge outlet from sludge dryer and input to sludge incinerator was analyzed, in the purpose of achieving optimal energy efficiency. The mono-incineration of dry sludge can be achieved at 850 °C combustion temperature, when sludge lower heating value (LHV) is about 11213 kJ/kg and moisture content is about 60 % w/w. The effect of operation conditions, including sludge moisture content, LHV, and operation load were analyzed based on the energy model. This energy model could be applied for the improvement of energy efficiency of sludge drying and incineration combined system.
      PubDate: 2014-07-30
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