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Zeitschrift für Herz-,Thorax- und Gefäßchirurgie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.125, h-index: 5)
Zeitschrift für Hochschulrecht, Hochschulmanagement und Hochschulpolitik: zfhr     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift fur Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
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Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, h-index: 31)
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Zoomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 24)
Zorg en Financiering     Hybrid Journal  

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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.327]   [H-I: 13]
  • Gas production by steam gasification of polypropylene/biomass waste
           composites in a dual-bed reactor
    • Abstract: Abstract Polypropylene/biomass waste composites and their constituents were gasified with steam by a two-stage process, in a dual-bed microreactor for the production of fuel gases. Gasification experiments were carried out at 700 °C gasification temperature in absence and presence of Fe2O3/CeO2 catalyst. The gases produced during the process were mainly H2, CO, CO2, CH4, and some light hydrocarbons. The use of Fe2O3/CeO2 catalyst in the steam gasification of plastic, biomasses, and plastic/biomass composites resulted in the increase in production of gaseous products, indicating that the catalyst accelerated the gasification rate. Moreover, a synergistic effect of combining plastics with biomass was observed since the amount of H2 production increased in the case of PP/biomass composites compared to the added contribution of production of H2 from the individual components.
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
  • Past, present and future of waste management in Korea
    • Abstract: Abstract In the history of waste management in Korea, systematic and integrated management started in the middle of the 1980s with the establishment of the Waste Management Law. By enforcing several specialized, discrete acts under this basic law and imposing extended producer responsibility as well as a volume-based garbage rate system based on the concept of polluter payment, waste management has become more effective for both general household waste and industrial hazardous/massive waste. The management mainly involves not only a reduction in waste generation, but also appropriate treatment and maximum recycling of the waste. Recent policy trends have focused on converting wastes into resources, and these have led to the implementation of “waste to energy and resources” and a “sustainable and circulation society” in the present and future plans for waste management. A new law called “Promotion Law for Achieving a Resource Circulation Society” meant to replace the basic law and to create a platform of resource circulation, is currently under review. This law integrates all the existing laws and acts to utilize waste more efficiently as a resource, and it has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of wastes landfilled. Details of the history and background of previous waste management efforts, recent movements and current status, and future pathways for achieving a resource circulation society are introduced. This could promote the establishment of a zero waste society and also extend the life of waste landfill facilities in Korea.
      PubDate: 2014-09-06
  • Recovery of methane from tannery sludge: the effect of inoculum to
           substrate ratio and solids content
    • Abstract: Abstract Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted at mesophilic temperatures to investigate the possibility of biogas recovery from tannery sludge originating from a tannery wastewater treatment process. According to preliminary findings, the highest biogas yield was obtained as 0.172 L biogas/g VSadded within an inoculum to substrate (I:S) ratio of 1:10 and at solids content of 10.6 %. The highest methane yield of 0.089 L CH4/g VSadded was achieved within an I:S ratio of 1:2 during the experiments. Relatively lower biogas and methane yields could be attributed to the low organic content of raw sludge cake. Potential inhibitors of anaerobic digestion, such as heavy metals, particularly chromium, chloride and sulfate available in raw sludge cake did not seem to influence the process adversely. Despite lower methane yields, it seemed possible to employ anaerobic digestion process for stabilization and energy recovery from tannery sludge, since the biogas obtained could further be used in the wastewater treatment plant as a source of energy. Co-digestion of tannery sludge with another type of substrate available (e.g., tannery solid wastes) can be an alternative to achieve higher biogas and methane yields considerably.
      PubDate: 2014-09-04
  • Aerobic decomposition of food waste with different ratios of solids at
           ambient temperatures and evaluation of CO       class="a-plus-plus">2 emissions
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the recycling of organic matter in the food waste by degrading aerobically and evaluation of the CO2 emissions. With this aim, food waste with the content of 5–7–10 % TS was degraded aerobically. The pH in all the reactors was observed within the range of 6.5–7. The highest CO2 production rate was obtained from 5 % TS. Removal was achieved at the rates of 5 % TS and 57 % in COD and TOC. CO2 production rate was calculated as 38.53 g CO2/h/kg TOCw. Moreover, CO2 production potential of the food waste was identified. A batch, single-stage reactor was used to determine the food waste pre-treatment. Finally, food waste in landfill areas was recycled and evaluated by without taking.
      PubDate: 2014-09-04
  • Surface and porous characterization of activated carbon prepared from
           pyrolysis of biomass (rice straw) by two-stage procedure and its
           applications in supercapacitor electrodes
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, we used a two-stage process and phosphoric acid to thermochemically transform waste biomass rice straw into porous carbon (PC) for the preparation of high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. The morphological and chemical characteristics of PC were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, surface area, and porosity analyses by the BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) nitrogen adsorption method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The modification process leads to the increase in the specific surface area and pore size of PC. The dc conductivity of the samples determined at room temperature was found to increase from 16.1 × 10−5 to 10.16 × 10−3 Ω−1 cm−1. The samples showed good electrochemical property with specific capacitance possessing in the range of 56–112 F/g. It was found that the carbonization temperature plays a crucial role on the evolution of structural and electrochemical properties of porous carbons. These porous carbons which show a particular large reversible capacity are proved to be promising electrode materials for high-rate and high-performance supercapacitors.
      PubDate: 2014-09-02
  • Prospects of 2,5-dimethylfuran as a fuel: physico-chemical and engine
           performance characteristics evaluation
    • Abstract: Abstract Due to the recent developments of improved production methods of 2,5-dimethylfuran, (known as DMF) from waste biomass, it is being considered as a next-generation biofuel. Energy content of DMF is comparable to that of gasoline. Test data available in the literature for its behavior in SI engines are limited. Therefore, in present work, a comparative evaluation of physico-chemical properties and engine performance of 5 % blend of DMF in gasoline (v/v), with gasoline and 10 % blend of ethanol in gasoline (v/v) has been carried out. Results show that 5 % blend of DMF in gasoline (v/v) offers a comparable performance and lesser tail pipe emissions than gasoline.
      PubDate: 2014-08-28
  • Recycling of E-plastic waste as a construction material in developing
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an experimental investigation on structural concrete with partial replacement of coarse aggregate using electronic plastic waste (E-plastic). In view of utilizing the non-degradable waste in the construction industry, the E-plastic from computer plastics was considered as coarse aggregate. Coarse aggregate was replaced with different percentages (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %) of E-plastic by volume. Tests were performed for properties of fresh and hardened concrete at different ages such as 7 and 28 days. From the investigation, it was noted that the workability of the mix was reduced against the increase in percentage of E-plastic. The compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength of partially replaced concrete was comparatively less than that of the control concrete. The effect of adding the E-plastic in concrete reduced the dry density of the concrete and showed the high deformability behavior before failure. The lesser dry density may be having advantage in self-weight reduction in structural elements which leads to lesser attraction of pseudo inertia forces in the seismic prone area.
      PubDate: 2014-08-26
  • Household-level determinants of residential solid waste generation rates:
           a study from Nablus-Palestine
    • Abstract: Abstract In this work, we elucidate the relation of various household-level socioeconomic and demographic attributes with the residential per capita solid waste generation rate in the Nablus district of Palestine. The data collection phase entailed an extensive survey of 992 dwellings, thus probing and quantifying key socioeconomic and demographic indicators of each household. Meticulous estimation of the amount of waste generated by each household was conducted at the waste generation point. Relevant statistical tests (ANOVA and Pearson tests) were performed to identify the significant relationships between the socioeconomic/demographic variables and the residential per capita solid waste generation rate, as well as amongst the variables themselves. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the waste generation rate decreased as the family’s income decreased, as parents tended to spend more time at home, as the number of individuals living in the household increased, and as the household tended to purchase its grocery needs in just the needed quantities. Age of dwelling residents was also significant. By showing how these variables affect the waste generated per capita, an argument was made to support their consideration when designing future waste management systems, not only for Nablus, but also for many other cities with similar profiles.
      PubDate: 2014-08-26
  • Utilization of granulated lead slag as a structural material in roads
    • Abstract: Abstract Pyrometallurgical processing of lead ores generates large amounts of slag which is stockpiled as chunk or granules. Romanian dump heaps of such slag produced in the period 1972–1998, occupy an area of 4522 m2 and a volume of 6616 m3. To assess the possibility of using this material in road construction, a complex characterisation of this waste has been carried out. X-ray diffraction, microcompositional and microstructural analysis revealed the presence of Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu sulfides, Fe, Ca, Si oxides and complex Mg, Al silicates etc. Following investigations were drawn several conclusions. According to the analysis of leachate specific indicators for the three types of slags analyzed (cooled slowly lead slag; granulated lead slag; deposited lead slag), granulated lead slag has the lowest lead content; value that exceeds the maximum allowed (current legislation). Analysis of acid drainage revealed that cooled slowly lead slag is not acid generating, granulated lead slag is uncertain and deposited lead slag is acid-generating. To determine the physico-mechanical and geotechnical properties Proctor compaction test, Californian index CBR test, permeability test and direct shear test were performed. Results from these investigations show an approximation of the values of granulated slag and sand .
      PubDate: 2014-08-24
  • Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste source-separated collection
           and integrated waste management systems in Hangzhou, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Municipal solid waste (MSW) source-separated collection was started in Hangzhou since 2010. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to evaluate its effect on the environment. Four MSW management (MSWM) systems are compared, and the functional unit is defined as the annual MSW generation in the city. Scenario 1 is the mixed collection system, where 50.77 % of the MSW is landfilled and 49.23 % incinerated. Scenario 2 represents the current system under source-separated collection. In addition, two future MSWM plans in the city are also modeled. A new incineration plant is planned to be built as the short-term plan (scenario 3); while food waste biological treatment techniques will be introduced according to the city’s long-term plan (scenario 4). Results show that a total 30, 18, 28 and 29 % of global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment and photochemical ozone formation has been saved after source separation, respectively. Meanwhile, both the short- and long-term MSWM plans provide positive effect to environmental improvements. Sensitivity analysis further reveals that food waste biological technique is essential with the continuous rise of source separation efficiency; and MSW destined for landfill should be controlled efficiently.
      PubDate: 2014-08-22
  • Decontamination and solidification of liquid radioactive waste using
           natural zeolite
    • Abstract: Abstract This study is based on evaluation of solidification methods for low-level radioactive liquid using natural zeolite. In classical method, LLW is decontaminated using zeolite and after the process spent zeolite becomes radioactive waste. After decontamination process, zeolite waste is solidified using cement, sand and water. In this method; liquid radioactive waste was used instead of water, natural zeolite was used instead of sand/aggregate and cement was used for binding the mixture in solidification process. In this study, leaching properties and strength of the solidified waste form were investigated for both techniques. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, the effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution’s pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLW were discussed in this paper.
      PubDate: 2014-08-15
  • Erratum to: Case study on municipal solid waste management in Vavuniya
           township: practices, issues and viable management options
    • PubDate: 2014-08-08
  • Evaluation and development of solid waste management plan: a case of Seoul
           for past and future 10 years
    • Abstract: Abstract For strategic planning of municipal solid waste management, the goals and action plans should be predicted and adopted after proper evaluations of the previous achievements. Thus, this long-term plans for past and future 10 years were evaluated and developed by completing the procedures for current and future status analysis, the evaluation of the 2nd Seoul Solid Waste Management Plan (SWMP), the development of the 3rd Seoul SWMP, expert forum, public hearing, and “Prior Environmental Review” of Korea Ministry of Environment. The greatest achievements during the 2nd Seoul SWMP (2002–2011) were good performances of waste treatment methods and their rates and greenhouse gas (GHG) saving effects. The 3rd Seoul SWMP induces three policy stances and six directions of waste management from 2012 to 2021 in Seoul. The project section in this plan is divided into six policy stages and eighteen action plants in whole. The goals of the 3rd plan are direct landfill 5.4 % and resource recovery 72 % by 2021. Optimization index analysis shows the increases of the index from 62.2 % in 2009 to 79.2 % in 2021. As well as optimization index analysis, further analysis results for public budget, GHG emissions, and job creation supports that the 3rd Seoul SWMP has been successfully planned. These findings suggest several courses of action for evaluation and development of long-term solid waste management plan in various countries.
      PubDate: 2014-08-05
  • Recovery of rare earth elements from waste fluorescent phosphors:
           Na2O       class="a-plus-plus">2 molten salt decomposition
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, an efficient recovery of rare earth elements from waste fluorescent phosphors has been reported and the novel process of alkali fusion and acid leaching has been proposed. The experimental results have shown that the key for efficient recycling is the complete dissolution of waste fluorescent phosphors. The Na2O2-to-waste mass ratio, calcination temperature and reactive time play considerable roles in rare earth elements extraction during the alkali fusion process. The optimal conditions in terms of temperature, time and Na2O2-to-waste mass ratio are 650 °C, 15 min and 2:1, respectively, under which more than 99.5 % rare earth elements are extracted. The possible reaction mechanism of alkali fusion has been proposed.
      PubDate: 2014-08-05
  • Study on optimal energy efficiency of a sludge drying-incineration
           combined system
    • Abstract: Abstract Thermal drying is a frequently used technology to further remove the water in dewatered sludge. However, it is an expensive solution due to its highly energy consumption. The combination of sludge drying and incineration system, in which, the energy generated from sludge incineration is reused to sludge drying, can largely save the energy consumption of sludge treatment facilities. A bench-scale paddle sludge dryer was built to study the drying characteristics of sludge. Results show that, a significant fluctuation of sludge drying rate and stirring power emerges at the moisture content of 55–65 %. An energy model was established based on a sludge drying and incineration project. The most reasonable dryness of sludge outlet from sludge dryer and input to sludge incinerator was analyzed, in the purpose of achieving optimal energy efficiency. The mono-incineration of dry sludge can be achieved at 850 °C combustion temperature, when sludge lower heating value (LHV) is about 11213 kJ/kg and moisture content is about 60 % w/w. The effect of operation conditions, including sludge moisture content, LHV, and operation load were analyzed based on the energy model. This energy model could be applied for the improvement of energy efficiency of sludge drying and incineration combined system.
      PubDate: 2014-07-30
  • Anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet tops silage and dairy cow manure
           under thermophilic condition
    • Abstract: Abstract The effects of co-digesting different proportions of sugar beet tops (SBT) silage (40, 60, 80 and, 100 %, wet weight basis) with cow manure and duration of storage of two types of SBT silage (silage I: storage time of 120 days and silage II: storage time of 210 days) on digester performance in terms of biogas production and volatile solids (VS) reduction were investigated. The highest methane (CH4) yields were obtained at the 40 % proportion treatments and were 0.422 and 0.377 l/g VS for silage I and II, respectively. The digestion systems failed at 80 and 100 % proportions of silage I and 100 % proportion of silage II. Furthermore, 40 % proportion treatments presented highest VS reductions among manure-silage mixtures (57.0 % for silage I and 57.4 % for silage II) while the control treatment (manure only) had the highest VS reduction (65.0 %) among all the treatments. Based on the results, the 40 % proportion of SBT silage was most efficient for methane production. Comparison of digester performance at 40 and 60 % proportions showed that no remarkable differences were observed between silage I and II, indicating that duration of storage of SBT did not have any appreciable effect on digester performance.
      PubDate: 2014-07-27
  • Detoxification effect of chlorination procedure on waste lead glass
    • Abstract: Abstract This work reports the detoxification effect of chlorinating volatilization procedure on waste lead glass. The effects of various reaction parameters on lead removal efficiencies were examined, and the optimal operation conditions were 1000 °C, 2 h, and 600 ± 50 Pa, respectively. Moreover, it was found that the residues could be safely applied in a wide range, e.g., for wollastonite synthesis by an environmental benign technique. Accordingly, the typical hazardous waste was successfully converted into a safe raw material for further industrial application.
      PubDate: 2014-07-20
  • The effects of solvents on the chemical decomposition of foamed phenol
           resin in high-temperature conditions
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, thermosetting resin such as foamed phenol resin (FPR) powder was solubilized and decomposed into their monomeric and oligomeric compounds in high temperature fluids. Solvents play important roles as stable physical medium at high temperature and reactive chemical reagents to accelerate decomposition reaction of the thermosetting resin. The decomposition of FPR into their monomers occurred by cleaving methylene bond of the resin selectively via the ionic reaction. The effects of solvent which has a hydroxyl group and methylene carbon atoms (high affinity with FPR) on the solubilization of FPR were confirmed by the reaction in high-temperature m-cresol and straight-chain alcohols. More than 90 % of FPR was solubilized in the reaction in m-cresol and 1-heptanol at 350 °C for 2 h suggesting the presence of the solubilization route other than methylene chain scission.
      PubDate: 2014-07-20
  • Comparison of solidification/stabilization of fly ash and air pollution
           control residues from municipal solid waste incinerators with and without
           cement addition
    • Abstract: Abstract Solidification/stabilization (S/S) of fly ash and air pollution control residues from MSWI was studied, with and without the use of cement. It appeared that metal and oxyanion leaching from these stabilised residues was comparable after 75 days of curing. Leaching of chloride and sulfate did not decrease by the addition of cement during S/S treatment. In an LCA perspective the environmental impact of the S/S treated mixtures with cement in the toxicity related impact categories was higher than the impact of the S/S treated mixtures without cement. Moreover, the production of cement for application in S/S also causes an impact in the impact categories climate change and terrestrial acidification. For environmental considerations in an LCA perspective S/S without cement should be preferred.
      PubDate: 2014-07-18
  • Modification of bitumen-based roof covering material by glass reinforced
           polyester recyclate
    • Abstract: Abstract In boat building industry, environmental legislations promoting recycling of thermoset composites have been the main driver globally. Recycling of glass-reinforced plastics (GRP), which is widely used in the industry, has been very problematic due to its inherent heterogeneous structure. Considering the urgent need of the industry, several investigations have been carried out to find the beneficial uses of GRP recyclate after mechanical recycling which is the most cost-effective technique. In this study that can be considered an effort to find proper way to recycle GRP containing polyester as the matrix, the recyclate of waste GRP boat material was adopted as modifier for bitumen-based roof covering materials. Fine grounded GRP recyclates were added to the hot bitumen mix with the dosages of 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 % as a part of roof covering material production process. Performances of the modified end product have been tested conventionally. The tests were also repeated for environmentally aged blends that contain 30 % of GRP recyclate. Results indicate that use of GRP recyclate in the modification of bitumen-based materials is an effective way to improve roof covering materials’ performance in terms of temperature susceptibility in particular and has the potential to solve the recycling problems of the industry.
      PubDate: 2014-07-15
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