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Triple Helix     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 26)
Tropical Plant Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 10)
Tropical Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 8)
Tumor Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.977, h-index: 43)
Türk Fizyoterapi ve Rehabilitasyon Dergisi / Turkish J. of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ukrainian Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.276, h-index: 11)
Universal Access in the Information Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 19)
Updates in Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 15)
Urban Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 23)
Urban Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 16)
Urban Rail Transit     Open Access  
Uro-News     Hybrid Journal  
Urolithiasis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Urologic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.921, h-index: 45)
uwf UmweltWirtschaftsForum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 36)
Verslaving     Hybrid Journal  
Vestnik St. Petersburg University: Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.278, h-index: 4)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 34)
Vietnam J. of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Virchows Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 72)
Virologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.353, h-index: 9)
Virtual Reality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 24)
Virus Genes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.839, h-index: 42)
Visual Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Vocations and Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 7)
Voluntas: Intl. J. of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 23)
Waste and Biomass Valorization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 10)
Water History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.221, h-index: 3)
Water Quality, Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.349, h-index: 47)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.761, h-index: 70)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 17)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 55)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 38)
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 38)
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Wiener Klinisches Magazin     Hybrid Journal  
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.328, h-index: 23)
Wireless Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 65)
Wireless Personal Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.322, h-index: 29)
Wirtschaftsdienst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.206, h-index: 5)
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Wirtschaftsrechtliche Blätter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
wissen kompakt     Hybrid Journal  
WMU J. of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wohnrechtliche Blätter     Hybrid Journal  
Wood Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.808, h-index: 43)
World J. of Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.561, h-index: 49)
World J. of Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 14)
World J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.451, h-index: 106)
World J. of Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.463, h-index: 59)
World Wide Web     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1, h-index: 21)
Wuhan University J. of Natural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.149, h-index: 11)
ZDM     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.496, h-index: 14)
Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 38)
Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Zeitschrift für Bildungsforschung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Versicherungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 2)
Zeitschrift fur Energiewirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Epileptologie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 4)
Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 6)
Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Zeitschrift für Herz-,Thorax- und Gefäßchirurgie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.114, h-index: 5)
Zeitschrift für Hochschulrecht, Hochschulmanagement und Hochschulpolitik: zfhr     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift fur Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Zeitschrift für Politikberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 31)
Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie. Mit Beiträgen aus Umweltmedizin und Sozialmedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 9)
Zoological Letters     Open Access  
Zoomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 26)
Zorg en Financiering     Hybrid Journal  

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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.392]   [H-I: 16]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2280 journals]
  • Thermogravimetric and XRD study of the effects of chloride salts on the
           thermal decomposition of mercury compounds
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the effects of chloride salt (MgCl2, CaCl2 or NaCl) addition on the thermal decomposition of five inorganic mercury compounds (HgCl2, HgS, Hg(NO3)2·H2O, HgO, and HgSO4) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Mercury-contaminated soil samples collected from Inner Mongolia were used to verify the results. The desorption temperatures of the mercury compounds increased in the following order: HgCl = HgCl2 < HgS < Hg(NO3)2·H2O < HgO < HgSO4. Among the chloride salts, MgCl2 had the greatest effect on thermal desorption of the mercury compounds, with the greatest reduction in the initial temperature of thermal desorption. After MgCl2 treatment, the mercury removal rates for the soil were 65.67–81.35 % (sample A), 70.74–84.91 % (sample B), and 69.08 % (sample C). The increase in the mercury removal rate for sample C with addition of MgCl2 was particularly large (34.96–69.08 %). X-Ray diffraction analysis of white crystals from the thermal desorption with MgCl2 indicated that MgCl2 promoted conversion of the mercury compounds in the soil to mercury(II) chloride and dimercury dichloride. This transformation is beneficial for applying thermal desorption to remedy mercury-contaminated soils and treat of mercury containing waste.
      PubDate: 2016-02-05
  • Tar and soot generation behaviors from ABS, PC and PE pyrolysis
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study we performed a non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis on three thermoplastics—ABS, PC and PE. The Coats and Redfern method (Nature 201:68–69, 1964) was then used to approximate the kinetic parameters of each material. In addition, we performed a series of pyrolysis experiments in a batch reactor, for each plastic. The experiments were performed over the temperature range of 600–1000 °C at a constant residence time. The liquid and solid products of the pyrolysis, were collected, separated and weighted. Those products were categorized as soot, tar and char (PC only), and their relative weight to initial sample weight (DAF) was plotted against the temperature. The tar measured was exclusively medium to high molecular weight (>80 g/mol). Results revealed that relative tar and soot production, for all three materials, first increases and then decreases with temperature increase. The maximum achieved tar yields for ABS, PC and PE were at 700, 650 and 800 °C, respectively; and the maximum soot yields were at 1000, 1000, 950 °C, respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-02-03
  • Material and substance flow analysis of mobile phones in Nigeria: a step
           for progressing e-waste management strategy
    • Abstract: Abstract Recent years have witnessed a strong global increase in mobile phone (MP) production and use. This category of electronic devices generates one of the fastest growing waste streams and therefore requires assessment of the volumes entering the end of life and the valuables for resource recovery. This study aims at determining the material flow of MPs in Nigeria and the substance flow analysis of selected precious and heavy metals and bromine as a basis for developing waste and resource management strategies. The results showed that between 2001 and 2013, approximately 54,050 t of MPs were imported to Nigeria containing approx. 8920 t of copper, 120 t of lead, 270 t of Nickel, 40 t of chromium and 1310 t of bromine from brominated flame retardants. From these, 46,740 t are still in stock including 11,000 t currently in use and 35,740 t stored. Approx. 7310 t have reached EoL with 2190 t having been recycled and 5120 t disposed in dumps. Currently approximately 7000 t of mobile phones (approximately 87,500,000 million MPs) are imported per year. Nigeria and other developing countries need to develop appropriate policies and systems for collection, re-use, recovery and disposal of wastes arising from these devices.
      PubDate: 2016-02-02
  • Enhancement of biogas production potential from Acacia leaf waste using
           alkaline pre-treatment and co-digestion
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this research was to evaluate possibility of utilizing Acacia leaves (A. mangium and A. auriculiformis), which is an agro-industrial waste from the pulp and paper industry. The effects of alkaline pre-treatment and co-digestion with Napier grass for the enhancement of biogas production from Acacia leaf waste (ALW) were investigated. Six continuous stirred tank reactors with a working volume of 5 L were carried out at the laboratory scale. The results showed that pre-treatment of Acacia leaf waste (pretreated ALW) by soaking in 3 % NaOH for 48 h increased the biogas and methane productivity to 0.200 and 0.117 m3/kgVSadded compared to 0.098 and 0.048 m3/kgVSadded of raw ALW digestion, respectively. Meanwhile, the co-digestion of Acacia leaves with different proportions of Napier grass at ratios of 1:1–1:3 in volatile solid basis also increased the production of biogas and its productivity. The maximum gas production yields of 0.424 and 0.268 m3/kgVSadded for biogas and methane were obtained at 1:3 ratio. This finding affirms the potential of ALW and its possibility to use as biogas feedstock in both single and co-substrate with Napier grass.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Solid recovery rate of food waste recycling in South Korea
    • Abstract: Abstract Source-separated collection system of household food waste has been implemented national wide in South Korea. Food waste recycling rate that means conversion rate to recycle is over 90 % in present. However, over the value of 90 %, we need to enhance the efficiency of food waste recycling process. We analyzed material flow of 24 food waste recycling facilities and calculated solid recovery rate to key-process. We found that 3–13 % of the solids from food waste outflows with foreign materials and 27–33 % of the solids outflow with wastewater. As a result, solid recovery rates are 65.3, 60.9, and 56.3 % in wet feed facility, dry feed facility, and composting facility, respectively. Alternative ways to recovery solid from wastewater or collection tools to exclude plastic bags, salt, and moisture content are required to make food waste recycling more efficient.
      PubDate: 2016-01-23
  • Recovery of uranium phosphate by a stepwise thermal treatment of
           uranium-bearing spent TBP
    • Abstract: Abstract A stepwise thermal treatment process for the recovery of uranium phosphate from uranium-dissolved spent TBP was demonstrated. The pathway of the reactions involved in the thermal decomposition and oxidation processes of uranium-bearing spent TBP was established based on the results of thermogravimetric analyses. Relatively low-temperature pyrolysis is required to avoid the condensation of corrosive phosphoric acid via vaporization. Low-temperature pyrolysis residue was analyzed and found to be composed of pyrocarbon, phosphorus oxide (P2O5) and two types of uranium phosphate (UP2O7 and UP4O12). Uranium pyrophosphate (UP2O7) was recovered from the burning out of pyrocarbon in the pyrolysis residue after the dissolution removal of phosphorus oxide in water. A substantial recovery of uranium by the proposed stepwise thermal treatment method was successfully demonstrated by a treatment of pyrolysis residue from a bench-scale low-temperature pyrolysis process.
      PubDate: 2016-01-23
  • Solid waste generated from ships: a case study on ship-waste composition
           and garbage delivery attitudes at Haiphong ports, Vietnam
    • Abstract: Abstract Ports and marine transportation play important roles in the development of Vietnam, but there are increasing concerns over environmental issues related to these activities. Garbage generated from ships, including normal and hazardous waste, is a significant source of coastal pollution due to illegal disposal into the sea and improper handling on shore. This study focuses on ship-garbage management systems at Haiphong ports, the largest port area of northern Vietnam. A garbage composition survey and a survey of chief officers’ attitudes towards port reception facilities were conducted to provide baseline data for controlling and managing garbage. As a result, with the two main types of ships at Haiphong ports, bulk ships and container ships, we found notable differences in garbage composition and chief officers’ attitudes. A higher percentage of recyclable materials was discharged at ports by container ships than bulk ships. While garbage separation and collection fees were the greatest factors affecting garbage delivery attitudes, chief officers on container ships had better attitudes towards garbage separation than on bulk ships. In particular, they had a positive view about ship-garbage separation. The study contributes to establishing a comprehensive waste management plan at ports, which is expected to facilitate strategies towards sustainable port.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18
  • Carbon dioxide utilization with carbonation using industrial
           waste-desulfurization gypsum and waste concrete
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, we propose a process making calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate and recovering absorbent using ammonia absorbent, carbon dioxide, and industrial waste. The main objective of this study is to confirm the possibility of carbon capture and utilization based on waste materials. We assumed desulfurization gypsum and construction waste (ready mixed concrete washing water, waste concrete, etc.) are CaSO4, Ca(OH)2, respectively. And concentration of simulated carbon dioxide gas was 15 vol% similar to flue gas. Calcium carbonate was produced by combination reaction between ionic CO2 in absorbent and metal ion in the solid waste. Experiments were conducted at normal temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the generated products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18
  • Quality control for coal combustion products in South Korea through
           assessed pozzolanic-activity index with long-term property tests
    • Abstract: Abstract In South Korea, nine million tons of fly ash (FA) are annually produced and approximately 70 % is reutilized for industrial demand. For the prompt reuse and insufficient reclamation site, quality control of FA which is main productive construction material from coal ash is very important. Assessed Pozzolanic-activity Index (API) test which needs only 2 days for evaluation of pozzolanic reaction is currently considered as an alternative of activity index measurement. This paper aims for an applicability of API test for prompt quality control and investigation of domestic FA properties. For the work, FAs from two different power plant types are prepared, and quality tests are carried out based on Korean Standards (KS) methods and API method. Lots of test results are compared with those from API and K-value test for FA with age of 7 days–1 year. From the test results for FA aged 1 year, API results are evaluated to be closely related with those from activity index and K-value, and the correlations are improved with increasing ages regardless of plant types. The applicability of API test is verified and the reduced period of FA quality evaluation can accelerate prompt use and the related process of FA.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18
  • Cotton shell utilization as a source of biomass energy for bio-oil by
           flash pyrolysis on electrically heated fluidized bed reactor
    • Abstract: Abstract Extensive concentration has been given to the development of renewable energy due to imminent demand of fossil fuels and environmental concerns over global warming. Biomass materials are used since millennia for meeting myriad human needs including energy. In this study, the pyrolysis characteristics of cotton shell were investigated to evaluate their potential use as source of bio-oil. Flash pyrolysis of the cotton shell was carried out on an electrically heated fluidized bed reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were investigated. In this study, the maximum yield of pyrolysis bio-oil 51.25 wt% can be obtained under the operation temperature of 450 °C, 1 mm particle size at sweep gas flow rate of 1.75 m3/h. The liquid product was analyzed for physical, elemental and chemical composition using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC) and 1H NMR spectroscopy.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01
  • Digestion reactions of paper sludge combustion ash in strong alkaline
           solutions at 60 °C
    • Abstract: Abstract Alkaline reactions of paper sludge combustion ash at low temperature (60 °C) were performed using a calcite-rich paper ash (PA 1) and a gehlenite-rich ash (PA 2). Strong alkaline conditions (8, 12, 16 M NaOH) were revealed at reaction times of 1–4 h and 12–24 h. Reactions were performed with pure ashes and in the presence of NaAlO2. The products were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM/EDX, gravimetry and chemical analysis. The conversion was found to proceed mainly in the period between 1 and 4 h. Portlandite and hydrogarnet were observed from PA 1 in 8 M NaOH. Onset of formation of Ca4Al2O6CO 3 . 11H2O beside Ca(OH)2 could be analyzed after reaction of PA 1 in 12 M and 16 M NaOH. Addition of NaAlO2 favored crystallization of hydrogarnet and Ca4Al2O6CO 3 . 11H2O. For PA 2 gehlenite remained stable, but a high portlandite fraction was observed. Addition of NaAlO2 yielded hydrogarnet beside gehlenite in 8 M NaOH. Higher alkalinities favored crystallization of Ca4Al2O6CO 3 . 11H2O and onset of dissolution of gehlenite. Finally transformation of Ca4Al2O6CO 3 . 11H2O into sodium aluminum silicate hydrate was observed. All results were discussed with regard to heavy metal distribution of the initial PA between the alkaline digestion solution and the products. In conclusion suitable applications of the products were proposed.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01
  • The effect of different moisture levels on the toluene desorption rates of
           modified natural zeolite during MW irradiation
    • Abstract: Abstract Regeneration of zeolite using microwave heating has been investigated focusing on the removal of toluene by desorption from zeolite samples. Studies were focused on the effect of physicochemical characteristics of three types of zeolite namely Na-rich natural zeolite (clinoptilolite), synthesized and heat treated on the toluene desorption ratio. In this work, it was shown that, in case of synthesized zeolite an increasing number of pores and their diffusion rate on the surface of samples caused by the sintering process resulted in an increase in the adsorption capacity compared to natural and heat-treated samples. The desorption experiment was carried out in MW irradiation time for about 1 h in which the temperature of zeolites samples was raised to almost 400 °C. Moisture had a significant effect on the desorption characteristics of zeolites. Maximum desorption ratios were obtained after approximately 30 min for heat-treated and synthesized samples when the moisture content was adjusted to 20 % of sample weight. In general, among the samples used in this study, synthesized zeolite showed the greatest absorption capacity and most efficient desorption ratio.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01
  • Characterization of lorry washing sludge
    • Abstract: Abstract The sludge generated by washing lorry refuse and some fractions of municipal solid waste have been studied, to justify that washing sludge presents no danger and can therefore be managed adequately in a landfill, as well as other municipal solid waste fractions. One problem attributed to this type of sludge is its high level of sulfide content, which causes this waste to be considered hazardous. The determination of sulfide content in the studied samples was carried out according to environmental protection agency methods 9030B and 9034, and the results show that the sulfide concentration in the sludge is less than other fractions of the municipal solid waste treatment plants, which can properly composted, in which sulfides are oxidized to sulfates. Lorry washing sludge could therefore be managed in a municipal solid waste treatment plant.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01
  • Revisiting estimates of municipal solid waste generation per capita and
           their reliability
    • Abstract: Abstract Per capita municipal solid waste (MSW) generation, a core indicator of environmental pressure, is a useful measure for evaluating the intensity of waste generation over time and comparing the intensities among cities or countries. We provide an overview of global data on MSW generation per capita at the national and local levels. Although the legal definition of MSW varies from country to country, we conceptualize MSW simply as the waste managed by or for municipalities as a public service. We note the current challenges in estimating MSW generation per capita in developing countries, including a lack of equipment (e.g., weighbridges), lower rates of MSW collection efficiency, and rural–urban migration, all of which may have negative effects on data reliability. Incomplete data compilation systems at the national level also result in lower reliability and reduce the comparability of national data. We suggest technical solutions for estimating MSW generation per capita at the local and national levels to improve reliability and comparability of data.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01
  • Use of acid cation-exchange resin for catalytic conversion of soybean acid
           oil to biodiesel
    • Abstract: Abstract Soybean acid oil (SAO), a by-product of soybean oil refining, contains large amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs). In the present work, the esterification of FFAs in SAO with methanol over four strong acid cation-exchange resins to synthesize biodiesel was studied in a batch reactor. The effects of external and internal diffusion, catalyst amount, methanol/FFAs ratio, and temperature in the esterification over the optimal resin (LS-50) were assessed. After 140 min, the esterification reached equilibrium, and high FFAs conversion (91.02 %) was obtained under the optimized conditions. Based on the obtained data, the reaction kinetics was studied, and the kinetics of the optimized FFAs esterification catalyzed by LS-50 fitted well to the pseudo-homogeneous (P–H) kinetic model. LS-50 could be successfully reused for at least 8 cycles, and its deactivation mechanism was also investigated. The fuel property parameters of the synthesized biodiesel conformed to the standards for biodiesel in the US (ASTM D 6751-03).
      PubDate: 2016-01-01
  • Recycling rate and target setting: challenges for standardized measurement
    • Abstract: Abstract The recycling rate is one of the most widely used indicators for monitoring progress in waste recycling and resource-saving activities. Basically, the recycling rate is calculated as the proportional value (%) of waste recycled from the total waste generated. An increase in this indicator usually means that the progress is being made in recycling activities. However, many countries define and calculate the recycling rate in many different ways. Recycling rates take many forms and levels of waste recovered, such as recovery rate, collection rate, diversion rate, and cyclic use rate. Such diverse definitions and lack of standardized measurements for the recycling rate often require careful treating of the recycling rate value to avoid incorrect or confusing comparison and interpretation. In the Asian context, disparities in defining the recycling rate are even more pronounced. This is mainly because of the prevalent presence of informal recycling sector in Asia, which often go unrecorded. This paper highlights the need for a standardized measurement of recycling rate in Asia for careful target setting of 3R policy and monitoring the progress of 3R in the region.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01
  • Biodiesel production from waste shortening oil from instant noodle
    • Abstract: Abstract Waste shortening oil (WSO) from instant noodle factories was used for biodiesel production by transesterification using alkali as a catalyst in a laboratory scale. The effects of various parameters such as potassium hydroxide concentration, methanol/WSO molar ratio, temperature and reaction time on the biodiesel production were investigated. To determine the optimal operating condition for biodiesel production, potassium hydroxide concentration from 0.25 to 1.5 wt%, methanol/WSO molar ratio from 3:1 to 9:1, temperature from 35 to 65 °C and reaction time from 30 to 90 min were employed. The highest ester yield of biodiesel was obtained at the catalyst concentration of 1.0 wt% KOH, methanol/WSO molar ratio of 8:1, temperature of 55 °C, and reaction time of 60 min. Biodiesel obtained had many advantages such as high cetane number, low acid value and carbon residue and can be used as an alternative diesel without modifications to engine or injection system.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01
  • Emission of particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5 ) and elements from municipal
           solid waste incinerators
    • Abstract: Abstract To determine the concentration and behavior of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from municipal solid waste incineration, size-classified dust samples were collected from four incineration facilities using cascade impactors. The total dust and PM2.5 concentrations were 1.7–236 and 0–104 μg/Nm3, respectively, in the flue gas sampled from the stacks. The total dust concentration in the flue gas was 1/50 or less of the concentrations measured previously in the same facilities with the operation of an electrostatic precipitator. Each air pollution control device used in the facilities was evaluated from the perspective of PM2.5 removal. A bag filter, activated carbon tower and selective catalytic reduction were all considered to be effective. The removal efficiency of PM2.5 was more than 99.99 %. Analysis of the particle size distributions of the dust identified two peaks around 1 and 10 μm at the inlet of the BF. Based on the results of an elemental analysis of the dust, the particle size distributions of each element were also calculated. As a result, the emission of PM2.5 as primary particles from a state-of-the-art municipal solid waste incinerator was estimated to be very low.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01
  • Estimation of gypsum hemihydrate content in recycled gypsums derived from
           gypsum boards
    • Abstract: Abstract In order to utilize reclaimed gypsums (gypsum board waste) derived from waste plasterboards as geo-materials, thermal behaviors of the reclaimed gypsums and reagent gypsum are investigated in this paper. Furthermore, simple density measuring method of judging quality of the reclaimed gypsums is examined to determine the gypsum hemihydrate content. As the results, it was found that the dihydrate gypsum is changed into the hemihydrate gypsum under thermal condition of 90 °C and the hemihydrate gypsum is changed into anhydrite under that of 120 °C with heating of 24 h. The followings were clarified in this paper. The cement density measuring method was available in order to measure the density of reclaimed gypsums; that density depended on the drying conditions of the reclaimed gypsums; and the density measuring method was appropriate to estimate the gypsum hemihydrate content in reclaimed gypsums. Furthermore, it was found that the quality control method based on the density was effective by calculating the gypsum hemihydrate content from the density values of reclaimed gypsums.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01
  • Selection of management option for solid waste from olive oil industry
           using the analytical hierarchy process
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper considers the process of selecting a appropriate olive mill solid waste management option in Jordan. Six alternatives were found to be possible options for olive mill solid waste management. Those alternatives are: animal feed, energy recovery, extraction of useful materials, co-combustion, fertilizers, and disposal without treatment. Prioritization of these six alternatives was performed through the analytical hierarchy process. Management options were prioritized based on three criteria: environmental effects, economical benefits, and the technology involved. Priorities given to each of criteria were evaluated through soliciting experts and olive mills owners opinions. Analytical hierarchy process model results revealed that co-combustion option is most favorable followed by the animal feed alternative and lease favorable is disposal without treatment. Sensitivity of the proposed analytical hierarchy process model was addressed as the priorities may change. Model sensitivity analysis showed that our model decision is robust to moderate changes in priorities. Unless the environmental criteria given a very high priority, co-combustion remains as the most favorable management option.
      PubDate: 2016-01-01
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