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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2291 journals)

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Transgenic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.877, h-index: 58)
Transition Metal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 41)
Transition Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 6)
Translational Behavioral Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, h-index: 7)
Translational Stroke Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 12)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 46)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 42)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Trauma und Berufskrankheit     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
Tree Genetics & Genomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 29)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 52)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 9)
Tribology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.428, h-index: 56)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 26)
Tropical Plant Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 10)
Tropical Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 8)
Tumor Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.977, h-index: 43)
Ukrainian Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.276, h-index: 11)
Universal Access in the Information Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 19)
Updates in Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 15)
Urban Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 23)
Urban Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 16)
Uro-News     Hybrid Journal  
Urolithiasis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Urologic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.921, h-index: 45)
uwf UmweltWirtschaftsForum     Hybrid Journal  
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 36)
Verslaving     Hybrid Journal  
Vestnik St. Petersburg University: Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.278, h-index: 4)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 34)
Vietnam J. of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Virchows Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 72)
Virologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.353, h-index: 9)
Virtual Reality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 24)
Virus Genes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, h-index: 42)
Visual Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Vocations and Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 7)
Voluntas: Intl. J. of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 23)
Waste and Biomass Valorization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 10)
Water History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.221, h-index: 3)
Water Quality, Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.349, h-index: 47)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.761, h-index: 70)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 17)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 55)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 38)
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.332, h-index: 38)
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Wiener Klinisches Magazin     Hybrid Journal  
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.328, h-index: 23)
Wireless Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 65)
Wireless Personal Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.322, h-index: 29)
Wirtschaftsdienst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.206, h-index: 5)
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Wirtschaftsrechtliche Blätter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
wissen kompakt     Hybrid Journal  
WMU J. of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wohnrechtliche Blätter     Hybrid Journal  
Wood Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.808, h-index: 43)
World J. of Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.561, h-index: 49)
World J. of Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 14)
World J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.451, h-index: 106)
World J. of Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.463, h-index: 59)
World Wide Web     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1, h-index: 21)
Wuhan University J. of Natural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.149, h-index: 11)
ZDM     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.496, h-index: 14)
Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 38)
Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zeitschrift für Bildungsforschung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Versicherungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 2)
Zeitschrift fur Energiewirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Epileptologie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 4)
Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 6)
Zeitschrift für Europäisches Unternehmens- und Verbraucherrecht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Zeitschrift für Herz-,Thorax- und Gefäßchirurgie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.114, h-index: 5)
Zeitschrift für Hochschulrecht, Hochschulmanagement und Hochschulpolitik: zfhr     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift fur Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Zeitschrift für Politikberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 31)
Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie. Mit Beiträgen aus Umweltmedizin und Sozialmedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 9)
Zoological Letters     Open Access  
Zoomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 26)
Zorg en Financiering     Hybrid Journal  

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Journal Cover   Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.392]   [H-I: 16]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2291 journals]
  • Utilization of coal bottom ash to improve thermal insulation of
           construction material
    • Abstract: Abstract Concerns with sustainable solid waste management and recycling have become increasingly prominent in all sectors of the economy. In light of this, this research investigates the possibility of utilizing coal bottom ash (waste from thermal power plants) as a substitute for fine aggregate in mortar and concrete. The chemical composition, microstructure and mechanical properties, including workability, density, water absorption, compressive strength and thermal conductivity, of mortar and concrete incorporating coal bottom ash in partial and full replacement of sand were investigated, and the results were compared to the data for conventional mortar and concrete. The results show that the density of mortar and concrete was noticeably decreased with increasing coal bottom ash content. In addition, despite the permeable pore space of mortars and concretes increasing with increasing levels of coal bottom ash, the use of coal bottom ash does not significantly affect the compressive strength of concrete. Furthermore, the mortars and concretes containing coal bottom ash exhibited good thermal insulation properties; thermal conductivity values decreased significantly with increasing coal bottom ash content, and the thermal conductivity of mortar and concrete with 100 % coal bottom ash showed a decrease of 68.61 and 46.91 %, respectively, as compared to that of the control.
      PubDate: 2015-07-29
  • Removal of ammonia using Ca-P (calcium polymer) from wastewaters produced
           in the recycling of disposable diapers
    • Abstract: An innovative system has been developed by Fukuoka University for the recycling of adult disposable diapers, and a pilot plant is currently being tested. The recycling process results in production of wastewater. The “Johkasou” wastewater treatment facility is highly effective in reducing BOD and COD, although specific focus should be placed on the removal of ammonia. For this purpose, the
      Authors investigated the performance of Calcium polymer (Ca-P), the sodium polyacrylate dehydrated with CaCl2, which displayed promising features in removing ammonia–nitrogen. The aim of the study described in the present paper was to clarify the removal mechanism and to identify optimal operating conditions. From batch type tests and semi-continuous column tests, it resulted that by exploiting Ca-P it is possible to remove ammonia–nitrogen from wastewater through ion exchange mechanism. Calcium ions are released by Ca-P and replaced by ammonia ions. Total ion exchange capacity was calculated as 0.12 mgNH4/gCa-P.
      PubDate: 2015-07-24
  • Leaching characteristics of the fine fraction from an excavated landfill:
           physico-chemical characterization
    • Abstract: Abstract Leaching of fine fraction (<10 mm) obtained from landfill mining activities in an Estonian landfill was done. On-site excavation was carried out in four test pits (TP1, TP2, TP3, TP4) that were further divided in four layers (L 1, L 2, L 3, L 4). Total chemical oxygen demand (CODt), dissolved chemical oxygen demand (CODd), total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals (Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd) were analyzed. The results showed that approximately 70 % of CODt were in particulate/colloidal state. The TOC released ranged between 2326 and 3530-mg/kg dry matter for test pits suggesting spatial differences in the studied landfill. DOC ranged between 365–874 and 317–940 mg/kg for different test pits and sampling layers, respectively. Low average leaching rates of metals were observed (0.2–1.5 %). Pb had a significantly higher average leaching rate (1.0 %) compared to Zn (0.70 %) and Cu (0.35 %). The potential use of CODt as a surrogate indicator of TOC, DOC and Zn on the basis of high correlation coefficients was observed. To conclude, the implementation of adequate strategies to manage fine-grained fractions obtained from excavated waste relies on physico-chemical characterization of both the fine fractions itself and the leachate generated during storage and use.
      PubDate: 2015-07-17
  • Maturity levels of material cycles and waste management in a context of
           green supply chain management: an innovative framework and its application
           to Brazilian cases
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study is to identify the relationship between the maturity of environmental management and the adoption of green supply chain management (GSCM) practices utilizing an integrative framework and evidence from multiple cases. To achieve this goal, a state of the art literature review on environmental management maturity was performed, and a typology of GSCM practices was created to produce an original integrative framework of GSCM maturity levels. To verify its applicability to real cases, five companies in supply chains with high levels of environmental impact were analyzed. Of the five companies, two were in the battery business, two in the pesticides business, and one in the automotive business. Adherence to the integrative framework was verified, and sensitivity to changes in maturity of environmental management and the adoption of GSCM practices were observed, achieving the research’s objective. The following classification of GSCM maturity levels was obtained: (a) first, the reactive GSCM level with low adoption of GSCM practices, which is motivated by legal restrictions; (b) second, the preventive GSCM level with average adoption of GSCM practices, which is driven by cost reduction; (c) and third, the proactive GSCM level, which is driven by the pursuit of competitive advantages.
      PubDate: 2015-07-17
  • Management of household waste in sanitary landfill of Mostaganem district
           (Western Algeria)
    • Abstract: Abstract The management of solid waste in Mostaganem district was limited to collection and transportation to open dumpsites. By the end of 2010, the situation has changed since there exists now a sanitary landfill (SL) which allows for better management. The objective of our work is to determine the main elements related to MSW (waste generation, physical composition, physicochemical and bacteriological parameters, ways and means to collect) which enable to help local collectivities (municipality, decision-makers, political actors and private sector) to decide on how to improve and exploit the SL. In this respect, we tentatively propose methods applying the principle of reduction at the source, recycling, reusing, valorization and elimination (3R-VE). We propose also optimizing the collection as well as the utilization of sorting centers and transfer docks. The study is on the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of MSW collected since 2011 from the SL of Mostaganem city and six nearby municipalities. The quantities of waste increase annually by 18 % with a ratio of 0.4 kg/inhab/day for 2013. The organic matter represents the major fraction with more than 60 % and the recycled part is of the order of 32 %. The determination of physicochemical parameters of MSW has enabled a financial study by valorization channels.
      PubDate: 2015-07-16
  • Thermal decomposition of tetrabromobisphenol-A containing printed circuit
           boards in the presence of calcium hydroxide
    • Abstract: Abstract Recycling of printed circuit boards (PCBs) is complicated by the presence of flame retardants containing halogen and phosphorus, as the degradation products of these retardants reduce the quality of the produced gases and liquids. Moreover, during thermal treatment, corrosive and toxic compounds are released and the volatilization of undesirable metals incorporated in the PCB matrix is enhanced. To combat this problem, we investigated the effects of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on the thermal decomposition of both phenol and epoxy resin paper-laminated PCBs containing tetrabromobisphenol-A. Pyrolysis experiments revealed a maximum removal of 94 % HBr, 98 % brominated phenols, and 98 % phosphorus from the gaseous and liquid pyrolysis products. In addition, Br-induced metal volatilization was inhibited, improving the recovery amount in the solid fraction. Thermogravimetry–mass spectrometry revealed that Ca(OH)2 enhanced the evolution of phenolic compounds produced from the PCB matrix, mainly below 300 °C, while the fixation of brominated compounds took place primarily above 300 °C.
      PubDate: 2015-07-16
  • Recycling of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic using supercritical and
           subcritical fluids
    • Abstract: Abstract The recycling of waste plastics is important for the prevention of the exhaustion of fossil resources. In this paper, recycling techniques of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) using supercritical and subcritical fluids were reviewed. The matrix resin of CFRP such as epoxy resin or resol resin was decomposed by supercritical and subcritical fluids, and the carbon fiber without thermal damage was recovered from CFRP. Mainly, water or alcohol was used as decomposition medium.
      PubDate: 2015-07-11
  • Synthesis and characterization of LDHs using Bayer red mud and its
           flame-retardant properties in EVA/LDHs composites
    • Abstract: Abstract Red mud is one of the largest industrial solid wastes in the aluminum industry, which has caused serious environmental and safety issues. In this paper, it is to explore a new technology of synthesizing layered double hydroxides (LDHs) using red mud for flame-retardant ethylene–vinyl acetate (EVA). A series of ternary layered double hydroxides (LDHs: Mg/Al/Fe-LDHs, Ni/Al/Fe-LDHs, Cu/Al/Fe-LDHs and Zn/Al/Fe-LDHs) were prepared using Bayer red mud (BRM) as raw materials by a calcinations–rehydration method. The structures of LDHs were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results indicated that LDHs were successfully synthesized; and the structures of Mg/Al/Fe-LDHs were better than the other ones. The SEM analysis results showed that Mg/Al/Fe-LDHs had better dispersity than that of BRM. Then, the flame-retardant properties of Mg/Al/Fe-LDHs in EVA/LDHs composites had been studied by cone calorimeter test (CCT) and limiting oxygen index (LOI). The CCT results showed that the heat release rate (HRR) of EVA/Mg/Al/Fe-LDHs obviously decreased in comparison with that of EVA/BRM composite and the PHRR value of ELDH4 sample was the lowest among all samples. The LOI results showed that ELDH4 has the highest LOI value. In this paper, the method for synthesis of LDHs based on BRM has low cost and feasible technology, which is expected to achieve good economic and environmental benefits.
      PubDate: 2015-07-04
  • Waste prevention indicators and their implications from a life cycle
           perspective: a review
    • Abstract: Abstract The 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle) approach to waste management has been established internationally as one of the fundamental concepts for a sustainable society. In particular, the “reduce” aspect, which is the highest priority and also refers to waste prevention, implies similar concepts and definitions among regions. To outline useful recent research findings related to waste prevention, this paper reviewed and discussed the current situation, including (1) definitions, (2) indicators, (3) policy and behavior, and (4) prevention effects from the life cycle perspective. It was found that although various waste prevention indicators have been proposed in the EU, Japan, and by international authorities, the indicators actually adopted in their policies are limited by some issues, for example, a lack of data availability. Food waste, C&D waste, and WEEE (e-waste) were identified as higher priorities for waste prevention. Some current challenges for promoting waste prevention are to (1) make the definition of waste types clearer; (2) develop a standardized, consistent monitoring method; (3) clarify the causal linkage between prevention effects and stakeholders’ behavior, and (4) quantify the environmental effects of waste prevention. Each of these aspects is essential and will be useful when considering waste prevention indicators and targets.
      PubDate: 2015-07-04
  • Quantification of carbon emission of construction waste by using
           streamlined LCA: a case study of Shenzhen, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Currently, the majority of the construction waste (CW) has been collected without classification and simply disposed in China. To quantify the environmental impacts and provide reasonable policy recommendations, this paper conducted an assessment for the life cycle carbon emissions (CEs) for CW based on a streamlined life cycle assessment method. Three typical CW management approaches in Shenzhen City were selected to perform the case study and comparative analysis. The results show that scenario I with low recycling rate generates the largest CEs amount by 542.56 kg for 1 ton CW, followed by scenarios II and scenario III that generate 538.61 and 483.85 kg, respectively. In addition, the results show the material embody impact is the largest contributor to CEs for CW examined, accounting for 78 % of the total amount in the overall life cycle. Analysis results also show that wood, steel and concrete wastes are the top three contributors within nine materials, with proportions of 25, 23 and 13 %, respectively. Therefore, the most effective way to decrease the CEs of CW is minimizing the generation of CW, since the CEs of the majority of waste are not sensitive to alteration of treatment methods or recycling rate.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03
  • Pb-Laden CRT glass as classifying hazardous waste definition or exemption
           in landfill disposal in China
    • Abstract: Abstract Disposal of waste CRT glass is now an urgent environmental protection issue. We collected waste CRT glass from monochrome and color television sets, analyzed their chemical compositions using X-ray fluorescence, and studied the leaching characteristics of Pb in the glass using sulfuric and nitric acids and acetic acid buffer leaching toxicity tests. The results showed that the order of the Pb leaching levels was color panel glass < monochrome glass < color funnel glass. The average Pb concentrations leached in sulfuric and nitric acids from color funnel and panel glasses and from monochrome funnel and panel glasses did not exceed the regulatory limits for Pb according to the China Identification Standards for Hazardous Waste—Identification for Extraction Toxicity. Only the average concentration of Pb leached in acetic acid buffer from color funnel glass exceeded the regulatory levels for Pb while those from other glasses were lower than 1 mg/L. Monochrome panel and funnel glasses and color panel glass can be disposed off as common industrial solid waste or co-disposed off with municipal solid waste. Color funnel glass, however, should be managed and disposed off in strict conformity with the requirements for hazardous waste disposal.
      PubDate: 2015-07-02
  • Bioleaching of copper from metal concentrates of waste printed circuit
           boards by a newly isolated Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain Z1
    • Abstract: Abstract The goal of this study is to determine the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain Z1 in bioleaching of metal concentrates of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs). The influences of initial pH, initial Fe(II) concentration, metal concentrates dosage, inoculation quantity and particle size on the bioleaching process were investigated and optimum conditions were determined. The results showed that 92.57 % copper leaching efficiency was achieved within 78 h in a two-step process, and 85.24 % aluminum and 95.18 % zinc were leached out after 183 h under the optimum conditions of initial pH 2.25, initial Fe(II) 9 g/L, metal concentrates dosage 12 g/L, inoculation quantity 10 % and particle size 0.178–0.250 mm. It demonstrated that metals could be efficiently leached from metal concentrates by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Z1 and the bioleaching period was reduced 81–78 h. Therefore, the strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Z1 could be suggested as a potential strain to bioleach metals from metal concentrates of waste PCBs.
      PubDate: 2015-07-02
  • Spatial and temporal variability of odorous VOC in a food waste treatment
           plant using hydrothermal hydrolysis and aerobic fermentation technology
    • Abstract: Abstract Offensive odorant emissions from a food waste (FW) treatment plant that uses hydrothermal hydrolysis and aerobic fermentation technology were studied for 1 month through in situ monitoring and laboratory testing. Results showed that the emission flux (7000 μg kg−1FW h−1) of total volatile organic compounds and concentrations of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were highest at the discharge outlet of the hydrothermal hydrolysis reactor. Furthermore, VOC composition analysis showed that the concentrations of most hydrocarbons detected during the sorting/crushing process were higher than those in the aerobic fermentation process, but more oxygenated organic compounds and pinenes were released in the aerobic treatment process. The analysis of VOC temporal characteristics via t test indicated that even with various FW loads during the day and night, most VOC concentrations sampled in the storing room were not significantly different. However, great variances among most VOC concentrations were observed during the sorting/crushing process and at the hydrothermal hydrolysis reactor. The annoyance degrees of offensive gases were also determined via analysis of odor indices. The results suggested that sulfocompounds mainly dominated in terms of high odor activate values during the sorting/crushing process, and the fractional content of oxygenated organic compounds increased in the aerobic treatment processes.
      PubDate: 2015-07-02
  • Regeneration performance of spent granular activated carbon for tertiary
           treatment of dyeing wastewater by Fenton reagent and hydrogen peroxide
    • Abstract: Abstract The efficacy of Fenton reagent and hydrogen peroxide for the regeneration of saturated granular activated carbon with biological effluent of dyeing wastewater was compared based on adsorption–oxidation recycle experiments. The catalytic performance of granular activated carbon and the necessity of ferrous ions were discussed. It was demonstrated that Fenton reagent or H2O2 was effective in destroying toxic organics and removing organic pollutants from the surface of granular activated carbon. The regeneration efficiency of granular activated carbon was about 50 % with Fenton reagent or H2O2 evaluated by chemical oxygen demand removals in adsorption. However, the synergic catalysis of granular activated carbon and ferrous ions enhanced the mineralization of organic pollutants and resulted in a higher regeneration efficiency of granular activated carbon evaluated by total organic carbon removals in adsorption compared with H2O2 alone.
      PubDate: 2015-07-02
  • Polyamine flocculation applied to household batteries recycling
    • Abstract: Abstract Processing of spent household batteries to recover manganese and zinc involves grinding of the inner part of battery cells so as to obtain a black powder (BP) with average particle size of less than 2 mm. This is followed by washing the BP with plain water to eliminate soluble chemicals. A subsequent step consists in separating the BP from the aqueous suspension. This operation has proven to be a difficult one. This research showed that adding epichlorohydrin–dimethylamine (EPI–DMA) enhanced greatly the separation process while not inducing unwanted alterations in the chemical composition of the BP. Flocculation efficiency was determined by measuring the solution turbidity. Combining different analytical techniques [X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, backscattered electrons and zeta potential measurements (Zetasizer Nano)], the research also assessed the effect of EPI–DMA on the solutes, defined the resulting chemical composition of BP and offered an insight into the flocculation mechanism. Central composite design was used to optimize the values of most important operating variables, i.e., EPI–DMA dosage and agitation time of the suspension at different BP/washing water ratios. Analysis of variance was used to study interactions among the process variables and define the conditions of highest separation efficiency.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
  • Hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forest biomass residue:
           comparative study
    • Abstract: Abstract Biomass is a promising feedstock for the production of valuable oxygenated hydrocarbons due to presence of wide range of functionalities. Hydrothermal liquefaction is an attractive approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass as it does not require any drying. The objective of this study is to carry out hydrothermal liquefaction (280 °C for 15 min) of forest (pine wood, deodar) and agricultural (wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse) biomass under non-catalytic and catalytic (KOH, K2CO3) conditions. The analysis of solid residue and bio-oils was carried out to understand the differences in composition with respect to feedstock. Agricultural biomass showed higher conversion under thermal and catalytic conditions compared to forest biomass. K2CO3 showed higher catalytic activity in terms of both bio-oil yield as well as conversion for agricultural (wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse) biomass compared to forest (pine wood and deodar) biomass. Sugarcane bagasse showed the highest conversion (95 %) among the four samples investigated. The compositions of bio-oils from forest biomass residue contained both phenolic compounds and furans. FTIR and Powder XRD analysis of feedstock as well as solid residue showed that the peaks due to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin became weak in solid residue samples.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
  • Gasification of waste rigid polyurethane foam: optimizing operational
    • Abstract: Abstract The influence of temperature and catalyst type on production of combustible gas during the air gasification of waste rigid polyurethane foam has been researched in a bench-scale plant. The results indicated that among ten selected catalysts, sodium hydroxide had the most positive effect on the yield of combustible gas. An orthogonal array experimental design based on four levels L16 (43) of three parameters was employed to optimize the gasification conditions. The results showed that the relative effectiveness of the parameters was ranked as: temperature > catalyst supplied > air gas flow rate. Subsequently, a series of process optimization experiments were conducted and the optimum operating conditions are found as follows: temperature was 1100 °C, catalyst supplied was 12.5 wt% of the raw material, and the air flow rate was 120 L/h.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
  • Modification of bitumen-based roof covering material by glass reinforced
           polyester recyclate
    • Abstract: Abstract In boat building industry, environmental legislations promoting recycling of thermoset composites have been the main driver globally. Recycling of glass-reinforced plastics (GRP), which is widely used in the industry, has been very problematic due to its inherent heterogeneous structure. Considering the urgent need of the industry, several investigations have been carried out to find the beneficial uses of GRP recyclate after mechanical recycling which is the most cost-effective technique. In this study that can be considered an effort to find proper way to recycle GRP containing polyester as the matrix, the recyclate of waste GRP boat material was adopted as modifier for bitumen-based roof covering materials. Fine grounded GRP recyclates were added to the hot bitumen mix with the dosages of 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 % as a part of roof covering material production process. Performances of the modified end product have been tested conventionally. The tests were also repeated for environmentally aged blends that contain 30 % of GRP recyclate. Results indicate that use of GRP recyclate in the modification of bitumen-based materials is an effective way to improve roof covering materials’ performance in terms of temperature susceptibility in particular and has the potential to solve the recycling problems of the industry.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
  • Anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet tops silage and dairy cow manure
           under thermophilic condition
    • Abstract: Abstract The effects of co-digesting different proportions of sugar beet tops (SBT) silage (40, 60, 80 and, 100 %, wet weight basis) with cow manure and duration of storage of two types of SBT silage (silage I: storage time of 120 days and silage II: storage time of 210 days) on digester performance in terms of biogas production and volatile solids (VS) reduction were investigated. The highest methane (CH4) yields were obtained at the 40 % proportion treatments and were 0.422 and 0.377 l/g VS for silage I and II, respectively. The digestion systems failed at 80 and 100 % proportions of silage I and 100 % proportion of silage II. Furthermore, 40 % proportion treatments presented highest VS reductions among manure-silage mixtures (57.0 % for silage I and 57.4 % for silage II) while the control treatment (manure only) had the highest VS reduction (65.0 %) among all the treatments. Based on the results, the 40 % proportion of SBT silage was most efficient for methane production. Comparison of digester performance at 40 and 60 % proportions showed that no remarkable differences were observed between silage I and II, indicating that duration of storage of SBT did not have any appreciable effect on digester performance.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
  • Prevention of waste from unsolicited mail in households: measuring the
           effect of anti-advertising stickers in Barcelona
    • Abstract: Abstract Unsolicited mail (also called junk mail) received by households is a potential source for the application of waste prevention measures. There are insufficient systematic studies on the potential reduction of this kind of waste and on the effects of certain policies for its reduction. The present research presents the results of an assessment of the effectiveness of anti-advertisement stickers in Barcelona, as a way of preventing waste generation. 50 households from 25 buildings were monitored during a period of 3 months. The retrieved advertising material was weighted and classified into addressed and unaddressed material, and into several categories of the activities being advertised. The number of units of advertising material was also calculated. The statistical analysis (which includes a pairwise analysis within buildings in order to isolate the effect of the sticker) concludes that the use of stickers could prevent between 0.31 and 0.36 kg/inhabitant/year, which represents around 43 % of all unsolicited advertising and 0.4 % of all paper waste generated in Barcelona.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
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