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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.449]   [H-I: 22]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Extrication of biodiesel feedstock from early stage of food waste
    • Authors: Ghufran Redzwan; Maridah Mohd Amin; Nur Nabiha Zulkarnain; Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor; Mohamad Suffian Mohamad Annuar; Zul Ilham
      Pages: 676 - 681
      Abstract: Biodiesel is commonly produced from vegetable oils, mostly edible and more expensive than petroleum diesel. By considering the cost of the conversion processes, cheap feedstock such as triglycerides and fatty acids (FA) extracted from early stage of food waste liquefaction has become a better choice than vegetable oils, as it could provide high yield of biodiesel without any compromise to food supply and other resources. In this study, FA from early stage of food waste liquefaction was extracted and tested for use as feedstock for biodiesel synthesis. The raw material was not pretreated but extraction was done by dry and wet methods. It was found that wet method could minimized the lost of short and medium-chained FA as well as reducing the number of steps required, thus, yielding higher amount of FA as feedstock. The effects of mixing, methanol ratio, reaction time and catalyst content were investigated for the acid-catalyzed esterification. The maximum biodiesel conversion obtained was 97.4 %.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0463-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
  • Removal of phthalic acid diesters through a municipal solid waste landfill
           leachate treatment process
    • Authors: Chengran Fang; Yixuan Chu; Lanhui Jiang; Hua Wang; Yuyang Long; Dongsheng Shen
      Abstract: We studied the removal of two phthalic acid diesters (PAEs), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), from leachates of a municipal solid waste landfill treatment facility. The leachates originated from the adjusting unit, the anaerobic unit, the aerobic unit, the ultrafiltration membrane unit, and the reverse osmosis membrane unit. The initial concentrations of DBP and DEHP were 225.8 and 260.9 µg/L, respectively, which were reduced to 5.8 and 3.2 µg/L in the effluent, representing 97.4% removal of DBP and 98.8% removal of DEHP. DBP was removed stepwise during the process, mainly via degradation by microorganisms. Approximately, 70.1% of the DEHP was removed by the membrane processes, owing to physical retention of the compound by the membranes. The dissolved organic carbon occurred mostly in the 1–100 kDa molecular weight fraction. The positive correlation between dissolved organic carbon and DBP/DEHP concentrations in raw leachate and in effluents from each treatment unit showed that the interaction between dissolved organic matter and PAEs facilitated the removal of organic pollutants. Large amounts of PAEs can accumulate over long periods of time in the concentrated leachate product, which may make further leachate treatment more difficult and may lead to adverse impacts on the environment.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0625-1
  • Alternative route for the recovery of nitrogen as ammonium phosphate
           crystals from high strength waste streams
    • Authors: Dandan Dong; Oh Kyung Choi; Kwanhyoung Lee; Yongsuk Hong; Jae Woo Lee
      Abstract: This study suggests a method for the recovery of nitrogen in waste or wastewater as ammonium phosphate crystals. Recovered crystals were a mixture of mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), which are valuable fertilizers. A lab-scale system was constructed with an ammonia stripper and absorber with phosphoric acid solution. Formation of ammonium phosphate crystals was dependent on the concentration and volume of phosphoric acid in the absorber. The absorption efficiency of ammonia in the absorber increased as the concentration and volume of phosphoric acid increased. However, the crystals formed better in a smaller volume of absorbing solution. When the N/P ratio in the ammonia absorbed solution reached 0.38 in a continuous stripping condition, crystals could not be formed in the absorber, but could be formed in a crystallizer maintained at 10 °C, the optimal temperature for crystallization. The N/P ratio of the recovered crystals was 1.47, indicating that the crystals were a mixture of MAP and DAP. Analyses of SEM and XRD revealed that the recovered crystals were composed of MAP and DAP.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0624-2
  • Degradation of anhydride-cured epoxy resin using simultaneously recyclable
           solvent and organic base catalyst
    • Authors: Lipeng Zhang; Jie Liu; Weidong Nie; Kai Wang; Yanhui Wang; Xiuyun Yang; Tao Tang
      Abstract: Alkaline catalyst is usually used for solvolysis of thermoplastic and thermoset polymers containing ester bonds. However, inorganic catalyst is difficult to remove from products of resin degradation. Here, we reported an efficient and mild degradation method using an organocatalyst, N-methyl-4-piperidinol, in ethylene glycol to degrade methylcyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (MeTHPA)-cured epoxy resin. N-Methyl-4-piperidinol and ethylene glycol were simultaneously recovered by vacuum distillation. The effects of reaction temperature and catalyst concentration on the reaction rate and kinetics of the degradation reaction were analyzed. The recovery and reuse of ethylene glycol and the catalyst for three cycles were also demonstrated. The degradation products from the epoxy resin were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and a transesterification mechanism for the degradation of epoxy resin was proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0623-3
  • Modelling and evaluation of anaerobic digestion process of tomato
           processing wastes for biogas generation
    • Authors: Mohsen Saghouri; Yaghoob Mansoori; Abbas Rohani; Mohammad Hossein Haddad Khodaparast; Mohammad Javad Sheikhdavoodi
      Abstract: Anaerobic digestion is the most attractive technique for biogas production from organic materials. This research studies and models such production from anaerobic digestion of tomato processing wastes in a single-stage laboratory digester and the variation of pH of the process. The single-stage digester was designed and built on a laboratory scale and the tomato processing wastes used as feed materials for digestion were collected from the Zoshk Khorasan Company (Mashhad-Iran). Some properties of digested materials were determined. The results revealed that the tomato processing wastes could be an appealing option for production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. The digester was controlled under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) with continuous mixing. Also, the percentage of total solids content was adjusted 8%. The amount of production of biogas from the waste was approximately 142.00 L (130.00 L in STP conditions) which is equivalent to 0.14 m3 per kilogram of volatile solids (m3/kg vs). The methane content in the produced biogas was approximately 60.50% (about 86.00 L).
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0622-4
  • Identification of black plastics realized with the aid of Raman
           spectroscopy and fuzzy radial basis function neural networks classifier
    • Authors: Seok-Beom Roh; Sung-Kwun Oh; Eun-Kyu Park; Woo Zin Choi
      Abstract: To accomplish the effective classifier and secure the accurate classification capabilities of black plastics, a comprehensive design methodology of fuzzy radial basis function neural networks is developed with the aid of principal component analysis and particle swarm optimization. Plastics recycling is the competitive method which can deal with the shortage of natural resource. To recycle and reuse the waste plastics, this study is given as the key issue to identify and classify waste plastics by resin type such as polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, polystyrene, etc. To complement the weak points of recognition and classification of the near-infrared radiation equipment, Raman spectroscopy is used to obtain qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of black plastics. To improve the identification performance of black plastics, an intelligent computing algorithm such as fuzzy radial basis function neural networks classifier and preprocessing algorithm as principal component analysis are applied to analyze and classify the obtained spectrum of black plastics. Finally, to optimize the structure as well as parameters of fuzzy radial basis function neural networks, particle swarm optimization technique is used. The obtained experimental results show that the proposed network architecture exhibits high classification capabilities in practical applications.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0620-6
  • The broad spectrum of possibilities for spent coffee grounds valorisation
    • Authors: Francesca Girotto; Alberto Pivato; Raffaello Cossu; George Elambo Nkeng; Maria Cristina Lavagnolo
      Abstract: Coffee is the world’s second most traded commodity and the most renowned drink worldwide. The increasing production of coffee has been accompanied by a rise in consumption, and consequent increment in the amount of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) remaining as a solid residue from coffee brewing. In view of the high content of biodegradable compounds, if disposed, SCGs will certainly need to be biostabilized, although they should preferably be exploited in a biorefinery chain scheme. A wide range of alternative options is available for use in recycling SCGs as a valuable resource: food additives, pharmaceutical components, bio-sorbents, bio-fuels, and bio-products. The option of producing biogas from SCGs was tested and lab-scale bio-methane potential experiments were performed using different substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratios, namely 0.5, 1, and 2. A S/I ratio of 2 was found to be the optimal condition, resulting in a methane yield of 0.36 m3CH4/kgVS.
      PubDate: 2017-04-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0621-5
  • Acute toxicity tests using earthworms to estimate ecological quality of
           compost and digestate
    • Authors: Alberto Pivato; Maria Cristina Lavagnolo; Barbara Manachini; Roberto Raga; Giovanni Beggio; Stefano Vanin
      Abstract: Ecological quality of compost and digestate, used as fertilizers for agricultural use, was assessed through an acute ecotoxicological bioassay testing the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Annelida). The test evaluates the earthworm’s attitude to dig within 15 min into a soil medium constituted by a mixture of a standardized soil and different concentrations of compost/digestate. According to different classes of behavior responses, the sample is classified as good or bad quality (ON/OFF). The validity of this test was confirmed comparing the observations with the results from a standard chronic test developed by OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Considering samples from different plants and at different stages of degradations, the replicates, the number of tested concentrations and the measured endpoints (ability to dig, mortality, growth, reproduction), a total of 996 observations were analyzed. The chronic test on earthworms uses the same media as in the acute one and measures the endpoints of mortality and growth within 28 days and reproduction within further 28 days. Thus, the test proposed here can be considered a not expensive and quick laboratory test and its implementation in quality assurance (QA) and quality of product (QC) schemes would enhance the protection of soil fauna. This last purpose is very important considering that, concerning the biological indicators of the quality of compost and digestate, the most important studies focused on the use of plants and microorganisms and scarce attention has been paid to soil invertebrates.
      PubDate: 2017-04-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0619-z
  • High-rate anaerobic digestion of thermally hydrolyzed wasted sludge (THWS)
           with high-strength ammonia
    • Authors: Seyong Park; Seong Kuk Han; Dooyoung Oh; Daegi Kim; Ho Kim; Young-Man Yoon
      Abstract: In this study, the anaerobic digestion of thermally hydrolyzed wasted sludge with high-strength ammonia was evaluated through ammonia-stripping and diverse types of anaerobic-digestion reactors. Although anaerobic digestion was conducted after ammonia-stripping and removal, anaerobic-digestion inhibition occurred due to the problem of the toxicity of sodium. Therefore, the sodium concentration should be maintained at lower than inhibitory concentration for effective anaerobic digestion. The results of the operating reactors, gas production amount, methane content, organic-matter removal efficiency, and methane yield were high in the order of the fluidized bed reactor (FBR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, and continuously stirred tank reactor types. As the microorganism concentrations in the FBR type were more than twice higher than those in the other reactors, the FBR type was able to keep the microorganism concentrations high, and the microbial proximity between the hydrogen-producing microorganisms and the hydrogen-consuming microorganisms was closest in the FBR type. Therefore, the reactor type for the efficient anaerobic digestion of wastewater containing high-concentration ammonia nitrogen is the FBR type.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0613-5
  • Combustion behaviors of wasted plastics coated around electric cables in
           electrically heated drop tube furnaces
    • Authors: Yoko Nunome; Hiroshi Matsumoto; Ivan Nedjalkov; Yasuaki Ueki; Ryo Yoshiie; Ichiro Naruse
      Abstract: For thermal recycle by wasted plastics coated around electric cables, ignition and combustion experiments of the pulverized samples were carried out, using two types of electrically heated drop tube furnace, in which the particles are pulsatively fed and continuously fed, respectively. The ignition phenomenon was defined as occurrence of luminous emission from a cloud of the particles fed in the former furnace. The wasted plastics coated around the electric cables mainly make of polyethylene with a little amount of carbon particles. The ignition characteristics of the pulverized plastic samples as well as graphite particles as a reference sample were studied, changing the particle diameters and the furnace wall temperatures. In the electrically heated drop tube furnace with the continuous feeding system, the wall temperature and stoichiometric combustion air ratio were varied to elucidate the fundamental combustion characteristics. As a result, the ignition temperature depended on the particle diameter. The plastics with the particle diameter ranged from 150 to 300 µm could ignite at the lowest furnace temperature. From the continuous combustion tests, CO and lower molecule hydrocarbons like CH4, C2H2 and C2H4 were produced in the upper region of furnace. Finally, all of them gradually burned out.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0618-0
  • Effect of cyclic loading on the compressive strength of soil stabilized
           with bassanite–tire mixture
    • Authors: Aly Ahmed; M. Hesham El Naggar
      Abstract: This study investigates the effect of static and cyclic loading on the performance of soil stabilized with recycled bassanite, produced from gypsum wastes, mixed with waste tire shreds. Recycled bassanite was mixed with furnace cement in different proportions to prevent the solubility of bassanite. Different percentages by weight of this admixture were mixed with the test soil. In addition, different percentages and sizes of waste tire shreds along with a fixed content of bassanite admixture were mixed with the tested soil. The static and cyclic strength and stiffness parameters of soil specimens treated using the different schemes were measured from cyclic triaxial tests. The results obtained showed that recycled bassanite improved the strength of the treated soil, but the increase in compressive strength was much higher compared to the tensile strength. The strength of the treated soil increased as the admixture content and proportion of cement in the admixture increased. Shredded waste tire improved the tensile strength of the treated soil, but slightly reduced its compressive strength. Cyclic loading resulted in significant degradation of strength for samples treated with bassanite admixture; however, incorporation of shredded tire reduced this degradation. It was also noted that the size of shredded tire had negligible effect on cyclic strength of the treated soil. The results also showed that the fatigue life of stabilized soil increased with the increase of shredded tire content and bassanite admixture. As expected, the number of load cycles had a negative effect on the strength of treated soil: as the number of load cycles increased the strength degradation increased for both treated and untreated soil samples. The effect of number of cycles was more pronounced in the case of unreinforced soil sample while it reduced when tire shreds were incorporated in soil mixture.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0617-1
  • Nitrogen flow assessment in rapidly urbanizing Hai Duong province,
           downstream of Cau River Basin, Vietnam
    • Authors: Thao Thi Ta; Duc Anh Trinh; Nga Thu Do
      Abstract: Hai Duong is a rapidly urbanizing province with a condensed network of rivers, located downstream of the Cau River Basin, one of the three most polluted river systems in Vietnam. Intensive agriculture and industrial development in the province has caused profound impact on the river water. This research aims to develop a material flow analysis (MFA) model, which can simulate and visualize nitrogen flows in Hai Duong province and its districts, to access the impact of agricultural activities and industrial parks on the surrounding environments. MFA was applied for Hai Duong province and its districts to estimate nitrogen flows in the whole province. The nitrogen loads to surface water, air, and soil/groundwater annually were 50,531 ± 10,801, 12,981 ± 1541, and 6055 ± 3121 tons, respectively. The quality of the developed model was assessed through a modified uncertainty analysis procedure. Also, MFA results of nitrogen loads to the water environment were consistent with the analytical results. Nitrogen was largely derived from agricultural activities and domestic and industrial wastewater. Environmental flows in the next 10 years and reasonable solutions for improving environmental quality in the province are proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0616-2
  • Alkaline hydrolysis of PVC-coated PET fibers for simultaneous recycling of
           PET and PVC
    • Authors: Shogo Kumagai; Suguru Hirahashi; Guido Grause; Tomohito Kameda; Hiroshi Toyoda; Toshiaki Yoshioka
      Abstract: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) woven fibers are one of the hardest-to-recycle polymeric materials. Herein we investigate the possibility of recycling both PVC and PET through alkaline hydrolysis of PET. The coated woven fabrics were treated with NaOH, hydrolyzing the PET fibers into water-soluble sodium terephthalate, while the PVC could be removed by filtration. The PET fibers were completely hydrolyzed between 120 and 180 °C in the presence of 1 M NaOH solution, quantitatively yielding terephthalic acid. A minimum PVC dechlorination rate of 1% was simultaneously achieved at 120 °C. Furthermore, no alkaline hydrolysis of the plasticizer contained in the PVC, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, was observed. Thus, the possibility of simultaneously recycling PET and PVC from PVC-coated woven fabrics was demonstrated. Kinetic analyses of PET hydrolysis and PVC dechlorination revealed that the simultaneously occurring reaction processes did not affect the progress of each other. Thus, the absence of interactions between PET, PVC, or their degradation products enables the design of a simplified recycling process without considering the interactions between the materials derived from coated woven fabrics.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0614-4
  • Physico-chemical characterization of municipal solid waste from Tricity
           region of Northern India: a case study
    • Authors: Rishi Rana; Rajiv Ganguly; Ashok Kumar Gupta
      Abstract: An integrated solid waste management system is an effective method for controlling the huge volumes of solid waste generated in urban locales in India. The success of the integrated solid waste management system depends upon the amount and type generated from different sources for better facilitating of the appropriate management system. In this context, characterization studies are often performed on urban solid waste generated to enable suitable decision making for proper management of solid waste generated. The paper presents the characterization of urban solid wastes generated from the Tricity region of Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula in India. The present study characterizes the physical and chemical properties of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generated in all the three study locations for different socio-economic groups. In general, the MSW generation from the Tricity of Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula account for approximately 680 tons per day (TPD) of solid waste (380 TPD in Chandigarh, 150 TPD in Mohali and 150 TPD in Panchkula). The characterization of the three cities indicates that MSW generated from all the three cities have high proportions of biodegradables [52% Chandigarh (CHD), 46.7% Mohali (MOH) and 42.6% Panchkula (PKL)] with inert fraction as (27% in CHD, 28.6% in MOH and 28.46% in PKL). The calorific value of the MSW generated varies from 1929 kcal/Kg for CHD, 1801 kcal/Kg for MOH and 1542 kcal/Kg for PKL with average moisture content of about 50% in CHD, 46% in MOH and 40% in PKL. Chemical characterization results of MSW reveal variation in elemental carbon with carbon fraction reported being 34.18% in CHD, 33.8% in MOH and 31.9% in PKL city. In the context of the characterization study, the paper also proposes suitable alternatives to the existing MSW management practices including composting, vermicomposting, setting up of a formal recycling unit and installation of bio-methanation plant along with the existing refuse derived fuel (RDF) plant as a comprehensive process for handling the municipal solid waste generated in the Tricity region.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0615-3
  • Investigating utility level of waste disposal methods using multicriteria
           decision-making techniques (case study: Mazandaran-Iran)
    • Authors: Fereshteh Mirzazadeh; Farhad Hadinejad; Narges Akbarpour Roshan
      Abstract: Regardless of collection and disposal systems of wastes, which are the main causes of pollution in cities and villages, attention to the health and hygiene of a society is not possible. Hence, we try to identify the most appropriate waste disposal method considering geographical and environmental conditions of Mazandaran province using multicriteria decision-making techniques (Analytical Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process), in an applied and descriptive research. To do so, we, first, identified the most effective alternatives and criteria in the field of waste disposal by taking into account the region’s environmental and geographical conditions through library studies and investigating various internal and external sources. Then, after compilation of questionnaires and distributing them among experts of municipalities and governor of the province, we determined effectiveness of the criteria and utility of the alternatives using the mentioned techniques. Our findings suggest that soil type and water level are the most important factors in selecting waste disposal method and recycling is the most appropriate waste disposal method in Mazandaran province.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0611-7
  • The development and prospects of the waste electrical and electronic
           equipment recycling system in Taiwan
    • Authors: Chii-Pwu Cheng; Tien-Chin Chang
      Abstract: Since the European Union (EU) promulgated the Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (January 2003) on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in 2002, various governments around the world have developed WEEE recycling systems and promoted the concept of extended producer responsibility (EPR). In 1997, the Taiwan government has implemented the 4-in-1 Recycling Program, which uses recycling funds as its financial base. The following year 1998, the program incorporated a WEEE-based recycling managerial system, which involves confirming the payers of the recycling funds and slightly adjusting the relevant recycling measures to effectively estimate the number of electrical and electronic equipment items produced on a yearly basis and their annual recycling volumes. These statistics ensure the effective management of WEEE. This study explored the development of Taiwan’s WEEE recycling system and proposed improvements to the system. The current findings provide a reference for other state governments to establish their own WEEE recycling systems.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0612-6
  • A review of waste prevention through 3R under the concept of circular
           economy in China
    • Authors: Lili Liu; Yangyang Liang; Qingbin Song; Jinhui Li
      Abstract: The large waste generation has become one of the worldwide environmental problems. Circular economy has been seen as a way to tackle its urgent problems of environmental degradation and source scarcity. In recent years, under the concepts of circular economy, waste prevention through “Reduce, Reuse and Recycle” (3R) rules have attracted a broad concern in China. China has made some great achievements on waste management, and at the same time is facing many challenges. It is very necessary to share the management experiences and practices with the scholars and managers in other countries. This review covered the current situation and progress of circular economy development from the perspective of the legal regime and project practices, and the recycling practices of typical waste. The typical household wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), e-waste, and end of life vehicles (ELV), were studied as the typical cases. Based on an examination of the statistical results, we also identified the potential problems and challenges for waste prevention through 3R in China. Finally, we provided some effective measures to further improve the waste management and recycling in China.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0606-4
  • Electronic waste and informal recycling in Kathmandu, Nepal: challenges
           and opportunities
    • Authors: Keshav Parajuly; Khim B. Thapa; Ciprian Cimpan; Henrik Wenzel
      Abstract: In the absence of relevant policies and supporting infrastructure, many developing countries are struggling to establish a resource-oriented waste management system. In countries like Nepal, where informal recycling practices are prevalent, the lack of understanding of the existing system hinders any advancement in this sector. We characterize the informal recycling chain in Kathmandu, where a workforce of more than 10,000 people handles the recyclable items in various waste streams, including electronic waste (e-waste). A field study, supported by key informant interviews, questionnaire surveys, and site observations was conducted to understand the local recycling sector, the lifecycle of electronic products, and the relevant stakeholders. E-waste is found to be an integral part of the existing solid waste management chain and, therefore, needs to be addressed collectively. We identify the challenges and opportunities towards building a sustainable system for managing e-waste, and offer propositions for a resource-oriented waste management system. This study can serve as a baseline for future research on informal waste recycling, e-waste in particular, in Nepal and similar developing economies that have not attracted a lot of attention until now.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0610-8
  • Studies on thermo-chemical treatment of recycled concrete fine aggregates
           for use in concrete
    • Authors: G. Santha Kumar; A. K. Minocha
      Abstract: The presence of cement paste is the most important factor affecting the quality of recycled concrete fine aggregates. This study aims to develop the thermo-chemical treatment for the purpose of removal of the cement paste adhering to recycled concrete fine aggregates. This study involves assessing the effectiveness of thermo-chemical treatment and comparing its efficiency with thermal and chemical treatments. The results of the investigation elucidate the influence of these treatments on the performances of recycled concrete fine aggregates as well as influence of using treated and untreated recycled concrete fine aggregates on the characteristics of concrete. The results revealed that the thermo-chemical treatment experiences the satisfactory performances in improving the quality of recycled concrete fine aggregates and such treated recycled concrete fine aggregates used in concrete contribute to considerable improvement in strength characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0604-6
  • Recycling nickel from spent catalyst of Phu My fertilizer plant as a
           precursor for exhaust gas treatment catalysts preparation
    • Authors: Nguyen Le-Phuc; Thuy Ngoc Luong; Tri Van Tran; Yen Thi Hai Pham; Phuong Thuy Ngo; Sura Nguyen
      Abstract: In this study, a very promising way of treating and recycling spent nickel catalysts of fertilizer plants in Vietnam was proposed. Firstly, nickel was recovered from spent catalyst using HNO3—leaching process. Results show that nickel recovery of over 90% with a purity of over 90% can be achieved with HNO3 2.1–2.5 M at 100 °C in 75 min. The residue after leaching is not considered as a hazardous waste according to the Vietnamese regulations. Then, the leachate solution was used as a precursor to prepare a model catalyst for exhaust gas (CO, HC, NOx) treatment. In comparison with the catalyst prepared from the commercial nickel nitrate solution, the catalyst synthesized from recovered nickel exhibits similar properties and activities. The influence of Ni loading of Ni/alumina catalyst as well as the modification of active phase by some metals addition (Mn, Ba, Ce) was also investigated. It is feasible to modify active phase by transition metals such as Mn, Ba, and Ce for complete oxidation of CO and HC at 270 °C and a reduction of NOx below 350 °C at high volumetric flow condition (GHSV = 110.000 h−1).
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0609-1
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