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Journal Cover Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
  [SJR: 0.392]   [H-I: 16]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1611-8227 - ISSN (Online) 1438-4957
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2334 journals]
  • Characteristic of heavy metals in biochar derived from sewage sludge
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigates the characteristic of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni and As) in biochar derived from sewage sludge at different pyrolysis temperatures (300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C). The heavy metal concentrations, chemical speciation distribution, leaching toxicity, and bio-available contents were investigated using ICP-OES after microwave digestion, a sequential extraction procedure recommended by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), an improved nitric acid–sulphuric acid method, and diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction method, respectively. The results showed that a great percentage of the heavy metals remained in biochar, the concentrations of heavy metals in biochar (except Cd in B7) were higher than that in sludge, and the enrichment of the heavy metals in biochar enhanced with the pyrolysis temperature. Although the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the chemical speciation distribution, the leaching toxicity and the bio-available contents of heavy metals in biochar was inconsistent, the potential risk of biochar on soil and groundwater contamination was lower than sewage sludge.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • Non-hazardous waste generation characteristics and recycling practices in
           Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada
    • Abstract: Abstract The paper presents the results on the analysis of non-hazardous waste generation characteristics and recycling practices in Saskatchewan (SK) and Manitoba (MB) using the biennial waste reports published by Statistic Canada. The objectives are to examine the waste generation rates from both residential and non-residential sources from 1998 to 2010, and to evaluate the effectiveness of their recycling programs and regulations. In spite of the many similarities between the provinces, MB on average generated 17.5 % more residential waste than SK, and about 15 % less non-residential waste than SK during the study period. It appears that MB waste generation characteristics were very different from SK and the rest of Canada. The amount of MSW generation in MB was, to a certain degree, independent from the economic factors. Assuming status quos conditions, the linear models predicted that the per capita MSW generations in MB would be about 33 % lower than SK in 2020. Data from this study suggest that (1) curbside recycling programs and (2) pay-as-you-throw collection systems may be important factors for increasing diversion rate in SK. It is also found that the non-residential waste generation in Canada was substantially larger than the residential waste generation during the 13-year period.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • Estimating industrial solid waste and municipal solid waste data at high
           resolution using economic accounts: an input–output approach with
           Australian case study
    • Abstract: Abstract In publicly available waste reports only the totals of waste produced for municipal, or industry waste typically feature. The types of waste generated and the generating industry sector are usually omitted. We propose the direct inputs waste estimation methodology to create a detailed estimate of municipal solid waste and industrial solid waste for an economy (including sectoral and waste type disaggregation) using a top-down estimation methodology that links the aforementioned limited publicly available waste data with an input–output table’s direct inputs (A) matrix. We then provide an application of the direct inputs waste estimation methodology upon the 2008 waste generation of Australia resulting in a 344 industry sector and 14 waste type data set. The resulting estimation gives unique insights into Australian waste generation; including the large C&I tonnages of waste estimated to be produced from the Service sectors such as the Education, Hospitality, and Health sectors as well as the large amount of food waste produced throughout the economy.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • Door-to-door measurement of household waste arisings in selected towns in
    • Abstract: Abstract To establish the per capita household waste arisings, door-to-door measurement of discharged waste was carried out. Survey was done in four 2-week phases over a period of 13 months. A questionnaire survey was also carried out to obtain data on household size and other household characteristics as well as the extent of reduce and recycle activities. The results showed that there is a big variance among households on waste arisings, and that household size is an important socio-economic factor in determining per capita waste generation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • New kinetic modelling parameters for composting process
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aims to assess the composting process of sawdust, wheat-straw and chicken manure and to define the best blend proportion as a function of organic matter loss. Chicken manure, sawdust, and wheat-straw were mixed at different ratios and composted in reactors. The obtained outcomes revealed that the optimum mixture ratio was found in a mixture of 60 % chicken manure, 30 % sawdust, and 10 % wheat-straw. Three kinetic parameters were used in the models including daily process average temperature, area characterized by temperatures under the process temperature curve, and area characterized by temperatures between the ambient and process temperature (ALAT) as an alternative of process temperature. In addition to these statistical values, modelling efficiency was defined. Statistical analyses revealed that all the evaluated models were found suitable for this study; however, when ALAT was used as a function of temperature, the predictability level of all the models improved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • Method to estimate the required oxygen amount and aeration period for the
           completion of landfill aeration
    • Abstract: Abstract To reliably predict field operation performance derived from lab-based tests, it is very important to observe and consider all the specific landfill-site properties. The purpose of this study was to suggest and discuss the availability of batch and lysimeter tests to estimate the oxygen amount and the aeration period. To achieve this purpose, a comparison between lab test (batch and lysimeter tests) and full-scale applications was conducted. This study showed that aerobic batch and lysimeter tests could be used to estimate the amount of oxygen (mg-O2/g-DM) required to bio-stabilize landfilled wastes within a short period of time. In addition, aeration periods necessary to reach the target value can be calculated by a first-order kinetic depending on moisture content. Therefore, this study suggests that when applying in situ aeration processes to field-scale landfills, the amount of aeration required to bio-stabilize landfilled wastes has to be determined by the aerobic batch test, and then the aeration period required to reach the target value can be calculated by a reliable monitoring of the oxygen concentration in a landfill site in combination with the first-order kinetic.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • Physical containment of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash by
           accelerated carbonation
    • Abstract: Abstract Accelerated carbonation of municipal solid waste incineration residues is effective for immobilizing heavy metals. In this study, the contribution of the physical containment by carbonation to immobilization of some heavy metals was examined by some leaching tests and SEM–EDS analysis of untreated, carbonated, and milled bottom ash after carbonation that was crushed with a mortar to a mean particle size of approximately 1 μm. The surface of carbonated bottom ash particles on SEM images seemed mostly coated, while there were uneven micro-spaces on the surface of the untreated bottom ash. Results of Japan Leaching Test No. 18 (JLT18) for soil pollution showed that milling carbonated bottom ash increased the pH and EC. The leaching concentration of each element tended to be high for untreated samples, and was decreased by carbonation. However, after the milling of carbonated samples, the leaching concentration became high again. The immobilization effect of each element was weakened by milling. The ratio of physical containment effect to immobilization effects by accelerated carbonation was calculated using the results of JLT18. The ratio for each element was as follows: Pb: 13.9–69.0 %, Cu: 12.0–49.1 %, Cr: 24.1–99.7 %, Zn: 20.0–33.3 %, and Ca: 28.9–63.4 %.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • Lead contamination in surface soil on roads from used lead–acid
           battery recycling in Dong Mai, Northern Vietnam
    • Abstract: Abstract Used lead–acid battery (ULAB) recycling has caused numerous health and environmental issues in developing countries. Surface soil pollution from ULAB recycling activities has been linked with elevated levels of lead in human blood. We measured surface soil lead in and surrounding the ULAB recycling village of Hung Yen in northern Vietnam in 2011, 2013, and 2014. The data were analyzed statistically and discussed with respect to distance from the contamination source, year of measurement, contamination pathway, and countermeasures against the contamination. Transportation routes from the smelter or collection site displayed the greatest concentration of surface soil lead (median 6400–10,000 mg/kg). Surface soil lead decreased significantly with distance along the road from the ULAB recycling site, although such a decrease was not observed for rice fields, agricultural roads, or garden soil. Re-suspension and adherence by traffic were identified as key pollution pathways. Distance from the source, covering of the surface of roads, construction of walls, and position relative to the source were shown to be the most effective factors in the reduction of surface soil lead pollution. Application of a combination of these measures should result in improvement in the health of residents.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • Characterizing and quantifying solid waste of rural communities
    • Abstract: Abstract Solid waste management and disposal are a global challenge. Also, in spite of rapid urbanization over recent decades, about 47 % (3.31 billion) of the world’s population and 31 % (23.59 million) of Iran’s population are still living in rural areas. Nevertheless, survey on characterization, quantification, and management of rural communities’ household solid waste is rare in both developed and developing countries. Therefore, determining the quantity and quality (composition) of household solid waste of rural communities in the northwest of Iran was the main objective of the present work. The result showed that the average daily per capita of household waste generation was 0.259 kg/cap-day. About 50.98 % of total generated waste in the studied villages was organic and food waste, while paper and cardboard, plastics, metals, rubber, textiles, glass, woods, and other waste materials constituted 6.07, 13.58, 0.47, 1.57, 12.53, 2.09, 0.44, and 12.27 %, respectively. Bulk density of the waste was determined as 211.31 kg/m3. In addition, moisture content and chemical characteristics (food and organic fraction) of the generated waste including the amount of carbon, nitrogen, phosphor, and ash were 57.05, 54.02, 1.74, 0.34, and 34.07 %, respectively. According to the results of this study and the survey in the available related literature, it could be concluded that solid waste generation rates in rural communities are less than that in urban areas and the composition and density of generated waste vary not only between rural and urban areas, but also between different rural communities with various geographical, economic, cultural, social, etc., conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • Investigating the performance of aerobic, semi-aerobic, and anaerobic
           bioreactor landfills for MSW management in developing countries
    • Abstract: Abstract Three different laboratory bioreactors, each duplicated, with dimensions 0.5 × 0.5 × 1 m were set up and monitored for 160 days. Municipal Solid Wastes with an organic content of ~80 % and a density of 550 kg/m3 were placed in bioreactors. Fresh leachate collected from waste collection vehicles was used with a recirculation rate of 28 L/day. Aerobic bioreactors were aerated at a rate of 0.15–0.24 L/min/kg of waste. Almost the same level of treatment was observed in terms of chemical oxygen demand reduction of leachate, which was in the range of 91–93 %. However, for anaerobic bioreactor, it took almost twice the time, 160 vs. 76 days, to reach the same level of treatment and stabilization. The behavior of semi-aerobic bioreactor was somewhere between the aerobic and anaerobic ones. Total biogas production for anaerobic bioreactors was 90 L/kg of waste, which contained 57–63 % methane. Methane concentration measured in semi-aerobic bioreactor was below 5 %. The main advantage of aerobic bioreactor was the fast rate of the process, while for semi-aerobic bioreactor, it was the elimination of the need for energy to maintain aerobic conditions, and for anaerobic bioreactor it was the production of biogas and potential energy recovery.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • Rare earth element recovery potentials from end-of-life hybrid electric
           vehicle components in 2010–2030
    • Abstract: Abstract Increasing attention is currently given to the management of end-of-life (EoL) hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), because approximately two decades have passed since they were first introduced to the market. A HEV would be one of the largest consumers of rare earth elements (REEs), and hence represents the greatest potential for REE recovery in the future. The purpose of this study is to clarify the present and future recovery potential of REEs that are disposed of as EoL HEVs. This study first estimated the numbers of EoL HEVs during fiscal years (FYs) 2010–2030, and then clarified the potential for recovery of REEs from two HEV-specific components—the hybrid transmission and NiMH battery unit. The results suggest that 0.51–0.65 million HEVs will reach the EoL stage in FY2030, compared with only 11,000 HEVs in FY2010. As of FY2030, REE recovery potentials will increase to 220 tons and 2900 tons for EoL hybrid transmission and NiMH battery units, respectively. A total of 49,000 tons of REEs will be contained within HEV-specific components of HEVs still in use. Moreover, the potential for recovery of REEs from EoL hybrid transmissions and NiMH battery units is estimated to equal 35.4 and 92.1 % of respective demand.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • Evaluation on the applicability of dry processed bottom ash as lightweight
           aggregate for construction fields
    • Abstract: Abstract Currently, wet bottom ash is not sufficiently utilized due to its content of unburned coal, chloride and moisture. In contrast, bottom ash discharged from the recently introduced dry process spends a longer time on the clinker conveyer in the lower part of the boiler and consequently contains a significantly smaller amount of unburned coal. Consequently, it has high potential for use as a lightweight aggregate for construction material because of properties such as high porosity, low unburned coal content, non-chloride, and non-moisture. However, it is not frequently used for construction because the ash particle has a flat and thin shape, coarse surface and unfavorable structural strength. Against this backdrop, this study has conducted a range of experiments to identify the shapes, structure, density, absorption, percentage of floating particles, unit volume weight, solid volume, characteristics of air bubbles and micro pores, crushing strength of bottom ash, and the following results were observed. Though the dry bottom ash has sharp and angular edges, its flat and thin shapes lead to vulnerable structures. Dry bottom ash of the size of 0.6 mm or larger has 50–60 % of the total pore rate and 30–50 % of the closed pore rate. Considering these qualities, by removing the relatively fragile surface parts and making the particles more globular, dry bottom ash can be used as a lightweight aggregate for construction field having outstanding performance in terms of light weight and insulation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • New technology and application of brick making with coal fly ash
    • Abstract: Abstract China has ranked first in the coal fly ash emission in the world. The multipurpose use of the fly ash from power plant waste is always an important topic for the Chinese environmental protection, which has drawn the concern of the government, scientific research departments, manufacturing enterprises and industry experts. This paper introduces an experimental research on how to recycle fly ash effectively, a kind of new technology of making bricks by which fly ash content could be amounted to 50–80 %. The article introduces raw materials of fly ash brick, production process and key control points. It introduces how to change the technical parameters of the existing brick-making mechanical device, optimize the parameters combination and improve the device performance. High-content fly ash bricks are manufactured, which selects wet fly ash from power plants, adding aggregate with reasonable ratio and additives with reasonable dosage, and do the experimental research on manufactured products for properties, production technology and selection about technology parameters of production equipment. All indexes of strength grade, freezing-thawing resisting, and other standards of the studied bricks reached the national standards for building materials industry.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • Experimental study of rubber tire aggregates effect on compressive and
           dynamic load-bearing properties of cylindrical concrete specimens
    • Abstract: Abstract Sustainable development has become a major focus for engineers and planners as part of their collective efforts in finding, developing and integrating environmental-friendly solutions for material recycling and waste management into design and construction of civil engineering infrastructure. In the past three decades, there has been an increase in recycling and application of waste materials into the concrete to decrease costs and improve material properties of the concrete. Significant growth in automobile manufacturing industry and increased rubber tire supply for vehicles suggested the application of waste tire particles as concrete aggregates to minimize the ecological footprint of the rubber tire waste due to its recycling process difficulties. In this paper, the effect of rubber tire particles on compressive and dynamic strength of concrete specimens with different particle percentiles was tested on more than 55 cylindrical specimens. To achieve the optimal mix design properties of rubber tire concrete specimens, both fine and coarse aggregates got replaced by fine and coarse rubber particles. Introduction of rubber tire particles as coarse and fine aggregate reduces the brittleness of the concrete and provides more flexible aggregate bonding which ultimately improves the dynamic resistance of the concrete. It increases the concrete workability and provides environmental-friendly and cost-effective solutions in using recycled materials for concrete construction applications.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • The mixing and segregation characteristics of rice straw in a cylindrical
           bubbling fluidized bed
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present study, an experiment was performed to investigate the mixing and segregation characteristics of standard sand and rice straw particles in a cylindrical bubbling fluidized bed. The mass ratio (rice straw/standard sand = 0.5–1.25 %) of two particles and superficial gas velocity (0.13–0.18 m/s) were changed as experimental variables. The pressure drop curve and Kramer’s equation were used to determine the minimum fluidization velocity and mixing index, respectively. In all cases, the mixing index was the lowest at U/U mf = 1.15. Based on the point of U/U mf = 1.15, the segregation region and mixing region were observed. In the segregation region, mass ratio of 0.75 % showed the lowest mixing index. At the U/U mf = 1.23 which was selected as the starting of fast pyrolysis considering residence time and the previous fast pyrolysis experiment, mass ratio of 1.25 % showed the highest mixing index which was 0.90.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • Enhanced bioleaching efficiency of copper from waste printed circuit
           boards (PCBs) by dissolved oxygen-shifted strategy in Acidithiobacillus
    • Abstract: Abstract Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, as chemolithotrophic aerobic bacterium, can obtain energy by oxidation of ferrous ions (Fe2+) to ferric ions (Fe3+) and use molecular oxygen (O2) as terminal electron acceptor. In this study, the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in culture medium on cell growth and copper extraction from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were investigated in A. ferrooxidans. The whole culture period was divided into two stages of cell growth and copper extraction. At the former stage, relatively lower DO level was adopted to satisfy bacterial growth while avoiding excessive Fe2+ oxidation. At the later stage, higher DO was used to promote copper extraction. Moreover, shift time of DO from lower to higher level was determined via simulating Gauss function. By controlling DO at 10 % for initial 64 h and switching to 20 % afterwards and with 18 g/l PCBs addition at 64 h, final copper recovery reached 94.1 %, increased by 37.6 and 48.3 % compared to constant DO of 10 and 20 % operations. More importantly, copper leaching periods were shortened from 108 to 60 h. It was suggested that application of DO-shifted strategy to enhancing copper extraction from PCBs with reduced leaching periods is being feasible.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
  • Gasification and reforming of biomass and waste samples by means of a
           novel catalyst
    • Authors: Katsuya Kawamoto; Baowang Lu
      Abstract: Abstract This study conducted gasification and catalytic reforming experiments with the expectation of obtaining new advantages on energy recovery and aimed for the development of an effective catalyst. Initially, the use of thermal gasification technology for waste treatment in line with waste-to-energy strategies was reviewed. Technological systems which have gasification were classified and their current status was discussed. Then, the results of gasification and reforming experiments showed that product gas with 50 % H2 or more was obtained using a Ni catalyst on a mesoporous silica–based SBA-15 support (NiO/SBA-15), which we newly developed. Experiments using wood feedstock revealed that H2 production by the catalyst was better when the NiO content was 20 % (W/W) or more than when another catalyst or the Ni catalyst with a lower Ni loading was used. Tar formation as a by-product was also well controlled by the catalyst, and use of a catalyst with 40 % NiO reduced the tar concentration to less than 0.2 g/ \( {\text{m}}^{3}_{\text{N}} \) . Experiments using a mixed feedstock of wood and RPF resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon concentration because of insufficient reforming. This finding suggests that future work is required to find a better solution to wood and RPF co-gasification.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0533-9
  • Study of nitrogen oxide absorption in the calcium sulfite slurry
    • Authors: Ye Sun; Yuan Meng; Xiaoyan Guo; Tianle Zhu; Hongju Liu; Wenpei Li
      Abstract: Abstract Experiments were conducted using a bubbling reactor to investigate nitrogen oxide absorption in the calcium sulfite slurry. The effects of CaSO3 concentration, NO2/NO mole ratio and O2 concentrations on NO2 and SO2 absorption efficiencies were investigated. Five types of additives, including MgSO4, Na2SO4, FeSO4, MgSO4/Na2SO4 and FeSO4/Na2SO4, had been evaluated for enhancing NO2 absorption in CaSO3 slurry. Results showed that CaSO3 concentration had significant impact on NO2 and SO2 absorption efficiencies, and the highest absorption efficiencies of SO2 and NO2 could reach about 99.5 and 75.0 %, respectively. Furthermore, the NO2 absorption was closely related to the NO2/NO mole ratio, and the existence of NO2 in flue gas may promote NO absorption. The presence of O2 in simulated flue gas was disadvantage for NO x removal because it can oxidize sulfite to sulfate. It was worth pointing out that FeSO4/Na2SO4 was the best additive among those investigated additives, as the NO2 removal efficiency was significantly increased from 74.8 to 95.0 %. IC and in situ FTIR results suggest that the main products were NO3 − and NO2 − in liquid phase and N2O, N2O5 and HNO3 in gas phase during the CaSO3 absorption process.
      PubDate: 2016-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0526-8
  • Energy recovery and greenhouse gas reduction potential from food waste in
    • Authors: Junya Yano; Shin-ichi Sakai
      Abstract: Abstract Waste-to-energy is one effective waste management approach for a sustainable society. The purpose of this study was to clarify the potential for energy recovery and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction that could be achieved by introducing anaerobic digestion (AD) facilities in the process of reconstructing aging incineration facilities in Japan. Using statistical data from 1068 incineration facilities, four future scenarios were considered and compared with the current situation. As results, compared with the current situation the amount of electricity generated could increase by 60 % in 2030, by combining AD facilities for food waste with new, high-efficiency incineration facilities for remaining municipal solid waste (MSW). From a life cycle perspective, net energy recovery in 2030 was approximately three times greater than in 2011, and GHG emission could be reduced by 27 %. The introduction of AD facilities is attractive for small authorities, which currently treat <100 t/day of MSW through incineration facilities without energy recovery. An AD facility is also beneficial for large authorities. On the contrary, in middle-scale authorities that treat 100–299 t/day of MSW, the reconstruction of incineration facilities to include electricity production capabilities requires careful consideration, because it will significantly influence energy recovery and GHG reduction effects.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0531-y
  • Residual organic fluorinated compounds from thermal treatment of PFOA,
           PFHxA and PFOS adsorbed onto granular activated carbon (GAC)
    • Authors: Nobuhisa Watanabe; Shusuke Takemine; Katsuya Yamamoto; Yuki Haga; Mitsuyasu Takata
      Abstract: Abstract Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) adsorbed onto granular activated carbon (GAC) were thermally treated in N2 gas stream. The purpose was to assess the fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) during thermal regeneration of GAC, which had been used for water treatment. Mineralized F, residual PFASs including short-chained species, and volatile organic fluorine (VOF) were determined. In a temperature condition of 700 °C, VOF were 13.2, 4.8, and 5.9 % as for PFOA, PFHxA, and PFOS. However, the VOF decreased to 0.1 %, if the GAC and off-gas were kept at 1000 °C. No PFASs remained in GAC at 700–1000 °C; at the same time, short-chained PFASs were slightly detected in the aqueous trapping of off-gas at 800 and 900 °C conditions. The destruction of PFASs on GAC could be perfect if the temperature is higher than 700 °C; however, the process is competitive against volatile escape from GAC. Destruction in gaseous phase needs a temperature as high as 1000 °C. Destruction of PFASs on the surface of GAC, volatile escape from the site, and thermolysis in gas phase should be considered, as to thermal regeneration of GAC.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10163-016-0532-x
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