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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.687
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1864-6433 - ISSN (Online) 0914-7187
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Up-front F18-FDG PET/CT in suspected salivary gland carcinoma
    • Abstract: Objective To investigate whether a 18F-FDG PET/CT (PET/CT)-based diagnostic strategy adds decisive new information compared to conventional imaging in the evaluation of salivary gland tumours and the detection of cervical lymph node metastases, distant metastases, and synchronous cancer in patients with salivary gland carcinoma. Methods The study was a blinded prospective cohort study. Data were collected consecutively through almost 3 years. All patients underwent conventional imaging—magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and chest X-ray (CXR)—in addition to PET/CT prior to surgery. Final diagnosis was obtained by histopathology. MRI/CXR and PET/CT were interpreted separately by experienced radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Interpretation included evaluation of tumour site, cervical lymph node metastases, distant metastases, and synchronous cancer. Results Ninety-one patients were included in the study. Thirty-three patients had primary salivary gland carcinoma and eight had cervical lymph node metastases. With PET/CT, the sensitivity was 92% and specificity 29% regarding tumour site. With MRI/CXR, the sensitivity and specificity were 90% and 26%, respectively. Regarding cervical lymph node metastases in patients with salivary gland carcinoma, the sensitivity with PET/CT was 100% and with MRI/CXR 50%. PET/CT diagnosed distant metastases in five patients, while MRI/CXR detected these in two patients. Finally, PET/CT diagnosed two synchronous cancers, whereas MRI/CXR did not detect any synchronous cancers. Conclusions Compared with MRI/CXR PET/CT did not improve discrimination of benign from malignant salivary gland lesions. However, PET/CT may be advantageous in primary staging and in the detection of distant metastases and synchronous cancers.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
  • The difference of risk factors predicting cardiac events in patients with
           chronic kidney disease between with and without diabetes
    • Abstract: Objective Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes are both associated with cardiovascular disease, but the effects of diabetes in patients with CKD remain unknown. This study aimed to compare the risk factors of cardiac events between patients with CKD accompanied and not by diabetes using myocardial perfusion imaging. Methods We initially classified 529 patients with CKD from the Japanese Assessment of Cardiac Events and Survival Study-3 (J-ACCESS-3) study who had been assessed by gated single-photon emission-computed tomography based on whether they had diabetes (n = 220) or not (n = 309) and then separated them into four subgroups based on the ejection fraction (EF) calculated by quantitative gated SPECT. After 3-year follow-up, the incidence of major cardiac events (cardiac death, sudden death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and heart failure requiring hospitalization), risk factors among each group, and the ability of myocardial perfusion image to predict prognosis were evaluated. Results Major cardiac events occurred in 12.7% and 10.3% of patients with and without diabetes (not significant), and heart failure requiring hospitalization was the most frequent (75% and 78%, respectively) in both groups. Event-free survival rates were lower in the subgroups with low EF and high summed stress scores (SSS). Independent risk factors comprised currently smoking and a higher SSS, among patients with diabetes, while higher left ventricular end diastolic volumes and serum C-reactive protein values among those without diabetes. Conclusions In patients with CKD, while the risk factors of major cardiac events differ between in patients with and without diabetes, quantitation with gated MPI could be used effectively in both groups.
      PubDate: 2019-05-15
  • Evaluation of the effects of chemotherapy on brain glucose metabolism in
           children with Hodgkin’s lymphoma
    • Abstract: Objective Chemobrain is a recently proposed pathological entity. 18F-FDG PET/CT can show objective abnormalities to explain brain disorders caused by chemotherapy, although no study has investigated these phenomena in children to date. The main objective of the present study was to examine quantitatively the effects of chemotherapy on brain metabolism in a homogeneous population of children treated for Hodgkin's lymphoma using 18F-FDG PET/CT. Methods In this retrospective study, we included 20 children, newly diagnosed with Hodgkin’s lymphoma, who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT at initial staging and at least one PET/CT in follow-up. The SPM12 software provided t-maps to show the difference in metabolism between these PET/CTs. The statistical maps were analyzed with xjView software to identify the brain regions associated with the clusters detected. Results Altered glucose metabolism was found in the frontal, cingular, and temporoinsular regions after two cycles of chemotherapy. Results in children were compared to a group of 35 adults. For the same statistical threshold, the extent and depth of the metabolic alterations were less in the adult group than in children. Conclusions 18F-FDG PET/CT is useful in providing objective data to explain brain disorders caused by chemotherapy. This could lead to better care and should be compared to neuropsychological test results.
      PubDate: 2019-05-13
  • The role of ( 68 Ga)PSMA I&T in biochemical recurrence after radical
           prostatectomy: detection rate and the correlation between the level of
           PSA, Gleason score, and the SUV max
    • Abstract: Objective The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the recurrence detection rate of Gallium-68-prostate-specific membrane antigen [(68Ga)PSMA] imaging and therapy (I&T) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) at different PSA levels, which enables early detection of patients with radical prostatectomy. We also aimed to compare Gleason scores, used drugs (LHRH analogs and antiandrogens), PSA levels with SUVmax values, and detection rates. Method This retrospective study included 107 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy and who underwent (68Ga)PSMA I&T PET/CT imaging between January 2015 and December 2018 for the early detection of recurrence. The PSA values, Gleason scores, treatments, lesions detected on (68Ga)PSMA I&T, and SUVmax values were recorded for all patients. Results Patients with a median PSA level of 1.22 ng/mL were divided into seven groups according to the PSA values. The lowest lesion detection rate was found to be 7/16 patients (43.8%) when the PSA was < 0.2 ng/ml, and the highest lesion detection rate was found to be 33/33 patients (100%) when the PSA was > 3.5 ng/ml. There was a positive correlation between PSA level and ppSUVmax (per patient SUVmax) value of the patients with lesions (p < 0.001 and r = 0.49). As the Gleason score increased, the lesion detection rates also increased and there was a significant correlation between these values (p < 0.001 and r = 0.360). A positive correlation was determined between the Gleason scores and ppSUVmax values in patients with lesions (p = 0.007 and r = 0.302). A statistically significant correlation was found between bicalutamide use and lesion detection on (68Ga)PSMA I&T (p < 0.001). A similar relationship was also determined in patients undergoing maximal androgen blockade (MAB) (p = 0.003). Patients determined with lesions on (68Ga)PSMA I&T and who were administered luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists were found to have statistically significantly higher ppSUVmax values than those who were not administered LHRH agonists (p < 0.001). In binary logistic regression test, when PSA levels and Gleason scores were selected as continuous variables, both PSA levels and Gleason scores were demonstrated as significant covariates (p = 0.006 and p = 0.022) for lesion detection; by contrast, bicalutamide and MAB were not found as significant factors. Conclusion In the present study, (68Ga)PSMA I&T was found to be quite successful in determining lesions in the biochemical recurrence, which is consistent with the findings of other I&T studies and studies conducted with different PSMA ligands. Thus, it can be considered that the use of (68Ga)PSMA I&T will become increasingly common.
      PubDate: 2019-05-08
  • Development of radiolabeled bis(zinc(II)-dipicolylamine) complexes for
           cell death imaging
    • Abstract: Purpose Although it has been traditionally surmised that phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization is a hallmark of apoptosis, most other non-apoptotic modes of cell death, such as necrosis, are also associated with PS externalization. Bis(zinc-dipicolylamine) (ZnDPA) complexes have been reported to exhibit affinity for PS. The present study aimed to develop novel radiolabeled ZnDPA derivatives for cell death imaging in tumor after treatment with anticancer drugs. Methods [125I]IB-EG2-ZnDPA and [99mTc]Tc-MAG3-EG2-ZnDPA were designed and prepared. The stabilities of these radiotracers were determined in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) or murine plasma at 37 °C, and their 1-octanol/water partition coefficients (logP) were measured. The uptake of radioactivity in cancer cells, which were preincubated in a normal medium or in a medium containing 5-FU, was measured after incubation with radiotracers. Accumulation of [99mTc]Tc-MAG3-EG2-ZnDPA in the tumor was evaluated in tumor-bearing mice treated with or without 5-FU, and then TUNEL staining was performed to detect dead cells in the tumor tissue sections. Results The radiochemical purities of [125I]IB-EG2-ZnDPA and [99mTc]Tc-MAG3-EG2-ZnDPA exceeded 95%. Although [125I]IB-EG2-ZnDPA gradually decomposing with time, more than 90% of [99mTc]Tc-MAG3-EG2-ZnDPA remained in its intact form in phosphate buffer through 6 h of incubation. Neither [125I]IB-EG2-ZnDPA nor [99mTc]Tc-MAG3-EG2-ZnDPA decomposed so much after 6-h incubation in murine plasma. [125I]IB-EG2-ZnDPA could not specifically recognize PS on the cell surface because of its high lipophilicity. Conversely, [99mTc]Tc-MAG3-EG2-ZnDPA accumulated in cancer cells after treatment with an anticancer drug both in vitro and in vivo, and its accumulation was correlated with the number of TUNEL-positive cells. However, the biodistribution of [99mTc]Tc-MAG3-EG2-ZnDPA was not suitable for imaging because of its low accumulation in tumor and high uptake in abdomen organs. Conclusion [99mTc]Tc-MAG3-EG2-ZnDPA could be useful for the early detection of treatment effects after chemotherapy. Since the signal-to-noise ratio is not enough for single photon emission computed tomography imaging, further modification is needed to improve its biodistribution and affinity for PS.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Accumulation of hypoxia imaging probe “ 18 F-FMISO” in macrophages
           depends on macrophage polarization in addition to hypoxic state
    • Abstract: Objective Macrophages play an essential role in immune response, and are closely related to the progression of diseases such as cancer and atherosclerosis. Macrophages polarize to M1 or M2 type, which is related to the environmental hypoxic state. Previously, we found that 18F-FMISO uptake varied according to expression levels of biomolecules such as glutathione S-transferase P1 (GST-P1), which catalyzes the conjugation of glutathione to 18F-FMISO metabolites, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), which exports glutathione-18F-FMISO metabolite conjugates out of cells. However, the relationship between macrophage polarization and 18F-FMISO accumulation remains unclear. Methods Mouse peritoneal macrophages were polarized to either the M1 or M2 type, and were treated with 18F-FMISO. Then, their radioactivity after a 4 h incubation period under normoxic (21% O2) or hypoxic (1% O2) condition was measured. GST-P1 and MRP1 expression levels were measured by qRT-PCR. Results M2 macrophages exhibited a significantly higher uptake of 18F-FMISO than non-polarized (M0) macrophages, whereas M1 macrophages had a significantly lower uptake than M0 macrophages (M0: 1.05 ± 0.22, M1: 0.34 ± 0.02, M2: 4.17 ± 0.36 %dose/mg protein). The GST-P1 expression level in M1 macrophages was higher than that in M2 and M0 macrophages [GST-P1/β-actin normalized by M0: 9.0 ± 3.7 (M1), 1.2 ± 0.2 (M2)]. The MRP1 expression level in M1 macrophages was significantly higher than that in M2 and M0 macrophages [MRP1/β-actin normalized by M0 macrophages: 5.1 ± 2.1 (M1), 2.8 ± 1.0 (M2)]. Conclusions 18F-FMISO accumulation in macrophages may depend on the polarization state in addition to hypoxic condition.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Increased 18 F-FDG accumulation in the tonsils after chemotherapy for
           pediatric lymphoma: a common physiological phenomenon
    • Abstract: Objective Increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the tonsils after the completion of chemotherapy in patients with lymphoma may be misdiagnosed as tumor recurrence. This study aimed to investigate the changes in physiological FDG uptake in the tonsils during and after chemotherapy in pediatric patients with lymphoma. Methods A total of 47 FDG-PET/CT scans acquired from 13 pediatric patients with lymphoma (before chemotherapy [preC] = 9; during chemotherapy [durC] = 12; within 1 month after the end of chemotherapy [endC] = 11; and after achieving complete response [postC] = 15) were retrospectively included in this study. FDG uptake in the palatine tonsils was assessed using maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). The relative size of the palatine tonsils was calculated as the tonsil-pharyngeal ratio (TPR). Serial changes in the SUVmax and TPR were evaluated. Results The mean SUVmax was 3.7 ± 1.7, 2.6 ± 0.7, 2.3 ± 0.8, and 6.2 ± 1.6, at the preC, durC, endC, and postC scans, respectively (p < 0.0001); TPR was 59.0 ± 11.2%, 58.3 ± 9.4%, 54.4 ± 7.9%, and 62.2 ± 12.0% in these groups, respectively, with no significant inter-group differences. TPR and SUVmax showed no correlation. Conclusions Increased physiological FDG uptake in the tonsils is commonly observed after the completion of chemotherapy, even in the absence of reactive hypertrophy.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Effect of respiratory motion on cardiac defect contrast in myocardial
           perfusion SPECT: a physical phantom study
    • Abstract: Objective Correction for respiratory motion in myocardial perfusion imaging requires sorting of emission data into respiratory windows where the intra-window motion is assumed to be negligible. However, it is unclear how much intra-window motion is acceptable. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal value of intra-window residual motion. Methods A custom-designed cardiac phantom was created and imaged with a standard dual-detector SPECT/CT system using Tc-99m as the radionuclide. Projection images were generated from the list-mode data simulating respiratory motion blur of several magnitudes from 0 (stationary phantom) to 20 mm. Cardiac defect contrasts in six anatomically different locations, as well as myocardial perfusion of apex, anterior, inferior, septal and lateral walls, were measured at each motion magnitude. Stationary phantom data were compared to motion-blurred data. Two physicians viewed the images and evaluated differences in cardiac defect visibility and myocardial perfusion. Results Significant associations were observed between myocardial perfusion in the anterior and inferior walls and respiratory motion. Defect contrasts were found to decline as a function of motion, but the magnitude of the decline depended on the location and shape of the defect. Defects located near the cardiac apex lost contrast more rapidly than those located on the anterior, inferior, septal and lateral wall. The contrast decreased by less than 5% at every location when the motion magnitude was 2 mm or less. According to a visual evaluation, there were differences in myocardial perfusion if the magnitude of the motion was greater than 1 mm, and there were differences in the visibility of the cardiac defect if the magnitude of the motion was greater than 9 mm. Conclusions Intra-window respiratory motion should be limited to 2 mm to effectively correct for respiratory motion blur in myocardial perfusion SPECT.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Evaluation of whole-body tumor burden with 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT in the
           biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer
    • Abstract: Background 68 Ga-PSMA-PET has an increasing importance in the evaluation of prostate cancer patients due to its high sensitivity and specificity in identifying neoplastic lesions in the clinical setting of elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The objective of this study was to calculate the whole-body tumor burden using volumetric quantification of lesions detected in 68Ga-PSMA-PET of prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence and correlate these findings with clinical and image parameters. Methods Each patient had their 68Ga-PSMA-PET analyzed for the presence of neoplastic lesions. Their PSA levels and clinical information were recorded. In positive cases, the tumor burden (TL-PSMA) was calculated with a semi-automatic software and manually, and the results are analyzed and tested. Results We analyzed 100 prostate cancer patients, mean age of 69.9 ± 9.7 years and a median PSA of 1.73 ng/dL. 68Ga-PSMA-PET identified neoplastic lesions in 72% of them. The median TL-PSMA was 55.95 ml (1.1–28,080 ml). TL-PSMA and PSA were strongly correlated (rho = 0.71, p < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.60–0.80). TL-PSMA and PSA levels groups had a significant correlation and TL-PSMA and Gleason score were independent variables associated with PSA levels (p < 0.05). Conclusion TL-PSMA strongly and independently correlates with PSA levels in prostate cancer patients and could be used as a biomarker to separate them into groups with high or low tumor burden, instead of considering only the number of lesions.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Clinicopathological predictors of positive 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in
           PSA-only recurrence of localized prostate cancer following definitive
    • Abstract: Objective To demonstrate the effect of clinicopathological factors on 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT positivity at the time of biochemical recurrence (BCR) of localized prostate cancer (PCa) following definitive therapy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our institutional database for PCa patients who had BCR and subsequently underwent 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT between April 2014 and February 2018. A total of 51 patients who were metastasis-free before PSMA imaging and previously treated with definitive therapy (radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy) for localized disease (pT1c—T3b pN0-1 cM0) were included. Results 37 out of 51 patients (72.5%) had positive 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT scans. Age at diagnosis, Gleason score (GS), D’Amico risk status of PCa, initial PSA level before treatment and PSA doubling time were not associated with PSMA positivity. Pre-scan PSA levels of > 0.2 ng/ml and PSA velocity of ≥ 1 ng/ml/year were significantly associated with increased PSMA positivity, whereas history of androgen deprivation therapy showed a trend towards significance. The optimal cutoffs for distinguishing between positive and negative scans were ≥ 0.71 ng/ml for pre-scan PSA and ≥ 1.22 ng/ml/yr for PSA velocity. In multivariable analysis, log pre-scan PSA and pre-scan PSA level > 0.2 ng/ml remained significant predictors for PSMA positivity, whereas the association of PSA velocity and of ADT was lost. Conclusions In BCR of localized PCa following definitive therapy, pre-scan PSA was strongly associated with positive 68Ga-PSMA-11 scan, even at PSA levels ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 ng/ml. Therefore, clinical and pathological predictors of positive 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in PSA-only recurrence of localized prostate cancer need to be further elucidated.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • 18 F-NaF-PET/CT for the detection of bone metastasis in prostate cancer: a
           meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies
    • Abstract: Purpose This meta-analysis aims to establish the diagnostic performance of 18F-NaF-PET/CT for the detection of bone metastases in prostate cancer patients. The performance of 18F-NaF-PET/CT was compared with other imaging techniques in the same cohort of patients. Methods A systematic search was performed in PubMed/Medline and EMBASE (last Updated, September 28, 2018). Studies with histopathology confirmation and/or clinical/imaging follow-up as reference standard were eligible for inclusion. Results A total of 14 studies were included. Twelve studies including 507 patients provided per-patient basis information. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 18F-NaF-PET/CT for the detection of bone metastases were 0.98 (95% CI 0.95–0.99), 0.90 (95% CI 0.86–0.93), 123.2 and 0.97, respectively. Seven studies provided the lesion-based accuracy information of 1812 lesions identified on 18F-NaF-PET/CT with the pooled sensitivity, specificity, DOR and AUC of 0.97 (95% CI 0.95–0.98), 0.84 (95% CI 0.81–0.87), 206.8 and 0.97, respectively. The overall diagnostic performance of 18F-NaF-PET/CT is superior to 99mTc-bone scintigraphy (AUC 0.842; P < 0.001; four studies) and 99mTc-SPECT (AUC 0.896; P < 0.001, four studies). Compared to 18F NaF-PET/CT, whole-body MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was shown to have lower sensitivity (0.83, 95% CI 0.68–0.93), with no significant difference in the overall performance (AUC 0.947; P = 0.18, four studies). Conclusion 18F-NaF-PET/CT has excellent diagnostic performance in the detection of bone metastases in staging and restaging of high-risk prostate cancer patients. The performance of 18F-NaF-PET/CT is superior to 99mTc bone scintigraphy and SPECT, and comparable to DWI–MRI.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • A novel biomarker, active whole skeletal total lesion glycolysis (WS-TLG),
           as a quantitative method to measure bone metastatic activity in breast
           cancer patients
    • Abstract: Objective There is no good response evaluation method for skeletal metastasis. We aimed to develop a novel quantitative method to evaluate the response of skeletal metastasis, especially lytic lesions, for treatment. Methods A method to measure active bone metastatic burden quantitatively using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (FDG–PET/CT) in breast cancer patients, whole skeletal total lesion glycolysis (WS-TLG), a summation of each skeletal lesion’s TLG, was developed. To identify active bone lesions, a tentative cutoff value was decided using FDG–PET/CT in 85 breast cancer patients without skeletal metastasis and 35 with skeletal metastasis by changing the cutoff value. Then, the WS-TLG method was evaluated by comparing to PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumor (PERCIST) or European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria for only bone in 15 breast cancer patients with skeletal metastasis who were treated. Results A cutoff value of the standardized uptake value (SUV) = 4.0 gave 91% (77/85) specificity and 97% (34/35) sensitivity. We decided on SUV = 4.0 as a tentative cutoff value. Skeletal metastases of lytic and mixed types showed higher WS-TLG values than those of blastic or intertrabecular types, although statistical significance was not tested. All 15 patients showed agreement with PERCIST or EORTC in the therapeutic bone response. Conclusion This quantitative WS-TLG method appears to be a good biomarker to evaluate skeletal metastasis in breast cancer patients, especially lytic or mixed types. Further clinical studies are warranted to assess the clinical values of this new WS-TLG method.
      PubDate: 2019-04-13
  • Measurement of cerebral vascular reserves with I-123 IMP SPECT without an
           arterial input function using the microsphere model and
           radiopharmaceutical dose calibration
    • Abstract: Objectives Cerebral vascular reserve (CVR) is an important indicator for the management of and therapy for cerebral arterial occlusive disease (CAOD). Vasodilatory function is measured using the standard IMP-ARG method. The IMP autoradiography (IMP-ARG) method employed here uses a standardized input function, which was derived from 12 patients between 31 and 71 years of age. Because the population of elderly patients continues to increase in Japan, additional therapies are required to assess CVR in elderly patients with chronic cardiopulmonary disease or a history of smoking, in particular. Despite its popularity, alternatives to the IMP-ARG method are necessary. Here, we proposed the microsphere (MS) method without an input function. Method Using this method and the IMP-ARG method, we measured the CVRs of 18 CAOD patients. Results The CVRs derived with these two methods were significantly and linearly correlated (r = 0.89, p < 0.01). CVRs categorized by severity were also found to correspond between the two methods (κ = 0.87). Conclusions Thus, the method proposed here may serve as a supplemental to and be compatible with the IMP-ARG method for the assessment of CVR. Furthermore, the two methods, when used in conjunction, may result in less error than either would alone.
      PubDate: 2019-04-13
  • Diagnostic performance of 18 F-FDG PET-CT for large vessel involvement
           assessment in patients with suspected giant cell arteritis and negative
           temporal artery biopsy
    • Abstract: Objective The purpose of our study was to assess the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET-CT for large vessel involvement in patients with suspected giant cells arteritis (GCA) and a negative temporal artery biopsy (TAB). Methods We conducted a retrospective study in a cohort of patients with suspected GCA and negative TAB who underwent an 18F-FDG PET-CT. Ten vascular segments were studied using a visual score and a semi-quantitative method based on SUVmax ratio with respect to liver uptake. The diagnosis of GCA was established during a mean follow-up of 42 months, based on the presence of clinical symptoms, laboratory results, and imaging data compatible with GCA, good response to corticosteroid therapy, and no differential diagnosis after a follow-up of at least 18 months. Results We included 63 patients (30 men and 33 women, aged 67 ± 12 years). 18F-FDG PET-CT showed large vessel involvement in 22 patients, 14 of whom were finally diagnosed with GCA. Forty-one patients were 18F-FDG PET-CT negative, 9 of whom were finally diagnosed with GCA. Overall, 18F-FDG uptake by large vessel yielded 61% sensitivity, 80% specificity, 64% positive predictive value, 78% negative predictive value, and 73% diagnostic accuracy. A significant number of patients were treated by corticosteroids before 18F-FDG PET-CT. However, corticosteroid therapy did not impact significantly the diagnostic performance, although there was a trend to a lower sensitivity in patients receiving corticosteroid therapy for more than 3 days. Conclusions 18F-FDG PET-CT is a useful imaging technique to assess large vessel involvement in patients with suspected GCA and negative TAB.
      PubDate: 2019-04-11
  • Development of anatomically and lesion contrast-guided partial volume
           correction: new 3D formalisms and validation in phantom and clinical
    • Abstract: Purpose The aim of the study was to correct for partial volume effect in positron emission imaging studies which is the most influential factors using three-dimensional (3D) representation of the recovery coefficients (RCs) to improve standardized uptake value (SUV) calculations. Methods Several phantom studies were conducted at significantly wide range of lesion contrast, range 2:1 up to 15:1. It was then classified into two groups: one for generating 3D function taking into consideration the sphere size as well lesion contrast whereas the other group was used for functions validation. A segmentation threshold algorithm for lesion delineation and volume determination was generated based on lesion contrast and lesion size. In addition, five 3D functions of the RC of the SUV were formulated considering lesion size and lesion contrast. Validation of the new algorithms has considered both phantom and clinical studies. Results The error in threshold 3D function was well below 10%. For lesions ≤ 2 cm in diameter, there was no statistical difference of the functions developed for SUVmax as well as those functions generated for SUVmean. However, the median SUVmax has increased significantly when compared with data before correction. For SUVmean, the increase in median value was also significantly high. Conclusion It has been successful to generate 3D mathematical formulations of the SUV RC taking into consideration the most influential factors including lesion size and lesion contrast. Validation studies were suggestive of the good performance of the new mathematical algorithms generated to correct for PVE. However, further studies are underway to ensure the performance of the proposed algorithms in clinical PET studies.
      PubDate: 2019-04-08
  • Comparison between the different doses of radioactive iodine ablation
           prescribed in patients with intermediate-to-high-risk differentiated
           thyroid cancer
    • Abstract: Objective This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of patients who received radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation after undergoing thyroidectomy for intermediate-to-high-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) criteria. Methods We retrospectively examined patients who underwent RAI ablation for DTC after surgical resection without macroscopic residual lesions or metastatic lesions between December 2011 and August 2016. Among 147 patients who underwent RAI ablation, those whose initial pathological stages or RAI ablation results were unknown and whose distant metastases were confirmed during RAI ablation were excluded. Low-dose therapy was defined as administration of 1110 MBq of 131iodine (131I), while high-dose therapy referred to administration of 2960–3700 MBq of 131I. We defined initial success of RAI ablation as a serum thyroglobulin concentration of < 2.0 ng/mL without thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation and disappearance of 131I uptake in the thyroid bed on 131I scintigraphy 6–12 months after RAI ablation. RAI ablation success rates were compared between the low-dose and high-dose groups using Fisher’s exact test, and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis was performed for adjusting potential biases. Results Among the 119 patients examined in this study (39 men and 80 women), 79 were classified as having intermediate risk, while 40 were classified as having high risk based on the ATA guideline. Initial RAI ablation success was achieved in 50/68 (73.5%) patients from the low-dose group and in 36/51 patients (70.6%) from the high-dose group (p = 0.84). Moreover, IPTW analysis showed no significant difference between the low-dose and high-dose groups. However, the success rate tended to be superior in high-risk patients who received high-dose therapy (86.2%) than in those who received low-dose therapy (72.7%) (p = 0.37). Conclusion There was no significant difference in the RAI ablation success rate between the low-dose and high-dose groups involving patients with intermediate-to-high-risk DTC. However, high-dose RAI ablation may be recommended in high-risk patients.
      PubDate: 2019-04-06
  • Development of a p38α-selective radioactive probe for qualitative
           diagnosis of cancer using SPECT
    • Abstract: Objective p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (p38α) has drawn attention as a new target molecule for the treatment and diagnosis of cancer, and its overexpression and activation have been reported in various types of cancer. In this study, a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging probe of p38α was developed to noninvasively image p38α activity for effective qualitative diagnosis of cancer. Methods Pyrrolepyridine derivatives, m-YTM and p-YTM, were designed and synthesized based on the structure of the p38α-selective inhibitor. Radioactive iodine-labeled m-YTM, [125I]m-YTM, was synthesized because m-YTM greatly inhibited the phosphorylation of p38α upon examining the inhibitory effects of the compounds. After investigating the binding affinity of [125I]m-YTM to the recombinant p38α, a saturation binding experiment using activated p38α and inactive p38α was performed to determine the binding site. Uptake of [125I]m-YTM into various cancer cell lines was investigated, and the pharmacokinetics was evaluated using tumor-bearing mice. Results The inhibitory activity of m-YTM was approximately 13 times higher than that of SB203580, a p38α-selective inhibitor. The binding site of [125I]m-YTM was estimated to be the p38α activating site, similar to that of SB203580, because the [125I]m-YTM bound strongly to both activated p38α and inactive p38α. Various different cancer cells incorporated [125I]m-YTM; however, its accumulation was significantly reduced by treatment with SB203580. Pharmacokinetics study of [125I]m-YTM in B-16 tumor-bearing mice was examined which revealed high accumulation of radioactivity in tumor tissues. The ratios of radioactivity in the B-16 tumor to that in blood were 3.1 and 50 after 1 and 24 h, respectively. The ratio of radioactivity in the tumor to that in blood in the tumor-bearing mice generated using other cancer cell lines was also ≥ 1 at 1 h after the administration of the probe. Conclusions This study suggests that [123I]m-YTM has potential as a p38α imaging probe effective for various cancer types.
      PubDate: 2019-04-05
  • Overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with primary
           brain tumors after treatment: is the outcome of [ 18 F] FDOPA PET a
           prognostic factor in these patients'
    • Abstract: Aim To investigate the progression-free survival (PFS) and the overall survival (OS) in a population affected by primary brain tumors (PBT) evaluated by [18F]-l-dihydroxyphenylalanine ([18F] FDOPA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Materials and methods 133 subjects with PBT (65 women and 68 men, mean age 45 ± 10 years old) underwent 18F FDOPA PET/CT after treatment. Of them, 68 (51.2%) were Grade II, 34 (25.5%) were Grade III and 31 (23.3%) were Grade IV. PET/CT was scored as positive or negative and standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) was calculated as the ratio between SUVmax of the lesion vs. that of the background. Patients have been observed for a mean of 24 months. Results The outcome of [18F] FDOPA PET/CT scan was significantly related to the OS and PFS in Grade II gliomas. In Grade II PBT, the OS proportions at 24 months were 100% in subjects with a negative PET/CT scan and 82% in those with a positive scan. Gehan–Breslow–Wilcoxon test showed a significant difference in the OS curves (P = 0.03) and the hazard-ratio was equal to 5.1 (95% CI of ratio 1.1–23.88). As for PFS, the proportion at 24 months was 90% in subjects with a negative PET/CT scan and 58% in those with a positive scan. Gehan–Breslow–Wilcoxon test showed a significant difference in the OS curves (P = 0.007) and the hazard-ratio was equal to 4.1 (95% CI of ratio 1.3–8). We did not find any significant relationship between PET outcome and OS and PFS in Grade III and IV PBT. Conclusions A positive [18F] FDOPA PET/CT scan is related to a poor OS and PFS in subjects with low-grade PBT. This imaging modality could be considered as a prognostic factor in these subjects.
      PubDate: 2019-04-04
  • Brain 18 F-FDG distribution: which region is most affected by increased
           plasma glucose levels'
    • PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Verification of image quality and quantification in whole-body positron
           emission tomography with continuous bed motion
    • Abstract: Objective Whole-body dynamic imaging using positron emission tomography (PET) facilitates the quantification of tracer kinetics. It is potentially valuable for the differential diagnosis of tumors and for the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy. In whole-body dynamic PET with continuous bed motion (CBM) (WBDCBM-PET), the pass number and bed velocity are key considerations. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of a combination of pass number and bed velocity on the quantitative accuracy and quality of WBDCBM-PET images. Methods In this study, WBDCBM-PET imaging was performed at a body phantom using seven bed velocity settings in combination with pass numbers. The resulting image quality was evaluated. For comparing different acquisition settings, the dynamic index (DI) was obtained using the following formula: [P/S], where P represents the pass number, and S represents the bed velocity (mm/s). The following physical parameters were evaluated: noise equivalent count at phantom (NECphantom), percent background variability (N10 mm), percent contrast of the 10 mm hot sphere (QH, 10 mm), the QH, 10 mm/N10 mm ratio, and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Furthermore, visual evaluation was performed. Results The NECphantom was equivalent for the same DI settings regardless of the bed velocity. The N10 mm exhibited an inverse correlation (r < − 0.89) with the DI. QH,10 mm was not affected by DI, and a correlation between QH,10 mm/N10 mm ratio and DI was found at all the velocities (r > 0.93). The SUVmax of the spheres was not influenced by the DI. The coefficient of variations caused by bed velocity decreased in larger spheres. There was no significant difference between the bed velocities on visual evaluation. Conclusion The quantitative accuracy and image quality achieved with WBDCBM-PET was comparable to that achieved with non-dynamic CBM, regardless of the pass number and bed velocity used during imaging for a given acquisition time.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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