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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Annals of Nuclear Medicine
  [SJR: 0.68]   [H-I: 45]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1864-6433 - ISSN (Online) 0914-7187
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • [ 18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ PET study in a lactacystin-treated rat model of
           Parkinson disease
    • Authors: Chi-Chang Weng; Siao-Lan Huang; Zi-An Chen; Kun-Ju Lin; Ing-Tsung Hsiao; Tzu-Chen Yen; Mei-Ping Kung; Shiaw-Pyng Wey; Ching-Han Hsu
      Pages: 506 - 513
      Abstract: Objective Lactacystin has been used to establish rodent models of Parkinson disease (PD), with cerebral α-synuclein inclusions. This study evaluated the uptake of [18F]9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([18F]FP-(+)-DTBZ), a vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2)-targeting radiotracer, through positron emission tomography (PET) in lactacystin-treated rat brains. Methods Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly treated with a single intracranial dose of lactacystin (2 or 5 μg) or saline (served as the sham control) into the left medial forebrain bundle. A 30-min static [18F]FP-(+)-DTBZ brain PET scan was performed following an intravenous [18F]FP-(+)-DTBZ dose (approximately 22 MBq) in each animal at 2 and 3 weeks after lactacystin treatment. Upon completing the last PET scans, the animals were killed, and their brains were dissected for ex vivo autoradiography (ARG) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) as well as VMAT2. Results Both the 2- and 5-μg lactacystin-treated groups exhibited significantly decreased specific [18F]FP-(+)-DTBZ uptake in the ipsilateral striata (I-ST) at 2 weeks (1.51 and 1.16, respectively) and 3 weeks (1.36 and 1.00, respectively) after lactacystin treatment, compared with the uptake in the corresponding contralateral striata (C-ST) (3.48 and 3.08 for the 2- and 5-μg lactacystin-treated groups, respectively, at 2 weeks; 3.36 and 3.11 for the 2- and 5-μg lactacystin-treated groups, respectively, at 3 weeks) and the sham controls (3.34–3.53). Lactacystin-induced decline in I-ST [18F]FP-(+)-DTBZ uptake was also demonstrated through ex vivo ARG, and the corresponding dopaminergic neuron damage was confirmed by the results of TH- and VMAT2-IHC studies. Conclusions In this PD model, lactacystin-induced dopaminergic terminal damage in the ipsilateral striatum could be clearly visualized through in vivo [18F]FP-(+)-DTBZ PET imaging. This may serve as a useful approach for evaluating the effectiveness of new treatments for PD.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1174-3
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7 (2017)
  • FDG-PET/CT predicts survival and lung metastasis of hypopharyngeal cancer
           in a multi-institutional retrospective study
    • Authors: Hidenori Suzuki; Katsuhiko Kato; Masami Nishio; Tsuneo Tamaki; Yasushi Fujimoto; Mariko Hiramatsu; Nobuhiro Hanai; Takeshi Kodaira; Yoshiyuki Itoh; Shinji Naganawa; Michihiko Sone; Yasuhisa Hasegawa
      Pages: 514 - 520
      Abstract: Objectives We investigated a possible correlation between the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), which is assessed by pretreatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography, and the overall survival (OS) in patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma from two institutions on long-term follow-up, and examined whether SUVmax is correlated with several survival outcomes, including lung metastasis-free survival. Methods A total of 81 patients were enrolled. The survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan–Meier method. Both univariate and multivariate survival analyses were assessed by a Cox proportional hazards model. Results SUVmax ≥15.2 in institution A (p = 0.0306) or SUVmax ≥8 in institution B (p = 0.0132) was significantly predictor of a lower OS. We disaggregated the data by high SUVmax (SUVmax ≥15.2 from institution A and SUVmax ≥8 from institution B) and low SUVmax (SUVmax <15.2 from institution A and SUVmax <8 from institution B). Patients with a high SUVmax exhibited a significantly lower OS in both univariate (p = 0.001) and multivariate (p = 0.0046) analyses for adjusted for the clinical stage and treatment group. The patients with a high SUVmax exhibited significantly shorter disease-specific (p = 0.0068), distant metastasis-free (p = 0.0428), and lung metastasis-free (p = 0.0328) survivals. Conclusions High SUVmax was significantly correlated with a lower OS, disease-specific survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and lung metastasis-free survival in a multi-institutional retrospective study.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1176-1
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7 (2017)
  • Diagnostic performance of a computer-assisted diagnosis system for bone
           scintigraphy of newly developed skeletal metastasis in prostate cancer
           patients: search for low-sensitivity subgroups
    • Authors: Mitsuru Koizumi; Kazuki Motegi; Masamichi Koyama; Takashi Terauchi; Takeshi Yuasa; Junji Yonese
      Pages: 521 - 528
      Abstract: Purpose The computer-assisted diagnostic system for bone scintigraphy (BS) BONENAVI is used to evaluate skeletal metastasis. We investigated its diagnostic performance in prostate cancer patients with and without skeletal metastasis and searched for the problems. Methods An artificial neural network (ANN) value was calculated in 226 prostate cancer patients (124 with skeletal metastasis and 101 without) using BS. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed and the sensitivity and specificity determined (cutoff ANN = 0.5). Patient’s situation at the time of diagnosis of skeletal metastasis, computed tomography (CT) type, extent of disease (EOD), and BS uptake grade were analyzed. False-negative and false-positive results were recorded. Results BONENAVI showed 82% (102/124) of sensitivity and 83% (84/101) specificity for metastasis detection. There were no significant differences among CT types, although low EOD and faint BS uptake were associated with low ANN values and low sensitivity. Patients showed lower sensitivity during the follow-up period than staging work-up. False-negative lesions were often located in the pelvis or adjacent to it. They comprised not only solitary, faint BS lesions but also overlaying to urinary excretion. Conclusions BONENAVI with BS has good sensitivity and specificity for detecting prostate cancer’s osseous metastasis. Low EOD and faint BS uptake are associated with low sensitivity but not the CT type. Prostate cancer patients likely to have false-negative results during the follow-up period had a solitary lesion in the pelvis with faint BS uptake or lesions overlaying to urinary excretion.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1175-2
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7 (2017)
  • Characteristics of single- and dual-photopeak energy window acquisitions
           with thallium-201 IQ-SPECT/CT system
    • Authors: Takayuki Shibutani; Masahisa Onoguchi; Hiroto Yoneyama; Takahiro Konishi; Shinro Matsuo; Kenichi Nakajima; Seigo Kinuya
      Pages: 529 - 535
      Abstract: Objectives Although dual-energy (DE) acquisition with conventional 201Tl myocardial perfusion SPECT has several advantages such as improved attenuation of the inferior wall and increased acquisition counts, the characteristics of IQ-SPECT have not been fully evaluated. We evaluate the difference of characteristics between single-energy (SE) and dual-energy (DE) imaging using 201Tl myocardial IQ-SPECT. Methods Two myocardial phantoms were created simulating normal myocardium and infarction of the inferior wall. Energy windows were set at 70 keV ± 10% for SE, and an additional 167 keV ± 7.5% for DE. SPECT images were reconstructed using the ordered subset conjugates gradient minimizer (OSCGM) method. We visually and quantitatively compared short-axis images of correction for no (NC), for attenuation (AC) or for both AC and scatter (ACSC) images. Results The average counts of SE and DE projection data were 17.5 and 20.3 counts/pixel, respectively. The DE data increased acquisition counts by approximately 16% compared with the SE data. The average visual score of normal myocardium did not differ significantly between the SE and DE images. However, the DE image of defective myocardium showed a significantly lower score in AC than SE images. The % uptake values of DE image with both NC and AC were significantly higher than those of SE images. The DE images of the inferior defective areas (segments 4 and 10) showed approximately 5–10% higher uptake compared with the SE images. Conclusion The DE image with NC improved attenuation of the inferior wall. However, DE image with AC showed low defect detectability. Thus, AC should be used with SE rather than DE. Furthermore, while the SE image with ACSC can be used to detect perfusion defects, it must be interpreted carefully including the possibility of artificial inhomogeneity even in the normal myocardium.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1177-0
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7 (2017)
  • Validation of the cingulate island sign with optimized ratios for
           discriminating dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer’s disease using
           brain perfusion SPECT
    • Authors: Etsuko Imabayashi; Tsutomu Soma; Daichi Sone; Tadashi Tsukamoto; Yukio Kimura; Noriko Sato; Miho Murata; Hiroshi Matsuda
      Pages: 536 - 543
      Abstract: Objective Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is often cited as the second most common dementia after Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is clinically important to distinguish DLB from AD because specific side effects of antipsychotic drugs are limited to DLB. The relative preservation of cingulate glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyri versus that in the precuni, known as the cingulate island sign (CIS), in patients with DLB compared with AD is supposed to be highly specific for diagnosing DLB. In a previous study, using brain perfusion SPECT, the largest value (0.873) for the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for differentiating DLB from AD was obtained with the ratio of the posterior cingulate gyri from an early Alzheimer’s disease-specific hypoperfusion volume of interest (VOI) versus the medial occipital lobe. Two purposes of this study are as follows: one is optimization of VOI setting for calculating CIS values and the other is to evaluate their accuracy and simultaneously to retest the method described in our previous paper. Methods We conducted a retest of this SPECT method with another cohort of 13 patients with DLB and 13 patients with AD. Furthermore, we optimized VOIs using contrast images obtained from group comparisons of DLB and normal controls; the same 18 patients with DLB and 18 normal controls examined in our previous study. We obtained DLB-specific VOIs from areas where brain perfusion was significantly decreased in DLB. As the numerators of these ratios, early Alzheimer’s disease-specific VOIs were used after subtracting DLB-specific VOIs. The DLB-specific VOIs were used as the denominator. Results In retest, the obtained AUC was 0.858 and the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 84.6, 84.6, and 84.6%, respectively. The ROC curve analysis with these optimized VOIs yielded a higher AUC of 0.882; and the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of these new CIS ratios were 84.6, 92.3, and 76.9%, respectively, with a threshold value of 0.281. Conclusion Optimized CISs using brain perfusion SPECT are clinically useful for differentiating DLB from AD.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1181-4
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7 (2017)
  • IQ-SPECT for thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging: effect of normal
           databases on quantification
    • Authors: Takahiro Konishi; Kenichi Nakajima; Koichi Okuda; Hiroto Yoneyama; Shinro Matsuo; Takayuki Shibutani; Masahisa Onoguchi; Seigo Kinuya
      Pages: 454 - 461
      Abstract: Objective Although IQ-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides rapid acquisition and attenuation-corrected images, the unique technology may create characteristic distribution different from the conventional imaging. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of IQ-SPECT using Japanese normal databases (NDBs) with that of the conventional SPECT for thallium-201 (201Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Methods A total of 36 patients underwent 1-day 201Tl adenosine stress–rest MPI. Images were acquired with IQ-SPECT at approximately one-quarter of the standard time of conventional SPECT. Projection data acquired with the IQ-SPECT system were reconstructed via an ordered subset conjugate gradient minimizer method with or without scatter and attenuation correction (SCAC). Projection data obtained using the conventional SPECT were reconstructed via a filtered back projection method without SCAC. The summed stress score (SSS) was calculated using NDBs created by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine working group, and scores were compared between IQ-SPECT and conventional SPECT using the acquisition condition-matched NDBs. The diagnostic performance of the methods for the detection of coronary artery disease was also compared. Results SSSs were 6.6 ± 8.2 for the conventional SPECT, 6.6 ± 9.4 for IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and 6.5 ± 9.7 for IQ-SPECT with SCAC (p = n.s. for each comparison). The SSS showed a strong positive correlation between conventional SPECT and IQ-SPECT (r = 0.921 and p < 0.0001), and the correlation between IQ-SPECT with and without SCAC was also good (r = 0.907 and p < 0.0001). Regarding diagnostic performance, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 80.8, 78.9, and 79.4%, respectively, for the conventional SPECT; 80.8, 80.3, and 82.0%, respectively, for IQ-SPECT without SCAC; and 88.5, 86.8, and 87.3%, respectively, for IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively. The area under the curve obtained via receiver operating characteristic analysis were 0.77, 0.80, and 0.86 for conventional SPECT, IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively (p = n.s. for each comparison). Conclusions When appropriate NDBs were used, the diagnostic performance of 201Tl IQ-SPECT was comparable with that of the conventional system regardless of different characteristics of myocardial accumulation in the conventional system.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1170-7
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 6 (2017)
  • Practical calculation method to estimate the absolute boron concentration
           in tissues using 18 F-FBPA PET
    • Authors: Tadashi Watabe; Kohei Hanaoka; Sadahiro Naka; Yasukazu Kanai; Hayato Ikeda; Masanao Aoki; Eku Shimosegawa; Mitsunori Kirihata; Jun Hatazawa
      Pages: 481 - 485
      Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this study was to establish a practical method to estimate the absolute boron concentrations in the tissues based on the standardized uptake values (SUVs) after administration of 4-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) using 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine (18F-FBPA) PET. Methods Rat xenograft models of C6 glioma (n = 7, body weight 241 ± 28.0 g) were used for the study. PET was performed 60 min after intravenous injection of 18F-FBPA (30.5 ± 0.7 MBq). After the PET scanning, BPA-fructose (167.3 ± 18.65 mg/kg) was administered by slow intravenous injection to the same subjects. The rats were killed 60 min after the BPA injection and tissue samples were collected from the major organs and tumors. The absolute boron concentrations (unit: ppm) in the samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The boron concentrations in the tissues/tumors were also estimated from the 18F-FBPA PET images using the following formula: estimated absolute boron concentration (ppm) = 0.0478 × [BPA dose (mg/kg)] × SUV. The measured absolute boron concentrations (mBC) by ICP-OES and the estimated boron concentrations (eBC) from the PET images were compared. Results The percent difference between the mBC and eBC calculated based on the SUVmax was −5.2 ± 21.1% for the blood, −9.4 ± 22.3% for the brain, 1.6 ± 21.3% for the liver, −14.3 ± 16.8% for the spleen, −9.5 ± 27.5% for the pancreas, and 3.4 ± 43.2% for the tumor. Relatively large underestimation was observed for the lung (−48.4 ± 16.2%), small intestine (−37.8 ± 19.3%) and large intestine (−33.9 ± 11.0%), due to the partial volume effect arising from the air or feces contained in these organs. In contrast, relatively large overestimation was observed for the kidney (34.3 ± 29.3%), due to the influence of the high uptake in urine. Conclusions The absolute boron concentrations in tissues/tumors can be estimated from the SUVs on 18F-FBPA PET using a practical formula. Caution must be exercised in interpreting the estimated boron concentrations in the lung, small intestine and large intestine, to prevent the adverse effects of overexposure, which could occur due to underestimation by partial volume effect using PET.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1172-5
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 6 (2017)
  • Comparison of CTAC and prone imaging for the detection of coronary artery
           disease using CZT SPECT
    • Authors: Shimpei Ito; Akihiro Endo; Taiji Okada; Taku Nakamura; Takashi Sugamori; Nobuyuki Takahashi; Hiroyuki Yoshitomi; Kazuaki Tanabe
      Abstract: Background Cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) cameras have improved the evaluation of patients with chest pain. However, inferior/inferolateral attenuation artifacts similar to those seen with conventional Anger cameras persist. We added prone acquisitions and CT attenuation correction (CTAC) to the standard supine image acquisition and analyzed the resulting examinations. Methods and results Seventy-two patients referred for invasive coronary angiography (CAG), and who also underwent rest/stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) on a CZT camera in the supine and prone positions plus CTAC imaging, to examine known or suspected CAD between April 2013 and March 2014 were included. A sixteen-slice CT scan acquired on a SPECT/CT scanner between rest and stress imaging provided data for iterative reconstruction. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated to compare MPI with CAG on a per-patient basis. Per-patient sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of supine images to predict coronary abnormalities on CAG were 35% [95% confidence interval (CI) 19–52], 86% (95% CI 80–92), and 74% (95% CI 66–82); those of prone imaging were 65% (95% CI 45–81), 82% (95% CI 76–87), and 78% (95% CI 68–85); and those of CTAC were 59% (95% CI 41–71), 93% (95% CI 87–97), and 85% (95% CI 76–91), respectively. Conclusions Prone acquisition and CTAC images improve the ability to assess the inferior/inferolateral area.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1194-z
  • FMISO accumulation in tumor is dependent on glutathione conjugation
           capacity in addition to hypoxic state
    • Authors: Yukiko Masaki; Yoichi Shimizu; Takeshi Yoshioka; Ken-ichi Nishijima; Songji Zhao; Kenichi Higashino; Yoshito Numata; Nagara Tamaki; Yuji Kuge
      Abstract: Objective 18F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO), a well-known PET imaging probe for diagnosis of hypoxia, is believed to accumulate in hypoxic cells via covalent binding with macromolecules after reduction of the nitro group. Previously, we showed the majority of 18F-FMISO was incorporated into low-molecular-weight metabolites in hypoxic tumors, and the glutathione conjugate of reduced FMISO (amino-FMISO-GS) distributed in the tumor hypoxic regions as revealed by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). The present study was conducted to clarify whether FMISO is metabolized to amino-FMISO-GS within tumor cells and how amino-FMISO-GS contributes to FMISO accumulation in hypoxic cells. We also evaluated the relationship between FMISO accumulation and the glutathione conjugation-related factors in the cells. Methods Tumor cells (FaDu, LOVO, and T24) were treated with 18F-FMISO and incubated under normoxic or hypoxic conditions for 4 h. The FMISO metabolites were analyzed with LC–ESI–MS. Several glutathione conjugation-related factors of tumor cells were evaluated in vitro. FaDu tumor-bearing mice were intravenously injected with 18F-FMISO and the tumors were excised at 4 h post-injection. Autoradiography, IMS and histologic studies were performed. Results Amino-FMISO-GS was the main contributor to FMISO incorporated in hypoxic FaDu cells in vitro and in vivo. Total FMISO uptake levels and amino-FMISO-GS levels were highest in FaDu, followed by LOVO, and then T24 (total uptake: 0.851 ± 0.009 (FaDu), 0.617 ± 0.021 (LOVO) and 0.167 ± 0.006 (T24) % dose/mg protein; amino-FMISO-GS: 0.502 ± 0.035 (FaDu), 0.158 ± 0.013 (LOVO), and 0.007 ± 0.001 (T24) % dose/mg protein). The glutathione level of FaDu was significantly higher than those of LOVO and T24. The enzyme activity of glutathione-S-transferase catalyzing the glutathione conjugation reaction in FaDu was similar levels to that in LOVO, and was higher than that in T24. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression levels of efflux transporters of the glutathione conjugate (multidrug resistance-associated protein 1) were lowest in FaDu, followed by LOVO, and then T24. Conclusions FMISO accumulates in hypoxic cells through reductive metabolism followed by glutathione conjugation. We illustrated the possibility that increased production and decreased excretion of amino-FMISO-GS contribute to FMISO accumulation in tumor cells under hypoxic conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1189-9
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography
           performs better than contrast-enhanced computed tomography for metastasis
           evaluation in the initial staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma
    • Authors: Sampath Santhosh; Bhagwant Rai Mittal; Deepak Kumar Bhasin; Surinder Singh Rana; Rajesh Gupta; Ashim Das; Ritambhra Nada
      Abstract: Objective To evaluate the additional role of FDG-PET/CT to the conventional multiphasic CECT in the initial staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods 54 patients diagnosed with pathologically proven pancreatic malignancy underwent FDG-PET/CECT. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of PET/CT and CECT for nodal and metastatic staging were calculated. The statistical difference was calculated by McNemar’s test. Results Of 54 patients, 15 had distal metastasis. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of PET/CT and CECT for nodal staging were 33 vs 89%, 84 vs 100%, 67 vs 100%, 60 vs 90%, and 59 vs 95%, respectively, p < 0.001. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of CECT for metastatic staging were 73, 87, 69, 89, and 83%, whereas the accuracy of PET/CT was 100%, p = 0.01. By correctly characterizing unsuspected distant lesions, PET/CT could change management in 19% of patients. Conclusion FDG-PET/CT can contribute to change in the management in almost one of every five patients of PA evaluated with the standard investigations during the initial staging.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1193-0
  • Cross calibration of 123 I- meta -iodobenzylguanidine heart-to-mediastinum
           ratio with D-SPECT planogram and Anger camera
    • Authors: Kenichi Nakajima; Koichi Okuda; Kunihiko Yokoyama; Tatsuya Yoneyama; Shiro Tsuji; Hiroyuki Oda; Mitsuhiro Yoshita; Koji Kubota
      Abstract: Background Cardiac 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake is quantified using the heart-to-mediastinum ratio (HMR) with an Anger camera. The relationship between HMR determined using D-SPECT with a cadmium–zinc–telluride detector and an Anger camera is not fully understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to define this relationship using images derived from a phantom and from patients. Methods Cross-calibration phantom studies using an Anger camera with a low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimator and D-SPECT, and clinical 123I-MIBG studies proceeded in 40 consecutive patients (80 studies). In the phantom study, a conversion coefficient (CC) was defined based on phantom experiments and applied to the Anger camera and the D-SPECT detector. The HMR was calculated using anterior images with the Anger camera and anterior planograms with D-SPECT. First, the HMR from D-SPECT was cross-calibrated to the Anger camera, and then, the HMR from both cameras were converted to the medium-energy general-purpose collimator condition (CC 0.88; ME88 condition). The relationship between HMR and corrected and uncorrected methods was examined. A 123I-MIBG washout rate was calculated using both methods with and without background subtraction. Results Based on the phantom experiments, the CC of the Anger camera with an LEHR collimator and of D-SPECT using an anterior planogram was 0.55 and 0.63, respectively. The original HMR from the Anger camera and D-SPECT was 1.76 ± 0.42 and 1.86 ± 0.55, respectively (p < 0.0001). After D-SPECT HMR was converted to the Anger camera condition, the corrected D-SPECT HMR became comparable to the values under the Anger camera condition (1.75 ± 0.48, p = n. s.). When the HMR measured using the two cameras were converted under the ME88 condition, the average standardized HMR from the Anger camera and D-SPECT became comparable (2.21 ± 0.65 vs. 2.20 ± 0.75, p = n. s.). After standardization to the ME88 condition, a systematic difference in the linear regression lines disappeared, and the HMR from both the Anger (StdHMRAnger) and D-SPECT (StdHMRDSPECT) became comparable. Additional correction using a regression line further improved the relationship between both HMR [StdHMRDSPECT = 0.09 + 0.98 × StdHMRAnger (R 2 = 0.91)]. The washout rate closely correlated with and without background correction between both methods (R 2 = 0.83 and 0.65, respectively). Conclusion The phantom-based conversion method is applicable to D-SPECT and enables the common application of HMR irrespective of D-SPECT and the Anger camera.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1191-2
  • Comparison of Bayesian penalized likelihood reconstruction versus OS-EM
           for characterization of small pulmonary nodules in oncologic PET/CT
    • Authors: Brandon A. Howard; Rustain Morgan; Matthew P. Thorpe; Timothy G. Turkington; Jorge Oldan; Olga G. James; Salvador Borges-Neto
      Abstract: Objective To determine whether the recently introduced Bayesian penalized likelihood PET reconstruction (Q.Clear) increases the visual conspicuity and SUVmax of small pulmonary nodules near the PET resolution limit, relative to ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM). Methods In this institutional review board-approved and HIPAA-compliant study, 29 FDG PET/CT scans performed on a five-ring GE Discovery IQ were retrospectively selected for pulmonary nodules described in the radiologist’s report as “too small to characterize”, or small lung nodules in patients at high risk for lung cancer. Thirty-two pulmonary nodules were assessed, with mean CT diameter of 8 mm (range 2–18). PET images were reconstructed with OS-EM and Q.Clear with noise penalty strength β values of 150, 250, and 350. Lesion visual conspicuity was scored by three readers on a 3-point scale, and lesion SUVmax and background liver and blood pool SUVmean and SUVstdev were recorded. Comparison was made by linear mixed model with modified Bonferroni post hoc testing; significance cutoff was p < 0.05. Results Q.Clear improved lesion visual conspicuity compared to OS-EM at β = 150 (p < 0.01), but not 250 or 350. Lesion SUVmax was increased compared to OS-EM at β = 150 and 250 (p < 0.01), but not 350. Conclusion In a cohort of small pulmonary nodules with size near an 8 mm PET full-width half maximum, Q.Clear significantly increased lesion visual conspicuity and SUVmax compared to our standard non- time-of-flight OS-EM reconstruction, but only with low noise penalization. Q.Clear with β = 150 may be advantageous when evaluation of small pulmonary nodules is of primary concern.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1192-1
  • Early stimulated thyroglobulin for response prediction after recombinant
           human thyrotropin-aided radioiodine therapy
    • Authors: Hee Jeong Park; Jung-Joon Min; Hee-Seung Bom; Jahae Kim; Ho-Chun Song; Seong Young Kwon
      Abstract: Objective Measurement of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH)-stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) is generally recommended 72 h after the second rhTSH injection. However, due to the acute effect of I-131 on thyrocytes, Tg measured after radioiodine therapy (RIT) would not accurately reflect the thyroid tissue burden. We aimed to determine predictive values of serum Tg level measured just before rhTSH-aided RIT and to compare the results obtained just after RIT in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods We evaluated 150 patients with DTC who underwent rhTSH-aided RIT (2.96–6.66 GBq) after total thyroidectomy between 2009 and 2014. Serum Tg level was measured 24 h (early Tg) and 72 (or 96) h (delayed Tg) after the second rhTSH injection. An excellent response was defined based on the latest American Thyroid Association Guidelines. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for early Tg, delayed Tg, and other clinical variables. Results In the multivariate analysis, tumor size [odds ratio (OR) 1.716; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.019–2.882; p = 0.042] and early Tg level (OR 2.012; 95% CI 1.384–2.925, p < 0.001) independently predicted excellent responses. The cutoff for the best early Tg level to predict a non-excellent response was 2.0 ng/mL. Delayed Tg was not a significant predictor (OR 0.992; 95% CI 0.969–1.015; p = 0.492). Conclusions Early stimulated Tg significantly predicted therapeutic response after rhTSH-aided RIT in patients with DTC. Therefore, serum Tg should be measured before RIT to predict therapeutic responses.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1190-3
  • High FDG uptake on PET is associated with negative cell-to-cell adhesion
           molecule E-cadherin expression in lung adenocarcinoma
    • Authors: Kotaro Higashi; Yoshimichi Ueda; Miyako Shimasaki; Yasuhito Ishigaki; Yuka Nakamura; Manabu Oguchi; Tsutomu Takegami; Naoto Watanabe
      Abstract: Objectives E-cadherin is a main cell-to-cell adhesion molecule. A negative expression of E-cadherin correlates with distant metastasis in lung cancer. Recently, it was reported that there is an association between FDG uptake on PET and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in non-small cell lung cancer. Downregulation of E-cadherin is one of the best markers of EMT. The purpose of this study was to compare E-cadherin expression with FDG uptake on PET, cell differentiation, aggressiveness and post-operative recurrence in patients with lung adenocarcinoma, and to investigate whether FDG uptake on PET is associated with E-cadherin expression. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 40 lung adenocarcinoma patients who underwent thoracotomy and FDG PET before thoracotomy. These patients were evaluated FDG PET metrics such as standardized uptake value (SUV), the immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin in surgical specimens, clinicopathological features, including tumor size, pathologic stage, cell differentiation, aggressiveness and post-operative recurrence. Results High FDG uptake correlated with negative E-cadherin expression (P = 0.043). SUVmax was higher in a negative E-cadherin expression lung adenocarcinoma than in a positive E-cadherin expression lung adenocarcinoma (P = 0.033). Patients with moderately poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma had frequent negative E-cadherin expression or high FDG uptake (P = 0.004, P = 0.0001, respectively). Patients with aggressive adenocarcinoma had frequent negative E-cadherin expression or high FDG uptake (P = 0.004, P = 0.001, respectively). Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that negative E-cadherin expression or high FDG uptake were strongly correlated with shortened disease-free survival (P = 0.0153, P = 0.0001, respectively). Conclusion High FDG uptake on PET was associated with negative E-cadherin expression in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Both high FDG uptake and negative E-cadherin expression were strongly correlated with poor differentiation, aggressiveness, and post-operative recurrence. These findings may cause the association between high FDG uptake and negative E-cadherin expression.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1187-y
  • I-131 biokinetics of remnant normal thyroid tissue and residual thyroid
           cancer in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: comparison between
           recombinant human TSH administration and thyroid hormone withdrawal
    • Authors: Chae Moon Hong; Choon-Young Kim; Seung Hyun Son; Ji-hoon Jung; Chang-Hee Lee; Ju Hye Jeong; Shin Young Jeong; Sang-Woo Lee; Jaetae Lee; Byeong-Cheol Ahn
      Abstract: Objective The aim of this study was to assess I-131 biokinetics in thyroid cancer and remnant tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer using whole-body scan (WBS) and SPECT images acquired after I-131 therapy. The influence of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation method on the kinetics was also evaluated. Methods A total of 57 patients who received I-131 therapy (2.96–7.4 GBq) were retrospectively included. TSH stimulation was achieved by recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) or by thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). Each patient received three sequential WBSs on days 1, 2, and 4 (or 5) after I-131 administration. All lesions were classified either as thyroid remnant (ThyR) or as metastatic lymph nodes (mLN) after considering the SPECT/CT images acquired during the last WBS. The lesion-based retention rate and absorbed dose of ThyR and mLN were calculated using a commercial dosimetric toolkit combined with the OLINDA software. Results The retention rate and the effective half-time of mLN were lower than that of ThyR (p < 0.001, p = 0.003). In addition, the retention rate and the effective half-time of ThyR in the rhTSH group were higher than those in the THW group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). The differences in the retention rate and the effective half-time of mLN were not statistically significant between the THW group and rhTSH group (p = 0.549, p = 0.571). Conclusions Radioiodine therapy using rhTSH delivered an at least similar radiation dose to target lesions compared to using THW in thyroid remnants and metastatic lymph nodes.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1188-x
  • Effect of resolution recovery using graph plots on regional cerebral blood
           flow in healthy volunteers
    • Authors: Nobuhiro Yada; Hideo Onishi; Masahiro Miyai; Kentarou Ozasa; Takashi Katsube; Keiichi Onoda; Masuo Haramoto; Yasushi Yamamoto; Shuhei Yamaguchi; Hajime Kitagaki
      Abstract: Purpose We evaluated the effect of resolution recovery (RR) using graph plots on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images derived from healthy volunteers and patients diagnosed with probable Alzheimer’s disease. Method We acquired brain perfusion SPECT images with scatter correction (SC), computed tomography-based attenuation correction (CTAC), and RR from a three-dimensional brain phantom and from healthy volunteers. We then compared contrast-to-noise ratio, count density ratios, increase maps, and rCBF using statistical parametric mapping 8. Results Regional brain counts were significantly increased from 20–24% with SC, CTAC, and RR compared with SC and CTAC. Mean CBF in healthy volunteers was 42.5 ± 5.4 mL/100 g/min. Average rCBF determined using SC, CTAC and RR increased 7.5, 2.0, and 3.7% at the thalamus, posterior cingulate, and whole brain, respectively, compared with SC and CTAC. Conclusion Resolution recovery caused variations in normal rCBF because counts increased in cerebral regions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1186-z
  • Textural features of 18 F-FDG PET after two cycles of neoadjuvant
           chemotherapy can predict pCR in patients with locally advanced breast
    • Authors: Lin Cheng; Jianping Zhang; Yujie Wang; Xiaoli Xu; Yongping Zhang; Yingjian Zhang; Guangyu Liu; Jingyi Cheng
      Abstract: Objective This study was designed to evaluate the utility of textural features for predicting pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Methods Sixty-one consecutive patients with locally advanced breast cancer underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scanning at baseline and after the second course of NAC. Changes to imaging parameters [maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG)] and textural features (entropy, coarseness, skewness) between the 2 scans were measured by two independent radiologists. Pathological responses were reviewed by one pathologist, and the significance of the predictive value of each parameter was analyzed using a Chi-squared test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to compare the area under the curve (AUC) for each parameter. Results pCR was observed more often in patients with HER2-positive tumors (22 patients) than in patients with HER2-negative tumors (5 patients) (71.0 vs. 16.7%, p < 0.001). ∆ %SUVmax, ∆ %entropy and ∆ %coarseness were significantly useful for differentiating pCR from non-pCR in the HER2-negative group, and the AUCs for these parameters were 0.928, 0.808 and 0.800, respectively (p = 0.003, 0.032 and 0.037). In the HER2-positive group, ∆ %SUVmax and ∆ %skewness were moderately useful for predicting pCR, and the respective AUCs were 0.747 and 0.758 (p = 0.033 and 0.026). Although there was no significant difference in the AUCs between groups for these parameters, an additional 3/22 patients in the HER2-positive group with pCR were identified when ∆ %skewness and ∆ %SUVmax were considered together (p = 0.031). The absolute values for each parameter before NAC and after 2 cycles cannot predict pCR in our patients. Neither ∆ %MTV nor ∆ %TLG was efficiently predictive of pCR in any group. Conclusions The early changes in the textural features of 18F-FDG PET images after two cycles of NAC are predictive of pCR in both HER2-negative and HER2-positive patients; this evidence warrants confirmation by further research.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1184-1
  • A comparison of five partial volume correction methods for Tau and Amyloid
           PET imaging with [ 18 F]THK5351 and [ 11 C]PIB
    • Authors: Miho Shidahara; Benjamin A. Thomas; Nobuyuki Okamura; Masanobu Ibaraki; Keisuke Matsubara; Senri Oyama; Yoichi Ishikawa; Shoichi Watanuki; Ren Iwata; Shozo Furumoto; Manabu Tashiro; Kazuhiko Yanai; Kohsuke Gonda; Hiroshi Watabe
      Abstract: Purpose To suppress partial volume effect (PVE) in brain PET, there have been many algorithms proposed. However, each methodology has different property due to its assumption and algorithms. Our aim of this study was to investigate the difference among partial volume correction (PVC) method for tau and amyloid PET study. Methods We investigated two of the most commonly used PVC methods, Müller-Gärtner (MG) and geometric transfer matrix (GTM) and also other three methods for clinical tau and amyloid PET imaging. One healthy control (HC) and one Alzheimer’s disease (AD) PET studies of both [18F]THK5351 and [11C]PIB were performed using a Eminence STARGATE scanner (Shimadzu Inc., Kyoto, Japan). All PET images were corrected for PVE by MG, GTM, Labbé (LABBE), Regional voxel-based (RBV), and Iterative Yang (IY) methods, with segmented or parcellated anatomical information processed by FreeSurfer, derived from individual MR images. PVC results of 5 algorithms were compared with the uncorrected data. Results In regions of high uptake of [18F]THK5351 and [11C]PIB, different PVCs demonstrated different SUVRs. The degree of difference between PVE uncorrected and corrected depends on not only PVC algorithm but also type of tracer and subject condition. Conclusion Presented PVC methods are straight-forward to implement but the corrected images require careful interpretation as different methods result in different levels of recovery.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1185-0
  • 18 F-fluorothymidine PET imaging in gliomas: an update
    • Authors: Alexandra Nikaki; George Angelidis; Roxani Efthimiadou; Ioannis Tsougos; Varvara Valotassiou; Konstantinos Fountas; Vasileios Prasopoulos; Panagiotis Georgoulias
      Abstract: Brain neoplasms constitute a group of tumors with discrete differentiation grades, and therefore, course of disease and prognosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the gold standard method for the investigation of central nervous system tumors. However, MRI suffers certain limitations, especially if radiation therapy or chemotherapy has been previously applied. On the other hand, given the development of newer radiopharmaceuticals, positron emission tomography (PET) aims to a better investigation of brain tumors, assisting in the clinical management of the patients. In the present review, the potential contribution of radiolabeled fluorothymidine (FLT) imaging for the evaluation of brain tumors will be discussed. In particular, we will present the role of FLT-PET imaging in the depiction of well and poorly differentiated lesions, the assessment of patient prognosis and treatment response, and the recognition of disease recurrence. Moreover, related semi-quantitative and kinetic parameters will be discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1183-2
  • Erratum to: Comparative evaluation of the algorithms for parametric
           mapping of the novel myocardial PET imaging agent 18 F-FPTP
    • Authors: Ji Who Kim; Seongho Seo; Hyeon Sik Kim; Dong-Yeon Kim; Ho-Young Lee; Keon Wook Kang; Dong Soo Lee; Hee-Seung Bom; Jung-Joon Min; Jae Sung Lee
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1179-y
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