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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Annals of Nuclear Medicine
  [SJR: 0.68]   [H-I: 45]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1864-6433 - ISSN (Online) 0914-7187
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • [ 18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ PET study in a lactacystin-treated rat model of
           Parkinson disease
    • Authors: Chi-Chang Weng; Siao-Lan Huang; Zi-An Chen; Kun-Ju Lin; Ing-Tsung Hsiao; Tzu-Chen Yen; Mei-Ping Kung; Shiaw-Pyng Wey; Ching-Han Hsu
      Pages: 506 - 513
      Abstract: Objective Lactacystin has been used to establish rodent models of Parkinson disease (PD), with cerebral α-synuclein inclusions. This study evaluated the uptake of [18F]9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([18F]FP-(+)-DTBZ), a vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2)-targeting radiotracer, through positron emission tomography (PET) in lactacystin-treated rat brains. Methods Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly treated with a single intracranial dose of lactacystin (2 or 5 μg) or saline (served as the sham control) into the left medial forebrain bundle. A 30-min static [18F]FP-(+)-DTBZ brain PET scan was performed following an intravenous [18F]FP-(+)-DTBZ dose (approximately 22 MBq) in each animal at 2 and 3 weeks after lactacystin treatment. Upon completing the last PET scans, the animals were killed, and their brains were dissected for ex vivo autoradiography (ARG) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) as well as VMAT2. Results Both the 2- and 5-μg lactacystin-treated groups exhibited significantly decreased specific [18F]FP-(+)-DTBZ uptake in the ipsilateral striata (I-ST) at 2 weeks (1.51 and 1.16, respectively) and 3 weeks (1.36 and 1.00, respectively) after lactacystin treatment, compared with the uptake in the corresponding contralateral striata (C-ST) (3.48 and 3.08 for the 2- and 5-μg lactacystin-treated groups, respectively, at 2 weeks; 3.36 and 3.11 for the 2- and 5-μg lactacystin-treated groups, respectively, at 3 weeks) and the sham controls (3.34–3.53). Lactacystin-induced decline in I-ST [18F]FP-(+)-DTBZ uptake was also demonstrated through ex vivo ARG, and the corresponding dopaminergic neuron damage was confirmed by the results of TH- and VMAT2-IHC studies. Conclusions In this PD model, lactacystin-induced dopaminergic terminal damage in the ipsilateral striatum could be clearly visualized through in vivo [18F]FP-(+)-DTBZ PET imaging. This may serve as a useful approach for evaluating the effectiveness of new treatments for PD.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1174-3
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7 (2017)
  • FDG-PET/CT predicts survival and lung metastasis of hypopharyngeal cancer
           in a multi-institutional retrospective study
    • Authors: Hidenori Suzuki; Katsuhiko Kato; Masami Nishio; Tsuneo Tamaki; Yasushi Fujimoto; Mariko Hiramatsu; Nobuhiro Hanai; Takeshi Kodaira; Yoshiyuki Itoh; Shinji Naganawa; Michihiko Sone; Yasuhisa Hasegawa
      Pages: 514 - 520
      Abstract: Objectives We investigated a possible correlation between the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), which is assessed by pretreatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography, and the overall survival (OS) in patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma from two institutions on long-term follow-up, and examined whether SUVmax is correlated with several survival outcomes, including lung metastasis-free survival. Methods A total of 81 patients were enrolled. The survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan–Meier method. Both univariate and multivariate survival analyses were assessed by a Cox proportional hazards model. Results SUVmax ≥15.2 in institution A (p = 0.0306) or SUVmax ≥8 in institution B (p = 0.0132) was significantly predictor of a lower OS. We disaggregated the data by high SUVmax (SUVmax ≥15.2 from institution A and SUVmax ≥8 from institution B) and low SUVmax (SUVmax <15.2 from institution A and SUVmax <8 from institution B). Patients with a high SUVmax exhibited a significantly lower OS in both univariate (p = 0.001) and multivariate (p = 0.0046) analyses for adjusted for the clinical stage and treatment group. The patients with a high SUVmax exhibited significantly shorter disease-specific (p = 0.0068), distant metastasis-free (p = 0.0428), and lung metastasis-free (p = 0.0328) survivals. Conclusions High SUVmax was significantly correlated with a lower OS, disease-specific survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and lung metastasis-free survival in a multi-institutional retrospective study.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1176-1
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7 (2017)
  • Diagnostic performance of a computer-assisted diagnosis system for bone
           scintigraphy of newly developed skeletal metastasis in prostate cancer
           patients: search for low-sensitivity subgroups
    • Authors: Mitsuru Koizumi; Kazuki Motegi; Masamichi Koyama; Takashi Terauchi; Takeshi Yuasa; Junji Yonese
      Pages: 521 - 528
      Abstract: Purpose The computer-assisted diagnostic system for bone scintigraphy (BS) BONENAVI is used to evaluate skeletal metastasis. We investigated its diagnostic performance in prostate cancer patients with and without skeletal metastasis and searched for the problems. Methods An artificial neural network (ANN) value was calculated in 226 prostate cancer patients (124 with skeletal metastasis and 101 without) using BS. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed and the sensitivity and specificity determined (cutoff ANN = 0.5). Patient’s situation at the time of diagnosis of skeletal metastasis, computed tomography (CT) type, extent of disease (EOD), and BS uptake grade were analyzed. False-negative and false-positive results were recorded. Results BONENAVI showed 82% (102/124) of sensitivity and 83% (84/101) specificity for metastasis detection. There were no significant differences among CT types, although low EOD and faint BS uptake were associated with low ANN values and low sensitivity. Patients showed lower sensitivity during the follow-up period than staging work-up. False-negative lesions were often located in the pelvis or adjacent to it. They comprised not only solitary, faint BS lesions but also overlaying to urinary excretion. Conclusions BONENAVI with BS has good sensitivity and specificity for detecting prostate cancer’s osseous metastasis. Low EOD and faint BS uptake are associated with low sensitivity but not the CT type. Prostate cancer patients likely to have false-negative results during the follow-up period had a solitary lesion in the pelvis with faint BS uptake or lesions overlaying to urinary excretion.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1175-2
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7 (2017)
  • Characteristics of single- and dual-photopeak energy window acquisitions
           with thallium-201 IQ-SPECT/CT system
    • Authors: Takayuki Shibutani; Masahisa Onoguchi; Hiroto Yoneyama; Takahiro Konishi; Shinro Matsuo; Kenichi Nakajima; Seigo Kinuya
      Pages: 529 - 535
      Abstract: Objectives Although dual-energy (DE) acquisition with conventional 201Tl myocardial perfusion SPECT has several advantages such as improved attenuation of the inferior wall and increased acquisition counts, the characteristics of IQ-SPECT have not been fully evaluated. We evaluate the difference of characteristics between single-energy (SE) and dual-energy (DE) imaging using 201Tl myocardial IQ-SPECT. Methods Two myocardial phantoms were created simulating normal myocardium and infarction of the inferior wall. Energy windows were set at 70 keV ± 10% for SE, and an additional 167 keV ± 7.5% for DE. SPECT images were reconstructed using the ordered subset conjugates gradient minimizer (OSCGM) method. We visually and quantitatively compared short-axis images of correction for no (NC), for attenuation (AC) or for both AC and scatter (ACSC) images. Results The average counts of SE and DE projection data were 17.5 and 20.3 counts/pixel, respectively. The DE data increased acquisition counts by approximately 16% compared with the SE data. The average visual score of normal myocardium did not differ significantly between the SE and DE images. However, the DE image of defective myocardium showed a significantly lower score in AC than SE images. The % uptake values of DE image with both NC and AC were significantly higher than those of SE images. The DE images of the inferior defective areas (segments 4 and 10) showed approximately 5–10% higher uptake compared with the SE images. Conclusion The DE image with NC improved attenuation of the inferior wall. However, DE image with AC showed low defect detectability. Thus, AC should be used with SE rather than DE. Furthermore, while the SE image with ACSC can be used to detect perfusion defects, it must be interpreted carefully including the possibility of artificial inhomogeneity even in the normal myocardium.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1177-0
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7 (2017)
  • Validation of the cingulate island sign with optimized ratios for
           discriminating dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer’s disease using
           brain perfusion SPECT
    • Authors: Etsuko Imabayashi; Tsutomu Soma; Daichi Sone; Tadashi Tsukamoto; Yukio Kimura; Noriko Sato; Miho Murata; Hiroshi Matsuda
      Pages: 536 - 543
      Abstract: Objective Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is often cited as the second most common dementia after Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is clinically important to distinguish DLB from AD because specific side effects of antipsychotic drugs are limited to DLB. The relative preservation of cingulate glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyri versus that in the precuni, known as the cingulate island sign (CIS), in patients with DLB compared with AD is supposed to be highly specific for diagnosing DLB. In a previous study, using brain perfusion SPECT, the largest value (0.873) for the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for differentiating DLB from AD was obtained with the ratio of the posterior cingulate gyri from an early Alzheimer’s disease-specific hypoperfusion volume of interest (VOI) versus the medial occipital lobe. Two purposes of this study are as follows: one is optimization of VOI setting for calculating CIS values and the other is to evaluate their accuracy and simultaneously to retest the method described in our previous paper. Methods We conducted a retest of this SPECT method with another cohort of 13 patients with DLB and 13 patients with AD. Furthermore, we optimized VOIs using contrast images obtained from group comparisons of DLB and normal controls; the same 18 patients with DLB and 18 normal controls examined in our previous study. We obtained DLB-specific VOIs from areas where brain perfusion was significantly decreased in DLB. As the numerators of these ratios, early Alzheimer’s disease-specific VOIs were used after subtracting DLB-specific VOIs. The DLB-specific VOIs were used as the denominator. Results In retest, the obtained AUC was 0.858 and the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 84.6, 84.6, and 84.6%, respectively. The ROC curve analysis with these optimized VOIs yielded a higher AUC of 0.882; and the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of these new CIS ratios were 84.6, 92.3, and 76.9%, respectively, with a threshold value of 0.281. Conclusion Optimized CISs using brain perfusion SPECT are clinically useful for differentiating DLB from AD.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1181-4
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7 (2017)
  • Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of quantitative analysis for
           FP-CIT SPECT in patients with DLB
    • Authors: Atsutaka Okizaki; Michihiro Nakayama; Kaori Nakajima; Takayuki Katayama; Takahiro Uno; Fumiyoshi Morikawa; Juichiro Naoe; Koji Takahashi
      Abstract: Background Dopamine transporter single photon emission CT (DAT-SPECT) is useful in the evaluation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The specific binding ratio (SBR) is an index to measure DAT density. However, poorly reproducible cases are occasionally experienced in clinical practice. We hypothesized that distance-weighted histogram (DWH) may be useful to improve the reproducibility of SBR. The purpose of this study was to investigate inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of SBR with conventional and DWH methods, and to visually evaluate the precision in reference voxel of interest (VOI) definition using these methods. Methods This study included 50 adult patients with probable DLB. They underwent brain MRI, DAT-SPECT, and cerebral blood flow SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP). SBR of the striatum was calculated using conventional and DWH method. For inter-observer reproducibility validation, conventional and DWH SBR were independently evaluated by experienced nuclear medicine physicians; these measurements were repeated by the nuclear medicine physician to investigate intra-observer reproducibility. Results Proper reference VOI definition was achieved in 60.0% using conventional SBR and in 98.0% with DWH SBR. Both conventional and DWH SBR demonstrated good inter- and intra-observer reproducibility, however, there were statistically significant inter- and intra-observer variations with conventional SBR measurements. Average inter- and intra-observer errors of conventional SBR were 7.9 and 6.1%, respectively. Conversely, DWH SBR errors were not observed in all patients. Moreover, average inter- and intra-observer errors were significantly higher in conventional SBR with improper reference VOI definition than in that with proper reference VOI definition. Conclusions Although the reproducibility of conventional and DWH SBR was good, inter- and intra-observer bias could not be ignored in conventional SBR, particularly with improper reference VOI definition. Thus, DWH may be useful to improve inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of SBR.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1209-9
  • Assessment of intratumor heterogeneity in mesenchymal uterine tumor by an
           18 F-FDG PET/CT texture analysis
    • Authors: Tetsuya Tsujikawa; Makoto Yamamoto; Kunihiro Shono; Shizuka Yamada; Hideaki Tsuyoshi; Yasushi Kiyono; Hirohiko Kimura; Hidehiko Okazawa; Yoshio Yoshida
      Abstract: Objective The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical significance of 18F-FDG PET/CT textural features for discriminating uterine sarcoma from leiomyoma. Methods Fifty-five patients with suspected uterine sarcoma based on ultrasound and MRI findings who underwent pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT were included. Fifteen patients were histopathologically proven to have uterine sarcoma, 14 patients by surgical operation and one by biopsy, and 40 patients were diagnosed with leiomyoma by surgical operation or in a follow-up for at least 2 years. A texture analysis was performed on PET/CT images from which second- and higher order textural features were extracted in addition to standardized uptake values (SUVs) and other first-order features. The accuracy of PET features for differentiating between uterine sarcoma and leiomyoma was evaluated using a receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results The intratumor distribution of 18F-FDG was more heterogeneous in uterine sarcoma than in leiomyoma. Entropy, correlation, and uniformity calculated from normalized gray-level co-occurrence matrices and SUV standard deviation derived from histogram statistics showed greater area under the ROC curves (AUCs) than did maximum SUV for differentiating between sarcoma and leiomyoma. Entropy, as a single feature, yielded the greatest AUC of 0.974 and the optimal cut-off value of 2.85 for entropy provided 93% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 92% accuracy. When combining conventional features with textural ones, maximum SUV (cutoff: 6.0) combined with entropy (2.85) and correlation (0.73) provided the best diagnostic performance (100% sensitivity, 94% specificity, and 95% accuracy). Conclusions In combination with the conventional histogram statistics and/or volumetric parameters, 18F-FDG PET/CT textural features reflecting intratumor metabolic heterogeneity are useful for differentiating between uterine sarcoma and leiomyoma.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1208-x
  • Relationships between serum PSA levels, Gleason scores and results of
           68Ga-PSMAPET/CT in patients with recurrent prostate cancer
    • Authors: Yasemin Sanli; Serkan Kuyumcu; Oner Sanli; Fikret Buyukkaya; Ayça İribaş; Goksel Alcin; Emin Darendeliler; Yasemin Ozluk; Sevda Ozel Yildiz; Cüneyt Turkmen
      Abstract: Aim To investigate the relationship between serum PSA level, Gleason score of PCa and the outcomes of Ga68-PSMA PET/CT in patients with recurrent PCa. Methods A total of 109 consecutive patients (median age 71 years; range 48–89 years) who had PSA recurrence after RP and/or hormonotherapy and/or radiotherapy were included in this study. Local recurrences, lymph node metastasis (pelvic, abdominal and/or supradiaphragmatic), bone metastases (oligometastatic/multimetastatic) and other metastatic sites (lung, liver, brain, etc) were documented. Results In 91(83.4%) patients at least one lesion characteristic for PCa was detected by68Ga-PSMA PET/CT. The median serum total PSA (tPSA) was 6.5 (0.2–640) ng/ml.There was a significant difference between 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT positive and negative patients in terms of serum total PSA value. No statistical significance was found between positive and negative 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT findings in terms of Gleason score. Local recurrence was detected in 56 patients. whereas lymph node metastases were demonstrated in 46 patients. Pelvic nodal disease was the most frequent presentation followed by abdominal and supradiaphragmaticnodal involvement. Bone metastases [oligometastasis, (n = 20); multimetastasis, (n = 35)⦌ were also detected in 55 patients. In the ROC analysis for the study cohort, the optimal cut-off value of total serum PSA was determined as 0.67 ng/ml for distinguishing between positive and negative 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images, with an area under curve of 0.952 (95% CI 0.911–0.993). Conclusions 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT was found to be an effective tool for the detection of recurrent PCa. Even though no relationship was detected between the GS and 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT findings, serum total PSA values may be used for estimating the likelihood of positive 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT results.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1207-y
  • The effect of short-term treatment with lithium carbonate on the outcome
           of radioiodine therapy in patients with long-lasting Graves’
    • Authors: Vladan Sekulić; Milena Rajić; Marina Vlajković; Slobodan Ilić; Miloš Stević; Marko Kojić
      Abstract: Objective The outcome of radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Graves’ hyperthyroidism (GH) mainly depends on radioiodine (131I) uptake and the effective half-life of 131I in the gland. Studies have shown that lithium carbonate (LiCO3) enhances the 131I half-life and increases the applied thyroid radiation dose without affecting the thyroid 131I uptake. We investigated the effect of short-term treatment with LiCO3 on the outcome of RIT in patients with long-lasting GH, its influence on the thyroid hormones levels 7 days after RIT, and possible side effects. Methods Study prospectively included 30 patients treated with LiCO3 and 131I (RI-Li group) and 30 patients only with 131I (RI group). Treatment with LiCO3 (900 mg/day) started 1 day before RIT and continued 6 days after. Anti-thyroid drugs withdrawal was 7 days before RIT. Patients were followed up for 12 months. We defined a success of RIT as euthyroidism or hypothyroidism, and a failure as persistent hyperthyroidism. Results In RI-Li group, a serum level of Li was 0.571 ± 0.156 mmol/l before RIT. Serum levels of TT4 and FT4 increased while TSH decreased only in RI group 7 days after RIT. No toxic effects were noticed during LiCO3 treatment. After 12 months, a success of RIT was 73.3% in RI and 90.0% in RI-Li group (P < 0.01). Hypothyroidism was achieved faster in RI-Li (1st month) than in RI group (3rd month). Euthyroidism slowly decreased in RI-Li group, and not all patients became hypothyroid for 12 months. In contrast, euthyroidism rapidly declined in RI group, and all cured patients became hypothyroid after 6 months. Conclusion The short-term treatment with LiCO3 as an adjunct to 131I improves efficacy of RIT in patients with long-lasting GH. A success of RIT achieves faster in lithium-treated than in RI group. Treatment with LiCO3 for 7 days prevents transient worsening of hyperthyroidism after RIT. Short-term use of LiCO3 shows no toxic side effects.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1206-z
  • Uptake of AV-1451 in meningiomas
    • Abstract: Aim AV-1451 is an imaging agent labeled with the positron-emitting radiolabel Fluorine-18. 18F-AV-1451 binds paired helical filament tau (PHF-tau), a pathology related to Alzheimer’s disease. In our study of AV-1451 uptake in the brains of cognitively normal subjects, we noted a case of a meningioma with visually significant uptake of AV-1451. Objective We initiated the present retrospective study to further examine cases of meningioma that underwent AV-1451 imaging. Methods We searched the patient records of 650 patients who had undergone AV-1451 at our institution for the keyword “meningioma” to identify potential cases. PET/CT and MRI results were visually reviewed and semi-quantitative analysis of PET was performed. A paired student’s t test was run between background and tumor standard uptake values. Fisher’s exact test was used to examine the association between AV-1451 uptake and presence of calcifications on CT. Results We identified 12 cases of meningioma, 58% (7/12) of which demonstrated uptake greater than background using both visual analysis and tumor-to-normal cortex ratios (T/N + 1.90 ± 0.83). The paired student’s t test revealed no statistically significant difference between background and tumor standard uptake values (p = 0.09); however, cases with a T/N ratio greater than one showed statistically higher uptake in tumor tissue (p = 0.01). A significant association was noted between AV-1451 uptake and presence of calcifications (p = 0.01). Conclusion AV-1451 PET imaging should be reviewed concurrently with anatomic imaging to prevent misleading interpretations of PHF-tau distribution due to meningiomas.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1205-0
  • Textural features and SUV-based variables assessed by dual time point
           18F-FDG PET/CT in locally advanced breast cancer
    • Abstract: Aim To study the influence of dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT in textural features and SUV-based variables and their relation among them. Methods Fifty-six patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) were prospectively included. All of them underwent a standard 18F-FDG PET/CT (PET-1) and a delayed acquisition (PET-2). After segmentation, SUV variables (SUVmax, SUVmean, and SUVpeak), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were obtained. Eighteen three-dimensional (3D) textural measures were computed including: run-length matrices (RLM) features, co-occurrence matrices (CM) features, and energies. Differences between all PET-derived variables obtained in PET-1 and PET-2 were studied. Results Significant differences were found between the SUV-based parameters and MTV obtained in the dual time point PET/CT, with higher values of SUV-based variables and lower MTV in the PET-2 with respect to the PET-1. In relation with the textural parameters obtained in dual time point acquisition, significant differences were found for the short run emphasis, low gray-level run emphasis, short run high gray-level emphasis, run percentage, long run emphasis, gray-level non-uniformity, homogeneity, and dissimilarity. Textural variables showed relations with MTV and TLG. Conclusion Significant differences of textural features were found in dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT. Thus, a dynamic behavior of metabolic characteristics should be expected, with higher heterogeneity in delayed PET acquisition compared with the standard PET. A greater heterogeneity was found in bigger tumors.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1203-2
  • Effects of chronic kidney disease on myocardial washout rate of
           thallium-201 in patients with normal myocardial perfusion on single photon
           emission computed tomography
    • Authors: Satoshi Kurisu; Yoji Sumimoto; Hiroki Ikenaga; Ken Ishibashi; Yukihiro Fukuda; Yasuki Kihara
      Abstract: Background Myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is often performed even in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed the effects of CKD on myocardial washout rate (WR) of thallium (Tl)-201 in patients with normal myocardial perfusion on SPECT. Methods Two hundred and fifty-six patients with normal myocardial perfusion were enrolled in this study. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Patients with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 were assigned to a control group. The mean myocardial WR of Tl-201 was calculated from the stress and the redistribution Bull’s eye maps. Results With progressive CKD stages, systolic blood pressure and incindence of hypertension were increased. All patients in CKD stage 5 group were being treated with hemodialysis. Myocardial WR of Tl-201 was significantly higher in all of the CKD groups than control group. With progressive CKD stages, myocardial WR of Tl-201 was increased (stage 3, 52.2 ± 9.2%; stage 4, 55.5 ± 8.1%; and stage 5, 58.9 ± 5.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that hemoglobin (β = −0.24, p < 0.001) and eGFR (β = −0.24, p = 0.002) were the major determinants of myocardial WR of Tl-201, but hemodialysis was not. Conclusions Our data suggest that CKD is associated with increased myocardial WR of Tl-201 in patients with normal perfusion on SPECT.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1204-1
  • Bone metastases from breast cancer: associations between morphologic CT
           patterns and glycolytic activity on PET and bone scintigraphy as well as
           explorative search for influential factors
    • Authors: Tsutomu Sugihara; Mitsuru Koizumi; Masamichi Koyama; Takashi Terauchi; Naoya Gomi; Yoshinori Ito; Kiyohiko Hatake; Naohiro Sata
      Abstract: Background This study aimed to compare the detection of bone metastases from breast cancer on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and bone scintigraphy (BS). An explorative search for factors influencing the sensitivity or uptake of BS and FDG-PET was also performed. Methods Eighty-eight patients with bone metastases from breast cancer were eligible for this study. Histological confirmation of bone metastases was obtained in 31 patients. The bone metastases were visually classified into four types based on their computed tomography (CT) appearance: osteoblastic, osteolytic, mixed, and negative. The sensitivity of BS and FDG-PET were obtained regarding CT type, adjuvant therapy, and the primary tumor characteristics. The FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was analyzed. Results The sensitivities of the three modalities (CT, BS, and FDG-PET) were 77, 89, and 94%, respectively. The sensitivity of FDG-PET for the osteoblastic type (69%) was significantly lower than that for the other types (P < 0.001), and the sensitivity of BS for the negative type (70%) was significantly lower than that for the others. Regarding tumor characteristics, the sensitivity of FDG-PET significantly differed between nuclear grade (NG)1 and NG2–3 (P = 0.032). The SUVmax of the osteoblastic type was significantly lower than that of the other types (P = 0.009). The SUVmax of NG1 was also significantly lower than that of NG2–3 (P = 0.011). No significant difference in FDG uptake (SUVmax) was detected between different histological types. Conclusion Although FDG-PET is superior to BS for the detection of bone metastases from breast cancer, this technique has limitations in depicting osteoblastic bone metastases and NG1.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1202-3
  • Patterns of uptake of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted
           18 F-DCFPyL in peripheral ganglia
    • Authors: Rudolf A. Werner; Sara Sheikhbahaei; Krystyna M. Jones; Mehrbod S. Javadi; Lilja B. Solnes; Ashley E. Ross; Mohamad E. Allaf; Kenneth J. Pienta; Constantin Lapa; Andreas K. Buck; Takahiro Higuchi; Martin G. Pomper; Michael A. Gorin; Steven P. Rowe
      Abstract: Objective Radiotracers targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have increasingly been recognized as showing uptake in a number of normal structures, anatomic variants, and non-prostate-cancer pathologies. We aimed to explore the frequency and degree of uptake in peripheral ganglia in patients undergoing PET with the PSMA-targeted agent 18F-DCFPyL. Methods A total of 98 patients who underwent 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT imaging were retrospectively analyzed. This included 76 men with prostate cancer (PCa) and 22 patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC; 13 men, 9 women). Scans were evaluated for uptake in the cervical, stellate, celiac, lumbar and sacral ganglia. Maximum standardized uptake value corrected to body weight (SUVmax), and maximum standardized uptake value corrected to lean body mass (SULmax) were recorded for all ganglia with visible uptake above background. Ganglia-to-background ratios were calculated by dividing the SUVmax and SULmax values by the mean uptake in the ascending aorta (Aortamean) and the right gluteus muscle (Gluteusmean). Results Overall, 95 of 98 (96.9%) patients demonstrated uptake in at least one of the evaluated peripheral ganglia. With regard to the PCa cohort, the most frequent sites of radiotracer accumulation were lumbar ganglia (55/76, 72.4%), followed by the cervical ganglia (51/76, 67.1%). Bilateral uptake was found in the majority of cases [lumbar 44/55 (80%) and cervical 30/51 (58.8%)]. Additionally, discernible radiotracer uptake was recorded in 50/76 (65.8%) of the analyzed stellate ganglia and in 45/76 (59.2%) of the celiac ganglia, whereas only 5/76 (6.6%) of the sacral ganglia demonstrated 18F-DCFPyL accumulation. Similar findings were observed for patients with RCC, with the most frequent locations of radiotracer uptake in both the lumbar (20/22, 90.9%) and cervical ganglia (19/22, 86.4%). No laterality preference was found in mean PSMA-ligand uptake for either the PCa or RCC cohorts. Conclusion As PSMA-targeted agents become more widely disseminated, the patterns of uptake in structures that are not directly relevant to patients’ cancers must be understood. This is the first systematic evaluation of the uptake of 18F-DCFPyL in ganglia demonstrating a general trend with a descending frequency of radiotracer accumulation in lumbar, cervical, stellate, celiac, and sacral ganglia. The underlying biology that leads to variability of PSMA-targeted radiotracers in peripheral ganglia is not currently understood, but may provide opportunities for future research.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1201-4
  • 18 F-FDG PET radiomics approaches: comparing and clustering features in
           cervical cancer
    • Authors: Tetsuya Tsujikawa; Tasmiah Rahman; Makoto Yamamoto; Shizuka Yamada; Hideaki Tsuyoshi; Yasushi Kiyono; Hirohiko Kimura; Yoshio Yoshida; Hidehiko Okazawa
      Abstract: Objectives The aims of our study were to find the textural features on 18F-FDG PET/CT which reflect the different histological architectures between cervical cancer subtypes and to make a visual assessment of the association between 18F-FDG PET textural features in cervical cancer. Methods Eighty-three cervical cancer patients [62 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 21 non-SCCs (NSCCs)] who had undergone pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT were enrolled. A texture analysis was performed on PET/CT images, from which 18 PET radiomics features were extracted including first-order features such as standardized uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), second- and high-order textural features using SUV histogram, normalized gray-level co-occurrence matrix (NGLCM), and neighborhood gray-tone difference matrix, respectively. These features were compared between SCC and NSCC using a Bonferroni adjusted P value threshold of 0.0028 (0.05/18). To assess the association between PET features, a heat map analysis with hierarchical clustering, one of the radiomics approaches, was performed. Results Among 18 PET features, correlation, a second-order textural feature derived from NGLCM, was a stable parameter and it was the only feature which showed a robust trend toward significant difference between SCC and NSCC. Cervical SCC showed a higher correlation (0.70 ± 0.07) than NSCC (0.64 ± 0.07, P = 0.0030). The other PET features did not show any significant differences between SCC and NSCC. A higher correlation in SCC might reflect higher structural integrity and stronger spatial/linear relationship of cancer cells compared with NSCC. A heat map with a PET feature dendrogram clearly showed 5 distinct clusters, where correlation belonged to a cluster including MTV and TLG. However, the association between correlation and MTV/TLG was not strong. Correlation was a relatively independent PET feature in cervical cancer. Conclusions 18F-FDG PET textural features might reflect the differences in histological architecture between cervical cancer subtypes. PET radiomics approaches reveal the association between PET features and will be useful for finding a single feature or a combination of features leading to precise diagnoses, potential prognostic models, and effective therapeutic strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1199-7
  • Comparison of image quality between step-and-shoot and continuous bed
           motion techniques in whole-body 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
           tomography with the same acquisition duration
    • Authors: Shozo Yamashita; Haruki Yamamoto; Tetsu Nakaichi; Tatsuya Yoneyama; Kunihiko Yokoyama
      Abstract: Objective This study aimed to compare the qualities of whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) images acquired by the step-and-shoot (SS) and continuous bed motion (CBM) techniques with approximately the same acquisition duration, through phantom and clinical studies. Methods A body phantom with 10–37 mm spheres was filled with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) solution at a sphere-to-background radioactivity ratio of 4:1 and acquired by both techniques. Reconstructed images were evaluated by visual assessment, percentages of contrast (%Q H) and background variability (%N) in accordance with the Japanese guideline for oncology FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT). To evaluate the variability of the standardized uptake value (SUV), the coefficient of variation (CV) for both maximum SUV and peak SUV was examined. Both the SUV values were additionally compared with those of standard images acquired for 30 min, and their accuracy was evaluated by the %difference (%Diff). In the clinical study, whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT images of 60 patients acquired by both techniques were compared for liver signal-to-noise ratio (SNRliver), CV at end planes, and both SUV values. Results In the phantom study, the visual assessment and %Q H values of the two techniques did not differ from each other. However, the %N values of the CBM technique were significantly higher than those of the SS technique. Additionally, the CV and %Diff for both SUV values in the CBM images tended to be slightly higher than those in SS images. In the clinical study, the SNRliver values of CBM images were significantly lower than those of SS images, although the CV at the end planes in CBM images was significantly lower than those in SS images. In the Bland–Altman analysis for both SUV values, the mean differences were close to 0, and most lesions exhibited SUVs within the limits of agreement. Conclusions The CBM technique exhibited slightly lesser uniformity in the center plane than the SS technique. Additionally, in the phantom study, the CV and %Diff of SUV values in CBM images tended to be slightly higher than those of SS images. However, since these differences were subtle, they might be negligible in clinical settings.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1200-5
  • Effect of resolution recovery using graph plots on regional cerebral blood
           flow in healthy volunteers
    • Authors: Nobuhiro Yada; Hideo Onishi; Masahiro Miyai; Kentarou Ozasa; Takashi Katsube; Keiichi Onoda; Masuo Haramoto; Yasushi Yamamoto; Shuhei Yamaguchi; Hajime Kitagaki
      Abstract: Purpose We evaluated the effect of resolution recovery (RR) using graph plots on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images derived from healthy volunteers and patients diagnosed with probable Alzheimer’s disease. Method We acquired brain perfusion SPECT images with scatter correction (SC), computed tomography-based attenuation correction (CTAC), and RR from a three-dimensional brain phantom and from healthy volunteers. We then compared contrast-to-noise ratio, count density ratios, increase maps, and rCBF using statistical parametric mapping 8. Results Regional brain counts were significantly increased from 20–24% with SC, CTAC, and RR compared with SC and CTAC. Mean CBF in healthy volunteers was 42.5 ± 5.4 mL/100 g/min. Average rCBF determined using SC, CTAC and RR increased 7.5, 2.0, and 3.7% at the thalamus, posterior cingulate, and whole brain, respectively, compared with SC and CTAC. Conclusion Resolution recovery caused variations in normal rCBF because counts increased in cerebral regions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1186-z
  • Textural features of 18 F-FDG PET after two cycles of neoadjuvant
           chemotherapy can predict pCR in patients with locally advanced breast
    • Authors: Lin Cheng; Jianping Zhang; Yujie Wang; Xiaoli Xu; Yongping Zhang; Yingjian Zhang; Guangyu Liu; Jingyi Cheng
      Abstract: Objective This study was designed to evaluate the utility of textural features for predicting pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Methods Sixty-one consecutive patients with locally advanced breast cancer underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scanning at baseline and after the second course of NAC. Changes to imaging parameters [maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG)] and textural features (entropy, coarseness, skewness) between the 2 scans were measured by two independent radiologists. Pathological responses were reviewed by one pathologist, and the significance of the predictive value of each parameter was analyzed using a Chi-squared test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to compare the area under the curve (AUC) for each parameter. Results pCR was observed more often in patients with HER2-positive tumors (22 patients) than in patients with HER2-negative tumors (5 patients) (71.0 vs. 16.7%, p < 0.001). ∆ %SUVmax, ∆ %entropy and ∆ %coarseness were significantly useful for differentiating pCR from non-pCR in the HER2-negative group, and the AUCs for these parameters were 0.928, 0.808 and 0.800, respectively (p = 0.003, 0.032 and 0.037). In the HER2-positive group, ∆ %SUVmax and ∆ %skewness were moderately useful for predicting pCR, and the respective AUCs were 0.747 and 0.758 (p = 0.033 and 0.026). Although there was no significant difference in the AUCs between groups for these parameters, an additional 3/22 patients in the HER2-positive group with pCR were identified when ∆ %skewness and ∆ %SUVmax were considered together (p = 0.031). The absolute values for each parameter before NAC and after 2 cycles cannot predict pCR in our patients. Neither ∆ %MTV nor ∆ %TLG was efficiently predictive of pCR in any group. Conclusions The early changes in the textural features of 18F-FDG PET images after two cycles of NAC are predictive of pCR in both HER2-negative and HER2-positive patients; this evidence warrants confirmation by further research.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1184-1
  • A comparison of five partial volume correction methods for Tau and Amyloid
           PET imaging with [ 18 F]THK5351 and [ 11 C]PIB
    • Authors: Miho Shidahara; Benjamin A. Thomas; Nobuyuki Okamura; Masanobu Ibaraki; Keisuke Matsubara; Senri Oyama; Yoichi Ishikawa; Shoichi Watanuki; Ren Iwata; Shozo Furumoto; Manabu Tashiro; Kazuhiko Yanai; Kohsuke Gonda; Hiroshi Watabe
      Abstract: Purpose To suppress partial volume effect (PVE) in brain PET, there have been many algorithms proposed. However, each methodology has different property due to its assumption and algorithms. Our aim of this study was to investigate the difference among partial volume correction (PVC) method for tau and amyloid PET study. Methods We investigated two of the most commonly used PVC methods, Müller-Gärtner (MG) and geometric transfer matrix (GTM) and also other three methods for clinical tau and amyloid PET imaging. One healthy control (HC) and one Alzheimer’s disease (AD) PET studies of both [18F]THK5351 and [11C]PIB were performed using a Eminence STARGATE scanner (Shimadzu Inc., Kyoto, Japan). All PET images were corrected for PVE by MG, GTM, Labbé (LABBE), Regional voxel-based (RBV), and Iterative Yang (IY) methods, with segmented or parcellated anatomical information processed by FreeSurfer, derived from individual MR images. PVC results of 5 algorithms were compared with the uncorrected data. Results In regions of high uptake of [18F]THK5351 and [11C]PIB, different PVCs demonstrated different SUVRs. The degree of difference between PVE uncorrected and corrected depends on not only PVC algorithm but also type of tracer and subject condition. Conclusion Presented PVC methods are straight-forward to implement but the corrected images require careful interpretation as different methods result in different levels of recovery.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1185-0
  • 18 F-fluorothymidine PET imaging in gliomas: an update
    • Authors: Alexandra Nikaki; George Angelidis; Roxani Efthimiadou; Ioannis Tsougos; Varvara Valotassiou; Konstantinos Fountas; Vasileios Prasopoulos; Panagiotis Georgoulias
      Abstract: Abstract Brain neoplasms constitute a group of tumors with discrete differentiation grades, and therefore, course of disease and prognosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the gold standard method for the investigation of central nervous system tumors. However, MRI suffers certain limitations, especially if radiation therapy or chemotherapy has been previously applied. On the other hand, given the development of newer radiopharmaceuticals, positron emission tomography (PET) aims to a better investigation of brain tumors, assisting in the clinical management of the patients. In the present review, the potential contribution of radiolabeled fluorothymidine (FLT) imaging for the evaluation of brain tumors will be discussed. In particular, we will present the role of FLT-PET imaging in the depiction of well and poorly differentiated lesions, the assessment of patient prognosis and treatment response, and the recognition of disease recurrence. Moreover, related semi-quantitative and kinetic parameters will be discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12149-017-1183-2
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