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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Annals of Forest Science
  [SJR: 0.929]   [H-I: 57]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1286-4560 - ISSN (Online) 1297-966X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Patterns of within-stem variations in wood specific gravity and water
           content for five temperate tree species
    • Authors: Fleur Longuetaud; Frédéric Mothe; Philippe Santenoise; Ndiaye Diop; Jana Dlouha; Meriem Fournier; Christine Deleuze
      Abstract: • Key message Intensive measurements of basic specific gravity and relative water content of lumens show that within-stem variations strongly depend on species and cannot be summarised through the typical patterns reported in the literature; breast height measurements are not always representative of the whole stem. • Context Knowledge of the distribution of wood properties within the tree is essential for understanding tree physiology as well as for biomass estimations and for assessing the quality of wood products. • Aims The radial and vertical variations of basic specific gravity (BSG) and relative water content of lumens (RWC L ) were studied for five species: Quercus petraea/robur, Fagus sylvatica, Acer pseudoplatanus, Abies alba and Pseudotsuga menziesii. The observations were compared with typical patterns of variations reported in the literature. • Methods Wood discs were sampled regularly along tree stems and X-rayed in their fresh and oven-dry states. • Results At breast height, BSG was found to clearly increase radially (pith to bark) for two species and to decrease for one species. For F. sylvatica and A. alba, the radial variations of BSG were rather U-shaped, with in particular inner wood areas showing respectively lower and higher BSG than the corresponding mature wood. RWC L increased generally from inner to outer area but wet sapwood was clearly distinguishable only for the coniferous species. Vertical variations of BSG and RWC L were strongly dependant on the species with usually non-linear patterns. • Conclusion The observed variations of BSG were only partially in agreement with the reported typical radial patterns. Despite the vertical variations, the mean BSG of a cross-section at breast height appeared to be a good estimator of the mean BSG of the whole stem (although the difference was statistically significant for coniferous species), whereas breast height measurement of RWC L was not representative of the whole stem.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0657-7
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • EuMIXFOR empirical forest mensuration and ring width data from pure and
           mixed stands of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L. ) and European beech (
           Fagus sylvatica L. ) through Europe
    • Authors: Michael Heym; Ricardo Ruíz-Peinado; Miren Del Río; Kamil Bielak; David I. Forrester; Gerald Dirnberger; Ignacio Barbeito; Gediminas Brazaitis; Indrė Ruškytkė; Lluís Coll; Marek Fabrika; Lars Drössler; Magnus Löf; Hubert Sterba; Václav Hurt; Viktor Kurylyak; Fabio Lombardi; Dejan Stojanović; Jan Den Ouden; Renzo Motta; Maciej Pach; Jerzy Skrzyszewski; Quentin Ponette; Géraud De Streel; Vit Sramek; Tomáš Čihák; Tzvetan M. Zlatanov; Admir Avdagic; Christian Ammer; Kris Verheyen; Buraczyk Włodzimierz; Andrés Bravo-Oviedo; Hans Pretzsch
      Abstract: Key message This data set provides unique empirical data from triplets of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) across Europe. Dendrometric variables are provided for 32 triplets, 96 plots, 7555 trees and 4695 core samples. These data contribute to our understanding of mixed stand dynamics. Dataset access at . Associated metadata available at'uuid=b3e098ca-e681-4910-9099-0e25d3b4cd52&hl=eng .
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0660-z
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Understanding biological characteristics of Acacia melanoxylon in relation
           to fire to implement control measurements
    • Authors: Diego Arán; Juan García-Duro; Oscar Cruz; Mercedes Casal; Otilia Reyes
      Abstract: Key message Acacia melanoxylon produces abundant seeds leading to large seed banks in the soil. These seeds display a large viability and their germination is stimulated by heat. To control the populations, it is necessary to remove adults and young individuals, and to prevent seedling establishment after fire occupying the space with rapid growth and high competitive native species. Context Acacia melanoxylon displays a widespread distribution in South West Europe, and an improved knowledge of its reproductive characteristics is required in order to control its expansion. Aims This experiment was designed to provide useful indicators for an efficient management of A. melanoxylon populations based on its biological cycle in relation to fire. Methods We explored the reproductive biology of A. melanoxylon, from seed dissemination—–quantifying seed rain over a year, their germination with and without fire—the seedling and sapling banks and the structure of the adult population. We analysed the effects of fire, seed maturation and scarification on the viability of seeds and the stimulation of seed germination in the aerial seed bank and in the different strata of the soil seed bank. Results Our results indicate that A. melanoxylon produced millions of seeds per ha and per year, half of which germinated and the other half went to the soil seed bank, maintaining the viability many years. The germination was the most critical step in the population dynamics of this species, and fire stimulates germination up to 90%. Conclusion A. melanoxylon adults and seedlings removal, followed by colonization of rapid growth and high competitive native species that cover the ground very quickly would be a good control action.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0661-y
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Importance of climate, anthropogenic disturbance and pathogens (
           Quambalaria coyrecup and Phytophthora spp.) on marri ( Corymbia calophylla
           ) tree health in southwest Western Australia
    • Authors: Trudy Paap; Niels C. Brouwers; Treena I. Burgess; Giles E. St. J. Hardy
      Abstract: Key message Anthropogenic disturbance and Phytophthora spp., influenced by climate, are resulting in a higher Quambalaria coyrecup infection probability in marri ( Corymbia calophylla ) and the development of cankers, causing a decline in marri health across the geographical range in southwest Western Australia. Context Since the 1970s, a canker disease caused by the endemic fungal pathogen Quambalaria coyrecup Paap has increasingly affected the health of marri (Corymbia calophylla (Lindl.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson), a keystone tree species in southwest Western Australia. Aims In this study, we investigated the distribution and incidence of the canker disease, and the likely predisposing location-specific factors of the disease across the marri range. Methods A systematic landscape-scale survey was undertaken at 62, 100-m radius sites, and canker incidence was related with climate, rainfall and temperature change, proportion non-native vegetation area (i.e. anthropogenic disturbance) and Phytophthora spp. presence using logistic regression. Results On 54 sites, between 2 and 78% of all surveyed trees showed cankers. Eight sites were canker free. Since 1980, all sites experienced a reduction in annual rainfall (2.2–136.1 mm) and increasing temperatures (0.17–0.53 °C). Multivariate analyses showed that across the marri range, canker incidence was significantly higher in wetter and cooler areas of the marri distribution, and in areas with high proportions of non-native vegetation area surrounding the studied stands of trees. Presence of pathogenic Phytophthora spp. equally increased canker incidence. Conclusion Our study suggests that anthropogenic disturbance and Phytophthora presence may have reduced the natural defence mechanisms of marri trees, making them more vulnerable to the development of mortality inducing cankers.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0658-6
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Flammability of some companion species in cork oak ( Quercus suber L.)
    • Authors: Belkheir Dehane; Carmen Hernando; Mercedes Guijarro; Javier Madrigal
      Abstract: Key message The high flammability of some companion species in Quercus suber forests, estimated in laboratory tests, could potentially generate an increase in fire vulnerability and in fire risk. Context Recurrent wildfire is one of the main causes of forest degradation, especially in the Mediterranean region. Increased fire frequency and severity due to global change could reduce the natural resilience of cork oak to wildfire in the future. Hence, it is important to evaluate the flammability of companion species in cork oak forests in the particularly dry bioclimatic conditions of North Africa. Aims This study aimed to assess and compare flammability parameters at laboratory scale among ten companion frequent species in cork oak forests. Methods Fuel samples were collected in a cork oak (Quercus suber L) forest in the southern part of the mountains of Tlemcen (Western Algeria). A series of flammability tests were carried out using a Mass Loss Calorimeter device (FTT ®). A cluster analysis to classify flammability of the selected species was conducted using the K-means algorithm. Results The results revealed differences in the four flammability parameters (ignitability, sustainability, combustibility and consumability), in both fresh and dried fine fuel samples from Quercus suber, Pinus halepensis, Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Erica arborea, Arbutus unedo, Pistacia lentiscus, Calicotome spinosa, Juniperus oxycedrus and Tetraclinis articulata. Application of the K-means clustering algorithm showed that C. spinosa, T. articulata, J. oxycedrus and P. halepensis are highly flammable because of their high combustibility and sustainability. Conclusion The findings identify species that could potentially increase the vulnerability of cork oak forests to forest fires.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0659-5
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Short-day photoperiods affect expression of genes related to dormancy and
           freezing tolerance in Norway spruce seedlings
    • Authors: Elisabeth Wallin; Daniel Gräns; Douglass F. Jacobs; Anders Lindström; Nathalie Verhoef
      Abstract: Key Message Gene expression analysis showed that prolonged short day (SD) treatment deepened dormancy and stimulated development of freezing tolerance of Picea abies seedlings. Prolonged SD treatment also caused later appearance of visible buds in autumn, reduced risks for reflushing, and promoted earlier spring bud break. Context Short day (SD) treatment of seedlings is a common practice in boreal forest tree nurseries to regulate shoot growth and prepare the seedlings for autumn planting or frozen storage. Aims The aim of this study was to examine responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) to a range of SD treatments of different length and evaluate gene expression related to dormancy induction and development of freezing tolerance. Methods The seedlings were SD treated for 11 h a day during 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. Molecular tests were performed, and the expression profiles of dormancy and freezing tolerance-related genes were analyzed as well as determination of shoot growth, bud set, bud size, reflushing, dry matter content, and timing of spring bud break. Results The 7-day SD treatment was as effective as longer SD treatments in terminating apical shoot growth. However, short (7 days) SD treatment resulted in later activation of dormancy-related genes and of genes related to freezing tolerance compared to the longer treatments which had an impact on seedling phenology. Conclusion Gene expression analysis indicated an effective stimulus of dormancy-related genes when the SD treatment is prolonged for at least 1–2 weeks after shoot elongation has terminated and that seedlings thereafter are exposed to ambient outdoor climate conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0655-9
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • The effect of coppice management on stump volume recovery in mechanized
    • Authors: Muedanyi Ramantswana; Andrew Mcewan; Raffaele Spinelli
      Abstract: Key message Coppice stands result in slightly higher stump waste compared with planted stands, when felled mechanically by a harvester. Context The large demand for wood fibre requires efficient production and cost-effective practices throughout the supply chain. Aims The purpose of the study was to quantify the amount of volume lost to excessive stump height in coppiced and planted stands. Methods Stump height was measured on similar eucalypt stands that differed only for their origin: coppiced or planted. The study sample comprised of 543 planted stems and 851 coppice stems; of which 365 grew as double stems and 486 as single. Results Stump waste was highest for coppiced double stumps, smallest for coppiced single stumps and intermediate for planted tree stumps. All differences were statistically significant, but the difference between coppiced single stumps and planted tree stumps was much smaller (20%) than the difference between coppiced double stumps and the rest (220–260%). Regression analysis showed that stump waste volume increased with tree volume, and this effect was twice as large for coppiced double stumps compared with the other treatments. Stump waste seemed very small in both relative and absolute terms and is unlikely to offset the large benefits accrued through coppice management and mechanization. Conclusion Comparison with previous stump height studies indicates that the results obtained in this experiment for planted eucalypt may have general value and could be extended to other coppice stands, although with caution.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0656-8
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • The potential of Eucalyptus plantations to restore degraded soils in
           semi-arid Morocco (NW Africa)
    • Authors: Mohamed Boulmane; Hayat Oubrahim; Mohammed Halim; Mark R. Bakker; Laurent Augusto
      Abstract: Key message Short-rotation forestry using eucalyptus in degraded oak forests in the semi-arid area of NW Morocco can be a useful strategy to avoid further degradation and carbon loss from this ecosystem, but it might be constrained by nutrient and water supply in the long term. Context Land degradation and deforestation of natural forests are serious issues worldwide, potentially leading to altered land use and carbon storage capacity. Aims Our objectives were to investigate if short-rotation plantations can restore carbon pools of degraded soils, without altering soil fertility. Methods Carbon and nutrient pools in above- and below-ground biomass and soils were assessed using stand inventories, harvested biomass values, allometric relationships and selective sampling for chemical analyses. Results Carbon pools in the total ecosystem were low in the degraded land and in croplands (6–13 Mg ha−1) and high in forests (66–94 in eucalyptus plantations; 86–126 in native forests). The soil nutrient status of eucalyptus stands was intermediate between degraded land and native forests and increased over time after eucalyptus introduction. All harvest scenarios for eucalyptus are likely to impoverish the soil but, for the moment, the soil nutrient status has not been affected. Conclusion Afforestation of degraded land with eucalyptus can be a useful restoration tool relative to carbon storage and soil fertility, provided that non-intensive forestry is applied.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0652-z
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • The extent of historic translocation of Norway spruce forest reproductive
           material in Europe
    • Authors: Simon Jansen; Heino Konrad; Thomas Geburek
      Abstract: Key message Norway spruce seed has been traded extensively for at least three centuries throughout the natural distribution range in Europe and beyond. However, our knowledge about these transfers is limited. Historic data are essential tools to trace back human-mediated gene flow and for interpretation of recent genetic studies. Context Human-mediated gene flow can potentially have a major impact on the genetic composition of forest tree populations, yet our knowledge about seed sources used within the current species’ range is still limited. Norway spruce is one of the most important coniferous species in European forestry, and data drawing conclusions about the genetic composition of current populations are vital with regard to gene conservation and sustainable forest management. Because molecular data are not available on a more detailed scale, historic records provide crucial information about translocations. Aims Our aim is to provide the first pan-European review on Norway spruce translocations from the seventeenth until the twentieth century. Methods We analysed historic and recent literature compiling information on the cultivation and transfer of Norway spruce reproductive material. Historic records are compared with recent molecular studies. Results Seed exchanges have profoundly altered the native genetic population structure of Norway spruce. Especially, Central European seeds have been used throughout and beyond the natural distribution area. Figures illustrating the historic plantings in Europe are provided. Conclusion Recent molecular data reveal persisting effects of past translocations. Historical records can be extremely useful for providing information about autochthony and thus guide gene conservation strategies and explain the performance of extant populations.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0644-z
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Here to stay. Recent advances and perspectives about Acacia invasion in
           Mediterranean areas
    • Authors: Pablo Souza-Alonso; Jonatan Rodríguez; Luís González; Paula Lorenzo
      Abstract: Abstract • Key message The above- and belowground impacts due to Acacia invasions have been described in detail over the last 25 years. Future research should focus on the early detection and prevention of new Acacia introductions and on a cost-effective and sustainable management of the novel ecosystems resulting from invasions. • Context Invasive alien plants (IAPs) strongly alter ecosystems reducing biodiversity, modifying ecosystem services and increasing negative impacts at social and economic level. Among invasive taxa, Acacia is a highly problematic genus worldwide. In fact, almost 500 papers have been published on several aspects of Acacia invasions for the last 25 years. • Aims We aim at reviewing the current knowledge on the consequences of the invasion by Acacia genus in Mediterranean ecosystems. We also collect and propose different approaches for the management and recovery of invaded areas and suggest future perspectives on Acacia research. • Methods We compile, summarise and discuss recent findings on physicochemical, ecological, microbiological and socioeconomic aspects of invasion related to Australian acacias (Acacia dealbata, Acacia longifolia, Acacia mearnsii, Acacia saligna and Acacia melanoxylon) focusing on Mediterranean areas. • Results Acacia invasion generally entails soil physicochemical alterations and changes in microbial function and structure. Consequences such as the decreased biodiversity, altered ecosystem structure, larger seed banks dominated by invasive species, new biotrophic relationships or alterations in water availability and fire regimes suggest that acacias are locally creating novel ecosystems. • Conclusions Forecasting invasions, modelling and managing ecosystems dominated by acacias are challenging tasks that should be addressed in the future, since climatic conditions and intensification in land uses are increasing the likelihood of Acacia invasions in Mediterranean areas. Unsuccessful management actions suggest that restoration should be meticulously monitored, but the magnitude of invasion or the inconsistency of economic investment indicate that eradication is often unfeasible. Alternatively, novel integrative and cost-effective solutions including the collaboration of society, politicians and stakeholders are necessary to prevent new introductions and achieve sustainable control of acacias. There is a growing interest in applied research on the valorisation or novel uses for acacias and their residues that result in economic benefits.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0651-0
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Spatiotemporal analyses of urban vegetation structural attributes using
           multitemporal Landsat TM data and field measurements
    • Authors: Zhibin Ren; Ruiliang Pu; Haifeng Zheng; Dan Zhang; Xingyuan He
      Abstract: Key message We conducted spatiotemporal analyses of urban vegetation structural attributes using multitemporal Landsat TM data and field measurements. We showed that multitemporal TM data has the potential of rapidly estimating urban vegetation structural attributes including LAI, CC , and BA at an urban landscape level. Context Urban vegetation structural properties/attributes are closely linked to their ecological functions and thus directly affect urban ecosystem process such as energy, water, and gas exchange. Understanding spatiotemporal dynamics of urban vegetation structures is important for sustaining urban ecosystem service and improving the urban environment. Aims The purposes of this study were to evaluate the potential of estimating urban vegetation structural attributes from multitemporal Landsat TM imagery and to analyze spatiotemporal changes of the urban structural attributes. Methods We first collected three scenes of TM images acquired in 1997, 2004, and 2010 and conducted a field survey to collect urban vegetation structural data (including crown closure (CC), tree height (H), leaf area index (LAI), basal area (BA), stem density (SD), diameter at breast height (DBH), etc.). We then calculated and normalized NDVI maps from the multitemporal TM images. Finally, spatiotemporal urban vegetation structural maps were created using NDVI-based urban vegetation structure predictive models. Results The results show that NDVI can be used as a predictor for some selected urban vegetation structural attributes (i.e., CC, LAI, and BA), but not for the other attributes (i.e., H, SD, and DBH) that are well predicted by NDVI in natural vegetation. The results also indicate that urban vegetation structural attributes (i.e., CC, LAI, and BA) in the study area decreased sharply from 1997 to 2004 but increased slightly from 2004 to 2010. The CC, LAI, and BA class distributions were all skewed toward low values in 1997 and 2004. Moreover, LAI, CC, and BA of urban vegetation all present a decreasing trend from suburban areas to urban central areas. Conclusion The experimental results demonstrate that Landsat TM imagery could provide a fast and cost-effective method to obtain a spatiotemporal 30-m resolution urban vegetation structural dataset (including CC, LAI, and BA).
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0654-x
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Rapid assessment of wood traits for large-scale breeding selection in
           Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.
    • Authors: Mireille Desponts; Martin Perron; Josianne DeBlois
      Abstract: Key message Pilodyn and acoustic velocity measurements on standing trees, used for predicting density and stiffness, can be good genetic selection tools for black spruce. Genetic parameters and selection efficiency were conserved in two breeding zones with contrasted bioclimatic conditions. Context Given the recent progress made in the black spruce genetic improvement program, the integration of juvenile wood mechanical properties as selection criteria is increasingly relevant. Aims This study aims to estimate the genetic parameters of in situ wood density and modulus of elasticity (MoE) measurements and to verify the efficiency of various measuring methods used for large-scale selection of black spruce based on wood quality. Methods Height, diameter, wood density, and some indirect measures of density (penetration and drilling resistance) and MoE (acoustical velocity and Pilodyn) were estimated on 2400 24-year-old trees of 120 open-pollinated families in progeny trials located in the continuous boreal or mixed forest subzones. Results Heritability of growth, density, and indirect density measurements varied from low to moderate and was moderate for acoustical velocity in both vegetation subzones. Expected genetic gains for wood properties based on in situ methods were higher for MoE proxy estimation combining Pilodyn and acoustic velocity. Conclusion Acoustic velocity is a good predictor of MoE. It is virtually unaffected by the environment and can be used on a large scale in the same manner as the Pilodyn for density. Using a proxy estimation that combines both methods helps optimize genetic gain for MoE.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0646-x
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Adaptive management rules for Pinus nigra Arnold ssp . salzmannii stands
           under risk of fire
    • Authors: José Ramón González-Olabarria; Jordi Garcia-Gonzalo; Blas Mola-Yudego; Timo Pukkala
      Abstract: Key message We generate flexible management rules for black pine stands, adaptable to alternative stand management situations and entailing thinnings, final-felling, and salvage cuts, based on the results on 270 stand level optimizations. Context Forest management instructions often rely on the anticipated prediction of the stand development, which poses a challenge on variable economic and environmental conditions. Instead, an alternative approach to better adapt forest management decisions to changing conditions is defining flexible rules based on thresholds that trigger management operations. Aims This article develops rules for the adaptive management of P. nigra stands in Catalonia (Spain) addressing the risk of fire and post-fire forest management. Methods The stochastic version of the simulation-optimization system RODAL was used to optimize the management of forest stands in three sites under different fire probability levels. A total of 270 optimizations were done varying site fertility, fire probability, and economic factors. The results of the optimizations were used as the basis of flexible forest management rules for adaptive stand management. Results The developed management rules defined the basal area limit for thinning, the thinning intensity, the mean tree diameter at which regeneration cuttings should start, and the basal area below which a salvage cutting should be done. Fire risk was not a significant predictor of the models for thinning and final cutting rules. Conclusion The presented rules provide a flexible tool for forest management during the stand development and under changing conditions when the management objective is to maximize economic profitability of timber production.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0649-7
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Crown bulk density and fuel moisture dynamics in Pinus pinaster stands are
           neither modified by thinning nor captured by the Forest Fire Weather Index
    • Authors: Marc Soler Martin; José Antonio Bonet; Juan Martínez De Aragón; Jordi Voltas; Lluís Coll; Víctor Resco De Dios
      Abstract: Key message No temporal change was recorded during summer in fuel availability in Pinus pinaster stands, contrary to predictions from the Forest Fire Weather Index. Also, thinning had no mid-term effect on fuel moisture or canopy structure. Context Forest fires are a major problem in Mediterranean countries. Management actions, such as fuel reductions, are one of the main tools to diminish fire risk, but the midterm efficacy of such tools remains largely untested with empirical data. Aims Here, we test for midterm effects of thinning on fuel moisture and crown bulk density in P. pinaster stands and whether temporal variations in fuel moisture correlated with predictions from the Fire Weather Index, a commonly used index on fire risk, and its components. Methods We compared fuel moisture over a fire season and crown bulk density in nine pairs of thinned/unthinned plots 7 years after treatments were applied. Results We observed that fuel moisture remained stable during a fire season, as a likely result of drought-induced physiological adjustments, including stomatal regulation and others, which allow leaves to maintain a large humidity even during drought, and that thinning had no midterm effect on fuel moisture or crown bulk density. Moreover, the Fire Weather Index and its components displayed different temporal dynamics than those observed in fuel moisture. Conclusion These results are important as they indicate that thinning may only have a limited, short-term impact towards diminishing the potential for crown fire spread in these stands and that current indices to evaluate fire risk may require a re-evaluation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0650-1
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • A spatial dataset of forest mensuration collected in black pine
           plantations in central Italy
    • Authors: Paolo Cantiani; Maurizio Marchi
      Abstract: Key message The dataset provides an exhaustive tree inventory with forest mensuration and spatial location carried out in 54 plots sampled in 45- to 55-year-old black pine plantations, located in two areas of Tuscany (central Italy). Forest mensuration includes horizontal and vertical structure measurements and a total of 4171 trees were geo-referenced. The most abundant species was the black pine, Pinus nigra spp. laricio , for which a total of 3631 trees were observed. The dataset was collected as part of the SelPiBio LIFE project (LIFE13 BIO/IT/000282). Dataset access at . Associated metadata available at'uuid=73591027-0f1e-40a3-95d0-b614517c1290&hl=eng . Context The main aim of the SelPiBio LIFE project ( is to demonstrate the effects of two thinning regimes, selective and from below, on soil biodiversity in young black pine stands. The spatial structure of forests and the relationships between trees are a good proxy of overall biodiversity level. Spatial datasets with geo referenced trees and related mensurational data represent the highest level of information for forest inventories and research activities. Aims This dataset has been developed during the A2 Action (Assessment of structural and mensurational parameters of the forest stands and the dead wood) of the project, to record the main mensurational parameters of the studied black pine stands. A tree-level database was compiled to describe the vertical and horizontal structure of 54 monitoring plots before the application of the silvicultural treatment. Methods In addition to classical in-field measurements (e.g. diameters at breast height, total height of the tree, crown depth etc.), all trees were georeferenced by means of polar coordinates collected from the centre of each monitoring plot, including crown projection on the ground, described with eight points. Then, a polynomial spline function was fitted across the recorded data to obtain a convex polygon and to calculate crown area and crown perimeter of each measured tree in GIS environment. Results A polygonal ESRI shapefile in ETRS89/UTM32N reference system (EPSG: 25832) with 4171 records representing the crown projections on the ground of each measured tree with all the mensurational parameters included into the attribute table. The database is freely available under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4. 182 0 License. Conclusion With this database, a wide range of forestry-related indices could be easily calculated, including geostatistical analysis and autocorrelation functions, to compare Italian artificial black pine stands with other studied forests.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0648-8
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Coordination of morphological and physiological traits in naturally
           recruited Abies alba Mill. saplings: insights from a structural equation
           modeling approach
    • Authors: Angelo Rita; Francesco Ripullone; Tiziana Gentilesca; Luigi Todaro; Antonio Saracino; Marco Borghetti
      Abstract: Key message Apical dominance ratio (ADR), reported as a suitable indicator for the growth and development of Abies alba , is concurrently determined by morphological and functional plant traits. Structural equation modeling (SEM) proved here to be an effective multivariate technique to represent the contribution of different variables in explaining ADR variability. Context During the natural recruitment of understory tree saplings, the light environment and competition among individuals may change drastically as well as their growth patterns. To cope with this, saplings have a remarkable ability to accordingly modify their physiology and morphology. Therefore, understanding the ecological significance of plant structural patterns requires an integrated view of morphological, architectural, and physiological attributes of plants. Aims Here, we applied a SEM approach to understand the mechanisms influencing the ADR, recently reported as suitable indicator of the growth conditions favoring silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) natural regeneration in Mediterranean areas. Methods A series of plant traits (e.g., root-collar diameter, leaf mass per area, and isotope composition) were combined into two main latent variables, namely Morphology and Physiology, to account for their relative contribution in explaining the ADR variability. • Results Our results underline the importance of variables accounting for the photosynthetic capacity and leaf economics in determining ADR; among them, leaf mass per area (LMA) emerged as an important driving variable. • Conclusion SEM proved to be an effective multivariate technique to represent the coordination of different morphological and functional variables in explaining ADR variability in silver fir.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0653-y
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Quantifying the sources of epistemic uncertainty in model predictions of
           insect disturbances in an uncertain climate
    • Authors: David R. Gray
      Abstract: Key message Natural disturbance can disrupt the anticipated delivery of forest-related ecosystem goods and services. Model predictions of natural disturbances have substantial uncertainties arising from the choices of input data and spatial scale used in the model building process, and the uncertainty of future climate conditions which are a major driver of disturbances. Quantifying the multiple contributions to uncertainty will aid decision making and guide future research needs. Context Forest management planning has been able, in the past, to rely on substantial empirical evidence regarding tree growth, succession, frequency and impacts of natural disturbances to estimate the future delivery of goods and services. Uncertainty has not been thought large enough to warrant consideration. Our rapidly changing climate is casting that empirical knowledge in doubt. Aims This paper describes how models of future spruce budworm outbreaks are plagued by uncertainty contributed by (among others): selection of data used in the model building process; model error; and uncertainty of the future climate and forest that will drive the future insect outbreak. The contribution of each to the total uncertainty will be quantified. Methods Outbreak models are built by the multivariate technique of reduced rank regression using different datasets. Each model and an estimate of its error are then used to predict future outbreaks under different future conditions of climate and forest composition. Variation in predictions is calculated, and the variance is apportioned among the model components that contributed to the epistemic uncertainty in predictions. Results Projections of future outbreaks are highly uncertain under the range of input data and future conditions examined. Uncertainty is not uniformly distributed spatially; the average 75% confidence interval for outbreak duration is 10 years. Estimates of forest inventory for model building and choice of climate scenario for projections of future climate had the greatest contributions to predictions of outbreak duration and severity. Conclusion Predictions of future spruce budworm outbreaks are highly uncertain. More precise outbreak data with which to build a new outbreak model will have the biggest impact on reducing uncertainty. However, an uncertain future climate will continue to produce uncertainty in outbreak projections. Forest management strategies must, therefore, include alternatives that present a reasonable likelihood of achieving acceptable outcomes over a wide range of future conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0645-y
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Effects of soil preparation methods and plant types on the establishment
           of poplars on forest land
    • Authors: Rebecka Mc Carthy; Lars Rytter; Karin Hjelm
      Abstract: Key message The success of poplar plantations on forest land was affected by soil preparation, plant type, site, and clone. Mounding in combination with large plant types (rooted plants or long cuttings) of site-adapted clones achieved the highest survival and growth. Context Poplars (Populus species and hybrids) are fast-growing trees used to make various products. In north European countries, they are mainly grown on agricultural land, but interest in planting poplars on forest land has increased. Aims Plant damage and mortality problems occur on forest land, probably due to soil conditions and competing vegetation. It is therefore of interest to investigate whether combinations of soil preparation methods and plant materials can improve establishment. Methods At three sites in southern Sweden, the effects of four soil preparation treatments (no soil preparation, patch scarification, mounding, soil inversion) in combination with three plant types (short cuttings, long cuttings, rooted plants) were studied. Results Survival and growth were significantly influenced by site, soil preparation method, plant type, and their interactions. Mounding resulted in the best overall performance on all sites. Interactions between site and plant type revealed differences in growth dependent on site conditions, but rooted plants and long cuttings were in general most successful. Patch scarification and short cuttings were associated with lower survival and growth. Conclusion Soil preparation is needed to support survival and early growth, but the combination of method and plant type must be adapted to site conditions. The choice of clones should also be considered.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0647-9
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
  • Xylem traits in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) display a large
           plasticity in response to canopy release
    • Authors: Estelle Noyer; Barbara Lachenbruch; Jana Dlouhá; Catherine Collet; Julien Ruelle; François Ningre; Meriem Fournier
      Abstract: Key message The position of trees in the canopy impacts xylem structure and its inter-annual variation. After canopy release, the increase in the hydraulic conductivity of growth rings was driven by an increase in radial growth in large trees, and by both an increase in radial growth and changes in xylem structure in saplings. Context Forest canopies are frequently subjected to disturbances that allow understory trees to access the upper canopy. The effect of canopy release on xylem anatomy has been assessed in juvenile trees and saplings, while the potential acclimation of larger trees remains poorly documented. Aims We estimated the potential hydraulic conductivity of growth rings in large understory trees compared to overstory trees, and evaluated the responses to canopy release in large trees and in saplings. Methods We recorded radial growth, wood density, and vessel structure in beech trees according to their position within the canopy and their size. Xylem traits were followed during 6 years after canopy release for large trees, and during 2 years for saplings. Vessel diameter and frequency as well as ring area were used to compute the potential annual ring hydraulic conductivity. Results Large understory trees displayed lower radial growth increments and lower potential annual ring hydraulic conductivity than overstory trees. After canopy release, potential annual ring hydraulic conductivity increased in large trees, due exclusively to increased radial growth without any change in specific hydraulic conductivity. It increased in saplings due to both increased radial growth and increased specific conductivity. Conclusion Tree size impacted xylem structure and resulted in plasticity of the potential hydraulic conductivity of the annual tree ring following canopy release.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0634-1
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
  • A non-stochastic portfolio model for optimizing the transformation of an
           even-aged forest stand to continuous cover forestry when information about
           return fluctuation is incomplete
    • Authors: Katharina Messerer; Hans Pretzsch; Thomas Knoke
      Abstract: Key message Non-stochastic portfolio optimization of forest stands provides a good alternative to stochastic mean-variance optimization when available statistical data is incomplete. The suggested approach has a theoretical background in the areas of robust optimization, continuous multicriteria decision-making, and fuzzy theory. Resulting robust portfolios only show slight economic losses compared to the efficient frontier of a stochastic optimization. Context Economic optimization addressing diversification in mixed uneven-aged forest stands is a useful tool for forest planners. Aims The study aims to compare two approaches for optimizing rotation age cohort portfolios under risk. Rotation age cohorts emerge from age-based regeneration-harvesting operations simulated for two tree species: Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica. Methods The first optimization approach is a stochastic mean-variance approach. The second is a non-stochastic optimization approach, which has rarely been applied to optimize tree species composition and the distribution of harvested timber over many periods. It aims at relatively good solutions, even if the deviation from the initially assumed return is very high. The objective function for both approaches is sensitive to the selection of various harvesting periods for different parts of the stand. For the stochastic approach, the objective function maximizes the annuitized net present value (economic return) for specific levels of risk by allocating area proportions to harvesting periods and tree species. In the non-stochastic approach, the allocation of area proportions instead minimizes the maximum deviation from the greatest possible economic return among many uncertainty scenarios (non-stochastic approach). Results Portfolios from both approaches were diverse in rotation age cohorts. The non-stochastic portfolios were more diverse when compared with portfolios from the efficient frontier, which showed the same standard deviation. However, P. abies clearly dominated the non-stochastic portfolios, while stochastic portfolios also integrated beech to a greater extent, but only in very low risk portfolios. The economic losses of the non-stochastic portfolios compared to the efficient frontier of the mean-variance approach lay between 1 and 3% only for different levels of accepted risk. Conclusion The non-stochastic portfolio optimization over a large uncertainty space is so far uncommon in forest science, yet provides a viable alternative to stochastic optimization, particularly when available data is scarce. However, further research should consider ecological effects, such as increased resistance against hazards of conifers in mixed stands.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0643-0
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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