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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Annals of Forest Science
  [SJR: 0.929]   [H-I: 57]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1286-4560 - ISSN (Online) 1297-966X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • The extent of historic translocation of Norway spruce forest reproductive
           material in Europe
    • Authors: Simon Jansen; Heino Konrad; Thomas Geburek
      Abstract: Key message Norway spruce seed has been traded extensively for at least three centuries throughout the natural distribution range in Europe and beyond. However, our knowledge about these transfers is limited. Historic data are essential tools to trace back human-mediated gene flow and for interpretation of recent genetic studies. Context Human-mediated gene flow can potentially have a major impact on the genetic composition of forest tree populations, yet our knowledge about seed sources used within the current species’ range is still limited. Norway spruce is one of the most important coniferous species in European forestry, and data drawing conclusions about the genetic composition of current populations are vital with regard to gene conservation and sustainable forest management. Because molecular data are not available on a more detailed scale, historic records provide crucial information about translocations. Aims Our aim is to provide the first pan-European review on Norway spruce translocations from the seventeenth until the twentieth century. Methods We analysed historic and recent literature compiling information on the cultivation and transfer of Norway spruce reproductive material. Historic records are compared with recent molecular studies. Results Seed exchanges have profoundly altered the native genetic population structure of Norway spruce. Especially, Central European seeds have been used throughout and beyond the natural distribution area. Figures illustrating the historic plantings in Europe are provided. Conclusion Recent molecular data reveal persisting effects of past translocations. Historical records can be extremely useful for providing information about autochthony and thus guide gene conservation strategies and explain the performance of extant populations.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0644-z
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Here to stay. Recent advances and perspectives about Acacia invasion in
           Mediterranean areas
    • Authors: Pablo Souza-Alonso; Jonatan Rodríguez; Luís González; Paula Lorenzo
      Abstract: • Key message The above- and belowground impacts due to Acacia invasions have been described in detail over the last 25 years. Future research should focus on the early detection and prevention of new Acacia introductions and on a cost-effective and sustainable management of the novel ecosystems resulting from invasions. • Context Invasive alien plants (IAPs) strongly alter ecosystems reducing biodiversity, modifying ecosystem services and increasing negative impacts at social and economic level. Among invasive taxa, Acacia is a highly problematic genus worldwide. In fact, almost 500 papers have been published on several aspects of Acacia invasions for the last 25 years. • Aims We aim at reviewing the current knowledge on the consequences of the invasion by Acacia genus in Mediterranean ecosystems. We also collect and propose different approaches for the management and recovery of invaded areas and suggest future perspectives on Acacia research. • Methods We compile, summarise and discuss recent findings on physicochemical, ecological, microbiological and socioeconomic aspects of invasion related to Australian acacias (Acacia dealbata, Acacia longifolia, Acacia mearnsii, Acacia saligna and Acacia melanoxylon) focusing on Mediterranean areas. • Results Acacia invasion generally entails soil physicochemical alterations and changes in microbial function and structure. Consequences such as the decreased biodiversity, altered ecosystem structure, larger seed banks dominated by invasive species, new biotrophic relationships or alterations in water availability and fire regimes suggest that acacias are locally creating novel ecosystems. • Conclusions Forecasting invasions, modelling and managing ecosystems dominated by acacias are challenging tasks that should be addressed in the future, since climatic conditions and intensification in land uses are increasing the likelihood of Acacia invasions in Mediterranean areas. Unsuccessful management actions suggest that restoration should be meticulously monitored, but the magnitude of invasion or the inconsistency of economic investment indicate that eradication is often unfeasible. Alternatively, novel integrative and cost-effective solutions including the collaboration of society, politicians and stakeholders are necessary to prevent new introductions and achieve sustainable control of acacias. There is a growing interest in applied research on the valorisation or novel uses for acacias and their residues that result in economic benefits.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0651-0
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Spatiotemporal analyses of urban vegetation structural attributes using
           multitemporal Landsat TM data and field measurements
    • Authors: Zhibin Ren; Ruiliang Pu; Haifeng Zheng; Dan Zhang; Xingyuan He
      Abstract: Key message We conducted spatiotemporal analyses of urban vegetation structural attributes using multitemporal Landsat TM data and field measurements. We showed that multitemporal TM data has the potential of rapidly estimating urban vegetation structural attributes including LAI, CC , and BA at an urban landscape level. Context Urban vegetation structural properties/attributes are closely linked to their ecological functions and thus directly affect urban ecosystem process such as energy, water, and gas exchange. Understanding spatiotemporal dynamics of urban vegetation structures is important for sustaining urban ecosystem service and improving the urban environment. Aims The purposes of this study were to evaluate the potential of estimating urban vegetation structural attributes from multitemporal Landsat TM imagery and to analyze spatiotemporal changes of the urban structural attributes. Methods We first collected three scenes of TM images acquired in 1997, 2004, and 2010 and conducted a field survey to collect urban vegetation structural data (including crown closure (CC), tree height (H), leaf area index (LAI), basal area (BA), stem density (SD), diameter at breast height (DBH), etc.). We then calculated and normalized NDVI maps from the multitemporal TM images. Finally, spatiotemporal urban vegetation structural maps were created using NDVI-based urban vegetation structure predictive models. Results The results show that NDVI can be used as a predictor for some selected urban vegetation structural attributes (i.e., CC, LAI, and BA), but not for the other attributes (i.e., H, SD, and DBH) that are well predicted by NDVI in natural vegetation. The results also indicate that urban vegetation structural attributes (i.e., CC, LAI, and BA) in the study area decreased sharply from 1997 to 2004 but increased slightly from 2004 to 2010. The CC, LAI, and BA class distributions were all skewed toward low values in 1997 and 2004. Moreover, LAI, CC, and BA of urban vegetation all present a decreasing trend from suburban areas to urban central areas. Conclusion The experimental results demonstrate that Landsat TM imagery could provide a fast and cost-effective method to obtain a spatiotemporal 30-m resolution urban vegetation structural dataset (including CC, LAI, and BA).
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0654-x
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Rapid assessment of wood traits for large-scale breeding selection in
           Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.
    • Authors: Mireille Desponts; Martin Perron; Josianne DeBlois
      Abstract: Key message Pilodyn and acoustic velocity measurements on standing trees, used for predicting density and stiffness, can be good genetic selection tools for black spruce. Genetic parameters and selection efficiency were conserved in two breeding zones with contrasted bioclimatic conditions. Context Given the recent progress made in the black spruce genetic improvement program, the integration of juvenile wood mechanical properties as selection criteria is increasingly relevant. Aims This study aims to estimate the genetic parameters of in situ wood density and modulus of elasticity (MoE) measurements and to verify the efficiency of various measuring methods used for large-scale selection of black spruce based on wood quality. Methods Height, diameter, wood density, and some indirect measures of density (penetration and drilling resistance) and MoE (acoustical velocity and Pilodyn) were estimated on 2400 24-year-old trees of 120 open-pollinated families in progeny trials located in the continuous boreal or mixed forest subzones. Results Heritability of growth, density, and indirect density measurements varied from low to moderate and was moderate for acoustical velocity in both vegetation subzones. Expected genetic gains for wood properties based on in situ methods were higher for MoE proxy estimation combining Pilodyn and acoustic velocity. Conclusion Acoustic velocity is a good predictor of MoE. It is virtually unaffected by the environment and can be used on a large scale in the same manner as the Pilodyn for density. Using a proxy estimation that combines both methods helps optimize genetic gain for MoE.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0646-x
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Adaptive management rules for Pinus nigra Arnold ssp . salzmannii stands
           under risk of fire
    • Authors: José Ramón González-Olabarria; Jordi Garcia-Gonzalo; Blas Mola-Yudego; Timo Pukkala
      Abstract: Key message We generate flexible management rules for black pine stands, adaptable to alternative stand management situations and entailing thinnings, final-felling, and salvage cuts, based on the results on 270 stand level optimizations. Context Forest management instructions often rely on the anticipated prediction of the stand development, which poses a challenge on variable economic and environmental conditions. Instead, an alternative approach to better adapt forest management decisions to changing conditions is defining flexible rules based on thresholds that trigger management operations. Aims This article develops rules for the adaptive management of P. nigra stands in Catalonia (Spain) addressing the risk of fire and post-fire forest management. Methods The stochastic version of the simulation-optimization system RODAL was used to optimize the management of forest stands in three sites under different fire probability levels. A total of 270 optimizations were done varying site fertility, fire probability, and economic factors. The results of the optimizations were used as the basis of flexible forest management rules for adaptive stand management. Results The developed management rules defined the basal area limit for thinning, the thinning intensity, the mean tree diameter at which regeneration cuttings should start, and the basal area below which a salvage cutting should be done. Fire risk was not a significant predictor of the models for thinning and final cutting rules. Conclusion The presented rules provide a flexible tool for forest management during the stand development and under changing conditions when the management objective is to maximize economic profitability of timber production.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0649-7
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Crown bulk density and fuel moisture dynamics in Pinus pinaster stands are
           neither modified by thinning nor captured by the Forest Fire Weather Index
    • Authors: Marc Soler Martin; José Antonio Bonet; Juan Martínez De Aragón; Jordi Voltas; Lluís Coll; Víctor Resco De Dios
      Abstract: Key message No temporal change was recorded during summer in fuel availability in Pinus pinaster stands, contrary to predictions from the Forest Fire Weather Index. Also, thinning had no mid-term effect on fuel moisture or canopy structure. Context Forest fires are a major problem in Mediterranean countries. Management actions, such as fuel reductions, are one of the main tools to diminish fire risk, but the midterm efficacy of such tools remains largely untested with empirical data. Aims Here, we test for midterm effects of thinning on fuel moisture and crown bulk density in P. pinaster stands and whether temporal variations in fuel moisture correlated with predictions from the Fire Weather Index, a commonly used index on fire risk, and its components. Methods We compared fuel moisture over a fire season and crown bulk density in nine pairs of thinned/unthinned plots 7 years after treatments were applied. Results We observed that fuel moisture remained stable during a fire season, as a likely result of drought-induced physiological adjustments, including stomatal regulation and others, which allow leaves to maintain a large humidity even during drought, and that thinning had no midterm effect on fuel moisture or crown bulk density. Moreover, the Fire Weather Index and its components displayed different temporal dynamics than those observed in fuel moisture. Conclusion These results are important as they indicate that thinning may only have a limited, short-term impact towards diminishing the potential for crown fire spread in these stands and that current indices to evaluate fire risk may require a re-evaluation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0650-1
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • A spatial dataset of forest mensuration collected in black pine
           plantations in central Italy
    • Authors: Paolo Cantiani; Maurizio Marchi
      Abstract: Key message The dataset provides an exhaustive tree inventory with forest mensuration and spatial location carried out in 54 plots sampled in 45- to 55-year-old black pine plantations, located in two areas of Tuscany (central Italy). Forest mensuration includes horizontal and vertical structure measurements and a total of 4171 trees were geo-referenced. The most abundant species was the black pine, Pinus nigra spp. laricio , for which a total of 3631 trees were observed. The dataset was collected as part of the SelPiBio LIFE project (LIFE13 BIO/IT/000282). Dataset access at . Associated metadata available at'uuid=73591027-0f1e-40a3-95d0-b614517c1290&hl=eng . Context The main aim of the SelPiBio LIFE project ( is to demonstrate the effects of two thinning regimes, selective and from below, on soil biodiversity in young black pine stands. The spatial structure of forests and the relationships between trees are a good proxy of overall biodiversity level. Spatial datasets with geo referenced trees and related mensurational data represent the highest level of information for forest inventories and research activities. Aims This dataset has been developed during the A2 Action (Assessment of structural and mensurational parameters of the forest stands and the dead wood) of the project, to record the main mensurational parameters of the studied black pine stands. A tree-level database was compiled to describe the vertical and horizontal structure of 54 monitoring plots before the application of the silvicultural treatment. Methods In addition to classical in-field measurements (e.g. diameters at breast height, total height of the tree, crown depth etc.), all trees were georeferenced by means of polar coordinates collected from the centre of each monitoring plot, including crown projection on the ground, described with eight points. Then, a polynomial spline function was fitted across the recorded data to obtain a convex polygon and to calculate crown area and crown perimeter of each measured tree in GIS environment. Results A polygonal ESRI shapefile in ETRS89/UTM32N reference system (EPSG: 25832) with 4171 records representing the crown projections on the ground of each measured tree with all the mensurational parameters included into the attribute table. The database is freely available under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4. 182 0 License. Conclusion With this database, a wide range of forestry-related indices could be easily calculated, including geostatistical analysis and autocorrelation functions, to compare Italian artificial black pine stands with other studied forests.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0648-8
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Coordination of morphological and physiological traits in naturally
           recruited Abies alba Mill. saplings: insights from a structural equation
           modeling approach
    • Authors: Angelo Rita; Francesco Ripullone; Tiziana Gentilesca; Luigi Todaro; Antonio Saracino; Marco Borghetti
      Abstract: Key message Apical dominance ratio (ADR), reported as a suitable indicator for the growth and development of Abies alba , is concurrently determined by morphological and functional plant traits. Structural equation modeling (SEM) proved here to be an effective multivariate technique to represent the contribution of different variables in explaining ADR variability. Context During the natural recruitment of understory tree saplings, the light environment and competition among individuals may change drastically as well as their growth patterns. To cope with this, saplings have a remarkable ability to accordingly modify their physiology and morphology. Therefore, understanding the ecological significance of plant structural patterns requires an integrated view of morphological, architectural, and physiological attributes of plants. Aims Here, we applied a SEM approach to understand the mechanisms influencing the ADR, recently reported as suitable indicator of the growth conditions favoring silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) natural regeneration in Mediterranean areas. Methods A series of plant traits (e.g., root-collar diameter, leaf mass per area, and isotope composition) were combined into two main latent variables, namely Morphology and Physiology, to account for their relative contribution in explaining the ADR variability. • Results Our results underline the importance of variables accounting for the photosynthetic capacity and leaf economics in determining ADR; among them, leaf mass per area (LMA) emerged as an important driving variable. • Conclusion SEM proved to be an effective multivariate technique to represent the coordination of different morphological and functional variables in explaining ADR variability in silver fir.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0653-y
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Quantifying the sources of epistemic uncertainty in model predictions of
           insect disturbances in an uncertain climate
    • Authors: David R. Gray
      Abstract: Key message Natural disturbance can disrupt the anticipated delivery of forest-related ecosystem goods and services. Model predictions of natural disturbances have substantial uncertainties arising from the choices of input data and spatial scale used in the model building process, and the uncertainty of future climate conditions which are a major driver of disturbances. Quantifying the multiple contributions to uncertainty will aid decision making and guide future research needs. Context Forest management planning has been able, in the past, to rely on substantial empirical evidence regarding tree growth, succession, frequency and impacts of natural disturbances to estimate the future delivery of goods and services. Uncertainty has not been thought large enough to warrant consideration. Our rapidly changing climate is casting that empirical knowledge in doubt. Aims This paper describes how models of future spruce budworm outbreaks are plagued by uncertainty contributed by (among others): selection of data used in the model building process; model error; and uncertainty of the future climate and forest that will drive the future insect outbreak. The contribution of each to the total uncertainty will be quantified. Methods Outbreak models are built by the multivariate technique of reduced rank regression using different datasets. Each model and an estimate of its error are then used to predict future outbreaks under different future conditions of climate and forest composition. Variation in predictions is calculated, and the variance is apportioned among the model components that contributed to the epistemic uncertainty in predictions. Results Projections of future outbreaks are highly uncertain under the range of input data and future conditions examined. Uncertainty is not uniformly distributed spatially; the average 75% confidence interval for outbreak duration is 10 years. Estimates of forest inventory for model building and choice of climate scenario for projections of future climate had the greatest contributions to predictions of outbreak duration and severity. Conclusion Predictions of future spruce budworm outbreaks are highly uncertain. More precise outbreak data with which to build a new outbreak model will have the biggest impact on reducing uncertainty. However, an uncertain future climate will continue to produce uncertainty in outbreak projections. Forest management strategies must, therefore, include alternatives that present a reasonable likelihood of achieving acceptable outcomes over a wide range of future conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0645-y
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
  • Effects of soil preparation methods and plant types on the establishment
           of poplars on forest land
    • Authors: Rebecka Mc Carthy; Lars Rytter; Karin Hjelm
      Abstract: Key message The success of poplar plantations on forest land was affected by soil preparation, plant type, site, and clone. Mounding in combination with large plant types (rooted plants or long cuttings) of site-adapted clones achieved the highest survival and growth. Context Poplars (Populus species and hybrids) are fast-growing trees used to make various products. In north European countries, they are mainly grown on agricultural land, but interest in planting poplars on forest land has increased. Aims Plant damage and mortality problems occur on forest land, probably due to soil conditions and competing vegetation. It is therefore of interest to investigate whether combinations of soil preparation methods and plant materials can improve establishment. Methods At three sites in southern Sweden, the effects of four soil preparation treatments (no soil preparation, patch scarification, mounding, soil inversion) in combination with three plant types (short cuttings, long cuttings, rooted plants) were studied. Results Survival and growth were significantly influenced by site, soil preparation method, plant type, and their interactions. Mounding resulted in the best overall performance on all sites. Interactions between site and plant type revealed differences in growth dependent on site conditions, but rooted plants and long cuttings were in general most successful. Patch scarification and short cuttings were associated with lower survival and growth. Conclusion Soil preparation is needed to support survival and early growth, but the combination of method and plant type must be adapted to site conditions. The choice of clones should also be considered.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0647-9
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
  • Xylem traits in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) display a large
           plasticity in response to canopy release
    • Authors: Estelle Noyer; Barbara Lachenbruch; Jana Dlouhá; Catherine Collet; Julien Ruelle; François Ningre; Meriem Fournier
      Abstract: Key message The position of trees in the canopy impacts xylem structure and its inter-annual variation. After canopy release, the increase in the hydraulic conductivity of growth rings was driven by an increase in radial growth in large trees, and by both an increase in radial growth and changes in xylem structure in saplings. Context Forest canopies are frequently subjected to disturbances that allow understory trees to access the upper canopy. The effect of canopy release on xylem anatomy has been assessed in juvenile trees and saplings, while the potential acclimation of larger trees remains poorly documented. Aims We estimated the potential hydraulic conductivity of growth rings in large understory trees compared to overstory trees, and evaluated the responses to canopy release in large trees and in saplings. Methods We recorded radial growth, wood density, and vessel structure in beech trees according to their position within the canopy and their size. Xylem traits were followed during 6 years after canopy release for large trees, and during 2 years for saplings. Vessel diameter and frequency as well as ring area were used to compute the potential annual ring hydraulic conductivity. Results Large understory trees displayed lower radial growth increments and lower potential annual ring hydraulic conductivity than overstory trees. After canopy release, potential annual ring hydraulic conductivity increased in large trees, due exclusively to increased radial growth without any change in specific hydraulic conductivity. It increased in saplings due to both increased radial growth and increased specific conductivity. Conclusion Tree size impacted xylem structure and resulted in plasticity of the potential hydraulic conductivity of the annual tree ring following canopy release.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0634-1
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
  • A non-stochastic portfolio model for optimizing the transformation of an
           even-aged forest stand to continuous cover forestry when information about
           return fluctuation is incomplete
    • Authors: Katharina Messerer; Hans Pretzsch; Thomas Knoke
      Abstract: Key message Non-stochastic portfolio optimization of forest stands provides a good alternative to stochastic mean-variance optimization when available statistical data is incomplete. The suggested approach has a theoretical background in the areas of robust optimization, continuous multicriteria decision-making, and fuzzy theory. Resulting robust portfolios only show slight economic losses compared to the efficient frontier of a stochastic optimization. Context Economic optimization addressing diversification in mixed uneven-aged forest stands is a useful tool for forest planners. Aims The study aims to compare two approaches for optimizing rotation age cohort portfolios under risk. Rotation age cohorts emerge from age-based regeneration-harvesting operations simulated for two tree species: Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica. Methods The first optimization approach is a stochastic mean-variance approach. The second is a non-stochastic optimization approach, which has rarely been applied to optimize tree species composition and the distribution of harvested timber over many periods. It aims at relatively good solutions, even if the deviation from the initially assumed return is very high. The objective function for both approaches is sensitive to the selection of various harvesting periods for different parts of the stand. For the stochastic approach, the objective function maximizes the annuitized net present value (economic return) for specific levels of risk by allocating area proportions to harvesting periods and tree species. In the non-stochastic approach, the allocation of area proportions instead minimizes the maximum deviation from the greatest possible economic return among many uncertainty scenarios (non-stochastic approach). Results Portfolios from both approaches were diverse in rotation age cohorts. The non-stochastic portfolios were more diverse when compared with portfolios from the efficient frontier, which showed the same standard deviation. However, P. abies clearly dominated the non-stochastic portfolios, while stochastic portfolios also integrated beech to a greater extent, but only in very low risk portfolios. The economic losses of the non-stochastic portfolios compared to the efficient frontier of the mean-variance approach lay between 1 and 3% only for different levels of accepted risk. Conclusion The non-stochastic portfolio optimization over a large uncertainty space is so far uncommon in forest science, yet provides a viable alternative to stochastic optimization, particularly when available data is scarce. However, further research should consider ecological effects, such as increased resistance against hazards of conifers in mixed stands.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0643-0
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
  • Beech coppice conversion to high forest: results from a 31-year experiment
           in Eastern Pre-Alps
    • Authors: Barbara Mariotti; Giorgio Alberti; Alberto Maltoni; Andrea Tani; Pietro Piussi
      Abstract: Key message Selective thinning is a more viable method for beech coppice conversion to high forest when compared with thinning from below as it enhances tree growth, reduces mortality of the remaining trees, and allows to obtain stands with a higher mechanical stability and larger crowns. Context Beech forests in North-East Italy have been largely managed as coppice. Due to socio-economic changes, a large conversion to high forests program started in the second half of the past century. Aims A long-term experiment testing the effects on tree growth and stability of two different conversion methods (thinning from below—method A; selective thinning—method B) was implemented. Methods Both silvicultural treatments started in 1979 with a first thinning followed by a second one in 1997. All trees were periodically measured in order to assess mortality, stability, and growth during the period 1979–2010. In 2010, an assessment of stem quality and crown size was also performed. Results Both methods were economically viable, but method B acted with a higher intensity both in 1979 and in 1997, thus making the harvest more profitable for the owners. Moreover, method B enhanced tree growth, especially in the period after the first thinning, reduced mortality, and allowed to obtain stands with a higher mechanical stability and with larger crowns. Conclusion It would be possible to adopt some of the criteria prescribed with method B in future thinnings over the large areas actually managed with method A, as prescribed by the law.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0642-1
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
  • Adopting robust decision-making to forest management under climate change
    • Authors: Naomi Radke; Rasoul Yousefpour; Roderich von Detten; Stefan Reifenberg; Marc Hanewinkel
      Abstract: Key message Multi-objective robust decision making is a promising decision-making method in forest management under climate change as it adequately considers deep uncertainties and handles the long-term, inflexible, and multi-objective character of decisions. This paper provides guidance for application and recommendation on the design. Context Recent studies have promoted the application of robust decision-making approaches to adequately consider deep uncertainties in natural resource management. Yet, applications have until now hardly addressed the forest management context. Aims This paper seeks to (i) assemble different definitions of uncertainty and draw recommendation to deal with the different levels in decision making, (ii) outline those applications that adequately deal with deep uncertainty, and (iii) systematically review the applications to natural resources management in order to (iv) propose adoption in forest management. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of robust decision-making approaches and their applications in natural resource management. Different levels of uncertainty were categorized depending on available knowledge in order to provide recommendations on dealing with deep uncertainty. Robust decision-making approaches and their applications to natural resources management were evaluated based on different analysis steps. A simplified application to a hypothetical tree species selection problem illustrates that distinct robustness formulations may lead to different conclusions. Finally, robust decision-making applications to forest management under climate change uncertainty were evaluated and recommendations drawn. Results Deep uncertainty is not adequately considered in the forest management literature. Yet, the comparison of robust decision-making approaches and their applications to natural resource management provide guidance on applying robust decision making in forest management regarding decision contexts, decision variables, robustness metrics, and how uncertainty is depicted. Conclusion As forest management is characterized by long decision horizons, inflexible systems, and multiple objectives, and is subject to deeply uncertain climate change, the application of a robust decision-making framework using a global, so-called satisficing robustness metric is recommended. Further recommendations are distinguished depending on the decision context.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0641-2
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
  • Integrating regional climate change into allometric equations for
           estimating tree aboveground biomass of Masson pine in China
    • Authors: Liyong Fu; Xiangdong Lei; Zongda Hu; Weisheng Zeng; Shouzheng Tang; Peter Marshall; Lin Cao; Xinyu Song; Li Yu; Jingjing Liang
      Abstract: Key message A climate-sensitive aboveground biomass (AGB) equation, in combination with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling and dummy variable approach, was developed to examine how climate change may affect the allometric relationships between tree diameter and biomass. We showed that such changes in allometry need to be taken into account for estimating tree AGB in Masson pine. Context As a native species and being widely distributed in subtropical China, Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) forests play a pivotal role in maintaining forest ecosystem functions and mitigation of carbon concentration increase at the atmosphere. Traditional biomass allometric equations do not account for a potential effect of climate on the diameter–biomass relationships. The amplitude of such an effect remains poorly documented. Aims We presented a novel method for detecting the long-term (2041–2080) effects of climate change on the diameter–biomass relationships and the potential consequences for long-term changes of biomass accumulation for Masson pine. Methods Our approach was based on a climate-sensitive AGB model developed using a combined nonlinear mixed-effects model and dummy variable approach. Various climate-related variables were evaluated for their contributions to model improvement. Heteroscedasticity was accounted for by three residual variance functions: exponential function, power function, and constant plus function. Results The results showed that diameter at breast height, together with the long-term average of growing season temperature, total growing season precipitation, mean temperature of wettest quarter, and precipitation of wettest quarter, had significant effects on values of AGB. Excessive rain during the growing season and high mean temperature in the wettest quarter reduced the AGB, while a warm growing season and abundant precipitation in the wettest quarter increased the AGB. Conclusion Climate change significantly affected the allometric scale of biomass equation. The new climate-sensitive allometric model developed in this study may improve biomass predictions compared with the traditional model without climate effects. Our findings suggested that the AGB of Masson pine trees with the same diameter at breast height under three climate scenarios including representative concentration pathway (RCP) 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 in the future period 2041–2080 would increase by 24.8 ± 32.7% (mean ± standard deviation), 27.0 ± 33.4%, and 27.7 ± 33.8% compared with the constant climate (1950–2000), respectively. As a consequence, we may expect a significant regional variability and uncertainty in biomass estimates under climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0636-z
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
  • Is forest insurance a relevant vector to induce adaptation efforts to
           climate change?
    • Authors: Marielle Brunette; Stéphane Couture; François Pannequin
      Abstract: • Key message Insurance might be an efficient tool to strengthen adaptation of forest management to climate change. A theoretical model under uncertainty is proposed to highlight the effect, on adaptation decisions, of considering adaptation efforts in forest insurance contracts. Results show that insurance is relevant to increase adaptation efforts under some realistic conditions on forest owner’s uncertainty and risk preferences, and on the observability or not of adaptation efforts. • Context One of the challenges of forest adaptation to climate change is to encourage private forest owners to implement adaptation strategies. • Aims We suggest the analysis of forest insurance contracts against natural hazards as a vector to promote the implementation of adaptation efforts by private forest owners. • Methods We propose a theoretical model of insurance economics under risk and under uncertainty. • Results Our results indicate that when climate change makes the probability of the occurrence of the natural event uncertain, then it may be relevant to include adaptation efforts in the insurance contract, leading to an increase in the adaptation efforts of risk-averse and uncertainty-averse forest owners. In addition, we show that the relevance of insurance as a vector to promote adaptation efforts is greater when the forest owner’s effort is unobservable by the insurer as compared to a situation of perfectly observable effort. • Conclusion Under some realistic assumptions, the forest insurance contract seems to be a relevant tool to encourage forest owners to adapt to climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0639-9
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
  • Pertinence of reactive, active, and robust adaptation strategies in forest
           management under climate change
    • Authors: Rasoul Yousefpour; Andrey L. D. Augustynczik; Marc Hanewinkel
      Abstract: Key message Pertinence of alternative adaptation strategies to business as usual, namely reactive, active, and robust adaptation strategies, can be evaluated by incorporating the expected costs and benefits of adaptation, climate change uncertainty, and the risk attitudes of decision-makers. Context Forest management is used to coping with risky and uncertain projections and estimates. However, climate change adds a major challenge and necessitates adaptation in many ways. Aims This paper highlights the dependency of the decisions on adaptation strategies to four aspects of forest management: (i) the costs of mitigating undesirable climate change impacts on forests, (ii) the value of ecosystem goods and services to be sustained, (iii) uncertainties about future climate trajectories, and (iv) the attitude of decision-makers towards risk (risk aversion level). Methods We develop a framework to evaluate the pertinence of reactive, active, and robust adaptation strategies in forest management in response to climate change. Results Business as usual may still be retained if the value of the forest and cost of climate impacts are low. Otherwise, it is crucial to react and facilitate the resilience of affected forest resources or actively adapt in advance and improve forest resistance. Adaptation should be robust under any future climate conditions, if the value of the ecosystem, the impacts from climatic changes, and the uncertainty about climate scenarios are very high. Conclusion The decision framework for adaptation should take into account multiple aspects of forest management under climate change towards an active and robust strategy.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0640-3
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
  • Growth phenology in Pinus halepensis Mill.: apical shoot bud content and
           shoot elongation
    • Authors: Anna Hover; Fabien Buissart; Yves Caraglio; Christine Heinz; François Pailler; Merlin Ramel; Michel Vennetier; Bernard Prévosto; Sylvie Sabatier
      Abstract: Key message The chronology of periods of organogenesis and elongation is highlighted in Pinus halepensis.The two first growth units of an annual shoot are preformed inside the bud during the previous year. The following growth units are formed during the spring or summer of the current year. Context Analysis of annual shoot length growth phenology is crucial to assess the impact of climate change on tree production. Little is known about the basic growth characteristics and the phenology of pines. Aims The present study disentangles the roles of shoot organogenesis vs elongation in the annual growth cycle of the polycyclic Aleppo pine. Methods Growth of young Pinus halepensis trees was monitored monthly for 1 year. At each monitoring date, the bud content and meristem dimensions of the main stem shoots apices were analyzed. Results The two first growth units of an annual shoot are preformed inside the bud during the previous year. The following growth units are formed during the spring or summer of the current year. The gap between a shoot organogenesis and its elongation may vary from 1 month, for the last growth unit, to half a year, for the first growth units. Conclusion Our results underline the importance of taking seasonal environmental conditions from both the previous and the current year into account, in order to study the plasticity of annual shoot growth and its response to climate change and variability.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0637-y
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
  • Optimal sap flux sensor allocation for stand transpiration estimates: a
           non-dimensional analysis
    • Authors: Hikaru Komatsu; Tomonori Kume; Yoshinori Shinohara
      Abstract: Key message Measuring between-tree variations in sap flux density rather than azimuthal variations should be prioritized for reliable stand transpiration estimates based on sap flux methods. Context Stand transpiration (E) estimated using sap flux methods includes uncertainty induced by azimuthal variations and between-tree variations in sap flux density (F). Aims This study examines whether or not measuring F for two or more azimuthal directions to cover azimuthal variations in F leads to more reliable E estimates. This examination was done under the assumption that azimuthal and between-tree variations in F are not systematic and when a limited number of sensors are available. Methods We first non-dimensionalized the theoretical framework established by a previous study and developed a general hypothesis. We then validated the hypothesis quantitatively by numerical experiments. Results The non-dimensionalized theory allowed us to hypothesize that measuring F for one azimuthal direction would reduce uncertainty in E estimates more effectively than measuring F for two or more azimuthal directions. Results of the numerical experiments were found to support this hypothesis. Conclusion When the aforementioned assumptions are satisfied, allocating sensors to measure F for one azimuthal direction to cover between-tree variations in F always leads to more reliable E estimates.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0638-x
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
  • The influences of circular saws with sawteeth of mic-zero-degree radial
           clearance angles on surface roughness in wood rip sawing
    • Authors: Weiguang Li; Zhankuan Zhang; Xiaorui Peng; Bo Li
      Abstract: Key message The sawtooth parameters of the side edges likely affect surface roughness to a large extent in wood sawing. Our results point out the need to optimize the parameters of the side edges in order to maximize wood surface quality. Context Improving surface roughness of wood in rip sawing by optimizing the sawtooth parameters is a significant topic of focus in the research of wood processing. However, existing research focuses mainly on the optimization of the sawtooth parameters of the major cutting edges without taking into account the influences of length and angle of the side edges on surface roughness. Thus, adaptive parameters for the side edges should be proposed. Aims This study analyzes how the different parameters of side edges influence surface roughness when circular saws are used, and aims to resolve disparities between high feed speeds and better surface roughness. Methods In particular, this article presents the use of a sawtooth with a mic-zero-degree radial clearance angle. Northeast China ash (Fraxinus spp.) serves as the material for conducting this rip-sawing experiment. Nine types of sawtooth geometries at different feed speeds are used to study the influences of both the different radial clearance angles and the straight length of the zero-degree radial clearance angle on surface roughness (Ra). Results Surface roughness increases with the increase in feed speed, and the smaller the radial clearance angle of the sawteeth, the smaller the surface roughness. When the sawteeth have a mic-zero-degree radial clearance angle, the sawing surface roughness is lower than that of the value of sawteeth with radial clearance angles, especially when the straight length of the zero-degree radial clearance increases from 0 to 0.5 mm, in which case the decrease is most obvious. Conclusion Surface roughness depends, to a certain extent, on the depth of the saw notch. A small part of the side edge that forms the sawing surface participates in the actual cutting, and the length of this section is approximately equal to the feed per tooth. Sawteeth with mic-zero-degree radial clearance angles can improve the surface quality of sawing. Also, if the other cutting factors remain unchanged, surface roughness can be improved and friction can be reduced between the side edges and the wood by increasing the feed speed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0632-3
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
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