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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2341 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2341 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Annals of Forest Science
  [SJR: 0.929]   [H-I: 57]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1286-4560 - ISSN (Online) 1297-966X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2341 journals]
  • The effect of surface fire on tree ring growth of Pinus radiata trees
    • Authors: Thomas Seifert; Martina Meincken; Benedict O Odhiambo
      Abstract: Key message Pinus radiata trees showed significantly reduced basal area increments and increased latewood/earlywood ratios, when their stem was charred by surface fires even if no needle damage occurred. An interaction of fire damage and precipitation on growth was observed. Context Heat from forest fires is able to penetrate beyond the bark layer and damage or completely kill a tree’s cambium. Short-term growth reductions following surface fires have been reported for some species. However, most studies have in common that they describe a compound effect of stem and foliage damage. Aims This study investigated the impact of surface fires on the radial growth of Pinus radiata, where only the stem of trees was charred, while no needle damage was recorded. Methods Tree ring measurements were performed on cores obtained at breast height. Analysis of variance and tests, based on annual basal area increment values were calculated to quantify pre- and post-fire growth differences of tree ring width and latewood/earlywood ratios. Results The analysis revealed significant growth reductions following a surface fire on P. radiata in the year on which the fire occurred as well as in the following year. As a consequence of the fire, basal area increment and latewood/earlywood ratios were significantly reduced. An interaction of fire damage and precipitation on growth was observed. Conclusion The obtained results show how fires without crown damage can affect growth and tree ring structure of P. radiata trees and indicate that stem char could be associated with a significant decrease in ring width and latewood/earlywood ratio.
      PubDate: 2017-04-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0608-8
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Quantifying micro-environmental variation in tropical rainforest
           understory at landscape scale by combining airborne LiDAR scanning and a
           sensor network
    • Authors: Blaise Tymen; Grégoire Vincent; Elodie A. Courtois; Julien Heurtebize; Jean Dauzat; Isabelle Marechaux; Jérôme Chave
      Abstract: Key message We combined aerial LiDAR and ground sensors to map the spatial variation in micro-environmental variables of the tropical forest understory. We show that these metrics depend on forest type and proximity to canopy gaps. Our study has implications for the study of natural forest regeneration. Context Light impacts seedling dynamics and animals, either directly or through their effect on air temperature and relative humidity. However, the micro-environment of tropical forest understories is heterogeneous. Aims We explored whether aerial laser scanning (LiDAR) can describe short-scale micro-environmental variables. We also studied the determinants of their spatial and intra-annual variation. Methods We used a small-footprint LiDAR coverage combined with data obtained from 47 environmental sensors monitoring continuously understory light, moisture and temperature during 1 year over the area. We developed and tested two models relating micro-environmental conditions to LiDAR metrics. Results We found that a volume-based model predicts empirical light fluxes better than a model based on the proportion of the LiDAR signal reaching the ground. Understory field sensors measured an average daily light flux between 2.9 and 4.7% of full sunlight. Relative seasonal variation was comparable in the understory and in clearings. In canopy gaps, light flux was 4.3 times higher, maximal temperature 15% higher and minimal relative humidity 25% lower than in the forest understory. We found consistent micro-environmental differences among forest types. Conclusions LiDAR coverage improves the fine-scale description of micro-environmental variables of tropical forest understories. This opens avenues for modelling the distribution and dynamics of animal and plant populations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0628-z
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Recent growth changes in Western European forests are driven by climate
           warming and structured across tree species climatic habitats
    • Authors: Marie Charru; Ingrid Seynave; Jean-Christophe Hervé; Romain Bertrand; Jean-Daniel Bontemps
      Abstract: Key message Recent growth changes (1980–2007) in Western European forests strongly vary across tree species, and range from +42% in mountain contexts to −17% in Mediterranean contexts. These changes reveal recent climate warming footprint and are structured by species' temperature (−) and precipitation (+) growing conditions. Context Unprecedented climate warming impacts forests extensively, questioning the respective roles of climatic habitats and tree species in forest growth responses. National forest inventories ensure a repeated and spatially systematic monitoring of forests and form a unique contributing data source. Aims A primary aim of this paper was to estimate recent growth changes in eight major European tree species, in natural contexts ranging from mountain to Mediterranean. A second aim was to explore their association with species’ climatic habitat and contemporary climate change. Methods Using >315,000 tree increments measured in >25,000 NFI plots, temporal changes in stand basal area increment (BAI) were modelled. Indicators of climate normals and of recent climatic change were correlated to species BAI changes. Results BAI changes spanned from −17 to +42% over 1980–2007 across species. BAI strongly increased for mountain species, showed moderate/no increase for generalist and temperate lowland species and declined for Mediterranean species. BAI changes were greater in colder/wetter contexts than in warmer/drier ones where declines were observed. This suggested a role for climate warming, further found more intense in colder contexts and strongly correlated with species BAI changes. Conclusion The predominant role of climate warming and species climatic habitat in recent growth changes is highlighted in Western Europe. Concern is raised for Mediterranean species, showing growth decreases in a warmer climate with stable precipitation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0626-1
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Bioindication and modelling of atmospheric deposition in forests enable
           exposure and effect monitoring at high spatial density across scales
    • Authors: Winfried Schröder; Stefan Nickel; Simon Schönrock; Roman Schmalfuß; Werner Wosniok; Michaela Meyer; Harry Harmens; Marina V. Frontasyeva; Renate Alber; Julia Aleksiayenak; Lambe Barandovski; Oleg Blum; Alejo Carballeira; Maria Dam; Helena Danielsson; Ludwig De Temmermann; Anatoly M. Dunaev; Barbara Godzik; Katrin Hoydal; Zvonka Jeran; Gunilla Pihl Karlsson; Pranvera Lazo; Sebastien Leblond; Jussi Lindroos; Siiri Liiv; Sigurður H. Magnússon; Blanka Mankovska; Encarnación Núñez-Olivera; Juha Piispanen; Jarmo Poikolainen; Ion V. Popescu; Flora Qarri; Jesus Miguel Santamaria; Mitja Skudnik; Zdravko Špirić; Trajce Stafilov; Eiliv Steinnes; Claudia Stihi; Ivan Suchara; Lotti Thöni; Hilde Thelle Uggerud; Harald G. Zechmeister
      Abstract: Key message Moss surveys provide spatially dense data on environmental concentrations of heavy metals and nitrogen which, together with other biomonitoring and modelling data, can be used for indicating deposition to terrestrial ecosystems and related effects across time and areas of different spatial extension. Context For enhancing the spatial resolution of measuring and mapping atmospheric deposition by technical devices and by modelling, moss is used complementarily as bio-monitor. Aims This paper investigated whether nitrogen and heavy metal concentrations derived by biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition are statistically meaningful in terms of compliance with minimum sample size across several spatial levels (objective 1), whether this is also true in terms of geostatistical criteria such as spatial auto-correlation and, by this, estimated values for unsampled locations (objective 2) and whether moss indicates atmospheric deposition in a similar way as modelled deposition, tree foliage and natural surface soil at the European and country level, and whether they indicate site-specific variance due to canopy drip (objective 3). Methods Data from modelling and biomonitoring atmospheric deposition were statistically analysed by means of minimum sample size calculation, by geostatistics as well as by bivariate correlation analyses and by multivariate correlation analyses using the Classification and Regression Tree approach and the Random Forests method. Results It was found that the compliance of measurements with the minimum sample size varies by spatial scale and element measured. For unsampled locations, estimation could be derived. Statistically significant correlations between concentrations of heavy metals and nitrogen in moss and modelled atmospheric deposition, and concentrations in leaves, needles and soil were found. Significant influence of canopy drip on nitrogen concentration in moss was proven. Conclusion Moss surveys should complement modelled atmospheric deposition data as well as other biomonitoring approaches and offer a great potential for various terrestrial monitoring programmes dealing with exposure and effects.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0621-6
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The use of the first industrial X-ray CT scanner increases the lumber
           
    • Authors: Andreas Rais; Enrico Ursella; Enrico Vicario; Federico Giudiceandrea
      Abstract: Key message Industrial computed tomography scanning of logs provides detailed information on timber quality prior to sawing. A sawing simulation—considering log rotation angle and knot size accuracy—revealed an average value increase of up to 20% for the best angle compared to the conventional horns-up position. Context Computed tomography (CT) scanning has the potential to improve the value of products sawn from logs and meets the increasing demands of the wood industry for detailed information on log quality prior to processing. Aims In a validation step, automated measurements of knot cluster variable DAB (DIN 4074-1:2012-06) using CT were compared with manual measurements. In a second optimization step, the hypothesis that the value of the sawn products is increased by sawing at the best rotation angle as opposed to the horns-up position was tested. Methods A sample of 36 Douglas-fir logs were scanned in an industrial CT scanner, and sawn into boards. Knots on the boards were manually measured, and compared with the corresponding knots on virtual boards created from the CT data. The error of the DAB was measured by comparing CT data to manual measurements. An optimized sawing simulation was performed, using the measured DAB error to account for CT measurement errors, as well as a rotational error to account for errors in the log turning equipment. Using the results of the sawing simulation, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to show the potential and benefit of an industrial CT scanner. Results The three largest DABs measured by the CT showed good correlation to the measurements on the manual boards. The simulation revealed an average increase of value from 4 to 20% compared to the conventional horns-up position depending on the relative price differences between the strength grades. Conclusion By using a CT scanner to optimize sawing, sawmill owners can process logs in a better way to produce final products with increased added value.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0630-5
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Automated classification of wood transverse cross-section micro-imagery
           from 77 commercial Central-African timber species
    • Authors: Núbia Rosa da Silva; Maaike De Ridder; Jan M. Baetens; Jan Van den Bulcke; Mélissa Rousseau; Odemir Martinez Bruno; Hans Beeckman; Joris Van Acker; Bernard De Baets
      Abstract: •Key message Pattern recognition has become an important tool to aid in the identification and classification of timber species. In this context, the focus of this work is the classification of wood species using texture characteristics of transverse cross-section images obtained by microscopy. The results show that this approach is robust and promising. •Context Considering the lack of automated methods for wood species classification, machine vision based on pattern recognition might offer a feasible and attractive solution because it is less dependent on expert knowledge, while existing databases containing high-quality microscopy images can be exploited. •Aims This work focuses on the automated classification of 1221 micro-images originating from 77 commercial timber species from the Democratic Republic of Congo. •Methods Microscopic images of transverse cross-sections of all wood species are taken in a standardized way using a magnification of 25 ×. The images are represented as texture feature vectors extracted using local phase quantization or local binary patterns and classified by a nearest neighbor classifier according to a triplet of labels (species, genus, family). •Results The classification combining both local phase quantization and linear discriminant analysis results in an average success rate of approximately 88% at species level, 89% at genus level and 90% at family level. The success rate of the classification method is remarkably high. More than 50% of the species are never misclassified or only once. The success rate is increasing from the species, over the genus to the family level. Quite often, pattern recognition results can be explained anatomically. Species with a high success rate show diagnostic features in the images used, whereas species with a low success rate often have distinctive anatomical features at other microscopic magnifications or orientations than those used in our approach. •Conclusion This work demonstrates the potential of a semi-automated classification by resorting to pattern recognition. Semi-automated systems like this could become valuable tools complementing conventional wood identification.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0619-0
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Forest modelling: the gamma shape mixture model and simulation of tree
           diameter distributions
    • Authors: Rafał Podlaski
      Abstract: • Key message New types of distribution functions are needed to model the dynamics of stands where important age classes are represented by few trees. In this study the gamma shape mixture model and two simulation methods were used for generating tree diameter data. • Context To analyse forest dynamics, it is necessary to know distribution of the characteristics (mainly tree diameters) of trees forming particular developmental phases. In many forest inventories, the measurement of large diameter at breast height (DBH) samples is practically impossible. In this case, DBH distributions can be generated using theoretical models. • Aims The aim of this study was to assess the precision of the approximation of empirical DBH data using the gamma shape mixture (GSM) model and kernel density estimation. The strengths and weaknesses of the two simulation methods were presented and discussed. • Methods The GSM model was adopted to approximate empirical DBH data collected in 20 near-natural stands. Two simulation methods were used: (a) the procedure based on a multimodal distribution and gamma random numbers (MDGR procedure) and (b) MCMC techniques with Metropolis–Hastings sampling (MH method). • Results The GSM model precisely fitted the investigated DBH distributions. The MDGR procedure was slightly more precise than the MH method, especially in the case of the samples of 250 DBHs. The level of homogeneity within the drawn DBH sets was similar for all samples. • Conclusion The GSM model is very flexible. The DBH random variates, generated with the use of analysed procedures, represented all tree generations being significant from a biological point of view.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0629-y
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • A critical analysis of methods for rapid and nondestructive determination
           of wood density in standing trees
    • Authors: Shan Gao; Xiping Wang; Michael C. Wiemann; Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Ross; Lihai Wang
      Abstract: Key message Field methods for rapid determination of wood density in trees have evolved from increment borer, torsiometer, Pilodyn, and nail withdrawal into sophisticated electronic tools of resistance drilling measurement. A partial resistance drilling approach coupled with knowledge of internal tree density distribution may offer an alternative solution for wood density surveys in the future. Context Finding ways to nondestructively assess wood density in trees has been a quest by foresters and wood scientists around the world. In the past several decades, traditional increment borer methods have gradually evolved into sophisticated electronic tools of resistance drilling measurements. Aims We provide a comprehensive review of research development in the use of several field nondestructive methods for rapid determination of wood density in trees and discuss pros and cons of each method for field applications. Results The use of the increment borer has been a standard method for assessing wood density in trees, and it has been further developed into a system approach allowing the use of outer wood cores and knowledge of internal density distribution for predicting wood density of major tree components. Studies on the use of torsiometer, Pilodyn, and nail withdrawal tools have had very limited success and do not warrant replacement of the increment borer. Resistance drilling, on the other hand, has emerged as a potential tool for more efficient and economical collection of wood density information in trees. Conclusion The resistance drilling method has considerable advantages over other methods in terms of less damage to trees, faster operation, and higher measurement sensitivity. Internal friction is a key factor that currently hinders further application.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0623-4
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Quantifying competition in white spruce ( Picea glauca ) plantations
    • Authors: Alexa Bérubé-Deschênes; Tony Franceschini; Robert Schneider
      Abstract: Key message In mixed forest plantations in sub-boreal forests with high levels of natural regeneration ingrowth, competition must be quantified differently for each species, with distant-independent indices working better for the planted species and distant-dependent indices for ingrown balsam fir. Although broadleaved competition hinders growth of coniferous species more than coniferous competition, the differentiation between clades is not important enough to improve growth predictions. Context The use of ecosystem-based forest management has changed how forest stands are tended. This shift in the management paradigm has led to a higher tolerance in natural ingrowth regeneration in plantations. The correct way of quantifying competition must thus be assessed to develop growth simulators. Aims An individual tree relative basal area increment (RBAI) growth model for white spruce, balsam fir and other coniferous and broadleaved species was calibrated. Methods Using data obtained from 94 sample plots in 48 white spruce plantations from Eastern Quebec, we considered both linear and nonlinear models of RBAI as a function of site index, tree size and tree competition. The tested distance-dependent and distance-independent indices were also discriminated according to competitor clade (conifers or broadleaves). Results The best competition index for balsam fir was distance-dependent whereas a distant-independent one was retained for the other species groups. Moreover, broadleaved competitors had stronger effect on RBAI for white spruce growth when compared to coniferous competitors. Conclusion Competition must be quantified depending on if the species is planted or ingrown. However, dividing competition into clades (i.e. coniferous versus broadleaved) is not necessary, at least in the present study.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0624-3
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Improving the utility, performance, and durability of wood- and bio-based
           composites
    • Authors: J.E. Winandy; J.J. Morrell
      Abstract: Key message This paper briefly reviews the state of the art in various types of wood- and bio-based composites, summarizes recent advances, and then discusses future possibilities for improving the durability of wood- and bio-based composites. Context Wood can be processed and reformed into a number of different biocomposites. Aims We aimed at reviewing the state of the art in various types of wood- and bio-based composites. Methods Review of utility, performance and durability of wood- and bio-based composites. Results The advanced biocomposites will: Combine wood, natural biofibers, and non-biomaterials to create synergistic hybrid materials that far exceed performance capabilities of current biocomposites Be renewable, recyclable, and totally sustainable Provide superior performance and serviceability exceeding performance of current biocomposites Be more durable, dimensionally stable, moisture proof, and fire resistant Be less expensive to produce and use (over the life cycle of use) than the materials they replace Conclusion The next generation of advanced wood- and bio-based composites must provide high-performance construction and specialty products that simultaneously promote resource and environmental sustainability and provide advanced performance, long-term performance, enhanced durability, and value.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0625-2
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Effect of species grouping and site variables on aboveground biomass
           models for lowland tropical forests of the Indo-Malay region
    • Authors: Solichin Manuri; Cris Brack; Teddy Rusolono; Fatmi Noor’an; Louis Verchot; Sandhi I. Maulana; Wahyu C . Adinugroho; Hery Kurniawan; Dian Wulansih Sukisno; Gita Ardia Kusuma; Arif Budiman; Rahmad Supri Anggono; Chairil Anwar Siregar; Onrizal Onrizal; Dhany Yuniati; Emma Soraya
      Abstract: Key message This study assessed the effect of ecological variables on tree allometry and provides more accurate aboveground biomass (AGB) models through the involvement of large samples representing major islands, biogeographical zones and various succession and degradation levels of natural lowland forests in the Indo-Malay region. The only additional variable that significantly and largely contributed to explaining AGB variation is grouping based on wood-density classes. Context There is a need for an AGB equation at tree level for the lowland tropical forests of the Indo-Malay region. In this respect, the influence of geographical, climatic and ecological gradients needs to be assessed. Aims The overall aim of this research is to provide a regional-scale analysis of allometric models for tree AGB of lowland tropical forests in the Indo-Malay region. Methods A dataset of 1300 harvested trees (5 cm ≤ trunk diameter ≤ 172 cm) was collected from a wide range of succession and degradation levels of natural lowland forests through direct measurement and an intensive literature search of principally grey publications. We performed ANCOVA to assess possible irregular datasets from the 43 study sites. After ANCOVA, a 1201-tree dataset was selected for the development of allometric equations. We tested whether the variables related to climate, geographical region and species grouping affected tree allometry in the lowland forest of the Indo-Malay region. Results Climatic and major taxon-based variables were not significant in explaining AGB variations. Biogeographical zone was a significant variable explaining AGB variation, but it made only a minor contribution on the accuracy of AGB models. The biogeographical effect on AGB variation is more indirect than its effect on species and stand characteristics. In contrast, the integration of wood-density classes improved the models significantly. Conclusion Our AGB models outperformed existing local models and will be useful for improving the accuracy on the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in tropical forests. However, more samples of large trees are required to improve our understanding of biomass distribution across various forest types and along geographical and elevation gradients.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0618-1
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Changes of secondary metabolites in Pinus sylvestris L. needles under
           increasing soil water deficit
    • Authors: Domingo Sancho-Knapik; María Ángeles Sanz; José Javier Peguero-Pina; Ülo Niinemets; Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín
      Abstract: Key message A multiphasic response to water deficit was found in Scots pine primary and secondary metabolism. First, an increase of terpenoids coincided with the stomatal closure. Second, an accumulation of proline, ABA, and shikimic acid was detected when photosynthesis was negligible. Context Drought-induced mortality is characterized by a major needle yellowing followed by severe defoliation and whole branch death. Before these external visual symptoms of drought stress take place, different alterations occur in plant metabolism. Aims This study aims to detect changes in primary and secondary metabolism of Pinus sylvestris L. in response to a decrease in soil water availability. Methods We analyzed needle water potential, photosynthetic characteristics, and concentrations of proline, terpenoids, shikimic acid, total polyphenols, and abscisic acid (ABA) in P. sylvestris through a 55-day soil water deficit period. Results Concentrations of most metabolites varied with the decrease in soil water availability, but changes in different compounds were triggered at different times, highlighting a multiphasic response. Increases in monoterpene and sesquiterpenoid content at moderate water deficit coincided with stomatal closure which preceded the accumulation of proline, ABA, and shikimic acid under severe water deficit when net photosynthesis was negligible. Conclusion This work confirms that most of the secondary metabolites under investigation in Pinus sylvestris did not increase until a moderate to severe water deficit was experienced, when photosynthesis was limited by stomatal closure.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0620-7
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Understory structure and function following release from cattle grazing
           and overstory thinning in Mediterranean conifer plantations
    • Authors: Yagil Osem; Tom Fogel; Yossi Moshe; Mor Ashkenazi; Shlomo Brant
      Abstract: Key message Cattle grazing and overstory cover restrict understory growth and interact in shaping the understory community structure in Mediterranean conifer plantations. Context Understanding how silvicultural manipulations drive understory structure and function in Mediterranean pine plantations is essential for their multifunctional management. Aims This paper aims to study the interactive effects of cattle grazing and overstory thinning on understory structure and function. Methods Ten plots (0.25 ha) were selected in East Mediterranean mature Pinus brutia plantation (rainfall = 600 mm year−1) representing thinned (≈100 trees ha−1, leaf area index (LAI) ≈ 1.6) and non-thinned (≈230 trees ha−1, LAI ≈ 3.5) areas. Two subplots (100 m2) within each plot were fenced in 2000 and 2006 while a third one remained grazed. Understory growth and species composition were measured in 2010. Results Thinning and grazing exclusion both positively influenced woody growth with their combined effect during 10 years leading to 20-fold increase in vegetation volume. An increase (15-fold) in herbaceous biomass was recorded 4 years after grazing exclusion but disappeared 10 years after exclusion due to increased woody cover. Species richness was not influenced by grazing but was positively affected by thinning. Understory composition was affected by grazing × thinning interaction with herbaceous ephemerals and short woody species being more frequent in grazed, thinned areas while larger woody species were more associated with ungrazed, non-thinned areas. Conclusion Grazing impacts on forest understories depend on overstory cover. We propose variable grazing-thinning combinations to meet multiple management objectives.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0622-5
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Forward selection in a maritime pine polycross progeny trial using
           pedigree reconstruction
    • Authors: Marjorie Vidal; Christophe Plomion; Annie Raffin; Luc Harvengt; Laurent Bouffier
      Abstract: Key message Molecular markers were used for paternity recovery in a maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster Ait.) polycross trial, facilitating forward selection. Different breeding strategies for seed orchard establishment were evaluated by comparing genetic gains and diversity. This work opens up new perspectives in maritime pine breeding. Context Polycross mating designs are widely used in forest tree breeding to evaluate parental breeding values for backward selection. Alternatively, polycross progeny trials may be used to select the best trees on the basis of individual breeding values and molecular pedigree analysis. Aims This study aimed to test such a forward selection strategy for the maritime pine breeding program. Methods In a maritime pine polycross trial, progeny with higher breeding values for growth and stem straightness was first preselected with or without relatedness constraints. After paternity recovery, the preselected trees were ranked on the basis of their breeding values, estimated from the recovered full pedigree. Finally, the best candidates were selected with three different strategies (forward, backward, mixed) and three levels of coancestry constraints to establish a virtual clonal seed orchard. Results Complete pedigrees were successfully recovered for most of the preselected trees. There was no major difference in expected genetic gains between the two preselection strategies which differed for relatedness constraints. Genetic gains were slightly higher for forward selection than for classical backward selection. Conclusion This seminal study opens up new perspectives for using forward selection within the French maritime pine breeding program.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0596-8
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Tannin-caprolactam and Tannin-PEG formulations as outdoor wood
           preservatives: biological properties
    • Authors: Jinbo Hu; Marie-France Thevenon; Sabrina Palanti; Gianluca Tondi
      Abstract: Key Message This article presents the enhancement in boron fixation as well as the improved biological resistance against fungi and termites for wood samples treated with tannin-caprolactam and tannin-PEG formulations. Context Although the recently developed tannin-boron wood preservatives have shown high biological protection, they presented also average resistance against weathering. The tannin-caprolactam formulations have shown improved weathering resistances and dimensional stability. Aims For this reason, more detailed biological tests were performed to evaluate the influence of the caprolactam and PEG on the biological resistance. Methods In this paper, the boron leaching of the tannin-caprolactam and tannin-PEG impregnated Scots pine specimens was observed and the biocidal effect against fungi (Antrodia spp. and Coniophora puteana) and insects (Reticulitermes flavipes and Hylotrupes bajulus) were determined according to the guidelines of EN 113, EN 117, and EN 47. Results The advanced formulations containing PEG have shown interesting resistance against fungal decay, but very low penetration and weak resistance against larvae while the tannin-caprolactam preservatives have shown overall improved biological performances and higher boron fixations. Conclusion The biocidal activity of the caprolactam-added formulations was overall enhanced and therefore these formulations are confirmed to be an interesting alternative for the wood preservation in outdoor environment.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0606-x
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of intra-ring wood density profiles using NIRS: comparison with
           the X-ray method
    • Authors: Ricardo Baettig; Jorge Cornejo; Jorge Guajardo
      Abstract: Key message Pith-to-bark wood density profiling is interesting in forestry science. By comparing it with the X-ray method, this study proved that a fiber optic NIR spectrometer with a high-precision displacement system could accurately measure intra-ring wood density with a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm. Context Most near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies for wood density determination use samples that have been pulverized beforehand. Attenuation of ionizing radiation is still the standard method to determine wood density with high spatial resolution. However, there is evidence that NIRS could be an accurate and affordable method for determining intra-ring density in solid wood strips. Aims In this study, we research whether the results published for intra-ring density predictions in wood can be improved when calibrated with X-ray microdensitometry. Methods The measurements were made using a fiber optic probe with a separation between measurement points of 0.508 mm in a range between 1200 and 2200 nm. A total of 4520 density points were used to create partial least squares regression (PLSR). X-ray densitometry data were used as reference values. Twenty PLSR calibrations were randomly executed on 31 samples collected from 28 Pinus radiata D. Don trees. Results Upon selecting 20 latent variables, the R 2 value was 0.873 for the training group and 0.895 for the validation group, while RMSEP values are 43.1 × 10−3 and 47.1 × 10−3 g cm−3 for the training and validation groups, respectively. The range error ratio (RER) was 13.7. Conclusion The RER was high and almost in the range suggested for quantification purposes. Results are superior to wood density studies in the literature which do not employ spatial resolution and to those found in studies using hyperspectral imaging.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0597-7
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Acoustic evaluation of loblolly pine tree- and lumber-length logs allows
           for segregation of lumber modulus of elasticity, not for modulus of
           rupture
    • Authors: Mark Alexander Butler; Joseph Dahlen; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Cristian Montes; Finto Antony; Richard F. Daniels
      Abstract: Key message Loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda ) logs can be evaluated using acoustic velocity whereby threshold acoustic velocity values can be set to ensure lumber meets specified mechanical property design values for modulus of elasticity. Context There is a need to better sort logs according to lumber quality for improved decision making and wood utilization because merchantable logs are being harvested from different stand types including natural forests, conventional plantations, and intensively managed plantations, all with differences in rotation ages, growth rates, and wood quality traits. Aims This study aimed to link tree- and lumber-length log acoustic velocity with the resulting lumber properties as tested in static bending from five intensively managed loblolly pine stands in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Georgia. Methods Acoustic velocity was measured using the resonance-based approach on 87 tree-length logs and 244 lumber-length logs. The logs were then processed into 797 pieces of 38 mm by 89 mm (2×4), 140 mm (2×6), 184 mm (2×8), and 235 mm (2×10) dimension lumber, dried, and tested in static bending. Results Mean MOE of the lumber had moderate relationships with acoustic velocity of the logs (R 2 = 0.49) whereas MOR and acoustic velocity did not have a strong relationship (R 2 = 0.20). Accounting for log position increased the performance of the mean lumber MOE model (R 2 = 0.62) which was further increased by adding green density and small-end diameter (R 2 = 0.67). Utilization of acoustics was effective for segregating logs based on lumber modulus of elasticity and did not depend on knowing tree or stand information such as age, site quality, and silviculture history. Conclusion Acoustic velocity evaluation of tree- and lumber-length logs could be employed to segregate logs within the supply chain to ensure that lumber would meet specified design values.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0615-9
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A generalized algebraic difference approach allows an improved estimation
           of aboveground biomass dynamics of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Castanopsis
           sclerophylla forests
    • Authors: Xiaolu Tang; Lutz Fehrmann; Fengying Guan; David I. Forrester; Rubén Guisasola; César Pérez-Cruzado; Torsten Vor; Yuanchang Lu; Juan Gabriel Álvarez-González; Christoph Kleinn
      Abstract: Key message A generalized algebraic difference approach (GADA) developed in this study improved the estimation of aboveground biomass dynamics of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook and Castanopsis sclerophylla (Lindl.) Schott forests. This could significantly improve the fieldwork efficiency for dynamic biomass estimation without repeated measurements. Context The estimation of biomass growth dynamics and stocks is a fundamental requirement for evaluating both the capability and potential of forest carbon sequestration. However, the biomass dynamics of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Castanopsis sclerophylla using the generalized algebraic difference approach (GADA) model has not been made to date. Aims This study aimed to quantify aboveground biomass (AGB, including stem, branch and leaf biomass) dynamics and AGB increment in C. lanceolata and C. sclerophylla forests by combining a GADA for diameter prediction with allometric biomass models. Methods A total of 12 plots for a C. lanceolata plantation and 11 plots for a C. sclerophylla forest were selected randomly from a 100 m × 100 m systematic grid placed over the study area. GADA model was developed based on tree ring data for each stand. Results GADA models performed well for diameter prediction and successfully predicted AGB dynamics for both stands. The mean AGB of the C. lanceolata stand ranged from 69.4 ± 7.7 Mg ha−1 in 2010 to 102.5 ± 11.4 Mg ha−1 in 2013, compared to 136.9 ± 7.0 Mg ha−1 in 2010 to 154.8 ± 8.0 Mg ha−1 in 2013 for C. sclerophylla. The stem was the main component of AGB stocks and production. Significantly higher production efficiency (stem production/leaf area index) and AGB increment was observed for C. lancolata compared to C. sclerophylla. Conclusion Dynamic GADA models could overcome the limitations posed by within-stand competition and limited biometric data, can be applied to study AGB dynamics and AGB increment, and contribute to improving our understanding of net primary production and carbon sequestration dynamics in forest ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0603-0
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Genetic monitoring of traditional chestnut orchards reveals a complex
           genetic structure
    • Authors: M.A. Martín; E. Monedero; L.M. Martín
      Abstract: Key message This study presents the results of a systematic genetic analysis between wild and cultivated chestnuts in an orchard in southern Spain, highlighting a complex structure and considerable genetic diversity and opening the possibility to generalize this approach to other Mediterranean orchards. Context Tree genetic monitoring offers a good opportunity to evaluate populations and preserve their long-term adaptive evolutionary potential. Chestnut is a multipurpose species of high economic importance in the Mediterranean basin and considered an example of integration between natural and man-driven distribution of diversity under changing environmental and historical conditions. Due to its multipurpose characteristics, man influenced its populations (grafting/sexual propagation) and a complex genetic structure is expected. Aims We monitored the trees of a chestnut orchard for studying the genetic diversity and relationship in grafts and rootstocks and detecting possible response in its adaptive potential. Methods For this, morphological traits and genomic and genic microsatellite markers were used. Results Chestnut trees showed considerable genetic structure, with high level of clonality in the varieties and genetic diversity in rootstocks. The similarity analysis revealed a different clustering pattern for varieties, detecting higher variability for genomic microsatellite markers. Rootstocks harboured a high level of diversity, not previously described, and not contained in the genetic information from populations and varieties from the same region. Conclusion Results contribute to understanding the human role in the management of chestnut and demonstrate that rootstocks constitute an unexploited reservoir of variation valuable for conservation strategies against stress factors and future and unpredictable environmental changes.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0610-1
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Independent lines of evidence of a genetic relationship between acoustic
           wave velocity and kraft pulp yield in Eucalyptus globulus
    • Authors: Matthew G. Hamilton; Jules S. Freeman; David P. Blackburn; Geoffrey M. Downes; David J. Pilbeam; Brad M Potts
      Abstract: Key message Multiple lines of evidence suggest acoustic wave velocity (AWV) would provide a rapid and efficient method to indirectly select for superior pulp yield in Eucalyptus globulus breeding programs. Context Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most widely planted hardwood species in temperate regions of the world and is primarily grown for pulpwood. Aims To determine if acoustic wave velocity (AWV) can be used to indirectly select for kraft pulp yield in E. globulus. Methods Genetic group effects, additive and non-additive variance components, and genetic correlations were estimated for AWV and pulpwood traits, including Kraft pulp yield. In a separate trial, the relative position of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits was compared. Results Estimated narrow-sense heritabilities for AWV and pulp yield were both 0.26, and these traits were strongly genetically correlated (0.84). Furthermore, co-located QTL for these traits were identified. Further evidence that AWV could be used to indirectly select for pulp yield was provided by the ranking of genetic groups—Otways and King Island had the highest AWV and pulp yield and Strzelecki and Tasmania the lowest. There was no evidence of dominance variation in wood property traits. Conclusion Together, these findings suggest that AWV could be used as a selection criterion for kraft pulp yield in E. globulus breeding programs.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0617-2
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
 
 
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