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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Annals of Forest Science
  [SJR: 0.929]   [H-I: 57]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1286-4560 - ISSN (Online) 1297-966X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Fuzzy modelling and mapping soil moisture for observed periods and climate
           scenarios. An alternative for dynamic modelling at the national and
           regional scale'
    • Authors: Stefan Nickel; Winfried Schröder
      Abstract: Key message Average soil moisture was spatially modelled for observed periods and climate scenarios using a fuzzy logic approach. Accordingly, a significant decline of soil moisture until 2070 in Germany and the Kellerwald National Park could be evidenced for soils influenced by ground water and by stagnant water and at sites on steep slopes and on southerly slopes. Context Soil moisture is an essential environmental factor affecting the condition of forests throughout time with high spatial variance. To adapt forests to climate change, assessments of ecological integrity and services in forest management and nature conservation need spatio-temporal estimations of current and future soil moisture. Dynamic modelling of soil moisture even with rather simple models needs numerous data which are often not available for areas of large spatial extent. Aims Therefore, the objectives of this investigation were to (1) spatio-temporally estimate ecological soil moisture with available data covering the whole territory of Germany, (2) to specify these estimates for the regional scale, (3) to statistically analyse temporal trends of modelled soil moisture for the time period 1961–2070 and (4) to map soil moisture changes (drying-out) at both national and regional levels. Methods A fuzzy rule-based model was developed allowing the combination of a pedological and an ecological soil moisture classification. The fuzzy modelling approach was applied for mapping average soil moisture at two spatial scales. Results Soil moisture was modelled and mapped on a scale of 1:500,000 across Germany and regionally specified on a scale of 1:25,000 for the Kellerwald National Park for the time intervals 1961–1990, 1991–2010, 2011–2040 and 2041–2070. The model validation gave a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.86 and a coefficient of determination (pseudo R 2) of 0.21. Average soil moisture was expected to decline significantly until 2070 concerning soils influenced by ground water and by stagnant water and at sites on steep slopes (> 25%) and on southerly slopes (120–240°). Conclusion The model allows mapping of mean soil moisture at the national and regional scale as shown by the example of Germany and the Kellerwald National Park across observed periods and climate scenarios. It should be combined with available ecological data on forest ecosystem types (Jenssen et al. 2013; Schröder et al. 2015) and tested at the European scale.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0667-5
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Shrubs facilitate recruitment of Caragana stenophylla Pojark: microhabitat
           amelioration and protection against herbivory
    • Authors: Li-Na Xie; Hong-Yu Guo; Zhe Liu; Christopher A. Gabler; Wei-Zhong Chen; Song Gu; Cheng-Cang Ma
      Abstract: Key message Mature Caragana stenophylla shrubs facilitated intraspecific sapling establishment by two mechanisms: microhabitat amelioration and protection against herbivory. Facilitation was mediated by climate, grazing, and sapling age. Context Pre-existing shrubs could facilitate sapling establishment of woody plants; however, how these facilitation vary across abiotic and biotic stress gradients and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Aims The aim of this study is understanding the facilitation of shrub on sapling establishment and how the two underlying mechanisms, microhabitat amelioration and protection against herbivory, vary across climatic aridity gradients, grazing gradients, and sapling age. Methods We conducted field sowing experiments to examine the facilitation of mature Caragana stenophylla Pojark on intraspecific sapling establishment. Results Facilitation of C. stenophylla on sapling survival increased as drought stress, grazing intensity, and sapling age increased. Microhabitat amelioration increased as drought stress and sapling age increased. Similarly, protection against herbivory increased as drought stress, grazing intensity, and sapling age increased. Relative importance of microhabitat amelioration increased as drought stress increased, and relative importance of protection against herbivory increased as grazing intensity and sapling age increased. Conclusion Facilitation of shrub on sapling establishment involves both microhabitat amelioration and protection against herbivory. Facilitation, the two mechanisms, and relative importance between the two mechanisms would all be affected by climatic aridity, grazing intensity, and sapling age. Shrub establishment has a positive feedback effect.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0668-4
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of the use of low-density LiDAR data to estimate structural
           attributes and biomass yield in a short-rotation willow coppice: an
           example in a field trial
    • Authors: María Castaño-Díaz; Pedro Álvarez-Álvarez; Brian Tobin; Maarten Nieuwenhuis; Elías Afif-Khouri; Asunción Cámara-Obregón
      Abstract: Key message LiDAR data (low-density data, 0.5 pulses m −2 ) represent an excellent management resource as they can be used to estimate forest stand characteristics in short-rotation willow coppice (SRWC) with reasonable accuracy. The technology is also a useful, practical tool for carrying out inventories in these types of stands. Context This study evaluated the use of very low-density airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data (0.5 pulses m−2), which can be accessed free of charge, in an SRWC established in degraded mining land. Aims This work aimed to determine the utility of low-density LiDAR data for estimating main forest structural attributes and biomass productivity and for comparing the estimates with field measurements carried out in an SRWC planted in marginal land. Methods The SRWC was established following a randomized complete block design with three clones, planted at two densities and with three fertilization levels. Use of parametric (multiple regression) and non-parametric (classification and regression trees, CART) fitting techniques yielded models with good predictive power and reliability. Both fitting methods were used for comprehensive analysis of the data and provide complementary information. Results The results of multiple regression analysis indicated close relationships (Rfit 2 = 0.63–0.97) between LiDAR-derived metrics and the field measured data for the variables studied (H, D20, D130, FW, and DW). High R 2 values were obtained for models fitted using the CART technique (R 2 = 0.73–0.94). Conclusion Low-density LiDAR data can be used to model structural attributes and biomass yield in SRWC with reasonable accuracy. The models developed can be used to improve and optimize follow-up decisions about the management of these crops.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0665-7
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Comparing morphology and physiology of southeastern US Pinus seedlings:
           implications for adaptation to surface fire regimes
    • Authors: Lauren S. Pile; G. Geoff Wang; Benjamin O. Knapp; Guohua Liu; Dapao Yu
      Abstract: Key message The suite of traits expressed as seedlings by coastal and mountain longleaf pine and south Florida slash pine suggest they can survive fire in the seedling stage. In contrast, loblolly pine and typical slash pine tolerate fire when mature but do not exhibit traits that allow them to survive fire when young, representing a different strategy for survival in frequently burned communities. Context Fire is an important driver in the distribution and abundance of southern US pine species, and seedling fire tolerance often determines individual survival under frequent fire regimes. Aims We investigated seedling growth, biomass allocation, needle distribution, bark thickness, and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) storage in taproots and related them to the expression of fire-tolerance for five species or types, including loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), two longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) types representing two distinct ecological communities (coastal and mountain) and two slash pine (P. elliottii Englem.) varieties. Methods We analyzed the relationship of seedling growth, biomass characteristics, and total non-structural carbohydrate storage between species by using analysis of variance. Results Both coastal and mountain longleaf pines had thick bark, long, densely arranged needles, and a grass-stage. South Florida slash pine shared the same suite of traits but, contrary to previous reports, displayed reduced height growth rather than a grass-stage. In contrast, loblolly pine and typical slash pine had faster height growth, more branching, lower needle density, and thinner bark. Both longleaf pines and south Florida slash pine also had higher TNC storage in taproots than either loblolly or typical slash pines. Conclusion The relative strength of expression of these fire-adaptation traits among the five species types generally matches the fire-return intervals associated with each species’ habitat, suggesting the importance of fire regimes in determining the distribution and abundance of the studied species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0666-6
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A long-term tree-ring chronology over 796 years for silver fir ( Abies
           alba Mill.) in Southern France
    • Authors: Lisa Shindo; Christelle Belingard; Jean-Louis Edouard; Mélanie Saulnier
      Abstract: Key message This paper presents ring width data of silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill.) from buildings and living trees from 1214 to 2009 in southeastern France. A 796-year chronology spanning the period 1214–2009 has been built. Data can be used for dating projects, paleoecology studies, and climate reconstructions. Dataset access is at https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01528324 . Associated metadata is available at https://metadata-afs.nancy.inra.fr/geonetwork/srv/fre/catalog.search#/metadata/a74b4869-318c-458c-a5fe-f9ff44a5082c
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0664-8
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Influence of different forest protection strategies on spruce tree
           mortality during a bark beetle outbreak
    • Authors: Pavel Mezei; Miroslav Blaženec; Wojciech Grodzki; Jaroslav Škvarenina; Rastislav Jakuš
      Abstract: Key message Under an outbreak scenario in a buffer zone of a protected area, bark beetle-caused tree mortality was modulated by earlier natural disturbances (wind and bark beetles), sanitary management and seasonal temperature. In buffer zones, the effects of sanitary management on tree mortality remained limited due to the migration of bark beetles from unmanaged areas. Context The European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) is regarded as an economically significant pest of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst). However, in protected areas, it is regarded as a keystone species for biodiversity. This results in two contrasting management strategies that meet in buffer zones of protected areas. Aims To assess which environmental and management variables are most important for tree mortality in an ongoing bark beetle outbreak and to gain a better understanding of the challenges and recommendations for buffer zone management under the influence of nearby unmanaged stands in a protected area. Methods Norway spruce tree mortality was assessed in 419 forest stands in the High Tatra Mountains. To account for spatial and temporal autocorrelations, generalized additive mixed models (GAMM) were used, and an information-theory (I-T) approach was adopted for model selection to test the influence of environmental variables, natural disturbances and the previous year’s sanitary cutting on bark beetle-caused tree mortality. Results In buffer zones, P. abies tree mortality caused by I. typographus was positively correlated to natural disturbances and sanitary cutting in the previous year. Conclusion The previous year’s sanitary cutting, maximum temperature sums, wind disturbance and trees left in no-intervention stands contributed to tree mortality in buffer zones. In these zones, the decrease of tree mortality in response to sanitary management remained limited due to the migration of bark beetles from unmanaged areas. However, sanitary management in buffer zones remains necessary for the isolation of bark beetle outbreaks in unmanaged areas.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0663-9
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Does debarking intensity during the first cork extraction affect future
           cork thickness'
    • Authors: Joana A. Paulo; Margarida Tomé
      Abstract: Key message The use of increasing debarking during the first harvest of cork oak trees ( Quercus suber L.) had no effect on the secondary cork calliper (thickness) in one of the trials and had a small negative effect in a second trial. Little evidence was found that debarking coefficient is a useful index for the management of cork oak stands. Context The Portuguese national legislation defines, without the support of scientific data or knowledge, maximum values of debarking coefficients (ratio of debarking height and perimeter at breast height measured over cork). For the first debarking, this value is limited to 2.0. Aims The aim of this study was to determine the impact of increasing cork debarking coefficient on the calliper of the secondary cork extraction. Methods Trees were located in two sites, in distinct regions characterized by low or high productivity classes. Three debarking coefficients were considered: 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5. The debarking coefficient for the first cork extraction was randomly selected for each tree. During the second debarking, a cork sample was taken from each tree. The samples were used for assessing secondary cork calliper. Differences in cork calliper were analysed using both correlation analysis and modelling approaches. Results Debarking intensity increase had a small negative effect on secondary cork thickness in the most inland site, while no effect was detected in the more coastal site. Conclusion In our experiment, debarking intensity had a significant but small effect in one site and no effect in other sites. Debarking coefficients not only should be defined according to legal constraints but also instead should be adapted considering tree and site characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0662-x
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Patterns of within-stem variations in wood specific gravity and water
           content for five temperate tree species
    • Authors: Fleur Longuetaud; Frédéric Mothe; Philippe Santenoise; Ndiaye Diop; Jana Dlouha; Meriem Fournier; Christine Deleuze
      Abstract: • Key message Intensive measurements of basic specific gravity and relative water content of lumens show that within-stem variations strongly depend on species and cannot be summarised through the typical patterns reported in the literature; breast height measurements are not always representative of the whole stem. • Context Knowledge of the distribution of wood properties within the tree is essential for understanding tree physiology as well as for biomass estimations and for assessing the quality of wood products. • Aims The radial and vertical variations of basic specific gravity (BSG) and relative water content of lumens (RWC L ) were studied for five species: Quercus petraea/robur, Fagus sylvatica, Acer pseudoplatanus, Abies alba and Pseudotsuga menziesii. The observations were compared with typical patterns of variations reported in the literature. • Methods Wood discs were sampled regularly along tree stems and X-rayed in their fresh and oven-dry states. • Results At breast height, BSG was found to clearly increase radially (pith to bark) for two species and to decrease for one species. For F. sylvatica and A. alba, the radial variations of BSG were rather U-shaped, with in particular inner wood areas showing respectively lower and higher BSG than the corresponding mature wood. RWC L increased generally from inner to outer area but wet sapwood was clearly distinguishable only for the coniferous species. Vertical variations of BSG and RWC L were strongly dependant on the species with usually non-linear patterns. • Conclusion The observed variations of BSG were only partially in agreement with the reported typical radial patterns. Despite the vertical variations, the mean BSG of a cross-section at breast height appeared to be a good estimator of the mean BSG of the whole stem (although the difference was statistically significant for coniferous species), whereas breast height measurement of RWC L was not representative of the whole stem.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0657-7
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • EuMIXFOR empirical forest mensuration and ring width data from pure and
           mixed stands of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L. ) and European beech (
           Fagus sylvatica L. ) through Europe
    • Authors: Michael Heym; Ricardo Ruíz-Peinado; Miren Del Río; Kamil Bielak; David I. Forrester; Gerald Dirnberger; Ignacio Barbeito; Gediminas Brazaitis; Indrė Ruškytkė; Lluís Coll; Marek Fabrika; Lars Drössler; Magnus Löf; Hubert Sterba; Václav Hurt; Viktor Kurylyak; Fabio Lombardi; Dejan Stojanović; Jan Den Ouden; Renzo Motta; Maciej Pach; Jerzy Skrzyszewski; Quentin Ponette; Géraud De Streel; Vit Sramek; Tomáš Čihák; Tzvetan M. Zlatanov; Admir Avdagic; Christian Ammer; Kris Verheyen; Buraczyk Włodzimierz; Andrés Bravo-Oviedo; Hans Pretzsch
      Abstract: Key message This data set provides unique empirical data from triplets of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) across Europe. Dendrometric variables are provided for 32 triplets, 96 plots, 7555 trees and 4695 core samples. These data contribute to our understanding of mixed stand dynamics. Dataset access at http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.8v04m . Associated metadata available at https://metadata-afs.nancy.inra.fr/geonetwork/apps/georchestra/'uuid=b3e098ca-e681-4910-9099-0e25d3b4cd52&hl=eng .
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0660-z
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Understanding biological characteristics of Acacia melanoxylon in relation
           to fire to implement control measurements
    • Authors: Diego Arán; Juan García-Duro; Oscar Cruz; Mercedes Casal; Otilia Reyes
      Abstract: Key message Acacia melanoxylon produces abundant seeds leading to large seed banks in the soil. These seeds display a large viability and their germination is stimulated by heat. To control the populations, it is necessary to remove adults and young individuals, and to prevent seedling establishment after fire occupying the space with rapid growth and high competitive native species. Context Acacia melanoxylon displays a widespread distribution in South West Europe, and an improved knowledge of its reproductive characteristics is required in order to control its expansion. Aims This experiment was designed to provide useful indicators for an efficient management of A. melanoxylon populations based on its biological cycle in relation to fire. Methods We explored the reproductive biology of A. melanoxylon, from seed dissemination—–quantifying seed rain over a year, their germination with and without fire—the seedling and sapling banks and the structure of the adult population. We analysed the effects of fire, seed maturation and scarification on the viability of seeds and the stimulation of seed germination in the aerial seed bank and in the different strata of the soil seed bank. Results Our results indicate that A. melanoxylon produced millions of seeds per ha and per year, half of which germinated and the other half went to the soil seed bank, maintaining the viability many years. The germination was the most critical step in the population dynamics of this species, and fire stimulates germination up to 90%. Conclusion A. melanoxylon adults and seedlings removal, followed by colonization of rapid growth and high competitive native species that cover the ground very quickly would be a good control action.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0661-y
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Importance of climate, anthropogenic disturbance and pathogens (
           Quambalaria coyrecup and Phytophthora spp.) on marri ( Corymbia calophylla
           ) tree health in southwest Western Australia
    • Authors: Trudy Paap; Niels C. Brouwers; Treena I. Burgess; Giles E. St. J. Hardy
      Abstract: Key message Anthropogenic disturbance and Phytophthora spp., influenced by climate, are resulting in a higher Quambalaria coyrecup infection probability in marri ( Corymbia calophylla ) and the development of cankers, causing a decline in marri health across the geographical range in southwest Western Australia. Context Since the 1970s, a canker disease caused by the endemic fungal pathogen Quambalaria coyrecup Paap has increasingly affected the health of marri (Corymbia calophylla (Lindl.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson), a keystone tree species in southwest Western Australia. Aims In this study, we investigated the distribution and incidence of the canker disease, and the likely predisposing location-specific factors of the disease across the marri range. Methods A systematic landscape-scale survey was undertaken at 62, 100-m radius sites, and canker incidence was related with climate, rainfall and temperature change, proportion non-native vegetation area (i.e. anthropogenic disturbance) and Phytophthora spp. presence using logistic regression. Results On 54 sites, between 2 and 78% of all surveyed trees showed cankers. Eight sites were canker free. Since 1980, all sites experienced a reduction in annual rainfall (2.2–136.1 mm) and increasing temperatures (0.17–0.53 °C). Multivariate analyses showed that across the marri range, canker incidence was significantly higher in wetter and cooler areas of the marri distribution, and in areas with high proportions of non-native vegetation area surrounding the studied stands of trees. Presence of pathogenic Phytophthora spp. equally increased canker incidence. Conclusion Our study suggests that anthropogenic disturbance and Phytophthora presence may have reduced the natural defence mechanisms of marri trees, making them more vulnerable to the development of mortality inducing cankers.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0658-6
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Flammability of some companion species in cork oak ( Quercus suber L.)
           forests
    • Authors: Belkheir Dehane; Carmen Hernando; Mercedes Guijarro; Javier Madrigal
      Abstract: Key message The high flammability of some companion species in Quercus suber forests, estimated in laboratory tests, could potentially generate an increase in fire vulnerability and in fire risk. Context Recurrent wildfire is one of the main causes of forest degradation, especially in the Mediterranean region. Increased fire frequency and severity due to global change could reduce the natural resilience of cork oak to wildfire in the future. Hence, it is important to evaluate the flammability of companion species in cork oak forests in the particularly dry bioclimatic conditions of North Africa. Aims This study aimed to assess and compare flammability parameters at laboratory scale among ten companion frequent species in cork oak forests. Methods Fuel samples were collected in a cork oak (Quercus suber L) forest in the southern part of the mountains of Tlemcen (Western Algeria). A series of flammability tests were carried out using a Mass Loss Calorimeter device (FTT ®). A cluster analysis to classify flammability of the selected species was conducted using the K-means algorithm. Results The results revealed differences in the four flammability parameters (ignitability, sustainability, combustibility and consumability), in both fresh and dried fine fuel samples from Quercus suber, Pinus halepensis, Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Erica arborea, Arbutus unedo, Pistacia lentiscus, Calicotome spinosa, Juniperus oxycedrus and Tetraclinis articulata. Application of the K-means clustering algorithm showed that C. spinosa, T. articulata, J. oxycedrus and P. halepensis are highly flammable because of their high combustibility and sustainability. Conclusion The findings identify species that could potentially increase the vulnerability of cork oak forests to forest fires.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0659-5
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Short-day photoperiods affect expression of genes related to dormancy and
           freezing tolerance in Norway spruce seedlings
    • Authors: Elisabeth Wallin; Daniel Gräns; Douglass F. Jacobs; Anders Lindström; Nathalie Verhoef
      Abstract: Key Message Gene expression analysis showed that prolonged short day (SD) treatment deepened dormancy and stimulated development of freezing tolerance of Picea abies seedlings. Prolonged SD treatment also caused later appearance of visible buds in autumn, reduced risks for reflushing, and promoted earlier spring bud break. Context Short day (SD) treatment of seedlings is a common practice in boreal forest tree nurseries to regulate shoot growth and prepare the seedlings for autumn planting or frozen storage. Aims The aim of this study was to examine responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) to a range of SD treatments of different length and evaluate gene expression related to dormancy induction and development of freezing tolerance. Methods The seedlings were SD treated for 11 h a day during 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. Molecular tests were performed, and the expression profiles of dormancy and freezing tolerance-related genes were analyzed as well as determination of shoot growth, bud set, bud size, reflushing, dry matter content, and timing of spring bud break. Results The 7-day SD treatment was as effective as longer SD treatments in terminating apical shoot growth. However, short (7 days) SD treatment resulted in later activation of dormancy-related genes and of genes related to freezing tolerance compared to the longer treatments which had an impact on seedling phenology. Conclusion Gene expression analysis indicated an effective stimulus of dormancy-related genes when the SD treatment is prolonged for at least 1–2 weeks after shoot elongation has terminated and that seedlings thereafter are exposed to ambient outdoor climate conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0655-9
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The effect of coppice management on stump volume recovery in mechanized
           operations
    • Authors: Muedanyi Ramantswana; Andrew Mcewan; Raffaele Spinelli
      Abstract: Key message Coppice stands result in slightly higher stump waste compared with planted stands, when felled mechanically by a harvester. Context The large demand for wood fibre requires efficient production and cost-effective practices throughout the supply chain. Aims The purpose of the study was to quantify the amount of volume lost to excessive stump height in coppiced and planted stands. Methods Stump height was measured on similar eucalypt stands that differed only for their origin: coppiced or planted. The study sample comprised of 543 planted stems and 851 coppice stems; of which 365 grew as double stems and 486 as single. Results Stump waste was highest for coppiced double stumps, smallest for coppiced single stumps and intermediate for planted tree stumps. All differences were statistically significant, but the difference between coppiced single stumps and planted tree stumps was much smaller (20%) than the difference between coppiced double stumps and the rest (220–260%). Regression analysis showed that stump waste volume increased with tree volume, and this effect was twice as large for coppiced double stumps compared with the other treatments. Stump waste seemed very small in both relative and absolute terms and is unlikely to offset the large benefits accrued through coppice management and mechanization. Conclusion Comparison with previous stump height studies indicates that the results obtained in this experiment for planted eucalypt may have general value and could be extended to other coppice stands, although with caution.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0656-8
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The potential of Eucalyptus plantations to restore degraded soils in
           semi-arid Morocco (NW Africa)
    • Authors: Mohamed Boulmane; Hayat Oubrahim; Mohammed Halim; Mark R. Bakker; Laurent Augusto
      Abstract: Key message Short-rotation forestry using eucalyptus in degraded oak forests in the semi-arid area of NW Morocco can be a useful strategy to avoid further degradation and carbon loss from this ecosystem, but it might be constrained by nutrient and water supply in the long term. Context Land degradation and deforestation of natural forests are serious issues worldwide, potentially leading to altered land use and carbon storage capacity. Aims Our objectives were to investigate if short-rotation plantations can restore carbon pools of degraded soils, without altering soil fertility. Methods Carbon and nutrient pools in above- and below-ground biomass and soils were assessed using stand inventories, harvested biomass values, allometric relationships and selective sampling for chemical analyses. Results Carbon pools in the total ecosystem were low in the degraded land and in croplands (6–13 Mg ha−1) and high in forests (66–94 in eucalyptus plantations; 86–126 in native forests). The soil nutrient status of eucalyptus stands was intermediate between degraded land and native forests and increased over time after eucalyptus introduction. All harvest scenarios for eucalyptus are likely to impoverish the soil but, for the moment, the soil nutrient status has not been affected. Conclusion Afforestation of degraded land with eucalyptus can be a useful restoration tool relative to carbon storage and soil fertility, provided that non-intensive forestry is applied.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0652-z
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The extent of historic translocation of Norway spruce forest reproductive
           material in Europe
    • Authors: Simon Jansen; Heino Konrad; Thomas Geburek
      Abstract: Key message Norway spruce seed has been traded extensively for at least three centuries throughout the natural distribution range in Europe and beyond. However, our knowledge about these transfers is limited. Historic data are essential tools to trace back human-mediated gene flow and for interpretation of recent genetic studies. Context Human-mediated gene flow can potentially have a major impact on the genetic composition of forest tree populations, yet our knowledge about seed sources used within the current species’ range is still limited. Norway spruce is one of the most important coniferous species in European forestry, and data drawing conclusions about the genetic composition of current populations are vital with regard to gene conservation and sustainable forest management. Because molecular data are not available on a more detailed scale, historic records provide crucial information about translocations. Aims Our aim is to provide the first pan-European review on Norway spruce translocations from the seventeenth until the twentieth century. Methods We analysed historic and recent literature compiling information on the cultivation and transfer of Norway spruce reproductive material. Historic records are compared with recent molecular studies. Results Seed exchanges have profoundly altered the native genetic population structure of Norway spruce. Especially, Central European seeds have been used throughout and beyond the natural distribution area. Figures illustrating the historic plantings in Europe are provided. Conclusion Recent molecular data reveal persisting effects of past translocations. Historical records can be extremely useful for providing information about autochthony and thus guide gene conservation strategies and explain the performance of extant populations.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0644-z
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Here to stay. Recent advances and perspectives about Acacia invasion in
           Mediterranean areas
    • Authors: Pablo Souza-Alonso; Jonatan Rodríguez; Luís González; Paula Lorenzo
      Abstract: • Key message The above- and belowground impacts due to Acacia invasions have been described in detail over the last 25 years. Future research should focus on the early detection and prevention of new Acacia introductions and on a cost-effective and sustainable management of the novel ecosystems resulting from invasions. • Context Invasive alien plants (IAPs) strongly alter ecosystems reducing biodiversity, modifying ecosystem services and increasing negative impacts at social and economic level. Among invasive taxa, Acacia is a highly problematic genus worldwide. In fact, almost 500 papers have been published on several aspects of Acacia invasions for the last 25 years. • Aims We aim at reviewing the current knowledge on the consequences of the invasion by Acacia genus in Mediterranean ecosystems. We also collect and propose different approaches for the management and recovery of invaded areas and suggest future perspectives on Acacia research. • Methods We compile, summarise and discuss recent findings on physicochemical, ecological, microbiological and socioeconomic aspects of invasion related to Australian acacias (Acacia dealbata, Acacia longifolia, Acacia mearnsii, Acacia saligna and Acacia melanoxylon) focusing on Mediterranean areas. • Results Acacia invasion generally entails soil physicochemical alterations and changes in microbial function and structure. Consequences such as the decreased biodiversity, altered ecosystem structure, larger seed banks dominated by invasive species, new biotrophic relationships or alterations in water availability and fire regimes suggest that acacias are locally creating novel ecosystems. • Conclusions Forecasting invasions, modelling and managing ecosystems dominated by acacias are challenging tasks that should be addressed in the future, since climatic conditions and intensification in land uses are increasing the likelihood of Acacia invasions in Mediterranean areas. Unsuccessful management actions suggest that restoration should be meticulously monitored, but the magnitude of invasion or the inconsistency of economic investment indicate that eradication is often unfeasible. Alternatively, novel integrative and cost-effective solutions including the collaboration of society, politicians and stakeholders are necessary to prevent new introductions and achieve sustainable control of acacias. There is a growing interest in applied research on the valorisation or novel uses for acacias and their residues that result in economic benefits.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0651-0
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Spatiotemporal analyses of urban vegetation structural attributes using
           multitemporal Landsat TM data and field measurements
    • Authors: Zhibin Ren; Ruiliang Pu; Haifeng Zheng; Dan Zhang; Xingyuan He
      Abstract: Key message We conducted spatiotemporal analyses of urban vegetation structural attributes using multitemporal Landsat TM data and field measurements. We showed that multitemporal TM data has the potential of rapidly estimating urban vegetation structural attributes including LAI, CC , and BA at an urban landscape level. Context Urban vegetation structural properties/attributes are closely linked to their ecological functions and thus directly affect urban ecosystem process such as energy, water, and gas exchange. Understanding spatiotemporal dynamics of urban vegetation structures is important for sustaining urban ecosystem service and improving the urban environment. Aims The purposes of this study were to evaluate the potential of estimating urban vegetation structural attributes from multitemporal Landsat TM imagery and to analyze spatiotemporal changes of the urban structural attributes. Methods We first collected three scenes of TM images acquired in 1997, 2004, and 2010 and conducted a field survey to collect urban vegetation structural data (including crown closure (CC), tree height (H), leaf area index (LAI), basal area (BA), stem density (SD), diameter at breast height (DBH), etc.). We then calculated and normalized NDVI maps from the multitemporal TM images. Finally, spatiotemporal urban vegetation structural maps were created using NDVI-based urban vegetation structure predictive models. Results The results show that NDVI can be used as a predictor for some selected urban vegetation structural attributes (i.e., CC, LAI, and BA), but not for the other attributes (i.e., H, SD, and DBH) that are well predicted by NDVI in natural vegetation. The results also indicate that urban vegetation structural attributes (i.e., CC, LAI, and BA) in the study area decreased sharply from 1997 to 2004 but increased slightly from 2004 to 2010. The CC, LAI, and BA class distributions were all skewed toward low values in 1997 and 2004. Moreover, LAI, CC, and BA of urban vegetation all present a decreasing trend from suburban areas to urban central areas. Conclusion The experimental results demonstrate that Landsat TM imagery could provide a fast and cost-effective method to obtain a spatiotemporal 30-m resolution urban vegetation structural dataset (including CC, LAI, and BA).
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0654-x
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Rapid assessment of wood traits for large-scale breeding selection in
           Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.
    • Authors: Mireille Desponts; Martin Perron; Josianne DeBlois
      Abstract: Key message Pilodyn and acoustic velocity measurements on standing trees, used for predicting density and stiffness, can be good genetic selection tools for black spruce. Genetic parameters and selection efficiency were conserved in two breeding zones with contrasted bioclimatic conditions. Context Given the recent progress made in the black spruce genetic improvement program, the integration of juvenile wood mechanical properties as selection criteria is increasingly relevant. Aims This study aims to estimate the genetic parameters of in situ wood density and modulus of elasticity (MoE) measurements and to verify the efficiency of various measuring methods used for large-scale selection of black spruce based on wood quality. Methods Height, diameter, wood density, and some indirect measures of density (penetration and drilling resistance) and MoE (acoustical velocity and Pilodyn) were estimated on 2400 24-year-old trees of 120 open-pollinated families in progeny trials located in the continuous boreal or mixed forest subzones. Results Heritability of growth, density, and indirect density measurements varied from low to moderate and was moderate for acoustical velocity in both vegetation subzones. Expected genetic gains for wood properties based on in situ methods were higher for MoE proxy estimation combining Pilodyn and acoustic velocity. Conclusion Acoustic velocity is a good predictor of MoE. It is virtually unaffected by the environment and can be used on a large scale in the same manner as the Pilodyn for density. Using a proxy estimation that combines both methods helps optimize genetic gain for MoE.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0646-x
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Adaptive management rules for Pinus nigra Arnold ssp . salzmannii stands
           under risk of fire
    • Authors: José Ramón González-Olabarria; Jordi Garcia-Gonzalo; Blas Mola-Yudego; Timo Pukkala
      Abstract: Key message We generate flexible management rules for black pine stands, adaptable to alternative stand management situations and entailing thinnings, final-felling, and salvage cuts, based on the results on 270 stand level optimizations. Context Forest management instructions often rely on the anticipated prediction of the stand development, which poses a challenge on variable economic and environmental conditions. Instead, an alternative approach to better adapt forest management decisions to changing conditions is defining flexible rules based on thresholds that trigger management operations. Aims This article develops rules for the adaptive management of P. nigra stands in Catalonia (Spain) addressing the risk of fire and post-fire forest management. Methods The stochastic version of the simulation-optimization system RODAL was used to optimize the management of forest stands in three sites under different fire probability levels. A total of 270 optimizations were done varying site fertility, fire probability, and economic factors. The results of the optimizations were used as the basis of flexible forest management rules for adaptive stand management. Results The developed management rules defined the basal area limit for thinning, the thinning intensity, the mean tree diameter at which regeneration cuttings should start, and the basal area below which a salvage cutting should be done. Fire risk was not a significant predictor of the models for thinning and final cutting rules. Conclusion The presented rules provide a flexible tool for forest management during the stand development and under changing conditions when the management objective is to maximize economic profitability of timber production.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0649-7
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2017)
       
 
 
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