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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Annals of Forest Science
  [SJR: 0.929]   [H-I: 57]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1286-4560 - ISSN (Online) 1297-966X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Modeling sapling distribution over time using a functional predictor in a
           generalized additive model
    • Authors: Daniel Moreno-Fernández; Nicole H. Augustin; Fernando Montes; Isabel Cañellas; Mariola Sánchez-González
      Abstract: Key message The effect of adult trees on sapling density distribution during the regeneration fellings is determined in a Pinus sylvestris L. Mediterranean forest using generalized additive models. Context Spatial pattern of adult trees determines the number of new individuals after regeneration fellings, which modify the light and air temperature under tree canopy. Aims We proposed a novel spatiotemporal model with a functional predictor in a generalized additive model framework to describe nonlinear relationships between the size of the adult trees and the number of saplings of P. sylvestris and to determine if the spatial pattern of the number of saplings remained constant or changed in time. Methods In 2001, two plots (0.5 ha) were set up in two phases of regeneration fellings under the group shelterwood method. We mapped the trees and saplings and measured their diameter and height. The inventories were repeated in 2006, 2010, and 2014. Results We found a negative association between the diameter of adult trees and number of saplings up to 7–8 m. Beyond these distances, the diameter of adult trees was not associated with the number of saplings. Our results indicate that the spatial pattern of the number of saplings remained quite constant in time. Conclusion The generalized additive models are a flexible tool to determine the distance range of inhibition of saplings by adult trees.
      PubDate: 2018-01-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0685-3
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 1 (2018)
  • Density reduction in loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) stands to increase
           tree C assimilation: an approach with the dual δ 13 C and δ 18 O isotope
           signatures in needles
    • Authors: Arun K. Bose; Andrew S. Nelson; Michael Kane; Andreas Rigling
      Abstract: Key message In the context of increasing droughts related to climate change, our results showed that heavy thinning and/or very low initial planting density can increase CO 2 assimilation rate in needles, and may be used as a short-term management strategy for loblolly pine plantation across sites prone to drought. Context The dry summer of 2013 provided us an opportunity to understand the CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance after density manipulation treatments using the dual isotope (δ13C and δ18O) signatures in needles of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees in the southeastern USA. Aims To our knowledge, this is the first study using the dual isotope approach to examine the physiological response of loblolly pine trees, one of the most widely planted tree species in the world, to stand density manipulation treatments (i.e., thinning intensity and planting density). Methods In 2001–2003, trees were planted with five different planting densities, 494, 1111, 1729, 2346, and 2964 trees ha−1 at three sites. In 2009–2011, two thinning treatments (none and moderate thinning) were applied in the 1111 trees ha−1 plots, whereas three treatments (none, light and heavy thinning) were applied in the 1729 trees ha−1 plots. Response variables (specific leaf area (SLA), foliar N, δ13C and δ18O) were measured in February 2014. Results SLA was lower, while δ18O was higher in the 494 trees ha−1 plots than the 2964 trees ha−1 plots without thinning. In plots planted to 1729 trees ha−1 SLA was lower, while δ13C and δ18O were higher following heavy thinning than in the unthinned control. These responses plus increased crown length, DBH, and height following heavy thinning may reflect an increased tree-level CO2 assimilation rate. Conclusion Our results showed that heavy thinning and/or very low initial planting density can be used as a short-term management strategy for loblolly pine plantation across sites prone to drought.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0687-1
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 1 (2018)
  • Modeling thinning effects on fire behavior with STANDFIRE
    • Authors: Russell A. Parsons; Francois Pimont; Lucas Wells; Greg Cohn; W. Matt Jolly; Francois de Coligny; Eric Rigolot; Jean-Luc Dupuy; William Mell; Rodman R. Linn
      Abstract: Key message We describe a modeling system that enables detailed, 3D fire simulations in forest fuels. Using data from three sites, we analyze thinning fuel treatments on fire behavior and fire effects and compare outputs with a more commonly used model. Context Thinning is considered useful in altering fire behavior, reducing fire severity, and restoring resilient ecosystems. Yet, few tools currently exist that enable detailed analysis of such efforts. Aims The study aims to describe and demonstrate a new modeling system. A second goal is to put its capabilities in context of previous work through comparisons with established models. Methods The modeling system, built in Python and Java, uses data from a widely used forest model to develop spatially explicit fuel inputs to two 3D physics-based fire models. Using forest data from three sites in Montana, USA, we explore effects of thinning on fire behavior and fire effects and compare model outputs. Results The study demonstrates new capabilities in assessing fire behavior and fire effects changes from thinning. While both models showed some increases in fire behavior relating to higher winds within the stand following thinning, results were quite different in terms of tree mortality. These different outcomes illustrate the need for continuing refinement of decision support tools for forest management. Conclusion This system enables researchers and managers to use measured forest fuel data in dynamic, 3D fire simulations, improving capabilities for quantitative assessment of fuel treatments, and facilitating further refinement in physics-based fire modeling.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0686-2
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 1 (2018)
  • European Forest Types: toward an automated classification
    • Authors: Francesca Giannetti; Anna Barbati; Leone Davide Mancini; Davide Travaglini; Annemarie Bastrup-Birk; Roberto Canullo; Susanna Nocentini; Gherardo Chirici
      Abstract: Key message The outcome of the present study leads to the application of a spatially explicit rule-based expert system (RBES) algorithm aimed at automatically classifying forest areas according to the European Forest Types (EFT) system of nomenclature at pan-European scale level. With the RBES, the EFT system of nomenclature can be now easily implemented for objective, replicable, and automatic classification of field plots for forest inventories or spatial units (pixels or polygons) for thematic mapping. Context Forest Types classification systems are aimed at stratifying forest habitats. Since 2006, a common scheme for classifying European forests into 14 categories and 78 types (European Forest Types, EFT) exists. Aims This work presents an innovative method and automated classification system that, in an objective and replicable way, can accurately classify a given forest habitat according to the EFT system of nomenclature. Methods A rule-based expert system (RBES) was adopted as a transparent approach after comparison with the well-known Random Forest (RF) classification system. The experiment was carried out based on the information acquired in the field in 2010 ICP level I plots in 17 European countries. The accuracy of the automated classification is evaluated by comparison with an independent classification of the ICP plots into EFT carried out during the BioSoil project field survey. Finally, the RBES automated classifier was tested also for a pixel-based classification of a pan-European distribution map of beech-dominated forests. Results The RBES successfully classified 94% of the plots, against a 92% obtained with RF. When applied to the mapped domain, the accuracy obtained with the RBES for the beech forest map classification was equal to 95%. Conclusion The RBES algorithm successfully automatically classified field plots and map pixels on the basis of the EFT system of nomenclature. The EFT system of nomenclature can be now easily and objectively implemented in operative transnational European forest monitoring programs.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0674-6
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 1 (2018)
  • Evaluation of the cumulative effect of drip irrigation and fertigation on
           productivity in a poplar plantation
    • Authors: Xiao-Li Yan; Teng-Fei Dai; Li-Ming Jia
      Abstract: Key message Combined drip irrigation and fertigation significantly increased stem volume and biomass production in a poplar plantation, and showed a cumulative effect over years. The promoting effects were mainly attributable to increased nitrogen and water availability in the surface soil through the combined management. Context Fast-growing and high-yielding poplar plantations have been identified as major commercial forests in China. Intensive management of irrigation and fertilization can greatly increase productivity of plantations. Quantitative investigations on the cumulative effect of drip irrigation and fertigation over years are quite infrequent. Aims We aimed to quantitatively evaluate the effects of drip irrigation and fertigation plans on tree growth and productivity in a poplar plantation, and to analyze their possible cumulative promoting effect over multiple years. Methods Treatments including nine drip irrigation and fertigation combinations, and single furrow irrigation in spring as control, were conducted in a poplar plantation for three successive years. The combined treatments consist of three irrigation levels (WP−75, WP−50, and WP−25, in ascending order) and three levels of nitrogen addition (N60, N120, and N180, in ascending order). Soil nitrogen and water content were measured throughout the 3 years. Based on tree surveys, tree growth, volume, and biomass production were evaluated each year. Results Nitrogen and water availability in the surface soil increased in the drip irrigation- and fertigation-treated plots. Drip irrigation and fertigation treatments resulted in significant higher growth, stem volume, and biomass productions compared to control. Biomass increments in drip irrigation- and fertigation-treated plots were 4.8–50.0, 5.3–26.5, and 4.3–52.2% higher than control in the three experimental years, respectively, with WP−25N180 and WP−50N180 recording the highest increments. Fertigation showed cumulative effects over multiple years and the positive effects increased with the dosage. However, irrigation showed little cumulative effect and the greatest effect was obtained under medium level. Conclusion Combined drip irrigation and fertigation greatly promoted the plantation productivity. The combined management effect varied with application plans and plantation ages, and showed a cumulative effect over years.
      PubDate: 2018-01-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0682-6
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 1 (2018)
  • Mature exotic conifer stands have greater catches of the EU-protected
           Geomalacus maculosus than adjacent peatland or clear-felled
           stands—implications for forestry
    • Authors: Erin Johnston; Gesche Kindermann; Jack O’Callaghan; Daniel Burke; Cillian McLoughlin; Sinéad Horgan; Inga Reich; Rory Mc Donnell; Christopher D. Williams; Michael Gormally
      Abstract: Key message Mature exotic Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis ; Bong. Carrière)-dominated stands, particularly trees of greater circumference, result in greater numbers of Geomalacus maculosus (Allman) captures than adjacent clear-felled stands and adjacent peatland with Before-After-Control-Impact-Paired analysis indicating lower catches of G. maculosus post-felling. Context The discovery of EU-protected Geomalacus maculosus in commercial plantations requires an understanding of the implications of forestry practices for the species within the context of sustainable forest management. Aims Compare Geomalacus maculosus captures across mature exotic Sitka spruce-dominated stands, previously clear-felled stands and adjacent peatland habitats. Assess the suitability, for forest managers, of population estimate models for G. maculosus. Assess the implications of felling by comparing relative abundances of G. maculosus directly before and after clear-felling at a mature exotic Sitka spruce-dominated stand. Methods Geomalacus maculosus catches were compared at four sites across two to three mature (43–45 years old) conifer stands per site, one clear-felled stand per site, and one adjacent peatland per site using refuge traps and hand searching. Capture-mark-recapture studies were undertaken to estimate population sizes. A BACIP (Before-After-Control-Impact-Paired) analysis was undertaken in one forest stand at one forest site to determine impacts of a clear-felling event. Results Mean catches of Geomalacus maculosus adults in the mature forest stands were over 10 and 11 times greater than mean catches on peatland and clear-fell stands, respectively. The Schnabel model for estimating population size was most suited for mature forest stands but could not be utilised for the other habitats. BACIP analysis showed a significant impact of clear-felling with a 95% reduction in mean G. maculosus catches after a clear-felling event where none of the individuals marked prior to felling were recaptured compared to 21% recapture rates at the control site. Greater tree circumference in mature conifer stands correlated with greater catches. Conclusion Guidelines are needed to ensure the protection of Geomalacus maculosus in commercial forestry. Interventions could include patch/tall stump retention at final felling and/or translocation of the protected species.
      PubDate: 2017-12-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0684-4
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 1 (2017)
  • Responses of the structure and function of the understory plant
           communities to precipitation reduction across forest ecosystems in Germany
    • Authors: Katja Felsmann; Mathias Baudis; Zachary E. Kayler; Heike Puhlmann; Andreas Ulrich; Arthur Gessler
      Abstract: Key message Understory plant communities are essential for the recruitment of trees making up future forests. Independent of plant diversity, the understory across different forest ecosystems shows considerable physiological acclimation and structural stability towards drought events, which are expected to occur more frequently in future. Context Understory plant communities are essential for the recruitment of trees making up the future forest. It is so far poorly understood how climate change will affect understory in beech and conifer forests managed at different intensity levels. Aims We hypothesized that drought would affect transpiration and carbon isotope discrimination but not species richness and diversity. Moreover, we assumed that forest management intensity will modify the responses to drought of the understory community. Methods We set up roofs in forests with a gradient of management intensities (unmanaged beech—managed beech—intensively managed conifer forests) in three regions across Germany. A drought event close to the 2003 drought was imposed in two consecutive years. Results After 2 years, the realized precipitation reduction was between 27% and 34%. The averaged water content in the top 20 cm of the soil under the roof was reduced by 2% to 8% compared with the control. In the 1st year, leaf level transpiration was reduced for different functional groups, which scaled to community transpiration modified by additional effects of drought on functional group leaf area. Acclimation effects in most functional groups were observed in the 2nd year. Conclusion Forest understory shows high plasticity at the leaf and community level, and high structural stability to changing climate conditions with drought events.
      PubDate: 2017-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0681-7
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 1 (2017)
  • Photosynthesis and growth responses of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.
           seedlings to a gradient of simulated nitrogen deposition
    • Authors: Miao Wang; Wei-Wei Zhang; Na Li; Yan-Yan Liu; Xing-Bo Zheng; Guang-You Hao
      Abstract: Key message During an N-deposition simulation experiment, we showed that low to medium addition of N had beneficial effects on growth and photosynthetic rates of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. seedlings, while beyond a threshold of 80 kg N ha −1  year −1 , performance plateaued and even declined at higher immissions. Context Temperate forests are shifting from naturally N-limited toward N-saturated status with increasing N deposition. Yet, our knowledge regarding how seedling growth and physiology respond to excessive N input in temperate tree species remains very limited. Aims The objective of this study was to examine growth and photosynthetic responses of F. mandshurica seedlings to a gradient of simulated N deposition. Methods We conducted a 4-year study to investigate growth and photosynthetic responses of F. mandshurica seedlings to a large gradient of simulated N deposition (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 kg N ha−1 year−1). Biomass accumulation and allocation, photosynthetic gas exchange, expression, and activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) in leaves were determined during the fourth growing season. Soil biochemical properties were measured to link them to the alterations in growth and photosynthetic traits across the N addition gradient. Results Seedling growth and photosynthesis were dependent upon the rates of N deposition. The maximum rate of carboxylation (V c,max) and the net photosynthetic rate under saturating light (A sat) reached a maximum under 60 kg N ha−1 year−1. By contrast, high-level N inputs (100 and 120 kg N ha−1 year−1) resulted in suboptimal values in biomass and photosynthetic activity. Nitrogen deposition also modulated the activity and expression of Rubisco in leaves with a maximum around 80–100 kg N ha−1 year−1. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the changes of seedling growth and photosynthesis along the gradient of N deposition were mostly attributed to the variations of soil pH and total N content. Conclusion Our data suggest that the threshold of N deposition is about 80 kg N ha−1 year−1 for F. mandshurica seedlings in this region. Excessive N input decreased performance on the seedling growth and photosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0678-2
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 1 (2017)
  • Trend to increasing structural diversity in German forests: results from
           National Forest Inventories 2002 and 2012
    • Authors: Christoph Fischer; Andreas Mölder
      Abstract: Key message Six structural diversity indices were calculated from the German 2002 and 2012 National Forest Inventory (NFI) data. We found a slight trend of increasing structural diversity in German forests both for broadleaved and coniferous stand types. The results correspond well with current findings in forest ecology and silviculture and might serve as an initial step for further refinement of NFI analyses. Context Structural diversity, i.e., the variability in forest stand structures, is an integral part of current forest ecology discussions. We addressed the question of whether the scope of the German National Forest Inventory (NFI) can be widened by evaluating structural diversity indices. Diversity indices are neither an explicit subject of the current NFI protocol nor have they been derived from NFI data yet. Aims Six spatially inexplicit indices were applied to NFI data and methodologically discussed. An initial contribution for further methodological refinement of the NFI should be provided. Using these indices, changes in structural diversity between 2002 and 2012 were subsequently quantified and discussed. Methods Mean values and changes of the diversity indices were calculated for indicative forest stand types using tree data from angle count sampling. Estimation techniques for single stage cluster sampling were applied. Results With few exceptions, the results showed slight increases for each index and stand type. The results correspond well with current findings in forest ecology and silviculture and supplement published results of the NFI. Conclusion The indices proved to be appropriate within the framework of the NFI. This study should be considered as a cornerstone that supplements published results of the German NFI. It might be helpful within future discussions about structural diversity in German forests.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0675-5
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
  • Unraveling the tripartite interactions among the woolly poplar aphid, its
           host tree, and their environment: a lead to improve the management of a
           major tree plantation pest'
    • Authors: Aurélien Sallé; Sophie Pointeau; Stéphanie Bankhead-Dronnet; Catherine Bastien; François Lieutier
      Abstract: Key message For an optimal deployment of poplar resistance to the gall-inducing aphid Phloeomyzus passerinii , a laboratory susceptibility assay has been developed. The nature of aphid–tree interactions during compatible and incompatible situations has been studied in detail. This should help at identifying specific resistance markers and at testing effects of site conditions on tree–pest interactions. Context P. passerinii is a major pest of poplar plantations in Europe, and the plantation of resistant poplar genotypes is regarded as the best long-term management strategy for this pest. This requires a sound knowledge of the interactions among the pest, its host and their environment. Aims Here, we review the recent advances aiming at developing an optimal deployment of host resistance versus P. passerinii. Results Investigations on aphid-host interactions demonstrated that P. passerinii induces pseudogalls within the bark of susceptible hosts. This results in a reduction of starch bark content during aphid outbreaks, which could be involved in tree death. The constitutive level of starch in the bark could be related to the tolerance level of trees. A susceptibility test has been designed for poplar genotypes, discriminating three categories of susceptibility depending on tree’s ability to totally or partially inhibit pseudogall induction. The test still has several limitations however. It neither takes into account the large level of individual genetic diversity of the aphid in France, nor the environmental modulation of tree resistance and tolerance, while water deficit and fertilization could potentially affect these parameters. Conclusion The hypotheses drawn regarding the processes leading to tree death or resistance should help at identifying resistance markers, and at testing effects of site conditions on tree–pest interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0679-1
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
  • Local-scale diversity and adaptation along elevational gradients assessed
           by reciprocal transplant experiments: lack of local adaptation in silver
           fir populations
    • Authors: Anne C. Latreille; Christian Pichot
      Abstract: Key message Silver fir transplantations along elevational gradients revealed a high diversity but no local adaptation. Populations displayed similar abilities to adapt to new environments including those due to climate change. Context The sustainability of forest stands depends on the ability of species and communities to adapt by combining plasticity and genetic evolution. Although well-documented at the scale of species distributions, the variability and adaptation of forest tree genetic resources are less understood at the short-distance scale. Aims We analysed the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the local-scale phenotypic diversity of traits related to adaptation in Abies alba. We also sought to highlight local adaptation, revealing past selection. Methods Six adaptive traits related to growth, phenology and survival were measured on seedlings from 57 half-sib families collected from 15 provenances and planted in a nine-site reciprocal transplant experiment distributed along three elevational gradients. Results Most part of the phenotypic variability was attributed to the environmental factors. Provenances and families had also significant effects on seedling performances, but the genetic variability was mostly attributed to the families. No pattern of local adaptation was observed, except in the presence of lateral branches in the driest garden. Conclusion The absence of local adaptation suggests a similar ability of all silver fir populations to develop in the various environments. This result provides favourable conditions for coping with the ongoing climate change without exotic resources enrichment.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0673-7
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
  • Biomass allocation in five semi-arid afforestation species is driven
           mainly by ontogeny rather than resource availability
    • Authors: Florent Noulèkoun; Asia Khamzina; Jesse B. Naab; John P. A. Lamers
      Abstract: Key message The changes in the relative biomass allocation to roots in juvenile stands of fast-growing ( Leucaena leucocephala Lam., Moringa oleifera Lam., and Jatropha curcas L.) and slow-growing ( Anacardium occidentale L. and Parkia biglobosa Jacq.) afforestation species are driven mainly by ontogeny rather than resource availability. However, silvicultural management aiming at increasing availability of water and particularly nutrients enhances biomass production in all species. Context Understanding the patterns of biomass allocation among tree species in response to ontogeny and to variation in resource availability is key to the successful restoration of degraded land using forest plantations. Aims This study assessed the effects of resource availability and ontogeny on biomass accumulation and partitioning in five semi-arid afforestation species. Methods The aboveground and belowground biomass production of fast-growing Leucaena leucocephala Lam., Moringa oleifera Lam., and Jatropha curcas L. and slow-growing Anacardium occidentale L. and Parkia biglobosa Jacq. was monitored following the application of manure (1 kg plant−1) and/or supplemental irrigation (0.5 L per sapling daily) during the first two rainy seasons and the intervening dry season on degraded cropland in Northern Benin. Results Biomass accumulation in the fast-growing species was positively impacted by fertilization and irrigation during both rainy seasons. The slow-growing species responded positively to the silvicultural treatments during the dry and second rainy season. The application of fertilizer alone increased the biomass of P. biglobosa by up to 335% during the dry season. Fifteen months after planting, manure-treated L. leucocephala accumulated the most biomass (2.9 kg tree−1). The root fraction decreased with increasing tree size in all species. The comparison of root versus shoot allocation in trees of equal size indicated that the treatment-induced shifts in biomass partitioning were controlled by ontogeny, which explained 86–95% of the variation in root-shoot biomass relationships. Conclusion While ontogeny was the main driver of biomass partitioning, increased resource availability induced a larger production of biomass, overall leading to greater aboveground production in all species.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0676-4
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
  • Variation in pinewood nematode susceptibility among Pinus pinaster Ait.
           provenances from the Iberian Peninsula and France
    • Authors: María Menéndez-Gutiérrez; Margarita Alonso; Gabriel Toval; Raquel Díaz
      Abstract: Key message Pinus pinaster Ait. susceptibility to pinewood nematode significantly differed among provenances, and the two Atlantic provenances of the Iberian Peninsula being the most affected. However, significant provenance × environment interaction was found. Provenance susceptibility was related to basal diameter, number of branches and oleoresin flow, and some climatic parameters. Context The pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, native to North America, is an important pest affecting pine forests throughout Eurasia. In Europe, it has been detected in Portugal and Spain and is primarily associated with Pinus pinaster, an important Mediterranean tree species. Aims We have investigated the differences in susceptibility among several P. pinaster provenances in the Iberian Peninsula and France, as well as their relationship to certain growth traits and physiological parameters. Methods Three independent inoculation tests were performed on 3 to 4-year-old trees, followed by assessment of growth traits and physiological variables, along with time course destructive sampling for nematode quantification. Results The results showed significant differences among provenances for almost all growth traits, wilting, and mortality, though a significant provenance × environment interaction was also detected. Two Atlantic provenances, Noroeste-Litoral and Leiria, displayed the largest susceptibility to pinewood nematode. Changes in susceptibility to B. xylophilus between experiments were influenced by temperature and seasonality. Autumn precipitation and mean maximum temperature during summer at the original provenance sites could be related to provenance susceptibility. Conclusion Noroeste-Litoral and Leiria were the most disease-affected provenances. This study emphasizes the need for further research on how tree growth stage influences susceptibility and on the possibility of cross-breeding among provenances.
      PubDate: 2017-11-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0677-3
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
  • A practical way to integrate risk in forest management decisions
    • Authors: Torsten B. Möllmann; Bernhard Möhring
      Abstract: Key message The concept of expected losses is an appropriate measure for integrating risk in the determination of the optimal rotation period and choice of tree species. Context Natural threats are challenging forest management decisions. Essential decisions about the optimal length of a harvest period are often taken without considering risks. Aims Here, a practical and easy to apply way to integrate risk in these decisions is shown. Furthermore, it is seen how the rotation period changes according to the risk-type and risk-level. Methods The marginal principle of Preßler’s indicator rate is developed further by including the concept of expected losses, leading to an optimal harvest age under risk. The application of the new formula is shown by a simulation, which also visualises the influence on the optimal rotation age. Results Whether risk influences the optimal harvest age compared to a risk free solution, depends on the relationship between expected losses in terms of land rent of the succeeding stand and expected losses in terms of value growth of the existing stand. If they are equal, the rotation age stays. If the expected loss on value growth is bigger than on land rent, the rotation period will be shorter, while it will be longer if the relation is inverse. Conclusion The concept of expected losses can be applied to practically determine the optimal rotation period under risk.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0670-x
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
  • Stand-level wind damage can be assessed using diachronic photogrammetric
           canopy height models
    • Authors: Jean-Pierre Renaud; Cédric Vega; Sylvie Durrieu; Jonathan Lisein; Steen Magnussen; Philippe Lejeune; Mériem Fournier
      Abstract: Key message Diachronic photogrammetric canopy height models can be used to quantify at a fine scale changes in dominant height and wood volume following storms. The regular renewal of aerial surveys makes this approach appealing for monitoring forest changes. Context The increasing availability of aerial photographs and the development of dense matching algorithms open up new possibilities to assess the effects of storm events on forest canopies. Aims The objective of this research is to assess the potential of diachronic canopy height models derived from photogrammetric point clouds (PCHM) to quantify changes in dominant height and wood volume of a broadleaved forest following a major storm. Methods PCHMs derived from aerial photographs acquired before and after a storm event were calibrated using 25 field plots to estimate dominant height and volume using various modeling approaches. The calibrated models were combined with a reference damage maps to estimate both the within-stand damage variability, and the amount of volume impacted. Results Dominant height was predicted with a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 4%, and volume with RMSEs ranging from 24 to 32% according to the type of model. The volume impacted by storm was in the range of 42–76%. Overall, the maps of dominant height changes provided more details about within-stand damage variability than conventional photointerpretation do. Conclusion The study suggests a promising potential for exploiting PCHM in pursuit of a rapid localization and quantification of wind-throw damages, given an adapted sampling design to calibrate models.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0669-3
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
  • Initial recovery of compacted soil—planting and technical treatments
           decrease CO 2 concentrations in soil and promote root growth
    • Authors: Juan Luis Flores Fernández; Peter Hartmann; Jürgen Schäffer; Heike Puhlmann; Klaus von Wilpert
      Abstract: Key message The combination of technical treatments and planting of alder trees in a compacted forest soil improves the circulation of air and water through the pore system. This leads to decreases in CO 2 concentrations and increases in root growth in the soil. Both are indicative of an initial recovery of soil structure. Context The compaction of forest soils, caused by forest machinery, has as a principal consequence: the destruction of soil structure and thus the reduction of the soil aeration status. Thus, the gas exchange between soil and atmosphere is reduced and the depth propagation of roots is limited, resulting in the shortage of water and nutrient supplies for trees. Aims This research aimed at detecting the first stages of recovery of soil structure in a compacted forest soil, which was treated with a combination of techniques (i.e., planting tree species, mulching, addition of lime), which could presumably accelerate the regeneration of soil structure. Methods The variation of CO2 concentrations and the dynamics of root growth were repeatedly measured. Linear mixed models were developed in order to test the effects of the treatments and the planting of trees on soil aeration, as well as to identify the influence of the different environmental effects on CO2 concentration in soil. Results The planting of root-active trees showed significant effects on decreases in CO2 concentrations. However, during the short-term observation, some negative effects occurred especially for the mulched sites. Nevertheless, all applied technical treatments promoted an improved soil aeration and a higher root growth compared to untreated sites which points to an initial enhanced recovery of soil structure. Pronounced seasonal and interannual variations of soil respiration were highly influenced by soil temperature and soil water content variations. Conclusion An initial regeneration of soil structure is indicated by distinct changes of the soil aeration status. This regeneration is partially enhanced by the applied treatments. The quantitative potential of the regeneration techniques needs a longer observation period for mid- and long-term soil recoveries.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0672-8
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
  • Mixing oak and pine trees does not improve the functional response to
           severe drought in central French forests
    • Authors: Damien Bonal; Mathilde Pau; Maude Toigo; André Granier; Thomas Perot
      Abstract: Key message Mixing sessile oak and Scots pine in central France to reduce intraspecific competition for water resources did not improve the ability of these two species to withstand severe drought during the summer. Context In order to reduce the impact of increasingly extreme droughts on forests, managers must adapt their practices to future climate conditions. Maintaining a greater diversity of tree species in temperate forest ecosystems is one of the recommended options. Aims We addressed how interactions between sessile oak and Scots pine in mixed forests in central France affect their functional response to drought. Methods We characterized the carbon isotope composition (δ13C) in the tree growth rings formed during wet (2001, 2007) or dry (2003, 2004) summers for each of the two species growing both in pure and in mixed stands in order to compare the effect of stand composition on variations in carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) among contrasted years. Results The severe drought in 2003 induced a strong decrease in Δ13C for all trees and in all stands as compared to 2001. This decrease was greater in pine than in oak. There was no significant difference between pure and mixed stands in the response of either species to drought. Conclusion Mixing sessile oak and Scots pine in stands in central France does not improve the ability of either species to withstand severe drought during the summer.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0671-9
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
  • Fuzzy modelling and mapping soil moisture for observed periods and climate
           scenarios. An alternative for dynamic modelling at the national and
           regional scale'
    • Authors: Stefan Nickel; Winfried Schröder
      Abstract: Key message Average soil moisture was spatially modelled for observed periods and climate scenarios using a fuzzy logic approach. Accordingly, a significant decline of soil moisture until 2070 in Germany and the Kellerwald National Park could be evidenced for soils influenced by ground water and by stagnant water and at sites on steep slopes and on southerly slopes. Context Soil moisture is an essential environmental factor affecting the condition of forests throughout time with high spatial variance. To adapt forests to climate change, assessments of ecological integrity and services in forest management and nature conservation need spatio-temporal estimations of current and future soil moisture. Dynamic modelling of soil moisture even with rather simple models needs numerous data which are often not available for areas of large spatial extent. Aims Therefore, the objectives of this investigation were to (1) spatio-temporally estimate ecological soil moisture with available data covering the whole territory of Germany, (2) to specify these estimates for the regional scale, (3) to statistically analyse temporal trends of modelled soil moisture for the time period 1961–2070 and (4) to map soil moisture changes (drying-out) at both national and regional levels. Methods A fuzzy rule-based model was developed allowing the combination of a pedological and an ecological soil moisture classification. The fuzzy modelling approach was applied for mapping average soil moisture at two spatial scales. Results Soil moisture was modelled and mapped on a scale of 1:500,000 across Germany and regionally specified on a scale of 1:25,000 for the Kellerwald National Park for the time intervals 1961–1990, 1991–2010, 2011–2040 and 2041–2070. The model validation gave a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.86 and a coefficient of determination (pseudo R 2) of 0.21. Average soil moisture was expected to decline significantly until 2070 concerning soils influenced by ground water and by stagnant water and at sites on steep slopes (> 25%) and on southerly slopes (120–240°). Conclusion The model allows mapping of mean soil moisture at the national and regional scale as shown by the example of Germany and the Kellerwald National Park across observed periods and climate scenarios. It should be combined with available ecological data on forest ecosystem types (Jenssen et al. 2013; Schröder et al. 2015) and tested at the European scale.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0667-5
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
  • Shrubs facilitate recruitment of Caragana stenophylla Pojark: microhabitat
           amelioration and protection against herbivory
    • Authors: Li-Na Xie; Hong-Yu Guo; Zhe Liu; Christopher A. Gabler; Wei-Zhong Chen; Song Gu; Cheng-Cang Ma
      Abstract: Key message Mature Caragana stenophylla shrubs facilitated intraspecific sapling establishment by two mechanisms: microhabitat amelioration and protection against herbivory. Facilitation was mediated by climate, grazing, and sapling age. Context Pre-existing shrubs could facilitate sapling establishment of woody plants; however, how these facilitation vary across abiotic and biotic stress gradients and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Aims The aim of this study is understanding the facilitation of shrub on sapling establishment and how the two underlying mechanisms, microhabitat amelioration and protection against herbivory, vary across climatic aridity gradients, grazing gradients, and sapling age. Methods We conducted field sowing experiments to examine the facilitation of mature Caragana stenophylla Pojark on intraspecific sapling establishment. Results Facilitation of C. stenophylla on sapling survival increased as drought stress, grazing intensity, and sapling age increased. Microhabitat amelioration increased as drought stress and sapling age increased. Similarly, protection against herbivory increased as drought stress, grazing intensity, and sapling age increased. Relative importance of microhabitat amelioration increased as drought stress increased, and relative importance of protection against herbivory increased as grazing intensity and sapling age increased. Conclusion Facilitation of shrub on sapling establishment involves both microhabitat amelioration and protection against herbivory. Facilitation, the two mechanisms, and relative importance between the two mechanisms would all be affected by climatic aridity, grazing intensity, and sapling age. Shrub establishment has a positive feedback effect.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0668-4
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
  • Evaluation of the use of low-density LiDAR data to estimate structural
           attributes and biomass yield in a short-rotation willow coppice: an
           example in a field trial
    • Authors: María Castaño-Díaz; Pedro Álvarez-Álvarez; Brian Tobin; Maarten Nieuwenhuis; Elías Afif-Khouri; Asunción Cámara-Obregón
      Abstract: Key message LiDAR data (low-density data, 0.5 pulses m −2 ) represent an excellent management resource as they can be used to estimate forest stand characteristics in short-rotation willow coppice (SRWC) with reasonable accuracy. The technology is also a useful, practical tool for carrying out inventories in these types of stands. Context This study evaluated the use of very low-density airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data (0.5 pulses m−2), which can be accessed free of charge, in an SRWC established in degraded mining land. Aims This work aimed to determine the utility of low-density LiDAR data for estimating main forest structural attributes and biomass productivity and for comparing the estimates with field measurements carried out in an SRWC planted in marginal land. Methods The SRWC was established following a randomized complete block design with three clones, planted at two densities and with three fertilization levels. Use of parametric (multiple regression) and non-parametric (classification and regression trees, CART) fitting techniques yielded models with good predictive power and reliability. Both fitting methods were used for comprehensive analysis of the data and provide complementary information. Results The results of multiple regression analysis indicated close relationships (Rfit 2 = 0.63–0.97) between LiDAR-derived metrics and the field measured data for the variables studied (H, D20, D130, FW, and DW). High R 2 values were obtained for models fitted using the CART technique (R 2 = 0.73–0.94). Conclusion Low-density LiDAR data can be used to model structural attributes and biomass yield in SRWC with reasonable accuracy. The models developed can be used to improve and optimize follow-up decisions about the management of these crops.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0665-7
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 4 (2017)
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