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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Annals of Forest Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.986
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1286-4560 - ISSN (Online) 1297-966X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Analysis of the occurrence of wildfires in the Iberian Peninsula based on
           harmonised data from national forest inventories
    • Abstract: Key message Every year, about 280,000 ha of forest area burn in the Iberian Peninsula. Both countries national forest inventories were harmonised to provide consistent results of the influence of forest stand structure on fire probability. Results show that basal area and vertical structure variables are associated with fire probability; however, that association varies with forest composition. Deciduous oaks and pine forests showed opposite tendencies. Forest management could be oriented considering these results. Context Fuel variables, in particular the ones that characterise stand vertical structure, are extremely important to determine the occurrence and severity of fire. However, documentation on fire occurrences and stand characteristics is still scarce in southern Europe. Aims In this study, we analyse the stand and structure variables from National Forest Inventories (NFIs) in order to identify the important ones that are associated with the presence/absence of wildfires in the Iberian Peninsula. Methods A harmonised database including a characterization of the vertical structure of the stand and its species composition was obtained by combining data from NFIs from Spain and Portugal and data from burned areas that occurred between 2005 and 2015. Results Stand characteristics results show that the plots that were later burned have lower average stand basal area. For deciduous oaks, more canopy cover has less probability to burn, and for all the other oaks, in different degrees, more understory cover has higher probability to burn. Regarding pine species, more canopy cover has lower probability to burn. Conclusion The results indicate important associations between stand variables and the presence/absence of wildfires that could support the forest management with the objective of reducing the probability of forest fires.
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
  • Visuo-tactile and topographic characterizations of finished wood surface
           quality by French consumers and industrials: acceptability thresholds for
           raised grain
    • Abstract: Key message Raised grain occurring on wood surfaces after the application of a waterborne varnish was felt by human touch because of protruding peaks and a certain amount of materials in the core of the roughness profile. This tactile sensation was correlated with specific roughness parameters. Characteristics of a finished surface quality that is acceptable to consumers were determined. Context Raised grain occurs on wood surfaces after the application of a waterborne varnish and forces manufacturers to sand the surfaces between coats. Actually, little research has characterised this phenomenon and no techniques have been discovered to avoid its occurrence. Aims This study aims to identify the topographic parameters that explain the visuo-tactile sensation of raised grain and to define a finished surface quality acceptable to consumers and industry. Methods Oak (Quercus robur L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) wood surfaces were planed and sanded in order to have various levels of raised grain. Visuo-tactile analyses were carried out on surfaces having received one coat of varnish to characterise raised grain and having two coats to characterise the acceptable finished surface quality without sanding. Topographic parameters were measured on each type of varnished surface and correlated with the visuo-tactile scores. Results Raised grain was characterised by the visuo-tactile sensation of protruding peaks and a certain amount of material in the core of the roughness profile for both wood species. Industrials overestimated the surface quality required by consumers. Thresholds of topographic parameters were determined to define acceptable finished surface quality. Conclusion These findings allowed objective criteria to be defined for describing raised grain and to help industries to optimise their wood machining and finishing processes.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
  • Dynamic species-specific metabolic changes in the trees exposed to chronic
           N+S additions at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA
    • Abstract: Key message Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) nutritional imbalances observed during 1998–2000 in response to nitrogen additions beginning in 1989 at Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA, were reversed by 2013. However, nitrogen-containing metabolites continued to accumulate to detoxify ammonia. While sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) was N-limited and benefitted from N+S additions, spruce and birch established new homeostatic status via adjusting cellular metabolism. Context Increased deposition of atmospheric N leads to changes in forest productivity. Effects of added N+S on changes in cellular metabolism will yield information on species-specific sensitivity to N+S. Aims To evaluate foliar metabolic changes in American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) that were exposed to ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4); ~ 28.8 kg S ha−1 yr−1 and 25.2 kg N ha−1 yr−1] additions at West Bear Watershed (WBW) starting in 1989 until the end of this experiment, while East Bear Watershed served as a reference. Methods Foliage was collected in 1998–2000 and 2013. Sapwood plugs were also collected in 2013. All were analyzed for ions and metabolites using HPLC and ICP. Results During 1998–2000, only N+S-treated beech and spruce foliage had a reduction in Ca and Mg. All species had significantly higher content of N-rich metabolites. In 2013, ammonia detoxification continued in the absence of nutrient deficiencies. Significant changes in growth promoting metabolites occurred only in maple throughout this study. Conclusion Metabolic changes indicated that sugar maple at this site was and still is N-limited, whereas red spruce and American beech had to make metabolic adjustments in order to survive under chronic N+S inputs. We conclude that even in the absence of knowledge about individual species tolerance limits for nutrients and critical N load for the site, monitoring with a suite of metabolites that are centrally connected to both C and N pathways could be a very useful tool in assessing stress from nutrient imbalance in various tree species.
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
  • Harmonisation of stem volume estimates in European National Forest
    • Abstract: Key message Volume predictions of sample trees are basic inputs for essential National Forest Inventory (NFI) estimates. The predicted volumes are rarely comparable among European NFIs because of country-specific dbh-thresholds and differences regarding the inclusion of the tree parts stump, stem top, and branches. Twenty-one European NFIs implemented harmonisation measures to provide consistent stem volume predictions for comparable forest resource estimates. Context The harmonisation of forest information has become increasingly important. International programs and interest groups from the wood industry, energy, and environmental sectors require comparable information. European NFIs as primary source of forest information are well-placed to support policies and decision-making processes with harmonised estimates. Aims The main objectives were to present the implementation of stem volume harmonisation by European NFIs, to obtain comparable growing stocks according to five reference definitions, and to compare the different results. Methods The applied harmonisation approach identifies the deviations between country-level and common reference definitions. The deviations are minimised through country-specific bridging functions. Growing stocks were calculated from the un-harmonised, and harmonised stem volume estimates and comparisons were made. Results The country-level growing stock results differ from the Cost Action E43 reference definition between − 8 and + 32%. Stumps and stem tops together account for 4 to 13% of stem volume, and large branches constitute 3 to 21% of broadleaved growing stock. Up to 6% of stem volume is allocated below the dbh-threshold. Conclusion Comparable volume figures are available for the first time on a large-scale in Europe. The results indicate the importance of harmonisation for international forest statistics. The presented work contributes to the NFI harmonisation process in Europe in several ways regarding comparable NFI reporting and scenario modelling.
      PubDate: 2019-02-28
  • Nitrogen addition method affects growth and nitrogen accumulation in
           seedlings of four subtropical tree species: Schima superba Gardner &
           Champ., Pinus massoniana Lamb., Acacia mangium Willd., and Ormosia pinnata
    • Abstract: Key message N addition (56, 156, and 206 kg N ha−1 yr−1as dissolved NH4NO3) method (canopy vs soil) did not affect the biomass of N2-fixers (Acacia mangium Willd. and Ormosia pinnata Lour.), but significantly affected the biomass of non-N2-fixers (Schima superba Gardner & Champ., Pinus massoniana Lamb.). Coniferous species exposed to N addition on the canopy rather than the soil had higher N accumulation. Context Previous experiments simulating nitrogen (N) addition in forests were conducted by adding N fertilizer directly to soils, which neglects the fact that N uptake can be done by canopy leaves. Aims The objective of this study is to examine how different N addition methods (canopy vs soil) affect growth and N accumulation of four subtropical tree seedlings. Methods An open-air greenhouse experiment was conducted to expose four tree species (Schima superba Gardner & Champ., Pinus massoniana Lamb., Acacia mangium Willd. and Ormosia pinnata Lour.) to different N addition methods (canopy or soil) and N levels (ambient, medium, or high). Results N addition method affected the biomass of non-N2-fixers (Schima superba Gardner & Champ. and Pinus massoniana Lamb.), while N2-fixers (Acacia mangium Willd. and Ormosia pinnata Lour.) were unaffected. N concentrations in the soils and leaves of all trees were significantly increased by the medium and high N additions, and soil N concentrations resulted from N addition via soil rather than the canopy. Although leaf N concentration was significantly affected by N addition method in all trees except for Ormosia pinnata, only N accumulation in Pinus massoniana was significantly affected by N addition method. Conclusion N addition method affected the biomass of non-N2-fixers and N accumulation in coniferous species, while it did not affect the biomass of N2-fixers and N accumulation in broadleaf species.
      PubDate: 2019-02-23
  • Interactive effects of defoliation and water deficit on growth, water
           status, and mortality of black spruce ( Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.)
    • Abstract: Key message Defoliation followed by water deficit showed time-dependent effects on plant water status and growth in black spruce ( Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.). Biotic stress negatively (during active defoliation by growing instars) and positively (after defoliation) affected plant water relations. However, water deficit, alone or combined with defoliation, prevails over defoliation-related stress for radial growth and sapling vitality. Context Tree vitality is influenced by multiple factors such as insect damage, water deficit, and the timing of these stresses. Under drought, positive feedback via the reduction of leaf area may improve the water status of defoliated trees. However, the effect on tree mortality remains largely unknown. Aims We investigated the effects of defoliation followed by a water deficit on tree growth, plant water status, and mortality in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) saplings. Methods In a controlled greenhouse setting, saplings were submitted to combined treatments of defoliation and water stress. To assess the impact of these stresses and their interaction, we measured phenology, twig development, secondary growth of the stem, water potential, and mortality of the saplings. Results Both defoliation and water deficits reduced growth; however, the effect was not additive. During active defoliation, we observed a higher evaporative demand and a lower midday leaf water potential Ψmd. We observed an opposite pattern of response post-stress. Drought alone increased sapling mortality immediately after the stress period, but after c.a. 20 days, mortality rates remained similar following combined drought and defoliation. Conclusion Our results highlight two key periods during which defoliation affects plant water relations either negatively (during active defoliation) or positively (after defoliation). Mortality in defoliated saplings was reduced immediately following drought because available internal water increased in the stem.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
  • Acorn size is more important than nursery fertilization for outplanting
           performance of Quercus variabilis container seedlings
    • Abstract: Key message Small acorns are usually discarded for seedling cultivation because they reduce plant quality. This, however, can potentially reduce genetic diversity of plantations. The use of small acorns will result in the production of a higher proportion of small seedlings containing low nutrient levels and having poor outplanting performance in oak container seedlings. Nursery fertilization partially offsets the negative effect of small acorns on seedling attributes in the nursery but not on outplanting performance. Context Small acorns result in low-quality seedlings and so are usually discarded in artificial regeneration programs of oak species. This can potentially reduce genetic diversity of plantations. Nursery fertilization may compensate for the low quality of small-acorn seedlings. Aims To assess whether nursery fertilization interacts with Quercus variabilis acorn size to determine seedling morphology and nutrition in the nursery and outplanting performance. Methods Acorns of three size classes were used to cultivate seedlings with or without fertilization. Seedling emergence, nursery morphology and nutrient status, and outplanting survival and growth were measured. Results Small acorns represented 41% of the seed batch. Most acorn size variation occurred within trees rather than among trees. Smaller acorns were associated with lower emergence and resulted in smaller seedlings that had lower nutrient content levels. Nursery fertilization slightly increased seedling growth for all acorn sizes; it also strongly increased nutrient content, especially in small-acorn seedlings. Two years after planting, survival of small-acorn seedlings was 32% lower than the survival of medium- and large-acorn plants. Fertilization did not affect survival, but it did increase size, especially of small-acorn seedlings, though they did not achieve the growth of large-acorn seedlings. Conclusion Nursery fertilization increases growth and nutrient status, but not outplanting performance, of small-acorn seedlings.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
  • Effect of permanent plots on the relative efficiency of spatially balanced
           sampling in a national forest inventory
    • Abstract: Key message Using spatially balanced sampling utilizing auxiliary information in the design phase can enhance the design efficiency of national forest inventory. These gains decreased with increasing proportion of permanent plots in the sample. Using semi-permanent plots, changing every n th inventory round, instead of permanent plots, reduced this phenomenon. Further studies for accounting the permanent sample when selecting temporary sample are needed. Context National forest inventories (NFIs) produce national- and regional-level statistics for sustainability assessment and decision-making. Using an interpreted satellite image as auxiliary information in the design phase improved the relative efficiency (RE). Spatially balanced sampling through local pivotal method (LPM) used for selection of clusters of sample plots is designed for temporary sample; thus, the method was tested in a NFI design with both permanent and temporary clusters. Aims We estimated LPM method and stratified sampling for a NFI designed for successive occasions, where the clusters are permanent, semi-permanent, or temporary being replaced: never, every nth, and every inventory round, respectively. Methods REs of sampling designs against systematic sampling were studied with simulations of inventory sampling. Results The larger the proportion of permanent clusters the smaller benefits gained with LPM. REs of stratified sampling were not depending on the proportion of permanent clusters. The semi-permanent sampling with LPM removed the previously described decrease and resulted in the largest REs. Conclusion Sampling strategies with semi-permanent clusters were the most efficient, yet not necessarily optimal for all inventory variables. Further development of method to simultaneously take into account the distribution of permanent sample when selecting temporary or semi-temporary sample is desired since it could increase the design efficiency.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
  • Forest stand productivity derived from site conditions: an assessment of
           old Douglas-fir stands ( Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var.
           menziesii ) in Central Europe
    • Abstract: Key message Douglas-fir growth correlates with the climate, the soil moisture regime, and the soil nutrient status, reflecting a broad physiological amplitude. Even though planting this non-native tree species is suggested as a viable strategy to improve adaptiveness of European forests to a more extreme climate and to assure future productivity, the expected temperature increase may induce a decline in forest stand productivity for Douglas-fir in already warm and dry regions. Context Tree species selection is one of the most important forest management decisions to enhance forest productivity and stand stability on a given site. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii), a non-native species from north-western America, is seen as an important additional species option for adapting Central European forests to a changing climate. Aims This study assesses Douglas-fir forest productivity derived from site conditions. We investigate climatic and physico-chemical soil characteristics and productivity of 28 mature Douglas-fir stands growing on siliceous, as well as carbonate bedrock material in southern Germany and north-eastern Austria. Methods The importance of climatic and physico-chemical soil characteristics was analyzed with the machine learning method Random Forests. Results The results show that Douglas-fir growth correlates with climate, soil moisture, and soil nutrient availability derived from ten climatic and physico-chemical soil parameters. Conclusion The broad pH optimum between 4.5 and 7.2 reflects the broad physiological amplitude of Douglas-fir, and no significant differences were detectable between carbonate and siliceous bedrock. We also conclude that climate change may induce a forest stand productivity decline, because lower productivity with the highest mean summer temperature across our study range was observed at the warmest sites in Eastern Austria.
      PubDate: 2019-02-20
  • The age of black pine ( Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco)
           mother trees has no effect on seed germination and on offspring seedling
    • Abstract: Key message We sampled Pinus nigra cones in 29 trees in an age range of 90 to 725 years. The mother tree age did not significantly influence the pinecone or pine seed size, seed germination capacity, or plant size or vigor displayed during the first year of growth in the nursery. Context Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii is a long-lived Mediterranean species, with millenary trees residing in an old-growth forest in the Cazorla Mountain Range in SE Spain which is home to the oldest known trees in the Iberian Peninsula. Aims This study aimed to assess how the mother tree age in Pinus nigra influences seed viability, germination capacity, and the seedling survival and growth during the first year under nursery conditions. Methods Twenty-nine trees aged 90 to 725 years were selected and 60 cones were harvested per tree to study the cone characteristics (size and weight), seed viability, and germination capacity in relation to the mother tree age. Eighty germinated seeds per tree were transferred to the nursery and seedling survival and growth were measured after the first growing season. Results Significant between-tree differences were detected for cone characteristics (cone and seed weight, number of seeds per cone), as well as for germination capacity. Notably, however, the mother tree age did not significantly influence the aforementioned parameters. Conclusion Forest management and regeneration practices of Pinus nigra should take into account that trees of this species up to at least 725 years old produce seeds with a fairly high reproductive capacity.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Negative correlation between ash dieback susceptibility and reproductive
           success: good news for European ash forests
    • Abstract: Key message European ash ( Fraxinus excelsior L.) trees with low susceptibility to ash dieback have higher reproductive fitness compared to highly susceptible trees, although most pronounced for female success. Selection at generation turnover therefore supports the future recovery of ash forests. Context The introduced invasive pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (T. Kowalski) Baral, Queloz, and Hosoya cause extensive damage on European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Heritable variation in susceptibility to ash dieback has been observed among ash trees in natural and planted populations, but it is not clear how variation in susceptibility influences reproductive fitness. Aims We hypothesize that healthier male and female trees contribute more gametes to the following generation compared to unhealthy ones. Methods We tested the hypothesis by studying gender, seed production, and paternal success in a clonal field trial with 39 replicated clones. In the trial, the susceptibility level of each clone has been recorded in terms of percent crown damage since 2007. We used a linear regression model to explore the relationship between susceptibility and reproductive success (female and male). Results The clones revealed a clear gender dimorphism with an approximate 2:2:1 male/female/hermaphrodite ratio. Females with low levels of crown damage produced substantially more seeds compared to highly damaged females. The male clone with the lowest level of susceptibility was the most effective pollen donor, but highly susceptible males also sired some offspring. Conclusion The results overall represent good news for the potential recovery of ash forests: selection against most susceptible genotypes at generation turnover is expected to facilitate building up disease resistance in ash populations.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Demographic history and spatial genetic structure in a remnant population
           of the subtropical tree Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Griseb.)
           Altschul (Fabaceae)
    • Abstract: Key message A remnant population of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil in Northern Argentina showed a mixed mating system, high genetic diversity, and moderate spatial genetic structure, which was stronger in saplings than in adults. Demographic history analyses revealed an ancient population expansion. Despite high genetic diversity, high inbreeding suggests caution in the use of this stand as seed source. Context Information on fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS) and demographic history is essential to determine which mechanisms are responsible for population persistence and evolution. This is particularly important in fragmented biomes, such as the seasonally dry tropical forests. Aims To assess the level of genetic diversity and population genetic structure in a remnant population of A. colubrina var. cebil, and to evaluate the influence of historical and contemporary environmental change on the genetic constitution of this population. Methods Eight microsatellites were typed in 60 adults and 59 saplings. The existence of (non-spatial) genetic clusters was evaluated using STRUCTURE and PCAs. FSGS was evaluated by kinship analyses and sPCA. MCMCglmm models were used to provide insights into factors underlying FSGS. Demographic history was studied using bottleneck statistics and approximate Bayesian computation. Results We found high levels of genetic diversity and high inbreeding. Genetic structure was stronger in saplings than in adult trees, probably due to assortative mating, and was not explained by altitude or DBH. Demographic analyses suggested an ancient population expansion. Conclusion Patterns of inbreeding and relatedness suggest a mixed mating system. High genetic diversity and moderate genetic structure suggest long-term population viability. High inbreeding suggests caution when using this stand as a source of material for reforestation.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Is tree age or tree size reducing height increment in Abies alba Mill. at
           its southernmost distribution limit'
    • Abstract: Key message Conventional methods for estimating the current annual increment of stand volume are based on the uncertain assumption that height increment decreases with tree age. Conversely, size, rather than age, should be accounted for the observed senescence-related declines in relative growth rate and, consequently, implemented in silvicultural manuals. Results stem from a study on Abies alba Mill. at its southern limit of distribution. Context Many factors limit height increment when age and size increase in large-statured tree species. Height–diameter allometric relationships are commonly used measures of tree growth. Aims In this study, we tested if tree age was the main factor affecting the reduction in height increment of silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill.), verifying also whether tree size had a significant role in ecophysiological-biomechanical limitations to tree growth. Methods The study was carried out in a silver fir forest located in Southern Italy, at the southernmost distribution limit for this species. Through a stratified random sampling, 100 trees were selected. All the selected trees were then felled and the total tree height, height increments (internode distances), diameter at breast height, and diameter increments (ring widths) were measured. Results The analyses of allometric models and scaling coefficients showed that the correlation between tree age and height increment was not always significant. Conclusion We may conclude that tree age did not statistically explain the decrease in height increment in older trees. Instead, the increase in tree size and related physiological processes (expressed as product between diameter at breast height and tree height) explained the reduction in height increment in older trees and was the main factor limiting height growth trends in marginal population of silver fir.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Climate change and mixed forests: how do altered survival probabilities
           impact economically desirable species proportions of Norway spruce and
           European beech'
    • Abstract: Key message Economic consequences of altered survival probabilities under climate change should be considered for regeneration planning in Southeast Germany. Findings suggest that species compositions of mixed stands obtained from continuous optimization may buffer but not completely mitigate economic consequences. Mixed stands of Norway spruce ( Picea abies L. Karst . ) and European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) (considering biophysical interactions between tree species) were found to be more robust, against both perturbations in survival probabilities and economic input variables, compared to block mixtures (excluding biophysical interactions). Context Climate change is expected to increase natural hazards in European forests. Uncertainty in expected tree mortality and resulting potential economic consequences complicate regeneration decisions. Aims This study aims to analyze the economic consequences of altered survival probabilities for mixing Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) under different climate change scenarios. We investigate whether management strategies such as species selection and type of mixture (mixed stands vs. block mixture) could mitigate adverse financial effects of climate change. Methods The bio-economic modelling approach combines a parametric survival model with modern portfolio theory. We estimate the economically optimal species mix under climate change, accounting for the biophysical and economic effects of tree mixtures. The approach is demonstrated using an example from Southeast Germany. Results The optimal tree species mixtures under simulated climate change effects could buffer but not completely mitigate undesirable economic consequences. Even under optimally mixed forest stands, the risk-adjusted economic value decreased by 28%. Mixed stands economically outperform block mixtures for all climate scenarios. Conclusion Our results underline the importance of mixed stands to mitigate the economic consequences of climate change. Mechanistic bio-economic models help to understand consequences of uncertain input variables and to design purposeful adaptation strategies.
      PubDate: 2019-02-08
  • Fine root morphology and growth in response to nitrogen addition through
           drip fertigation in a Populus × euramericana “Guariento” plantation
           over multiple years
    • Abstract: Key message Nitrogen addition through drip fertigation to a poplar plantation ( Populus × euramericana “Guariento”) promoted fine root growth only in the early period. The relationship between root growth and soil N content was positive in the first 2 years, but became negative in the third year when the soil N availability had substantially increased. Context Nitrogen (N) deficiency is common in forest soils, and N addition is sometimes applied in the case of intensive plantations. There is a need to better document the impact of N addition through the high-efficiency fertilization technique on fine root morphology and growth, given their importance for the uptake of nutrients and for tree growth. Aims We aimed to quantitatively investigate the responses of fine roots in morphology and growth to N addition through surface drip fertigation over multiple years in a Populus × euramericana “Guariento” plantation. Methods A field experiment that included four drip fertigation treatments with N addition levels (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg N ha−1 year−1) was conducted for three successive years. A coring method was used to sample soils and quantify the root morphological traits and soil N content along 0–60-cm profiles. Results The root biomass density, length, surface area, specific length, and tissue density were significantly higher in the N addition treatments than those in the control after the first year, but the positive effect decreased in the second year. In the third year, root biomass in the N addition treatments was even lower by 11–39% than that in the control. The relationship between root growth and soil N content was also positive in the first 2 years and negative in the third year. Conclusion N addition promoted fine root growth mainly in the shallow soil and in the early period of experiment. The relationship between root growth and soil N content became negative in the third year when the soil N availability had substantially increased. It is suggested that fine roots adjust their growth and morphology in response to N availability varying along the soil profile and with the fertilization duration.
      PubDate: 2019-02-07
  • Science needs management data for a better prediction of climate change
           effects on socio-ecosystems
    • PubDate: 2019-01-30
  • Declining fruit production before death in a widely distributed tree
           species, Sorbus aucuparia L.
    • Abstract: Key message Trees are commonly thought to increase their seed production before death. We tested this terminal investment hypothesis using long-term data on rowan trees ( Sorbus aucuparia ) and found no support. Rather, seed production declined significantly before death, which points to the potential detrimental effects of reproductive senescence on regeneration in stands of old trees. Context Aging poses a fundamental challenge for long-lived organisms. As mortality changes with with age due to actuarial senescence, reproductive senescence may also lead to declines in fertility. However, life history theory predicts that reproductive investment should increase before mortality to maximize lifetime reproductive success, a phenomenon termed terminal investment. Aims To date, it is unclear whether long-lived, indeterminantly growing trees experience reproductive senescence or display terminal investment. Methods We investigated fruit production of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.), widely distributed trees that live up to 150 years, as they approached death. Results In our study population in Poland’s Carpathian Mountains, 79 trees that died produced up to 20% fewer fruits in the years before their demise compared to 199 surviving trees of the same population. Conclusion The pattern of reproductive investment in S. aucuparia is suggestive of age-independent reproductive senescence rather than terminal investment. These findings highlight that the understanding of the generality of life history strategies across diverse taxa of perennial plants is still in its infancy.
      PubDate: 2019-01-30
  • Efficiency of post-stratification for a large-scale forest
           inventory—case Finnish NFI
    • Abstract: Key message Post-stratification based on remotely sensed data is an efficient method in estimating regional-level results in the operational National Forest Inventory. It also enables calculating the results accurately for smaller areas than with the default method of using the field plots only. Context The utilization of auxiliary information in survey sampling through model-assisted estimation or post-stratification has gained popularity in forest inventory recently. However, post-stratification at a large scale involves practical concerns such as the availability of auxiliary data independent of the sample at hand, and a large number of variables for which the results are needed. Aims We assessed the efficiency of two different types of post-stratification, either post-stratifying for each variable of interest separately or using one post-stratification for all variables, compared to the estimation based on the field sample plots only. In addition, we examined the precision of area and volume estimates, and the efficiency of post-stratification at different spatial scales. Methods For post-stratification, we used the volume maps based on Landsat satellite imagery, digital map data, and the sample plot data of the previous inventory. The efficiencies of post-stratifications based on the mean volume and the mean volumes by tree species were compared. Results In estimating the total volume, the relative efficiency of post-stratification compared to field plot based estimation was 1.54–3.54 over the provinces in South Finland. In estimating the volumes by tree species groups, the relative efficiency was 0.93–2.39. The gain with a separate stratification compared to the stratification based on total mean volume for all variables was at largest 0.69. In the small test areas, the relative standard errors of the total volume estimates decreased on average by 33% by using post-stratification instead of sample plots only. The mean relative efficiency was 2.36. Conclusion The utilization of an old forest resources map and post-stratification based on the mean volume is an operational approach for the National Forest Inventory. Post-stratification also enables calculating the results accurately for markedly smaller areas than with the field plots only. Post-stratification reduced the probability of very high sampling variances, making the results more robust.
      PubDate: 2019-01-30
  • Inbreeding depression and differential maladaptation shape the fitness
           trajectory of two co-occurring Eucalyptus species
    • Abstract: Key message The fitness trajectory of long-lived forest species with mixed mating systems is shaped by a dynamic interplay between endogenous (inbreeding depression) and exogenous (environmental maladaptation) factors. Using two eucalypt species, we show that the timing and translation of inbreeding depression from growth to survival through size-dependent mortality may vary between species and may intensify under climate stress. Context Inbreeding is an important issue in evolutionary biology and breeding, as it can reduce genetic diversity and fitness and ultimately limit the adaptive response of populations to environmental stress. This is particularly relevant to forest tree species, such as eucalypts, which have a mixed mating system and long-generation intervals. Aim Examine the role of inbreeding depression on the fitness trajectory of two eucalypt species, Eucalyptus globulus and E. ovata. Methods Survival, growth, and reproduction of controlled-crossed self and outcross, as well as open-pollinated progeny of each species grown in a common garden field trial were assessed over a 28-year period and analysed using mixed effect models. Results Inbreeding depression resulted in the purging of inbred progeny through size-dependent mortality with the most death of inbreds occurring between 4 and 13 years. After this period, differential maladaptation of the species was the dominant cause of mortality, associated with a period of drought and high temperatures, and it was evident first in the selfed populations. Conclusion This study demonstrates the dynamic nature of the selective process in purging inbred progeny from a population, with inbreeding depression the dominant factor early in stand development, leading to older stands being dominated by outcrosses.
      PubDate: 2019-01-30
  • Global change impacts on forest and fire dynamics using paleoecology and
           tree census data for eastern North America
    • Abstract: Key message The tree census, paleopollen, fossil charcoal, human population, and climate data presented here provide unique support for important anthropogenic influences on fire over the last 2000 years in the eastern USA. This includes multiple instances of climate fire anomalies that may be best explained by the role of human-caused burning. Context The coupling of paleoecological and tree census data to address larger global change questions is a novel research approach to describe and ascribe recent vegetation dynamics vis-à-vis the climate versus disturbance debate. Aims The aims of the study are to (1) compile and compare pre-European settlement versus modern upland arboreal pollen and tree survey data from a large number of studies in various forest regions in the eastern USA, (2) analyze fossil charcoal dating back 2000 years for the northern versus central/southern tiers of the eastern USA, and (3) compare and contrast compositional and ecophysiological attributes for both datasets and temporal changes to known climate or disturbance phenomena to elucidate global change impacts and the drivers of forest change. Methods We analyzed paleoecological (pollen and charcoal) and tree census studies to compare protohistoric and modern vegetation assemblage for eastern North America, including the drivers of forest change. A total of seven forest types in the north and central regions of the eastern USA were used to co-analyze fossil pollen, fossil charcoal, and tree survey data. Results Disparities and consistencies existed when independently assessing witness tree and pollen records. Although forests north of the tension zone line (TZL) contained mostly Fagus, Pinus, Tsuga, and Acer witness trees, pollen records were dominated, as expected, by high-pollen-producing Pinus, Quercus, Tsuga, and Betula. Here, present-day pollen and tree survey data revealed significant declines in Fagus, Pinus, Tsuga, and Larix and increases in Acer, Populus, Fraxinus, Quercus, and Abies. South of the TZL, both witness tree and pollen records pointed to Quercus and Pinus domination, with declines in Quercus and Castanea and increases in Acer and Betula based on present-day data. Modern assemblages comprise tree genera that are increasingly cool-adapted, shade-tolerant, drought-intolerant pyrophobes. Paleocharcoal data from 1 to 1750 AD indicate a slight increase in burning in southern forests and stable levels in the north, despite the increasing cold associated with the Little Ice Age. The most significant increase in burning followed the dramatic increase in human population associated with European settlement prior to the early twentieth century. Conclusion Post-1940, fire suppression was an ecologically transformative event in all datasets. Our analysis identifies multiple instances in which fire and vegetation changes were likely driven by shifts in human population and land use beyond those expected from climate alone.
      PubDate: 2019-01-30
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Heriot-Watt University
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