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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Annals of Forest Science
  [SJR: 0.929]   [H-I: 57]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1286-4560 - ISSN (Online) 1297-966X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Quantifying competition in white spruce ( Picea glauca ) plantations
    • Authors: Alexa Bérubé-Deschênes; Tony Franceschini; Robert Schneider
      Abstract: Key message In mixed forest plantations in sub-boreal forests with high levels of natural regeneration ingrowth, competition must be quantified differently for each species, with distant-independent indices working better for the planted species and distant-dependent indices for ingrown balsam fir. Although broadleaved competition hinders growth of coniferous species more than coniferous competition, the differentiation between clades is not important enough to improve growth predictions. Context The use of ecosystem-based forest management has changed how forest stands are tended. This shift in the management paradigm has led to a higher tolerance in natural ingrowth regeneration in plantations. The correct way of quantifying competition must thus be assessed to develop growth simulators. Aims An individual tree relative basal area increment (RBAI) growth model for white spruce, balsam fir and other coniferous and broadleaved species was calibrated. Methods Using data obtained from 94 sample plots in 48 white spruce plantations from Eastern Quebec, we considered both linear and nonlinear models of RBAI as a function of site index, tree size and tree competition. The tested distance-dependent and distance-independent indices were also discriminated according to competitor clade (conifers or broadleaves). Results The best competition index for balsam fir was distance-dependent whereas a distant-independent one was retained for the other species groups. Moreover, broadleaved competitors had stronger effect on RBAI for white spruce growth when compared to coniferous competitors. Conclusion Competition must be quantified depending on if the species is planted or ingrown. However, dividing competition into clades (i.e. coniferous versus broadleaved) is not necessary, at least in the present study.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0624-3
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Improving the utility, performance, and durability of wood- and bio-based
           composites
    • Authors: J.E. Winandy; J.J. Morrell
      Abstract: Key message This paper briefly reviews the state of the art in various types of wood- and bio-based composites, summarizes recent advances, and then discusses future possibilities for improving the durability of wood- and bio-based composites. Context Wood can be processed and reformed into a number of different biocomposites. Aims We aimed at reviewing the state of the art in various types of wood- and bio-based composites. Methods Review of utility, performance and durability of wood- and bio-based composites. Results The advanced biocomposites will: Combine wood, natural biofibers, and non-biomaterials to create synergistic hybrid materials that far exceed performance capabilities of current biocomposites Be renewable, recyclable, and totally sustainable Provide superior performance and serviceability exceeding performance of current biocomposites Be more durable, dimensionally stable, moisture proof, and fire resistant Be less expensive to produce and use (over the life cycle of use) than the materials they replace Conclusion The next generation of advanced wood- and bio-based composites must provide high-performance construction and specialty products that simultaneously promote resource and environmental sustainability and provide advanced performance, long-term performance, enhanced durability, and value.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0625-2
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Effect of species grouping and site variables on aboveground biomass
           models for lowland tropical forests of the Indo-Malay region
    • Authors: Solichin Manuri; Cris Brack; Teddy Rusolono; Fatmi Noor’an; Louis Verchot; Sandhi I. Maulana; Wahyu C . Adinugroho; Hery Kurniawan; Dian Wulansih Sukisno; Gita Ardia Kusuma; Arif Budiman; Rahmad Supri Anggono; Chairil Anwar Siregar; Onrizal Onrizal; Dhany Yuniati; Emma Soraya
      Abstract: Key message This study assessed the effect of ecological variables on tree allometry and provides more accurate aboveground biomass (AGB) models through the involvement of large samples representing major islands, biogeographical zones and various succession and degradation levels of natural lowland forests in the Indo-Malay region. The only additional variable that significantly and largely contributed to explaining AGB variation is grouping based on wood-density classes. Context There is a need for an AGB equation at tree level for the lowland tropical forests of the Indo-Malay region. In this respect, the influence of geographical, climatic and ecological gradients needs to be assessed. Aims The overall aim of this research is to provide a regional-scale analysis of allometric models for tree AGB of lowland tropical forests in the Indo-Malay region. Methods A dataset of 1300 harvested trees (5 cm ≤ trunk diameter ≤ 172 cm) was collected from a wide range of succession and degradation levels of natural lowland forests through direct measurement and an intensive literature search of principally grey publications. We performed ANCOVA to assess possible irregular datasets from the 43 study sites. After ANCOVA, a 1201-tree dataset was selected for the development of allometric equations. We tested whether the variables related to climate, geographical region and species grouping affected tree allometry in the lowland forest of the Indo-Malay region. Results Climatic and major taxon-based variables were not significant in explaining AGB variations. Biogeographical zone was a significant variable explaining AGB variation, but it made only a minor contribution on the accuracy of AGB models. The biogeographical effect on AGB variation is more indirect than its effect on species and stand characteristics. In contrast, the integration of wood-density classes improved the models significantly. Conclusion Our AGB models outperformed existing local models and will be useful for improving the accuracy on the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in tropical forests. However, more samples of large trees are required to improve our understanding of biomass distribution across various forest types and along geographical and elevation gradients.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0618-1
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Changes of secondary metabolites in Pinus sylvestris L. needles under
           increasing soil water deficit
    • Authors: Domingo Sancho-Knapik; María Ángeles Sanz; José Javier Peguero-Pina; Ülo Niinemets; Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín
      Abstract: Key message A multiphasic response to water deficit was found in Scots pine primary and secondary metabolism. First, an increase of terpenoids coincided with the stomatal closure. Second, an accumulation of proline, ABA, and shikimic acid was detected when photosynthesis was negligible. Context Drought-induced mortality is characterized by a major needle yellowing followed by severe defoliation and whole branch death. Before these external visual symptoms of drought stress take place, different alterations occur in plant metabolism. Aims This study aims to detect changes in primary and secondary metabolism of Pinus sylvestris L. in response to a decrease in soil water availability. Methods We analyzed needle water potential, photosynthetic characteristics, and concentrations of proline, terpenoids, shikimic acid, total polyphenols, and abscisic acid (ABA) in P. sylvestris through a 55-day soil water deficit period. Results Concentrations of most metabolites varied with the decrease in soil water availability, but changes in different compounds were triggered at different times, highlighting a multiphasic response. Increases in monoterpene and sesquiterpenoid content at moderate water deficit coincided with stomatal closure which preceded the accumulation of proline, ABA, and shikimic acid under severe water deficit when net photosynthesis was negligible. Conclusion This work confirms that most of the secondary metabolites under investigation in Pinus sylvestris did not increase until a moderate to severe water deficit was experienced, when photosynthesis was limited by stomatal closure.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0620-7
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Understory structure and function following release from cattle grazing
           and overstory thinning in Mediterranean conifer plantations
    • Authors: Yagil Osem; Tom Fogel; Yossi Moshe; Mor Ashkenazi; Shlomo Brant
      Abstract: Key message Cattle grazing and overstory cover restrict understory growth and interact in shaping the understory community structure in Mediterranean conifer plantations. Context Understanding how silvicultural manipulations drive understory structure and function in Mediterranean pine plantations is essential for their multifunctional management. Aims This paper aims to study the interactive effects of cattle grazing and overstory thinning on understory structure and function. Methods Ten plots (0.25 ha) were selected in East Mediterranean mature Pinus brutia plantation (rainfall = 600 mm year−1) representing thinned (≈100 trees ha−1, leaf area index (LAI) ≈ 1.6) and non-thinned (≈230 trees ha−1, LAI ≈ 3.5) areas. Two subplots (100 m2) within each plot were fenced in 2000 and 2006 while a third one remained grazed. Understory growth and species composition were measured in 2010. Results Thinning and grazing exclusion both positively influenced woody growth with their combined effect during 10 years leading to 20-fold increase in vegetation volume. An increase (15-fold) in herbaceous biomass was recorded 4 years after grazing exclusion but disappeared 10 years after exclusion due to increased woody cover. Species richness was not influenced by grazing but was positively affected by thinning. Understory composition was affected by grazing × thinning interaction with herbaceous ephemerals and short woody species being more frequent in grazed, thinned areas while larger woody species were more associated with ungrazed, non-thinned areas. Conclusion Grazing impacts on forest understories depend on overstory cover. We propose variable grazing-thinning combinations to meet multiple management objectives.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0622-5
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Forward selection in a maritime pine polycross progeny trial using
           pedigree reconstruction
    • Authors: Marjorie Vidal; Christophe Plomion; Annie Raffin; Luc Harvengt; Laurent Bouffier
      Abstract: Key message Molecular markers were used for paternity recovery in a maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster Ait.) polycross trial, facilitating forward selection. Different breeding strategies for seed orchard establishment were evaluated by comparing genetic gains and diversity. This work opens up new perspectives in maritime pine breeding. Context Polycross mating designs are widely used in forest tree breeding to evaluate parental breeding values for backward selection. Alternatively, polycross progeny trials may be used to select the best trees on the basis of individual breeding values and molecular pedigree analysis. Aims This study aimed to test such a forward selection strategy for the maritime pine breeding program. Methods In a maritime pine polycross trial, progeny with higher breeding values for growth and stem straightness was first preselected with or without relatedness constraints. After paternity recovery, the preselected trees were ranked on the basis of their breeding values, estimated from the recovered full pedigree. Finally, the best candidates were selected with three different strategies (forward, backward, mixed) and three levels of coancestry constraints to establish a virtual clonal seed orchard. Results Complete pedigrees were successfully recovered for most of the preselected trees. There was no major difference in expected genetic gains between the two preselection strategies which differed for relatedness constraints. Genetic gains were slightly higher for forward selection than for classical backward selection. Conclusion This seminal study opens up new perspectives for using forward selection within the French maritime pine breeding program.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0596-8
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Tannin-caprolactam and Tannin-PEG formulations as outdoor wood
           preservatives: biological properties
    • Authors: Jinbo Hu; Marie-France Thevenon; Sabrina Palanti; Gianluca Tondi
      Abstract: Key Message This article presents the enhancement in boron fixation as well as the improved biological resistance against fungi and termites for wood samples treated with tannin-caprolactam and tannin-PEG formulations. Context Although the recently developed tannin-boron wood preservatives have shown high biological protection, they presented also average resistance against weathering. The tannin-caprolactam formulations have shown improved weathering resistances and dimensional stability. Aims For this reason, more detailed biological tests were performed to evaluate the influence of the caprolactam and PEG on the biological resistance. Methods In this paper, the boron leaching of the tannin-caprolactam and tannin-PEG impregnated Scots pine specimens was observed and the biocidal effect against fungi (Antrodia spp. and Coniophora puteana) and insects (Reticulitermes flavipes and Hylotrupes bajulus) were determined according to the guidelines of EN 113, EN 117, and EN 47. Results The advanced formulations containing PEG have shown interesting resistance against fungal decay, but very low penetration and weak resistance against larvae while the tannin-caprolactam preservatives have shown overall improved biological performances and higher boron fixations. Conclusion The biocidal activity of the caprolactam-added formulations was overall enhanced and therefore these formulations are confirmed to be an interesting alternative for the wood preservation in outdoor environment.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0606-x
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of intra-ring wood density profiles using NIRS: comparison with
           the X-ray method
    • Authors: Ricardo Baettig; Jorge Cornejo; Jorge Guajardo
      Abstract: Key message Pith-to-bark wood density profiling is interesting in forestry science. By comparing it with the X-ray method, this study proved that a fiber optic NIR spectrometer with a high-precision displacement system could accurately measure intra-ring wood density with a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm. Context Most near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies for wood density determination use samples that have been pulverized beforehand. Attenuation of ionizing radiation is still the standard method to determine wood density with high spatial resolution. However, there is evidence that NIRS could be an accurate and affordable method for determining intra-ring density in solid wood strips. Aims In this study, we research whether the results published for intra-ring density predictions in wood can be improved when calibrated with X-ray microdensitometry. Methods The measurements were made using a fiber optic probe with a separation between measurement points of 0.508 mm in a range between 1200 and 2200 nm. A total of 4520 density points were used to create partial least squares regression (PLSR). X-ray densitometry data were used as reference values. Twenty PLSR calibrations were randomly executed on 31 samples collected from 28 Pinus radiata D. Don trees. Results Upon selecting 20 latent variables, the R 2 value was 0.873 for the training group and 0.895 for the validation group, while RMSEP values are 43.1 × 10−3 and 47.1 × 10−3 g cm−3 for the training and validation groups, respectively. The range error ratio (RER) was 13.7. Conclusion The RER was high and almost in the range suggested for quantification purposes. Results are superior to wood density studies in the literature which do not employ spatial resolution and to those found in studies using hyperspectral imaging.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0597-7
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Acoustic evaluation of loblolly pine tree- and lumber-length logs allows
           for segregation of lumber modulus of elasticity, not for modulus of
           rupture
    • Authors: Mark Alexander Butler; Joseph Dahlen; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Cristian Montes; Finto Antony; Richard F. Daniels
      Abstract: Key message Loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda ) logs can be evaluated using acoustic velocity whereby threshold acoustic velocity values can be set to ensure lumber meets specified mechanical property design values for modulus of elasticity. Context There is a need to better sort logs according to lumber quality for improved decision making and wood utilization because merchantable logs are being harvested from different stand types including natural forests, conventional plantations, and intensively managed plantations, all with differences in rotation ages, growth rates, and wood quality traits. Aims This study aimed to link tree- and lumber-length log acoustic velocity with the resulting lumber properties as tested in static bending from five intensively managed loblolly pine stands in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Georgia. Methods Acoustic velocity was measured using the resonance-based approach on 87 tree-length logs and 244 lumber-length logs. The logs were then processed into 797 pieces of 38 mm by 89 mm (2×4), 140 mm (2×6), 184 mm (2×8), and 235 mm (2×10) dimension lumber, dried, and tested in static bending. Results Mean MOE of the lumber had moderate relationships with acoustic velocity of the logs (R 2 = 0.49) whereas MOR and acoustic velocity did not have a strong relationship (R 2 = 0.20). Accounting for log position increased the performance of the mean lumber MOE model (R 2 = 0.62) which was further increased by adding green density and small-end diameter (R 2 = 0.67). Utilization of acoustics was effective for segregating logs based on lumber modulus of elasticity and did not depend on knowing tree or stand information such as age, site quality, and silviculture history. Conclusion Acoustic velocity evaluation of tree- and lumber-length logs could be employed to segregate logs within the supply chain to ensure that lumber would meet specified design values.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0615-9
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A generalized algebraic difference approach allows an improved estimation
           of aboveground biomass dynamics of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Castanopsis
           sclerophylla forests
    • Authors: Xiaolu Tang; Lutz Fehrmann; Fengying Guan; David I. Forrester; Rubén Guisasola; César Pérez-Cruzado; Torsten Vor; Yuanchang Lu; Juan Gabriel Álvarez-González; Christoph Kleinn
      Abstract: Key message A generalized algebraic difference approach (GADA) developed in this study improved the estimation of aboveground biomass dynamics of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook and Castanopsis sclerophylla (Lindl.) Schott forests. This could significantly improve the fieldwork efficiency for dynamic biomass estimation without repeated measurements. Context The estimation of biomass growth dynamics and stocks is a fundamental requirement for evaluating both the capability and potential of forest carbon sequestration. However, the biomass dynamics of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Castanopsis sclerophylla using the generalized algebraic difference approach (GADA) model has not been made to date. Aims This study aimed to quantify aboveground biomass (AGB, including stem, branch and leaf biomass) dynamics and AGB increment in C. lanceolata and C. sclerophylla forests by combining a GADA for diameter prediction with allometric biomass models. Methods A total of 12 plots for a C. lanceolata plantation and 11 plots for a C. sclerophylla forest were selected randomly from a 100 m × 100 m systematic grid placed over the study area. GADA model was developed based on tree ring data for each stand. Results GADA models performed well for diameter prediction and successfully predicted AGB dynamics for both stands. The mean AGB of the C. lanceolata stand ranged from 69.4 ± 7.7 Mg ha−1 in 2010 to 102.5 ± 11.4 Mg ha−1 in 2013, compared to 136.9 ± 7.0 Mg ha−1 in 2010 to 154.8 ± 8.0 Mg ha−1 in 2013 for C. sclerophylla. The stem was the main component of AGB stocks and production. Significantly higher production efficiency (stem production/leaf area index) and AGB increment was observed for C. lancolata compared to C. sclerophylla. Conclusion Dynamic GADA models could overcome the limitations posed by within-stand competition and limited biometric data, can be applied to study AGB dynamics and AGB increment, and contribute to improving our understanding of net primary production and carbon sequestration dynamics in forest ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0603-0
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Genetic monitoring of traditional chestnut orchards reveals a complex
           genetic structure
    • Authors: M.A. Martín; E. Monedero; L.M. Martín
      Abstract: Key message This study presents the results of a systematic genetic analysis between wild and cultivated chestnuts in an orchard in southern Spain, highlighting a complex structure and considerable genetic diversity and opening the possibility to generalize this approach to other Mediterranean orchards. Context Tree genetic monitoring offers a good opportunity to evaluate populations and preserve their long-term adaptive evolutionary potential. Chestnut is a multipurpose species of high economic importance in the Mediterranean basin and considered an example of integration between natural and man-driven distribution of diversity under changing environmental and historical conditions. Due to its multipurpose characteristics, man influenced its populations (grafting/sexual propagation) and a complex genetic structure is expected. Aims We monitored the trees of a chestnut orchard for studying the genetic diversity and relationship in grafts and rootstocks and detecting possible response in its adaptive potential. Methods For this, morphological traits and genomic and genic microsatellite markers were used. Results Chestnut trees showed considerable genetic structure, with high level of clonality in the varieties and genetic diversity in rootstocks. The similarity analysis revealed a different clustering pattern for varieties, detecting higher variability for genomic microsatellite markers. Rootstocks harboured a high level of diversity, not previously described, and not contained in the genetic information from populations and varieties from the same region. Conclusion Results contribute to understanding the human role in the management of chestnut and demonstrate that rootstocks constitute an unexploited reservoir of variation valuable for conservation strategies against stress factors and future and unpredictable environmental changes.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0610-1
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Independent lines of evidence of a genetic relationship between acoustic
           wave velocity and kraft pulp yield in Eucalyptus globulus
    • Authors: Matthew G. Hamilton; Jules S. Freeman; David P. Blackburn; Geoffrey M. Downes; David J. Pilbeam; Brad M Potts
      Abstract: Key message Multiple lines of evidence suggest acoustic wave velocity (AWV) would provide a rapid and efficient method to indirectly select for superior pulp yield in Eucalyptus globulus breeding programs. Context Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most widely planted hardwood species in temperate regions of the world and is primarily grown for pulpwood. Aims To determine if acoustic wave velocity (AWV) can be used to indirectly select for kraft pulp yield in E. globulus. Methods Genetic group effects, additive and non-additive variance components, and genetic correlations were estimated for AWV and pulpwood traits, including Kraft pulp yield. In a separate trial, the relative position of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits was compared. Results Estimated narrow-sense heritabilities for AWV and pulp yield were both 0.26, and these traits were strongly genetically correlated (0.84). Furthermore, co-located QTL for these traits were identified. Further evidence that AWV could be used to indirectly select for pulp yield was provided by the ranking of genetic groups—Otways and King Island had the highest AWV and pulp yield and Strzelecki and Tasmania the lowest. There was no evidence of dominance variation in wood property traits. Conclusion Together, these findings suggest that AWV could be used as a selection criterion for kraft pulp yield in E. globulus breeding programs.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0617-2
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of models for estimating bark thickness of Picea abies in
           southwest Germany: the role of tree, stand, and environmental factors
    • Authors: Stefan M. Stängle; Udo H. Sauter; Carsten F. Dormann
      Abstract: Key message Bark thickness was shown to vary between regions, stands, and trees. Bark thickness prediction equations of different model complexity can be suggested depending on the purpose of application. Site and stand conditions, which influence variation of growth rate to a large extent, seem to have a strong influence on bark thickness, with better site quality leading to smaller relative bark thickness. Context For many applications in forestry and forest science, local or regional species-specific bark thickness equations are used to estimate inside-bark diameters with outside-bark diameter measurements. Aims The objectives of this study were (1) to assess variation in bark thickness due to tree and stand factors in two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) datasets from different time periods, (2) to compare and evaluate alternative established model forms for estimating bark thickness, and (3) to assess spatial variation in bark thickness to estimate the effects of environmental factors on bark thickness. Methods Different bark thickness models were chosen from the literature and compared for their predictive quality for new measurements and a dataset from the 1970s. Mixed-effect modelling was applied to account for the hierarchical data structure, and generalized additive mixed models were used to analyse spatial effects and the influence of climatic factors, such as precipitation and temperature. Results A strong positional autocorrelation of bark thickness within trees and within plots could be shown. Bark thickness was smaller in the new data compared to the measurements from the 1970s. The variation between stands could not be explained by the tested environmental factors, but tree age had a strong positive effect on bark thickness. Conclusion In the study region, the variation of site productivity and individual growth rate seem to have a strong influence on bark thickness, whereas no significant effect of large scale climatic factors could be found.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0601-2
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Modelling wood formation and structure: power and limits of a
           
    • Authors: Félix P. Hartmann; Cyrille B. K. Rathgeber; Meriem Fournier; Bruno Moulia
      Abstract: Key message The emergence of the characteristic tree-ring pattern during xylogenesis is commonly thought to be controlled by a gradient of morphogen (auxin, TDIF peptide...). We show that this hypothesis accounts for several developmental aspects of wood formation, but not for the final anatomical structure. Context Wood formation is a dynamic cellular process displaying three generic features: (i) meristematic cell proliferation is restricted to the small cambial zone, preventing exponential xylem radial growth along the growing season; (ii) developmental processes result in a stable zonation of the developing xylem; (iii) the resulting mature wood cells form the typical tree-ring structure made of early and late wood with a gradient of cell sizes, an important trait for wood functioning in trees and for lumber quality. The mechanisms producing these spatial-temporal patterns remain largely unknown. According to the often-cited morphogenetic-gradient hypothesis, a graded concentration profile of a signalling molecule (e.g. auxin, TDIF) controls xylogenesis by providing positional information to differentiating cells. Aims We assessed the predictions of the morphogenetic-gradient theory. Methods We developed a computational model of wood formation implementing hypotheses on how a morphogen flows through the developing xylem and controls cell division and growth and we tested it against data produced by studies monitoring wood formation in conifers. Results We demonstrated that a morphogenetic gradient could indeed control xylem radial growth and wood-forming tissue zonation. However, it failed to explain the pattern of final cell sizes observed in tree-rings. We discussed the features that candidate additional regulatory mechanisms should meet.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0613-y
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Primordium initiation drives tree growth
    • Authors: Ronald M. Lanner
      Abstract: Key message Tree growth is driven by leaf primordium initiation at shoot apices through a series of growth and developmental events largely mediated hormonally and often determinate in nature. This repeating pattern keeps trees alive and reproductive and conserves the phenotype.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0612-z
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to: Tree rings reflect growth adjustments and enhanced synchrony
           among sites in Iberian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) under climate change
    • Authors: Fabio Natalini; Alexandra Cristina Correia; Javier Vázquez-Piqué; Reyes Alejano
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0616-3
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Budburst phenology and host use by Operophtera brumata (Linnaeus, 1758)
           (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in three Mediterranean oak species
    • Authors: Yaussra Mannai; Olfa Ezzine; Axel Hausmann; Said Nouira; Mohamed Lahbib Ben Jamâa
      Abstract: Key message Operophtera brumata L. performance varies among three Mediterranean oak species. Quercus canariensis Willd is more susceptible to infestation probably due to its (i) early leafing, (ii) high nutritional value for the larvae, and (iii) widespread abundance. Context Larvae of Operophtera brumata were observed for the first time in an outbreak in Tunisia affecting Quercus canariensis, Quercus afares Pomel, and Quercus suber L. Due to its polyphagous nature and the important ecological and economic damage it causes, it is most relevant to understand its interaction with North African oaks species. Aims In this paper, budburst phenology of the three oak species, larval performance, and genetic patterns of O. brumata were studied in northwestern Tunisia. Methods In the spring of 2010, 2011, and 2012, budburst phenology of host species and larval densities were monitored weekly. Larval performance of O. brumata on the three oak species was analyzed. DNA extraction, PCR, and DNA sequencing were performed. Results Budburst of Q. canariensis and Q. afares was earlier than Q. suber. Q. canariensis was the most infested host. Larvae which fed on Q. canariensis had faster development, lower mortality, and higher pupal weight than larvae fed on Q. afares and Q. suber. Molecular analyses showed that Tunisian haplotypes were not different from those in Spain, Italy, and Germany. Conclusion Results indicated differences in larval performance. Q. canariensis was the most favorable host species. Its high density in the field and early leafing coinciding with larval hatching made this species particularly susceptible.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0600-3
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Mortality, re-sprouting vigor and physiology of coppice stumps after
           mechanized cutting
    • Authors: Raffaele Spinelli; Luigi Pari; Giovanni Aminti; Natascia Magagnotti; Alessio Giovannelli
      Abstract: Key message Mechanized cutting may result in higher stump damage levels, especially if cutting is performed with shears. Nevertheless, stumps cut with mechanized technology do not show higher mortality rates than do stumps cut manually with a chainsaw. One-year growth is also unaffected, and so is nutrient balance within the stump. Context Coppice harvesting must be mechanized in order to modernize coppice management, so that it can grow along with the dynamic new bio-economy. However, foresters are concerned that mechanized cutting may result in higher stump damage levels, which may cause increased mortality and lower growth rates. Aims The goal of the study was to compare manual and mechanized cutting in terms of cut quality, stump damage levels, stump mortality, re-sprouting vigor, and shoot growth. Methods The study was conducted in a classic Mediterranean coppice stand located in central Italy. The oak-dominated coppice was cut using a chainsaw (control), a disk saw and a shear. The experiment adopted a split-plot design, based on 5 plots divided into 15 subplots (1 subplot per plot and technology). Overall, 344 stumps were selected, tagged, and monitored over the first growing season after cutting. Stump size, cutting height, and cutting damage were determined right after cutting. At the end of the first growing season, the following parameters were also recorded: no. of shoots; height, diameter, and type of the tallest five shoots. Samples were collected from randomly selected stumps during the main phenological phases in order to determine the content of C, N, starch, and soluble sugar, as well as the C/N ratio. Results Mortality ranged from 4 to 8%. Re-sprouting was generally vigorous, with dominant shoots often exceeding the height of 1.5 m after 1 year. Cutting technology had a significant effect on cutting height and cutting damage, but it had no effect on mortality, re-sprouting vigor, and nutrient balance within the stumps, at least in the first growing season. Re-sprouting vigor depended mainly on species. Conclusion While it may result in higher stump damage levels, mechanized cutting does not seem to have any effects on coppice regeneration and growth, at least in the first year. Previous studies indicate that effects recorded during the first growing season may be representative of longer-term trends. The experiment will be continued to obtain additional confirmation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0604-z
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Disturbance severity and canopy position control the radial growth
           response of maple trees ( Acer spp.) in forests of northwest Ohio impacted
           by emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis )
    • Authors: K.C. Costilow; K.S. Knight; C.E. Flower
      Abstract: Key message Radial growth of silver and red maples was investigated across three forests in northwest Ohio following the outbreak of the invasive emerald ash borer. The growth response of maples was driven by an advancement in canopy class and disturbance severity. Context Forest disturbances resulting in species-specific diffuse mortality cause shifts in aboveground and belowground competition. This competition may differentially affect non-impacted trees, depending on crown class, disturbance severity, and species-specific responses. Aims The purpose of this study is to elucidate the primary drivers of silver and red maple (Acer saccharinum and A. rubrum) growth following emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis)-induced ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in riparian forests of northwest Ohio. Methods Using dendroecological approaches, we analyzed the pattern of radial growth in red and silver maples in conjunction with the EAB outbreak. Results This study revealed growth rates of maples increased 72% following EAB arrival and trees advancing in crown class grew 41% faster than those not advancing. The growth response varied by initial crown class, with trees in the intermediate class responding most dramatically. Furthermore, the positive correlation between relative basal area of ash and the radial growth response of maples indicates the important role of disturbance severity in post-disturbance dynamics. Conclusion These findings suggest that, although advancement in crown class may allow predictions of “winners” in forest succession post-disturbance, even trees not changing crown class benefit from decreased competition. Results from this study provide a detailed account of radial growth responses in maples following EAB-induced ash mortality and lend insight into the future canopy composition of ash-dominated riparian forests.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0602-1
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Is leaf area of Norway spruce ( Picea abies L. Karst.) and European larch
           ( Larix decidua Mill.) affected by mixture proportion and stand density?
    • Authors: Gerald Dirnberger; Angela-Elisabeth Kumer; Eduard Schnur; Hubert Sterba
      Abstract: Key message Trees with otherwise equal dimensions have different leaf areas if they are located in different stand types. While leaf area of European larch is affected by mixture proportion, leaf area of Norway spruce is affected by stand density. Context Leaf area is a key parameter for evaluating growth efficiency of trees, and therefore needs to be measured as consistently and accurately as possible. This is even more important when comparing monospecific and mixed stands. Aims The aim of the study is to find combinations of parameters and allometric relationships that can be used to estimate accurately the leaf area of individual trees. Methods Allometries of the measured leaf area of 194 trees in 12 stands were analysed in order to find variables affecting leaf area. Existing functions from the literature were validated. Finally, models were fitted to find the most appropriate method for estimating leaf area of mixed and monospecific stands of Norway spruce and European larch. Results Allometric relationships of leaf area to other measurable characteristics of trees vary in different stand types. Besides individual tree dimensions such as diameter and crown surface area, leaf area of Norway spruce is related to stand density, whereas the leaf area of European larch is dependent on the admixture of Norway spruce in the stand. Conclusion In contrast to models for estimating individual tree leaf area of Norway spruce, models for leaf area of European larch have to consider mixture proportions in order to correctly interpret the growth efficiency of mixed stands.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0614-x
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 1 (2017)
       
 
 
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