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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2329 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Annals of Forest Science
  [SJR: 0.929]   [H-I: 57]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1286-4560 - ISSN (Online) 1297-966X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • A non-stochastic portfolio model for optimizing the transformation of an
           even-aged forest stand to continuous cover forestry when information about
           return fluctuation is incomplete
    • Authors: Katharina Messerer; Hans Pretzsch; Thomas Knoke
      Abstract: Key message Non-stochastic portfolio optimization of forest stands provides a good alternative to stochastic mean-variance optimization when available statistical data is incomplete. The suggested approach has a theoretical background in the areas of robust optimization, continuous multicriteria decision-making, and fuzzy theory. Resulting robust portfolios only show slight economic losses compared to the efficient frontier of a stochastic optimization. Context Economic optimization addressing diversification in mixed uneven-aged forest stands is a useful tool for forest planners. Aims The study aims to compare two approaches for optimizing rotation age cohort portfolios under risk. Rotation age cohorts emerge from age-based regeneration-harvesting operations simulated for two tree species: Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica. Methods The first optimization approach is a stochastic mean-variance approach. The second is a non-stochastic optimization approach, which has rarely been applied to optimize tree species composition and the distribution of harvested timber over many periods. It aims at relatively good solutions, even if the deviation from the initially assumed return is very high. The objective function for both approaches is sensitive to the selection of various harvesting periods for different parts of the stand. For the stochastic approach, the objective function maximizes the annuitized net present value (economic return) for specific levels of risk by allocating area proportions to harvesting periods and tree species. In the non-stochastic approach, the allocation of area proportions instead minimizes the maximum deviation from the greatest possible economic return among many uncertainty scenarios (non-stochastic approach). Results Portfolios from both approaches were diverse in rotation age cohorts. The non-stochastic portfolios were more diverse when compared with portfolios from the efficient frontier, which showed the same standard deviation. However, P. abies clearly dominated the non-stochastic portfolios, while stochastic portfolios also integrated beech to a greater extent, but only in very low risk portfolios. The economic losses of the non-stochastic portfolios compared to the efficient frontier of the mean-variance approach lay between 1 and 3% only for different levels of accepted risk. Conclusion The non-stochastic portfolio optimization over a large uncertainty space is so far uncommon in forest science, yet provides a viable alternative to stochastic optimization, particularly when available data is scarce. However, further research should consider ecological effects, such as increased resistance against hazards of conifers in mixed stands.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0643-0
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Beech coppice conversion to high forest: results from a 31-year experiment
           in Eastern Pre-Alps
    • Authors: Barbara Mariotti; Giorgio Alberti; Alberto Maltoni; Andrea Tani; Pietro Piussi
      Abstract: Key message Selective thinning is a more viable method for beech coppice conversion to high forest when compared with thinning from below as it enhances tree growth, reduces mortality of the remaining trees, and allows to obtain stands with a higher mechanical stability and larger crowns. Context Beech forests in North-East Italy have been largely managed as coppice. Due to socio-economic changes, a large conversion to high forests program started in the second half of the past century. Aims A long-term experiment testing the effects on tree growth and stability of two different conversion methods (thinning from below—method A; selective thinning—method B) was implemented. Methods Both silvicultural treatments started in 1979 with a first thinning followed by a second one in 1997. All trees were periodically measured in order to assess mortality, stability, and growth during the period 1979–2010. In 2010, an assessment of stem quality and crown size was also performed. Results Both methods were economically viable, but method B acted with a higher intensity both in 1979 and in 1997, thus making the harvest more profitable for the owners. Moreover, method B enhanced tree growth, especially in the period after the first thinning, reduced mortality, and allowed to obtain stands with a higher mechanical stability and with larger crowns. Conclusion It would be possible to adopt some of the criteria prescribed with method B in future thinnings over the large areas actually managed with method A, as prescribed by the law.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0642-1
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Adopting robust decision-making to forest management under climate change
    • Authors: Naomi Radke; Rasoul Yousefpour; Roderich von Detten; Stefan Reifenberg; Marc Hanewinkel
      Abstract: Key message Multi-objective robust decision making is a promising decision-making method in forest management under climate change as it adequately considers deep uncertainties and handles the long-term, inflexible, and multi-objective character of decisions. This paper provides guidance for application and recommendation on the design. Context Recent studies have promoted the application of robust decision-making approaches to adequately consider deep uncertainties in natural resource management. Yet, applications have until now hardly addressed the forest management context. Aims This paper seeks to (i) assemble different definitions of uncertainty and draw recommendation to deal with the different levels in decision making, (ii) outline those applications that adequately deal with deep uncertainty, and (iii) systematically review the applications to natural resources management in order to (iv) propose adoption in forest management. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of robust decision-making approaches and their applications in natural resource management. Different levels of uncertainty were categorized depending on available knowledge in order to provide recommendations on dealing with deep uncertainty. Robust decision-making approaches and their applications to natural resources management were evaluated based on different analysis steps. A simplified application to a hypothetical tree species selection problem illustrates that distinct robustness formulations may lead to different conclusions. Finally, robust decision-making applications to forest management under climate change uncertainty were evaluated and recommendations drawn. Results Deep uncertainty is not adequately considered in the forest management literature. Yet, the comparison of robust decision-making approaches and their applications to natural resource management provide guidance on applying robust decision making in forest management regarding decision contexts, decision variables, robustness metrics, and how uncertainty is depicted. Conclusion As forest management is characterized by long decision horizons, inflexible systems, and multiple objectives, and is subject to deeply uncertain climate change, the application of a robust decision-making framework using a global, so-called satisficing robustness metric is recommended. Further recommendations are distinguished depending on the decision context.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0641-2
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Integrating regional climate change into allometric equations for
           estimating tree aboveground biomass of Masson pine in China
    • Authors: Liyong Fu; Xiangdong Lei; Zongda Hu; Weisheng Zeng; Shouzheng Tang; Peter Marshall; Lin Cao; Xinyu Song; Li Yu; Jingjing Liang
      Abstract: Key message A climate-sensitive aboveground biomass (AGB) equation, in combination with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling and dummy variable approach, was developed to examine how climate change may affect the allometric relationships between tree diameter and biomass. We showed that such changes in allometry need to be taken into account for estimating tree AGB in Masson pine. Context As a native species and being widely distributed in subtropical China, Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) forests play a pivotal role in maintaining forest ecosystem functions and mitigation of carbon concentration increase at the atmosphere. Traditional biomass allometric equations do not account for a potential effect of climate on the diameter–biomass relationships. The amplitude of such an effect remains poorly documented. Aims We presented a novel method for detecting the long-term (2041–2080) effects of climate change on the diameter–biomass relationships and the potential consequences for long-term changes of biomass accumulation for Masson pine. Methods Our approach was based on a climate-sensitive AGB model developed using a combined nonlinear mixed-effects model and dummy variable approach. Various climate-related variables were evaluated for their contributions to model improvement. Heteroscedasticity was accounted for by three residual variance functions: exponential function, power function, and constant plus function. Results The results showed that diameter at breast height, together with the long-term average of growing season temperature, total growing season precipitation, mean temperature of wettest quarter, and precipitation of wettest quarter, had significant effects on values of AGB. Excessive rain during the growing season and high mean temperature in the wettest quarter reduced the AGB, while a warm growing season and abundant precipitation in the wettest quarter increased the AGB. Conclusion Climate change significantly affected the allometric scale of biomass equation. The new climate-sensitive allometric model developed in this study may improve biomass predictions compared with the traditional model without climate effects. Our findings suggested that the AGB of Masson pine trees with the same diameter at breast height under three climate scenarios including representative concentration pathway (RCP) 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 in the future period 2041–2080 would increase by 24.8 ± 32.7% (mean ± standard deviation), 27.0 ± 33.4%, and 27.7 ± 33.8% compared with the constant climate (1950–2000), respectively. As a consequence, we may expect a significant regional variability and uncertainty in biomass estimates under climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0636-z
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Is forest insurance a relevant vector to induce adaptation efforts to
           climate change?
    • Authors: Marielle Brunette; Stéphane Couture; François Pannequin
      Abstract: • Key message Insurance might be an efficient tool to strengthen adaptation of forest management to climate change. A theoretical model under uncertainty is proposed to highlight the effect, on adaptation decisions, of considering adaptation efforts in forest insurance contracts. Results show that insurance is relevant to increase adaptation efforts under some realistic conditions on forest owner’s uncertainty and risk preferences, and on the observability or not of adaptation efforts. • Context One of the challenges of forest adaptation to climate change is to encourage private forest owners to implement adaptation strategies. • Aims We suggest the analysis of forest insurance contracts against natural hazards as a vector to promote the implementation of adaptation efforts by private forest owners. • Methods We propose a theoretical model of insurance economics under risk and under uncertainty. • Results Our results indicate that when climate change makes the probability of the occurrence of the natural event uncertain, then it may be relevant to include adaptation efforts in the insurance contract, leading to an increase in the adaptation efforts of risk-averse and uncertainty-averse forest owners. In addition, we show that the relevance of insurance as a vector to promote adaptation efforts is greater when the forest owner’s effort is unobservable by the insurer as compared to a situation of perfectly observable effort. • Conclusion Under some realistic assumptions, the forest insurance contract seems to be a relevant tool to encourage forest owners to adapt to climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0639-9
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Pertinence of reactive, active, and robust adaptation strategies in forest
           management under climate change
    • Authors: Rasoul Yousefpour; Andrey L. D. Augustynczik; Marc Hanewinkel
      Abstract: Key message Pertinence of alternative adaptation strategies to business as usual, namely reactive, active, and robust adaptation strategies, can be evaluated by incorporating the expected costs and benefits of adaptation, climate change uncertainty, and the risk attitudes of decision-makers. Context Forest management is used to coping with risky and uncertain projections and estimates. However, climate change adds a major challenge and necessitates adaptation in many ways. Aims This paper highlights the dependency of the decisions on adaptation strategies to four aspects of forest management: (i) the costs of mitigating undesirable climate change impacts on forests, (ii) the value of ecosystem goods and services to be sustained, (iii) uncertainties about future climate trajectories, and (iv) the attitude of decision-makers towards risk (risk aversion level). Methods We develop a framework to evaluate the pertinence of reactive, active, and robust adaptation strategies in forest management in response to climate change. Results Business as usual may still be retained if the value of the forest and cost of climate impacts are low. Otherwise, it is crucial to react and facilitate the resilience of affected forest resources or actively adapt in advance and improve forest resistance. Adaptation should be robust under any future climate conditions, if the value of the ecosystem, the impacts from climatic changes, and the uncertainty about climate scenarios are very high. Conclusion The decision framework for adaptation should take into account multiple aspects of forest management under climate change towards an active and robust strategy.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0640-3
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Growth phenology in Pinus halepensis Mill.: apical shoot bud content and
           shoot elongation
    • Authors: Anna Hover; Fabien Buissart; Yves Caraglio; Christine Heinz; François Pailler; Merlin Ramel; Michel Vennetier; Bernard Prévosto; Sylvie Sabatier
      Abstract: Key message The chronology of periods of organogenesis and elongation is highlighted in Pinus halepensis.The two first growth units of an annual shoot are preformed inside the bud during the previous year. The following growth units are formed during the spring or summer of the current year. Context Analysis of annual shoot length growth phenology is crucial to assess the impact of climate change on tree production. Little is known about the basic growth characteristics and the phenology of pines. Aims The present study disentangles the roles of shoot organogenesis vs elongation in the annual growth cycle of the polycyclic Aleppo pine. Methods Growth of young Pinus halepensis trees was monitored monthly for 1 year. At each monitoring date, the bud content and meristem dimensions of the main stem shoots apices were analyzed. Results The two first growth units of an annual shoot are preformed inside the bud during the previous year. The following growth units are formed during the spring or summer of the current year. The gap between a shoot organogenesis and its elongation may vary from 1 month, for the last growth unit, to half a year, for the first growth units. Conclusion Our results underline the importance of taking seasonal environmental conditions from both the previous and the current year into account, in order to study the plasticity of annual shoot growth and its response to climate change and variability.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0637-y
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Optimal sap flux sensor allocation for stand transpiration estimates: a
           non-dimensional analysis
    • Authors: Hikaru Komatsu; Tomonori Kume; Yoshinori Shinohara
      Abstract: Key message Measuring between-tree variations in sap flux density rather than azimuthal variations should be prioritized for reliable stand transpiration estimates based on sap flux methods. Context Stand transpiration (E) estimated using sap flux methods includes uncertainty induced by azimuthal variations and between-tree variations in sap flux density (F). Aims This study examines whether or not measuring F for two or more azimuthal directions to cover azimuthal variations in F leads to more reliable E estimates. This examination was done under the assumption that azimuthal and between-tree variations in F are not systematic and when a limited number of sensors are available. Methods We first non-dimensionalized the theoretical framework established by a previous study and developed a general hypothesis. We then validated the hypothesis quantitatively by numerical experiments. Results The non-dimensionalized theory allowed us to hypothesize that measuring F for one azimuthal direction would reduce uncertainty in E estimates more effectively than measuring F for two or more azimuthal directions. Results of the numerical experiments were found to support this hypothesis. Conclusion When the aforementioned assumptions are satisfied, allocating sensors to measure F for one azimuthal direction to cover between-tree variations in F always leads to more reliable E estimates.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0638-x
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The influences of circular saws with sawteeth of mic-zero-degree radial
           clearance angles on surface roughness in wood rip sawing
    • Authors: Weiguang Li; Zhankuan Zhang; Xiaorui Peng; Bo Li
      Abstract: Key message The sawtooth parameters of the side edges likely affect surface roughness to a large extent in wood sawing. Our results point out the need to optimize the parameters of the side edges in order to maximize wood surface quality. Context Improving surface roughness of wood in rip sawing by optimizing the sawtooth parameters is a significant topic of focus in the research of wood processing. However, existing research focuses mainly on the optimization of the sawtooth parameters of the major cutting edges without taking into account the influences of length and angle of the side edges on surface roughness. Thus, adaptive parameters for the side edges should be proposed. Aims This study analyzes how the different parameters of side edges influence surface roughness when circular saws are used, and aims to resolve disparities between high feed speeds and better surface roughness. Methods In particular, this article presents the use of a sawtooth with a mic-zero-degree radial clearance angle. Northeast China ash (Fraxinus spp.) serves as the material for conducting this rip-sawing experiment. Nine types of sawtooth geometries at different feed speeds are used to study the influences of both the different radial clearance angles and the straight length of the zero-degree radial clearance angle on surface roughness (Ra). Results Surface roughness increases with the increase in feed speed, and the smaller the radial clearance angle of the sawteeth, the smaller the surface roughness. When the sawteeth have a mic-zero-degree radial clearance angle, the sawing surface roughness is lower than that of the value of sawteeth with radial clearance angles, especially when the straight length of the zero-degree radial clearance increases from 0 to 0.5 mm, in which case the decrease is most obvious. Conclusion Surface roughness depends, to a certain extent, on the depth of the saw notch. A small part of the side edge that forms the sawing surface participates in the actual cutting, and the length of this section is approximately equal to the feed per tooth. Sawteeth with mic-zero-degree radial clearance angles can improve the surface quality of sawing. Also, if the other cutting factors remain unchanged, surface roughness can be improved and friction can be reduced between the side edges and the wood by increasing the feed speed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0632-3
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to: Estimating belowground biomass and root/shoot ratio of
           Phillyrea latifolia L. in the Mediterranean forest landscapes
    • Authors: Pasquale A. Marziliano; Raffaele Lafortezza; Umberto Medicamento; Leonardo Lorusso; Vincenzo Giannico; Giuseppe Colangelo; Giovanni Sanesi
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0635-0
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Allometry varies among related families of Norway spruce
    • Authors: Daniel J. Chmura; Marzenna Guzicka; Roman Rożkowski; Władysław Chałupka
      Abstract: Key message Slopes and intercepts of allometric equations for organs’ biomass varied among half-sib families of Norway spruce and between age categories in a family-dependent manner. Genetic variation should be accounted for when applying allometric analysis to mixtures of genetic groups. Context Genetic variation in relationships among plant biomass components was rarely addressed in trees, though depending on deployment strategies in tree improvement programs, variation among genetic groups in plant organs’ growth rates, and thus biomass allocation, would affect forest growth and carbon balance. Aims We investigated growth and biomass distribution in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] H. Karst) half-sib families. We assumed invariance among families in allometric relationships, and stability in growth rates of different organs between ages 2 and 8 years in the subset of those families. We also tested for ontogenetic trend in allometry using the independent dataset of biomass at age 21 years. Methods We analyzed allometric relationships among plant components using standardized major axis regression. Results Slopes and intercepts of allometric relationships varied among families, indicating variation in both organs’ growth rates and biomass partitioning at a given plant size. Variation in scaling exponents between age categories was also dependent on the family and plant organ considered. Conclusion Variation in slopes of allometric relationships indicates that a single scaling coefficient should not be applied when different genetic groups are compared. For the interpretation of age effect on biomass partitioning, both slopes and intercepts of allometric relationships should be examined.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0631-4
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The effect of surface fire on tree ring growth of Pinus radiata trees
    • Authors: Thomas Seifert; Martina Meincken; Benedict O Odhiambo
      Abstract: Key message Pinus radiata trees showed significantly reduced basal area increments and increased latewood/earlywood ratios, when their stem was charred by surface fires even if no needle damage occurred. An interaction of fire damage and precipitation on growth was observed. Context Heat from forest fires is able to penetrate beyond the bark layer and damage or completely kill a tree’s cambium. Short-term growth reductions following surface fires have been reported for some species. However, most studies have in common that they describe a compound effect of stem and foliage damage. Aims This study investigated the impact of surface fires on the radial growth of Pinus radiata, where only the stem of trees was charred, while no needle damage was recorded. Methods Tree ring measurements were performed on cores obtained at breast height. Analysis of variance and tests, based on annual basal area increment values were calculated to quantify pre- and post-fire growth differences of tree ring width and latewood/earlywood ratios. Results The analysis revealed significant growth reductions following a surface fire on P. radiata in the year on which the fire occurred as well as in the following year. As a consequence of the fire, basal area increment and latewood/earlywood ratios were significantly reduced. An interaction of fire damage and precipitation on growth was observed. Conclusion The obtained results show how fires without crown damage can affect growth and tree ring structure of P. radiata trees and indicate that stem char could be associated with a significant decrease in ring width and latewood/earlywood ratio.
      PubDate: 2017-04-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0608-8
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Quantifying micro-environmental variation in tropical rainforest
           understory at landscape scale by combining airborne LiDAR scanning and a
           sensor network
    • Authors: Blaise Tymen; Grégoire Vincent; Elodie A. Courtois; Julien Heurtebize; Jean Dauzat; Isabelle Marechaux; Jérôme Chave
      Abstract: Key message We combined aerial LiDAR and ground sensors to map the spatial variation in micro-environmental variables of the tropical forest understory. We show that these metrics depend on forest type and proximity to canopy gaps. Our study has implications for the study of natural forest regeneration. Context Light impacts seedling dynamics and animals, either directly or through their effect on air temperature and relative humidity. However, the micro-environment of tropical forest understories is heterogeneous. Aims We explored whether aerial laser scanning (LiDAR) can describe short-scale micro-environmental variables. We also studied the determinants of their spatial and intra-annual variation. Methods We used a small-footprint LiDAR coverage combined with data obtained from 47 environmental sensors monitoring continuously understory light, moisture and temperature during 1 year over the area. We developed and tested two models relating micro-environmental conditions to LiDAR metrics. Results We found that a volume-based model predicts empirical light fluxes better than a model based on the proportion of the LiDAR signal reaching the ground. Understory field sensors measured an average daily light flux between 2.9 and 4.7% of full sunlight. Relative seasonal variation was comparable in the understory and in clearings. In canopy gaps, light flux was 4.3 times higher, maximal temperature 15% higher and minimal relative humidity 25% lower than in the forest understory. We found consistent micro-environmental differences among forest types. Conclusions LiDAR coverage improves the fine-scale description of micro-environmental variables of tropical forest understories. This opens avenues for modelling the distribution and dynamics of animal and plant populations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0628-z
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Recent growth changes in Western European forests are driven by climate
           warming and structured across tree species climatic habitats
    • Authors: Marie Charru; Ingrid Seynave; Jean-Christophe Hervé; Romain Bertrand; Jean-Daniel Bontemps
      Abstract: Key message Recent growth changes (1980–2007) in Western European forests strongly vary across tree species, and range from +42% in mountain contexts to −17% in Mediterranean contexts. These changes reveal recent climate warming footprint and are structured by species' temperature (−) and precipitation (+) growing conditions. Context Unprecedented climate warming impacts forests extensively, questioning the respective roles of climatic habitats and tree species in forest growth responses. National forest inventories ensure a repeated and spatially systematic monitoring of forests and form a unique contributing data source. Aims A primary aim of this paper was to estimate recent growth changes in eight major European tree species, in natural contexts ranging from mountain to Mediterranean. A second aim was to explore their association with species’ climatic habitat and contemporary climate change. Methods Using >315,000 tree increments measured in >25,000 NFI plots, temporal changes in stand basal area increment (BAI) were modelled. Indicators of climate normals and of recent climatic change were correlated to species BAI changes. Results BAI changes spanned from −17 to +42% over 1980–2007 across species. BAI strongly increased for mountain species, showed moderate/no increase for generalist and temperate lowland species and declined for Mediterranean species. BAI changes were greater in colder/wetter contexts than in warmer/drier ones where declines were observed. This suggested a role for climate warming, further found more intense in colder contexts and strongly correlated with species BAI changes. Conclusion The predominant role of climate warming and species climatic habitat in recent growth changes is highlighted in Western Europe. Concern is raised for Mediterranean species, showing growth decreases in a warmer climate with stable precipitation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0626-1
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Bioindication and modelling of atmospheric deposition in forests enable
           exposure and effect monitoring at high spatial density across scales
    • Authors: Winfried Schröder; Stefan Nickel; Simon Schönrock; Roman Schmalfuß; Werner Wosniok; Michaela Meyer; Harry Harmens; Marina V. Frontasyeva; Renate Alber; Julia Aleksiayenak; Lambe Barandovski; Oleg Blum; Alejo Carballeira; Maria Dam; Helena Danielsson; Ludwig De Temmermann; Anatoly M. Dunaev; Barbara Godzik; Katrin Hoydal; Zvonka Jeran; Gunilla Pihl Karlsson; Pranvera Lazo; Sebastien Leblond; Jussi Lindroos; Siiri Liiv; Sigurður H. Magnússon; Blanka Mankovska; Encarnación Núñez-Olivera; Juha Piispanen; Jarmo Poikolainen; Ion V. Popescu; Flora Qarri; Jesus Miguel Santamaria; Mitja Skudnik; Zdravko Špirić; Trajce Stafilov; Eiliv Steinnes; Claudia Stihi; Ivan Suchara; Lotti Thöni; Hilde Thelle Uggerud; Harald G. Zechmeister
      Abstract: Key message Moss surveys provide spatially dense data on environmental concentrations of heavy metals and nitrogen which, together with other biomonitoring and modelling data, can be used for indicating deposition to terrestrial ecosystems and related effects across time and areas of different spatial extension. Context For enhancing the spatial resolution of measuring and mapping atmospheric deposition by technical devices and by modelling, moss is used complementarily as bio-monitor. Aims This paper investigated whether nitrogen and heavy metal concentrations derived by biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition are statistically meaningful in terms of compliance with minimum sample size across several spatial levels (objective 1), whether this is also true in terms of geostatistical criteria such as spatial auto-correlation and, by this, estimated values for unsampled locations (objective 2) and whether moss indicates atmospheric deposition in a similar way as modelled deposition, tree foliage and natural surface soil at the European and country level, and whether they indicate site-specific variance due to canopy drip (objective 3). Methods Data from modelling and biomonitoring atmospheric deposition were statistically analysed by means of minimum sample size calculation, by geostatistics as well as by bivariate correlation analyses and by multivariate correlation analyses using the Classification and Regression Tree approach and the Random Forests method. Results It was found that the compliance of measurements with the minimum sample size varies by spatial scale and element measured. For unsampled locations, estimation could be derived. Statistically significant correlations between concentrations of heavy metals and nitrogen in moss and modelled atmospheric deposition, and concentrations in leaves, needles and soil were found. Significant influence of canopy drip on nitrogen concentration in moss was proven. Conclusion Moss surveys should complement modelled atmospheric deposition data as well as other biomonitoring approaches and offer a great potential for various terrestrial monitoring programmes dealing with exposure and effects.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0621-6
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The use of the first industrial X-ray CT scanner increases the lumber
           
    • Authors: Andreas Rais; Enrico Ursella; Enrico Vicario; Federico Giudiceandrea
      Abstract: Key message Industrial computed tomography scanning of logs provides detailed information on timber quality prior to sawing. A sawing simulation—considering log rotation angle and knot size accuracy—revealed an average value increase of up to 20% for the best angle compared to the conventional horns-up position. Context Computed tomography (CT) scanning has the potential to improve the value of products sawn from logs and meets the increasing demands of the wood industry for detailed information on log quality prior to processing. Aims In a validation step, automated measurements of knot cluster variable DAB (DIN 4074-1:2012-06) using CT were compared with manual measurements. In a second optimization step, the hypothesis that the value of the sawn products is increased by sawing at the best rotation angle as opposed to the horns-up position was tested. Methods A sample of 36 Douglas-fir logs were scanned in an industrial CT scanner, and sawn into boards. Knots on the boards were manually measured, and compared with the corresponding knots on virtual boards created from the CT data. The error of the DAB was measured by comparing CT data to manual measurements. An optimized sawing simulation was performed, using the measured DAB error to account for CT measurement errors, as well as a rotational error to account for errors in the log turning equipment. Using the results of the sawing simulation, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to show the potential and benefit of an industrial CT scanner. Results The three largest DABs measured by the CT showed good correlation to the measurements on the manual boards. The simulation revealed an average increase of value from 4 to 20% compared to the conventional horns-up position depending on the relative price differences between the strength grades. Conclusion By using a CT scanner to optimize sawing, sawmill owners can process logs in a better way to produce final products with increased added value.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0630-5
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Automated classification of wood transverse cross-section micro-imagery
           from 77 commercial Central-African timber species
    • Authors: Núbia Rosa da Silva; Maaike De Ridder; Jan M. Baetens; Jan Van den Bulcke; Mélissa Rousseau; Odemir Martinez Bruno; Hans Beeckman; Joris Van Acker; Bernard De Baets
      Abstract: •Key message Pattern recognition has become an important tool to aid in the identification and classification of timber species. In this context, the focus of this work is the classification of wood species using texture characteristics of transverse cross-section images obtained by microscopy. The results show that this approach is robust and promising. •Context Considering the lack of automated methods for wood species classification, machine vision based on pattern recognition might offer a feasible and attractive solution because it is less dependent on expert knowledge, while existing databases containing high-quality microscopy images can be exploited. •Aims This work focuses on the automated classification of 1221 micro-images originating from 77 commercial timber species from the Democratic Republic of Congo. •Methods Microscopic images of transverse cross-sections of all wood species are taken in a standardized way using a magnification of 25 ×. The images are represented as texture feature vectors extracted using local phase quantization or local binary patterns and classified by a nearest neighbor classifier according to a triplet of labels (species, genus, family). •Results The classification combining both local phase quantization and linear discriminant analysis results in an average success rate of approximately 88% at species level, 89% at genus level and 90% at family level. The success rate of the classification method is remarkably high. More than 50% of the species are never misclassified or only once. The success rate is increasing from the species, over the genus to the family level. Quite often, pattern recognition results can be explained anatomically. Species with a high success rate show diagnostic features in the images used, whereas species with a low success rate often have distinctive anatomical features at other microscopic magnifications or orientations than those used in our approach. •Conclusion This work demonstrates the potential of a semi-automated classification by resorting to pattern recognition. Semi-automated systems like this could become valuable tools complementing conventional wood identification.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0619-0
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Forest modelling: the gamma shape mixture model and simulation of tree
           diameter distributions
    • Authors: Rafał Podlaski
      Abstract: • Key message New types of distribution functions are needed to model the dynamics of stands where important age classes are represented by few trees. In this study the gamma shape mixture model and two simulation methods were used for generating tree diameter data. • Context To analyse forest dynamics, it is necessary to know distribution of the characteristics (mainly tree diameters) of trees forming particular developmental phases. In many forest inventories, the measurement of large diameter at breast height (DBH) samples is practically impossible. In this case, DBH distributions can be generated using theoretical models. • Aims The aim of this study was to assess the precision of the approximation of empirical DBH data using the gamma shape mixture (GSM) model and kernel density estimation. The strengths and weaknesses of the two simulation methods were presented and discussed. • Methods The GSM model was adopted to approximate empirical DBH data collected in 20 near-natural stands. Two simulation methods were used: (a) the procedure based on a multimodal distribution and gamma random numbers (MDGR procedure) and (b) MCMC techniques with Metropolis–Hastings sampling (MH method). • Results The GSM model precisely fitted the investigated DBH distributions. The MDGR procedure was slightly more precise than the MH method, especially in the case of the samples of 250 DBHs. The level of homogeneity within the drawn DBH sets was similar for all samples. • Conclusion The GSM model is very flexible. The DBH random variates, generated with the use of analysed procedures, represented all tree generations being significant from a biological point of view.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0629-y
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • A critical analysis of methods for rapid and nondestructive determination
           of wood density in standing trees
    • Authors: Shan Gao; Xiping Wang; Michael C. Wiemann; Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Ross; Lihai Wang
      Abstract: Key message Field methods for rapid determination of wood density in trees have evolved from increment borer, torsiometer, Pilodyn, and nail withdrawal into sophisticated electronic tools of resistance drilling measurement. A partial resistance drilling approach coupled with knowledge of internal tree density distribution may offer an alternative solution for wood density surveys in the future. Context Finding ways to nondestructively assess wood density in trees has been a quest by foresters and wood scientists around the world. In the past several decades, traditional increment borer methods have gradually evolved into sophisticated electronic tools of resistance drilling measurements. Aims We provide a comprehensive review of research development in the use of several field nondestructive methods for rapid determination of wood density in trees and discuss pros and cons of each method for field applications. Results The use of the increment borer has been a standard method for assessing wood density in trees, and it has been further developed into a system approach allowing the use of outer wood cores and knowledge of internal density distribution for predicting wood density of major tree components. Studies on the use of torsiometer, Pilodyn, and nail withdrawal tools have had very limited success and do not warrant replacement of the increment borer. Resistance drilling, on the other hand, has emerged as a potential tool for more efficient and economical collection of wood density information in trees. Conclusion The resistance drilling method has considerable advantages over other methods in terms of less damage to trees, faster operation, and higher measurement sensitivity. Internal friction is a key factor that currently hinders further application.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0623-4
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Quantifying competition in white spruce ( Picea glauca ) plantations
    • Authors: Alexa Bérubé-Deschênes; Tony Franceschini; Robert Schneider
      Abstract: Key message In mixed forest plantations in sub-boreal forests with high levels of natural regeneration ingrowth, competition must be quantified differently for each species, with distant-independent indices working better for the planted species and distant-dependent indices for ingrown balsam fir. Although broadleaved competition hinders growth of coniferous species more than coniferous competition, the differentiation between clades is not important enough to improve growth predictions. Context The use of ecosystem-based forest management has changed how forest stands are tended. This shift in the management paradigm has led to a higher tolerance in natural ingrowth regeneration in plantations. The correct way of quantifying competition must thus be assessed to develop growth simulators. Aims An individual tree relative basal area increment (RBAI) growth model for white spruce, balsam fir and other coniferous and broadleaved species was calibrated. Methods Using data obtained from 94 sample plots in 48 white spruce plantations from Eastern Quebec, we considered both linear and nonlinear models of RBAI as a function of site index, tree size and tree competition. The tested distance-dependent and distance-independent indices were also discriminated according to competitor clade (conifers or broadleaves). Results The best competition index for balsam fir was distance-dependent whereas a distant-independent one was retained for the other species groups. Moreover, broadleaved competitors had stronger effect on RBAI for white spruce growth when compared to coniferous competitors. Conclusion Competition must be quantified depending on if the species is planted or ingrown. However, dividing competition into clades (i.e. coniferous versus broadleaved) is not necessary, at least in the present study.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13595-017-0624-3
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 2 (2017)
       
 
 
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