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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2329 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Annals of Biomedical Engineering
  [SJR: 1.182]   [H-I: 94]   [18 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-9686 - ISSN (Online) 0090-6964
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Stiffness of Protease Sensitive and Cell Adhesive PEG Hydrogels Promotes
           Neovascularization In Vivo
    • Authors: Ryan M. Schweller; Zi Jun Wu; Bruce Klitzman; Jennifer L. West
      Pages: 1387 - 1398
      Abstract: Materials that support the assembly of new vasculature are critical for regenerative medicine. Controlling the scaffold’s mechanical properties may help to optimize neovascularization within implanted biomaterials. However, reducing the stiffness of synthetic hydrogels usually requires decreasing polymer densities or increasing chain lengths, both of which accelerate degradation. We synthesized enzymatically-degradable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels with compressive moduli from 2 to 18 kPa at constant polymer density, chain length, and proteolytic degradability by inserting an allyloxycarbonyl functionality into the polymer backbone. This group competes with acrylates during photopolymerization to alter the crosslink network structure and reduce the hydrogel’s stiffness. Hydrogels that incorporated (soft) or lacked (stiff) this group were implanted subcutaneously in rats to investigate the role of stiffness on host tissue interactions. Changes in tissue integration were quantified after 4 weeks via the hydrogel area replaced by native tissue (tissue area fraction), yielding 0.136 for softer vs. 0.062 for stiffer hydrogels. Including soluble FGF-2 and PDGF-BB improved these responses to 0.164 and 0.089, respectively. Softer gels exhibited greater vascularization with 8.6 microvessels mm−2 compared to stiffer gels at 2.4 microvessels mm−2. Growth factors improved this to 11.2 and 4.9 microvessels mm−2, respectively. Softer hydrogels tended to display more sustained responses, promoting neovascularization and tissue integration in synthetic scaffolds.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1822-8
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Proximity of Metastatic Cells Enhances Their Mechanobiological
           Invasiveness
    • Authors: Yulia Merkher; Daphne Weihs
      Pages: 1399 - 1406
      Abstract: A critical step in metastases formation is cancer-cell invasion through tissue. During invasion, cells change morphology and apply forces to their surroundings. We have previously shown that single, metastatic breast-cancer cells will mechanically indent a synthetic, impenetrable polyacrylamide gel with physiological-stiffness in attempted invasion; benign breast cells do not indent the gels. In solid tumors, e.g., breast cancers, metastases occur predominantly by collective cell-invasion. Thus, here we evaluate the effects of cell proximity on mechanical invasiveness, specifically through changes in gel indention. Gel indentation is induced by 56, 33 and 2% (in >1000 cells), respectively, of adjacent high metastatic potential (MP), low MP and benign breast cells, being double the amounts observed in single, well-separated cells. Single cells exhibited a distribution of indentation depths below 10 µm, while adjacent cells also showed a second peak of deeper indentations. The second peak included 65% of indenting high MP cells as compared to 15% in the low MP cells, illustrating the difference in their invasiveness. Thus, proximity of the metastatic cells enhances their mechanical ability to invade, demonstrating why collective cancer-cell migration is likely more efficient. This could potentially provide a rapid, quantitative approach to identify metastatic cells, and to determine their metastatic potential.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1814-8
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A Theoretical Study on Inhibition of Melanoma with Controlled and Targeted
           Delivery of siRNA via Skin Using SPACE-EGF
    • Authors: Juanjuan Liu; Weiping Ding; Renquan Ruan; Lili Zou; Ming Chen; Pengfei Wei; Longping Wen
      Pages: 1407 - 1419
      Abstract: Melanoma is a potentially lethal skin cancer with high mortality rate. Recently, the peptide-mediated transdermal delivery of small interference RNA (siRNA) emerges as a promising strategy to treat melanoma by inducing the apoptosis of tumor cells, but the related theoretical model describing the delivery of siRNA under the effect of SPACE-EGF, the growth inhibition of melanoma and the dynamic expanding of the bump on the skin due to the growth of melanoma has not been reported yet. In this article, a theoretical model is developed to describe the percutaneous siRNA delivery mediated by SPACE-EGF to melanoma and the growth inhibition of melanoma. The results present the spatial–temporal distribution of siRNA and the growth of melanoma under the inhibition of siRNA, which shows a good consistency with the experimental results. In addition, this model represents the uplift process of tumors on the skin surface. The model presented here is a useful tool to understand the whole process of the SPACE-EGF-mediated delivery of the siRNA to melanoma through skin, to predict the therapeutic effect, and to optimize the therapeutic strategy, providing valuable references for the treatment of melanoma.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1825-5
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Numerical Modeling of Nitinol Stent Oversizing in Arteries with Clinically
           Relevant Levels of Peripheral Arterial Disease: The Influence of Plaque
           Type on the Outcomes of Endovascular Therapy
    • Authors: Can Gökgöl; Nicolas Diehm; Philippe Büchler
      Pages: 1420 - 1433
      Abstract: Oversizing of the Nitinol stents in the femoro-popliteal arterial tract is commonly performed by clinicians and further encouraged by stent manufacturers. However, in spite of the procedure’s supposed benefits of strong wall apposition and increased luminal gain, its effects on the mechanical behavior of arteries with peripheral arterial disease are not fully clear. In this study, finite element (FE) analyses of endovascular revascularization of an idealized artery with 70% stenosis and three different plaque types have been performed to examine the influence of Nitinol stent oversizing on the arterial stresses and acute lumen gain. The analyses included the simulation of balloon angioplasty to model plaque failure, followed by stent implantation, in which four different oversizing ratios were investigated. Results showed that balloon angioplasty was crucial in determining the stress levels of the artery prior to stent implantation and heavily affected the outcome of endovascular therapy. For all plaque types, Nitinol stent oversizing was found to produce a marginal lumen gain in contrast to a significant increase in arterial stresses. For the arteries with lightly and moderately calcified plaques, oversizing was found to be non-critical; whereas for the arteries with heavily calcified plaques, the procedure should be avoided due to a risk of tissue failure.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1803-y
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Computational Parametric Studies Investigating the Global Hemodynamic
           Effects of Applied Apical Torsion for Cardiac Assist
    • Authors: Elaine Soohoo; Lewis K. Waldman; Dennis R. Trumble
      Pages: 1434 - 1448
      Abstract: Healthy hearts have an inherent twisting motion that is caused by large changes in muscle fiber orientation across the myocardial wall and is believed to help lower wall stress and increase cardiac output. It was demonstrated that applied apical torsion (AAT) of the heart could potentially treat congestive heart failure (CHF) by improving hemodynamic function. We report the results of parametric computational experiments where the effects of using a torsional ventricular assist device (tVAD) to treat CHF were examined using a patient-specific bi-ventricular computational model. We examined the effects on global hemodynamics as the device coverage area (CA) and applied rotation angle (ARA) were varied to determine ideal tVAD design parameters. When compared to a baseline, pretreatment CHF model, increases in ARA resulted in moderate to substantial increases in ejection fraction (EF), peak systolic pressures (PSP) and stroke work (SW) with concomitant decreases in end-systolic volumes (ESV). Increases in device CA resulted in increased hemodynamic function. The simulation representing the most aggressive level of cardiac assist yielded significant increases in left ventricular EF and SW, 49 and 72% respectively. Results with this more realistic computational model reinforce previous studies that have demonstrated the potential of AAT for cardiac assist.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1812-x
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Hemodynamic Characterization of Peripheral Arterio-venous Malformations
    • Authors: Sabrina Frey; A. Haine; R. Kammer; H. von Tengg-Kobligk; D. Obrist; I. Baumgartner
      Pages: 1449 - 1461
      Abstract: Peripheral arterio-venous malformations (pAVMs) are congenital vascular anomalies that require treatment, due to their severe clinical consequences. The complexity of lesions often leads to misdiagnosis and ill-planned treatments. To improve disease management, we developed a computational model to quantify the hemodynamic effects of key angioarchitectural features of pAVMs. Hemodynamic results were used to predict the transport of contrast agent (CA), which allowed us to compare our findings to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) recordings of patients. The model is based on typical pAVM morphologies and a generic vessel network that represents realistic vascular feeding and draining components related to lesions. A lumped-parameter description of the vessel network was employed to compute blood pressure and flow rates. CA-transport was determined by coupling the model to a 1D advection–diffusion equation. Results show that the extent of hemodynamic effects of pAVMs, such as arterial steal and venous hypertension, strongly depends on the lesion type and its vascular architecture. Dimensions of shunting vessels strongly influence hemodynamic parameters. Our results underline the importance of the dynamics of CA-transport in diagnostic DSA images. In this context, we identified a set of temporal CA-transport parameters, which are indicative of the presence and specific morphology of pAVMs.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1821-9
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Impact of Fiber Structure on the Material Stability and Rupture Mechanisms
           of Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaques
    • Authors: Graeham R. Douglas; Adam J. Brown; Jonathan H. Gillard; Martin R. Bennett; Michael P. F. Sutcliffe; Zhongzhao Teng
      Pages: 1462 - 1474
      Abstract: The rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary circulation remains the main cause of heart attack. As a fiber-oriented structure, the fiber structure, in particular in the fibrous cap (FC), may affect both loading and material strength in the plaque. However, the role of fiber orientation and dispersion in plaque rupture is unclear. Local orientation and dispersion of fibers were calculated for the shoulder regions, mid FC, and regions with intimal thickening (IT) from histological images of 16 human coronary atherosclerotic lesions. Finite element analysis was performed to assess the effect of these properties on mechanical conditions. Fibers in shoulder regions had markedly reduced alignment (Median [interquartile range] 12.9° [6.6, 18.0], p < 0.05) compared with those in mid FC (6.1° [5.5, 9.0]) and IT regions (6.7° [5.1, 8.6]). Fiber dispersion was highest in shoulders (0.150 [0.121, 0.192]), intermediate in IT (0.119 [0.103, 0.144]), and lowest in mid FC regions (0.093 [0.081, 0.105], p < 0.05). When anisotropic properties were considered, stresses were significantly higher for the mid FC (p = 0.030) and IT regions (p = 0.002) and no difference was found for the shoulder or global regions. Shear (sliding) stress between fibers in each region and their proportion of maximum principal stress were: shoulder (25.8 kPa [17.1, 41.2], 12.4%), mid FC (13.9 kPa [5.8, 29.6], 13.8%), and IT (36.5 kPa [25.9, 47.3], 15.5%). Fiber structure within the FC has a marked effect on principal stresses, resulting in considerable shear stress between fibers. Fiber structure including orientation and dispersion may determine mechanical strength and thus rupture of atherosclerotic plaques.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1827-3
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device Support Improves Myocardial
           Supply:Demand in Chronic Heart Failure
    • Authors: Kevin G. Soucy; Carlo R. Bartoli; Dustin Phillips; Guruprasad A. Giridharan; Michael A. Sobieski; William B. Wead; Robert D. Dowling; Zhongjun J. Wu; Sumanth D. Prabhu; Mark S. Slaughter; Steven C. Koenig
      Pages: 1475 - 1486
      Abstract: Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF LVADs) are rotary blood pumps that improve mean blood flow, but with potential limitations of non-physiological ventricular volume unloading and diminished vascular pulsatility. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that left ventricular unloading with increasing CF LVAD flow increases myocardial flow normalized to left ventricular work. Healthy (n = 8) and chronic ischemic heart failure (IHF, n = 7) calves were implanted with CF LVADs. Acute hemodynamics and regional myocardial blood flow were measured during baseline (LVAD off, clamped), partial (2–4 L/min) and full (>4 L/min) LVAD support. IHF calves demonstrated greater reduction of cardiac energy demand with increasing LVAD support compared to healthy calves, as calculated by rate-pressure product. Coronary artery flows (p < 0.05) and myocardial blood flow (left ventricle (LV) epicardium and myocardium, p < 0.05) decreased with increasing LVAD support in normal calves. In the IHF model, blood flow to the septum, LV, LV epicardium, and LV myocardium increased significantly with increasing LVAD support when normalized to cardiac energy demand (p < 0.05). In conclusion, myocardial blood flow relative to cardiac demand significantly increased in IHF calves, thereby demonstrating that CF LVAD unloading effectively improves cardiac supply and demand ratio in the setting of ischemic heart failure.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1804-x
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A Novel Apparatus for the Multifaceted Evaluation of Arterial Function
           Through Transmural Pressure Manipulation
    • Authors: Toshiyuki Yaguchi; Yalin Cong; Kenji Shimo; Takahiro Kurokawa; Shukei Sugita; Kazuaki Nagayama; Hiroshi Masuda; Takeo Matsumoto
      Pages: 1487 - 1495
      Abstract: A novel apparatus for the multifaceted evaluation of artery function was developed. It measures endothelial and smooth muscle functions and the pressure–strain elastic modulus (E p). A rigid airtight chamber with an ultrasound probe was attached to the upper arm to manipulate the transmural pressure of the brachial artery. Endothelial function was measured via a standard flow-mediated dilation (FMD) protocol. Smooth muscle function was evaluated via a myogenic contraction of the artery following the application of negative pressure to the chamber and was named pressure-mediated contraction (PMC). E p was obtained by measuring the instantaneous increase in the artery diameter following the negative pressure application. The PMC and FMD values had a significant negative correlation with age, indicating that the age-related decrease in FMD is caused by the decay of endothelial and smooth muscle function. A consideration of PMC may help improve the accuracy of artery function measurement. E p in subjects aged >40 years was found to be significantly higher in the supra-physiological pressure range than in the physiological one (p = 0.02); this did not occur in younger subjects. Artery stiffening may begin in the supra-physiological range, and this stiffness may also be used for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1810-z
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A Dual-Mode Bioreactor System for Tissue Engineered Vascular Models
    • Authors: N. Bono; S. Meghezi; M. Soncini; M. Piola; D. Mantovani; Gianfranco Beniamino Fiore
      Pages: 1496 - 1510
      Abstract: In the past decades, vascular tissue engineering has made great strides towards bringing engineered vascular tissues to the clinics and, in parallel, obtaining in-lab tools for basic research. Herein, we propose the design of a novel dual-mode bioreactor, useful for the fabrication (construct mode) and in vitro stimulation (culture mode) of collagen-based tubular constructs. Collagen-based gels laden with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were molded directly within the bioreactor culture chamber. Based on a systematic characterization of the bioreactor culture mode, constructs were subjected to 10% cyclic strain at 0.5 Hz for 5 days. The effects of cyclic stimulation on matrix re-arrangement and biomechanical/viscoelastic properties were examined and compared vs. statically cultured constructs. A thorough comparison of cell response in terms of cell localization and expression of contractile phenotypic markers was carried out as well. We found that cyclic stimulation promoted cell-driven collagen matrix bi-axial compaction, enhancing the mechanical strength of strained samples with respect to static controls. Moreover, cyclic strain positively affected SMC behavior: cells maintained their contractile phenotype and spread uniformly throughout the whole wall thickness. Conversely, static culture induced a noticeable polarization of cell distribution to the outer rim of the constructs and a sharp reduction in total cell density. Overall, coupling the use of a novel dual-mode bioreactor with engineered collagen-gel-based tubular constructs demonstrated to be an interesting technology to investigate the modulation of cell and tissue behavior under controlled mechanically conditioned in vitro maturation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1813-9
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Activity of Erector Spinae During Trunk Forward Bending and Backward
           Return: The Effects of Age
    • Authors: Iman Shojaei; Babak Bazrgari
      Pages: 1511 - 1519
      Abstract: Electromyography (EMG)-based measures of the trunk muscles behavior have been used for objective assessment of biomechanical impairments in patients with low back pain (LBP); yet the literature on normal age-related differences in such measures is scant. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess age-related differences in activity of trunk extensors during forward bending and backward return. Sixty asymptomatic individuals were recruited to form five gender-balanced age groups between 20 and 70 years old. Participants completed two sets of trunk forward bending and backward return task using self-selected and fast motion paces. For bending and return phases of each task, the normalized lumbar flexion angles corresponding to different event times of erector spinae activity along with the peak normalized and non-normalized EMG activities of erector spinae were calculated. The mean normalized and non-normalized EMG activities of erector spinae during the entire task also were calculated. There was no age-related difference in normalized lumbar flexion angles corresponding to different event times of erector spinae activity. However, the peak normalized EMG activity during forward bending and backward return as well as the mean normalized EMG activity during the entire task were found to be larger in older vs. younger individuals. Given the suggested unreliability of normalized EMG in elders and considering that we did not find any age-related differences in non-normalized EMG activity of erector spinae, our results do not strongly support the existence of normal age-related differences in EMG profile of erector spinae during forward bending and backward return. Therefore, when interpreting EMG-based measures of trunk muscles behavior for identification of biomechanical impairment in patients with LBP, potential abnormalities in EMG activity of trunk muscles may not be attributed to patient’s age.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1811-y
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Acoustic Emission Signatures During Failure of Vertebra and Long Bone
    • Authors: Brian D. Goodwin; Frank A. Pintar; Narayan Yoganandan
      Pages: 1520 - 1533
      Abstract: Clinical classification of an injury has traditionally involved medical imaging, patient history, and physical examination. The pathogenesis or process of injury has been viewed as a crucial component to estimating fracture stability and direct treatment. However, injury classification systems generally exclude pathogenesis and injury mechanisms because these components are often difficult to elucidate. Furthermore, the development of bone damage relative to the mechanical response is difficult to quantify, which limits the ability to define injury and develop injury criteria. Past advents of new knowledge about the mechanisms and progression of fracture have refined safety standards and engineering design for limiting injury. Post-hoc methodologies for identifying and classifying injuries for post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) research are well established. Though bone fractures can be classified post hoc, questions remain. Surface acoustic sensing (SAS) is an effective approach to augment PMHS experimentation. The objective was to develop and validate an acoustic-emission-based method to characterize bone fractures during injurious loading conditions using acoustic emissions (AEs) in two bone types: vertebral body (VB) and long bone (LB). The newly developed method incorporated the Stockwell transform to estimate the relative energy release rate (RERR) from bone fracture using acoustic signal processing. Fractures were characterized through AE burst durations and frequency content. Results indicated that VB fractures from compression are prolonged processes compared to LB fracture, which was staccato in nature. Significant (p < 0.01) differences between burst duration and frequency content were identified between the two bone types.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1818-4
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • The Injury Tolerance of the Tibia Under Off-Axis Impact Loading
    • Authors: Avery B. Chakravarty; Alberto A. Martinez; Cheryl E. Quenneville
      Pages: 1534 - 1542
      Abstract: During a frontal collision, there are a range of lower extremity postures that the vehicle’s occupant may assume, potentially changing the way load is transmitted to this region of the body. While most experimental studies on the tibia’s injury tolerance assume that load is directed along the leg’s long axis, the effects of off-axis loading due to non-standard postures have not been well quantified, and commonly-cited injury criteria such as the Tibia Index do not directly account for posture. Therefore, twelve cadaveric tibias (paired from six donors) were subjected to off-axis impact loading in a custom-built test apparatus. One specimen from each pair was held at an angle of 15° relative to the direction of loading, while the contralateral was held at an angle of 30°, with these angles representing ankle plantarflexion and corresponding knee extension in a vehicle occupant. Specimens held at 30° fractured at lower forces than the specimens held at 15° (mean force = 5.8 vs. 7.5 kN). This indicates that posture should be incorporated into injury criteria for the tibia in future safety assessments instead of using a single force value based on axial impacts.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1824-6
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Anisotropic Permeability of Trabecular Bone and its Relationship to Fabric
           and Architecture: A Computational Study
    • Authors: T. C. Kreipke; G. L. Niebur
      Pages: 1543 - 1554
      Abstract: Trabecular bone is a porous, mineralized tissue found in vertebral bodies, the metaphyses and epiphyses of long bones, and in the irregular and flat shaped bones. The pore space is filled with bone marrow, a highly cellular fluid. Together, the bone and marrow behave as a poroelastic solid. In poroelasticity theory, the permeability is the primary material property that governs the momentum transfer between the solid and fluid constituents. In the linearized theory, the permeability of a material depends on the shape and connectivity of the pores. Developing a model of the relationship between trabecular microarchitecture and permeability could lead to improved simulations of trabecular bone mechanical response, which can be used to investigate bone adaptation, mechanobiological signaling, and progression of diseases such as osteoporosis. This study used finite element models of the trabecular pore space to calculate the complete anisotropic permeability tensor of 12 human and 18 porcine femoral trabecular bone samples. The sensitivity of the simulations to model assumptions and post-processing was analyzed to improve confidence in the result. The orthotropic permeability tensor depended on the fabric tensor, trabecular spacing, and structure model index through a power law relationship. Porosity and fabric alone also provided a reasonable prediction, which may be useful in cases where the image resolution is insufficient to obtain detailed measures of architecture.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1805-9
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to: Anisotropic Permeability of Trabecular Bone and Its
           Relationship to Fabric and Architecture: A Computational Study
    • Authors: T. C. Kreipke; G. L. Niebur
      Pages: 1555 - 1559
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1835-3
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Linear and Nonlinear Gait Features in Older Adults Walking on Inclined
           Surfaces at Different Speeds
    • Authors: Marcus Fraga Vieira; Fábio Barbosa Rodrigues; Gustavo Souto de Sá e Souza; Rina Márcia Magnani; Georgia Cristina Lehnen; Adriano O. Andrade
      Pages: 1560 - 1571
      Abstract: This study evaluated linear and nonlinear gait features in healthy older adults walking on inclined surfaces at different speeds. Thirty-seven active older adults (experimental group) and fifty young adults (control group) walked on a treadmill at 100% and ±20% of their preferred walking speed for 4 min under horizontal (0%), upward (UP) (+8%), and downward (DOWN) (−8%) conditions. Linear gait variability was assessed using the average standard deviation of trunk acceleration between strides (VAR). Gait stability was assessed using the margin of stability (MoS). Nonlinear gait features were assessed by using the maximum Lyapunov exponent, as a measure of local dynamic stability (LDS), and sample entropy (SEn), as a measure of regularity. VAR increased for all conditions, but the interaction effects between treadmill inclination and age, and speed and age were higher for young adults. DOWN conditions showed the lowest stability in the medial–lateral MoS, but not in LDS. LDS was smaller in UP conditions. However, there were no effects of age for either MoS or LDS. The values of SEn decreased almost linearly from the DOWN to the UP conditions, with significant interaction effects of age for anterior–posterior SEn. The overall results supported the hypothesis that inclined surfaces modulate nonlinear gait features and alter linear gait variability, particularly in UP conditions, but there were no significant effects of age for active older adults.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1820-x
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Handheld Electrical Impedance Myography Probe for Assessing Carpal Tunnel
           Syndrome
    • Authors: Zhao Li; Lingfen Chen; Yu Zhu; Qingquan Wei; Wenwen Liu; Dong Tian; Yude Yu
      Pages: 1572 - 1580
      Abstract: Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a novel, noninvasive, and painless technique for quantitatively assessing muscle health as well as disease status and progression. The preparatory work for commercial adhesive electrodes used in previous EIM measurements is tedious, as the electrodes need to be cut, repeatedly applied, and removed. Moreover, the electrode distances need to be measured many times. To overcome these problems, we developed a convenient and practical handheld EIM probe for assessing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the small hand muscles. To reduce the electrode–skin contact impedance (ESCI), the micropillared and microholed stainless steel electrodes (SSEs) contained in the probe were fabricated using a laser processing technique. When covered with saline, these electrodes showed lower ESCIs than a smooth SSE and Ag/AgCl electrode. The probe was shown to have excellent test–retest reproducibility in both healthy subjects and CTS patients, with intraclass correlation coefficients exceeding 0.975. The reactance and phase values of the abductor pollicis brevis (affected muscle) for CTS patients were consistently lower than those for healthy subjects, with a 50-kHz difference of 37.1% (p < 0.001) and 31.0% (p < 0.001), respectively. Further, no significant differences were detected in the case of the abductor digiti minimi (unaffected muscle). These results indicate that EIM has considerable potential for CTS assessment and hence merits further investigation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1819-3
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • The Interaction of Intramuscular Ketorolac (Toradol) and Concussion in a
           Rat Model
    • Authors: Amanda O. Esquivel; Sarah S. Sherman; Cynthia A. Bir; Stephen E. Lemos
      Pages: 1581 - 1588
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of a single dose of Toradol and head impact in an in vivo rat model for sport-related concussion using a validated rat concussion model. Thirty-five Sprague–Dawley rats were placed into one of four groups: (1) Control, (2) Impact Only, (3) Toradol Only, (4) Impact and Toradol. Animals in the impact groups were subjected to a single head impact. Animals in the Toradol group received a single intramuscular injection of Toradol prior to impact. We examined magnetic resonance imaging, serum S100-B and cognitive function using a Morris Water Maze. In the control group, latency decreased significantly from day 0 (74.9 s) to 24 h (57.4 s) after anesthesia. There was no statistically significant difference between time zero and 24 h after impact in the Impact only or Impact and Toradol group. Our findings indicate that there were no differences between cognitive ability, MRI findings or S100B in rats that were administered a single dose of Toradol and subjected to a single impact and rats that were subjected to a single impact only. In both impact groups there were transient changes in cognitive ability as measured by the Morris Water Maze.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1809-5
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Pre-operative Screening and Manual Drilling Strategies to Reduce the Risk
           
    • Authors: Neal P. Dillon; Loris Fichera; Kyle Kesler; M. Geraldine Zuniga; Jason E. Mitchell; Robert J. Webster; Robert F. Labadie
      Abstract: This article presents the development and experimental validation of a methodology to reduce the risk of thermal injury to the facial nerve during minimally invasive cochlear implantation surgery. The first step in this methodology is a pre-operative screening process, in which medical imaging is used to identify those patients that present a significant risk of developing high temperatures at the facial nerve during the drilling phase of the procedure. Such a risk is calculated based on the density of the bone along the drilling path and the thermal conductance between the drilling path and the nerve, and provides a criterion to exclude high-risk patients from receiving the minimally invasive procedure. The second component of the methodology is a drilling strategy for manually-guided drilling near the facial nerve. The strategy utilizes interval drilling and mechanical constraints to enable better control over the procedure and the resulting generation of heat. The approach is tested in fresh cadaver temporal bones using a thermal camera to monitor temperature near the facial nerve. Results indicate that pre-operative screening may successfully exclude high-risk patients and that the proposed drilling strategy enables safe drilling for low-to-moderate risk patients.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1854-0
       
  • An Intracardiac Soft Robotic Device for Augmentation of Blood Ejection
           from the Failing Right Ventricle
    • Authors: Markus A. Horvath; Isaac Wamala; Eric Rytkin; Elizabeth Doyle; Christopher J. Payne; Thomas Thalhofer; Ignacio Berra; Anna Solovyeva; Mossab Saeed; Sara Hendren; Ellen T. Roche; Pedro J. del Nido; Conor J. Walsh; Nikolay V. Vasilyev
      Abstract: We introduce an implantable intracardiac soft robotic right ventricular ejection device (RVED) for dynamic approximation of the right ventricular (RV) free wall and the interventricular septum (IVS) in synchrony with the cardiac cycle to augment blood ejection in right heart failure (RHF). The RVED is designed for safe and effective intracardiac operation and consists of an anchoring system deployed across the IVS, an RV free wall anchor, and a pneumatic artificial muscle linear actuator that spans the RV chamber between the two anchors. Using a ventricular simulator and a custom controller, we characterized ventricular volume ejection, linear approximation against different loads and the effect of varying device actuation periods on volume ejection. The RVED was then tested in vivo in adult pigs (n = 5). First, we successfully deployed the device into the beating heart under 3D echocardiography guidance (n = 4). Next, we performed a feasibility study to evaluate the device’s ability to augment RV ejection in an experimental model of RHF (n = 1). RVED actuation augmented RV ejection during RHF; while further chronic animal studies will provide details about the efficacy of this support device. These results demonstrate successful design and implementation of the RVED and its deployment into the beating heart. This soft robotic ejection device has potential to serve as a rapidly deployable system for mechanical circulatory assistance in RHF.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1855-z
       
 
 
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