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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2353 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Annals of Biomedical Engineering
  [SJR: 1.182]   [H-I: 94]   [18 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-9686 - ISSN (Online) 0090-6964
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Systematic Review of fMRI Compatible Devices: Design and Testing Criteria
    • Authors: V. Hartwig; N. Carbonaro; A. Tognetti; N. Vanello
      Pages: 1819 - 1835
      Abstract: Abstract Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is at present one of the most used methodologies for functional brain exploration, both in clinical and research settings. fMRI can noninvasively measure neural activity by using specific experimental paradigms. Often, these paradigms require the stimulation of the subject to perform sensorimotor tasks: in the past, the stimuli have been administered manually for investigating fundamental aspects of tactile perception and somatosensory processing. Nowadays, the use of mechatronic devices to stimulate the subject during fMRI studies is growing, also to assure reproducibility, control, and monitoring of task performances. For these reasons, researchers are interested in designing interfaces to be used inside the MRI environment during fMRI studies. For the design of every new device safety and compatibility constraints, imposed by the presence of high static magnetic field, switching magnetic gradients and radiofrequency electromagnetic pulses, must be satisfied. Moreover, it should be considered that functional imaging sequences are even more sensitive to perturbations of the magnetic field than MRI standard diagnostic sequences. Despite several existing devices for use in fMRI studies, an extensive review is still lacking. Our survey aims to introduce into the challenges imposed on the development of fMRI-compatible devices. The current state of the art of compatible devices in fMRI will be presented, pointing out the functionalities and peculiarities of various kinds of device. A particular emphasis will be placed on the tests for the evaluation of fMRI compatibility. This review will be useful both for designers of devices to be used in fMRI studies and for neuroscientists that are having to design fMRI experimental paradigm, and therefore require an overview of existing instruments, but also a knowledge of the benefits and criticism arising from their use.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1853-1
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Design, Analysis and Testing of a Novel Mitral Valve for Transcatheter
    • Authors: Selim Bozkurt; Georgia L. Preston-Maher; Ryo Torii; Gaetano Burriesci
      Pages: 1852 - 1864
      Abstract: Abstract Mitral regurgitation is a common mitral valve dysfunction which may lead to heart failure. Because of the rapid aging of the population, conventional surgical repair and replacement of the pathological valve are often unsuitable for about half of symptomatic patients, who are judged high-risk. Transcatheter valve implantation could represent an effective solution. However, currently available aortic valve devices are inapt for the mitral position. This paper presents the design, development and hydrodynamic assessment of a novel bi-leaflet mitral valve suitable for transcatheter implantation. The device consists of two leaflets and a sealing component made from bovine pericardium, supported by a self-expanding wireframe made from superelastic NiTi alloy. A parametric design procedure based on numerical simulations was implemented to identify design parameters providing acceptable stress levels and maximum coaptation area for the leaflets. The wireframe was designed to host the leaflets and was optimised numerically to minimise the stresses for crimping in an 8 mm sheath for percutaneous delivery. Prototypes were built and their hydrodynamic performances were tested on a cardiac pulse duplicator, in compliance with the ISO5840-3:2013 standard. The numerical results and hydrodynamic tests show the feasibility of the device to be adopted as a transcatheter valve implant for treating mitral regurgitation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1828-2
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Waveform Integrity in Atrial Fibrillation: The Forgotten Issue of Cardiac
    • Authors: Miguel Martínez-Iniesta; Juan Ródenas; Raúl Alcaraz; José J. Rieta
      Pages: 1890 - 1907
      Abstract: Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice with an increasing prevalence of about 15% in the elderly. Despite other alternatives, catheter ablation is currently considered as the first-line therapy for the treatment of AF. This strategy relies on cardiac electrophysiology systems, which use intracardiac electrograms (EGM) as the basis to determine the cardiac structures contributing to sustain the arrhythmia. However, the noise-free acquisition of these recordings is impossible and they are often contaminated by different perturbations. Although suppression of nuisance signals without affecting the original EGM pattern is essential for any other later analysis, not much attention has been paid to this issue, being frequently considered as trivial. The present work introduces the first thorough study on the significant fallout that regular filtering, aimed at reducing acquisition noise, provokes on EGM pattern morphology. This approach has been compared with more refined denoising strategies. Performance has been assessed both in time and frequency by well established parameters for EGM characterization. The study comprised synthesized and real EGMs with unipolar and bipolar recordings. Results reported that regular filtering altered substantially atrial waveform morphology and was unable to remove moderate amounts of noise, thus turning time and spectral characterization of the EGM notably inaccurate. Methods based on Wavelet transform provided the highest ability to preserve EGM morphology with improvements between 20 and beyond 40%, to minimize dominant atrial frequency estimation error with up to 25% reduction, as well as to reduce huge levels of noise with up to 10 dB better reduction. Consequently, these algorithms are recommended as a replacement of regular filtering to avoid significant alterations in the EGMs. This could lead to more accurate and truthful analyses of atrial activity dynamics aimed at understanding and locating the sources of AF.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1832-6
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • The Association Between Geometry and Wall Stress in Emergently Repaired
           Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
    • Authors: Sathyajeeth S. Chauhan; Carlos A. Gutierrez; Mirunalini Thirugnanasambandam; Victor De Oliveira; Satish C. Muluk; Mark K. Eskandari; Ender A. Finol
      Pages: 1908 - 1916
      Abstract: Abstract Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent cardiovascular disease characterized by the focal dilation of the aorta, which supplies blood to all the organs and tissues in the systemic circulation. With the AAA increasing in diameter over time, the risk of aneurysm rupture is generally associated with the size of the aneurysm. If diagnosed on time, intervention is recommended to prevent AAA rupture. The criterion to decide on surgical intervention is determined by measuring the maximum diameter of the aneurysm relative to the critical value of 5.5 cm. However, a more reliable approach could be based on understanding the biomechanical behavior of the aneurysmal wall. In addition, geometric features that are proven to be significant predictors of the AAA wall mechanics could be used as surrogates of the AAA biomechanical behavior and, subsequently, of the aneurysm’s risk of rupture. The aim of this work is to identify those geometric indices that have a high correlation with AAA wall stress in the population of patients who received an emergent repair of their aneurysm. In-house segmentation and meshing algorithms were used to model 75 AAAs followed by estimation of the spatially distributed wall stress by performing finite element analysis. Fifty-two shape and size geometric indices were calculated for the same models using MATLAB scripting. Hypotheses testing were carried out to identify the indices significantly correlated with wall stress by constructing a Pearson’s correlation coefficient matrix. The analyses revealed that 12 indices displayed high correlation with the wall stress, amongst which wall thickness and curvature-based indices exhibited the highest correlations. Stepwise regression analysis of these correlated indices indicated that wall stress can be predicted by the following four indices with an accuracy of 76%: maximum aneurysm diameter, aneurysm sac length, average wall thickness at the maximum diameter cross-section, and the median of the wall thickness variance. The primary outcome of this work emphasizes the use of global measures of size and wall thickness as geometric surrogates of wall stress for emergently repaired AAAs.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1837-1
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • An MRI-Guided Telesurgery System Using a Fabry-Perot Interferometry Force
           Sensor and a Pneumatic Haptic Device
    • Authors: Hao Su; Weijian Shang; Gang Li; Niravkumar Patel; Gregory S. Fischer
      Pages: 1917 - 1928
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a surgical master-slave teleoperation system for percutaneous interventional procedures under continuous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The slave robot consists of a piezoelectrically actuated 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot for needle placement with an integrated fiber optic force sensor (1-DOF axial force measurement) using the Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) sensing principle; it is configured to operate inside the bore of the MRI scanner during imaging. By leveraging the advantages of pneumatic and piezoelectric actuation in force and position control respectively, we have designed a pneumatically actuated master robot (haptic device) with strain gauge based force sensing that is configured to operate the slave from within the scanner room during imaging. The slave robot follows the insertion motion of the haptic device while the haptic device displays the needle insertion force as measured by the FPI sensor. Image interference evaluation demonstrates that the telesurgery system presents a signal to noise ratio reduction of less than 17% and less than 1% geometric distortion during simultaneous robot motion and imaging. Teleoperated needle insertion and rotation experiments were performed to reach 10 targets in a soft tissue-mimicking phantom with 0.70 ± 0.35 mm Cartesian space error.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1839-z
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Can Recovery Foot Placement Affect Older Adults’ Slip-Fall
    • Authors: Shuaijie Wang; Xuan Liu; Anna Lee; Yi-Chung Pai
      Pages: 1941 - 1948
      Abstract: Abstract Following a slip occurred in the overground walking, a fall can be classified into two exclusive categories: feet-forward fall or split fall. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the placement of the recovery foot would determine the slip types, the likelihood of fall, and the severity associated with each fall. The fall severity was estimated based on the impact velocity of body segments or trunk orientation upon fall arrest. One hundred ninety-five participants experienced a novel, unannounced slip while walking on a 7-m walkway. Kinematics of a full-body marker set was collected by a motion capture system which was synchronized with the force plates and loadcell. The results showed that the recovery foot landing position relative to the projected center of mass position at the recovery foot touchdown determined the slip type by 90.8%. Feet-forward slips led to significantly lower rate of falls than did split slips (47.6 vs. 67.8%, p < 0.01). Yet, feet-forward falls were much more dangerous because they were associated with significantly greater estimated maximum hip impact velocity (p < 0.001) and trunk backward leaning angle (p < 0.001) in comparison to split falls.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1834-4
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Age has a Minimal Effect on the Impact Performance of Field-Used Bicycle
    • Authors: Alyssa L. DeMarco; Craig A. Good; Dennis D. Chimich; Jeff A. Bakal; Gunter P. Siegmund
      Pages: 1974 - 1984
      Abstract: Abstract Helmet manufacturers recommend replacing a bicycle helmet after an impact or after anywhere from 2 to 10 years of use. The goal of this study was to quantify the effect of helmet age on peak headform acceleration during impact attenuation testing of field-used bicycle helmets. Helmets were acquired by donation from consumers and retail stores, and were included in the study if they were free of impact-related damage, had a legible manufacture date label, and were certified to at least one helmet standard. Helmets (n = 770) spanning 0–26 years old were drop tested to measure peak linear headform acceleration during impacts to the right and left front regions of the helmets at two impact speeds (3.0 and 6.2 m/s). General linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of age and three covariates (helmet style, size and certification impact speed) on peak acceleration. Overall, age was related to either no difference or a statistically significant but small increase (≤0.76 g/year of helmet age) in peak headform acceleration. Extrapolated across 20 years, age-related differences were less than both style- (traditional vs. BMX) and size-related differences. The age-related differences were also less than the variability observed between different helmets after accounting for style, size and certification effects. These findings mean that bicycle helmets (up to 26-year-old traditional helmets and 13-year-old BMX helmets) do not lose their ability to attenuate impacts with age; however, other helmet features that may change with age were not evaluated in this study.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1842-4
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Individual Impact Magnitude vs. Cumulative Magnitude for Estimating
           Concussion Odds
    • Authors: Kathryn L. O’Connor; Thomas Peeters; Stefan Szymanski; Steven P. Broglio
      Pages: 1985 - 1992
      Abstract: Abstract Helmeted impact devices have allowed researchers to investigate the biomechanics of head impacts in vivo. While increased impact magnitude has been associated with greater concussion risk, a definitive concussive threshold has not been established. It is likely that concussion risk is not determined by a single impact itself, but a host of predisposing factors. These factors may include genetics, fatigue, and/or prior head impact exposure. The objective of the current paper is to investigate the association between cumulative head impact magnitude and concussion risk. It is hypothesized that increased cumulative magnitudes will be associated with greater concussion risk. This retrospective analysis included participants that were recruited from regional high-schools in Illinois and Michigan from 2007 to 2014 as part of an ongoing study on concussion biomechanics. Across seven seasons, 185 high school football athletes were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry system. Out of 185 athletes, 31 (17%) sustained a concussion, with two athletes sustaining two concussions over the study period, yielding 33 concussive events. The system recorded 78,204 impacts for all concussed players. Linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and head impact telemetry severity profile (HITsp) magnitudes were summed within five timeframes: the day of injury, three days prior to injury, seven days prior to injury, 30 days prior to injury, and prior in-season exposure. Logistic regressions were modeled to explain concussive events based on the singular linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and HITsp event along with the calculated summations over time. Linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and HITsp all produced significant models estimating concussion (p < 0.05). The strongest estimators of a concussive impact were the linear acceleration (OR = 1.040, p < 0.05), rotational acceleration (OR = 1.001, p < 0.05), and HITsp (OR = 1.003, p < 0.05) for the singular impact rather than any of the cumulative magnitude calculations. Moreover, no cumulative count measure was significant for linear or rotational acceleration. Results from this investigation support the growing literature indicating cumulative magnitude is not related to concussion likelihood. Cumulative magnitude is a simplistic measure of the total exposure sustained by a player over a given period. However, this measure is limited as it assumes the brain is a static structure unable to undergo self-repair. Future research should consider how biological recovery between impacts may influence concussion risk.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1843-3
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • A Finite Element Model of the Foot/Ankle to Evaluate Injury Risk in
           Various Postures
    • Authors: Chris Smolen; Cheryl E. Quenneville
      Pages: 1993 - 2008
      Abstract: Abstract The foot/ankle complex is frequently injured in many types of debilitating events, such as car crashes. Numerical models used to assess injury risk are typically minimally validated and do not account for ankle posture variations that frequently occur during these events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a finite element model of the foot and ankle accounting for these positional changes. A model was constructed from computed tomography scans of a male cadaveric lower leg and was evaluated by comparing simulated bone positions and strain responses to experimental results at five postures in which fractures are commonly reported. The bone positions showed agreement typically within 6° or less in all anatomical directions, and strain matching was consistent with the range of errors observed in similar studies (typically within 50% of the average strains). Fracture thresholds and locations in each posture were also estimated to be similar to those reported in the literature (ranging from 6.3 kN in the neutral posture to 3.9 kN in combined eversion and external rotation). The least vulnerable posture was neutral, and all other postures had lower fracture thresholds, indicating that examination of the fracture threshold of the lower limb in the neutral posture alone may be an underestimation. This work presents an important step forward in the modeling of lower limb injury risk in altered ankle postures. Potential clinical applications of the model include the development of postural guidelines to minimize injury, as well as the evaluation of new protective systems.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1844-2
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Neck Muscle Moment Arms Obtained In-Vivo from MRI: Effect of Curved and
           Straight Modeled Paths
    • Authors: Bethany L. Suderman; Anita N. Vasavada
      Pages: 2009 - 2024
      Abstract: Abstract Musculoskeletal models of the cervical spine commonly represent neck muscles with straight paths. However, straight lines do not best represent the natural curvature of muscle paths in the neck, because the paths are constrained by bone and soft tissue. The purpose of this study was to estimate moment arms of curved and straight neck muscle paths using different moment arm calculation methods: tendon excursion, geometric, and effective torque. Curved and straight muscle paths were defined for two subject-specific cervical spine models derived from in vivo magnetic resonance images (MRI). Modeling neck muscle paths with curvature provides significantly different moment arm estimates than straight paths for 10 of 15 neck muscles (p < 0.05, repeated measures two-way ANOVA). Moment arm estimates were also found to be significantly different among moment arm calculation methods for 11 of 15 neck muscles (p < 0.05, repeated measures two-way ANOVA). In particular, using straight lines to model muscle paths can lead to overestimating neck extension moment. However, moment arm methods for curved paths should be investigated further, as different methods of calculating moment arm can provide different estimates.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1830-8
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Laser Sintered Porous Ti–6Al–4V Implants Stimulate Vertical
           Bone Growth
    • Authors: Alice Cheng; David J. Cohen; Adrian Kahn; Ryan M. Clohessy; Kaan Sahingur; Joseph B. Newton; Sharon L. Hyzy; Barbara D. Boyan; Zvi Schwartz
      Pages: 2025 - 2035
      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the ability of 3D implants with trabecular-bone-inspired porosity and micro-/nano-rough surfaces to enhance vertical bone ingrowth. Porous Ti–6Al–4V constructs were fabricated via laser-sintering and processed to obtain micro-/nano-rough surfaces. Male and female human osteoblasts were seeded on constructs to analyze cell morphology and response. Implants were then placed on rat calvaria for 10 weeks to assess vertical bone ingrowth, mechanical stability and osseointegration. All osteoblasts showed higher levels of osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 2 on porous constructs compared to solid laser-sintered controls. Porous implants placed in vivo resulted in an average of 3.1 ± 0.6 mm3 vertical bone growth and osseointegration within implant pores and had significantly higher pull-out strength values than solid implants. New bone formation and pull-out strength was not improved with the addition of demineralized bone matrix putty. Scanning electron images and histological results corroborated vertical bone growth. This study indicates that Ti–6Al–4V implants fabricated by additive manufacturing to have porosity based on trabecular bone and post-build processing to have micro-/nano-surface roughness can support vertical bone growth in vivo, and suggests that these implants may be used clinically to increase osseointegration in challenging patient cases.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1831-7
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Influence of Inherent Mechanophenotype on Competitive Cellular Adherence
    • Authors: Manisha K. Shah; Iris H. Garcia-Pak; Eric M. Darling
      Pages: 2036 - 2047
      Abstract: Abstract Understanding the role of mechanophenotype in competitive adherence of cells to other cells versus underlying substrates can inform such processes as tissue development, cancer progression, and wound healing. This study investigated how mechanophenotype, defined by whole-cell, elastic/viscoelastic properties for the perinuclear region, and cellular assembly are intertwined through the mechanosensing process. Atomic force microscopy was used to characterize the temporal elastic/viscoelastic properties of individual and assembled fibroblasts grown on substrates with elastic moduli above, below, or similar to whole-cell mechanophenotypes measured for three, genetically modified cell lines. All cells were at their most compliant immediately after plating but transitioned to distinct, stiffer mechanophenotypes by Day 1 after acclimation. This mechanical state, and cellular assembly/morphology, did not change significantly over the following three days of testing, regardless of substrate compliance or cellular organization (multi-cell nodules/plaques or single cells). Interestingly, cells formed 3D nodules when attached to substrates with elastic moduli less than their own but spread readily on substrates with moduli equal to or greater than their own, suggesting a preference to adhere to the stiffest surface sensed (substrate or cell). This suggests that inherent mechanophenotype plays a role as a competing surface during microenvironment mechanosensing and subsequent cell–cell-substrate organization.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1841-5
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Image-Guided Surgical Robotic System for Percutaneous Reduction of Joint
    • Authors: Giulio Dagnino; Ioannis Georgilas; Samir Morad; Peter Gibbons; Payam Tarassoli; Roger Atkins; Sanja Dogramadzi
      Abstract: Abstract Complex joint fractures often require an open surgical procedure, which is associated with extensive soft tissue damages and longer hospitalization and rehabilitation time. Percutaneous techniques can potentially mitigate these risks but their application to joint fractures is limited by the current sub-optimal 2D intra-operative imaging (fluoroscopy) and by the high forces involved in the fragment manipulation (due to the presence of soft tissue, e.g., muscles) which might result in fracture malreduction. Integration of robotic assistance and 3D image guidance can potentially overcome these issues. The authors propose an image-guided surgical robotic system for the percutaneous treatment of knee joint fractures, i.e., the robot-assisted fracture surgery (RAFS) system. It allows simultaneous manipulation of two bone fragments, safer robot-bone fixation system, and a traction performing robotic manipulator. This system has led to a novel clinical workflow and has been tested both in laboratory and in clinically relevant cadaveric trials. The RAFS system was tested on 9 cadaver specimens and was able to reduce 7 out of 9 distal femur fractures (T- and Y-shape 33-C1) with acceptable accuracy (≈1 mm, ≈5°), demonstrating its applicability to fix knee joint fractures. This study paved the way to develop novel technologies for percutaneous treatment of complex fractures including hip, ankle, and shoulder, thus representing a step toward minimally-invasive fracture surgeries.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1901-x
  • Part II: U.S.—Sub-Saharan Africa Educational Partnerships for
           Medical Device Design
    • Authors: Brittany Ploss; Tania S. Douglas; Matthew Glucksberg; Elsie Effah Kaufmann; Robert A. Malkin; Janet McGrath; Theresa Mkandawire; Maria Oden; Akinniyi Osuntoki; Andrew Rollins; Kathleen Sienko; Robert T. Ssekitoleko; William Reichert
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1898-1
  • A Novel Approach to Utilize Icariin as Icariin-Derived ECM on Small
           Intestinal Submucosa Scaffold for Bone Repair
    • Authors: Mei Li; Chi Zhang; Yi Zhong; Jiyuan Zhao
      Abstract: Abstract Icariin (Ic) has been demonstrated as a potent osteoinductive compound for bone tissue engineering. However, toxic side effects of the drug and poor biocompatibility of drug delivery systems (DDSs) still limit its application for bone repair in the clinic. To overcome these disadvantages and utilize the osteoinductivity of Ic, we developed a novel method to utilize Ic as an Ic-derived osteoinductive extracellular matrix (ECM) on small intestinal submucosa (SIS) (Ic-ECM-SIS). The generated Ic-ECM-SIS scaffolds, as a natural construct, exhibited much better biocompatibility (including cell adhesion, cell survival and cell proliferation) than Ic-SIS scaffolds generated by traditional DDSs. Meanwhile, osteogenic differentiation was promoted by Ic-ECM-SIS with higher expression of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin than ECM-SIS, which was same as Ic-SIS. BMP-4 expression was further increased in the cells on Ic-ECM-SIS compared to that on Ic-SIS. A mouse calvarial defect model was introduced to evaluate the function of Ic-ECM-SIS on bone regeneration in vivo. The bone regeneration was enhanced in the defects implanted with Ic-ECM-SIS, with a higher new bone formation ratio (BV/TV) than the defects implanted with ECM-SIS or Ic-SIS. Angiogenesis was also promoted by Ic-ECM-SIS implantation when compared with ECM-SIS or Ic-SIS. Thus, this work proposes a novel method for applying a drug as a drug-derived ECM-modified scaffold for bone tissue engineering.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1900-y
  • A Wireless Pressure Sensor for Continuous Monitoring of Intraocular
           Pressure in Conscious Animals
    • Authors: Simon A. Bello; Christopher L. Passaglia
      Abstract: Abstract An important aspect of eye health in humans and animal models of human diseases is intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP is typically measured by hand with a tonometer, so data are sparse and sporadic and round-the-clock variations are not well characterized. Here we present a novel system for continuous wireless IOP and temperature measurement in small animals. The system consists of a cannula implanted in the anterior chamber of the eye connected to pressure sensing electronics that can be worn by rats or implanted in larger mammals. The system can record IOP with 0.3 mmHg accuracy and negligible drift at a rate of 0.25 Hz for 1–2 months on a regulated battery or indefinitely at rates up to 250 Hz via RF energy harvesting. Chronic recordings from conscious rats showed that IOP follows a diurnal rhythm, averaging 16.5 mmHg during the day and 21.7 mmHg at night, and that the IOP rhythm lags a diurnal rhythm in body temperature by 2.1 h. IOP and body temperature fluctuations were positively correlated from moment-to-moment as well. This technology allows researchers to monitor for the first time the precise IOP history of rat eyes, a popular model for glaucoma studies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1896-3
  • Proteomic Alterations Associated with Biomechanical Dysfunction are Early
           Processes in the Emilin1 Deficient Mouse Model of Aortic Valve Disease
    • Authors: P. M. Angel; D. A. Narmoneva; M. K. Sewell-Loftin; C. Munjal; L. Dupuis; B. J. Landis; A. Jegga; C. B. Kern; W. D. Merryman; H. S. Baldwin; G. M. Bressan; Robert B. Hinton
      Abstract: Abstract Aortic valve (AV) disease involves stiffening of the AV cusp with progression characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and calcification. Here, we examine the relationship between biomechanical valve function and proteomic changes before and after the development of AV pathology in the Emilin1−/− mouse model of latent AV disease. Biomechanical studies were performed to quantify tissue stiffness at the macro (micropipette) and micro (atomic force microscopy (AFM)) levels. Micropipette studies showed that the Emilin1−/− AV annulus and cusp regions demonstrated increased stiffness only after the onset of AV disease. AFM studies showed that the Emilin1−/− cusp stiffens before the onset of AV disease and worsens with the onset of disease. Proteomes from AV cusps were investigated to identify protein functions, pathways, and interaction network alterations that occur with age- and genotype-related valve stiffening. Protein alterations due to Emilin1 deficiency, including changes in pathways and functions, preceded biomechanical aberrations, resulting in marked depletion of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins interacting with TGFB1, including latent transforming growth factor beta 3 (LTBP3), fibulin 5 (FBLN5), and cartilage intermediate layer protein 1 (CILP1). This study identifies proteomic dysregulation is associated with biomechanical dysfunction as early pathogenic processes in the Emilin1−/− model of AV disease.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1899-0
  • Detergent-Based Decellularization of Bovine Carotid Arteries for Vascular
           Tissue Engineering
    • Authors: Aila Daugs; Beate Hutzler; Martina Meinke; Christoph Schmitz; Nadine Lehmann; Annina Markhoff; Oliver Bloch
      Abstract: Abstract Vascular diseases are an increasing health issue, and common alloplastic, allogenic or autologous vascular grafts show frequent complications. The aim of this study is to develop an acellular, xenogenic bypass-graft from a bovine carotid artery (BAC) using detergent-based protocols. We compared decellularization with sodium desoxycholate (DOA), 3-[(3-Cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (Chaps), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and Triton X100 and improved suitable methods by variation of concentration, buffer system, incubation time, temperature, rinsing, and flow rate. All processes were evaluated systematically based on cellular residues, biocompatibility, structural and mechanical integrity. Decellularization with SDS and Triton X100 was not sufficient for the removal of cellular components. We optimized protocols using 1% DOA and Chaps by a buffered system at 37 °C with extended decellularization and rinsing. Decellularization with DOA depleted DNA to 0.5 ± 0.1% and soluble proteins to 0.6 ± 0.2%. Using Chaps, DNA was reduced to 0.2 ± 0.2% and proteins to 0.6 ± 0.3%. The improved protocols eliminated RNA completely from the matrix, and no cytotoxic effects were detected. Mechanical and structural integrity of decellularized tissues was comparable to non-decellularized controls. Our method effectively removed cellular components from the extracellular matrix while preserving the structural and mechanical integrity of the tissue. Decellularized BACs could be a promising alternative for vascular replacement therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1892-7
  • Interpreting Musculoskeletal Models and Dynamic Simulations: Causes and
           Effects of Differences Between Models
    • Authors: Sarah A. Roelker; Elena J. Caruthers; Rachel K. Baker; Nicholas C. Pelz; Ajit M. W. Chaudhari; Robert A. Siston
      Abstract: Abstract With more than 29,000 OpenSim users, several musculoskeletal models with varying levels of complexity are available to study human gait. However, how different model parameters affect estimated joint and muscle function between models is not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of four OpenSim models (Gait2392, Lower Limb Model 2010, Full-Body OpenSim Model, and Full Body Model 2016) on gait mechanics and estimates of muscle forces and activations. Using OpenSim 3.1 and the same experimental data for all models, six young adults were scaled in each model, gait kinematics were reproduced, and static optimization estimated muscle function. Simulated measures differed between models by up to 6.5° knee range of motion, 0.012 Nm/Nm peak knee flexion moment, 0.49 peak rectus femoris activation, and 462 N peak rectus femoris force. Differences in coordinate system definitions between models altered joint kinematics, influencing joint moments. Muscle parameter and joint moment discrepancies altered muscle activations and forces. Additional model complexity yielded greater error between experimental and simulated measures; therefore, this study suggests Gait2392 is a sufficient model for studying walking in healthy young adults. Future research is needed to determine which model(s) is best for tasks with more complex motion.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1894-5
  • Effect of Chestbands on the Global and Local Response of the Human Thorax
           to Frontal Impact
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chestbands on both global and local thoracic response. A total of twenty-two frontal impacts were imposed on two post-mortem human surrogates, using a 23 kg pneumatic impactor. Impacts were at speeds of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m/s, and there were either 0, 1, or 2 chestbands on the subject. The baseline configuration of 0.8 m/s with zero chestbands was tested initially, then was repeated intermittently throughout testing. For each impact speed, the difference between response with and without chestbands was calculated. Results showed average changes of +0.79 mm in chest deflection, −0.42 N/mm in thoracic stiffness, and −96 µS in rib strain when chestbands were used, none of which were statistically significant (t test, p = 0.35, p = 0.42 and, p = 0.42, respectively). The results provide support for the commonly employed assumption that chestbands do not alter the response of the thorax in frontal impact.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1895-4
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