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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Annals of Behavioral Medicine
  [SJR: 2.112]   [H-I: 98]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1532-4796 - ISSN (Online) 0883-6612
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Can Communicating Personalised Disease Risk Promote Healthy Behaviour
           Change? A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews
    • Authors: David P French; Elaine Cameron; Jack S Benton; Christi Deaton; Michelle Harvie
      Abstract: Background The assessment and communication of disease risk that is personalised to the individual is widespread in healthcare contexts. Despite several systematic reviews of RCTs, it is unclear under what circumstances that personalised risk estimates promotes change in four key health-related behaviours: smoking, physical activity, diet and alcohol consumption. Purpose The present research aims to systematically identify, evaluate and synthesise the findings of existing systematic reviews. Methods This systematic review of systematic reviews followed published guidance. A search of four databases and two-stage screening procedure with good reliability identified nine eligible systematic reviews. Results The nine reviews each included between three and 15 primary studies, containing 36 unique studies. Methods of personalising risk feedback included imaging/visual feedback, genetic testing, and numerical estimation from risk algorithms. The reviews were generally high quality. For a broad range of methods of estimating and communicating risk, the reviews found no evidence that risk information had strong or consistent effects on health-related behaviours. The most promising effects came from interventions using visual or imaging techniques and with smoking cessation and dietary behaviour as outcomes, but with inconsistent results. Few interventions explicitly used theory, few targeted self-efficacy or response efficacy, and a limited range of Behaviour Change Techniques were used. Conclusions Presenting risk information on its own, even when highly personalised, does not produce strong effects on health-related behaviours or changes which are sustained. Future research in this area should build on the existing knowledge base about increasing the effects of risk communication on behaviour.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9895-z
  • Does Stress Result in You Exercising Less? Or Does Exercising Result in
           You Being Less Stressed? Or Is It Both? Testing the Bi-directional
           Stress-Exercise Association at the Group and Person (N of 1) Level
    • Authors: Matthew M. Burg; Joseph E. Schwartz; Ian M. Kronish; Keith M. Diaz; Carmela Alcantara; Joan Duer-Hefele; Karina W. Davidson
      Abstract: Background Psychosocial stress contributes to heart disease in part by adversely affecting maintenance of health behaviors, while exercise can reduce stress. Assessing the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise has been limited by lack of real-time data and theoretical and statistical models. This lack may hinder efforts to promote exercise maintenance. Purpose We test the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise using real-time data for the average person and the variability—individual differences—in this relationship. Methods An observational study was conducted within a single cohort randomized controlled experiment. Healthy young adults, (n = 79) who reported only intermittent exercise, completed 12 months of stress monitoring by ecological momentary assessment (at the beginning of, end of, and during the day) and continuous activity monitoring by Fitbit. A random coefficients linear mixed model was used to predict end-of-day stress from the occurrence/non-occurrence of exercise that day; a logistic mixed model was used to predict the occurrence/non-occurrence of exercise from ratings of anticipated stress. Separate regression analyses were also performed for each participant. Sensitivity analysis tested all models, restricted to the first 180 days of observation (prior to randomization). Results We found a significant average inverse (i.e., negative) effect of exercise on stress and of stress on exercise. There was significant between-person variability. Of N = 69, exercise was associated with a stress reduction for 15, a stress increase for 2, and no change for the remainder. We also found that an increase in anticipated stress reported the previous night or that morning was associated with a significant 20–22% decrease (OR = 0.78–0.80) in the odds of exercising that day. Of N = 69, this increase in stress reduced the likelihood of exercise for 17, increased the odds for 1, and had no effect for the remainder. We were unable to identify psychosocial factors that moderate the individual differences in these effects. Conclusions The relationship of stress to exercise can be uni- or bi-directional and varies from person to person. A precision medicine approach may improve exercise uptake.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9902-4
  • The Mediating Role of Meaning in the Association between Stress and Health
    • Authors: Daryl R. Van Tongeren; Peter C. Hill; Neal Krause; Gail H. Ironson; Kenneth I. Pargament
      Abstract: Background Stress is a common feature of life and has routinely been linked with negative health outcomes. However, meaning has been identified as a possible buffer against stress. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the relationship between stress and health was mediated by meaning in life. Methods Drawing from Wave 1 of the Landmark Spirituality and Health Study, a nationally representative sample of adults, participants (N = 1871) reported their level of stress in the past 12 months, current meaning in life, health (measured as minor symptoms, major conditions, and overall health), and provided a blood sample for biomarker of immune system functioning (i.e., presence of Epstein–Barr virus antibodies). Results Results revealed an indirect effects model in which stress was inversely associated with meaning. Higher meaning was related to better self-reported health (across minor, major, and overall health measures), which, in turn, was associated with better immune system functioning. Conclusions These findings suggest that part of the negative effect of stress on health is accounted for by reduced meaning.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9899-8
  • Resilience Resources Moderate the Association of Adverse Childhood
           Experiences with Adulthood Inflammation
    • Authors: Jean-Philippe Gouin; Warren Caldwell; Robbie Woods; William B. Malarkey
      Abstract: Background Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) has been associated with elevated circulating inflammatory markers in adulthood. Despite the robust effect of ACE on later health outcomes, not all individuals exposed to ACE suffer from poor health. Purpose The goal of this study was to evaluate whether current resilience resources may attenuate the impact of ACE on inflammatory markers among individuals with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Methods Participants (N = 174) completed one-time self-report questionnaires assessing ACE exposure within the first 18 years of life and current resilience resources, and provided blood samples for interleukin-6 (IL-6) and CRP. Results Individuals who were exposed to multiple ACE had greater IL-6 than participants with lesser ACE exposure. However, current resilience resources significantly moderated this effect. Among individuals who reported multiple ACE, higher resilience resources were associated with lower IL-6 levels. Conclusion These data suggest that resilience resources might attenuate the association between ACE and later health outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9891-3
  • Ecological Momentary Assessment of Dietary Lapses Across Behavioral Weight
           Loss Treatment: Characteristics, Predictors, and Relationships with Weight
    • Authors: Evan M. Forman; Leah M. Schumacher; Ross Crosby; Stephanie M. Manasse; Stephanie P. Goldstein; Meghan L. Butryn; Emily P. Wyckoff; J. Graham Thomas
      Abstract: Background Adherence to dietary prescriptions is critical for successful weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, research on specific instances of inadherence (lapses) is limited, and findings regarding the frequency, nature, and causes of lapses are mixed. Additionally, no studies have examined lapses over the course of a weight loss program. Purpose In the context of a reduced calorie diet prescribed as part of a behavioral treatment, we aimed to characterize lapse occurrence, examine lapse frequency across treatment, examine predictors of lapses, and assess the relationship between lapses and weight loss. Methods Adults (n = 189) enrolled in a 12-month behavioral weight loss program completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) at baseline, mid-treatment, and end of treatment. At each EMA survey, participants indicated whether a lapse had occurred, and responded to questions assessing situational, environmental, and affective states. Results Lapse frequency showed a curvilinear relationship over time, such that frequency first decreased and then increased. Lapse frequency at baseline was negatively associated with early and overall weight loss. Lapses most often occurred at home, in the evenings, on the weekends, and entailed eating a forbidden food. Greater overall levels of assessed affective and environmental triggers predicted lapses, and greater momentary hunger and deprivation, and the presence of palatable food, also prospectively predicted lapses. Conclusions In addition to characterizing lapse frequency, the current study identified prospective predictors of lapses across treatment. These findings support the importance of lapses to weight control and provide insight for potential targets of intervention to prevent lapse occurrence.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9897-x
  • Understanding the Dimensions of Anti-Vaccination Attitudes: the
           Vaccination Attitudes Examination (VAX) Scale
    • Authors: Leslie R. Martin; Keith J. Petrie
      Abstract: Background Anti-vaccination attitudes are important predictors of vaccination behavior. Existing measures of vaccination attitudes focus on specific age groups and/or particular vaccines; a more comprehensive measure would facilitate comparisons across studies. Purpose The aim of this study was to develop a short measure of general vaccination attitudes and establish its reliability and validity. Methods Two studies were conducted using the VAX scale. For Study 1, participants were 409 individuals (53% female), with a mean age of 34.5 years. For Study 2, participants were 92 individuals (67% female) with a mean age of 28.6. Participants answered paper-and-pencil questions about their attitudes toward vaccines, prior and expected-future vaccination behaviors, perceived sensitivity to medicines, online behavior, and basic demographic information. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with correlations and t tests then used to assess the scale’s reliability and validity. Results Four distinct but correlated vaccine attitudes were identified: (1) mistrust of vaccine benefit, (2) worries about unforeseen future effects, (3) concerns about commercial profiteering, and (4) preference for natural immunity. These factors were significantly related to prior vaccination behavior, future intentions to obtain recommended vaccinations, perceived sensitivity to medicines, and the tendency to obtain health information online. Conclusions The VAX scale provides an efficient method for identifying those with vaccination resistance, and the four subscales enable a more nuanced understanding of the nature of those views. It should be noted, however, that the strong correlations amongst the four subscales suggest that interventions should target all four attitude areas, and it remains to be seen whether differential emphasis across the four areas is warranted.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9888-y
  • Pre-adolescent Receptivity to Tobacco Marketing and Its Relationship to
           Acquiring Friends Who Smoke and Cigarette Smoking Initiation
    • Authors: David R. Strong; Karen Messer; Sheri J. Hartman; Jesse Nodora; Lisa Vera; Martha M. White; Eric Leas; Nikolas Pharris-Ciurej; Nicolette Borek; John P. Pierce
      Abstract: Background This study extends research on receptivity to tobacco marketing over a key developmental period for cigarette smoking experimentation. Purpose The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of receptivity to tobacco marketing and exposure to friends who smoke on smoking experimentation. Methods Participants were 10 to 13 years old who had never tried cigarettes (n = 878), interviewed six times at 8-month intervals. Results At baseline, 25% percent of the 10 and 11 years old in the sample of never smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing, while less than 5% had friends who smoked. Having a friend who smoked at study baseline and acquiring such friends for the first time during the study were the strongest predictors of smoking experimentation. Initial receptivity to tobacco marketing increased the risk of smoking experimentation independently of having friends who smoke at baseline or acquiring friends who smoke throughout the study period. Conclusions The high level of receptivity observed even among 10 and 11 years old and its robust relationship with cigarette smoking experimentation independent of the significant risk associated with having friends who smoke suggests that successful prevention of receptivity may require intervention at an early age.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9896-y
  • The Role of Stigma in Weight Loss Maintenance Among U.S. Adults
    • Authors: Rebecca M. Puhl; Diane M. Quinn; Bradley M. Weisz; Young J. Suh
      Abstract: Background Challenges of maintaining long-term weight loss are well-established and present significant obstacles in obesity prevention and treatment. A neglected but potentially important barrier to weight-loss maintenance is weight stigmatization. Purpose We examined the role of weight stigma—experienced and internalized—as a contributor to weight-loss maintenance and weight regain in adults. Methods A diverse, national sample of 2702 American adults completed an online battery of questionnaires assessing demographics, weight-loss history, subjective weight category, experienced and internalized weight stigma, weight-monitoring behaviors, physical activity, perceived stress, and physical health. Analyses focused exclusively on participants who indicated that their body weight a year ago was at least 10% less than their highest weight ever (excluding pregnancy), the weight loss was intentional, and that attempts to lose or maintain weight occurred during the past year (n = 549). Participants were further classified as weight regainers (n = 235) or weight-loss maintainers (n = 314) based on subsequent weight loss/gain. Data were collected in 2015 and analyzed in 2016. Results Hierarchical logistic regression models showed that internalized weight stigma and subjective weight category made significant individual contributions to prediction of weight-loss maintenance, even after accounting for demographics, perceived stress, experienced stigma, physical health, and weight-loss behaviors. For every one-unit increase in internalized weight stigma, the odds of maintaining weight loss decreased by 28% (95% CI: 14–40%, p < .001). Conclusions Findings provide initial evidence that overlooked psychosocial factors, like weight stigma, may hinder weight-loss maintenance. Implications for addressing stigma in obesity-focused clinical interventions are highlighted.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9898-9
  • Accumulation of Depressive Symptoms and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness:
           the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
    • Authors: Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen; Kateryna Savelieva; Kim Josefsson; Marko Elovainio; Laura Pulkki-Råback; Markus Juonala; Olli T. Raitakari; Mirka Hintsanen
      Abstract: Background The association between depressive symptoms and subclinical atherosclerosis has been inconsistent. Purpose We sought to replicate our previous study, which demonstrated a positive relation between depressive symptoms and subclinical atherosclerosis assessed with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in men, using a newer measurement of carotid IMT and a cumulative loading of depressive symptoms over three follow-ups. Methods The sample comprised 996 adults (352 men) aged 30 to 45 years in 2007 from a prospective population-based Finnish sample. The participants completed a modified version of Beck Depression Inventory in 1992, 1997, and 2001. Carotid IMT was assessed with ultrasound in 2001 and 2007. Cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., body mass index, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smoking) were measured in childhood (1980) and in adulthood (2007). Results We found no association between the accumulative depression index and carotid IMT before or after controlling for the traditional risk factors (all p values ≥0.67). Depressive symptoms did not predict IMT progression over two time points and the highest level of carotid wall thickening. Imputed and non-imputed data sets provided similar results. Results remained the same when men and women were analyzed separately. Additional analyses revealed no significant interactions between depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., body mass index and systolic blood pressure) on carotid IMT (all p values >0.15). Conclusions The findings of this population-based study did not indicate any direct association between depressive symptoms and carotid IMT in asymptomatic, young adults.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9884-2
  • A Self-Regulatory Intervention for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer:
           Pilot Randomized Trial
    • Authors: Amy E. Richardson; Geraldine Tennant; Randall P. Morton; Elizabeth Broadbent
      Abstract: Background Research is yet to investigate whether psychological interventions delivered early after diagnosis can benefit patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a brief self-regulatory intervention (targeting illness perceptions and coping) at improving HNC patient health-related quality of life (HRQL). Methods A pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted, in which 64 patients were assigned to receive three sessions with a health psychologist in addition to standard care or standard care alone. Participants completed questionnaires assessing HRQL, general distress, and illness perceptions at baseline and again 3 and 6 months later. Results Compared to the control group, patients who received the intervention had increased treatment control perceptions at 3 months (p = .01), and increased social quality of life at 6 months (p = .01). The intervention was particularly helpful for patients exhibiting distress at baseline. Conclusion A brief psychological intervention following HNC diagnosis can improve patient perceptions of treatment and social quality of life over time. Such interventions could be targeted to patients who are distressed in order to confer the greatest benefit. Trial Registration Number 12614000813684.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9885-1
  • Randomized Trial of a Social Networking Intervention for Cancer-Related
    • Authors: Jason E. Owen; Erin O’Carroll Bantum; Ian S. Pagano; Annette Stanton
      Abstract: Background Web and mobile technologies appear to hold promise for delivering evidence-informed and evidence-based intervention to cancer survivors and others living with trauma and other psychological concerns. was developed as a comprehensive online social networking and coping skills training program for cancer survivors living with distress. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week social networking intervention on distress, depression, anxiety, vigor, and fatigue in cancer survivors reporting high levels of cancer-related distress. Methods We recruited 347 participants from a local cancer registry and internet, and all were randomized to either a 12-week waiting list control group or to immediate access to the intervention. Intervention participants received secure access to the study website, which provided extensive social networking capabilities and coping skills training exercises facilitated by a professional facilitator. Results Across time, the prevalence of clinically significant depression symptoms declined from 67 to 34 % in both conditions. The intervention had greater declines in fatigue than the waitlist control group, but the intervention did not improve outcomes for depression, trauma-related anxiety symptoms, or overall mood disturbance. For those with more severe levels of anxiety at baseline, greater engagement with the intervention was associated with higher levels of symptom reduction over time. Conclusions The intervention resulted in small but significant effects on fatigue but not other primary or secondary outcomes. Results suggest that this social networking intervention may be most effective for those who have distress that is not associated with high levels of anxiety symptoms or very poor overall psychological functioning. Trial Registration Number The trial was registered with the database ( #NCT01976949).
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9890-4
  • Intervention Mediators in a Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase
           Colonoscopy Uptake Among Individuals at Increased Risk of Familial
           Colorectal Cancer
    • Authors: Barbara H. Brumbach; Wendy C. Birmingham; Watcharaporn Boonyasiriwat; Scott Walters; Anita Y. Kinney
      Abstract: Background Understanding the pathways by which interventions achieve behavioral change is important for optimizing intervention strategies. Purpose We examined mediators of behavior change in a tailored-risk communication intervention that increased guideline-based colorectal cancer screening among individuals at increased familial risk. Methods Participants at increased familial risk for colorectal cancer (N = 481) were randomized to one of two arms: (1) a remote, tailored-risk communication intervention (Tele-Cancer Risk Assessment and Evaluation (TeleCARE)) or (2) a mailed educational brochure intervention. Results Structural equation modeling showed that participants in TeleCARE were more likely to get a colonoscopy. The effect was partially mediated through perceived threat (β = 0.12, p < 0.05), efficacy beliefs (β = 0.12, p < 0.05), emotions (β = 0.22, p < 0.001), and behavioral intentions (β = 0.24, p < 0.001). Model fit was very good: comparative fit index = 0.95, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.05, and standardized root-mean-square residual = 0.08. Conclusion Evaluating mediating variables between an intervention (TeleCARE) and a primary outcome (colonoscopy) contributes to our understanding of underlying mechanisms that lead to health behavior change, thus leading to better informed and designed future interventions. Trial Registration Number, NCT01274143.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9893-1
  • Preparedness and Cancer-Related Symptom Management among Cancer Survivors
           in the First Year Post-Treatment
    • Authors: Corinne R. Leach; Alyssa N. Troeschel; Dawn Wiatrek; Annette L. Stanton; Michael Diefenbach; Kevin D. Stein; Katherine Sharpe; Kenneth Portier
      Abstract: Background Many cancer survivors feel unprepared for the physical and psychosocial challenges that accompany the post-treatment care transition (i.e., re-entry phase), including management of cancer-related symptoms. Few studies have investigated personal and contextual factors associated with the extent of preparedness for re-entry or how they are related to cancer-related symptom management. Purpose Data from the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Survivor Transition Study examined (1) characteristics of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors (n = 1188) within the first year of completing treatment who are most and least prepared for re-entry; and (2) how preparedness level and other characteristics are related to cancer-related symptom management. Methods Stanton and colleagues’ [1] conceptual model of survivorship guided the selection of interpersonal/environmental, individual, and disease/treatment-related characteristics as potential contributors to levels of preparedness and cancer-related symptom management using regression tree and multivariate linear regression analyses. Results Survivors, on average, felt moderately prepared for the transition to post-treatment care. Lowest levels of preparedness were found among survivors with relatively high depressive symptoms, low perceived quality of oncology-provided survivorship care, and limited discussion about potential side effects with a health professional. Poorer symptom management was associated with younger age, having more comorbid conditions, and lower preparedness, social support, and spirituality. Conclusion Survivors who feel unprepared for the transition to post-treatment care report poorer cancer-related symptom management. Identification of factors associated with low perceived preparedness and poor cancer-related symptom management will assist in risk stratification and development of tailored interventions to meet the needs of cancer survivors during re-entry.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9880-6
  • Associations Between Pain Catastrophizing and Cognitive Fusion in Relation
           to Pain and Upper Extremity Function Among Hand and Upper Extremity
           Surgery Patients
    • Authors: Sezai Özkan; Emily L. Zale; David Ring; Ana-Maria Vranceanu
      Abstract: Background Patients who present to hand surgery practices are at increased risk of psychological distress, pain, and disability. Greater catastrophic thinking about pain is associated with greater pain intensity, and initial evidence suggest that, together, catastrophic thinking about pain and cognitive fusion (i.e., interpretation of thoughts as true) are associated with poorer pain outcomes. Purpose We tested whether cognitive fusion or catastrophic thinking interacts in relation to pain and upper extremity physical function among patients seeking care from a hand surgeon. Methods Patients (N = 110; mean age= 47.51; 59% women) presenting to an outpatient hand surgery practice completed computerized measures of sociodemographics, pain intensity, cognitive fusion, catastrophic thinking about pain, and upper extremity function. Results ANCOVA revealed an interaction between cognitive fusion and catastrophic thinking about pain with respect to pain intensity and upper extremity function (ps < .01). Participants who scored high on both cognitive fusion and catastrophic thinking about pain reported the greatest levels of pain, relative to those who scored high on a single measure. The lowest levels of upper extremity function were also observed among those who scored high on both catastrophic thinking about pain and cognitive fusion. A similar pattern of results was observed when we tested each catastrophizing subscale individually. Conclusion Maladaptive cognitions about pain (i.e., catastrophic thinking) may be particularly problematic when interpreted as representative of reality (i.e., cognitive fusion). Psychosocial interventions addressing catastrophic thinking about pain and cognitive fusion concurrently merit investigation among people with hand and upper extremity illness.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9877-1
  • A Randomized-Controlled Trial of Social Norm Interventions to Increase
           Physical Activity
    • Authors: Christopher M. Wally; Linda D. Cameron
      Abstract: Background Physical activity confers numerous health benefits, yet few adults meet recommended physical activity guidelines. Purpose The impact of brief messages providing descriptive and injunctive social norm feedback on physical activity was tested in this conceptual pilot study. Methods Young adults (N = 111) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: descriptive norm feedback, descriptive-plus-injunctive norm feedback, or no social feedback (control condition). Participants used pedometers for eight weekdays and recorded their step counts each evening. The descriptive norm group received feedback about the average number of steps taken by group members the previous day. The descriptive-plus-injunctive norm group received feedback about the group average, as well as a sad face if the participant was below the average or a happy face if the participant was above the average. The control group received no feedback throughout the study. Results By days 7 and 8, the descriptive-plus-injunctive norm group reported significantly more steps relative to the control group, whereas the descriptive norm group showed a trend toward higher step counts relative to the control group. These effects did not differ for participants above versus below the group average at baseline. Conclusion The combined use of descriptive and injunctive social norms increased physical activity over a short period. This simple feedback strategy has potential for achieving wide reach and dissemination on its own or combined with more comprehensive interventions. This initial evidence can guide larger trials of longer duration. Trial Registration Number The trial was registered with the database (NCT02710201)
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9887-z
  • Preventing Weight Gain Improves Sleep Quality Among Black Women: Results
           from a RCT
    • Authors: Dori M. Steinberg; Jacob Christy; Bryan C. Batch; Sandy Askew; Reneé H. Moore; Portia Parker; Gary G. Bennett
      Abstract: Background Obesity and poor sleep are highly prevalent among Black women. Purpose We examined whether a weight gain prevention intervention improved sleep among Black women. Methods We conducted a randomized trial comparing a 12-month weight gain prevention intervention that included self-monitoring through mobile technologies and phone coaching to usual care in community health centers. We measured sleep using the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale at baseline, 12 months, and 18 months. The scale examines quantity of sleep, sleep disturbance, sleep adequacy, daytime somnolence, snoring, shortness of breath, and global sleep problems (sleep problem indices I and II). Results Participants (n = 184) were on average 35.4 years and obese (BMI 30.2 kg/m2); 74% made <$30,000/year. At baseline, average sleep duration was 6.4 (1.5) hours. Controlling for weight change and sleep medication, the intervention group reported greater improvements in sleep disturbance [−8.35 (−16.24, −0.45)] and sleep problems at 12 months: sleep problem index I [−8.35 (−16.24, −0.45)]; sleep problem index II [−8.35 (−16.24, −0.45)]. However, these findings did not persist at 18 months. Conclusions Preventing weight gain may afford clinical benefit on improving sleep quality. Trial Registration Number The trial was registered with the database (NCT00938535)
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9879-z
  • Prospective Associations Between Depressive Symptoms and the Metabolic
           Syndrome: the Spirited Life Study of Methodist Pastors in North Carolina
    • Authors: Timothy W. Smith; David E. Eagle; Rae Jean Proeschold-Bell
      Abstract: Background Metabolic syndrome (Met-S) has a robust concurrent association with depression. A small, methodologically limited literature suggests that Met-S and depression are reciprocally related over time, an association that could contribute to their overlapping influences on morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Purpose Using a refined approach to the measurement of Met-S as a continuous latent variable comprising continuous components, this study tested the prospective associations between Met-S and depression. Methods This study of 1114 clergy included four annual assessments of depressive symptoms and Met-S components. Standard methods were used to measure Met-S risk factors, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 was used to assess depressive symptoms. We used confirmatory factor analysis to verify the structure of Met-S and depression and structural equation modeling to quantify the prospective relationships. Results The statistical models confirmed the validity of quantifying Met-S as a continuous latent variable, replicated previous evidence of a concurrent association, and indicated a significant prospective association of initial depressive symptoms with subsequent Met-S. Initial Met-S was at most only weakly associated with subsequent depressive symptoms, and the former prospective effect was significantly larger. Associations of depressive symptoms and Met-S were significant for both men and women, but somewhat stronger among men. Conclusions Results support representation of Met-S as a continuous latent variable. The association of initial depressive symptoms with later Met-S suggests that interventions addressing these correlated risk factors may prove useful in preventive efforts.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9883-3
  • Acknowledgments
    • PubDate: 2017-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9886-0
  • Are Optimism and Cynical Hostility Associated with Smoking Cessation in
           Older Women?
    • Authors: Ana M. Progovac; Yue-Fang Chang; Chung-Chou H. Chang; Karen A. Matthews; Julie M. Donohue; Michael F. Scheier; Elizabeth B. Habermann; Lewis H. Kuller; Joseph S. Goveas; Benjamin P. Chapman; Paul R. Duberstein; Catherine R. Messina; Kathryn E. Weaver; Nazmus Saquib; Robert B. Wallace; Robert C. Kaplan; Darren Calhoun; J. Carson Smith; Hilary A. Tindle
      Abstract: Background Optimism and cynical hostility independently predict morbidity and mortality in Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) participants and are associated with current smoking. However, their association with smoking cessation in older women is unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study is to test whether optimism (positive future expectations) or cynical hostility (mistrust of others) predicts smoking cessation in older women. Methods Self-reported smoking status was assessed at years 1, 3, and 6 after study entry for WHI baseline smokers who were not missing optimism or cynical hostility scores (n = 10,242). Questionnaires at study entry assessed optimism (Life Orientation Test-Revised) and cynical hostility (Cook-Medley, cynical hostility subscale). Generalized linear mixed models adjusted for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, and medical and psychosocial characteristics including depressive symptoms. Results After full covariate adjustment, optimism was not related to smoking cessation. Each 1-point increase in baseline cynical hostility score was associated with 5% lower odds of cessation over 6 years (OR = 0.95, CI = 0.92–0.98, p = 0.0017). Conclusions In aging postmenopausal women, greater cynical hostility predicts lower smoking cessation over time. Future studies should examine whether individuals with this trait may benefit from more intensive cessation resources or whether attempting to mitigate cynical hostility itself may aid smoking cessation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9873-x
  • Bidirectional, Temporal Associations of Sleep with Positive Events,
           Affect, and Stressors in Daily Life Across a Week
    • Authors: Nancy L. Sin; David M. Almeida; Tori L. Crain; Ellen Ernst Kossek; Lisa F. Berkman; Orfeu M. Buxton
      Abstract: Background Sleep is intricately tied to emotional well-being, yet little is known about the reciprocal links between sleep and psychosocial experiences in the context of daily life. Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate daily psychosocial experiences (positive and negative affect, positive events, and stressors) as predictors of same-night sleep quality and duration, in addition to the reversed associations of nightly sleep predicting next-day experiences. Methods Daily experiences and self-reported sleep were assessed via telephone interviews for eight consecutive evenings in two replicate samples of US employees (131 higher-income professionals and 181 lower-income hourly workers). Multilevel models evaluated within-person associations of daily experiences with sleep quality and duration. Analyses controlled for demographics, insomnia symptoms, the previous day’s experiences and sleep measures, and additional day-level covariates. Results Daily positive experiences were associated with improved as well as disrupted subsequent sleep. Specifically, positive events at home predicted better sleep quality in both samples, whereas greater positive affect was associated with shorter sleep duration among the higher-income professionals. Negative affect and stressors were unrelated to subsequent sleep. Results for the reversed direction revealed that better sleep quality (and, to a lesser degree, longer sleep duration) predicted emotional well-being and lower odds of encountering stressors on the following day. Conclusions Given the reciprocal relationships between sleep and daily experiences, efforts to improve well-being in daily life should reflect the importance of sleep.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9864-y
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