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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Annals of Behavioral Medicine
  [SJR: 2.112]   [H-I: 98]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1532-4796 - ISSN (Online) 0883-6612
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Perceived Life Expectancy Is Associated with Colorectal Cancer Screening
           in England
    • Authors: Lindsay C. Kobayashi; Christian von Wagner; Jane Wardle
      Pages: 327 - 336
      Abstract: Background Cancer screening is a behavior that represents investment in future health. Such investment may depend on how much ‘future’ a person expects. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the prospective association between perceived personal life expectancy and participation in fecal occult blood test screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) in a national program. Methods Data were from interviews with 3975 men and women in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) within the eligible age range for the national screening program (60 to 74 years). Perceived life expectancy was indexed as the individual’s estimate of their chance of living another 10–15 years (exact time varied by age), assessed in 2008/2009. Participation in CRC screening from 2010 to 2012/2013 was assessed in 2012/2013. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between perceived life expectancy and screening participation, adjusted for numeracy and known mortality risk factors. Results Overall, 71% of respondents (2817/3975) reported completing at least one fecal occult blood test (FOBt) during the follow-up. Screening uptake was 76% (1272/1683) among those who estimated their 10–15-year life expectancy as 75–100%, compared with 52% (126/243) among those who estimated theirs as 0–25% (adjusted OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.29–2.34). Conclusions A longer perceived life expectancy is associated with greater likelihood of participating in CRC screening in England. However, half of people with a low perceived life expectancy still participated in screening. Given that CRC screening is recommended for adults with a remaining life expectancy of ≥10 years, future research should investigate how to communicate the aims of screening more effectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9855-z
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Maintaining Healthy Behavior: a Prospective Study of Psychological
           Well-Being and Physical Activity
    • Authors: Eric S. Kim; Laura D. Kubzansky; Jackie Soo; Julia K. Boehm
      Pages: 337 - 347
      Abstract: Background Although higher psychological well-being has been linked with a range of positive biological processes and health outcomes, the prospective association between psychological well-being and physical activity among older adults has been understudied. Purpose We tested whether higher baseline psychological well-being predicted higher levels of physical activity over time. Methods Prospective data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging, a nationally representative sample of English adults over the age of 50. Our sample included 9986 adults who were assessed up to six times across an average of 11 years. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, each standard deviation increase in baseline psychological well-being was associated with higher median physical activity in linear regression models that examined physical activity across all six waves (β = 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18–0.21) and in linear mixed effect models that examined repeated measures of physical activity over the entire follow-up period (β = 0.20; 95% CI 0.19–0.21). Further, higher baseline psychological well-being was associated with a slower rate of decline in physical activity among people who were active at baseline (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.79, 95% CI 0.76–0.82) and increasing physical activity among people who were inactive at baseline (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.22–1.35). Findings were maintained after adjusting for baseline health status and depression. Conclusions Psychological well-being was independently associated with attaining and maintaining higher physical activity levels over 11 years, suggesting that it may be a valuable target for interventions aimed at helping older adults acquire more physical activity.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9856-y
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Linguistic Evidence for the Failure Mindset as a Predictor of Life Span
    • Authors: Ian B. Penzel; Michelle R. Persich; Ryan L. Boyd; Michael D. Robinson
      Pages: 348 - 355
      Abstract: Background When people think that their efforts will fail to achieve positive outcomes, they sometimes give up their efforts after control, which can have negative health consequences. Purpose Problematic orientations of this type, such as pessimism, helplessness, or fatalism, seem likely to be associated with a cognitive mindset marked by higher levels of accessibility for failure words or concepts. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to determine whether there are individual differences in the frequency with which people think about failure, which in turn are likely to impact health across large spans of time. Methods Following self-regulatory theories of health and the learned helplessness tradition, two archival studies (total n = 197) scored texts (books or speeches) for their use of failure words, a category within the Harvard IV dictionary of the General Inquirer. Results People who used failure words more frequently exhibited shorter subsequent life spans, and this relationship remained significant when controlling for birth year. Furthermore, study 2 implicated behavioral factors. For example, the failure/longevity relationship was numerically stronger among people whose causes of death appeared to be preventable rather than non-preventable. Conclusions These results significantly extend our knowledge of the personality/longevity relationship while highlighting the value of individual differences in word usage as predictors of health and mortality.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9857-x
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Dose-Response Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Quality of Life in
           Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in
           Alberta (BETA)
    • Authors: Kerry S. Courneya; Jessica McNeil; Rachel O’Reilly; Andria R. Morielli; Christine M. Friedenreich
      Pages: 356 - 364
      Abstract: Background Exercise generally improves quality of life (QoL) and psychosocial functioning in adult populations but few randomized trials have examined dose-response effects. Purpose The purpose of the present study was to report the QoL and psychosocial outcomes from the Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta (BETA). Methods Healthy but inactive postmenopausal women at risk for breast cancer were randomized to a year-long aerobic exercise intervention consisting of either 150 min/week (moderate volume group, n = 200) or 300 min/week (high volume group, n = 200). QoL was assessed at baseline and 1 year using the short form-36 health survey. Sleep quality, depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, and happiness were also assessed. Participant preference for group assignment (i.e., exercise volume) was assessed at baseline and tested as a moderator. Results There were no statistically significant dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on any QoL, sleep quality, or psychosocial outcome. Participant preference for group assignment did not moderate any QoL, sleep quality, or psychosocial responses. Marital status was a significant moderator (p for interaction = 0.01) and obesity showed a trend towards being a moderator (p for interaction = 0.08) of the dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on global sleep quality such that unmarried and obese women improved sleep quality with the higher volume of aerobic exercise. Conclusions A higher volume of aerobic exercise, approximately double the minimum public health guideline, did not provide additional QoL or psychosocial benefits compared to the minimum public health guideline in inactive postmenopausal women, even for women who preferred the higher volume of exercise at baseline. Trial Registration Trial Registration identifier: NCT1435005.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9859-8
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Pain-Related Factors for People
           with Chronic Low Back Pain: Tests of Reciprocal and Time of Day Effects
    • Authors: James I. Gerhart; John W. Burns; Kristina M. Post; David A. Smith; Laura S. Porter; Helen J. Burgess; Erik Schuster; Asokumar Buvanendran; Anne Marie Fras; Francis J. Keefe
      Pages: 365 - 375
      Abstract: Background Poor sleep quality among people with chronic low back pain appears to be related to worse pain, affect, poor physical function, and pain catastrophizing. The causal direction between poor sleep and pain remains an open question, however, as does whether sleep quality exerts effects on low back pain differently across the course of the day. Purpose This daily diary study examined lagged temporal associations between prior night sleep quality and subsequent day pain, affect, physical function and pain catastrophizing, the reverse lagged temporal associations between prior day pain-related factors and subsequent night sleep quality, and whether the time of day during which an assessment was made moderated these temporal associations. Methods Chronic low back pain patients (n = 105) completed structured electronic diary assessments five times per day for 14 days. Items included patient ratings of their pain, affect, physical function, and pain catastrophizing. Results Collapsed across all observations, poorer sleep quality was significantly related to higher pain ratings, higher negative affect, lower positive affect, poorer physical function, and higher pain catastrophizing. Lagged analyses averaged across the day revealed that poorer prior night sleep quality significantly predicted greater next day patient ratings of pain, and poorer physical function and higher pain catastrophizing. Prior poorer night sleep quality significantly predicted greater reports of pain, and poorer physical function, and higher pain catastrophizing, especially during the early part of the day. Sleep quality × time of day interactions showed that poor sleepers reported high pain, and negative mood and low function uniformly across the day, whereas good sleepers reported relatively good mornings, but showed pain, affect and function levels comparable to poor sleepers by the end of the day. Analyses of the reverse causal pathway were mostly nonsignificant. Conclusions Sleep quality appears related not only to pain intensity but also to a wide range of patient mood and function factors. A good night’s sleep also appears to offer only temporary respite, suggesting that comprehensive interventions for chronic low back pain not only should include attention to sleep problems but also focus on problems with pain appraisals and coping.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9860-2
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Assessing the Effects of Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Behavior Change
           Strategies on Physical Activity in Older Adults: a Factorial Experiment
    • Authors: Siobhan K McMahon; Beth Lewis; J Michael Oakes; Jean F Wyman; Weihua Guan; Alexander J Rothman
      Pages: 376 - 390
      Abstract: Background Little is known about which behavior change strategies motivate older adults to increase their physical activity. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the relative effects of two sets of behavior change strategies to motivate increased physical activity among older adults: interpersonal and intrapersonal. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (N = 102, mean age = 79) were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment to receive interpersonal (e.g., social support, friendly social comparison; no, yes) and /or intrapersonal (e.g., goal setting, barriers management; no, yes) behavior change strategies, combined with an evidence-based, physical activity protocol (Otago exercise program) and a physical activity monitor (Fitbit One™). Results Based on monitor data, participants who received interpersonal strategies, compared to those who did not, increased their average minutes of total physical activity (light, moderate, vigorous) per week, immediately (p = .006) and 6 months (p = .048) post-intervention. Similar, increases were observed on measures of functional strength and balance, immediately (p = .012) and 6 months (p = .003) post-intervention. The intrapersonal strategies did not elicit a significant increase in physical activity or functional strength and balance. Conclusions Findings suggest a set of interpersonally oriented behavior change strategies combined with an evidence-based physical activity protocol can elicit modest, but statistically and clinically significant, increases in older adults’ physical activity and functional strength and balance. Future research should replicate these findings and investigate the sustained quantity of physical activity elicited by these strategies and their impact on older adults’ quality of life and falls. Trial Registration The registration identifier is NCT02433249.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9863-z
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Individual Differences in Diurnal Preference and Time-of-Exercise Interact
           to Predict Exercise Frequency
    • Authors: Garrett C. Hisler; Alison L. Phillips; Zlatan Krizan
      Pages: 391 - 401
      Abstract: Background Diurnal preference (and chronotype more generally) has been implicated in exercise behavior, but this relation has not been examined using objective exercise measurements nor have potential psychosocial mediators been examined. Furthermore, time-of-day often moderates diurnal preference’s influence on outcomes, and it is unknown whether time-of-exercise may influence the relation between chronotype and exercise frequency. Purpose The current study examined whether individual differences in diurnal preference (“morningness-eveningness”) predict unique variance in exercise frequency and if commonly studied psychosocial variables mediate this relation (i.e., behavioral intentions, internal exercise control, external exercise control, and conscientiousness). Moreover, the study sought to test whether individuals’ typical time-of-exercise moderated the impact of diurnal preference on exercise frequency. Methods One hundred twelve healthy adults (mean age = 25.4; SD = 11.6 years) completed baseline demographics and then wore Fitbit Zips® for 4 weeks to objectively measure exercise frequency and typical time-of-exercise. At the end of the study, participants also self-reported recent exercise. Results Diurnal preference predicted both self-reported exercise and Fitbit-recorded exercise frequency. When evaluating mediators, only conscientiousness emerged as a partial mediator of the relation between diurnal preference and self-reported exercise. In addition, time-of-exercise moderated diurnal preference’s relation to both self-reported exercise and Fitbit-recorded exercise frequency such that diurnal preference predicted higher exercise frequency when exercise occurred at a time that was congruent with one’s diurnal preference. Conclusion Based on these findings, diurnal preference is valuable, above and beyond other psychological constructs, in predicting exercise frequency and represents an important variable to incorporate into interventions seeking to increase exercise.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9862-0
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Bidirectional, Temporal Associations of Sleep with Positive Events,
           Affect, and Stressors in Daily Life Across a Week
    • Authors: Nancy L. Sin; David M. Almeida; Tori L. Crain; Ellen Ernst Kossek; Lisa F. Berkman; Orfeu M. Buxton
      Pages: 402 - 415
      Abstract: Background Sleep is intricately tied to emotional well-being, yet little is known about the reciprocal links between sleep and psychosocial experiences in the context of daily life. Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate daily psychosocial experiences (positive and negative affect, positive events, and stressors) as predictors of same-night sleep quality and duration, in addition to the reversed associations of nightly sleep predicting next-day experiences. Methods Daily experiences and self-reported sleep were assessed via telephone interviews for eight consecutive evenings in two replicate samples of US employees (131 higher-income professionals and 181 lower-income hourly workers). Multilevel models evaluated within-person associations of daily experiences with sleep quality and duration. Analyses controlled for demographics, insomnia symptoms, the previous day’s experiences and sleep measures, and additional day-level covariates. Results Daily positive experiences were associated with improved as well as disrupted subsequent sleep. Specifically, positive events at home predicted better sleep quality in both samples, whereas greater positive affect was associated with shorter sleep duration among the higher-income professionals. Negative affect and stressors were unrelated to subsequent sleep. Results for the reversed direction revealed that better sleep quality (and, to a lesser degree, longer sleep duration) predicted emotional well-being and lower odds of encountering stressors on the following day. Conclusions Given the reciprocal relationships between sleep and daily experiences, efforts to improve well-being in daily life should reflect the importance of sleep.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9864-y
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Gender Differences in Relations among Perceived Family Characteristics and
           Risky Health Behaviors in Urban Adolescents
    • Authors: Kimberly M. Nelson; Kate B. Carey; Lori A. J. Scott-Sheldon; Tanya L. Eckert; Aesoon Park; Peter A. Vanable; Craig K. Ewart; Michael P. Carey
      Pages: 416 - 422
      Abstract: Background Research regarding the role of gender in relations between family characteristics and health risk behaviors has been limited. Purpose This study aims to investigate gender differences in associations between family processes and risk-taking in adolescents. Methods Adolescents (N = 249; mean age = 14.5 years) starting their first year at an urban high school in the northeastern USA completed self-report measures that assessed family characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, family social support, family conflict) and health behaviors (i.e., tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, sex initiation) as part of a prospective, community-based study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate gender differences in associations between the family characteristics and health behaviors. Results Among males, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of using tobacco and having ever engaged in sex. Among females, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of marijuana use, alcohol use, and having ever engaged in sex. However, in contrast to males, among females (a) higher levels of perceived family social support were associated with lower odds of alcohol use and having ever engaged in sex and (b) higher levels of perceived family conflict were associated with higher odds of marijuana use and having ever engaged in sex. Conclusion Family processes were more strongly related to health behaviors among adolescent females than adolescent males. Interventions that increase parental monitoring and family social support as well as decrease family conflict may help to protect against adolescent risk taking, especially for females.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9865-x
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Using an Analysis of Behavior Change to Inform Effective Digital
           Intervention Design: How Did the PRIMIT Website Change Hand Hygiene
           Behavior Across 8993 Users?
    • Authors: B. Ainsworth; M. Steele; B. Stuart; J. Joseph; S. Miller; L. Morrison; P. Little; L. Yardley
      Pages: 423 - 431
      Abstract: Background In designing digital interventions for healthcare, it is important to understand not just whether interventions work but also how and for whom—including whether individual intervention components have different effects, whether a certain usage threshold is required to change behavior in each intervention and whether usage differs across population subgroups. Purpose We investigated these questions using data from a large trial of the digital PRimary care trial of a website based Infection control intervention to Modify Influenza-like illness and respiratory tract infection Transmission) (PRIMIT) intervention, which aimed to reduce respiratory tract infections (RTIs) by increasing hand hygiene behavior. Method Baseline and follow-up questionnaires measured behaviors, intentions and attitudes in hand hygiene. In conjunction with objective measures of usage of the four PRIMIT sessions, we analysed these observational data to examine mechanisms of behavior change in 8993 intervention users. Results We found that the PRIMIT intervention changed behavior, intentions and attitudes, and this change was associated with reduced RTIs. The largest hand hygiene change occurred after the first session, with incrementally smaller changes after each subsequent session, suggesting that engagement with the core behavior change techniques included in the first session was necessary and sufficient for behavior change. The intervention was equally effective for men and women, older and younger people and was particularly effective for those with lower levels of education. Conclusions Our well-powered analysis has implications for intervention development. We were able to determine a ‘minimum threshold’ of intervention engagement that is required for hand hygiene change, and we discuss the potential implications this (and other analyses of this type) may have for further intervention development. We also discuss the application of similar analyses to other interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9866-9
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Latent Inhibition Reduces Nocebo Nausea, Even Without Deception
    • Authors: V. F. Quinn; E. J. Livesey; B. Colagiuri
      Pages: 432 - 441
      Abstract: Background Nocebo nausea is a debilitating and prevalent side effect that can develop after conditioning occurs between cues present in the treatment context and the experience of nausea. Interventions that retard conditioning may therefore be able to reduce nocebo nausea. Purpose To test whether ‘latent inhibition’, where pre-exposing cues in the absence of an outcome retards subsequent learning about those cues, could reduce nocebo nausea in healthy adults. Methods We examined this possibility using a Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) model of nausea in healthy participants, with pre-exposure to the treatment cues achieved using a placebo version of GVS. Results In Experiment 1 we found clear evidence of conditioned nocebo nausea that was eradicated by latent inhibition following pre-exposure to placebo stimulation. Experiment 2 tested whether deception, which may be unethical in clinical settings, was necessary to produce latent inhibition by including an open pre-exposure group informed they were pre-exposed to placebo stimulation. Experiment 2 replicated the latent inhibition effect on nocebo nausea following deceptive pre-exposure from Experiment 1 and found that open pre-exposure was just as effective for reducing nocebo nausea. In both experiments, there was an interesting discrepancy found in expectancy ratings whereby expectations appeared to drive the development of conditioned nocebo nausea, but were not responsible for its suppression through latent inhibition. Conclusions These findings have significant clinical implications. Applying open pre-exposure in clinical settings may effectively and ethically reduce the development of nocebo effects for nausea and other conditions via latent inhibition.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9867-8
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Autonomic Cardiovascular Control and Executive Function in Chronic
    • Authors: Stefan Duschek; Alexandra Hoffmann; Gustavo A. Reyes del Paso; Ulrich Ettinger
      Pages: 442 - 453
      Abstract: Background Chronic low blood pressure (hypotension) is characterized by complaints such as fatigue, reduced drive, dizziness, and cold limbs. Additionally, deficits in attention and memory have been observed. Autonomic dysregulation is considered to be involved in the origin of this condition. Purpose The study explored autonomic cardiovascular control in the context of higher cognitive processing (executive function) in hypotension. Methods Hemodynamic recordings were performed in 40 hypotensive and 40 normotensive participants during execution of four classical executive function tasks (number-letter task, n-back task, continuous performance test, and flanker task). Parameters of cardiac sympathetic control, i.e., stroke volume, cardiac output, pre-ejection period, total peripheral resistance, and parasympathetic control, i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia and baroreflex sensitivity, were obtained. Results The hypotensive group exhibited lower stroke volume and cardiac output, as well as higher pre-ejection period and baroreflex sensitivity during task execution. Increased error rates in hypotensive individuals were observed in the n-back and flanker tasks. In the total sample, there were positive correlations of error rates with pre-ejection period, baroreflex sensitivity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and negative correlations with cardiac output. Conclusions Group differences in stroke volume, cardiac output, and pre-ejection period suggest diminished beta-adrenergic myocardial drive during executive function processing in hypotension, in addition to increased baroreflex function. Although further research is warranted to quantify the extent of executive function impairment in hypotension, the results from correlation analysis add evidence to the notion that higher sympathetic inotropic influences and reduced parasympathetic cardiac influences are accompanied by better cognitive performance.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9868-7
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Depression and Smoking Cessation: Evidence from a Smoking Cessation Clinic
           with 1-Year Follow-Up
    • Authors: Lenka Stepankova; Eva Kralikova; Kamila Zvolska; Alexandra Pankova; Petra Ovesna; Milan Blaha; Leonie S Brose
      Pages: 454 - 463
      Abstract: Background Smoking is more prevalent among people with depression. Depression may make cessation more difficult and cessation may affect depression symptoms. Purpose The aims of this study were to assess the associations between (1) baseline depression and 1-year smoking abstinence and (2) abstinence and change in depression. Methods Observational study using data collected routinely in a smoking cessation clinic in the Czech Republic from 2008 to 2014. Aim 1: N = 3775 patients; 14.3% reported mild and 15.4% moderate/severe baseline depression levels measured using Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Logistic regressions assessed if depression level predicted 1-year biochemically verified abstinence while adjusting for patient and treatment characteristics. Aim 2: N = 835 patients abstinent at 1 year; change in depression was analysed using Chi-square statistics, t test and mixed method analyses of variance. Results Rate of abstinence was lower for patients with mild (32.5%, OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.87, p = 0.002) and moderate/severe depression (25.8%; OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.74, p < 0.001) compared with patients without depression (40.5%). Across abstinent patients, the majority with baseline depression reported lower depression levels at follow-up. Overall mean (SD) BDI-II scores improved from 9.2 (8.6) to 5.3 (6.1); t(834) = 14.6, p < 0.001. There were significant main effects of time (F(1832) = 880.8, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.51) and baseline depression level (F(2832) = 666.4, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.62) on follow-up depression and a significant depression * time interaction (F(2832) = 296.5, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.42). Conclusions In this effective smoking cessation clinic, depression at the start of treatment predicted reduced smoking abstinence 1 year later. Patients abstinent from smoking experienced considerable improvement in depression.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9869-6
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Life Satisfaction and Hemodynamic Reactivity to Mental Stress
    • Authors: Andreas Schwerdtfeger; Kerstin Gaisbachgrabner; Claudia Traunmüller
      Pages: 464 - 469
      Abstract: Background Satisfaction with life has been considered a health-protective variable, which could impact cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have examined the physiological pathways involved in the potentially salutary effect of life satisfaction. It was hypothesized that life satisfaction should be associated with a cardiovascular response profile that signals challenge (i.e., higher cardiac output, lower peripheral resistance), rather than threat during a mental stress task. Methods A sample of 75 healthy, medication-free men without clinical signs of psychological disorders who worked full-time and occupied highly demanding positions participated in this study. They performed two mental stress tasks (n-back) with varying degrees of difficulty. The tasks were embedded between a baseline and a recovery period. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic variables (heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance) were recorded by means of impedance cardiography. Results Individuals who were more satisfied with their life displayed higher cardiac output and lower peripheral resistance levels during the stress tasks, indicating a challenge rather than a threat profile. Findings were robust when controlled for physical activity, smoking, age, and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Life satisfaction could be positively correlated with beneficial hemodynamic stress reactivity, indicating that individuals with higher levels of life satisfaction can more adaptively cope with stress. Increased cardiac output and decreased peripheral resistance during stress may constitute one route through which life satisfaction can benefit health.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9858-9
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Fidelity Moderates the Association Between Negative Condom Attitudes and
           Outcome Behavior in an Evidence-Based Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention
           for Female Sex Workers
    • Authors: Eileen V. Pitpitan; Claudia V. Chavarin; Shirley J. Semple; Doroteo Mendoza; Carlos Magis Rodriguez; Hugo Staines; Gregory A. Aarons; Thomas L. Patterson
      Pages: 470 - 476
      Abstract: Background Intervention fidelity and participant-level variables, such as negative attitudes towards condoms, are important variables to consider in the successful implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions. Mujer Segura is an intervention that has been shown to be efficacious at reducing condomless sex for female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico [1]. Purpose We examined main effects of fidelity, negative condom attitudes, and their interaction on the effectiveness of the Mujer Segura intervention at reducing condomless sex at intervention follow-up. Methods Of the FSWs recruited from 13 cities across Mexico, 528 participated in the Mujer Segura intervention. We measured negative condom attitudes at baseline (comprising of beliefs and outcome evaluations) and condomless sex with clients at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Fidelity was measured by a fidelity checklist completed by independent raters; the sum of potentially 43 total elements completed by the counselor constituted fidelity. Results Complete fidelity was found in only 15.1% (n = 73) of sessions. There was no significant main effect of intervention fidelity on condomless sex with clients at follow-up. There was a significant and positive main effect of negative condom attitudes and a significant two-way interaction. At lower levels of fidelity, negative condom attitudes predicted greater condomless sex acts, whereas at higher levels of fidelity, the effect of condom attitudes became weaker. The results also indicated that the interaction between negative condom attitudes and fidelity were driven primarily by negative condom beliefs, as opposed to negative condom outcome evaluations. Conclusions Ensuring treatment fidelity in an HIV prevention intervention is particularly important when participants have negative attitudes towards condoms.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9861-1
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Mediators of Physical Activity Adherence: Results from an Action Control
           Intervention in Couples
    • Authors: Corina Berli; Gertraud Stadler; Patrick E. Shrout; Niall Bolger; Urte Scholz
      Abstract: Background Behavior change interventions targeting self-regulation skills have generally shown promising effects. However, the psychological working mechanisms remain poorly understood. Purpose We examined theory-based mediators of a randomized controlled trial in couples targeting action control (i.e., continuously monitoring and evaluating an ongoing behavior). Self-reported action control was tested as the main mediating mechanism of physical activity adherence, and in addition self-efficacy and received social support from the partner. Methods Overweight individuals (N = 121) and their heterosexual partners were randomly allocated to an intervention (information + action control text messages) or a control group (information only). Across a period of 28 days, participants reported on action control, self-efficacy, and received support in end-of-day diaries, and wore triaxial accelerometers to assess stable between-person differences in mediators and the outcome adherence to recommended daily activity levels (≥30 min of moderate activity in bouts of at least 10 min). Results On average, participants in the intervention group showed higher physical activity adherence levels and higher action control, self-efficacy, and received support compared to participants in the control group. Action control and received support emerged as mediating mechanisms, explaining 19.7 and 24.6% of the total intervention effect, respectively, in separate analyses, and 13.9 and 22.2% when analyzed simultaneously. No evidence emerged for self-efficacy as mediator. Conclusions Action control and received support partly explain the effects of an action control intervention on physical activity adherence levels. Continued research is needed to better understand what drives intervention effects to guide innovative and effective health promotion. Trial Registration Number ( ISRCTN15705531)
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9923-z
  • Acculturation and Syndemic Risk: Longitudinal Evaluation of Risk Factors
           Among Pregnant Latina Adolescents in New York City
    • Authors: Isabel Martinez; Trace S. Kershaw; Danya Keene; Rafael Perez-Escamilla; Jessica B. Lewis; Jonathan N. Tobin; Jeannette R. Ickovics
      Abstract: Background Syndemics are co-occurring epidemics that synergistically contribute to specific risks or health outcomes. Although there is substantial evidence demonstrating their existence, little is known about their change over time in adolescents. Purpose The objectives of this paper were to identify longitudinal changes in a syndemic of substance use, intimate partner violence, and depression and determine whether immigration/cultural factors moderate this syndemic over time. Methods In a cohort of 772 pregnant Latina adolescents (ages 14–21) in New York City, we examined substance use, intimate partner violence, and depression as a syndemic. We used longitudinal mixed-effect modeling to evaluate whether higher syndemic score predicted higher syndemic severity, from pregnancy through 1 year postpartum. Interaction terms were used to determine whether immigrant generation and separated orientation were significant moderators of change over time. Results We found a significant increasing linear effect for syndemic severity over time (β = 0.0413, P = 0.005). Syndemic score significantly predicted syndemic severity (β = −0.1390, P ≤ 0.0001), as did immigrant generation (β Immigrant = −0.1348, P ≤ 0.0001; β 1st Gen = −0.1932, P = 0.0005). Both immigrant generation (β Immigrant = −0.1125, P = 0.0035; β 1st Gen = −0.0135, P = 0.7279) and separated orientation (β = 0.0946, P = 0.0299) were significantly associated with change in severity from pregnancy to 1 year postpartum. Conclusion Pregnancy provides an opportunity for reducing syndemic risk among Latina adolescents. Future research should explore syndemic changes over time, particularly among high-risk adolescents. Prevention should target syndemic risk reduction in the postpartum period to ensure that risk factors do not increase after pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9924-y
  • Cancer Care Coordination: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Over
           30 Years of Empirical Studies
    • Authors: Sherri Sheinfeld Gorin; David Haggstrom; Paul K. J. Han; Kathleen M. Fairfield; Paul Krebs; Steven B. Clauser
      Abstract: Background According to a landmark study by the Institute of Medicine, patients with cancer often receive poorly coordinated care in multiple settings from many providers. Lack of coordination is associated with poor symptom control, medical errors, and higher costs. Purpose The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to (1) synthesize the findings of studies addressing cancer care coordination, (2) describe study outcomes across the cancer continuum, and (3) obtain a quantitative estimate of the effect of interventions in cancer care coordination on service system processes and patient health outcomes. Methods Of 1241 abstracts identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library, 52 studies met the inclusion criteria. Each study had US or Canadian participants, comparison or control groups, measures, times, samples, and/or interventions. Two researchers independently applied a standardized search strategy, coding scheme, and online coding program to each study. Eleven studies met the additional criteria for the meta-analysis; a random effects estimation model was used for data analysis. Results Cancer care coordination approaches led to improvements in 81 % of outcomes, including screening, measures of patient experience with care, and quality of end-of-life care. Across the continuum of cancer care, patient navigation was the most frequent care coordination intervention, followed by home telehealth; nurse case management was third in frequency. The meta-analysis of a subset of the reviewed studies showed that the odds of appropriate health care utilization in cancer care coordination interventions were almost twice (OR = 1.9, 95 % CI = 1.5–3.5) that of comparison interventions. Conclusions This review offers promising findings on the impact of cancer care coordination on increasing value and reducing healthcare costs in the USA.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9876-2
  • The Role of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Predicting Daily
           Pain and Fatigue in Older Adults: a Diary Study
    • Authors: Saengryeol Park; Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani; Jet J. C. S. Veldhuijzen van Zanten; Nikos Ntoumanis
      Abstract: Background Little attention has been paid to within-person daily associations among light physical activity (PA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary behavior (SB) with subsequent bodily pain and fatigue. Daily reports of pain and fatigue are less likely to be affected by recall bias and to conflate days of high and low pain/fatigue into one overall score. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine daily within-person associations between pain, fatigue, and physical health and ascertain whether such associations are moderated by individual differences in these variables. Methods Participants were 63 community-living older adults (female n = 43, mean age = 70.98 years). Questionnaires measured typical levels of PA, SB, bodily pain, fatigue, and physical health. Subsequently, on a daily basis over a 1-week period, participants’ levels of light PA, MVPA, and SB were measured using accelerometers. Participants completed a questionnaire rating their pain and fatigue at the end of each day. Results Multilevel modeling revealed positive within-person associations between daily light PA, daily MVPA, and pain, as well as negative within-person associations between daily SB and pain. For individuals with higher typical levels of fatigue, there was a negative association between daily light PA, MVPA, and fatigue. For individuals with better levels of physical health, there was also a negative association between daily MVPA and fatigue. For those with higher typical levels of fatigue and better levels of physical health, there was a positive association between daily SB and fatigue. No such interaction effects were found between high levels of typical pain and PA or SB. Conclusions Our findings indicate that efforts to promote daily PA in older adults might be more effective for those who report high typical levels of fatigue and physical health, compared to those who report high levels of daily physical pain.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9921-1
  • Coordination of Self- and Parental-Regulation Surrounding Type I Diabetes
           Management in Late Adolescence
    • Authors: Jonathan E. Butner; Cynthia A. Berg; A. K. Munion; Sara L. Turner; Amy Hughes-Lansing; Joel B. Winnick; Deborah J. Wiebe
      Abstract: Background Type 1 diabetes management involves self- and social-regulation, with past research examining components through individual differences unable to capture daily processes. Purpose Dynamical systems modeling was used to examine the coordinative structure of self- and social-regulation (operationalized as parental-regulation) related to daily diabetes management during late adolescence. Methods Two hundred and thirty-six late adolescents with type 1 diabetes (M age = 17.77 years, SD = .39) completed a 14-day diary reporting aspects of self- (e.g., adherence behaviors, cognitive self-regulation failures, and positive and negative affect) and parental-regulation (disclosure to parents, knowledge parents have, and help parents provide). Results Self-regulation functioned as one coordinative structure that was separate from parental-regulation, where mothers and fathers were coordinated separately from each other. Mothers’ perceived helpfulness served as a driver of returning adolescents back to homeostasis. Conclusions The results illustrate a dynamic process whereby numerous facets of self- and social-regulation are coordinated in order to return diabetes management to a stable state.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9922-0
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