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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Annals of Behavioral Medicine
  [SJR: 2.112]   [H-I: 98]   [12 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1532-4796 - ISSN (Online) 0883-6612
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • The Cortisol Awakening Response Mediates the Relationship Between
           Acculturative Stress and Self-Reported Health in Mexican Americans
    • Authors: Antonio F. Garcia; Kristin Wilborn; Deborah L. Mangold
      Pages: 787 - 798
      Abstract: Background The assessment of acculturative stress as synonymous with acculturation level overlooks the dynamic, interactive, and developmental nature of the acculturation process. An individual’s unique perception and response to a range of stressors at each stage of the dynamic process of acculturation may be associated with stress-induced alterations in important biological response systems that mediate health outcomes. Evidence suggests the cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a promising pre-clinical biomarker of stress exposure that may link acculturative stress to self-reported health in Mexican Americans. Purpose The aim of the current study was to examine whether alterations in the CAR mediate the relationship between acculturative stress and self-reported health in Mexican Americans. Methods Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from a sample of adult Mexican Americans. Acculturative stress and self-reported health were assessed. Data were aggregated and analyzed (n = 89) using a mixed effects regression model and path analysis. Results Poorer self-reported health was associated with attenuated CAR profiles (primarily due to a diminished post-awakening rise in cortisol) predicted by both moderate and high levels of exposure to acculturative stress. Stress-induced alterations in the CAR mediated the relationship between exposure to acculturative stressors and self-reported health. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that different levels of acculturative stress are associated with distinct CAR profiles and suggest the CAR is one possible biological pathway through which exposure to culturally unique stressors may be linked to health disparities.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9901-5
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • Does Stress Result in You Exercising Less' Or Does Exercising Result
           in You Being Less Stressed' Or Is It Both' Testing the
           Bi-directional Stress-Exercise Association at the Group and Person (N of
           1) Level
    • Authors: Matthew M. Burg; Joseph E. Schwartz; Ian M. Kronish; Keith M. Diaz; Carmela Alcantara; Joan Duer-Hefele; Karina W. Davidson
      Pages: 799 - 809
      Abstract: Background Psychosocial stress contributes to heart disease in part by adversely affecting maintenance of health behaviors, while exercise can reduce stress. Assessing the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise has been limited by lack of real-time data and theoretical and statistical models. This lack may hinder efforts to promote exercise maintenance. Purpose We test the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise using real-time data for the average person and the variability—individual differences—in this relationship. Methods An observational study was conducted within a single cohort randomized controlled experiment. Healthy young adults, (n = 79) who reported only intermittent exercise, completed 12 months of stress monitoring by ecological momentary assessment (at the beginning of, end of, and during the day) and continuous activity monitoring by Fitbit. A random coefficients linear mixed model was used to predict end-of-day stress from the occurrence/non-occurrence of exercise that day; a logistic mixed model was used to predict the occurrence/non-occurrence of exercise from ratings of anticipated stress. Separate regression analyses were also performed for each participant. Sensitivity analysis tested all models, restricted to the first 180 days of observation (prior to randomization). Results We found a significant average inverse (i.e., negative) effect of exercise on stress and of stress on exercise. There was significant between-person variability. Of N = 69, exercise was associated with a stress reduction for 15, a stress increase for 2, and no change for the remainder. We also found that an increase in anticipated stress reported the previous night or that morning was associated with a significant 20–22% decrease (OR = 0.78–0.80) in the odds of exercising that day. Of N = 69, this increase in stress reduced the likelihood of exercise for 17, increased the odds for 1, and had no effect for the remainder. We were unable to identify psychosocial factors that moderate the individual differences in these effects. Conclusions The relationship of stress to exercise can be uni- or bi-directional and varies from person to person. A precision medicine approach may improve exercise uptake.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9902-4
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • Examining the Support Peer Supporters Provide Using Structural Equation
           Modeling: Nondirective and Directive Support in Diabetes Management
    • Authors: Sarah D. Kowitt; Guadalupe X. Ayala; Andrea L. Cherrington; Lucy A. Horton; Monika M. Safford; Sandra Soto; Tricia S. Tang; Edwin B. Fisher
      Pages: 810 - 821
      Abstract: Background Little research has examined the characteristics of peer support. Pertinent to such examination may be characteristics such as the distinction between nondirective support (accepting recipients’ feelings and cooperative with their plans) and directive (prescribing “correct” choices and feelings). Purpose In a peer support program for individuals with diabetes, this study examined (a) whether the distinction between nondirective and directive support was reflected in participants’ ratings of support provided by peer supporters and (b) how nondirective and directive support were related to depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Methods Three hundred fourteen participants with type 2 diabetes provided data on depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and HbA1c before and after a diabetes management intervention delivered by peer supporters. At post-intervention, participants reported how the support provided by peer supporters was nondirective or directive. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), correlation analyses, and structural equation modeling examined the relationships among reports of nondirective and directive support, depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and measured HbA1c. Results CFA confirmed the factor structure distinguishing between nondirective and directive support in participants’ reports of support delivered by peer supporters. Controlling for demographic factors, baseline clinical values, and site, structural equation models indicated that at post-intervention, participants’ reports of nondirective support were significantly associated with lower, while reports of directive support were significantly associated with greater depressive symptoms, altogether (with control variables) accounting for 51% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Conclusions Peer supporters’ nondirective support was associated with lower, but directive support was associated with greater depressive symptoms.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9904-2
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Problematic Overeating
           Behaviors in Young Men and Women
    • Authors: Susan M. Mason; Patricia A. Frazier; S. Bryn Austin; Bernard L. Harlow; Benita Jackson; Nancy C. Raymond; Janet W. Rich-Edwards
      Pages: 822 - 832
      Abstract: Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a risk factor for obesity, but the range of behaviors that contribute to this association are not known. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine associations between self-reported PTSD symptoms in 2007, with and without comorbid depression symptoms, and three problematic overeating behaviors in 2010, and to estimate the associations of PTSD-related overeating behaviors with obesity. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses included 7438 male (n = 2478) and female (n = 4960) participants from the Growing Up Today Study (mean age 22–29 years in 2010). Three eating behavior outcomes were assessed: binge eating (eating a large amount of food in a short period of time with loss of control), top quartile of coping-motivated eating (from the Motivations to Eat scale), and top quartile of disinhibited eating (from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire). Results PTSD symptoms were associated with two- to threefold increases in binge eating and top-quartile coping-motivated eating; having ≥4 PTSD symptoms, relative to no PTSD symptoms, was associated with covariate-adjusted RRs of 2.7 (95% CI 2.1, 3.4) for binge eating, 2.1 (95% CI 1.9, 2.4) for the top quartile of coping-motivated eating, and 1.5 (95% CI 1.3, 1.7) for the top quartile of disinhibited eating. There was a trend toward PTSD symptoms in 2007 predicting new onset binge eating in 2010. Having depression symptoms comorbid with PTSD symptoms further increased risk of binge eating and coping-motivated eating. All eating behaviors were associated with obesity. Conclusion Clinicians treating patients with PTSD should know of potential comorbid problematic eating behaviors that may contribute to obesity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9905-1
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • Psychological Determinants of Medication Adherence in Stroke Survivors: a
           Systematic Review of Observational Studies
    • Authors: Elise Crayton; Marion Fahey; Mark Ashworth; Sarah Jane Besser; John Weinman; Alison J. Wright
      Pages: 833 - 845
      Abstract: Background Medications targeting stroke risk factors have shown good efficacy, yet adherence is suboptimal. To improve adherence, its determinants must be understood. To date, no systematic review has mapped identified determinants into the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) in order to establish a more complete understanding of medication adherence. Purpose The aim of this study was to identify psychological determinants that most influence stroke survivors’ medication adherence. Methods In line with the prospectively registered protocol (PROSPERO CRD42015016222), five electronic databases were searched (1953–2015). Hand searches of included full text references were undertaken. Two reviewers conducted screening, data extraction and quality assessment. Determinants were mapped into the TDF. Results Of 32,825 articles, 12 fulfilled selection criteria (N = 43,984 stroke survivors). Tested determinants mapped into 8/14 TDF domains. Studies were too heterogeneous for meta-analysis. Three TDF domains appeared most influential. Negative emotions (‘Emotions’ domain) such as anxiety and concerns about medications (‘Beliefs about Consequences’ domain) were associated with reduced adherence. Increased adherence was associated with better knowledge of medications (‘Knowledge’ domain) and stronger beliefs about medication necessity (‘Beliefs about Consequences’ domain). Study quality varied, often lacking information on sample size calculations. Conclusions This review provides foundations for evidence-based intervention design by establishing psychological determinants most influential in stroke survivors’ medication adherence. Six TDF domains do not appear to have been tested, possibly representing gaps in research design. Future research should standardise and clearly report determinant and medication adherence measurement to facilitate meta-analysis. The range of determinants explored should be broadened to enable more complete understanding of stroke survivors’ medication adherence.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9906-0
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • Getting to the Heart of Masculinity Stressors: Masculinity Threats Induce
           Pronounced Vagal Withdrawal During a Speaking Task
    • Authors: Brandon L. Kramer; Mary S. Himmelstein; Kristen W. Springer
      Pages: 846 - 855
      Abstract: Background Previous work has found that traditional masculinity ideals and behaviors play a crucial role in higher rates of morbidity and mortality for men. Some studies also suggest that threatening men’s masculinity can be stressful. Over time, this stress can weigh on men’s cardiovascular and metabolic systems, which may contribute to men’s higher rates of cardiometabolic health issues. Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore how masculinity threats affect men’s heart rate and heart rate variability reactivity (i.e., vagal withdrawal) to masculinity feedback on a social speaking task. Methods Two hundred and eighty-five undergraduate males were randomly assigned to one of six conditions during a laboratory-based speech task. They received one of two feedback types (masculinity or control) and one of three feedback levels (low, high, or dropping) in order to assess whether masculinity threats influence heart rate reactivity and vagal withdrawal patterns during the speech task. Results Men who receive low masculinity feedback during the speech task experienced more pronounced vagal withdrawal relative to those who received the control. Conclusion Masculinity threats can induce vagal withdrawal that may accumulate over the life course to contribute to men’s relatively worse cardiometabolic health.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9907-z
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • Family Support and Family Negativity as Mediators of the Relation between
           Acculturation and Postpartum Weight in Low-Income Mexican-Origin Women
    • Authors: Shannon L. Jewell; Kirsten Letham-Hamlett; Mariam Hanna Ibrahim; Linda J. Luecken; David P. MacKinnon
      Pages: 856 - 867
      Abstract: Background Obesity presents a significant health concern among low-income, ethnic minority women of childbearing age. Purpose The study investigated the influence of maternal acculturation, family negativity, and family support on postpartum weight loss among low-income Mexican-origin women. Methods Low-income Mexican-origin women (N=322; 14% born in the U.S.) were recruited from a prenatal clinic in an urban area of the Southwest U.S. Acculturation was assessed during a prenatal home visit (26–38 weeks gestation), and post-birth family support and general family negativity were assessed at 6 weeks postpartum. Objective maternal weight measures were obtained at five time points across the first postpartum year. Results Higher acculturation predicted higher family support and family negativity. Higher family support predicted decreasing weight across the first postpartum year, and higher family negativity predicted higher weight at 6 weeks postpartum and increasing weight across the first postpartum year. In combination, family negativity and support mediated the impact of acculturation on postpartum weight gain. Conclusions Cultural and family-related factors play a significant role in postpartum weight gain and loss for low-income Mexican-origin women.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9909-x
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • A Randomized Controlled Trial of Rise , a Community-Based Culturally
           Congruent Adherence Intervention for Black Americans Living with HIV
    • Authors: Laura M. Bogart; Matt G. Mutchler; Bryce McDavitt; David J. Klein; William E. Cunningham; Kathy J. Goggin; Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar; Nikki Rachal; Kelsey A. Nogg; Glenn J. Wagner
      Pages: 868 - 878
      Abstract: Background Evidence-based HIV treatment adherence interventions have typically shown medium-sized effects on adherence. Prior evidence-based HIV treatment adherence interventions have not been culturally adapted specifically for Black/African Americans, the population most affected by HIV disparities in the USA, who exhibit lower adherence than do members of other racial/ethnic groups. Purpose We conducted a randomized controlled trial of Rise, a 6-month culturally congruent adherence counseling intervention for HIV-positive Black men and women. Methods Rise was delivered by a trained peer counselor who used a problem-solving approach to address culturally congruent adherence barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, HIV stigma) and assisted with linkage to supportive services. A total of 215 participants were randomized to the intervention group (n = 107) or a wait-list control group (n = 108). Adherence was assessed daily via electronic monitoring. Results In a repeated measures multivariate logistic regression model of dichotomous adherence (using a clinically significant cutoff of 85% of doses taken), adjusted for sociodemographic and medical covariates, adherence in the intervention group improved over time relative to the control group, (OR = 1.30 per month (95% CI = 1.12–1.51), p < 0.001), representing a large cumulative effect after 6 months (OR = 4.76, Cohen’s d = 0.86). Conclusions Rise showed a larger effect on adherence than prior HIV adherence intervention studies. For greater effectiveness, interventions to improve adherence among Black people living with HIV may need to be customized to address culturally relevant barriers to adherence. ( #NCT01350544)
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9910-4
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • Observed Relationship Behaviors and Sleep in Military Veterans and Their
    • Authors: Jennifer Fillo; Stephanie Brooks Holliday; Amy DeSantis; Anne Germain; Daniel J. Buysse; Karen A. Matthews; Wendy M. Troxel
      Pages: 879 - 889
      Abstract: Background Emerging research has begun to examine associations between relationship functioning and sleep. However, these studies have largely relied on self-reported evaluations of relationships and/or of sleep, which may be vulnerable to bias. Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine associations between relationship functioning and sleep in military couples. This is the first research to examine associations between observed relationship behaviors and subjective and polysomnographically measured sleep in a sample at-risk for both sleep and relationship problems. Methods The sample included 35 military veterans and their spouses/partners. Marital functioning was coded from a videotaped conflict interaction. Analyses focused on behavioral codes of hostility and relationship-enhancing attributions. Sleep was assessed via self-report and in-home polysomnography. Results Greater hostility was associated with poorer sleep efficiency for oneself (b = −0.195, p = .013). In contrast, greater relationship-enhancing attributions were associated with higher percentages of stage N3 sleep (b = 0.239, p = .028). Partners’ hostility was also positively associated with higher percentages of stage N3 sleep (b = 0.272, p = .010). Neither hostility nor relationship-enhancing attributions was associated with self-reported sleep quality, percentage of REM sleep, or total sleep time. Conclusions Both partners’ positive and negative behaviors during conflict interactions were related to sleep quality. These findings highlight the role that effective communication and conflict resolution skills may play in shaping not only the marital health of veterans and their spouses but also the physical health of both partners as well. Understanding the links between relationship functioning and sleep may be important targets of intervention in the aftermath of war.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9911-3
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • Pathways Linking Adverse Childhood Experiences to Cigarette Smoking Among
           Young Black Men: a Prospective Analysis of the Role of Sleep Problems and
           Delayed Reward Discounting
    • Authors: Assaf Oshri; Steven Kogan; Sihong Liu; Lawrence Sweet; James Mackillop
      Pages: 890 - 898
      Abstract: Background African American men experience increases in smoking during the young adult transition. Exposure to childhood adversity, a risk factor which disproportionately affects African American men, has been identified as a robust precursor to health risk behavior in general and cigarette smoking in particular. The intermediate mechanisms that transmit the influence of early adversity to smoking behavior are not well understood. Purpose We tested a model of the escalation of smoking behaviors among young adult African American men, investigating sleep disturbance and delayed reward discounting as intermediate factors linking adverse childhood experiences with smoking. Methods Hypotheses were tested with three waves of data (M age-T1 = 20.34, M age-T2 = 21.92, M age-T3 = 23.02) from 505 African American men living in rural counties in South Georgia. Men provided self-report data on their adverse childhood experiences, sleep problems, and smoking behavior using audio-assisted computer self-interviews. Men also completed a computer-based delayed reward discounting task. Results Structural equation modeling analyses supported our hypotheses: Adverse childhood experiences predicted poor sleep adequacy, which forecast increases in delayed reward discounting; discounting, in turn, predicted increased smoking. Significant indirect pathways were detected linking adversity to discounting via sleep adequacy and linking sleep adequacy to smoking via discounting. Conclusions Prevention and intervention researchers can draw on these findings to develop programs that focus on sleep adequacy to reduce smoking in African American men exposed to childhood adversity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9914-0
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • The Impact of 3-D Models versus Animations on Perceptions of Osteoporosis
           and Treatment Motivation: A Randomised Trial
    • Authors: Annie S. K. Jones; Justin Fernandez; Andrew Grey; Keith J. Petrie
      Pages: 899 - 911
      Abstract: Background Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disorder that disproportionately affects older women worldwide. Raising awareness regarding osteoporosis within this demographic is significant for health promotion. Initial evidence suggests that visualisations of illness and treatment can improve illness perceptions, increase treatment motivations and even promote health behaviours. We are yet to understand whether different visualisation mediums vary in their impact on perceptions and motivations. Purpose We investigated whether physical models or virtual animations had a greater impact on changing perceptions of osteoporosis and treatment motivation in an at-risk population of older women. Methods A total of 128 women aged 50 and over were randomly assigned to view a brief presentation about osteoporosis using either 3-D printed bone models or electronic tablet animations. Illness perceptions, medication beliefs and motivations were measured at baseline and post-presentation. Mixed ANOVAs were used to identify significant changes over time between groups. Results There were no significant interaction effects, revealing that neither medium had a greater impact on beliefs over time. Significant main effects of time revealed that from baseline to post-presentation, both mediums increased consequence beliefs, personal and treatment control, understanding of osteoporosis, motivations to take treatment if needed and medication necessity beliefs. Timeline beliefs and medication concerns decreased over time for both groups. Conclusions Both 3-D models and animations of osteoporosis are equally effective in changing beliefs and treatment motivation in an at-risk population. Visualisation devices are brief, cost-effective, have high acceptability and have considerable clinical applicability to promote awareness and prevention.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9913-1
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • High-Frequency Heart Rate Variability Reactivity and Trait Worry Interact
           to Predict the Development of Sleep Disturbances in Response to a
           Naturalistic Stressor
    • Authors: Sasha MacNeil; Sonya S. Deschênes; Warren Caldwell; Melanie Brouillard; Thien-Thanh Dang-Vu; Jean-Philippe Gouin
      Pages: 912 - 924
      Abstract: Background High-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) reactivity was proposed as a vulnerability factor for stress-induced sleep disturbances. Its effect may be amplified among individuals with high trait worry or sleep reactivity. Purpose This study evaluated whether HF-HRV reactivity to a worry induction, sleep reactivity, and trait worry predict increases in sleep disturbances in response to academic stress, a naturalistic stressor. Method A longitudinal study following 102 undergraduate students during an academic semester with well-defined periods of lower and higher academic stress was conducted. HF-HRV reactivity to a worry induction, trait worry using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, and sleep reactivity using the Ford Insomnia Stress Reactivity Test were measured during the low stress period. Sleep disturbances using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were assessed twice during the lower stress period and three times during the higher stress period. Results Greater reductions in HF-HRV in response to the worry induction predicted increases in sleep disturbances from the lower to the higher academic stress period. Trait worry moderated this association: individuals with both higher trait worry and greater HF-HRV reactivity to worry had larger increases in stress-related sleep disturbances over time, compared to participants with lower trait worry and HF-HRV reactivity. A similar, but marginally significant effect was found for sleep reactivity. Conclusion This study supports the role of HF-HRV reactivity as a vulnerability factor for stress-induced sleep disturbances. The combination of high trait worry and high HF-HRV reactivity to worry might identify a subgroup of individuals most vulnerable to stress-related sleep disturbances.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9915-z
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • Cumulative Impact of Stressful Life Events on the Development of Takotsubo
    • Authors: Lindsey Rosman; Shira Dunsiger; Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher
      Pages: 925 - 930
      Abstract: Background The role of stressful life events in the onset of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is unclear. Purpose This study sought to examine associations between type, timing, and number of stressful life events and onset of TC. Methods A case-control study conducted among consecutive incident female TC cases and myocardial infarction (MI) controls admitted to two emergency departments in New England. Healthy female controls (HC) were recruited from a volunteers’ registry. Information about the timing, type, and number of triggers during the 6 months preceding hospitalization was systematically collected using the PERI Life Events Scale about 1 month post-discharge. Group differences were evaluated using ANOVA, chi-square, and Kruskal-Wallis statistics. Generalized linear models were used to adjust for confounding variables. Results Between March 2013 and October 2015, 107 women were enrolled (45 TC, 32 MI, and 30 HC). Specific stressful events (death of a relative or close friend (p = 0.006); illness or injury to a relative or close friend (p = 0.001) were more prevalent in TC cases than MI and HC controls. The onset of TC was associated with exposure to multiple stressful life events during the 6 months preceding the index hospitalization (p < 0.001) but not with exposure to an acute, recent event (p = 0.96). Conclusions TC onset was associated with specific life events (death or illness to close relative or friend) and with the number of stressful life events occurring in the 6 months preceding hospitalization. These findings suggest that grief and cumulative stress could play a major role in the onset of TC.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9908-y
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • Experimentally Manipulated Self-Affirmation Promotes Reduced Alcohol
           Consumption in Response to Narrative Information
    • Authors: Kerry J. Fox; Peter R. Harris; Donna C. Jessop
      Pages: 931 - 935
      Abstract: Background Health-risk information is increasingly being conveyed through accounts of personal experiences or narrative information. However, whether self-affirmation can enhance the ability of such messages to promote behavior change has yet to be established. Purpose This study aims to test whether self-affirmation (a) promotes behavior change following exposure to narrative information about the risks of excessive alcohol consumption and (b) boosts message acceptance by increasing narrative engagement. Methods In an experimental design, female drinkers (N = 142) reported their baseline alcohol consumption and were randomly allocated to condition (Self-Affirmation, Control). All participants next watched an extract of a genuine narrative piece in which the central character discussed her liver disease and its link with her previous alcohol consumption. Then, participants completed measures assessing engagement with the narrative and message acceptance. The primary outcome was alcohol consumption, assessed at 7-day follow-up. Results Self-affirmed participants reported consuming significantly less alcohol at follow-up compared to baseline (mean 7-day decrease = 5.43 units); there was no change in alcohol consumption for the control group. Immediately post-manipulation, self-affirmed participants (vs. control) showed more message acceptance and reported greater engagement with the information. The impact of self-affirmation on message acceptance was mediated by narrative engagement. Conclusions Self-affirmation can promote behavior change following exposure to health information, even when presented in narrative form. Clinical Trial Registration The trial is registered at, number NCT02681900, (
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9912-2
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • Acknowledgments
    • Pages: 936 - 939
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9886-0
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • Erratum to: I Keep my Problems to Myself: Negative Social Network
           Orientation, Social Resources, and Health-Related Quality of Life in
           Cancer Survivors
    • Authors: Christine Rini; Yael Symes; Rebecca A. Campo; Lisa M. Wu; Jane Austin
      Pages: 940 - 940
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9800-1
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 6 (2017)
  • A Self-Regulatory Intervention for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer:
           Pilot Randomized Trial
    • Authors: Amy E. Richardson; Geraldine Tennant; Randall P. Morton; Elizabeth Broadbent
      Pages: 629 - 641
      Abstract: Background Research is yet to investigate whether psychological interventions delivered early after diagnosis can benefit patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a brief self-regulatory intervention (targeting illness perceptions and coping) at improving HNC patient health-related quality of life (HRQL). Methods A pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted, in which 64 patients were assigned to receive three sessions with a health psychologist in addition to standard care or standard care alone. Participants completed questionnaires assessing HRQL, general distress, and illness perceptions at baseline and again 3 and 6 months later. Results Compared to the control group, patients who received the intervention had increased treatment control perceptions at 3 months (p = .01), and increased social quality of life at 6 months (p = .01). The intervention was particularly helpful for patients exhibiting distress at baseline. Conclusion A brief psychological intervention following HNC diagnosis can improve patient perceptions of treatment and social quality of life over time. Such interventions could be targeted to patients who are distressed in order to confer the greatest benefit. Trial Registration Number 12614000813684.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9885-1
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 5 (2017)
  • A Randomized-Controlled Trial of Social Norm Interventions to Increase
           Physical Activity
    • Authors: Christopher M. Wally; Linda D. Cameron
      Pages: 642 - 651
      Abstract: Background Physical activity confers numerous health benefits, yet few adults meet recommended physical activity guidelines. Purpose The impact of brief messages providing descriptive and injunctive social norm feedback on physical activity was tested in this conceptual pilot study. Methods Young adults (N = 111) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: descriptive norm feedback, descriptive-plus-injunctive norm feedback, or no social feedback (control condition). Participants used pedometers for eight weekdays and recorded their step counts each evening. The descriptive norm group received feedback about the average number of steps taken by group members the previous day. The descriptive-plus-injunctive norm group received feedback about the group average, as well as a sad face if the participant was below the average or a happy face if the participant was above the average. The control group received no feedback throughout the study. Results By days 7 and 8, the descriptive-plus-injunctive norm group reported significantly more steps relative to the control group, whereas the descriptive norm group showed a trend toward higher step counts relative to the control group. These effects did not differ for participants above versus below the group average at baseline. Conclusion The combined use of descriptive and injunctive social norms increased physical activity over a short period. This simple feedback strategy has potential for achieving wide reach and dissemination on its own or combined with more comprehensive interventions. This initial evidence can guide larger trials of longer duration. Trial Registration Number The trial was registered with the database (NCT02710201)
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9887-z
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 5 (2017)
  • The Mediating Role of Meaning in the Association between Stress and Health
    • Authors: Daryl R. Van Tongeren; Peter C. Hill; Neal Krause; Gail H. Ironson; Kenneth I. Pargament
      Pages: 775 - 781
      Abstract: Background Stress is a common feature of life and has routinely been linked with negative health outcomes. However, meaning has been identified as a possible buffer against stress. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the relationship between stress and health was mediated by meaning in life. Methods Drawing from Wave 1 of the Landmark Spirituality and Health Study, a nationally representative sample of adults, participants (N = 1871) reported their level of stress in the past 12 months, current meaning in life, health (measured as minor symptoms, major conditions, and overall health), and provided a blood sample for biomarker of immune system functioning (i.e., presence of Epstein–Barr virus antibodies). Results Results revealed an indirect effects model in which stress was inversely associated with meaning. Higher meaning was related to better self-reported health (across minor, major, and overall health measures), which, in turn, was associated with better immune system functioning. Conclusions These findings suggest that part of the negative effect of stress on health is accounted for by reduced meaning.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9899-8
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 5 (2017)
  • Resilience Resources Moderate the Association of Adverse Childhood
           Experiences with Adulthood Inflammation
    • Authors: Jean-Philippe Gouin; Warren Caldwell; Robbie Woods; William B. Malarkey
      Pages: 782 - 786
      Abstract: Background Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) has been associated with elevated circulating inflammatory markers in adulthood. Despite the robust effect of ACE on later health outcomes, not all individuals exposed to ACE suffer from poor health. Purpose The goal of this study was to evaluate whether current resilience resources may attenuate the impact of ACE on inflammatory markers among individuals with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Methods Participants (N = 174) completed one-time self-report questionnaires assessing ACE exposure within the first 18 years of life and current resilience resources, and provided blood samples for interleukin-6 (IL-6) and CRP. Results Individuals who were exposed to multiple ACE had greater IL-6 than participants with lesser ACE exposure. However, current resilience resources significantly moderated this effect. Among individuals who reported multiple ACE, higher resilience resources were associated with lower IL-6 levels. Conclusion These data suggest that resilience resources might attenuate the association between ACE and later health outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9891-3
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 5 (2017)
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