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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Annals of Behavioral Medicine
  [SJR: 2.112]   [H-I: 98]   [12 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1532-4796 - ISSN (Online) 0883-6612
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Perceived Life Expectancy Is Associated with Colorectal Cancer Screening
           in England
    • Authors: Lindsay C. Kobayashi; Christian von Wagner; Jane Wardle
      Pages: 327 - 336
      Abstract: Background Cancer screening is a behavior that represents investment in future health. Such investment may depend on how much ‘future’ a person expects. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the prospective association between perceived personal life expectancy and participation in fecal occult blood test screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) in a national program. Methods Data were from interviews with 3975 men and women in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) within the eligible age range for the national screening program (60 to 74 years). Perceived life expectancy was indexed as the individual’s estimate of their chance of living another 10–15 years (exact time varied by age), assessed in 2008/2009. Participation in CRC screening from 2010 to 2012/2013 was assessed in 2012/2013. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between perceived life expectancy and screening participation, adjusted for numeracy and known mortality risk factors. Results Overall, 71% of respondents (2817/3975) reported completing at least one fecal occult blood test (FOBt) during the follow-up. Screening uptake was 76% (1272/1683) among those who estimated their 10–15-year life expectancy as 75–100%, compared with 52% (126/243) among those who estimated theirs as 0–25% (adjusted OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.29–2.34). Conclusions A longer perceived life expectancy is associated with greater likelihood of participating in CRC screening in England. However, half of people with a low perceived life expectancy still participated in screening. Given that CRC screening is recommended for adults with a remaining life expectancy of ≥10 years, future research should investigate how to communicate the aims of screening more effectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9855-z
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Maintaining Healthy Behavior: a Prospective Study of Psychological
           Well-Being and Physical Activity
    • Authors: Eric S. Kim; Laura D. Kubzansky; Jackie Soo; Julia K. Boehm
      Pages: 337 - 347
      Abstract: Background Although higher psychological well-being has been linked with a range of positive biological processes and health outcomes, the prospective association between psychological well-being and physical activity among older adults has been understudied. Purpose We tested whether higher baseline psychological well-being predicted higher levels of physical activity over time. Methods Prospective data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging, a nationally representative sample of English adults over the age of 50. Our sample included 9986 adults who were assessed up to six times across an average of 11 years. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, each standard deviation increase in baseline psychological well-being was associated with higher median physical activity in linear regression models that examined physical activity across all six waves (β = 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18–0.21) and in linear mixed effect models that examined repeated measures of physical activity over the entire follow-up period (β = 0.20; 95% CI 0.19–0.21). Further, higher baseline psychological well-being was associated with a slower rate of decline in physical activity among people who were active at baseline (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.79, 95% CI 0.76–0.82) and increasing physical activity among people who were inactive at baseline (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.22–1.35). Findings were maintained after adjusting for baseline health status and depression. Conclusions Psychological well-being was independently associated with attaining and maintaining higher physical activity levels over 11 years, suggesting that it may be a valuable target for interventions aimed at helping older adults acquire more physical activity.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9856-y
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Linguistic Evidence for the Failure Mindset as a Predictor of Life Span
    • Authors: Ian B. Penzel; Michelle R. Persich; Ryan L. Boyd; Michael D. Robinson
      Pages: 348 - 355
      Abstract: Background When people think that their efforts will fail to achieve positive outcomes, they sometimes give up their efforts after control, which can have negative health consequences. Purpose Problematic orientations of this type, such as pessimism, helplessness, or fatalism, seem likely to be associated with a cognitive mindset marked by higher levels of accessibility for failure words or concepts. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to determine whether there are individual differences in the frequency with which people think about failure, which in turn are likely to impact health across large spans of time. Methods Following self-regulatory theories of health and the learned helplessness tradition, two archival studies (total n = 197) scored texts (books or speeches) for their use of failure words, a category within the Harvard IV dictionary of the General Inquirer. Results People who used failure words more frequently exhibited shorter subsequent life spans, and this relationship remained significant when controlling for birth year. Furthermore, study 2 implicated behavioral factors. For example, the failure/longevity relationship was numerically stronger among people whose causes of death appeared to be preventable rather than non-preventable. Conclusions These results significantly extend our knowledge of the personality/longevity relationship while highlighting the value of individual differences in word usage as predictors of health and mortality.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9857-x
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Dose-Response Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Quality of Life in
           Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in
           Alberta (BETA)
    • Authors: Kerry S. Courneya; Jessica McNeil; Rachel O’Reilly; Andria R. Morielli; Christine M. Friedenreich
      Pages: 356 - 364
      Abstract: Background Exercise generally improves quality of life (QoL) and psychosocial functioning in adult populations but few randomized trials have examined dose-response effects. Purpose The purpose of the present study was to report the QoL and psychosocial outcomes from the Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta (BETA). Methods Healthy but inactive postmenopausal women at risk for breast cancer were randomized to a year-long aerobic exercise intervention consisting of either 150 min/week (moderate volume group, n = 200) or 300 min/week (high volume group, n = 200). QoL was assessed at baseline and 1 year using the short form-36 health survey. Sleep quality, depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, and happiness were also assessed. Participant preference for group assignment (i.e., exercise volume) was assessed at baseline and tested as a moderator. Results There were no statistically significant dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on any QoL, sleep quality, or psychosocial outcome. Participant preference for group assignment did not moderate any QoL, sleep quality, or psychosocial responses. Marital status was a significant moderator (p for interaction = 0.01) and obesity showed a trend towards being a moderator (p for interaction = 0.08) of the dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on global sleep quality such that unmarried and obese women improved sleep quality with the higher volume of aerobic exercise. Conclusions A higher volume of aerobic exercise, approximately double the minimum public health guideline, did not provide additional QoL or psychosocial benefits compared to the minimum public health guideline in inactive postmenopausal women, even for women who preferred the higher volume of exercise at baseline. Trial Registration Trial Registration identifier: NCT1435005.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9859-8
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Pain-Related Factors for People
           with Chronic Low Back Pain: Tests of Reciprocal and Time of Day Effects
    • Authors: James I. Gerhart; John W. Burns; Kristina M. Post; David A. Smith; Laura S. Porter; Helen J. Burgess; Erik Schuster; Asokumar Buvanendran; Anne Marie Fras; Francis J. Keefe
      Pages: 365 - 375
      Abstract: Background Poor sleep quality among people with chronic low back pain appears to be related to worse pain, affect, poor physical function, and pain catastrophizing. The causal direction between poor sleep and pain remains an open question, however, as does whether sleep quality exerts effects on low back pain differently across the course of the day. Purpose This daily diary study examined lagged temporal associations between prior night sleep quality and subsequent day pain, affect, physical function and pain catastrophizing, the reverse lagged temporal associations between prior day pain-related factors and subsequent night sleep quality, and whether the time of day during which an assessment was made moderated these temporal associations. Methods Chronic low back pain patients (n = 105) completed structured electronic diary assessments five times per day for 14 days. Items included patient ratings of their pain, affect, physical function, and pain catastrophizing. Results Collapsed across all observations, poorer sleep quality was significantly related to higher pain ratings, higher negative affect, lower positive affect, poorer physical function, and higher pain catastrophizing. Lagged analyses averaged across the day revealed that poorer prior night sleep quality significantly predicted greater next day patient ratings of pain, and poorer physical function and higher pain catastrophizing. Prior poorer night sleep quality significantly predicted greater reports of pain, and poorer physical function, and higher pain catastrophizing, especially during the early part of the day. Sleep quality × time of day interactions showed that poor sleepers reported high pain, and negative mood and low function uniformly across the day, whereas good sleepers reported relatively good mornings, but showed pain, affect and function levels comparable to poor sleepers by the end of the day. Analyses of the reverse causal pathway were mostly nonsignificant. Conclusions Sleep quality appears related not only to pain intensity but also to a wide range of patient mood and function factors. A good night’s sleep also appears to offer only temporary respite, suggesting that comprehensive interventions for chronic low back pain not only should include attention to sleep problems but also focus on problems with pain appraisals and coping.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9860-2
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Assessing the Effects of Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Behavior Change
           Strategies on Physical Activity in Older Adults: a Factorial Experiment
    • Authors: Siobhan K McMahon; Beth Lewis; J Michael Oakes; Jean F Wyman; Weihua Guan; Alexander J Rothman
      Pages: 376 - 390
      Abstract: Background Little is known about which behavior change strategies motivate older adults to increase their physical activity. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the relative effects of two sets of behavior change strategies to motivate increased physical activity among older adults: interpersonal and intrapersonal. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (N = 102, mean age = 79) were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment to receive interpersonal (e.g., social support, friendly social comparison; no, yes) and /or intrapersonal (e.g., goal setting, barriers management; no, yes) behavior change strategies, combined with an evidence-based, physical activity protocol (Otago exercise program) and a physical activity monitor (Fitbit One™). Results Based on monitor data, participants who received interpersonal strategies, compared to those who did not, increased their average minutes of total physical activity (light, moderate, vigorous) per week, immediately (p = .006) and 6 months (p = .048) post-intervention. Similar, increases were observed on measures of functional strength and balance, immediately (p = .012) and 6 months (p = .003) post-intervention. The intrapersonal strategies did not elicit a significant increase in physical activity or functional strength and balance. Conclusions Findings suggest a set of interpersonally oriented behavior change strategies combined with an evidence-based physical activity protocol can elicit modest, but statistically and clinically significant, increases in older adults’ physical activity and functional strength and balance. Future research should replicate these findings and investigate the sustained quantity of physical activity elicited by these strategies and their impact on older adults’ quality of life and falls. Trial Registration The registration identifier is NCT02433249.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9863-z
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Individual Differences in Diurnal Preference and Time-of-Exercise Interact
           to Predict Exercise Frequency
    • Authors: Garrett C. Hisler; Alison L. Phillips; Zlatan Krizan
      Pages: 391 - 401
      Abstract: Background Diurnal preference (and chronotype more generally) has been implicated in exercise behavior, but this relation has not been examined using objective exercise measurements nor have potential psychosocial mediators been examined. Furthermore, time-of-day often moderates diurnal preference’s influence on outcomes, and it is unknown whether time-of-exercise may influence the relation between chronotype and exercise frequency. Purpose The current study examined whether individual differences in diurnal preference (“morningness-eveningness”) predict unique variance in exercise frequency and if commonly studied psychosocial variables mediate this relation (i.e., behavioral intentions, internal exercise control, external exercise control, and conscientiousness). Moreover, the study sought to test whether individuals’ typical time-of-exercise moderated the impact of diurnal preference on exercise frequency. Methods One hundred twelve healthy adults (mean age = 25.4; SD = 11.6 years) completed baseline demographics and then wore Fitbit Zips® for 4 weeks to objectively measure exercise frequency and typical time-of-exercise. At the end of the study, participants also self-reported recent exercise. Results Diurnal preference predicted both self-reported exercise and Fitbit-recorded exercise frequency. When evaluating mediators, only conscientiousness emerged as a partial mediator of the relation between diurnal preference and self-reported exercise. In addition, time-of-exercise moderated diurnal preference’s relation to both self-reported exercise and Fitbit-recorded exercise frequency such that diurnal preference predicted higher exercise frequency when exercise occurred at a time that was congruent with one’s diurnal preference. Conclusion Based on these findings, diurnal preference is valuable, above and beyond other psychological constructs, in predicting exercise frequency and represents an important variable to incorporate into interventions seeking to increase exercise.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9862-0
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Bidirectional, Temporal Associations of Sleep with Positive Events,
           Affect, and Stressors in Daily Life Across a Week
    • Authors: Nancy L. Sin; David M. Almeida; Tori L. Crain; Ellen Ernst Kossek; Lisa F. Berkman; Orfeu M. Buxton
      Pages: 402 - 415
      Abstract: Background Sleep is intricately tied to emotional well-being, yet little is known about the reciprocal links between sleep and psychosocial experiences in the context of daily life. Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate daily psychosocial experiences (positive and negative affect, positive events, and stressors) as predictors of same-night sleep quality and duration, in addition to the reversed associations of nightly sleep predicting next-day experiences. Methods Daily experiences and self-reported sleep were assessed via telephone interviews for eight consecutive evenings in two replicate samples of US employees (131 higher-income professionals and 181 lower-income hourly workers). Multilevel models evaluated within-person associations of daily experiences with sleep quality and duration. Analyses controlled for demographics, insomnia symptoms, the previous day’s experiences and sleep measures, and additional day-level covariates. Results Daily positive experiences were associated with improved as well as disrupted subsequent sleep. Specifically, positive events at home predicted better sleep quality in both samples, whereas greater positive affect was associated with shorter sleep duration among the higher-income professionals. Negative affect and stressors were unrelated to subsequent sleep. Results for the reversed direction revealed that better sleep quality (and, to a lesser degree, longer sleep duration) predicted emotional well-being and lower odds of encountering stressors on the following day. Conclusions Given the reciprocal relationships between sleep and daily experiences, efforts to improve well-being in daily life should reflect the importance of sleep.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9864-y
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Gender Differences in Relations among Perceived Family Characteristics and
           Risky Health Behaviors in Urban Adolescents
    • Authors: Kimberly M. Nelson; Kate B. Carey; Lori A. J. Scott-Sheldon; Tanya L. Eckert; Aesoon Park; Peter A. Vanable; Craig K. Ewart; Michael P. Carey
      Pages: 416 - 422
      Abstract: Background Research regarding the role of gender in relations between family characteristics and health risk behaviors has been limited. Purpose This study aims to investigate gender differences in associations between family processes and risk-taking in adolescents. Methods Adolescents (N = 249; mean age = 14.5 years) starting their first year at an urban high school in the northeastern USA completed self-report measures that assessed family characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, family social support, family conflict) and health behaviors (i.e., tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, sex initiation) as part of a prospective, community-based study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate gender differences in associations between the family characteristics and health behaviors. Results Among males, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of using tobacco and having ever engaged in sex. Among females, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of marijuana use, alcohol use, and having ever engaged in sex. However, in contrast to males, among females (a) higher levels of perceived family social support were associated with lower odds of alcohol use and having ever engaged in sex and (b) higher levels of perceived family conflict were associated with higher odds of marijuana use and having ever engaged in sex. Conclusion Family processes were more strongly related to health behaviors among adolescent females than adolescent males. Interventions that increase parental monitoring and family social support as well as decrease family conflict may help to protect against adolescent risk taking, especially for females.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9865-x
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Using an Analysis of Behavior Change to Inform Effective Digital
           Intervention Design: How Did the PRIMIT Website Change Hand Hygiene
           Behavior Across 8993 Users?
    • Authors: B. Ainsworth; M. Steele; B. Stuart; J. Joseph; S. Miller; L. Morrison; P. Little; L. Yardley
      Pages: 423 - 431
      Abstract: Background In designing digital interventions for healthcare, it is important to understand not just whether interventions work but also how and for whom—including whether individual intervention components have different effects, whether a certain usage threshold is required to change behavior in each intervention and whether usage differs across population subgroups. Purpose We investigated these questions using data from a large trial of the digital PRimary care trial of a website based Infection control intervention to Modify Influenza-like illness and respiratory tract infection Transmission) (PRIMIT) intervention, which aimed to reduce respiratory tract infections (RTIs) by increasing hand hygiene behavior. Method Baseline and follow-up questionnaires measured behaviors, intentions and attitudes in hand hygiene. In conjunction with objective measures of usage of the four PRIMIT sessions, we analysed these observational data to examine mechanisms of behavior change in 8993 intervention users. Results We found that the PRIMIT intervention changed behavior, intentions and attitudes, and this change was associated with reduced RTIs. The largest hand hygiene change occurred after the first session, with incrementally smaller changes after each subsequent session, suggesting that engagement with the core behavior change techniques included in the first session was necessary and sufficient for behavior change. The intervention was equally effective for men and women, older and younger people and was particularly effective for those with lower levels of education. Conclusions Our well-powered analysis has implications for intervention development. We were able to determine a ‘minimum threshold’ of intervention engagement that is required for hand hygiene change, and we discuss the potential implications this (and other analyses of this type) may have for further intervention development. We also discuss the application of similar analyses to other interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9866-9
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Latent Inhibition Reduces Nocebo Nausea, Even Without Deception
    • Authors: V. F. Quinn; E. J. Livesey; B. Colagiuri
      Pages: 432 - 441
      Abstract: Background Nocebo nausea is a debilitating and prevalent side effect that can develop after conditioning occurs between cues present in the treatment context and the experience of nausea. Interventions that retard conditioning may therefore be able to reduce nocebo nausea. Purpose To test whether ‘latent inhibition’, where pre-exposing cues in the absence of an outcome retards subsequent learning about those cues, could reduce nocebo nausea in healthy adults. Methods We examined this possibility using a Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) model of nausea in healthy participants, with pre-exposure to the treatment cues achieved using a placebo version of GVS. Results In Experiment 1 we found clear evidence of conditioned nocebo nausea that was eradicated by latent inhibition following pre-exposure to placebo stimulation. Experiment 2 tested whether deception, which may be unethical in clinical settings, was necessary to produce latent inhibition by including an open pre-exposure group informed they were pre-exposed to placebo stimulation. Experiment 2 replicated the latent inhibition effect on nocebo nausea following deceptive pre-exposure from Experiment 1 and found that open pre-exposure was just as effective for reducing nocebo nausea. In both experiments, there was an interesting discrepancy found in expectancy ratings whereby expectations appeared to drive the development of conditioned nocebo nausea, but were not responsible for its suppression through latent inhibition. Conclusions These findings have significant clinical implications. Applying open pre-exposure in clinical settings may effectively and ethically reduce the development of nocebo effects for nausea and other conditions via latent inhibition.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9867-8
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Autonomic Cardiovascular Control and Executive Function in Chronic
    • Authors: Stefan Duschek; Alexandra Hoffmann; Gustavo A. Reyes del Paso; Ulrich Ettinger
      Pages: 442 - 453
      Abstract: Background Chronic low blood pressure (hypotension) is characterized by complaints such as fatigue, reduced drive, dizziness, and cold limbs. Additionally, deficits in attention and memory have been observed. Autonomic dysregulation is considered to be involved in the origin of this condition. Purpose The study explored autonomic cardiovascular control in the context of higher cognitive processing (executive function) in hypotension. Methods Hemodynamic recordings were performed in 40 hypotensive and 40 normotensive participants during execution of four classical executive function tasks (number-letter task, n-back task, continuous performance test, and flanker task). Parameters of cardiac sympathetic control, i.e., stroke volume, cardiac output, pre-ejection period, total peripheral resistance, and parasympathetic control, i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia and baroreflex sensitivity, were obtained. Results The hypotensive group exhibited lower stroke volume and cardiac output, as well as higher pre-ejection period and baroreflex sensitivity during task execution. Increased error rates in hypotensive individuals were observed in the n-back and flanker tasks. In the total sample, there were positive correlations of error rates with pre-ejection period, baroreflex sensitivity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and negative correlations with cardiac output. Conclusions Group differences in stroke volume, cardiac output, and pre-ejection period suggest diminished beta-adrenergic myocardial drive during executive function processing in hypotension, in addition to increased baroreflex function. Although further research is warranted to quantify the extent of executive function impairment in hypotension, the results from correlation analysis add evidence to the notion that higher sympathetic inotropic influences and reduced parasympathetic cardiac influences are accompanied by better cognitive performance.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9868-7
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Depression and Smoking Cessation: Evidence from a Smoking Cessation Clinic
           with 1-Year Follow-Up
    • Authors: Lenka Stepankova; Eva Kralikova; Kamila Zvolska; Alexandra Pankova; Petra Ovesna; Milan Blaha; Leonie S Brose
      Pages: 454 - 463
      Abstract: Background Smoking is more prevalent among people with depression. Depression may make cessation more difficult and cessation may affect depression symptoms. Purpose The aims of this study were to assess the associations between (1) baseline depression and 1-year smoking abstinence and (2) abstinence and change in depression. Methods Observational study using data collected routinely in a smoking cessation clinic in the Czech Republic from 2008 to 2014. Aim 1: N = 3775 patients; 14.3% reported mild and 15.4% moderate/severe baseline depression levels measured using Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Logistic regressions assessed if depression level predicted 1-year biochemically verified abstinence while adjusting for patient and treatment characteristics. Aim 2: N = 835 patients abstinent at 1 year; change in depression was analysed using Chi-square statistics, t test and mixed method analyses of variance. Results Rate of abstinence was lower for patients with mild (32.5%, OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.87, p = 0.002) and moderate/severe depression (25.8%; OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.74, p < 0.001) compared with patients without depression (40.5%). Across abstinent patients, the majority with baseline depression reported lower depression levels at follow-up. Overall mean (SD) BDI-II scores improved from 9.2 (8.6) to 5.3 (6.1); t(834) = 14.6, p < 0.001. There were significant main effects of time (F(1832) = 880.8, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.51) and baseline depression level (F(2832) = 666.4, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.62) on follow-up depression and a significant depression * time interaction (F(2832) = 296.5, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.42). Conclusions In this effective smoking cessation clinic, depression at the start of treatment predicted reduced smoking abstinence 1 year later. Patients abstinent from smoking experienced considerable improvement in depression.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9869-6
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Life Satisfaction and Hemodynamic Reactivity to Mental Stress
    • Authors: Andreas Schwerdtfeger; Kerstin Gaisbachgrabner; Claudia Traunmüller
      Pages: 464 - 469
      Abstract: Background Satisfaction with life has been considered a health-protective variable, which could impact cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have examined the physiological pathways involved in the potentially salutary effect of life satisfaction. It was hypothesized that life satisfaction should be associated with a cardiovascular response profile that signals challenge (i.e., higher cardiac output, lower peripheral resistance), rather than threat during a mental stress task. Methods A sample of 75 healthy, medication-free men without clinical signs of psychological disorders who worked full-time and occupied highly demanding positions participated in this study. They performed two mental stress tasks (n-back) with varying degrees of difficulty. The tasks were embedded between a baseline and a recovery period. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic variables (heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance) were recorded by means of impedance cardiography. Results Individuals who were more satisfied with their life displayed higher cardiac output and lower peripheral resistance levels during the stress tasks, indicating a challenge rather than a threat profile. Findings were robust when controlled for physical activity, smoking, age, and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Life satisfaction could be positively correlated with beneficial hemodynamic stress reactivity, indicating that individuals with higher levels of life satisfaction can more adaptively cope with stress. Increased cardiac output and decreased peripheral resistance during stress may constitute one route through which life satisfaction can benefit health.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9858-9
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Fidelity Moderates the Association Between Negative Condom Attitudes and
           Outcome Behavior in an Evidence-Based Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention
           for Female Sex Workers
    • Authors: Eileen V. Pitpitan; Claudia V. Chavarin; Shirley J. Semple; Doroteo Mendoza; Carlos Magis Rodriguez; Hugo Staines; Gregory A. Aarons; Thomas L. Patterson
      Pages: 470 - 476
      Abstract: Background Intervention fidelity and participant-level variables, such as negative attitudes towards condoms, are important variables to consider in the successful implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions. Mujer Segura is an intervention that has been shown to be efficacious at reducing condomless sex for female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico [1]. Purpose We examined main effects of fidelity, negative condom attitudes, and their interaction on the effectiveness of the Mujer Segura intervention at reducing condomless sex at intervention follow-up. Methods Of the FSWs recruited from 13 cities across Mexico, 528 participated in the Mujer Segura intervention. We measured negative condom attitudes at baseline (comprising of beliefs and outcome evaluations) and condomless sex with clients at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Fidelity was measured by a fidelity checklist completed by independent raters; the sum of potentially 43 total elements completed by the counselor constituted fidelity. Results Complete fidelity was found in only 15.1% (n = 73) of sessions. There was no significant main effect of intervention fidelity on condomless sex with clients at follow-up. There was a significant and positive main effect of negative condom attitudes and a significant two-way interaction. At lower levels of fidelity, negative condom attitudes predicted greater condomless sex acts, whereas at higher levels of fidelity, the effect of condom attitudes became weaker. The results also indicated that the interaction between negative condom attitudes and fidelity were driven primarily by negative condom beliefs, as opposed to negative condom outcome evaluations. Conclusions Ensuring treatment fidelity in an HIV prevention intervention is particularly important when participants have negative attitudes towards condoms.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9861-1
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
  • Associations Between Parenting Factors, Motivation, and Physical Activity
           in Overweight African American Adolescents
    • Authors: Lauren E. Huffman; Dawn K. Wilson; M. Lee Van Horn; Russell R. Pate
      Abstract: Background Positive parenting practices and environmental supports have been linked to physical activity (PA) levels in youth, yet factors associated with positive parenting styles have been understudied in African American adolescents. Purpose This study expands on previous literature by examining associations between motivation, parenting factors associated with Self-Determination Theory’s psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) including authoritative parenting, autonomy support and emotional and tangible support, and adolescent moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and light PA (LPA). Methods Participants were African American adolescents (N = 148; M age = 13.6 years; M BMI% = 96.6) and their caregivers (M age = 43.4 years; M BMI = 37.4) enrolled in the Families Improving Together for Weight Loss trial. Parenting factors were measured using self-report surveys, and PA minutes were measured using 7-day accelerometry estimates. Results Regression analyses indicated that overall models for MVPA (F(11,134) = 4.35; R 2 = 0.26) and LPA (F(11,134) = 5.84, R 2 = 0.32) were significant. Adolescent motivation for PA (B = 0.58, SE = 0.16) was positively associated with MVPA minutes. Authoritative parenting (B = 15.71, SE = 4.38) and tangible support (B = 8.53, SE = 4.02) were positively associated with adolescent LPA minutes. Unexpectedly, emotional support was negatively associated with both MVPA (B = −0.47, SE = 0.17) and LPA (B = −11.22, SE = 4.79), with follow-up analyses showing this relationship stronger in males. Conclusion Findings highlight the importance of adolescent motivation for PA on MVPA and positive parenting styles and tangible supports on adolescent LPA in overweight African American youth. Recommendations for integrating these factors within the context of intervention studies are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9919-8
  • High-Frequency Heart Rate Variability Reactivity and Trait Worry Interact
           to Predict the Development of Sleep Disturbances in Response to a
           Naturalistic Stressor
    • Authors: Sasha MacNeil; Sonya S. Deschênes; Warren Caldwell; Melanie Brouillard; Thien-Thanh Dang-Vu; Jean-Philippe Gouin
      Abstract: Background High-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) reactivity was proposed as a vulnerability factor for stress-induced sleep disturbances. Its effect may be amplified among individuals with high trait worry or sleep reactivity. Purpose This study evaluated whether HF-HRV reactivity to a worry induction, sleep reactivity, and trait worry predict increases in sleep disturbances in response to academic stress, a naturalistic stressor. Method A longitudinal study following 102 undergraduate students during an academic semester with well-defined periods of lower and higher academic stress was conducted. HF-HRV reactivity to a worry induction, trait worry using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, and sleep reactivity using the Ford Insomnia Stress Reactivity Test were measured during the low stress period. Sleep disturbances using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were assessed twice during the lower stress period and three times during the higher stress period. Results Greater reductions in HF-HRV in response to the worry induction predicted increases in sleep disturbances from the lower to the higher academic stress period. Trait worry moderated this association: individuals with both higher trait worry and greater HF-HRV reactivity to worry had larger increases in stress-related sleep disturbances over time, compared to participants with lower trait worry and HF-HRV reactivity. A similar, but marginally significant effect was found for sleep reactivity. Conclusion This study supports the role of HF-HRV reactivity as a vulnerability factor for stress-induced sleep disturbances. The combination of high trait worry and high HF-HRV reactivity to worry might identify a subgroup of individuals most vulnerable to stress-related sleep disturbances.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9915-z
  • Mediators of Weight Loss Maintenance in the Keep It Off Trial
    • Authors: A.L. Crain; N.E. Sherwood; B.C. Martinson; R.W. Jeffery
      Abstract: Background An important step toward enhancing the efficacy of weight loss maintenance interventions is identifying the pathways through which successful interventions such as the Keep It Off trial have worked. Purpose This study aimed to assess the viability of mediated relationships between the Keep It Off Guided intervention, conceptually and empirically grounded potential mediators, and weight. Repeated measurement of mediators and weight enabled documentation of the temporal ordering of intervention delivery and changes in mediators and in weight among participants randomized to the Guided intervention or Self-Directed comparison group. Methods Total, direct, and indirect effects of the Guided intervention on weight change were calculated and tested for significance. Indirect effects were comprised of the influence of the intervention on three change scores for each mediator and the relationship between mediator changes and weight changes 6 months later. Results Guided intervention participants regained about 2% less weight over 24 months than Self-Directed participants. Starting daily self-weighing accounted for the largest share of this difference, followed by not stopping self-weighing. Conclusions Daily self-weighing mediated 24-month weight loss maintenance. Trial Registration Number The trial is registered with (Identifier: NCT00702455
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9917-x
  • Pathways Linking Adverse Childhood Experiences to Cigarette Smoking Among
           Young Black Men: a Prospective Analysis of the Role of Sleep Problems and
           Delayed Reward Discounting
    • Authors: Assaf Oshri; Steven Kogan; Sihong Liu; Lawrence Sweet; James Mackillop
      Abstract: Background African American men experience increases in smoking during the young adult transition. Exposure to childhood adversity, a risk factor which disproportionately affects African American men, has been identified as a robust precursor to health risk behavior in general and cigarette smoking in particular. The intermediate mechanisms that transmit the influence of early adversity to smoking behavior are not well understood. Purpose We tested a model of the escalation of smoking behaviors among young adult African American men, investigating sleep disturbance and delayed reward discounting as intermediate factors linking adverse childhood experiences with smoking. Methods Hypotheses were tested with three waves of data (M age-T1 = 20.34, M age-T2 = 21.92, M age-T3 = 23.02) from 505 African American men living in rural counties in South Georgia. Men provided self-report data on their adverse childhood experiences, sleep problems, and smoking behavior using audio-assisted computer self-interviews. Men also completed a computer-based delayed reward discounting task. Results Structural equation modeling analyses supported our hypotheses: Adverse childhood experiences predicted poor sleep adequacy, which forecast increases in delayed reward discounting; discounting, in turn, predicted increased smoking. Significant indirect pathways were detected linking adversity to discounting via sleep adequacy and linking sleep adequacy to smoking via discounting. Conclusions Prevention and intervention researchers can draw on these findings to develop programs that focus on sleep adequacy to reduce smoking in African American men exposed to childhood adversity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9914-0
  • Observed Relationship Behaviors and Sleep in Military Veterans and Their
    • Authors: Jennifer Fillo; Stephanie Brooks Holliday; Amy DeSantis; Anne Germain; Daniel J. Buysse; Karen A. Matthews; Wendy M. Troxel
      Abstract: Background Emerging research has begun to examine associations between relationship functioning and sleep. However, these studies have largely relied on self-reported evaluations of relationships and/or of sleep, which may be vulnerable to bias. Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine associations between relationship functioning and sleep in military couples. This is the first research to examine associations between observed relationship behaviors and subjective and polysomnographically measured sleep in a sample at-risk for both sleep and relationship problems. Methods The sample included 35 military veterans and their spouses/partners. Marital functioning was coded from a videotaped conflict interaction. Analyses focused on behavioral codes of hostility and relationship-enhancing attributions. Sleep was assessed via self-report and in-home polysomnography. Results Greater hostility was associated with poorer sleep efficiency for oneself (b = −0.195, p = .013). In contrast, greater relationship-enhancing attributions were associated with higher percentages of stage N3 sleep (b = 0.239, p = .028). Partners’ hostility was also positively associated with higher percentages of stage N3 sleep (b = 0.272, p = .010). Neither hostility nor relationship-enhancing attributions was associated with self-reported sleep quality, percentage of REM sleep, or total sleep time. Conclusions Both partners’ positive and negative behaviors during conflict interactions were related to sleep quality. These findings highlight the role that effective communication and conflict resolution skills may play in shaping not only the marital health of veterans and their spouses but also the physical health of both partners as well. Understanding the links between relationship functioning and sleep may be important targets of intervention in the aftermath of war.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9911-3
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