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Showing 1 - 200 of 2341 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Annals of Behavioral Medicine
  [SJR: 2.112]   [H-I: 98]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1532-4796 - ISSN (Online) 0883-6612
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2341 journals]
  • Extending the Minority Stress Model to Incorporate HIV-Positive Gay and
           Bisexual Men’s Experiences: a Longitudinal Examination of Mental Health
           and Sexual Risk Behavior
    • Authors: H. Jonathon Rendina; Kristi E. Gamarel; John E. Pachankis; Ana Ventuneac; Christian Grov; Jeffrey T. Parsons
      Pages: 147 - 158
      Abstract: Background Minority stress theory represents the most plausible conceptual framework for explaining health disparities for gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, little focus has been given to including the unique stressors experienced by HIV-positive GBM. Purpose We explored the role of HIV-related stress within a minority stress model of mental health and condomless anal sex. Methods Longitudinal data were collected on a diverse convenience sample of 138 highly sexually active, HIV-positive GBM in NYC regarding sexual minority (internalized homonegativity and gay-related rejection sensitivity) and HIV-related stressors (internalized HIV stigma and HIV-related rejection sensitivity), emotion dysregulation, mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, sexual compulsivity, and hypersexuality), and sexual behavior (condomless anal sex with all male partners and with serodiscordant male partners). Results Across both sexual minority and HIV-related stressors, internalized stigma was significantly associated with mental health and sexual behavior outcomes while rejection sensitivity was not. Moreover, path analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation mediated the influence of both forms of internalized stigma on symptoms of depression/anxiety and sexual compulsivity/hypersexuality as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex. Conclusions We identified two targets of behavioral interventions that may lead to improvements in mental health and reductions in sexual transmission risk behaviors—maladaptive cognitions underlying negative self-schemas and difficulties with emotion regulation. Techniques for cognitive restructuring and emotion regulation may be particularly useful in the development of interventions that are sensitive to the needs of this population while also highlighting the important role that structural interventions can have in preventing these disparities for future generations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9822-8
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • Physical Activity in Older Adults: an Ecological Approach
    • Authors: Christina M. Thornton; Jacqueline Kerr; Terry L. Conway; Brian E. Saelens; James F. Sallis; David K. Ahn; Lawrence D. Frank; Kelli L. Cain; Abby C. King
      Pages: 159 - 169
      Abstract: Background Studies identifying correlates of physical activity (PA) at all levels of the ecological model can provide an empirical basis for designing interventions to increase older adults’ PA. Purpose Applying ecological model principles, this study concurrently examined individual, psychosocial, and environmental correlates of older adults’ PA to determine whether built environment factors contribute to PA over and above individual/demographic and psychosocial variables. Methods Using a cross-sectional observational design, 726 adults, aged ≥66 years, were recruited from two US regions. Explanatory variables included demographics, self-efficacy, social support, barriers, and environmental variables measured by using geographic information systems (GIS) and self-report. Outcomes included reported walking for errands and leisure/exercise and accelerometer-measured daily moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). Analyses employed mixed-model regressions with backward elimination. Results For daily MVPA, the only significant environmental variable was GIS-based proximity to a park (p < 0.001) after controlling for individual/demographic and psychosocial factors. Walking for errands was positively related to four environmental variables: reported walking/cycling facilities (p < 0.05), GIS-based intersection density (p < 0.01), mixed land use (p < 0.01), and private recreation facilities (p < 0.01). Walking for leisure/exercise was negatively related to GIS-based mixed land use (p < 0.05). Non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, self-efficacy, and social support positively related to all three PA outcomes (p < 0.05). Conclusions Correlates of older adults’ PA were found at all ecological levels, supporting multiple levels of influence and need for multilevel interventions. Environmental correlates varied by PA outcome. Walking for errands exhibited the most environmental associations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9837-1
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sociodemographic Factors Prospectively
           Associated with Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among South African
           Heterosexual Men
    • Authors: Anne M. Teitelman; Scarlett L. Bellamy; John B. Jemmott; Larry Icard; Ann O’Leary; Samira Ali; Zolani Ngwane; Monde Makiwane
      Pages: 170 - 178
      Abstract: Background Intimate partner violence directed at women by men continues to be a global concern. However, little is known about the factors associated with perpetrating intimate partner violence among heterosexual men. Purpose History of childhood sexual abuse and other sociodemographic variables were examined as potential factors associated with severe intimate partner violence perpetration toward women in a sample of heterosexual men in South Africa. Methods Longitudinal logistic generalized estimating equations examined associations of childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic variables at baseline with intimate partner violence perpetration at subsequent time points. Results Among participants with a steady female partner, 21.81 % (190/ 871) reported perpetrating intimate partner violence in the past year at baseline. Having a history of childhood sexual abuse (p < .001), binge drinking (p = .002), being employed (p = .050), and more difficulty controlling sexual impulses in order to use a condom (p = .006) at baseline were associated with self-reported intimate partner violence perpetration in the past year at subsequent time points. Conclusions With high levels of recent severe physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence perpetration in South Africa, comprehensive interventions are urgently needed. To more fully address gender-based violence, it is important to address associated factors, including exposure to childhood sexual abuse that could impact behavior later in life and that have long-lasting and deleterious effects on men and their female partners.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9836-2
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • Comparison of Personal Resources in Patients Who Differently Estimate the
           Impact of Multiple Sclerosis
    • Authors: Maciej Wilski; Maciej Tomczak
      Pages: 179 - 188
      Abstract: Background Discrepancies between physicians’ assessment and patients’ subjective representations of the disease severity may influence physician-patient communication and management of a chronic illness, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). For these reasons, it is important to recognize factors that distinguish patients who differently estimate the impact of MS. Purpose The purpose of this study was to verify if the patients who overestimate or underestimate the impact of MS differ in their perception of personal resources from individuals presenting with a realistic appraisal of their physical condition. Methods A total of 172 women and 92 men diagnosed with MS completed Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale, University of Washington Self Efficacy Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Body Esteem Scale, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, Treatment Beliefs Scale, Actually Received Support Scale, and Socioeconomic resources scale. Physician’s assessment of health status was determined with Expanded Disability Status Scale. Results Linear regression analysis was conducted to identify the subsets of patients with various patterns of subjective health and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores. Patients overestimating the impact of their disease presented with significantly lower levels of self-esteem, self-efficacy in MS, and body esteem; furthermore, they perceived their condition more threatening than did realists and underestimators. They also assessed anti-MS treatment worse, had less socioeconomic resources, and received less support than underestimators. Additionally, underestimators presented with significantly better perception of their disease, self, and body than did realists. Conclusion Self-assessment of MS-related symptoms is associated with specific perception of personal resources in coping with the disease. These findings may facilitate communication with patients and point to new directions for future research on adaptation to MS.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9841-5
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • Attachment Orientations, Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, and Stress Are
           Important for Understanding the Link Between Childhood Socioeconomic
           Status and Adult Self-Reported Health
    • Authors: Kyle W. Murdock; Christopher P. Fagundes
      Pages: 189 - 198
      Abstract: Background Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is reliably associated with poor adult health. Social environments early in life and physiological stress responses are theorized to underlie this link; however, the role of attachment orientations is relatively unknown. Purpose In this study, we examined whether attachment orientations (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and self-reported stress were mediators of the association between childhood SES and self-reported health in adulthood. Furthermore, we examined whether parasympathetic nervous system functioning was a moderator of associations between attachment orientations and self-reported stress. Methods Participants (N = 213) provided self-reports of childhood SES, attachment orientations, general stress, and self-rated health. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured at rest, as well as during an acute social stressor. Results Low childhood SES was associated with poor self-reported health via the serial pathway from attachment anxiety to general stress. Moreover, attachment avoidance was associated with self-reported health via general stress, but only among those with high stress-induced RSA. Findings were independent of participant age, sex, race, body mass index, baseline RSA, and adult SES. Conclusions Attachment theory is useful for understanding why those from low SES backgrounds are at greater risk of negative health outcomes in adulthood. Findings extend our knowledge of how interpersonal relationships in childhood can shape emotional and physical health outcomes in adulthood.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9842-4
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • Mindfulness Meditation for Chronic Pain: Systematic Review and
    • Authors: Lara Hilton; Susanne Hempel; Brett A. Ewing; Eric Apaydin; Lea Xenakis; Sydne Newberry; Ben Colaiaco; Alicia Ruelaz Maher; Roberta M. Shanman; Melony E. Sorbero; Margaret A. Maglione
      Pages: 199 - 213
      Abstract: Background Chronic pain patients increasingly seek treatment through mindfulness meditation. Purpose This study aims to synthesize evidence on efficacy and safety of mindfulness meditation interventions for the treatment of chronic pain in adults. Method We conducted a systematic review on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with meta-analyses using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. Quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Outcomes included pain, depression, quality of life, and analgesic use. Results Thirty-eight RCTs met inclusion criteria; seven reported on safety. We found low-quality evidence that mindfulness meditation is associated with a small decrease in pain compared with all types of controls in 30 RCTs. Statistically significant effects were also found for depression symptoms and quality of life. Conclusions While mindfulness meditation improves pain and depression symptoms and quality of life, additional well-designed, rigorous, and large-scale RCTs are needed to decisively provide estimates of the efficacy of mindfulness meditation for chronic pain.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9844-2
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • Lay Awareness of the Relationship between Age and Cancer Risk
    • Authors: Jennifer M. Taber; William M. P. Klein; Jerry M. Suls; Rebecca A. Ferrer
      Pages: 214 - 225
      Abstract: Background Cross-sectional studies suggest many people are unaware that cancer risk increases with age, but this misbelief has rarely been studied prospectively, nor are its moderators known. Purpose To assess whether people recognize that cancer risk increases with age and whether beliefs differ according to gender, education, smoking status, and family history of cancer. Methods First, items from the cross-sectional Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 2069) were analyzed to examine the association of age and perceived cancer risk. Second, the prospective National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (n = 3896) was used to assess whether perceived cancer risk changes over a decade. Third, beliefs about the age at which cancer occurs were analyzed using the US Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer survey (n = 1080). As a comparator, perceived risk of heart disease was also examined. Results Cross-sectionally, older age was associated with lower perceived cancer risk but higher perceived heart disease risk. Prospectively, perceived cancer risk remained stable, whereas perceived heart attack risk increased. Seventy percent of participants reported a belief that cancer is equally likely to affect people of any age. Across three surveys, women and former smokers/smokers who recently quit tended to misunderstand the relationship between age and cancer risk and also expressed relatively higher perceived cancer risk overall. Conclusions Data from three national surveys indicated that people are unaware that age is a risk factor for cancer. Moreover, those who were least aware perceived the highest risk of cancer regardless of age.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9845-1
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • mHealth Technologies to Influence Physical Activity and Sedentary
           Behaviors: Behavior Change Techniques, Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
           of Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Authors: Artur Direito; Eliana Carraça; Jonathan Rawstorn; Robyn Whittaker; Ralph Maddison
      Pages: 226 - 239
      Abstract: Background mHealth programs offer potential for practical and cost-effective delivery of interventions capable of reaching many individuals. Purpose To (1) compare the effectiveness of mHealth interventions to promote physical activity (PA) and reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in free-living young people and adults with a comparator exposed to usual care/minimal intervention; (2) determine whether, and to what extent, such interventions affect PA and SB levels and (3) use the taxonomy of behavior change techniques (BCTs) to describe intervention characteristics. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis following PRISMA guidelines was undertaken to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing mHealth interventions with usual or minimal care among individuals free from conditions that could limit PA. Total PA, moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), walking and SB outcomes were extracted. Intervention content was independently coded following the 93-item taxonomy of BCTs. Results Twenty-one RCTs (1701 participants—700 with objectively measured PA) met eligibility criteria. SB decreased more following mHealth interventions than after usual care (standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.26, 95 % confidence interval (CI) −0.53 to −0.00). Summary effects across studies were small to moderate and non-significant for total PA (SMD 0.14, 95 % CI −0.12 to 0.41); MVPA (SMD 0.37, 95 % CI −0.03 to 0.77); and walking (SMD 0.14, 95 % CI −0.01 to 0.29). BCTs were employed more frequently in intervention (mean = 6.9, range 2 to 12) than in comparator conditions (mean = 3.1, range 0 to 10). Of all BCTs, only 31 were employed in intervention conditions. Conclusions Current mHealth interventions have small effects on PA/SB. Technological advancements will enable more comprehensive, interactive and responsive intervention delivery. Future mHealth PA studies should ensure that all the active ingredients of the intervention are reported in sufficient detail.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9846-0
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • Socioeconomic Status Interacts with Conscientiousness and Neuroticism to
           Predict Circulating Concentrations of Inflammatory Markers
    • Authors: Ari J. Elliot; Nicholas A. Turiano; Benjamin P. Chapman
      Pages: 240 - 250
      Abstract: Background Socioeconomic health disparities research may benefit from further consideration of dispositional factors potentially modifying risk associated with low socioeconomic status, including that indexed by systemic inflammation. Purpose This study was conducted to investigate interactions of SES and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits in predicting circulating concentrations of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Method Using a sample of middle-aged and older adults from the Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS) biomarker project (N = 978), linear regression models tested interactions of each FFM trait with a composite measure of SES in predicting IL-6 and CRP, as well as the explanatory role of medical morbidity, measures of adiposity, and health behaviors. Results SES interacted with conscientiousness to predict levels of IL-6 (interaction b = .03, p = .002) and CRP (interaction b = .04, p = .014) and with neuroticism to predict IL-6 (interaction b = −.03, p = .004). Socioeconomic gradients in both markers were smaller at higher levels of conscientiousness. Conversely, the socioeconomic gradient in IL-6 was larger at higher levels of neuroticism. Viewed from the perspective of SES as the moderator, neuroticism was positively related to IL-6 at low levels of SES but negatively related at high SES. Interactions of SES with both conscientiousness and neuroticism were attenuated upon adjustment for measures of adiposity. Conclusions Conscientiousness may buffer, and neuroticism amplify, excess inflammatory risk associated with low SES, in part through relationships with adiposity. Neuroticism may be associated with lower levels of inflammation at high levels of SES.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9847-z
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • Obesity, Apolipoprotein E ε4, and Difficulties in Activities of Daily
           Living Among Older Adults: a 6-Year Follow-up Study
    • Authors: Li-Jung Chen; Andrew Steptoe; Po-Wen Ku
      Pages: 251 - 260
      Abstract: Background Obesity has been associated with increased physical limitations among older adults, although few studies have adjusted for important covariates. There is limited information about the relationship between apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms and physical limitations, and the findings have been inconsistent. Purpose This study examined the longitudinal associations of obesity and APOE ε4 with difficulties in activities of daily living (ADLs) over a 6-year follow-up period controlling for multiple covariates. Methods Data were analyzed from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) in Taiwan collected in 2000 and 2006, involving a cohort of 639 participants (mean age = 66). Body mass index (BMI) was used to define obesity at a baseline, and the APOE genotype was classified into an APOE ε4 carrier and non-carrier status. The combination of basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs) was used to define impaired ADLs. Results APOE ε4 carriers had greater difficulties in combined ADLs (incident rate ratio; IRR = 1.87, 95 % CI = 1.40–2.51) than non-carriers. Obese but not overweight adults had greater difficulties in activities of daily living (IRR = 1.59, 95 % CI = 1.20–2.10) compared with the normal/underweight group. Obese older adults without APOE ε4 had greater subsequent difficulties in ADLs than non-obese non-carriers. Among APOE ε4 carriers, obesity was not a significant risk factor for the development of impaired ADLs in older adults, indicating an interaction between genotype and obesity. Conclusions The interaction between genotype and obesity phenotype adds new information about the determinants of physical impairment.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9848-y
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • Hemodynamic Profiles of Functional and Dysfunctional Forms of Repetitive
    • Authors: Cristina Ottaviani; Jos F. Brosschot; Antonia Lonigro; Barbara Medea; Ilse Van Diest; Julian F. Thayer
      Pages: 261 - 271
      Abstract: Background The ability of the human brain to escape the here and now (mind wandering) can take functional (problem solving) and dysfunctional (perseverative cognition) routes. Although it has been proposed that only the latter may act as a mediator of the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease, both functional and dysfunctional forms of repetitive thinking have been associated with blood pressure (BP) reactivity of the same magnitude. However, a similar BP reactivity may be caused by different physiological determinants, which may differ in their risk for cardiovascular pathology. Purpose To examine the way (hemodynamic profile) and the extent (compensation deficit) to which total peripheral resistance and cardiac output compensate for each other in determining BP reactivity during functional and dysfunctional types of repetitive thinking. Methods Fifty-six healthy participants randomly underwent a perseverative cognition, a mind wandering, and a problem solving induction, each followed by a 5-min recovery period while their cardiovascular parameters were continuously monitored. Results Perseverative cognition and problem solving (but not mind wandering) elicited BP increases of similar magnitude. However, perseverative cognition was characterized by a more vascular (versus myocardial) profile compared to mind wandering and problem solving. As a consequence, BP recovery was impaired after perseverative cognition compared to the other two conditions. Conclusions Given that high vascular resistance and delayed recovery are the hallmarks of hypertension the results suggest a potential mechanism through which perseverative cognition may act as a mediator in the relationship between stress and risk for developing precursors to cardiovascular disease.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9851-3
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • Integrated Social- and Neurocognitive Model of Physical Activity Behavior
           in Older Adults with Metabolic Disease
    • Authors: Erin A. Olson; Sean P. Mullen; Lauren B. Raine; Arthur F. Kramer; Charles H. Hillman; Edward McAuley
      Pages: 272 - 281
      Abstract: Background Despite the proven benefits of physical activity to treat and prevent metabolic diseases, such as diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), most individuals with metabolic disease do not meet physical activity (PA) recommendations. PA is a complex behavior requiring substantial motivational and cognitive resources. The purpose of this study was to examine social cognitive and neuropsychological determinants of PA behavior in older adults with T2D and MetS. The hypothesized model theorized that baseline self-regulatory strategy use and cognitive function would indirectly influence PA through self-efficacy. Methods Older adults with T2D or MetS (M age = 61.8 ± 6.4) completed either an 8-week physical activity intervention (n = 58) or an online metabolic health education course (n = 58) and a follow-up at 6 months. Measures included cognitive function, self-efficacy, self-regulatory strategy use, and PA. Results The data partially supported the hypothesized model (χ2 = 158.535(131), p > .05, comparative fit index = .96, root mean square error of approximation = .04, standardized root mean square residual = .06) with self-regulatory strategy use directly predicting self-efficacy (β = .33, p < .05), which in turn predicted PA (β = .21, p < .05). Performance on various cognitive function tasks predicted PA directly and indirectly via self-efficacy. Baseline physical activity (β = .62, p < .01) and intervention group assignment via self-efficacy (β = −.20, p < .05) predicted follow-up PA. The model accounted for 54.4 % of the variance in PA at month 6. Conclusions Findings partially support the hypothesized model and indicate that select cognitive functions (i.e., working memory, inhibition, attention, and task-switching) predicted PA behavior 6 months later. Future research warrants the development of interventions targeting cognitive function, self-regulatory skill development, and self-efficacy enhancement. Trial Registration Number The trial was registered with the clinical trial number NCT01790724.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9850-4
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • Numeracy Predicts Risk of Pre-Hospital Decision Delay: a Retrospective
           Study of Acute Coronary Syndrome Survival
    • Authors: Dafina Petrova; Rocio Garcia-Retamero; Andrés Catena; Edward Cokely; Ana Heredia Carrasco; Antonio Arrebola Moreno; José Antonio Ramírez Hernández
      Pages: 292 - 306
      Abstract: Background Many patients delay seeking medical attention during acute coronary syndromes (ACS), profoundly increasing their risk for death and major disability. Although research has identified several risk factors, efforts to improve patient decision making have generally been unsuccessful, prompting a call for more research into psychological factors. Purpose The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship between ACS decision delay and numeracy, a factor closely related to general decision making skill and risk literacy. Methods About 5 days after experiencing ACS, 102 survivors (mean age = 58, 32–74) completed a questionnaire including measures of numeracy, decision delay, and other relevant factors (e.g., anxiety, depression, symptom severity, knowledge, demographics). Results Low patient numeracy was related to longer decision delay, OR = 0.64 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.44, 0.92], which was in turn related to higher odds of positive troponin on arrival at the hospital, OR = 1.37 [95 % CI 1.01, 2.01]. Independent of the influence of all other assessed factors, a patient with high (vs. low) numeracy was about four times more likely to seek medical attention within the critical first hour after symptom onset (i.e., ORhigh-low = 3.84 [1.127, 11.65]). Conclusions Numeracy may be one of the largest decision delay risk factors identified to date. Results accord with theories emphasizing potentially pivotal roles of patient deliberation, denial, and outcome understanding during decision making. Findings suggest that brief numeracy assessments may predict which patients are at greater risk for life-threatening decision delay and may also facilitate the design of risk communications that are appropriate for diverse patients who vary in risk literacy.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9853-1
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • A Comparison of Deceptive and Non-Deceptive Placebo Analgesia: Efficacy
           and Ethical Consequences
    • Authors: Jennifer M. Mundt; Daniela Roditi; Michael E. Robinson
      Pages: 307 - 315
      Abstract: Background Research has demonstrated the efficacy of analgesic placebos. The manner in which they are usually delivered deceptively raises questions about their impact on recipients. However, there has been little empirical investigation into the potential harms of analgesic placebo. Moreover, the role of deception in determining the magnitude of analgesic placebo response remains poorly understood. Purpose This study aimed to investigate the consequences of deceptive placebo analgesia in terms of ethical/psychological effects and efficacy. Methods Healthy adults (N = 75) were randomized to a control group, deceptive placebo manipulation, or non-deceptive placebo manipulation. All participants underwent repeated pain testing using a thermal stimulus. Placebo manipulation groups underwent placebo conditioning involving a cream that was described as being either analgesic or inert. State-specific negative mood and attitudes toward research and pain treatment were assessed before and after placebo conditioning. Results Deceptive and non-deceptive placebo manipulations yielded pain ratings that did not differ significantly from one another but did differ from those of the control group, which experienced a pain sensitization response across trials. Results thus indicated that both deceptive and non-deceptive placebo manipulations prevented pain sensitization. Across groups, the participants reported improved depression, anxiety, frustration, and fear. The use of placebo did not negatively impact participants’ attitudes and beliefs about research or pain treatments. The participants tended to rate several parameters related to research participation more positively after participating in our study. Conclusions Our results indicate that the placebo manipulation groups experienced an anti-sensitization effect. The use of analgesic placebo did not result in any detrimental ethical or psychological effects.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9854-0
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • Psychological Trauma Exposure and Pain-Related Outcomes Among People with
           Chronic Low Back Pain: Moderated Mediation by Thought Suppression and
           Social Constraints
    • Authors: Sheri E. Pegram; Mark A. Lumley; Matthew J. Jasinski; John W. Burns
      Pages: 316 - 320
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9838-0
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • Social Cognitive Constructs Did Not Mediate the BEAT Cancer Intervention
           Effects on Objective Physical Activity Behavior Based on Multivariable
           Path Analysis
    • Authors: Laura Q. Rogers; Kerry S. Courneya; Phillip M. Anton; Patricia Hopkins-Price; Steven Verhulst; Randall S. Robbs; Sandra K. Vicari; Edward McAuley
      Pages: 321 - 326
      Abstract: Background Most breast cancer survivors do not meet physical activity recommendations. Understanding mediators of physical activity behavior change can improve interventions designed to increase physical activity in this at-risk population. Purpose Study aims were to determine the 3-month Better Exercise Adherence after Treatment for Cancer (BEAT Cancer) behavior change intervention effects on social cognitive theory constructs and the mediating role of any changes on the increase in accelerometer-measured physical activity previously reported. Methods Post-treatment breast cancer survivors (N = 222) were randomized to BEAT Cancer or usual care. Assessments occurred at baseline, 3 months (M3), and 6 months (M6). Adjusted linear mixed model analysis of variance determined intervention effects on walking self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goal setting, and perceived barrier interference at M3. Path analysis determined mediation of intervention effects on physical activity at M6 by changes in social cognitive constructs during the intervention (i.e., baseline to M3). Results BEAT Cancer significantly improved self-efficacy, goals, negative outcome expectations, and barriers. Total path analysis model explained 24 % of the variance in M6 physical activity. There were significant paths from randomized intervention group to self-efficacy (β = 0.15, p < .05) and barriers (β = −0.22, p < .01). Barriers demonstrated a borderline significant association with M6 physical activity (β = −0.24, p = .05). No statistically significant indirect effects were found. Conclusions Although BEAT Cancer significantly improved social cognitive constructs, no significant indirect effects on physical activity improvements 3 months post-intervention were observed (NCT00929617).
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9840-6
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 2 (2017)
  • Psychological Determinants of Medication Adherence in Stroke Survivors: a
           Systematic Review of Observational Studies
    • Authors: Elise Crayton; Marion Fahey; Mark Ashworth; Sarah Jane Besser; John Weinman; Alison J. Wright
      Abstract: Background Medications targeting stroke risk factors have shown good efficacy, yet adherence is suboptimal. To improve adherence, its determinants must be understood. To date, no systematic review has mapped identified determinants into the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) in order to establish a more complete understanding of medication adherence. Purpose The aim of this study was to identify psychological determinants that most influence stroke survivors’ medication adherence. Methods In line with the prospectively registered protocol (PROSPERO CRD42015016222), five electronic databases were searched (1953–2015). Hand searches of included full text references were undertaken. Two reviewers conducted screening, data extraction and quality assessment. Determinants were mapped into the TDF. Results Of 32,825 articles, 12 fulfilled selection criteria (N = 43,984 stroke survivors). Tested determinants mapped into 8/14 TDF domains. Studies were too heterogeneous for meta-analysis. Three TDF domains appeared most influential. Negative emotions (‘Emotions’ domain) such as anxiety and concerns about medications (‘Beliefs about Consequences’ domain) were associated with reduced adherence. Increased adherence was associated with better knowledge of medications (‘Knowledge’ domain) and stronger beliefs about medication necessity (‘Beliefs about Consequences’ domain). Study quality varied, often lacking information on sample size calculations. Conclusions This review provides foundations for evidence-based intervention design by establishing psychological determinants most influential in stroke survivors’ medication adherence. Six TDF domains do not appear to have been tested, possibly representing gaps in research design. Future research should standardise and clearly report determinant and medication adherence measurement to facilitate meta-analysis. The range of determinants explored should be broadened to enable more complete understanding of stroke survivors’ medication adherence.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9906-0
  • Cumulative Impact of Stressful Life Events on the Development of Takotsubo
    • Authors: Lindsey Rosman; Shira Dunsiger; Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher
      Abstract: Background The role of stressful life events in the onset of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is unclear. Purpose This study sought to examine associations between type, timing, and number of stressful life events and onset of TC. Methods A case-control study conducted among consecutive incident female TC cases and myocardial infarction (MI) controls admitted to two emergency departments in New England. Healthy female controls (HC) were recruited from a volunteers’ registry. Information about the timing, type, and number of triggers during the 6 months preceding hospitalization was systematically collected using the PERI Life Events Scale about 1 month post-discharge. Group differences were evaluated using ANOVA, chi-square, and Kruskal-Wallis statistics. Generalized linear models were used to adjust for confounding variables. Results Between March 2013 and October 2015, 107 women were enrolled (45 TC, 32 MI, and 30 HC). Specific stressful events (death of a relative or close friend (p = 0.006); illness or injury to a relative or close friend (p = 0.001) were more prevalent in TC cases than MI and HC controls. The onset of TC was associated with exposure to multiple stressful life events during the 6 months preceding the index hospitalization (p < 0.001) but not with exposure to an acute, recent event (p = 0.96). Conclusions TC onset was associated with specific life events (death or illness to close relative or friend) and with the number of stressful life events occurring in the 6 months preceding hospitalization. These findings suggest that grief and cumulative stress could play a major role in the onset of TC.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9908-y
  • Examining the Support Peer Supporters Provide Using Structural Equation
           Modeling: Nondirective and Directive Support in Diabetes Management
    • Authors: Sarah D. Kowitt; Guadalupe X. Ayala; Andrea L. Cherrington; Lucy A. Horton; Monika M. Safford; Sandra Soto; Tricia S. Tang; Edwin B. Fisher
      Abstract: Background Little research has examined the characteristics of peer support. Pertinent to such examination may be characteristics such as the distinction between nondirective support (accepting recipients’ feelings and cooperative with their plans) and directive (prescribing “correct” choices and feelings). Purpose In a peer support program for individuals with diabetes, this study examined (a) whether the distinction between nondirective and directive support was reflected in participants’ ratings of support provided by peer supporters and (b) how nondirective and directive support were related to depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Methods Three hundred fourteen participants with type 2 diabetes provided data on depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and HbA1c before and after a diabetes management intervention delivered by peer supporters. At post-intervention, participants reported how the support provided by peer supporters was nondirective or directive. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), correlation analyses, and structural equation modeling examined the relationships among reports of nondirective and directive support, depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and measured HbA1c. Results CFA confirmed the factor structure distinguishing between nondirective and directive support in participants’ reports of support delivered by peer supporters. Controlling for demographic factors, baseline clinical values, and site, structural equation models indicated that at post-intervention, participants’ reports of nondirective support were significantly associated with lower, while reports of directive support were significantly associated with greater depressive symptoms, altogether (with control variables) accounting for 51% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Conclusions Peer supporters’ nondirective support was associated with lower, but directive support was associated with greater depressive symptoms.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9904-2
  • Getting to the Heart of Masculinity Stressors: Masculinity Threats Induce
           Pronounced Vagal Withdrawal During a Speaking Task
    • Authors: Brandon L. Kramer; Mary S. Himmelstein; Kristen W. Springer
      Abstract: Background Previous work has found that traditional masculinity ideals and behaviors play a crucial role in higher rates of morbidity and mortality for men. Some studies also suggest that threatening men’s masculinity can be stressful. Over time, this stress can weigh on men’s cardiovascular and metabolic systems, which may contribute to men’s higher rates of cardiometabolic health issues. Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore how masculinity threats affect men’s heart rate and heart rate variability reactivity (i.e., vagal withdrawal) to masculinity feedback on a social speaking task. Methods Two hundred and eighty-five undergraduate males were randomly assigned to one of six conditions during a laboratory-based speech task. They received one of two feedback types (masculinity or control) and one of three feedback levels (low, high, or dropping) in order to assess whether masculinity threats influence heart rate reactivity and vagal withdrawal patterns during the speech task. Results Men who receive low masculinity feedback during the speech task experienced more pronounced vagal withdrawal relative to those who received the control. Conclusion Masculinity threats can induce vagal withdrawal that may accumulate over the life course to contribute to men’s relatively worse cardiometabolic health.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9907-z
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