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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2348 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2348 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Angiogenesis
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.177
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-7209 - ISSN (Online) 0969-6970
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2348 journals]
  • Characterization of a drug-targetable allosteric site regulating vascular
           endothelial growth factor signaling
    • Authors: Katherine M. Thieltges; Dragana Avramovic; Chayne L. Piscitelli; Sandra Markovic-Mueller; Hans Kaspar Binz; Kurt Ballmer-Hofer
      Pages: 533 - 543
      Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) regulate blood and lymph vessel development upon activation of three receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFRs). The extracellular domain of VEGFRs consists of seven Ig-homology domains, of which D2–3 form the ligand-binding site, while the membrane proximal domains D4–7 are involved in homotypic interactions in ligand-bound receptor dimers. Based on low-resolution structures, we identified allosteric sites in D4–5 and D7 of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) accomplishing regulatory functions. Allosteric inhibition of VEGFR-2 signaling represents an attractive option for the treatment of neovascular diseases. We showed earlier that DARPin® binders to domains D4 or D7 are potent VEGFR-2 inhibitors. Here we investigated in detail the allosteric inhibition mechanism of the domain D4 binding inhibitor D4b. The 2.38 Å crystal structure of D4b in complex with VEGFR-2 D4–5, the first high-resolution structure of this VEGFR-2 segment, indicates steric hindrance by D4b as the mechanism of inhibition of receptor activation. At the cellular level, D4b triggered quantitative internalization of VEGFR-2 in the absence of ligand and thus clearance of VEGFR-2 from the surface of endothelial cells. The allosteric VEGFR-2 inhibition was sufficiently strong to efficiently inhibit the growth of human endothelial cells at suboptimal dose in a mouse xenograft model in vivo, underlining the therapeutic potential of the approach.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9606-9
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Different angioregulatory activity of monovalent galectin-9 isoforms
    • Authors: Ed Aanhane; Iris A. Schulkens; Roy Heusschen; Kitty Castricum; Hakon Leffler; Arjan W. Griffioen; Victor L. Thijssen
      Pages: 545 - 555
      Abstract: Galectin-9 consists of two peptide-linked carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs), but alternative splicing and proteolytic processing can give rise to multiple galectin-9 isoforms. Some of these consist of a single CRD and can exert different functions in cell biology. Here, we explored the role of these galectin-9 isoforms in endothelial cell function and angiogenesis. For this, we compared the effects of the two separate CRDs (Gal-9N and Gal-9C) with the tandem repeat galectin-9M on endothelial cell proliferation, migration, sprouting and tube formation in vitro as well as on angiogenesis in vivo using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Galectin-9 isoforms significantly affected proliferation in quiescent endothelial cells and migration in activated endothelial cells. Interestingly, both monovalent gal-9 CRDs displayed opposite effects compared to gal-9M on proliferation and migration. Sprouting was significantly inhibited by gal-9C, while all isoforms appeared to stimulate tube formation. Angiogenesis in vivo was hampered by all three isoforms with predominant effects on vessel length. In general, the isoforms induced only subtle concentration-dependent effects in vitro as well as in vivo. Collectively, the effects of different galectin-9 isoforms in endothelial cell biology depend on the cellular activation status. While opposing effects can be observed on a cellular level in vitro, all galectin-9 isoforms hamper angiogenesis in vivo. This warrants further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms that underlie the diverging roles of galectin-9 isoforms in endothelial cell biology since this could provide therapeutic opportunities.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9607-8
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Peripheral post-ischemic vascular repair is impaired in a murine model of
           Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Tatyana Merkulova-Rainon; Chris S. Mantsounga; Dong Broquères-You; Cristina Pinto; José Vilar; Diana Cifuentes; Philippe Bonnin; Nathalie Kubis; Daniel Henrion; Jean-Sébastien Silvestre; Bernard I. Lévy
      Pages: 557 - 569
      Abstract: The pathophysiology of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains uncertain. Along with brain amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits and neurofibrillary tangles, cerebrovascular dysfunction is increasingly recognized as fundamental to the pathogenesis of AD. Using an experimental model of limb ischemia in transgenic APPPS1 mice, a model of AD (AD mice), we showed that microvascular impairment also extends to the peripheral vasculature in AD. At D70 following femoral ligation, we evidenced a significant decrease in cutaneous blood flow (− 29%, P < 0.001), collateral recruitment (− 24%, P < 0.001), capillary density (− 22%; P < 0.01) and arteriole density (− 28%; P < 0.05) in hind limbs of AD mice compared to control WT littermates. The reactivity of large arteries was not affected in AD mice, as confirmed by unaltered size, and vasoactive responses to pharmacological stimuli of the femoral artery. We identified blood as the only source of Aβ in the hind limb; thus, circulating Aβ is likely responsible for the impairment of peripheral vasculature repair mechanisms. The levels of the majority of pro-angiogenic mediators were not significantly modified in AD mice compared to WT mice, except for TGF-β1 and PlGF-2, both of which are involved in vessel stabilization and decreased in AD mice (P = 0.025 and 0.019, respectively). Importantly, endothelin-1 levels were significantly increased, while those of nitric oxide were decreased in the hind limb of AD mice (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that vascular dysfunction is a systemic disorder in AD mice. Assessment of peripheral vascular function may therefore provide additional tools for early diagnosis and management of AD.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9608-7
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Extracellular vesicle-carried Jagged-1 inhibits HUVEC sprouting in a 3D
           microenvironment
    • Authors: Evan Tan; Harry H. Asada; Ruowen Ge
      Pages: 571 - 580
      Abstract: NOTCH signalling is an evolutionarily conserved juxtacrine signalling pathway that is essential in development. Jagged1 (JAG1) and Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4) are transmembrane NOTCH ligands that regulate angiogenesis by controlling endothelial cell (EC) differentiation, vascular development and maturation. In addition, DLL4 could bypass its canonical cell–cell contact-dependent signalling to influence NOTCH signalling and angiogenesis at a distance when it is packaged into extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, it is not clear whether JAG1 could also be packaged into EVs to influence NOTCH signalling and angiogenesis. In this work, we demonstrate that JAG1 is also packaged into EVs. We present evidence that JAG1-EVs inhibit NOTCH signalling and regulate EC behaviour and function. JAG1-EVs inhibited VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation and migration in 2D culture condition and suppressed sprouting in a 3D microfluidic microenvironment. JAG1-EV treatment of HUVECs leads to a reduction of Notch1 intracellular domain (N1-ICD), and the proteasome and the intracellular domain of JAG1 (JAG1-ICD) are both required for this reduction to occur. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of JAG1 function in NOTCH signalling and ECs through EVs.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9609-6
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Characterization of isolated liver sinusoidal endothelial cells for liver
           bioengineering
    • Authors: A. M. Dingle; K. K. Yap; Y-W. Gerrand; C. J. Taylor; E. Keramidaris; Z. Lokmic; A. M. Kong; H. L. Peters; W. A. Morrison; G. M. Mitchell
      Pages: 581 - 597
      Abstract: Background The liver sinusoidal capillaries play a pivotal role in liver regeneration, suggesting they may be beneficial in liver bioengineering. This study isolated mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and determined their ability to form capillary networks in vitro and in vivo for liver tissue engineering purposes. Methods and results In vitro LSECs were isolated from adult C57BL/6 mouse livers. Immunofluorescence labelling indicated they were LYVE-1+/CD32b+/FactorVIII+/CD31−. Scanning electron microscopy of LSECs revealed the presence of characteristic sieve plates at 2 days. LSECs formed tubes and sprouts in the tubulogenesis assay, similar to human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC); and formed capillaries with lumens when implanted in a porous collagen scaffold in vitro. LSECs were able to form spheroids, and in the spheroid gel sandwich assay produced significantly increased numbers (p = 0.0011) of capillary-like sprouts at 24 h compared to HMEC spheroids. Supernatant from LSEC spheroids demonstrated significantly greater levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A and C (VEGF-A, VEGF-C) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) compared to LSEC monolayers (p = 0.0167; p = 0.0017; and p < 0.0001, respectively), at 2 days, which was maintained to 4 days for HGF (p = 0.0017) and VEGF-A (p = 0.0051). In vivo isolated mouse LSECs were prepared as single cell suspensions of 500,000 cells, or as spheroids of 5000 cells (100 spheroids) and implanted in SCID mouse bilateral vascularized tissue engineering chambers for 2 weeks. Immunohistochemistry identified implanted LSECs forming LYVE-1+/CD31− vessels. In LSEC implanted constructs, overall lymphatic vessel growth was increased (not significantly), whilst host-derived CD31+ blood vessel growth increased significantly (p = 0.0127) compared to non-implanted controls. LSEC labelled with the fluorescent tag DiI prior to implantation formed capillaries in vivo and maintained LYVE-1 and CD32b markers to 2 weeks. Conclusion Isolated mouse LSECs express a panel of vascular-related cell markers and demonstrate substantial vascular capillary-forming ability in vitro and in vivo. Their production of liver growth factors VEGF-A, VEGF-C and HGF enable these cells to exert a growth stimulus post-transplantation on the in vivo host-derived capillary bed, reinforcing their pro-regenerative capabilities for liver tissue engineering studies.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9610-0
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • BI1 is associated with microvascular protection in cardiac ischemia
           reperfusion injury via repressing Syk–Nox2–Drp1-mitochondrial fission
           pathways
    • Authors: Hao Zhou; Chen Shi; Shunying Hu; Hong Zhu; Jun Ren; Yundai Chen
      Pages: 599 - 615
      Abstract: Background Mitochondrial fission has been identified as the pathogenesis underlying the development of cardiac microvascular ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, although the regulatory signaling upstream from fission is far from clear. Bax inhibitor is a novel anti-apoptotic factor, and, however, its role of cardiac microvascular IR injury and mitochondrial homeostasis remains unclear. Methods The cardiac microvascular IR injury was performed in WT mice and BI1 transgenic (BITG) mice. The alterations of microvascular structure and function were detected via electron microscope, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence in vivo. Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells were isolated form WT and BITG mice and underwent hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in vitro. Cellular viability and apoptosis were analyzed via MTT assay and caspase-3 activity. Mitochondrial function, morphology and apoptosis were detected. Signaling pathways were analyzed via inhibitor, siRNA and mutant plasmid. Results Herein, we demonstrated that Bax inhibitor 1 (BI1) was downregulated following cardiac microvascular IR injury, and its expression correlated negatively with microvascular collapse, endothelial cell apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. However, compared to wild-type mice, BI1 transgenic mice were actually protected from the acute microvascular injury and mitochondrial dysfunction. Functional studies illustrated that reintroduced BI1 directly interacted with and inhibited the Syk pathway, leading to the inactivation of Nox2. Subsequently, less Nox2 was associated with ROS downregulation, inhibiting Drp1 phosphorylated activation. Through repression of the Syk–Nox2–Drp1 signaling axis, BI1 strongly disrupted mitochondrial fission, abolishing mitochondrial apoptosis and thus sustaining endothelial cell viability. Conclusions In summary, our report illustrates that BI1 functions as a novel microvascular guardian in cardiac IR injury that operates via inhibition of the Syk–Nox2–Drp1-mitochondrial fission signaling axis. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies to regulate the balance between BI1 and mitochondrial fission could provide a survival advantage to microvasculature following IR stress.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9611-z
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Spatiotemporal heterogeneity and patterning of developing renal blood
           vessels
    • Authors: Edward Daniel; D. Berfin Azizoglu; Anne R. Ryan; Tezin A. Walji; Christopher P. Chaney; Gabrielle I. Sutton; Thomas J. Carroll; Denise K. Marciano; Ondine Cleaver
      Pages: 617 - 634
      Abstract: The kidney vasculature facilitates the excretion of wastes, the dissemination of hormones, and the regulation of blood chemistry. To carry out these diverse functions, the vasculature is regionalized within the kidney and along the nephron. However, when and how endothelial regionalization occurs remains unknown. Here, we examine the developing kidney vasculature to assess its 3-dimensional structure and transcriptional heterogeneity. First, we observe that endothelial cells (ECs) grow coordinately with the kidney bud as early as E10.5, and begin to show signs of specification by E13.5 when the first arteries can be identified. We then focus on how ECs pattern and remodel with respect to the developing nephron and collecting duct epithelia. ECs circumscribe nephron progenitor populations at the distal tips of the ureteric bud (UB) tree and form stereotyped cruciform structures around each tip. Beginning at the renal vesicle (RV) stage, ECs form a continuous plexus around developing nephrons. The endothelial plexus envelops and elaborates with the maturing nephron, becoming preferentially enriched along the early distal tubule. Lastly, we perform transcriptional and immunofluorescent screens to characterize spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the kidney vasculature and identify novel regionally enriched genes. A better understanding of development of the kidney vasculature will help instruct engineering of properly vascularized ex vivo kidneys and evaluate diseased kidneys.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9612-y
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • SNAI1, an endothelial–mesenchymal transition transcription factor,
           promotes the early phase of ocular neovascularization
    • Authors: Jia-Xing Sun; Tian-Fang Chang; Man-Hong Li; Li-Juan Sun; Xian-Chun Yan; Zi-Yan Yang; Yuan Liu; Wen-Qin Xu; Yang Lv; Jing-Bo Su; Liang Liang; Hua Han; Guo-Rui Dou; Yu-Sheng Wang
      Pages: 635 - 652
      Abstract: Ocular neovascularization is a comprehensive process involved in retinal vascular development and several blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinopathy of prematurity, with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regarded as the master regulator. However, the qualified effect of anti-VEGF therapy reveals that the underlying mechanisms are still not clearly identified. To initialize angiogenesis, endothelial cells undergo a phenotype switching to generate highly migratory and invasive cells. This process shares certain similar characters observed in endothelial–mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Here, we found that SNAI1, an EndMT transcription factor, was expressed by endothelial cells in both physiological and pathological ocular neovascularization. SNAI1 overexpression triggered cell morphological change and enhanced cell motility, while loss of SNAI1 attenuated migration, invasion and sprouting. RNA sequence analysis further revealed that SNAI1 knockdown decreased the expression of genes related to cytoskeleton rearrangement and ECM remodeling. Moreover, intravitreal injection of small interfering RNA of SNAI1 suppressed new vessel formation in developing retina as well as mice model of choroidal neovascularization and oxygen-induced retinopathy. Therefore, we propose that the EndMT transcription factor SNAI1 promotes the early phase of ocular neovascularization and may provide a potential therapeutic target.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9614-9
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Angio-3, a 10-residue peptide derived from human plasminogen kringle 3,
           suppresses tumor growth in mice via impeding both angiogenesis and
           vascular permeability
    • Authors: Shruthi Venugopal; Chieh Kao; Ritu Chandna; Konerirajapuram N. Sulochana; Vivekanandan Subramanian; Mo Chen; R. Manjunatha Kini; Ruowen Ge
      Pages: 653 - 665
      Abstract: Anti-angiogenesis therapy is an established therapeutic strategy for cancer. The endogenous angiogenic inhibitor angiostatin contains the first 3–4 kringle domains of plasminogen and inhibits both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. We present here a 10-residue peptide, Angio-3, derived from plasminogen kringle 3, which retains the functions of angiostatin in inhibiting both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. NMR studies indicate that Angio-3 holds a solution structure similar to the corresponding region of kringle 3. Mechanistically, Angio-3 inhibited both VEGF- and bFGF-induced angiogenesis by inhibiting EC proliferation and migration while inducing apoptosis. Inhibition of VEGF-induced vascular permeability results from its ability to impede VEGF-induced dissociation of adherens junction and tight junction proteins as well as the formation of actin stress fibers. When administered intravenously, Angio-3 inhibited subcutaneous breast cancer and melanoma growth by suppressing both tumor angiogenesis and intra-tumor vascular permeability. Hence, Angio-3 is a novel dual inhibitor of angiogenesis and vascular permeability. It is valuable as a lead peptide that can be further developed as therapeutics for diseases involving excessive angiogenesis and/or vascular permeability.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9616-7
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • CMTM4 regulates angiogenesis by promoting cell surface recycling of
           VE-cadherin to endothelial adherens junctions
    • Authors: Ihsan Chrifi; Laura Louzao-Martinez; Maarten M. Brandt; Christian G. M. van Dijk; Petra E. Bürgisser; Changbin Zhu; Johan M. Kros; Marianne C. Verhaar; Dirk J. Duncker; Caroline Cheng
      Abstract: Vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin is a key component of endothelial adherens junctions (AJs) and plays an important role in maintaining vascular integrity. Endocytosis of VE-cadherin regulates junctional strength and a decrease of surface VE-cadherin reduces vascular stability. However, disruption of AJs is also a requirement for vascular sprouting. Identifying novel regulators of endothelial endocytosis could enhance our understanding of angiogenesis. Here, we evaluated the angiogenic potential of (CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain 4) CMTM4 and assessed in which molecular pathway CMTM4 is involved during angiogenesis. Using a 3D vascular assay composed of GFP-labeled HUVECs and dsRED-labeled pericytes, we demonstrated in vitro that siRNA-mediated CMTM4 silencing impairs vascular sprouting. In vivo, CMTM4 silencing by morpholino injection in zebrafish larvae inhibits intersomitic vessel growth. Intracellular staining revealed that CMTM4 colocalizes with Rab4+ and Rab7+ vesicles, both markers of the endocytic trafficking pathway. CMTM4 colocalizes with both membrane-bound and internalized VE-cadherin. Adenovirus-mediated CMTM4 overexpression enhances the endothelial endocytic pathway, in particular the rapid recycling pathway, shown by an increase in early endosomal antigen-1 positive (EEA1+), Rab4+, Rab11+ , and Rab7+ vesicles. CMTM4 overexpression enhances membrane-bound VE-cadherin internalization, whereas CMTM4 knockdown decreases internalization of VE-cadherin. CMTM4 overexpression promotes endothelial barrier function, shown by an increase in recovery of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) after thrombin stimulation. We have identified in this study a novel regulatory function for CMTM4 in angiogenesis. CMTM4 plays an important role in the turnover of membrane-bound VE-cadherin at AJs, mediating endothelial barrier function and controlling vascular sprouting.
      PubDate: 2018-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9638-1
       
  • The therapeutic potential of targeting the endothelial-to-mesenchymal
           transition
    • Authors: Shirley Man; Gonzalo Sanchez Duffhues; Peter ten Dijke; David Baker
      Abstract: Endothelial cells (ECs) have been found to be capable of acquiring a mesenchymal phenotype through a process known as endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). First seen in the developing embryo, EndMT can be triggered postnatally under certain pathological conditions. During this process, ECs dedifferentiate into mesenchymal stem-like cells (MSCs) and subsequently give rise to cell types belonging to the mesoderm lineage. As EndMT contributes to a multitude of diseases, pharmacological modulation of the signaling pathways underlying EndMT may prove to be effective as a therapeutic treatment. Additionally, EndMT in ECs could also be exploited to acquire multipotent MSCs, which can be readily re-differentiated into various distinct cell types. In this review, we will consider current models of EndMT, how manipulation of this process might improve treatment of clinically important pathologies and how it could be harnessed to advance regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9639-0
       
  • PDGF-BB regulates splitting angiogenesis in skeletal muscle by limiting
           VEGF-induced endothelial proliferation
    • Authors: R. Gianni-Barrera; A. Butschkau; A. Uccelli; A. Certelli; P. Valente; M. Bartolomeo; E. Groppa; M. G. Burger; R. Hlushchuk; M. Heberer; D. J. Schaefer; L. Gürke; V. Djonov; B. Vollmar; A. Banfi
      Abstract: VEGF induces normal or aberrant angiogenesis depending on its dose in the microenvironment around each producing cell in vivo. This transition depends on the balance between VEGF-induced endothelial stimulation and PDGF-BB-mediated pericyte recruitment, and co-expression of PDGF-BB normalizes aberrant angiogenesis despite high VEGF doses. We recently found that VEGF over-expression induces angiogenesis in skeletal muscle through an initial circumferential vascular enlargement followed by longitudinal splitting, rather than sprouting. Here we investigated the cellular mechanism by which PDGF-BB co-expression normalizes VEGF-induced aberrant angiogenesis. Monoclonal populations of transduced myoblasts, expressing similarly high levels of VEGF alone or with PDGF-BB, were implanted in mouse skeletal muscles. PDGF-BB co-expression did not promote sprouting and angiogenesis that occurred through vascular enlargement and splitting. However, enlargements were significantly smaller in diameter, due to a significant reduction in endothelial proliferation, and retained pericytes, which were otherwise lost with high VEGF alone. A time-course of histological analyses and repetitive intravital imaging showed that PDGF-BB co-expression anticipated the initiation of vascular enlargement and markedly accelerated the splitting process. Interestingly, quantification during in vivo imaging suggested that a global reduction in shear stress favored the initiation of transluminal pillar formation during VEGF-induced splitting angiogenesis. Quantification of target gene expression showed that VEGF-R2 signaling output was significantly reduced by PDGF-BB co-expression compared to VEGF alone. In conclusion, PDGF-BB co-expression prevents VEGF-induced aberrant angiogenesis by modulating VEGF-R2 signaling and endothelial proliferation, thereby limiting the degree of circumferential enlargement and enabling efficient completion of vascular splitting into normal capillary networks despite high VEGF doses.
      PubDate: 2018-07-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9634-5
       
  • Cellular self-assembly into 3D microtissues enhances the angiogenic
           activity and functional neovascularization capacity of human cardiopoietic
           stem cells
    • Authors: Petra Wolint; Annina Bopp; Anna Woloszyk; Yinghua Tian; Olivera Evrova; Monika Hilbe; Pietro Giovanoli; Maurizio Calcagni; Simon P. Hoerstrup; Johanna Buschmann; Maximilian Y. Emmert
      Abstract: While cell therapy has been proposed as next-generation therapy to treat the diseased heart, current strategies display only limited clinical efficacy. Besides the ongoing quest for the ideal cell type, in particular the very low retention rate of single-cell (SC) suspensions after delivery remains a major problem. To improve cellular retention, cellular self-assembly into 3D microtissues (MTs) prior to transplantation has emerged as an encouraging alternative. Importantly, 3D-MTs have also been reported to enhance the angiogenic activity and neovascularization potential of stem cells. Therefore, here using the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay we comprehensively evaluate the impact of cell format (SCs versus 3D-MTs) on the angiogenic potential of human cardiopoietic stem cells, a promising second-generation cell type for cardiac repair. Biodegradable collagen scaffolds were seeded with human cardiopoietic stem cells, either as SCs or as 3D-MTs generated by using a modified hanging drop method. Thereafter, seeded scaffolds were placed on the CAM of living chicken embryos and analyzed for their perfusion capacity in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging assessment which was then linked to a longitudinal histomorphometric ex vivo analysis comprising blood vessel density and characteristics such as shape and size. Cellular self-assembly into 3D-MTs led to a significant increase of vessel density mainly driven by a higher number of neo-capillary formation. In contrast, SC-seeded scaffolds displayed a higher frequency of larger neo-vessels resulting in an overall 1.76-fold higher total vessel area (TVA). Importantly, despite that larger TVA in SC-seeded group, the mean perfusion capacity (MPC) was comparable between groups, therefore suggesting functional superiority together with an enhanced perfusion efficacy of the neo-vessels in 3D-MT-seeded scaffolds. This was further underlined by a 1.64-fold higher perfusion ratio when relating MPC to TVA. Our study shows that cellular self-assembly of human cardiopoietic stem cells into 3D-MTs substantially enhances their overall angiogenic potential and their functional neovascularization capacity. Hence, the concept of 3D-MTs may be considered to increase the therapeutic efficacy of future cell therapy concepts.
      PubDate: 2018-07-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9635-4
       
  • Angiogenic capacity in pre-eclampsia and uncomplicated pregnancy estimated
           by assay of angiogenic proteins and an in vitro
           vasculogenesis/angiogenesis test
    • Authors: Anita Virtanen; Outi Huttala; Kati Tihtonen; Tarja Toimela; Tuula Heinonen; Jukka Uotila
      Abstract: Objective The purpose of the study was to determine the angiogenic capacity of sera in early and late pregnancy and in umbilical blood serum after childbirth, and to define how angiogenic properties assessed in a functional in vitro test are related to individual angiogenic proteins in six women with pre-eclampsia and in six healthy pregnant controls. Methods Maternal first and third trimester serum samples, and umbilical blood samples after childbirth, were tested in an in vitro human adipose stromal cell—human umbilical vein endothelial cell (hASC-HUVEC) vasculogenesis/angiogenesis assay. The angiogenic properties of the samples were measured by quantifying tubule formation. Concentrations of total placental growth factor (PlGF), total vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sEng) were determined by immunoassay. Results First-trimester maternal sera of both groups had a stimulatory effect on angiogenesis in vitro and levels of angiogenic proteins did not differ between the groups. Third-trimester maternal sera in the pre-eclampsia group had an inhibitory effect on tubule formation, while those from normal pregnancies remained stimulatory. Compared with the first trimester there was a significant change in the concentrations of angiogenic proteins toward an anti-angiogenic state in pre-eclampsia. Umbilical blood serum exhibited strong anti-angiogenic effects without a significant difference between groups. Conclusions Third-trimester serum of pre-eclamptic patients is anti-angiogenic. This phenomenon is not yet present in the first trimester. Umbilical blood serum shows inhibitory effects on angiogenesis after normal as well as pre-eclamptic pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2018-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9637-2
       
  • EphB4 mediates resistance to antiangiogenic therapy in experimental glioma
    • Authors: Christian Uhl; Moritz Markel; Thomas Broggini; Melina Nieminen; Irina Kremenetskaia; Peter Vajkoczy; Marcus Czabanka
      Abstract: Introduction Alterations in vascular morphogenesis are hallmarks of antiangiogenesis-resistant tumor vessels. Vascular morphogenesis is regulated by ephrinB2-EphB4 system which may induce different biological effects depending on the oncological and molecular contexts. It was the aim of the current study to characterize the influence of EphB4 on tumor microcirculation after antiangiogenic treatment using different SF126 glioma models. Materials and methods Using an ecotropic transfection system, empty vector (pLXSN) or EphB4 (EphB4OE) overexpressing Phoenix-ECO cells were coimplanted with SF126 glioma cells subcutaneously (dorsal skinfold chamber, DSC) and orthotopically (cranial window, CW). Tumor volume was assessed by MRI. Intravital microscopy (IVM) allowed microcirculatory analysis (total {TVD} and functional vessel density {FVD}, diameter {D}, and permeability index {PI}) before and after antiangiogenic treatment (Sunitinib: DSC: 40 mg/kg BW, 6 days; CW: 80 mg/kg BW, 4 days). Immunohistochemistry included Pecam–Desmin, Ki67, TUNEL, and Caspase 3 stainings. Results EphB4OE induced large and treatment-resistant tumor vessels (FVD: Control/Su: 110 ± 23 cm/cm2 vs. EphB4OE/Su: 103 ± 42 cm/cm2). Maintenance of pericyte–endothelial cell interactions (Control: 80 ± 12 vs. Control/Su: 47 ± 26%; EphB4OE: 88 ± 9 vs. EphB4OE/Su: 74 ± 25%) and reduced antiproliferative (Control: 637 ± 80 vs. Control/Su: 110 ± 22; EphB4OE: 298 ± 108 vs. EphB4OE/Su: 213 ± 80) and proapoptotic responses (Control: 196 ± 25 vs. Control / Su: 404 ± 60; EphB4OE: 183 ± 20 vs. EphB4OE/Su: 270 ± 66) were observed under EphB4 overexpression. Conclusion EphB4 overexpression leads to vascular resistance by altering vascular morphogenesis, pericyte coverage, and cellular proliferation/apoptosis in experimental SF126 glioma models.
      PubDate: 2018-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9633-6
       
  • Inhibition of macrophage inflammatory protein-1β improves endothelial
           progenitor cell function and ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetes
    • Authors: Ting-Ting Chang; Liang-Yu Lin; Jaw-Wen Chen
      Abstract: Systemic inflammation might contribute to the impairment of neovasculogenesis and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) function in clinical diabetes mellitus (DM). Macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β) is an inflammatory chemokine that may be up-regulated in clinical DM. Its role in diabetic vasculopathy was not clarified. This study aimed to investigate the role of MIP-1β in human EPCs and in neovasculogenesis in different diabetic animal models with hindlimb ischemia. EPCs chamber assay and in vitro tube formation assay were used to estimate the degree of EPC migration and tube formation abilities. Leprdb/JNarl mice, C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet, and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were used as different diabetic animal models. Laser Doppler imaging and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the degree of neovasculogenesis and the circulating levels of EPCs, respectively. MIP-1β impaired human EPC function for angiogenesis in vitro. Plasma MIP-1β levels were up-regulated in type 2 DM patients. MIP-1β inhibition enhanced the function and the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 expression of EPCs from type 2 diabetic patients, and improved EPC homing for ischemia-induced neovasculogenesis in different types of diabetic animals. MIP-1β directly impaired human EPC function. Inhibition of MIP-1β improved in vitro EPC function, and enhanced in vivo EPC homing and ischemia-induced neovasculogenesis, suggesting the critical role of MIP-1β for vasculopathy in the presence of DM.
      PubDate: 2018-07-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9636-3
       
  • Fluorescent reporter transgenic mice for in vivo live imaging of
           angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis
    • Authors: Susan J. Doh; Michael Yamakawa; Samuel M. Santosa; Mario Montana; Kai Guo; Joseph R. Sauer; Nicholas Curran; Kyu-Yeon Han; Charles Yu; Masatsugu Ema; Mark I. Rosenblatt; Jin-Hong Chang; Dimitri T. Azar
      Abstract: The study of lymphangiogenesis is an emerging science that has revealed the lymphatic system as a central player in many pathological conditions including cancer metastasis, lymphedema, and organ graft rejection. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms of lymphatic growth will play a key role in the development of therapeutic strategies against these conditions. Despite the known potential of this field, the study of lymphatics has historically lagged behind that of hemangiogenesis. Until recently, significant strides in lymphatic studies were impeded by a lack of lymphatic-specific markers and suitable experimental models compared to those of the more immediately visible blood vasculature. Lymphangiogenesis has also been shown to be a key phenomenon in developmental biological processes, such as cell proliferation, guided migration, differentiation, and cell-to-cell communication, making lymphatic-specific visualization techniques highly desirable and desperately needed. Imaging modalities including immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization are limited by the need to sacrifice animal models for tissue harvesting at every experimental time point. Moreover, the processes of mounting and staining harvested tissues may introduce artifacts that can confound results. These traditional methods for investigating lymphatic and blood vasculature are associated with several problems including animal variability (e.g., between mice) when replicating lymphatic growth environments and the cost concerns of prolonged, labor-intensive studies, all of which complicate the study of dynamic lymphatic processes. With the discovery of lymphatic-specific markers, researchers have been able to develop several lymphatic and blood vessel-specific, promoter-driven, fluorescent-reporter transgenic mice for visualization of lymphatics in vivo and in vitro. For instance, GFP, mOrange, tdTomato, and other fluorescent proteins can be expressed under control of a lymphatic-specific marker like Prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1), which is a highly conserved transcription factor for determining embryonic organogenesis in vertebrates that is implicated in lymphangiogenesis as well as several human cancers. Importantly, Prox1-null mouse embryos develop without lymphatic vessels. In human adults, Prox1 maintains lymphatic endothelial cells and upregulates proteins associated with lymphangiogenesis (e.g., VEGFR-3) and downregulates angiogenesis-associated gene expression (e.g., STAT6). To visualize lymphatic development in the context of angiogenesis, dual fluorescent-transgenic reporters, like Prox1-GFP/Flt1-DsRed mice, have been bred to characterize lymphatic and blood vessels simultaneously in vivo. In this review, we discuss the trends in lymphatic visualization and the potential usage of transgenic breeds in hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis research to understand spatial and temporal correlations between vascular development and pathological progression.
      PubDate: 2018-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9629-2
       
  • Human microvasculature-on-a chip: anti-neovasculogenic effect of
           nintedanib in vitro
    • Authors: Soheila Zeinali; Colette A. Bichsel; Nina Hobi; Manuela Funke; Thomas M. Marti; Ralph A. Schmid; Olivier T. Guenat; Thomas Geiser
      Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by a progressive scarring and stiffening of the peripheral lung tissue that decreases lung function. Over the course of the disease, the lung microvasculature undergoes extensive remodeling. There is increased angiogenesis around fibrotic foci and an absence of microvessels within the foci. To elucidate how the anti-fibrotic drug nintedanib acts on vascular remodeling, we used an in vitro model of perfusable microvessels made with primary endothelial cells and primary lung fibroblasts in a microfluidic chip. The microvasculature model allowed us to study the impact of nintedanib on permeability, vascularized area, and cell–cell interactions. The anti-vasculogenic impact of nintedanib was visible at the minimal concentrations of 10 nM, showing a significant increase in vessel permeability. Furthermore, nintedanib decreased microvessel density, diameter, and influenced fibroblast organization around endothelial microvessels. These results show that nintedanib acts on the endothelial network formation and endothelial–perivascular interactions. Advanced in vitro microvasculature models may thus serve to pinpoint the mechanistic effect of anti-fibrotic drugs on the microvascular remodeling in 3D and refine findings from animal studies.
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9631-8
       
  • miR-153 inhibits the migration and the tube formation of endothelial cells
           by blocking the paracrine of angiopoietin 1 in breast cancer cells
    • Authors: Huichun Liang; Fei Ge; Yuhui Xu; Ji Xiao; Zhongmei Zhou; Rong Liu; Ceshi Chen
      Abstract: The sprouting of endothelial cells is the first step of tumor angiogenesis. Our previous study suggests that miR-153 suppresses breast tumor angiogenesis partially through targeting hypoxia-induced factor (HIF1α). In this study, we demonstrated that miR-153 also suppresses the migration and the tube formation of endothelial cells through directly targeting angiopoietin 1 (ANG1) in breast cancer cells. There was a negative correlation between miR-153 and ANG1 levels in breast cancer. miR-153 blocked the expression and secretion of ANG1 in breast cancer cells through binding to ANG1 mRNA. Conditioned medium from the breast cancer cell, MCF7, treated with miR-153 had no effect on the proliferation of HUVECs, but significantly inhibited the migration and tube formation of HUVECs, which could be rescued by overexpression of ANG1. In addition, miR-153 also directly inhibited the proliferation and migration of MCF7 through downregulation of ANG1. These findings suggest that miR-153 suppresses the activity of tumor cells and the migration and tube formation of endothelial cells by silencing ANG1.
      PubDate: 2018-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9630-9
       
  • Consensus guidelines for the use and interpretation of angiogenesis assays
    • Authors: Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska; Kari Alitalo; Elizabeth Allen; Andrey Anisimov; Alfred C. Aplin; Robert Auerbach; Hellmut G. Augustin; David O. Bates; Judy R. van Beijnum; R. Hugh F. Bender; Gabriele Bergers; Andreas Bikfalvi; Joyce Bischoff; Barbara C. Böck; Peter C. Brooks; Federico Bussolino; Bertan Cakir; Peter Carmeliet; Daniel Castranova; Anca M. Cimpean; Ondine Cleaver; George Coukos; George E. Davis; Michele De Palma; Anna Dimberg; Ruud P. M. Dings; Valentin Djonov; Andrew C. Dudley; Neil P. Dufton; Sarah-Maria Fendt; Napoleone Ferrara; Marcus Fruttiger; Dai Fukumura; Bart Ghesquière; Yan Gong; Robert J. Griffin; Adrian L. Harris; Christopher C. W. Hughes; Nan W. Hultgren; M. Luisa Iruela-Arispe; Melita Irving; Rakesh K. Jain; Raghu Kalluri; Joanna Kalucka; Robert S. Kerbel; Jan Kitajewski; Ingeborg Klaassen; Hynda K. Kleinmann; Pieter Koolwijk; Elisabeth Kuczynski; Brenda R. Kwak; Koen Marien; Juan M. Melero-Martin; Lance L. Munn; Roberto F. Nicosia; Agnes Noel; Jussi Nurro; Anna-Karin Olsson; Tatiana V. Petrova; Kristian Pietras; Roberto Pili; Jeffrey W. Pollard; Mark J. Post; Paul H. A. Quax; Gabriel A. Rabinovich; Marius Raica; Anna M. Randi; Domenico Ribatti; Curzio Ruegg; Reinier O. Schlingemann; Stefan Schulte-Merker; Lois E. H. Smith; Jonathan W. Song; Steven A. Stacker; Jimmy Stalin; Amber N. Stratman; Maureen Van de Velde; Victor W. M. van Hinsbergh; Peter B. Vermeulen; Johannes Waltenberger; Brant M. Weinstein; Hong Xin; Bahar Yetkin-Arik; Seppo Yla-Herttuala; Mervin C. Yoder; Arjan W. Griffioen
      Abstract: The formation of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is a complex process that plays important roles in growth and development, tissue and organ regeneration, as well as numerous pathological conditions. Angiogenesis undergoes multiple discrete steps that can be individually evaluated and quantified by a large number of bioassays. These independent assessments hold advantages but also have limitations. This article describes in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro bioassays that are available for the evaluation of angiogenesis and highlights critical aspects that are relevant for their execution and proper interpretation. As such, this collaborative work is the first edition of consensus guidelines on angiogenesis bioassays to serve for current and future reference.
      PubDate: 2018-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9613-x
       
 
 
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