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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Angiogenesis
  [SJR: 2.212]   [H-I: 69]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-7209 - ISSN (Online) 0969-6970
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Androgens modulate male-derived endothelial cell homeostasis using
           androgen receptor-dependent and receptor-independent mechanisms
    • Authors: Verónica Torres-Estay; Daniela V. Carreño; Patricia Fuenzalida; Anica Watts; Ignacio F. San Francisco; Viviana P. Montecinos; Paula C. Sotomayor; John Ebos; Gary J. Smith; Alejandro S. Godoy
      Pages: 25 - 38
      Abstract: Background Sex-related differences in the role of androgen have been reported in cardiovascular diseases and angiogenesis. Moreover, androgen receptor (AR) has been causally involved in the homeostasis of human prostate endothelial cells. However, levels of expression, functionality and biological role of AR in male- and female-derived human endothelial cells (ECs) remain poorly characterized. The objectives of this work were (1) to characterize the functional expression of AR in male- and female-derived human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC), and (2) to specifically analyze the biological effects of DHT, and the role of AR on these effects, in male-derived HUVECs (mHUVECs). Results Immunohistochemical analyses of tissue microarrays from benign human tissues confirmed expression of AR in ECs from several androgen-regulated and non-androgen-regulated human organs. Functional expression of AR was validated in vitro in male- and female-derived HUVECs using quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting and AR-mediated transcriptional activity assays. Our results indicated that functional expression of AR in male- and female-derived HUVECs was heterogeneous, but not sex dependent. In parallel, we analyzed in depth the biological effects of DHT, and the role of AR on these effects, on proliferation, survival and tube formation capacity in mHUVECs. Our results indicated that DHT did not affect mHUVEC survival; however, DHT stimulated mHUVEC proliferation and suppressed mHUVEC tube formation capacity. While the effect of DHT on proliferation was mediated through AR, the effect of DHT on tube formation did not depend on the presence of a functional AR, but rather depended on the ability of mHUVECs to further metabolize DHT. Conclusions (1) Heterogeneous expression of AR in male- and female-derived HUVEC could define the presence of functionally different subpopulations of ECs that may be affected differentially by androgens, which could explain, at least in part, the pleiotropic effects of androgen on vascular biology, and (2) DHT, and metabolites of DHT, generally thought to represent progressively more hydrophilic products along the path to elimination, may have differential roles in modulating the biology of human ECs through AR-dependent and AR-independent mechanisms, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9525-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
  • Effects of nintedanib on the microvascular architecture in a lung fibrosis
    • Authors: Maximilian Ackermann; Yong Ook Kim; Willi L. Wagner; Detlef Schuppan; Cristian D. Valenzuela; Steven J. Mentzer; Sebastian Kreuz; Detlef Stiller; Lutz Wollin; Moritz A. Konerding
      Abstract: Nintedanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, has anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic activity. We explored the impact of nintedanib on microvascular architecture in a pulmonary fibrosis model. Lung fibrosis was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by intratracheal bleomycin (0.5 mg/kg). Nintedanib was started after the onset of lung pathology (50 mg/kg twice daily, orally). Micro-computed tomography was performed via volumetric assessment. Static lung compliance and forced vital capacity were determined by invasive measurements. Mice were subjected to bronchoalveolar lavage and histologic analyses, or perfused with a casting resin. Microvascular corrosion casts were imaged by scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation tomographic microscopy, and quantified morphometrically. Bleomycin administration resulted in a significant increase in higher-density areas in the lungs detected by micro-computed tomography, which was significantly attenuated by nintedanib. Nintedanib significantly reduced lung fibrosis and vascular proliferation, normalized the distorted microvascular architecture, and was associated with a trend toward improvement in lung function and inflammation. Nintedanib resulted in a prominent improvement in pulmonary microvascular architecture, which outperformed the effect of nintedanib on lung function and inflammation. These findings uncover a potential new mode of action of nintedanib that may contribute to its efficacy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-017-9543-z
  • RCAN1.4 regulates VEGFR-2 internalisation, cell polarity and migration in
           human microvascular endothelial cells
    • Authors: Ahmad F. Alghanem; Emma L. Wilkinson; Maxine S. Emmett; Mohammad A. Aljasir; Katherine Holmes; Beverley A. Rothermel; Victoria A. Simms; Victoria L. Heath; Michael J. Cross
      Abstract: Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is an endogenous inhibitor of the calcineurin pathway in cells. It is expressed as two isoforms in vertebrates: RCAN1.1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues, whereas transcription of RCAN1.4 is induced by several stimuli that activate the calcineurin-NFAT pathway. RCAN1.4 is highly upregulated in response to VEGF in human endothelial cells in contrast to RCAN1.1 and is essential for efficient endothelial cell migration and tubular morphogenesis. Here, we show that RCAN1.4 has a role in the regulation of agonist-stimulated VEGFR-2 internalisation and establishment of endothelial cell polarity. siRNA-mediated gene silencing revealed that RCAN1 plays a vital role in regulating VEGF-mediated cytoskeletal reorganisation and directed cell migration and sprouting angiogenesis. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of RCAN1.4 resulted in increased endothelial cell migration. Antisense-mediated morpholino silencing of the zebrafish RCAN1.4 orthologue revealed a disrupted vascular development further confirming a role for the RCAN1.4 isoform in regulating vascular endothelial cell physiology. Our data suggest that RCAN1.4 plays a novel role in regulating endothelial cell migration by establishing endothelial cell polarity in response to VEGF.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-017-9542-0
  • MCPIP1 contributes to clear cell renal cell carcinomas development
    • Authors: Janusz Ligeza; Paulina Marona; Natalia Gach; Barbara Lipert; Katarzyna Miekus; Waclaw Wilk; Janusz Jaszczynski; Andrzej Stelmach; Agnieszka Loboda; Jozef Dulak; Wojciech Branicki; Janusz Rys; Jolanta Jura
      Abstract: Monocyte Chemoattractant protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1), also known as Regnase-1, is encoded by the ZC3H12a gene, and it mediates inflammatory processes by regulating the stability of transcripts coding for proinflammatory cytokines and controlling activity of transcription factors, such as NF-κB and AP1. We found that MCPIP1 transcript and protein levels are strongly downregulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) samples, which were derived from patients surgically treated for renal cancer compared to surrounded normal tissues. Using Caki-1 cells as a model, we analyzed the role of MCPIP1 in cancer development. We showed that MCPIP1 expression depends on the proteasome activity; however, hypoxia and hypoxia inducible factor 2 alfa (HIF2α) are key factors lowering MCPIP1 expression. Furthermore, we found that MCPIP1 negatively regulates HIF1α and HIF2α levels and in the case of the last one, the mechanism is based on the regulation of the half time of transcript coding for HIF2α. Enhanced expression of MCPIP1 in Caki-1 cells results in a downregulation of transcripts encoding VEGFA, GLUT1, and IL-6. Furthermore, MCPIP1 decreases the activity of mTOR and protein kinase B (Akt) in normoxic conditions. Taken together, MCPIP1 contributes to the ccRCC development.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-017-9540-2
  • The role of vasculature in bone development, regeneration and proper
           systemic functioning
    • Authors: Joanna Filipowska; Krzysztof A. Tomaszewski; Łukasz Niedźwiedzki; Jerzy A. Walocha; Tadeusz Niedźwiedzki
      Abstract: Bone is a richly vascularized connective tissue. As the main source of oxygen, nutrients, hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors delivered to the bone cells, vasculature is indispensable for appropriate bone development, regeneration and remodeling. Bone vasculature also orchestrates the process of hematopoiesis. Blood supply to the skeletal system is provided by the networks of arteries and arterioles, having distinct molecular characteristics and localizations within the bone structures. Blood vessels of the bone develop through the process of angiogenesis, taking place through different, bone-specific mechanisms. Impaired functioning of the bone blood vessels may be associated with the occurrence of some skeletal and systemic diseases, i.e., osteonecrosis, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis or diabetes mellitus. When a disease or trauma-related large bone defects appear, bone grafting or bone tissue engineering-based strategies are required. However, a successful bone regeneration in both approaches largely depends on a proper blood supply. In this paper, we review the most recent data on the functions, molecular characteristics and significance of the bone blood vessels, with a particular emphasis on the role of angiogenesis and blood vessel functioning in bone development and regeneration, as well as the consequences of its impairment in the course of different skeletal and systemic diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-017-9541-1
  • A somatic GNA11 mutation is associated with extremity capillary
           malformation and overgrowth
    • Authors: Javier A. Couto; Ugur M. Ayturk; Dennis J. Konczyk; Jeremy A. Goss; August Y. Huang; Steve Hann; Jennifer L. Reeve; Marilyn G. Liang; Joyce Bischoff; Matthew L. Warman; Arin K. Greene
      Abstract: Background Capillary malformation is a cutaneous vascular anomaly that is present at birth, darkens over time, and can cause overgrowth of tissues beneath the stain. The lesion is caused by a somatic activating mutation in GNAQ. In a previous study, we were unable to identify a GNAQ mutation in patients with a capillary malformation involving an overgrown lower extremity. We hypothesized that mutations in GNA11 or GNA14, genes closely related to GNAQ, also may cause capillary malformations. Methods Human capillary malformation tissue obtained from 8 patients that had tested negative for GNAQ mutations were studied. Lesions involved an extremity (n = 7) or trunk (n = 1). Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to detect GNA11 or GNA14 mutant cells (p.Arg183) in the specimens. Single molecule molecular inversion probe sequencing (smMIP-seq) was performed to search for other mutations in GNA11. Mutations were validated by subcloning and sequencing amplimers. Results We found a somatic GNA11 missense mutation (c.547C > T; p.Arg183Cys) in 3 patients with a diffuse capillary malformation of an extremity. Mutant allelic frequencies ranged from 0.3 to 5.0%. GNA11 or GNA14 mutations were not found in 5 affected tissues or in unaffected tissues (white blood cell DNA). Conculsions GNA11 mutations are associated with extremity capillary malformations causing overgrowth. Pharmacotherapy that affects GNA11 signaling may prevent the progression of capillary malformations.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9538-1
  • ETS transcription factors Etv2 and Fli1b are required for tumor
    • Authors: Kristina Baltrunaite; Michael P. Craig; Sharina Palencia Desai; Praneet Chaturvedi; Ram Naresh Pandey; Rashmi S. Hegde; Saulius Sumanas
      Abstract: ETS transcription factor ETV2/Etsrp functions as a key regulator of embryonic vascular development in multiple vertebrates. However, its role in pathological vascular development has not been previously investigated. To analyze its role in tumor angiogenesis, we utilized a zebrafish xenotransplantation model. Using a photoconvertible kdrl:NLS-KikGR line, we demonstrated that all tumor vessels originate from the existing embryonic vasculature by the mechanism of angiogenesis. Xenotransplantation of mouse B16 melanoma cells resulted in a significant increase in expression of the ETS transcription factors etv2 and fli1b expression throughout the embryonic vasculature. etv2 null mutants which undergo significant recovery of embryonic angiogenesis during later developmental stages displayed a strong inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. We utilized highly specific and fully validated photoactivatable morpholinos to inhibit Etv2 function after embryonic vasculogenesis has completed. Inducible inhibition of Etv2 function resulted in a significant reduction of tumor angiogenesis and inhibition of tumor growth. Furthermore, inducible inhibition of Etv2 function in fli1b mutant embryos resulted in even stronger reduction in tumor angiogenesis and growth, demonstrating that Etv2 and Fli1b have a partially redundant requirement during tumor angiogenesis. These results demonstrate the requirement for Etv2 and Fli1b in tumor angiogenesis and suggest that inhibition of these ETS factors may present a novel strategy to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and reduce tumor growth.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-017-9539-8
  • Angiopoietins as serum biomarkers for lymphatic anomalies
    • Authors: Timothy D. Le Cras; Paula S. Mobberley-Schuman; Mary Broering; Lin Fei; Cameron C. Trenor; Denise M. Adams
      Abstract: Vascular anomalies can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Advances in diagnosis will be improved if noninvasive biomarkers can be identified, as obtaining a tissue biopsy can worsen the disease and precipitate complications. The goal of this study was to identify biomarkers for vascular anomaly patients to aid diagnosis and potentially give insights into pathogenesis. Blood was collected at baseline and then 6 and 12 months after treatment with the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus. Patients groups included generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA), kaposiform lymphangiomatosis (KLA) and kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) with or without the Kasabach–Merritt phenomenon (KMP) coagulopathy. Serum was obtained from healthy controls selected to match the age and sex of the patients (21 days–28.5 years; 42% males; 58% females). Angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors (VEGF-A, C, D, Ang-1 and Ang-2) were measured in serum using ELISA. In lymphatic anomaly patients, baseline levels of VEGF-A and VEGF-D were not different compared to controls. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) levels were near controls levels in GLA patients but 10-fold greater in KLA patients and 14-fold greater in KHE patients when the KMP coagulopathy was present but not when it was absent. VEGF-C and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) levels were lower in KHE patients with KMP. Our analyses suggest that Ang-2 and Ang-1 can be used as biomarkers to help identify KLA and KHE patients with KMP coagulopathy with high sensitivity and specificity. After 12 months of sirolimus treatment, Ang-2 levels were lower in KLA and KHE with KMP patients compared to baseline levels and with most patients showing a clinical response. Hence, serum Ang-2 and Ang-1 levels may help in the diagnosis of patients with lymphatic anomalies and are concordant to sirolimus response.
      PubDate: 2016-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9537-2
  • A new algorithm for a better characterization and timing of the anti-VEGF
           vascular effect named “normalization”
    • Authors: Karima El Alaoui-Lasmaili; El-Hadi Djermoune; Jean-Baptiste Tylcz; Dominique Meng; François Plénat; Noémie Thomas; Béatrice Faivre
      Abstract: Antiangiogenics are widely used in cancer treatment in combination with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for their vascular effects. Antiangiogenics are supposed to induce morphological and functional changes in the chaotic tumor vasculature that would help enhance the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy through the amelioration of the drug delivery or the oxygenation in the tumor, respectively. However, finding the best treatment sequence is not an easy task to achieve and no consensus has yet been established because of the lack of knowledge regarding when and for how long the vascular network is ameliorated. The aim of this work was to develop a dedicated image processing algorithm able to analyze the vascular structures on optical microscopy images of the vascular network and to follow its fine modifications in vivo, over time. We applied this algorithm to follow the evolution of the vascular parameters (vascularized tissue surface, branches, sprouts and length), in response or not to anti-VEGF therapy (10 mg/kg/day) and determine precisely whether there is really a vascular “normalization” with anti-VEGF therapy in comparison with the parameters extracted from healthy vascular networks. We found that for this determination, the choice of region of interest to analyze is critical as it is important to compare only microcirculation areas and avoid areas with arteriole–venule–capillary hierarchy. The algorithm analysis allowed us to define a vascular “normalization” in treated tumors, between 8 and 12 days of bevacizumab treatment that was confirmed by standard immunohistochemical analysis, microvascular permeability assessment and immunohistological blood perfusion assessment.
      PubDate: 2016-12-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9536-3
  • The role of endoglin in post-ischemic revascularization
    • Authors: Elena Núñez-Gómez; Miguel Pericacho; Claudia Ollauri-Ibáñez; Carmelo Bernabéu; José M. López-Novoa
      Abstract: Following arterial occlusion, blood vessels respond by forming a new network of functional capillaries (angiogenesis), by reorganizing preexisting capillaries through the recruitment of smooth muscle cells to generate new arteries (arteriogenesis) and by growing and remodeling preexisting collateral arterioles into physiologically relevant arteries (collateral development). All these processes result in the recovery of organ perfusion. The importance of endoglin in post-occlusion reperfusion is sustained by several observations: (1) endoglin expression is increased in vessels showing active angiogenesis/remodeling; (2) genetic endoglin haploinsufficiency in humans causes deficient angiogenesis; and (3) the reduction of endoglin expression by gene disruption or the administration of endoglin-neutralizing antibodies reduces angiogenesis and revascularization. However, the precise role of endoglin in the several processes associated with revascularization has not been completely elucidated and, in some cases, the function ascribed to endoglin by different authors is controversial. The purpose of this review is to organize in a critical way the information available for the role of endoglin in several phenomena (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and collateral development) associated with post-ischemic revascularization.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9535-4
  • An extracellular proteasome releases endostatin from human collagen XVIII
    • Authors: Maria L. V. Reiss-Pistilli; Detlef Schuppan; Madalena M. S. Barroso; Iranaia Assunção-Miranda; Shirley Farias; Letícia Lery; Michael Bauer; Luiz Juliano; Maria A. Juliano; Tatiana Coelho-Sampaio
      Abstract: Endostatin is a potent anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor protein capable of regressing tumors without inducing acquired resistance. Since it is a fragment of the parental molecule, collagen XVIII, its endogenous production depends on the activity of a specific proteolytic enzyme. While such an enzyme has been described in mice, a human counterpart has not been identified so far. Here, we searched for this enzyme by using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptide containing the cleavage site of human collagen XVIII. We found that the cleavage activity was present in various murine and human tumor cells but not in untransformed cells. It was ascribed to a large protein complex identified as an extracellular form of proteasome 20S. Since circulating proteasome 20S has recently emerged as an important marker of tumor progression, the possibility of proteasomes controlling the production of angiostatic endostatin may inspire the development of new anticancer therapies.
      PubDate: 2016-12-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9533-6
  • An exploratory association of polymorphisms in angiogenesis-related genes
           with susceptibility, clinical response and toxicity in gastrointestinal
           stromal tumors receiving sunitinib after imatinib failure
    • Authors: Gloria Ravegnini; Margherita Nannini; Corrado Zenesini; Vittorio Simeon; Giulia Sammarini; Milena Urbini; Lidia Gatto; Maristella Saponara; Guido Biasco; Maria A. Pantaleo; Nicola Venturoli; Patrizia Hrelia; Sabrina Angelini
      Abstract: The angiogenic pathway plays a pivotal role in tumor growth, invasiveness and metastasis. The most important actors in the angiogenic pathway are VEGFA and its receptors VEGFR1, 2 and 3. These genes are polymorphic, and the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms may result in angiogenic deregulation. Herein, we hypothesized that germline variants may affect sunitinib efficacy (TTP and OS) and/or toxicity. Therefore, we investigated 19 polymorphisms, in four genes, in 54 GIST patients, treated with second-line sunitinib and 147 healthy controls. Through a multiple candidate gene approach, we also investigated, for the first time, any possible significant associations with GIST susceptibility and clinical pathological features. The most important result shows two associations between polymorphisms in VEGFR3 rs6877011 (CC vs. CG, OR 9.7, 95% CI 3.31–28.4; P < 0.001) and rs7709359 (AA+AG vs. GG, OR 5.01, 95% CI 1.33–18.8; P = 0.017) and TTP. Interestingly, the association between VEGFR3 rs6877011 and TTP maintained the significance after applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (P = 0.017). We also highlighted the association with sunitinib-related toxicity; in particular, VEGFA polymorphism rs3025039 (CT+TT vs. CC, OR 15.3, 95% CI 2.2–102.1; P = 0.005) is associated with severe toxicity, with the presence of the variant T allele associated with a grade ≥3 AE. Because of the small sample size and large number of tests performed, we cannot ignore the possibility that some associations have been retrieved by chance. However, the influence of VEGF polymorphisms in angiogenesis is a hypothesis worthy of exploration in cellular models and confirmation in a sizeable cohort of patients.
      PubDate: 2016-11-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9534-5
  • Differential regulation of angiogenic cellular processes and claudin-5 by
           histamine and VEGF via PI3K-signaling, transcription factor SNAI2 and
    • Authors: Johanna P. Laakkonen; Jari P. Lappalainen; Thomas L. Theelen; Pyry I. Toivanen; Tiina Nieminen; Suvi Jauhiainen; Minna U. Kaikkonen; Judith C. Sluimer; Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
      Abstract: Aims Histamine and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) are central regulators in vascular pathologies. Their gene regulation leading to vascular remodeling has remained obscure. In this study, EC regulation mechanisms of histamine and VEGF were compared by RNA sequencing of primary endothelial cells (ECs), functional in vitro assays and in vivo permeability mice model. Methods and results By RNA sequencing, similar transcriptional alterations of genes involved in activation of primary ECs, cell proliferation and adhesion were observed between histamine and VEGF. Seventy-six commonly regulated genes were found, representing ~53% of all VEGF-regulated transcripts and ~26% of all histamine-regulated transcripts. Both factors regulated tight junction formation and expression of pro-angiogenic transcription factors (TFs) affecting EC survival, migration and tube formation. Novel claudin-5 upstream regulatory genes were identified. VEGF was demonstrated to regulate expression of SNAI2, whereas pro-angiogenic TFs NR4A1, MYCN and RCAN1 were regulated by both histamine and VEGF. Claudin-5 was shown to be regulated VEGFR2/PI3K-Akt dependently by VEGF and PI3K-Akt independently by histamine. Interleukin-8 was shown to downregulate claudin-5 by histamine. Additionally, SNAI2, NR4A1 and MYCN were shown to mediate EC survival, migration and tube formation and to regulate expression of claudin-5. Further systemic delivery of VEGF and histamine was shown to induce a fast vascular hyperpermeability response in intact vasculature of C57/Bl6 mice followed by regulation of NR4A1 and MYCN. Conclusions Our study identifies novel claudin-5 upstream regulatory genes of histamine and VEGF that induce cellular angiogenic processes. Our results increase knowledge of angiogenic EC phenotype and provide novel treatment targets for vascular pathologies.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9532-7
  • Enhanced peripheral dopamine impairs post-ischemic healing by suppressing
           angiotensin receptor type 1 expression in endothelial cells and inhibiting
    • Authors: Chandrani Sarkar; Ramesh K. Ganju; Vincent J. Pompili; Debanjan Chakroborty
      Abstract: Increased circulating catecholamines have been linked with cardiovascular anomalies as well as with peripheral vascular diseases. Although the roles of epinephrine and norepinephrine have received considerable attention, the role of the other catecholamine, dopamine, has been less studied. Since dopamine is a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and as angiogenesis is essential for ischemic healing, we therefore studied the role played by dopamine during ischemic healing using dopamine D2 receptor knockout (KOD2) mice. Although concentration of dopamine and its rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase, was considerably high in the muscle tissues of wild-type and KOD2 mice with unilateral hind limb ischemia (HLI), recovery was significantly faster in the KOD2 mice compared to the wild-type controls, thereby indicating that peripheral dopamine might have a role in this healing process. In addition, we observed significant differences in post-ischemic angiogenesis between these two groups. Our study further revealed that elevated dopamine independently suppressed activation of local tissue-based renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a critical growth factor system stimulating angiogenesis in ischemia. Angiotensin II (ATII) and its receptor, angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R), are the key players in RAS-mediated angiogenesis. Dopamine acting through its D2 receptors in endothelial cells inhibited ATII-mediated angiogenesis by suppressing the expression of AT1R in these cells. This study thus for the first time demonstrates the role played by dopamine in prolonging post-ischemic recovery. Therefore, pharmacological intervention inhibiting the action of dopamine holds promise as future therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HLI and other peripheral arterial diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9531-8
  • Tissue factor is an angiogenic-specific receptor for factor VII-targeted
           immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy
    • Abstract: Identification of target molecules specific for angiogenic vascular endothelial cells (VEC), the inner layer of pathological neovasculature, is critical for discovery and development of neovascular-targeting therapy for angiogenesis-dependent human diseases, notably cancer, macular degeneration and endometriosis, in which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central pathophysiological role. Using VEGF-stimulated vascular endothelial cells (VECs) isolated from microvessels, venous and arterial blood vessels as in vitro angiogenic models and unstimulated VECs as a quiescent VEC model, we examined the expression of tissue factor (TF), a membrane-bound receptor on the angiogenic VEC models compared with quiescent VEC controls. We found that TF is specifically expressed on angiogenic VECs in a time-dependent manner in microvessels, venous and arterial vessels. TF-targeted therapeutic agents, including factor VII (fVII)-IgG1 Fc and fVII-conjugated photosensitizer, can selectively bind angiogenic VECs, but not the quiescent VECs. Moreover, fVII-targeted photodynamic therapy can selectively and completely eradicate angiogenic VECs. We conclude that TF is an angiogenic-specific receptor and the target molecule for fVII-targeted therapeutics. This study supports clinical trials of TF-targeted therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases such as cancer, macular degeneration and endometriosis.
      PubDate: 2016-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9530-9
  • Lymphangiogenesis in rat asthma model
    • Authors: Aigul Moldobaeva; John Jenkins; Qiong Zhong; Elizabeth M. Wagner
      Abstract: Although bronchial angiogenesis has been well documented in allergic asthma, lymphangiogenesis has not been widely studied. Therefore, we evaluated changes in lung lymphatics in a rat model of allergen-induced asthma using house dust mite (Der p 1; 100 μg/challenge). Additionally, properties of isolated lung lymphatic endothelial cells (CD45−, CD141+, LYVE-1+, Prox-1+) were studied in vitro. Three weeks after the onset of intranasal allergen exposure (twice-weekly), an increase in the number of lung lymphatic vessels was measured (34% increase) by lung morphometry. New lymphatic structures were seen predominantly in the peribronchial and periarterial interstitial space but also surrounding large airways. Isolated lymphatic endothelial cells from sensitized lungs showed enhanced proliferation (% Ki67+), chemotaxis, and tube formation (number and length) compared to lymphatic endothelial cells isolated from naive rat lungs. This hyper-proliferative lymphangiogenic phenotype was preserved through multiple cell passages (2–8). Lymphatic endothelial cells isolated from naive and HDM-sensitized rats produced similar in vitro levels of VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGFR3 protein, each recognized as critical lymphangiogenic factors. Inhibition with anti-VEGFR (axitinib, 0.1 μM) blocked proliferation and chemotaxis. Results suggest that in vivo sensitization causes fundamental changes to lymphatic endothelium, which are retained in vitro, and may relate to VEGFR downstream signaling.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9529-2
  • BP-1T, an antiangiogenic benzophenone-thiazole pharmacophore, counteracts
           HIF-1 signalling through p53/MDM2-mediated HIF-1α proteasomal degradation
    • Authors: Prabhu Thirusangu; V. Vigneshwaran; T. Prashanth; B. R. Vijay Avin; Vikas H. Malojirao; H. Rakesh; Shaukath Ara Khanum; Riaz Mahmood; B. T. Prabhakar
      Abstract: Hypoxia is a feature of all solid tumours, contributing to tumour progression. Activation of HIF-1α plays a critical role in promoting tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. Since its expression is positively correlated with poor prognosis for cancer patients, HIF-1α is one of the most convincing anticancer targets. BP-1T is a novel antiproliferative agent with promising antiangiogenic effects. In the present study, the molecular mechanism underlying cytotoxic/antiangiogenic effects of BP-1T on tumour/non-tumour angiogenesis was evaluated. Evidences show that BP-1T exhibits potent cytotoxicity with prolonged activity and effectively regressed neovessel formation both in reliable non-tumour and tumour angiogenic models. The expression of CoCl2-induced HIF-1α was inhibited by BP-1T in various p53 (WT)-expressing cancer cells, including A549, MCF-7 and DLA, but not in mutant p53-expressing SCC-9 cells. Mechanistically, BP-1T mediates the HIF-1α proteasomal degradation by activating p53/MDM2 pathway and thereby downregulated HIF-1α-dependent angiogenic genes such as VEGF-A, Flt-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 under hypoxic condition of in vitro and in vivo solid tumour, eventually leading to abolition of migration and invasion. Based on these observations, we conclude that BP-1T acts on HIF-1α degradation through p53/MDM2 proteasome pathway.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9528-3
  • Identification of HIF-2α-regulated genes that play a role in human
           microvascular endothelial sprouting during prolonged hypoxia in vitro
    • Abstract: During prolonged hypoxic conditions, endothelial cells change their gene expression to adjust to the low oxygen environment. This process is mainly regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Although endothelial cells do not form sprouts during prolonged hypoxic culturing, silencing of HIF-2α partially restores sprout formation. The present study identifies novel HIF-2α-target genes that may regulate endothelial sprouting during prolonged hypoxia. The gene expression profile of primary human microvascular endothelial cells (hMVECs) that were cultured at 20 % oxygen was compared to hMVECs that were cultured at 1 % oxygen for 14 days by using genome-wide RNA-sequencing. The differentially regulated genes in hypoxia were compared to the genes that were differentially regulated upon silencing of HIF-2α in hypoxia. Surprisingly, KEGG pathway analysis showed that metabolic pathways were enriched within genes upregulated in response to hypoxia and enriched within genes downregulated upon HIF-2α silencing. Moreover, 51 HIF-2α-regulated genes were screened for their role in endothelial sprouting in hypoxia, of which four genes ARRDC3, MME, PPARG and RALGPS2 directly influenced endothelial sprouting during prolonged hypoxic culturing. The manipulation of specific downstream targets of HIF-2α provides a new, but to be further evaluated, perspective for restoring reduced neovascularization in several pathological conditions, such as diabetic ulcers or other chronic wounds, for improvement of vascularization of implanted tissue-engineered scaffolds.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9527-4
  • Aliskiren decreases oxidative stress and angiogenic markers in retinal
           pigment epithelium cells
    • Abstract: There is growing evidence on the role of ocular renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR), particularly due to the trigger of oxidative stress and angiogenesis. Despite this there is no effective RAS-based therapy in DR capable of preventing retinal damage induced by RAS activation. We recently described that retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells express the main components of the RAS. We here propose to investigate the role of glucose upon the retinal RAS and whether aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, protects RPE cells from angiogenesis and oxidative stress. RPE cells were chosen as target since one of the first events in DR is the dysfunction of the RPE retinal layer, which as a key function in maintaining the integrity of the retina. We found that the RAS present in the RPE cells was deregulated by hyperglycemic glucose concentrations. Exposure of RPE cells to angiotensin II increased the levels of the main pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, angiotensin II also stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species in RPE cells. Treatment of RPE cells with aliskiren decreased the levels of oxidative stress and promoted the expression of anti-angiogenic factors such as the pigment epithelium-derived factor and the VEGF165b isoform. Our findings demonstrate that the RAS is deregulated in hyperglycemic conditions and that aliskiren successfully protected RPE cells from RAS over activation. These anti-angiogenic and antioxidant properties described for aliskiren over RPE cells suggest that this drug has potential to be used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9526-5
  • Celecoxib and octreotide synergistically ameliorate portal hypertension
           via inhibition of angiogenesis in cirrhotic rats
    • Authors: Jin-Hang Gao; Shi-Lei Wen; Shi Feng; Wen-Juan Yang; Yao-Yao Lu; Huan Tong; Rui Liu; Shi-Hang Tang; Zhi-Yin Huang; Ying-Mei Tang; Jin-Hui Yang; Hui-Qi Xie; Cheng-Wei Tang
      Abstract: Abnormal angiogenesis is critical for portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Except for etiological treatment, no efficient medication or regime has been explored to treat the early stage of cirrhosis when angiogenesis is initiated or overwhelming. In this study, we explored an anti-angiogenesis effort through non-cytotoxic drugs octreotide and celecoxib to treat early stage of cirrhotic portal hypertension in an animal model. Peritoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA) was employed to induce liver cirrhosis in rats. A combination treatment of celecoxib and octreotide was found to relieve liver fibrosis, portal venous pressure, micro-hepatic arterioportal fistulas, intrahepatic and splanchnic angiogenesis. Celecoxib and octreotide exerted their anti-angiogenesis effect via an axis of cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2/EP-2/somatostatin receptor-2, which consequently down-regulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)–hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)–vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) integrated signaling pathways. In conclusions, combination of celecoxib and octreotide synergistically ameliorated liver fibrosis and portal hypertension of the cirrhotic rats induced by TAA via the inhibition of intrahepatic and extrahepatic angiogenesis. The potential mechanisms behind the regimen may due to the inactivation of p-ERK–HIF-1α–VEGF signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-016-9522-9
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