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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2350 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Angiogenesis
  [SJR: 2.212]   [H-I: 69]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-7209 - ISSN (Online) 0969-6970
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • miRNAs regulate the HIF switch during hypoxia: a novel therapeutic target
    • Authors: Marcin Serocki; Sylwia Bartoszewska; Anna Janaszak-Jasiecka; Renata J. Ochocka; James F. Collawn; Rafał Bartoszewski
      Pages: 183 - 202
      Abstract: The decline of oxygen tension in the tissues below the physiological demand leads to the hypoxic adaptive response. This physiological consequence enables cells to recover from this cellular insult. Understanding the cellular pathways that mediate recovery from hypoxia is therefore critical for developing novel therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The master regulators of oxygen homeostasis that control angiogenesis during hypoxia are hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIF-1 and HIF-2 function as transcriptional regulators and have both unique and overlapping target genes, whereas the role of HIF-3 is less clear. HIF-1 governs the acute adaptation to hypoxia, whereas HIF-2 and HIF-3 expressions begin during chronic hypoxia in human endothelium. When HIF-1 levels decline, HIF-2 and HIF-3 increase. This switch from HIF-1 to HIF-2 and HIF-3 signaling is required in order to adapt the endothelium to prolonged hypoxia. During prolonged hypoxia, the HIF-1 levels and activity are reduced, despite the lack of oxygen-dependent protein degradation. Although numerous protein factors have been proposed to modulate the HIF pathways, their application for HIF-targeted therapy is rather limited. Recently, the miRNAs that endogenously regulate gene expression via the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway have been shown to play critical roles in the hypoxia response pathways. Furthermore, these classes of RNAs provide therapeutic possibilities to selectively target HIFs and thus modulate the HIF switch. Here, we review the significance of the microRNAs on the relationship between the HIFs under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9600-2
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Tip-cell behavior is regulated by transcription factor FoxO1 under hypoxic
           conditions in developing mouse retinas
    • Authors: Moe Fukumoto; Kanako Kondo; Kazumasa Uni; Tomoko Ishiguro; Mikiko Hayashi; Shinnosuke Ueda; Itsuki Mori; Kenta Niimi; Fumi Tashiro; Satsuki Miyazaki; Jun-Ichi Miyazaki; Shinobu Inagaki; Tatsuo Furuyama
      Pages: 203 - 214
      Abstract: Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) is a transcription factor and a critical regulator of angiogenesis. Various environmental stimuli, including growth factors, nutrients, shear stress, oxidative stress and hypoxia, affect FoxO1 subcellular localization and strongly influence its transcriptional activity; however, FoxO1-localization patterns in endothelial cells (ECs) during development have not been clarified in vivo. Here, we reported that FoxO1 expression was observed in three layers of angiogenic vessels in developing mouse retinas and that among these layers, the front layer showed high levels of FoxO1 expression in the nuclei of most tip ECs. Because tip ECs migrate toward the avascular hypoxic area, we focused on hypoxia as a major stimulus regulating FoxO1 subcellular localization in tip cells. In cultured ECs, FoxO1 accumulated into the nucleus under hypoxic conditions, with hypoxia also inducing expression of tip-cell-specific genes, including endothelial-specific molecule 1 (ESM1), which was suppressed by FoxO1 knockdown. Additionally, in murine models, EC-specific FoxO1 deletion resulted in reduced ESM1 expression and suppressed tip-cell migration during angiogenesis. These findings indicated roles for FoxO1 in tip-cell migration and that its transcriptional activity is regulated by hypoxia.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-017-9588-z
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • IL-11 facilitates a novel connection between RA joint fibroblasts and
           endothelial cells
    • Authors: Hatem A. Elshabrawy; Michael V. Volin; Abdul B. Essani; Zhenlong Chen; Iain B. McInnes; Katrien Van Raemdonck; Karol Palasiewicz; Shiva Arami; Mark Gonzalez; Hossam M. Ashour; Seung-jae Kim; Guofei Zhou; David A. Fox; Shiva Shahrara
      Pages: 215 - 228
      Abstract: IL-11 has been detected in inflamed joints; however, its role in the pathogenesis of arthritis is not yet clear. Studies were conducted to characterize the expression and functional significance of IL-11 and IL-11Rα in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-11 levels were elevated in RA synovial fluid (SF) compared to osteoarthritis (OA) SF and plasma from RA, OA and normal individuals (NLs). Morphologic studies established that IL-11 was detected in lining fibroblasts and macrophages in addition to sublining endothelial cells and macrophages at higher levels in RA compared to NL synovial tissues. Since IL-11Rα was exclusively expressed in RA fibroblasts and endothelial cells, macrophages were not involved in IL-11 effector function. Ligation of IL-11 to IL-11Rα strongly provoked fibroblast infiltration into RA joint, while cell proliferation was unaffected by this process. Secretion of IL-8 and VEGF from IL-11 activated RA fibroblasts was responsible for the indirect effect of IL-11 on endothelial cell transmigration and tube formation. Moreover, IL-11 blockade impaired RA SF capacity to elicit endothelial cell transmigration and tube formation. We conclude that IL-11 binding to endothelial IL-11Rα can directly induce RA angiogenesis. In addition, secretion of proangiogenic factors from migrating fibroblasts potentiated by IL-11 can indirectly contribute to RA neovascularization.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-017-9589-y
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Oxidized phospholipids stimulate production of stem cell factor via
           NRF2-dependent mechanisms
    • Authors: Taras Afonyushkin; Olga V. Oskolkova; Valery N. Bochkov
      Pages: 229 - 236
      Abstract: Receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit and its ligand stem cell factor (SCF) regulate resident vascular wall cells and recruit circulating progenitors. We tested whether SCF may be induced by oxidized palmitoyl-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine (OxPAPC) known to accumulate in atherosclerotic vessels. Gene expression analysis demonstrated OxPAPC-induced upregulation of SCF mRNA and protein in different types of endothelial cells (ECs). Elevated levels of SCF mRNA were observed in aortas of ApoE−/− knockout mice. ECs produced biologically active SCF because conditioned medium from OxPAPC-treated cells stimulated activation (phosphorylation) of c-Kit in naïve ECs. Induction of SCF by OxPAPC was inhibited by knocking down transcription factor NRF2. Inhibition or stimulation of NRF2 by pharmacological or molecular tools induced corresponding changes in SCF expression. Finally, we observed decreased levels of SCF mRNA in aortas of NRF2 knockout mice. We characterize OxPLs as a novel pathology-associated stimulus inducing expression of SCF in endothelial cells. Furthermore, our data point to transcription factor NRF2 as a major mediator of OxPL-induced upregulation of SCF. This mechanism may represent one of the facets of pleiotropic action of NRF2 in vascular wall.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-017-9590-5
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Slit2/Robo1 signaling is involved in angiogenesis of glomerular
           endothelial cells exposed to a diabetic-like environment
    • Authors: Junhui Liu; Weiping Hou; Tao Guan; Luyao Tang; Xufei Zhu; Yi Li; Shihui Hou; Jun Zhang; Hua Chen; Yunjian Huang
      Pages: 237 - 249
      Abstract: Abnormal angiogenesis plays a pathological role in diabetic nephropathy (DN), contributing to glomerular hypertrophy and microalbuminuria. Slit2/Robo1 signaling participates in angiogenesis in some pathological contexts, but whether it is involved in glomerular abnormal angiogenesis of early DN is unclear. The present study evaluated the effects of Slit2/Robo1 signaling pathway on angiogenesis of human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs) exposed to a diabetic-like environment or recombinant Slit2-N. To remove the effect of Slit2 derived from mesangial cells, human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs) grown in high glucose (HG) medium (33 mM) were transfected with Slit2 siRNA and then the HG-HRMCs-CM with Slit2 depletion was collected after 48 h. HRGECs were cultured in the HG-HRMCs-CM or recombinant Slit2-N for 0, 6, 12, 24, or 48 h. The mRNA and protein expressions of Slit2/Robo1, PI3K/Akt and HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathways were detected by quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, and ELISA, respectively. The CCK-8 cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry and the scratch wound-healing assay were used to assess cell proliferation, cycles, and migration, respectively. Matrigel was used to perform a tubule formation assay. Our results showed that the HG-HRMCs-CM with Slit2 depletion enhanced the activation of Slit2/Robo1, PI3K/Akt, and HIF-1α/VEGF signaling in HRGECs in time-dependent manner (0–24 h post-treatment). In addition, the HG-HRMCs-CM with Slit2 depletion significantly promoted HRGECs proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Pretreatment of HRGECs with Robo1 siRNA suppressed the activation of PI3K/Akt and HIF-1α/VEGF signaling and inhibited angiogenesis, whereas PI3K inhibitor suppressed HIF-1α/VEGF signaling, without influencing Robo1 expression. In the HRGECs treated with Slit2-N, Slit2-N time-dependently enhanced the activation of Robo1/PI3K/Akt/VEGF pathway but not HIF-1α activity, and promoted HRGECs proliferation, migration, and tube formation. The effects induced by Slit2 were also abolished by Robo1 siRNA and PI3K inhibitor. Taken together, our findings indicate that in a diabetic-like environment, in addition to mesangial cells, autocrine activation of Slit2/Robo1 signaling of HRGECs may contribute to angiogenesis of HRGECs through PI3K/Akt/VEGF pathway; therefore, Slit2/Robo1 signaling may be a potent therapeutic target for the treatment of abnormal angiogenesis in early DN and may have broad implications for the treatment of other diseases dependent on pathologic angiogenesis.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-017-9592-3
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Chronic mild hypoxia promotes profound vascular remodeling in spinal cord
           blood vessels, preferentially in white matter, via an α5β1
           integrin-mediated mechanism
    • Authors: Sebok K. Halder; Ravi Kant; Richard Milner
      Pages: 251 - 266
      Abstract: Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to rapid destruction of neuronal tissue, resulting in devastating motor and sensory deficits. This is exacerbated by damage to spinal cord blood vessels and loss of vascular integrity. Thus, approaches that protect existing blood vessels or stimulate the growth of new blood vessels might present a novel approach to minimize loss or promote regeneration of spinal cord tissue following SCI. In light of the remarkable power of chronic mild hypoxia (CMH) to stimulate vascular remodeling in the brain, the goal of this study was to examine how CMH (8% O2 for up to 7 days) affects blood vessel remodeling in the spinal cord. We found that CMH promoted the following: (1) endothelial proliferation and increased vascularity as a result of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, (2) increased vascular expression of the angiogenic extracellular matrix protein fibronectin as well as concomitant increases in endothelial expression of the fibronectin receptor α5β1 integrin, (3) strongly upregulated endothelial expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1 and occludin and (4) astrocyte activation. Of note, the vascular remodeling changes induced by CMH were more extensive in white matter. Interestingly, hypoxic-induced vascular remodeling in spinal cord blood vessels was markedly attenuated in mice lacking endothelial α5 integrin expression (α5-EC-KO mice). Taken together, these studies demonstrate the considerable remodeling potential of spinal cord blood vessels and highlight an important angiogenic role for the α5β1 integrin in promoting endothelial proliferation. They also imply that stimulation of the α5β1 integrin or controlled use of mild hypoxia might provide new approaches for promoting angiogenesis and improving vascular integrity in spinal cord blood vessels.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-017-9593-2
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Selective IKK2 inhibitor IMD0354 disrupts NF-κB signaling to suppress
           corneal inflammation and angiogenesis
    • Authors: Anton Lennikov; Pierfrancesco Mirabelli; Anthony Mukwaya; Mira Schaupper; Muthukumar Thangavelu; Mieszko Lachota; Zaheer Ali; Lasse Jensen; Neil Lagali
      Pages: 267 - 285
      Abstract: Corneal neovascularization is a sight-threatening condition caused by angiogenesis in the normally avascular cornea. Neovascularization of the cornea is often associated with an inflammatory response, thus targeting VEGF-A alone yields only a limited efficacy. The NF-κB signaling pathway plays important roles in inflammation and angiogenesis. Here, we study consequences of the inhibition of NF-κB activation through selective blockade of the IKK complex IκB kinase β (IKK2) using the compound IMD0354, focusing on the effects of inflammation and pathological angiogenesis in the cornea. In vitro, IMD0354 treatment diminished HUVEC migration and tube formation without an increase in cell death and arrested rat aortic ring sprouting. In HUVEC, the IMD0354 treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in VEGF-A expression, suppressed TNFα-stimulated expression of chemokines CCL2 and CXCL5, and diminished actin filament fibers and cell filopodia formation. In developing zebrafish embryos, IMD0354 treatment reduced expression of Vegf-a and disrupted retinal angiogenesis. In inflammation-induced angiogenesis in the rat cornea, systemic selective IKK2 inhibition decreased inflammatory cell invasion, suppressed CCL2, CXCL5, Cxcr2, and TNF-α expression and exhibited anti-angiogenic effects such as reduced limbal vessel dilation, reduced VEGF-A expression and reduced angiogenic sprouting, without noticeable toxic effect. In summary, targeting NF-κB by selective IKK2 inhibition dampened the inflammatory and angiogenic responses in vivo by modulating the endothelial cell expression profile and motility, thus indicating an important role of NF-κB signaling in the development of pathologic corneal neovascularization.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9594-9
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Soluble delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) stimulates angiogenesis through
           Notch1/Akt/eNOS signaling in endothelial cells
    • Authors: Chao-Cheng Huang; Hsiao-Mei Kuo; Pei-Chang Wu; Shih-Hsuan Cheng; Tzu-Ting Chang; Yi-Chen Chang; Mei-Lang Kung; Deng-Chyang Wu; Jiin-Haur Chuang; Ming-Hong Tai
      Pages: 299 - 312
      Abstract: Aim Delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) is a non-canonical ligand of Notch signaling, which plays a pivotal role in vascular development and tumor angiogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the function and mechanism of DLK1 in angiogenesis. Methods and results By using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies, expression analysis revealed a unique vascular tropism of DLK1 in vasculature of neuroblastoma and vascular tumors. Thus, it was hypothesized that DLK1 may be cleaved and then bound to endothelial cells, thereby regulating the endothelial function. To test such hypothesis, soluble DLK1 encompassing DLK1 extracellular domain (DLK1-EC) was generated and validated by its inhibitory function in adipogenesis assay. Recombinant DLK1-EC exhibited the preferential binding capability toward endothelial cells and stimulated the microvessels sprouting in aorta rings. Above all, implantation of DLK1-EC dose-dependently elicited the cornea neovascularization in rats. By using various angiogenesis assays, it was delineated that DLK1-EC stimulated the angiogenesis by promoting the proliferation, motility and tube formation of endothelial cells. By immunoblot and luciferase analysis, it was elucidated that DLK1-EC enhanced the expression and activities of Notch1/Akt/eNOS/Hes-1 signaling in dose- and time-dependent manners. Pharmaceutical blockage of Notch signaling using γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT abrogated the DLK1-EC-induced endothelial migration and Hes-1-driven luciferase activities. Furthermore, Notch1 inactivation by neutralizing antibodies or RNA interference reversed the DLK1-EC-induced angiogenesis. Conclusions The present study unveils the pro-angiogenic function and mechanism of soluble DLK1 through activation of Notch1 signaling in endothelial cells.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9596-7
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Direct repression of IGF2 is implicated in the anti-angiogenic function of
           microRNA-210 in human retinal endothelial cells
    • Authors: Qinbo Yang; Peiwei Wang; Xiaoye Du; Wenjian Wang; Teng Zhang; Yu Chen
      Pages: 313 - 323
      Abstract: Pathological angiogenesis leads to the development of retinal vasculopathies and causes severe vision impairment. Increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying the angiogenic behavior of retinal endothelial cells helps provide new insights for developing treatment of retinal vasculopathies. Pro-angiogenic function of miR-210 has previously been identified. However, the functional implication of miR-210 in retinal endothelial cells remains unknown. Human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) were employed to investigate the impact of miR-210 on the angiogenic capacity of retinal endothelial cells. It was observed that without affecting the viability of HRECs, miR-210 significantly suppressed the migration and capillary-like tube formation in HRECs. Moreover, pro-angiogenic insulin growth factor 2 (IGF2) was newly identified as a direct target of miR-210 in HRECs. MiR-210 decreased the expression of IGF2 at both mRNA and protein levels in HRECs. IGF2-simulated activation of p38 MAPK was attenuated by miR-210 in HRECs. Recombinant IGF2 protein rescued miR-210-induced impairment of tube formation in HRECs. Therefore, in contrast to the previously reported pro-angiogenic function of miR-210, the current work reveals novel anti-angiogenic activity of miR-210 in HRECs. Furthermore, IGF2 is identified for the first time as a direct target of miR-210 in HRECs, adding new mechanistic insights into the expression regulation of pro-angiogenic IGF2 in human retinal endothelial cells. The current work helps increase the understanding of regulatory mechanisms underlying retinal endothelial cell physiology, justifying further evaluation for the therapeutic implications of miR-210/IGF2 interaction in the treatment of related retinal vasculopathies.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9597-6
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Angio-3, a 10-residue peptide derived from human plasminogen kringle 3,
           suppresses tumor growth in mice via impeding both angiogenesis and
           vascular permeability
    • Authors: Shruthi Venugopal; Chieh Kao; Ritu Chandna; Konerirajapuram N. Sulochana; Vivekanandan Subramanian; Mo Chen; R. Manjunatha Kini; Ruowen Ge
      Abstract: Anti-angiogenesis therapy is an established therapeutic strategy for cancer. The endogenous angiogenic inhibitor angiostatin contains the first 3–4 kringle domains of plasminogen and inhibits both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. We present here a 10-residue peptide, Angio-3, derived from plasminogen kringle 3, which retains the functions of angiostatin in inhibiting both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. NMR studies indicate that Angio-3 holds a solution structure similar to the corresponding region of kringle 3. Mechanistically, Angio-3 inhibited both VEGF- and bFGF-induced angiogenesis by inhibiting EC proliferation and migration while inducing apoptosis. Inhibition of VEGF-induced vascular permeability results from its ability to impede VEGF-induced dissociation of adherens junction and tight junction proteins as well as the formation of actin stress fibers. When administered intravenously, Angio-3 inhibited subcutaneous breast cancer and melanoma growth by suppressing both tumor angiogenesis and intra-tumor vascular permeability. Hence, Angio-3 is a novel dual inhibitor of angiogenesis and vascular permeability. It is valuable as a lead peptide that can be further developed as therapeutics for diseases involving excessive angiogenesis and/or vascular permeability.
      PubDate: 2018-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9616-7
       
  • SNAI1, an endothelial–mesenchymal transition transcription factor,
           promotes the early phase of ocular neovascularization
    • Authors: Jia-Xing Sun; Tian-Fang Chang; Man-Hong Li; Li-Juan Sun; Xian-Chun Yan; Zi-Yan Yang; Yuan Liu; Wen-Qin Xu; Yang Lv; Jing-Bo Su; Liang Liang; Hua Han; Guo-Rui Dou; Yu-Sheng Wang
      Abstract: Ocular neovascularization is a comprehensive process involved in retinal vascular development and several blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinopathy of prematurity, with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regarded as the master regulator. However, the qualified effect of anti-VEGF therapy reveals that the underlying mechanisms are still not clearly identified. To initialize angiogenesis, endothelial cells undergo a phenotype switching to generate highly migratory and invasive cells. This process shares certain similar characters observed in endothelial–mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Here, we found that SNAI1, an EndMT transcription factor, was expressed by endothelial cells in both physiological and pathological ocular neovascularization. SNAI1 overexpression triggered cell morphological change and enhanced cell motility, while loss of SNAI1 attenuated migration, invasion and sprouting. RNA sequence analysis further revealed that SNAI1 knockdown decreased the expression of genes related to cytoskeleton rearrangement and ECM remodeling. Moreover, intravitreal injection of small interfering RNA of SNAI1 suppressed new vessel formation in developing retina as well as mice model of choroidal neovascularization and oxygen-induced retinopathy. Therefore, we propose that the EndMT transcription factor SNAI1 promotes the early phase of ocular neovascularization and may provide a potential therapeutic target.
      PubDate: 2018-04-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9614-9
       
  • Spatiotemporal heterogeneity and patterning of developing renal blood
           vessels
    • Authors: Edward Daniel; D. Berfin Azizoglu; Anne R. Ryan; Tezin A. Walji; Christopher P. Chaney; Gabrielle I. Sutton; Thomas J. Carroll; Denise K. Marciano; Ondine Cleaver
      Abstract: The kidney vasculature facilitates the excretion of wastes, the dissemination of hormones, and the regulation of blood chemistry. To carry out these diverse functions, the vasculature is regionalized within the kidney and along the nephron. However, when and how endothelial regionalization occurs remains unknown. Here, we examine the developing kidney vasculature to assess its 3-dimensional structure and transcriptional heterogeneity. First, we observe that endothelial cells (ECs) grow coordinately with the kidney bud as early as E10.5, and begin to show signs of specification by E13.5 when the first arteries can be identified. We then focus on how ECs pattern and remodel with respect to the developing nephron and collecting duct epithelia. ECs circumscribe nephron progenitor populations at the distal tips of the ureteric bud (UB) tree and form stereotyped cruciform structures around each tip. Beginning at the renal vesicle (RV) stage, ECs form a continuous plexus around developing nephrons. The endothelial plexus envelops and elaborates with the maturing nephron, becoming preferentially enriched along the early distal tubule. Lastly, we perform transcriptional and immunofluorescent screens to characterize spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the kidney vasculature and identify novel regionally enriched genes. A better understanding of development of the kidney vasculature will help instruct engineering of properly vascularized ex vivo kidneys and evaluate diseased kidneys.
      PubDate: 2018-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9612-y
       
  • Platelet function is disturbed by the angiogenesis inhibitors sunitinib
           and sorafenib, but unaffected by bevacizumab
    • Authors: Maudy Walraven; Marjolein Y. V. Homs; Astrid A. M. van der Veldt; Henk Dekker; Jose Koldenhof; Richard Honeywell; Arjan Barendrecht; Silvie A. E. Sebastian; Naomi Parr; Arnold C. Koekman; Emile E. Voest; Mark Roest; Suzanne J. A. Korporaal; Henk M. W. Verheul
      Abstract: Introduction At the clinical introduction of antiangiogenic agents as anticancer agents, no major toxicities were expected as merely just endothelial cells (ECs) in tumors would be affected. However, several (serious) toxicities became apparent, of which underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We investigated to what extent sunitinib (multitargeted antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)), sorafenib (TKI) and bevacizumab [specific antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] may impair platelet function, which might explain treatment-related bleedings. Materials and methods In vitro, the influence of sunitinib, sorafenib, and bevacizumab on platelet aggregation, P-selectin expression and fibrinogen binding, platelet–EC interaction, and tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Src was studied by optical aggregation, flow cytometry, real-time perfusion, and western blotting. Ex vivo, platelet aggregation was analyzed in 25 patients upon sunitinib or bevacizumab treatment. Concentrations of sunitinib, VEGF, and platelet and EC activation markers were measured by LC–MS/MS and ELISA. Results In vitro, sunitinib and sorafenib significantly inhibited platelet aggregation (20 μM sunitinib: 71.3%, p < 0.001; 25 μM sorafenib: 55.8%, p = 0.042). Sorafenib and sunitinib significantly inhibited P-selectin expression on platelets. Exposure to both TKIs resulted in a reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Src. Ex vivo, within 24 h sunitinib impaired platelet aggregation (83.0%, p = 0.001, N = 8). Plasma concentrations of sunitinib, VEGF, and platelet/EC activation markers were not correlated with disturbed aggregation. In contrast, bevacizumab only significantly impaired platelet aggregation in vitro at high concentrations, but not ex vivo. Conclusion Sunitinib significantly inhibits platelet aggregation in patients already after 24 h of first administration, whereas bevacizumab had no effect on aggregation. These findings may explain the clinically observed bleedings during treatment with antiangiogenic TKIs.
      PubDate: 2018-03-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9598-5
       
  • Serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 as a novel transcriptional target
           of bone morphogenetic protein-ALK1 receptor signaling in vascular
           endothelial cells
    • Authors: Mutsumi Araki; Takashi Hisamitsu; Yumi Kinugasa-Katayama; Toru Tanaka; Yukihiro Harada; Shu Nakao; Sanshiro Hanada; Shuhei Ishii; Masahide Fujita; Teruhisa Kawamura; Yoshihiko Saito; Koichi Nishiyama; Yusuke Watanabe; Osamu Nakagawa
      Abstract: Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9)/BMP10-ALK1 receptor signaling is essential for endothelial differentiation and vascular morphogenesis. Mutations in ALK1/ACVRL1 and other signal-related genes are implicated in human vascular diseases, and the Alk1/Acvrl1 deletion in mice causes severe impairment of vascular formation and embryonic lethality. In the microarray screen to search for novel downstream genes of ALK1 signaling, we found that the mRNA and protein expression of serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) was rapidly up-regulated by the BMP9 stimulation of cultured human endothelial cells. The increase in SGK1 mRNA was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D and significantly suppressed by the siRNA treatment against the co-SMAD transcription factor SMAD4. Upon the BMP9 treatment of endothelial cells, phosphorylated SMAD1/5/9 bound to a consensus site upstream of the SGK1 gene, which was necessary for BMP9-dependent increment of the luciferase reporter activity driven by the SGK1 proximal enhancer. The Sgk1 mRNA expression in mouse embryos was enriched in vascular endothelial cells at embryonic day 9.0–9.5, at which Sgk1 null mice showed embryonic lethality due to abnormal vascular formation, and its mRNA as well as protein expression was clearly reduced in Alk1/Acvrl1 null embryos. These results indicate that SGK1 is a novel target gene of BMP9/BMP10-ALK1 signaling in endothelial cells and further suggest a possibility that down-regulation of the Sgk1 expression may be involved in the mechanisms of vascular defects by the ALK1 signaling deficiency.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9605-x
       
  • Vascular deficiency of Smad4 causes arteriovenous malformations: a mouse
           model of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
    • Authors: Angela M. Crist; Amanda R. Lee; Nehal R. Patel; Dawn E. Westhoff; Stryder M. Meadows
      Abstract: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder that leads to abnormal connections between arteries and veins termed arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Mutations in TGFβ pathway members ALK1, ENG and SMAD4 lead to HHT. However, a Smad4 mouse model of HHT does not currently exist. We aimed to create and characterize a Smad4 endothelial cell (EC)-specific, inducible knockout mouse (Smad4f/f;Cdh5-CreERT2) that could be used to study AVM development in HHT. We found that postnatal ablation of Smad4 caused various vascular defects, including the formation of distinct AVMs in the neonate retina. Our analyses demonstrated that increased EC proliferation and size, altered mural cell coverage and distorted artery–vein gene expression are associated with Smad4 deficiency in the vasculature. Furthermore, we show that depletion of Smad4 leads to decreased Vegfr2 expression, and concurrent loss of endothelial Smad4 and Vegfr2 in vivo leads to AVM enlargement. Our work provides a new model in which to study HHT-associated phenotypes and links the TGFβ and VEGF signaling pathways in AVM pathogenesis.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9602-0
       
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) promotes angiogenesis via S1P3-dependent
           VEGFR2 activation
    • Authors: Fengyan Jin; Nina Hagemann; Li Sun; Jiang Wu; Thorsten R. Doeppner; Yun Dai; Dirk M. Hermann
      Abstract: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) has previously been shown to promote angiogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which HDL enhances the formation of blood vessels remain to be defined. To address this, the effects of HDL on the proliferation, transwell migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were investigated. By examining the abundance and phosphorylation (i.e., activation) of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor VEGFR2 and modulating the activity of the sphingosine-1 phosphate receptors S1P1–3 and VEGFR2, we characterized mechanisms controlling angiogenic responses in response to HDL exposure. Here, we report that HDL dose-dependently increased endothelial proliferation, migration and tube formation. These events were in association with increased VEGFR2 abundance and rapid VEGFR2 phosphorylation at Tyr1054/Tyr1059 and Tyr1175 residues in response to HDL. Blockade of VEGFR2 activation by the VEGFR2 inhibitor SU1498 markedly abrogated the pro-angiogenic capacity of HDL. Moreover, the S1P3 inhibitor suramin prevented VEGFR2 expression and abolished endothelial migration and tube formation, while the S1P1 agonist CYM-5442 and the S1P2 inhibitor JTE-013 had no effect. Last, the role of S1P3 was further confirmed in regulation of S1P-induced endothelial proliferation, migration and tube formation via up-regulation and activation of VEGFR2. Together, these findings argue that HDL promotes angiogenesis via S1P3-dependent up-regulation and activation of VEGFR2 and also suggest that the S1P–S1P3–VEGFR2 signaling cascades as a novel target for HDL-modulating therapy implicated in vascular remodeling and functional recovery in atherosclerotic diseases such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9603-z
       
  • Time-dependent LXR/RXR pathway modulation characterizes capillary
           remodeling in inflammatory corneal neovascularization
    • Authors: Anthony Mukwaya; Anton Lennikov; Maria Xeroudaki; Pierfrancesco Mirabelli; Mieszko Lachota; Lasse Jensen; Beatrice Peebo; Neil Lagali
      Abstract: Inflammation in the normally immune-privileged cornea can initiate a pathologic angiogenic response causing vision-threatening corneal neovascularization. Inflammatory pathways, however, are numerous, complex and are activated in a time-dependent manner. Effective resolution of inflammation and associated angiogenesis in the cornea requires knowledge of these pathways and their time dependence, which has, to date, remained largely unexplored. Here, using a model of endogenous resolution of inflammation-induced corneal angiogenesis, we investigate the time dependence of inflammatory genes in effecting capillary regression and the return of corneal transparency. Endogenous capillary regression was characterized by a progressive thinning and remodeling of angiogenic capillaries and inflammatory cell retreat in vivo in the rat cornea. By whole-genome longitudinal microarray analysis, early suppression of VEGF ligand-receptor signaling and inflammatory pathways preceded an unexpected later-phase preferential activation of LXR/RXR, PPARα/RXRα and STAT3 canonical pathways, with a concurrent attenuation of LPS/IL-1 inhibition of RXR function and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Potent downstream inflammatory cytokines such as Cxcl5, IL-1β, IL-6 and Ccl2 were concomitantly downregulated during the remodeling phase. Upstream regulators of the inflammatory pathways included Socs3, Sparc and ApoE. A complex and coordinated time-dependent interplay between pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways highlights a potential anti-inflammatory role of LXR/RXR, PPARα/RXRα and STAT3 signaling pathways in resolving inflammatory corneal angiogenesis.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9604-y
       
  • Visualization of endothelial cell cycle dynamics in mouse using the
           Flt-1/eGFP-anillin system
    • Authors: Katia Herz; Alexandra Becker; Chenyue Shi; Masatsugo Ema; Satoru Takahashi; Michael Potente; Michael Hesse; Bernd K. Fleischmann; Daniela Wenzel
      Abstract: Endothelial cell proliferation is a key process during vascular growth but its kinetics could only be assessed in vitro or ex vivo so far. To enable the monitoring and quantification of cell cycle kinetics in vivo, we have generated transgenic mice expressing an eGFP-anillin construct under control of the endothelial-specific Flt-1 promoter. This construct labels the nuclei of endothelial cells in late G1, S and G2 phase and changes its localization during the different stages of M phase, thereby enabling the monitoring of EC proliferation and cytokinesis. In Flt-1/eGFP-anillin mice, we found eGFP+ signals specifically in Ki67+/PECAM+ endothelial cells during vascular development. Quantification using this cell cycle reporter in embryos revealed a decline in endothelial cell proliferation between E9.5 to E12.5. By time-lapse microscopy, we determined the length of different cell cycle phases in embryonic endothelial cells in vivo and found a M phase duration of about 80 min with 2/3 covering karyokinesis and 1/3 cytokinesis. Thus, we have generated a versatile transgenic system for the accurate assessment of endothelial cell cycle dynamics in vitro and in vivo.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9601-1
       
  • Somatic NRAS mutation in patient with generalized lymphatic anomaly
    • Authors: Eugenia Manevitz-Mendelson; Gil S. Leichner; Ortal Barel; Inbal Davidi-Avrahami; Limor Ziv-Strasser; Eran Eyal; Itai Pessach; Uri Rimon; Aviv Barzilai; Abraham Hirshberg; Keren Chechekes; Ninette Amariglio; Gideon Rechavi; Karina Yaniv; Shoshana Greenberger
      Abstract: Generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA or lymphangiomatosis) is a rare disease characterized by a diffuse proliferation of lymphatic vessels in skin and internal organs. It often leads to progressive respiratory failure and death, but its etiology is unknown. Here, we isolated lymphangiomatosis endothelial cells from GLA tissue. These cells were characterized by high proliferation and survival rates, but displayed impaired capacities for migration and tube formation. We employed whole exome sequencing to search for disease-causing genes and identified a somatic mutation in NRAS. We used mouse and zebrafish model systems to initially evaluate the role of this mutation in the development of the lymphatic system, and we studied the effect of drugs blocking the downstream effectors, mTOR and ERK, on this disease.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9595-8
       
  • Glomerular endothelial cell maturation depends on ADAM10, a key regulator
           of Notch signaling
    • Authors: Gregory Farber; Romulo Hurtado; Sarah Loh; Sébastien Monette; James Mtui; Raphael Kopan; Susan Quaggin; Catherine Meyer-Schwesinger; Doris Herzlinger; Rizaldy P. Scott; Carl P. Blobel
      Abstract: The principal function of glomeruli is to filter blood through a highly specialized filtration barrier consisting of a fenestrated endothelium, the glomerular basement membrane and podocyte foot processes. Previous studies have uncovered a crucial role of endothelial a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) and Notch signaling in the development of glomeruli, yet the resulting defects have not been further characterized nor understood in the context of kidney development. Here, we used several different experimental approaches to analyze the kidneys and glomeruli from mice lacking ADAM10 in endothelial cells (A10ΔEC mice). Scanning electron microscopy of glomerular casts demonstrated enlarged vascular diameter and increased intussusceptive events in A10ΔEC glomeruli compared to controls. Consistent with these findings, genes known to regulate vessel caliber (Apln, AplnR and Vegfr3) are significantly upregulated in A10ΔEC glomeruli. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy revealed the persistence of diaphragms in the fenestrae of A10ΔEC glomerular endothelial cells, which was corroborated by the elevated expression of the protein PLVAP/PV-1, an integral component of fenestral diaphragms. Analysis of gross renal vasculature by light sheet microscopy showed no major alteration of the branching pattern, indicating a localized importance of ADAM10 in the glomerular endothelium. Since intussusceptions and fenestrae with diaphragms are normally found in developing, but not mature glomeruli, our results provide the first evidence for a crucial role of endothelial ADAM10, a key regulator of Notch signaling, in promoting the development and maturation of the glomerular vasculature.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10456-018-9599-4
       
 
 
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