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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2353 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Anatomical Science International
  [SJR: 0.301]   [H-I: 26]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1447-6959 - ISSN (Online) 1447-073X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • The stellate cell system (vitamin A-storing cell system)
    • Authors: Haruki Senoo; Yoshihiro Mezaki; Mutsunori Fujiwara
      Pages: 387 - 455
      Abstract: Abstract Past, present, and future research into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, or Ito cells) are summarized and discussed in this review. Kupffer discovered black-stained cells in the liver using the gold chloride method and named them stellate cells (Sternzellen in German) in 1876. Wake rediscovered the cells in 1971 using the same gold chloride method and various modern histological techniques including electron microscopy. Between their discovery and rediscovery, HSCs disappeared from the research history. Their identification, the establishment of cell isolation and culture methods, and the development of cellular and molecular biological techniques promoted HSC research after their rediscovery. In mammals, HSCs exist in the space between liver parenchymal cells (PCs) or hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) of the hepatic lobule, and store 50–80% of all vitamin A in the body as retinyl ester in lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. SCs also exist in extrahepatic organs such as pancreas, lung, and kidney. Hepatic (HSCs) and extrahepatic stellate cells (EHSCs) form the stellate cell (SC) system or SC family; the main storage site of vitamin A in the body is HSCs in the liver. In pathological conditions such as liver fibrosis, HSCs lose vitamin A, and synthesize a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) components including collagen, proteoglycan, glycosaminoglycan, and adhesive glycoproteins. The morphology of these cells also changes from the star-shaped HSCs to that of fibroblasts or myofibroblasts.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0395-9
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Clinical relevance of conus medullaris and dural sac termination level
           with special reference to sacral hiatus apex: anatomical and MRI
           radiologic study
    • Authors: Ashraf Youssef Nasr
      Pages: 456 - 467
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the vertebral level and variations in the position of the termination of both conus medullaris (CMT) and dural sac (DST) with special reference to the apex of the sacral hiatus (SHA) using magnetic resonance (MR) images and human cadavers. Different measurements were made on 200 MR sagittal T1- and T2-weighted lumbosacral images and 60 formalin-fixed adult human cadavers. The linear distances between the CMT, DST and SHA, the anteroposterior diameter at SHA, delete length and thickness of the sacrococcygeal membrane were also measured. These measurements were correlated with age and sex. In the MRI study, the mean vertebral level of CMT and its highest incidence were seen at the lower third of L1 (L1L) in male patients and at the L1-2 disc in female patients; that of DST was observed at the upper third of S2 (S2U) in male patients and the middle third of S2 (S2M) in female patients and the mean vertebral level of the SHA was noted at the middle third of S4 (S4M) in both males and females with no significant age or sex differences (P < 0.05). In the cadaveric specimens, the mean vertebral levels of CMT, DST and SHA were seen at L1L, S2M and S4U, respectively in both male and female specimens, with no sex difference. Also in the MRI study, all linear distances in the male patients were significantly different (P < 0.05) from those in female patients with exception of the thickness of SCM and the AP diameter at SHA. Accurate knowledge of these levels and the distances in-between are important for safe and successful spinal and caudal anaesthesia.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0343-0
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to: Clinical relevance of conus medullaris and dural sac
           termination level with special reference to sacral hiatus apex: anatomical
           and MRI radiologic study
    • Authors: Ashraf Youssef Nasr
      Pages: 468 - 469
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0387-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Histological and radiographic study of human edentulous and dentulous
           maxilla
    • Authors: Yukino Kamigaki; Iwao Sato; Takashi Yosue
      Pages: 470 - 482
      Abstract: Abstract Data on the bone trabecular structure and density of the edentulous regions of the first upper molars are important for designing successful dental treatments, especially dental implants. However, no detailed defined morphometric properties on the human maxilla are available at the immunohistochemical and radiographic levels. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis and immunohistochemical observation were applied to the maxillary first molar region of 91 cadavers (46 males and 45 females). The edentulous maxilla can be classified into the following three forms: fully edentulous (FE), partially edentulous (PE), and immediately edentulous (IE). Compared with the first molar dentulous (FMD) specimens, significant differences in cortical bone structure and bone density exist among IE, PE, and FE in maxilla (P < 0.001). According to histochemical observations, the positive CD31 reaction clearly described a large vessel of the PE and small vessels of FMD and IE in maxillary sinus connective tissue. These structural issues were clearly related to tooth extraction. These morphological and radiographic data describing the edentulous region of the maxillary first molar might be useful for improving dental treatments.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0344-z
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Differences in osteon structure histomorphometry between puppyhood and
           adult stages in the Golden Retriever
    • Authors: Korakot Nganvongpanit; Waranee Pradit; Tanita Pitakarnnop; Manussabhorn Phatsara; Siriwadee Chomdej
      Pages: 483 - 492
      Abstract: Abstract Osteon structure has been widely studied in mammals, but osteon structure in dogs has received relatively little attention, especially in terms of whether aging has any effect on osteon structure. The aim of this study was to compare the osteon structure of both flat (scapula and os coxae) and long bones (humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpus, femur and tibia) of male puppy and adult Golden Retrievers. We examined five parameters: Haversian canal diameter, Haversian canal area, osteon diameter, osteon area, and number of lacunae per osteon. Our results show that the values for Haversian canal diameter were significantly higher in the os coxae and tibia, but significantly lower in the femur of adult dogs as compared to those of puppies. The Haversian canal diameter of the other bones investigated did not show any significant differences between puppies and adult dogs. The Haversian canal area was significantly greater in the os coxae, radius and femur of adult dogs than in those of puppies. The osteon diameter and area of every bone examined were significantly smaller in puppies than in adult dogs. Lastly, the number of lacunae per osteon showed the same trend as osteon diameter and area. Plexiform bone could be found in three bones in puppies, i.e. the femur, humerus and tibia. Overall, the results of this study should provide basic knowledge on the microanatomy of cortical bone in dogs and on the possible influence age.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0345-y
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Light and scanning electron microscopy of the tongue of a degu ( Octodon
           degus )
    • Authors: Petr Cizek; Pavla Hamouzova; Vladimir Jekl; Pavel Kvapil; Frantisek Tichy
      Pages: 493 - 499
      Abstract: Abstract The tongue of an adult degu was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. It consists of an apex, corpus, and radix and contains a lingual prominence. The aim of this study was to describe the course of muscle fascicles of the proper lingual muscle, the presence and nature of the lingual salivary glands, and particularly the appearance and distribution of the lingual papillae. Three major types of papillae have been observed: filiform, conical, and vallate. The dorsal surface of the lingual apex extends in caudally bent filiform papillae with two spines. The lingual corpus bears long filiform papillae with a single tip. The lingual radix contains crown-like papillae in the region of the prominence and conical papillae in the remaining areas. Two oval vallate papillae were discovered caudally on the lingual radix. This first description of the lingual structures in a degu could be used for comparative studies or as basic data for differentiation of lingual morphology in this species.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0346-x
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Palatine tonsil volume estimation using different methods after
           tonsillectomy
    • Authors: Ayşe Sağıroğlu; Niyazi Acer; Hacı Okuducu; Tolga Ertekin; Mustafa Erkan; Esra Durmaz; Mesut Aydın; Seher Yılmaz; Gökmen Zararsız
      Pages: 500 - 508
      Abstract: Abstract This study was carried out to measure the volume of the palatine tonsil in otorhinolaryngology outpatients with complaints of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis who had undergone tonsillectomy. To date, no study has investigated palatine tonsil volume using different methods and compared with subjective tonsil size in the literature. For this purpose, we used three different methods to measure palatine tonsil volume. The correlation of each parameter with tonsil size was assessed. After tonsillectomy, palatine tonsil volume was measured by Archimedes, Cavalieri and Ellipsoid methods. Mean right–left palatine tonsil volumes were calculated as 2.63 ± 1.34 cm3 and 2.72 ± 1.51 cm3 by the Archimedes method, 3.51 ± 1.48 cm3 and 3.37 ± 1.36 cm3 by the Cavalieri method, and 2.22 ± 1.22 cm3 and 2.29 ± 1.42 cm3 by the Ellipsoid method, respectively. Excellent agreement was found among the three methods of measuring volumetric techniques according to Bland–Altman plots. In addition, tonsil grade was correlated significantly with tonsil volume.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0350-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A dermal equivalent developed from adipose-derived stem cells and
           electrospun polycaprolactone matrix: an in vitro and in vivo study
    • Authors: Vahid Bayati; Mohammad Reza Abbaspour; Fereshteh Negad Dehbashi; Niloofar Neisi; Mahmoud Hashemitabar
      Pages: 509 - 520
      Abstract: Abstract Polycaprolactone (PCL) is used as a material of choice for surgical sutures, wound dressings, contraceptives, fixation devices and dentistry in paramedical sciences. In addition, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of electrospun PCL fibers on keratinocyte differentiation of ASCs and wound healing. PCL solution was electrospun and characterized. Isolated and characterized ASCs were differentiated into keratinocyte-like cells on a tissue culture plate (TCP) and PCL matrices and compared. PCL nano-/microfibers cultured with ASCs (test group) or alone (control) were implanted as a dermal substitute for wound healing. There were significant increases in the proliferation rate and expression level of cytokeratin 14, filaggrin and involucrin in cells cultured on PCL matrices compared to TCP (p < 0.05). After histological and immunological evaluation of the reconstituted skin, a thick epidermal layer with several skin appendages was evidently observed in the ASC/PCL group, whereas no real and mature epidermis was formed, especially in the central area of the healing wound in the pure PCL group on day 14. Pure PCL, if possessing suitable properties including good adhesiveness, high proliferative capability, inductive elasticity and stiffness for migration and differentiation, could drive the keratinocyte differentiation of ASCs and act as an efficient dermal equivalent to promote wound healing.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0352-z
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Mathematical modelling of the growth of human fetus anatomical structures
    • Authors: Krzysztof Dudek; Wojciech Kędzia; Emilia Kędzia; Alicja Kędzia; Wojciech Derkowski
      Pages: 521 - 529
      Abstract: Abstract The goal of this study was to present a procedure that would enable mathematical analysis of the increase of linear sizes of human anatomical structures, estimate mathematical model parameters and evaluate their adequacy. Section material consisted of 67 foetuses—rectus abdominis muscle and 75 foetuses- biceps femoris muscle. The following methods were incorporated to the study: preparation and anthropologic methods, image digital acquisition, Image J computer system measurements and statistical analysis method. We used an anthropologic method based on age determination with the use of crown-rump length—CRL (V–TUB) by Scammon and Calkins. The choice of mathematical function should be based on a real course of the curve presenting growth of anatomical structure linear size Ύ in subsequent weeks t of pregnancy. Size changes can be described with a segmental-linear model or one-function model with accuracy adequate enough for clinical purposes. The interdependence of size–age is described with many functions. However, the following functions are most often considered: linear, polynomial, spline, logarithmic, power, exponential, power-exponential, log-logistic I and II, Gompertz’s I and II and von Bertalanffy’s function. With the use of the procedures described above, mathematical models parameters were assessed for V-PL (the total length of body) and CRL body length increases, rectus abdominis total length h, its segments hI, hII, hIII, hIV, as well as biceps femoris length and width of long head (LHL and LHW) and of short head (SHL and SHW). The best adjustments to measurement results were observed in the exponential and Gompertz’s models.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0353-y
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Degenerative changes of the sacroiliac auricular joint
           surface—validation of influential factors
    • Authors: Keita Nishi; Kazunobu Saiki; Takeshi Imamura; Keishi Okamoto; Tetsuaki Wakebe; Keiko Ogami; Takashi Hasegawa; Takefumi Moriuchi; Junya Sakamoto; Yoshitaka Manabe; Toshiyuki Tsurumoto
      Pages: 530 - 538
      Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to clarify the relevance of degenerative changes in the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) and the joints in the lower limb and lumbar spine using age estimation methods. We also examined the shape of the auricular surface to determine the effect of degenerative changes on each joint. A total of 200 iliac auricular surfaces from 100 Japanese male skeletons were examined macroscopically in accordance with conventional methods of age estimation. From the obtained estimated age, we calculated the deflection values, which represented the degree of degenerative changes of the joints. For comparison, we used osteophyte score data of the hip, knee, and zygapophyseal joints in lumbar spines from previous studies which had used the same bone specimens. As a quantitative indicator of auricular surface morphology, we defined the constriction ratio (CR) of the auricular surface and compared the CR values obtained with various measured values. Degenerative changes in the SIJ were positively correlated with those in both the hip joint and zygapophyseal joint, but a correlation with knee joints was found only on the left side. In skeletons from individuals aged ≥60 years as time of death, the CR was significantly different between the group with high scores and those with low scores in both the hip and sacroiliac joints. It has been suggested that degenerative changes in SIJs interact with those in the hip joint and zygapophyseal joint. In addition, the shape of the auricular surface may also be a relevant factor for degenerative changes in these joints.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0354-x
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effect of musk in an animal model of
           depression: how it works
    • Authors: Nasra Naeim Ayuob
      Pages: 539 - 553
      Abstract: Abstract Depression has become a common public health problem that is showing increasing prevalence. Slow onset of action, low response rates and drug resistance are potential limitations of the current antidepressant drugs. Alternative therapy using natural substances, specifically aromatherapy, is currently tried to treat depression. This work aimed to assess the efficacy of musk in relieving the behavioral, biochemical and hippocampal histopathological changes induced by exposure to chronic mild stress in mice and explore the possible mechanism behind this antidepressant-like effect. Forty male albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 10): control, a group exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and two groups exposed to CUMS and then treated with fluoxetine or musk. Behavioral changes and serum corticosterone levels were assessed at the end of the experiment. Protein and gene expressions of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus were assessed using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Histopathological examination of the hippocampus and immunohistochemical techniques using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ki67, caspase-3, BDNF and GR were performed. Inhalation of musk had an antidepressant-like effect in an animal model of depression. Musk alleviated the behavioral changes and elevated serum corticosterone levels induced by exposure to chronic stress. It reduced the hippocampal neuronal apoptosis and stimulated neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Musk's action may be related to the upregulation of hippocampal GR and BDNF expressions. Musk is considered a potential antidepressant so it is advisable to assess its efficacy in treating depressed patient.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0357-7
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Anatomy, histology and elemental profile of long bones and ribs of the
           Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus )
    • Authors: Korakot Nganvongpanit; Puntita Siengdee; Kittisak Buddhachat; Janine L. Brown; Sarisa Klinhom; Tanita Pitakarnnop; Taweepoke Angkawanish; Chatchote Thitaram
      Pages: 554 - 568
      Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the morphology and elemental composition of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula and rib). Computerized tomography was used to image the intraosseous structure, compact bones were processed using histological techniques, and elemental profiling of compact bone was conducted using X-ray fluorescence. There was no clear evidence of an open marrow cavity in any of the bones; rather, dense trabecular bone was found in the bone interior. Compact bone contained double osteons in the radius, tibia and fibula. The osteon structure was comparatively large and similar in all bones, although the lacuna area was greater (P < 0.05) in the femur and ulna. Another finding was that nutrient foramina were clearly present in the humerus, ulna, femur, tibia and rib. Twenty elements were identified in elephant compact bone. Of these, ten differed significantly across the seven bones: Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Zr, Ag, Cd, Sn and Sb. Of particular interest was the finding of a significantly larger proportion of Fe in the humerus, radius, fibula and ribs, all bones without an open medullary cavity, which is traditionally associated with bone marrow for blood cell production. In conclusion, elephant bones present special characteristics, some of which may be important to hematopoiesis and bone strength for supporting a heavy body weight.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0361-y
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • In vitro and in vivo study of microporous ceramics using MC3T3 cells, CAM
           assay and a pig animal model
    • Authors: Marek Tomco; Eva Petrovova; Maria Giretova; Viera Almasiova; Katarina Holovska; Viera Cigankova; Andrej Jenca; Janka Jencova; Andrej Jenca; Martin Boldizar; Kosa Balazs; Lubomir Medvecky
      Pages: 569 - 580
      Abstract: Abstract Bone tissue engineering combines biomaterials with biologically active factors and cells to hold promise for reconstructing craniofacial defects. In this study the biological activity of biphasic hydroxyapatite ceramics (HA; a bone substitute that is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios) was characterized (1) in vitro by assessing the growth of MC3T3 mouse osteoblast lineage cells, (2) in ovo by using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and (3) in an in vivo pig animal model. Biocompatibility, bioactivity, bone formation and biomaterial degradation were detected microscopically and by radiology and histology. HA ceramics alone demonstrated great biocompatibility on the CAM as well as bioactivity by increased proliferation and alkaline phosphatase secretion of mouse osteoblasts. The in vivo implantation of HA ceramics with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) showed de novo intramembranous bone healing of critical-size bone defects in the right lateral side of pig mandibular bodies after 3 and 9 weeks post-implantation. Compared with the HA ceramics without MMSCs, the progress of bone formation was slower with less-developed features. This article highlights the clinical use of microporous biphasic HA ceramics despite the unusually shaped elongated micropores with a high length/width aspect ratio (up to 20) and absence of preferable macropores (>100 µm) in bone regenerative medicine.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0362-x
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Multiple muscular variations including tenuissimus and tensor fasciae
           suralis muscles in the posterior thigh of a human case
    • Authors: Takamitsu Arakawa; Takahiro Kondo; Masahiro Tsutsumi; Yuko Watanabe; Toshio Terashima; Akinori Miki
      Pages: 581 - 584
      Abstract: Abstract The posterior thigh muscles on the right side of an 81-year-old male cadaver had multiple variations, denoted muscles I–IV. Muscle I originated from the posteromedial surface of the greater trochanter and divided into two muscle bellies. These muscle bellies fused with the long head of the biceps femoris and were innervated by two branches from muscular branches of the semitendinosus and the long head of the biceps. Muscle II separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the proximal third and fused with the semitendinosus in the distal fourth. Muscle III was a biventer muscle. Its superior belly separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the distal third. The inferior belly of this muscle fused with the posterior surface of the crural fascia and was innervated by the tibial nerve. Muscle IV separated from the adductor magnus muscle, passed between the long and short heads of the biceps, fused with the inferior belly of muscle III, and was innervated by the muscular branch of the common fibular nerve to the short head of the biceps. Peeling off the epineurium of the muscular branches to the inferior belly of muscle III showed that this nerve fascicle divided from the common trunk with branches to the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. The inferior bellies of muscle III and muscle IV were thought to be equivalent to the tensor fasciae suralis and tenuissimus muscles, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0396-8
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Macroscopic anatomical study of the distribution of the cranial mesenteric
           artery to the intestine in the rabbit
    • Authors: Tetsuhito Kigata; Reona Ikegami; Hideshi Shibata
      Abstract: Abstract Intestinal surgery is commonly performed to cure bowel obstruction in rabbits, but detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the intestine are incomplete. We investigated anatomical variations of the distribution of the cranial mesenteric artery to the intestine in 33 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into the arteries. The cranial mesenteric artery arose independently from the abdominal aorta at about 2.0 cm caudal to the celiac artery and branched off the pancreaticoduodenal, middle colic, ileocecocolic, jejunal and ileal arteries. One or occasionally two caudal pancreaticoduodenal arteries supplied the distal duodenum, and one to three middle colic arteries supplied the transverse colon and the initial portion of the descending colon. The ileocecocolic artery arose distal to the middle colic arteries and provided the right colic, ileocecal and appendicular arteries, and branches to the proximal colon, with various branching patterns, which were grouped into four major types. These arteries and branches supplied the ileum, cecum, appendix and proximal colon. The cranial mesenteric artery also provided the jejunal arteries (predominantly 17; range 11–21) and one ileal artery supplying the jejunum and proximal ileum, respectively. The results show that the distribution patterns of the cranial mesenteric artery to the intestine in the rabbit are highly specialized to this species. Such specialization should always be considered when performing intestinal surgery in rabbits.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0411-0
       
  • Analysis of dural sac thickness in the human cervical spine
    • Authors: Soonwook Kwon; Seung-Woo Suh; Dasom Kim; Im Joo Rhyu; Hyunung Yu; Seung Woo Han; Jae-Young Hong
      Abstract: Abstract The thickness of the dura mater in the human cervical spine can vary between individuals and by vertebral level; these differences can result in various clinical outcomes. The purpose was to measure and analyze cervical dura mater thickness. Microscopic measurements were made of tissue from human cadavers. The subjects were nine human cadavers with no previous history of spinal deformity or surgery. Fourteen segments of both anterior and posterior dura mater from the C1 to C7 cervical vertebrae were obtained. Dura mater thickness was measured using an infrared laser-based confocal microscope. Statistical analyses were performed to examine the relationships of cervical dura mater thickness with vertebral level, age, and sex. The overall average cervical dura mater thickness was 379.3 × 10−3 mm. Statistically significant differences in thickness were found between the anterior and posterior segments (P < 0.0001). Moreover, the thickness at each vertebral level was significantly different from the thicknesses at the other levels (P < 0.05). The posterior dura mater thickness was highest at C1 and lowest at C5/6. Posterior dura mater thickness was significantly different at the axial, sub-axial, and lower cervical levels, whereas anterior dura mater thickness was relatively constant among levels. A significant correlation was found between thickness and age (P < 0.05); however, the average dura mater thickness was not significantly different between males and females. This study shows anatomical differences in cervical dura mater thickness with respect to vertebral level and age. These results provide anatomical information that will inform basic research and clinical approaches.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0412-z
       
  • Network of anatomical texts (NAnaTex), an open-source project for
           visualizing the interaction between anatomical terms
    • Authors: Ryusuke Momota; Aiji Ohtsuka
      Abstract: Abstract Anatomy is the science and art of understanding the structure of the body and its components in relation to the functions of the whole-body system. Medicine is based on a deep understanding of anatomy, but quite a few introductory-level learners are overwhelmed by the sheer amount of anatomical terminology that must be understood, so they regard anatomy as a dull and dense subject. To help them learn anatomical terms in a more contextual way, we started a new open-source project, the Network of Anatomical Texts (NAnaTex), which visualizes relationships of body components by integrating text-based anatomical information using Cytoscape, a network visualization software platform. Here, we present a network of bones and muscles produced from literature descriptions. As this network is primarily text-based and does not require any programming knowledge, it is easy to implement new functions or provide extra information by making changes to the original text files. To facilitate collaborations, we deposited the source code files for the network into the GitHub repository (https://github.com/ryusukemomota/nanatex) so that anybody can participate in the evolution of the network and use it for their own non-profit purposes. This project should help not only introductory-level learners but also professional medical practitioners, who could use it as a quick reference.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0410-1
       
  • Considering the inferior surface area of lower lumbar vertebrae:
           determining weight transmission pattern at the lumbosacral junction
    • Authors: Uchenna Kenneth Ezemagu; Chike P. Anibeze; Chinedu F. Akpuaka
      Abstract: Abstract The biomechanical function of the lumbosacral junction (LSJ) is obscure, but its medical significance is not, as it is the most common site of low back pain. In this study, we analyzed the difference between the mean values of the surface areas of the inferior body and total inferior facet areas of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae. We aimed to define the function of the LSJ during weight transmission and clarify its mechanical significance. Vertebral columns of 45 adult male human cadavers from five anatomy departments in Nigeria were cut at the L3–L4 intervertebral disc and macerated. Using the graph paper method, the mean values of the surface area of the inferior body and total facet area of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae were 1356 ± 26 and 329 ± 6 and 1277 ± 27 and 418 ± 8 mm2, respectively. The relationships between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae paired variables were highly significant (P < 0.001). A sudden reduction in the surface area of the inferior body of the fifth lumbar vertebra was compensated for by a corresponding increase in its total inferior facet area, which indicated that corresponding weight was diverted from the anterior column to the posterior column at the LSJ. This pattern of weight transmission may be a beneficial functional adaptation in man to protect the relatively large intervertebral disc of the LSJ in bipedal posture, or it may predispose the LSJ synovial zygapophyseal joints to mechanical stress.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0409-7
       
  • Rare muscular variations identified in a single cadaveric upper limb: a
           four-headed biceps brachii and muscular elevator of the latissimus dorsi
           tendon
    • Authors: Colin W. Moore; Charles L. Rice
      Abstract: Abstract Supernumerary or accessory heads of the biceps brachii are persistent muscular structures which can vary in number and location in the arm. Variations in other arm muscles, such as the coracobrachialis, can accompany supernumerary biceps brachii musculature in the upper limb. In this case report, we describe two rare muscular variants in a single adult male: a four-headed biceps brachii and the muscular elevator of the latissimus dorsi tendon. Additionally, accessory muscles of the brachialis and flexor digiti minimi brevis were identified in the upper limb. To our knowledge, the muscular variants identified here are considered rare, and their co-occurrence in a single upper limb has not been described previously. Also, a four-headed biceps brachii consisting of both the infero-medial and infero-lateral humeral heads has not been described previously to our knowledge. We postulate that the simultaneous appearance of several muscular variations may indicate a signaling disruption in embryogenesis during muscle patterning of the ventral limb bud. Knowledge of variant musculature in the arm is important for surgeons and clinicians as these muscles and their aberrant innervation patterns can complicate surgical procedures and may compress arteries and nerves producing upper limb pain and paresthesia. The clinical, functional and embryological implications of the upper limb variants are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0408-8
       
  • Morphometric changes in the spinal cord during prenatal life: a
           stereological study in sheep
    • Authors: Javad Sadeghinezhad; Narges Zadsar; Beal Hasanzadeh
      Abstract: Abstract This study describes the volumetric changes in the spinal cord during prenatal life in sheep using quantitative stereological methods. Twenty healthy sheep fetuses were included in the present study, divided into four groups representing 9–11, 12–14, 15–17, and 18–20 weeks of gestation. In each group, the spinal cord was dissected out and sampled according to the unbiased systematic random sampling method then used for stereological estimations. The total volume of spinal cord, volume of gray matter (GM), volume of white matter (WM), ratio of GM volume to WM volume, and volume of central canal (CC) were estimated in the whole spinal cord and its various regions using Cavalieri’s principle. The total volume of the spinal cord increased 8 times from week 9 to week 20. The cervical region showed the greatest (9.7 times) and the sacral region the least (6.3 times) volumetric change. The CC volume of the whole spinal cord increased 5.8 times from week 9 to week 20. The cervical region developed faster (8.2 times) and the thoracic region slower (4.4 times) than the total spinal cord. During development, the volume ratio of GM to WM decreased from lower toward upper regions. The greatest volume changes occurred mostly in weeks 9–11 and 12–14. The cervical region showed the greatest volume changes in comparison with other regions of the spinal cord.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0407-9
       
 
 
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