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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Anatomical Science International
  [SJR: 0.301]   [H-I: 26]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1447-6959 - ISSN (Online) 1447-073X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Recent topics in kidney research: morphology and molecular cell biology
    • Authors: Tatsuo Sakai
      Pages: 159 - 160
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0392-z
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Evolutionary morphology of podocytes and primary urine-producing apparatus
    • Authors: Koichiro Ichimura; Tatsuo Sakai
      Pages: 161 - 172
      Abstract: Excretory organs were acquired in the early phase of metazoan evolution, and they play a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis of body fluids. In general, these organs consist of two functional components, the primary-urine producing apparatus and the modulating tubule. This basic organization of the excretory organs is conserved among most metazoans. Herein, we present an overview of the morphological evolution of the primary urine-producing apparatus in metazoans and describe the acquisition of the renal glomerulus—a specialized primary urine-producing apparatus—in vertebrates. We also describe the advancement of the glomerular structure and function in higher vertebrates.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-015-0317-7
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cell biology of mesangial cells: the third cell that maintains the
           glomerular capillary
    • Authors: Hidetake Kurihara; Tatsuo Sakai
      Pages: 173 - 186
      Abstract: The renal glomerulus consists of glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells, which cooperate with each other for glomerular filtration. We have produced monoclonal antibodies against glomerular cells in order to identify different types of glomerular cells. Among these antibodies, the E30 clone specifically recognizes the Thy1.1 molecule expressed on mesangial cells. An injection of this antibody into rats resulted in mesangial cell-specific injury within 15 min, and induced mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis in a reproducible manner. We examined the role of mesangial cells in glomerular function using several experimental tools, including an E30-induced nephritis model, mesangial cell culture, and the deletion of specific genes. Herein, we describe the characterization of E30-induced nephritis, formation of the glomerular capillary network, mesangial matrix turnover, and intercellular signaling between glomerular cells. New molecules that are involved in a wide variety of mesangial cell functions are also introduced.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0334-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The distribution and function of aquaporins in the kidney: resolved and
           unresolved questions
    • Authors: Toshiyuki Matsuzaki; Tomoyuki Yaguchi; Kinue Shimizu; Aoi Kita; Kenichi Ishibashi; Kuniaki Takata
      Pages: 187 - 199
      Abstract: The membrane water channel aquaporin (AQP) family is composed of 13 isoforms in mammals, eight of which are reportedly expressed in the kidney: AQP1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 11. These isoforms are differentially expressed along the renal tubules and collecting ducts. AQP1 and 7 are distributed in the proximal tubules, whereas AQP2, 3, and 4 occur in the collecting duct system. They play important roles in the reabsorption of water and some solutes across the plasma membrane. In contrast to other aquaporins found in the kidney, AQP6, 8, and 11 are localized to the cytoplasm rather than to the apical or basolateral membranes. It is therefore doubtful that these isoforms are directly involved in water or solute reabsorption. AQP6 is localized in acid-secreting type A intercalated cells of the collecting duct. AQP8 has been found in the proximal tubule but its cellular location has not yet been defined by immunohistochemistry. AQP11 seems to be localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of proximal tubule cells. Interestingly, polycystic kidneys develop in AQP11-null mice. Many vacuole-like structures are seen in proximal tubule cells in kidneys of newborn AQP11-null mice. Subsequently, cysts are generated, and most of the mice die within a month due to severe renal failure. Although ER stress and impairment of polycystin-1, the product of the gene mutated in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, are possible causes of cystogenesis in AQP11-null mice, the exact mechanism of pathogenesis and the physiological function of AQP11 are yet to be resolved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0325-2
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Roles of organic anion transporters (OATs) in renal proximal tubules and
           their localization
    • Authors: Naoyuki Otani; Motoshi Ouchi; Keitaro Hayashi; Promsuk Jutabha; Naohiko Anzai
      Pages: 200 - 206
      Abstract: Organic anions (OAs) are secreted in renal proximal tubules in two steps. In the first step, OAs are transported from the blood through basolateral membranes into proximal tubular cells. The prototypical substrate for renal organic anion transport systems, para-aminohippurate (PAH), is transported across basolateral membranes of proximal tubular cells via OAT1 (SLC22A6) and OAT3 (SLC22A8) against an electrochemical gradient in exchange for intracellular dicarboxylates. In the second step, OAs exit into urine through apical membranes of proximal tubules. This step is thought to be performed by multidrug efflux transporters and a voltage-driven organic anion transporter. However, the molecular nature and precise functional properties of these efflux systems are largely unknown. Recently, we characterized an orphan transporter known as human type I sodium-phosphate transporter 4, hNPT4 (SLC17A3), using the Xenopus oocyte expression system. hNPT4 acts as a voltage-driven efflux transporter (“human OATv1”) for several OAs such as PAH, estrone sulfate, diuretic drugs, and urate. Here, we describe a model for an OA secretory pathway in renal tubular cells in which OAs exit cells and enter the tubular lumen via hOATv1 (hNPT4). Additionally, hOATv1 functions as a common renal secretory pathway for both urate and drugs, indicating that hOATv1 may be a leak pathway for excess urate that is reabsorbed via apical URAT1 to control the intracellular urate levels. Therefore, we propose a molecular mechanism for the induction of hyperuricemia by diuretics: the diuretics enter proximal tubular cells via basolateral OAT1 and/or OAT3 and may then interfere with the NPT4-mediated apical urate efflux in the renal proximal tubule.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0369-3
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Ciliary subcompartments and cysto-proteins
    • Authors: Takahiko Yokoyama
      Pages: 207 - 214
      Abstract: Renal cystic diseases are conditions in which parts of or entire nephrons become enlarged and create fluid-filled cysts. These cysts occur in many genetic diseases. Most of the products of causative genes, termed cysto-proteins, are localized in cilia and/or centrioles. In addition, mutant mice lacking cilia develop renal cysts. Therefore, cilia are thought to have an important role in renal cystogenesis. The cilium is a tiny projection from the cell surface; however, it can be divided into several subcompartments. These subcompartments have specific roles. This review attempts to classify cysto-proteins based on their localization in ciliary subcompartments with the aim of defining relationships among them and of identifying their exact intraciliary functions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-015-0302-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Renin-angiotensin system in vertebrates: phylogenetic view of structure
           and function
    • Authors: Hiroko Nishimura
      Pages: 215 - 247
      Abstract: Renin substrate, biological renin activity, and/or renin-secreting cells in kidneys evolved at an early stage of vertebrate phylogeny. Angiotensin (Ang) I and II molecules have been identified biochemically in representative species of all vertebrate classes, although variation occurs in amino acids at positions 1, 5, and 9 of Ang I. Variations have also evolved in amino acid positions 3 and 4 in some cartilaginous fish. Angiotensin receptors, AT1 and AT2 homologues, have been identified molecularly or characterized pharmacologically in nonmammalian vertebrates. Also, various forms of angiotensins that bypass the traditional renin-angiotensin system (RAS) cascades or those from large peptide substrates, particularly in tissues, are present. Nonetheless, the phylogenetically important functions of RAS are to maintain blood pressure/blood volume homeostasis and ion-fluid balance via the kidney and central mechanisms. Stimulation of cell growth and vascularization, possibly via paracrine action of angiotensins, and the molecular biology of RAS and its receptors have been intensive research foci. This review provides an overview of: (1) the phylogenetic appearance, structure, and biochemistry of the RAS cascade; (2) the properties of angiotensin receptors from comparative viewpoints; and (3) the functions and regulation of the RAS in nonmammalian vertebrates. Discussions focus on the most fundamental functions of the RAS that have been conserved throughout phylogenetic advancement, as well as on their physiological implications and significance. Examining the biological history of RAS will help us analyze the complex RAS systems of mammals. Furthermore, suitable models for answering specific questions are often found in more primitive animals.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0372-8
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Ultrastructural localization of hair keratins, high sulfur
           keratin-associated proteins and sulfhydryl oxidase in the human hair
    • Authors: Lorenzo Alibardi
      Pages: 248 - 261
      Abstract: Hardening of the human hair shaft during cornification results from the bonding of keratins and keratin-associated proteins. In situ hybridization and light immunocytochemical studies have shown the general distribution of different keratins and some associated proteins but not determined their ultrastructural localization. I report here the localization of hair keratins, two high-sulfur keratin-associated proteins and sulfhydryl oxidase has been studied under the transmission electron microscope in the cornification zone of the human hair. The ultrastructural study on keratin distribution in general confirms previous light microscopic studies. Sulfur-rich KAP1 is mainly cortical but the labeling disappears in fully cornified cortical cells while a diffuse labeling is also present in differentiating cuticle cells. Sulfur-rich K26 immunolocalization is only detected in the exocuticle and endocuticle. Sparse labeling for sulfhydryl oxidase occurs in differentiating cortical cells but is weak and uneven in cuticle cells and absent in medulla and inner root sheath. Labeling disappears in the upper fully cornified cortex and cuticle. The observations indicate that sulfhydryl oxidase and keratin associated proteins are initially produced in the cytoplasm among keratin bundles accumulating in cortical and cuticle cells but these proteins undergo changes during the following cornification that alter the epitopes tagged by the antibodies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0330-5
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Micro-CT analysis of the anatomical characteristics of the stapedial
           annular ligament
    • Authors: Aydin Mohammadi; Nicholas Jufas; Philip Sale; Kirsti Lee; Nirmal Patel; Stephen O’Leary
      Pages: 262 - 266
      Abstract: The oval window region has recently been identified as a potential route for drug diffusion into the inner ear. Locally applied gadolinium and trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA) have been shown to directly diffuse into the vestibule through the oval window region. Given the potential importance of the oval window region in the diffusion of substances into the inner ear, this work aimed to use micro-CT to obtain a data set of anatomical characteristics of the annular ligament of the stapes in the human temporal bone, a region thus far poorly studied. Twenty-one temporal bones were micro-dissected to preserve the otic capsule and allow perfusion of fixative stains into the inner ear. The specimens were scanned with micro-CT methods to provide 3D reconstructions and measurement. The 3D reconstructions were able to demonstrate an undisturbed stapes footplate and annular ligament from which measurements could be taken. This study found a wide variance in the volumes and thicknesses of the stapedial ligaments. There was a positive correlation between the size of the stapes footplate and the annular ligament.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0331-4
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Stereological assessment of normal Persian squirrels ( Sciurus anomalus )
           kidney
    • Authors: Mohsen Akbari; Nader Goodarzi; Majid Tavafi
      Pages: 267 - 274
      Abstract: The functions of the mammalian kidney are closely related to its structure. This suggests that renal function can be completely characterized by accurate knowledge of its quantitative morphological features. The aim of this study was to investigate the histomorphometric features of the kidney using design-based and unbiased stereological methods in the Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus), which is the only representative of the Sciuridae family in the Middle East. The left kidneys of five animals were examined. Total volume of the kidney, cortex, and medulla were determined to be 960.75 ± 87.4, 754.31 ± 77.09 and 206.1 ± 16.89 mm3, respectively. The glomerular number was 32844.03 ± 1069.19, and the total glomerular volume was estimated to be 36.7 ± 1.45 mm3. The volume and length of the proximal convoluted tubule were estimated at 585.67 ± 60.7 mm3 and 328.8 ± 14.8 m, respectively, with both values being greater than those reported in the rat kidney. The volume and length of the distal convoluted tubule were calculated at 122.34 ± 7.38 mm3 and 234.4 ± 17.45 m, respectively, which are also greater than those reported in the rat kidney. Despite the comparable body weight, the total number and mean individual volume of glomeruli in the Persian squirrel kidney were greater than those in the rat kidney. Overall, the stereological variables of the kidneys elucidated in this study are exclusive to the Persian squirrel. Our findings, together with future renal physiological data, will contribute to a better understanding of the renal structure–function relationship in the Persian squirrel.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0332-3
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Mapping of enkephalins and adrenocorticotropic hormone in the squirrel
           monkey brainstem
    • Authors: Ewing Duque-Díaz; Zaida Díaz-Cabiale; José Angel Narváez; Rafael Coveñas
      Pages: 275 - 292
      Abstract: An immunocytochemical technique has been used to study for the first time the distribution of fibers and cell bodies containing leucine–enkephalin (leu-enk), methionine–enkephalin (met-enk) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the whole brainstem of the squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus. Cell bodies containing leu-enk or met-enk were found in the superior colliculus and the formatio reticularis tegmenti mesencephali, respectively. No immunoreactive cell bodies containing ACTH were observed. Leu-enk-immunoreactive fibers were observed in 40 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions, fibers containing met-enk were found in 38 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions and fibers containing ACTH were found in 26 nuclei/tracts/regions. In the latter case, the density of immunoreactive fibers was always low. A high/moderate density of leu-enk- or met-enk-immunoreactive fibers were found in 18 and 16 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions, respectively. The distribution of immunoreactive fibers containing leu-enk or met-enk was quite similar, with both leu-enk and met-enk observed in 82.5 % of the squirrel monkey brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions. This relationship is less marked for met-enk and ACTH (60.5 %) and even lower for leu-enk and ACTH (52.5 %). In 42.5 % of the nuclei/tracts/regions of the squirrel monkey brainstem (colliculus superior, substantia grisea centralis, nucleus interpeduncularis, nucleus tractus spinalis nervi trigemini, nucleus tractus solitarii, nucleus parabrachialis, formatio reticularis, substantia nigra), we observed fibers containing all three neuropeptides. The widespread distribution reported here suggests that enkephalins and ACTH can be involved in several physiological functions. The distribution of the immunoreactive fibers reported here is quite similar to that previously reported for enkephalins and ACTH in Macaca species and humans.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0333-2
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Low origin of the radial artery: a case study including a review of
           literature and proposal of an embryological explanation
    • Authors: Grzegorz Wysiadecki; Michał Polguj; Robert Haładaj; Mirosław Topol
      Pages: 293 - 298
      Abstract: A low origin of the radial artery is a rare anatomical variation, with the incidence estimated at 0.2 %. This report presents a previously unrecorded case of an unusual distal origin of the radial artery, co-occurring with a double recurrent radial artery. The radial artery arose under the pronator teres muscle, 76 mm below the intercondylar line of the humerus. After emerging from under the tendon of the pronator teres muscle, the radial artery took a typical course and terminated in the deep palmar arch. Additionally, the double radial recurrent artery branched directly off the brachial artery, near the level of the radial neck. A well-developed muscular branch of the first radial recurrent artery ran beneath the brachioradialis muscle and supplied the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, as well as supinator muscles. The second (accessory) radial recurrent artery took origin from the posterior aspect of the brachial artery, ran deep to the distal tendon of the biceps brachii muscle and terminated by joining the articular network of elbow. According to recent theories, the plexiform appearance of the arteries at early stages of upper limb development allows for formation of alternative pathways of blood flow, which may give rise to variations in the definitive arterial pattern.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0371-9
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The possibilities of studying human embryos and foetuses using micro-CT: a
           technical note
    • Authors: Kateřina Vymazalová; Lenka Vargová; Tomáš Zikmund; Jozef Kaiser
      Pages: 299 - 303
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to discover a way to study the internal structure and evolution of human embryos noninvasively. The human embryo was stained with phosphotungstic acid solution (PTA) in ethanol (EPTA) and scanned using a micro computed tomography (micro-CT) scanner. Using appropriate software, a three-dimensional image of the embryo was created, which could be further exploited. The methodology described could be used for the non-destructive examination of the internal structure of the human embryo, and the resulting data can be used as a resource for medical students, gynaecologists, and paediatricians.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0377-3
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The stellate cell system (vitamin A-storing cell system)
    • Authors: Haruki Senoo; Yoshihiro Mezaki; Mutsunori Fujiwara
      Abstract: Past, present, and future research into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, or Ito cells) are summarized and discussed in this review. Kupffer discovered black-stained cells in the liver using the gold chloride method and named them stellate cells (Sternzellen in German) in 1876. Wake rediscovered the cells in 1971 using the same gold chloride method and various modern histological techniques including electron microscopy. Between their discovery and rediscovery, HSCs disappeared from the research history. Their identification, the establishment of cell isolation and culture methods, and the development of cellular and molecular biological techniques promoted HSC research after their rediscovery. In mammals, HSCs exist in the space between liver parenchymal cells (PCs) or hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) of the hepatic lobule, and store 50–80% of all vitamin A in the body as retinyl ester in lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. SCs also exist in extrahepatic organs such as pancreas, lung, and kidney. Hepatic (HSCs) and extrahepatic stellate cells (EHSCs) form the stellate cell (SC) system or SC family; the main storage site of vitamin A in the body is HSCs in the liver. In pathological conditions such as liver fibrosis, HSCs lose vitamin A, and synthesize a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) components including collagen, proteoglycan, glycosaminoglycan, and adhesive glycoproteins. The morphology of these cells also changes from the star-shaped HSCs to that of fibroblasts or myofibroblasts.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0395-9
       
  • A case of double inferior vena cava with renal, ovarian and iliac vein
           variation
    • Authors: Taro Ito; Yayoi Ikeda
      Abstract: We encountered a rare case of an anatomic variant of inferior vena cava (IVC) duplication with renal, ovarian and iliac vein variation in an 81-year-old Japanese female cadaver during a student dissection course of anatomy at Aichi Gakuin University School of Dentistry. The two IVCs ran upwards bilaterally to the abdominal aorta. The left IVC joined with the left renal vein (RV) to form a common trunk that crossed anterior to the aorta and ended at the right IVC. We detected a vein [interiliac vein (IiV)] connecting the two IVCs at the level of the aortic bifurcation. The IiV was formed by the union of two tributaries from the left IVC and a tributary from the left internal iliac vein (IIV) and ran obliquely upwards from left to right. Two right ovarian veins, arising separately from the ipsilateral pampiniform plexus, ran vertically in parallel to each other, and each one independently terminated at the right IVC and the right RV. Two right IIVs, connecting each other with small branches, ascended and separately joined the right external iliac vein. The right and left IIVs were connected to each other. These variations cause abnormal drainage, which could lead to clinical symptoms associated with the dysfunction of the vascular and urogenital systems. Here we describe the detailed anatomical features of the area and discuss the related anatomical and developmental aspects.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0397-7
       
  • The effects of soy and tamoxifen on apoptosis in the hippocampus and
           dentate gyrus in a pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model of
           ovariectomized rats
    • Authors: Ali Reza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan; Somaieh Mansouri; Mariam Lale Ataei; Mehrdad Jahanshahi; Mahmoud Hosseini
      Abstract: The effects of tamoxifen and soy on apoptosis of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus of ovariectomized rats after repeated seizures were investigated. Female rats were divided into: (1) Control, (2) Sham, (3) Sham-Tamoxifen (Sham-T), (4) Ovariectomized (OVX), (5) OVX-Tamoxifen (OVX-T), (6)OVX-Soy(OVX-S) and (7) OVX-S-T. The animals in the OVX-S, OVX-T and OVX-S-T groups received soy extract (60 mg/kg; i.p.), tamoxifen (10 mg/kg) or both for 2 weeks before induction of seizures. The animals in these groups additionally received the mentioned treatments before each injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 40 mg/kg) for 6 days. The animals in the Sham and OVX groups received a vehicle of tamoxifen and soy. A significant decrease in the seizure score and TUNEL-positive neurons was seen in the OVX group compared to the Sham (P < 0.001). The animals in both the OVX-T and OVX-S groups had a significantly higher seizure score as well as number of TUNEL-positive neurons compared to the OVX group (P < 0.01–P < 0.001). Co-treatment of the OVX rats by the extract and tamoxifen decreased the seizure score and number of TUNEL-positive neurons compared to OVX-S (P < 0.001). Treatment of the OVX rats by either soy or tamoxifen increased the seizure score as well as the number of TUNEL-positive neurons in the hippocampal formation. Co-administration of tamoxifen and soy extract inhibited the effects of the soy extract and tamoxifen when they were administered alone. It might be suggested that both soy and tamoxifen have agonistic effects on estrogen receptors by changing the seizure severity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0398-6
       
  • Multiple muscular variations including tenuissimus and tensor fasciae
           suralis muscles in the posterior thigh of a human case
    • Authors: Takamitsu Arakawa; Takahiro Kondo; Masahiro Tsutsumi; Yuko Watanabe; Toshio Terashima; Akinori Miki
      Abstract: The posterior thigh muscles on the right side of an 81-year-old male cadaver had multiple variations, denoted muscles I–IV. Muscle I originated from the posteromedial surface of the greater trochanter and divided into two muscle bellies. These muscle bellies fused with the long head of the biceps femoris and were innervated by two branches from muscular branches of the semitendinosus and the long head of the biceps. Muscle II separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the proximal third and fused with the semitendinosus in the distal fourth. Muscle III was a biventer muscle. Its superior belly separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the distal third. The inferior belly of this muscle fused with the posterior surface of the crural fascia and was innervated by the tibial nerve. Muscle IV separated from the adductor magnus muscle, passed between the long and short heads of the biceps, fused with the inferior belly of muscle III, and was innervated by the muscular branch of the common fibular nerve to the short head of the biceps. Peeling off the epineurium of the muscular branches to the inferior belly of muscle III showed that this nerve fascicle divided from the common trunk with branches to the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. The inferior bellies of muscle III and muscle IV were thought to be equivalent to the tensor fasciae suralis and tenuissimus muscles, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0396-8
       
  • Anatomy of the fasciae and fascial spaces of the maxillofacial and the
           anterior neck regions
    • Authors: Seiichiro Kitamura
      Abstract: This review provides an overview of comprehensive knowledge regarding the anatomy of the fasciae and fascial spaces of the maxillofacial and the anterior neck regions, principally from the standpoint of oral surgery, whose descriptions have long been puzzling and descriptively much too complex. The maxillofacial and the anterior neck regions are divided into four portions: the portions superficial and deep to the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia (SfDCF) including its rostral extension to the face, the intermediate portion sandwiched by the splitting SfDCF, and the superficial portion peculiar to the face where the deep structures open on the body surface to form the oral cavity. Different fascial spaces are contained in each of the portions, although the spaces belonging to the portion of the same depth communicate freely with each other. The spaces of the superficial portions are adjacent to the oral cavity and constitute the starting point of deep infections from that cavity. The spaces of the intermediate portion lie around the mandible and occupy the position connecting the superficial and deep portions. Among these spaces, the submandibular and prestyloid spaces play an important role as relay stations conveying the infections into the deep portion. The spaces of the deep portion lie near the cervical viscera and communicate inferiorly with the superior mediastinum, among which the poststyloid space plays a role as a reception center of the infections and conveys the infections into the superior mediastinum particularly by way of the retrovisceral space and the carotid sheath.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0394-x
       
  • Simultaneous lateral ponticle with facet-like depression and epitransverse
           process of the atlas
    • Authors: Jocelyn Gonzales; Vlad Voin; Joe Iwanaga; Cameron Schmidt; Christian Fisahn; Fernando Alonso; Rod J. Oskouian; R. Shane Tubbs
      Abstract: The lateral ponticle and epitransverse process are rare anatomical variations found on the atlas vertebra of the cervical spine. When a lateral ponticle occurs, an abnormal bony bridge extends from the superior articular facet to the transverse process. This bony bridge bisects the transverse foramen wherein the vertebral artery normally lies. In this case report, we describe a C1 specimen from an adult male with a lateral ponticle on the right side and an epitransverse process on the left side. Additionally, an articular facet-like structure was also found on the lateral ponticle’s surface. Relevant literature regarding the lateral ponticle across age groups, sex, race, and species is also reviewed. We postulate that genesis of the lateral ponticle of the atlas occurs in utero, specifically during the lateral ossification of the ventral sclerotomes. To our knowledge, an articular facet-like structure on such a ponticle has not been reported previously. Moreover, simultaneous occurrence of a lateral ponticle and contralateral epitransverse process has, to our knowledge, not been reported before.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0393-y
       
  • A new superficial landmark for the odontoid process: a cadaveric study
    • Authors: Christian Fisahn; Michael J. Montalbano; Joe Iwanaga; Marc Moisi; Marios Loukas; Jens R. Chapman; Rod J. Oskouian; R. Shane Tubbs
      Abstract: When image guidance is not available or when there is a need to confirm the findings of such technology, superficial landmarks can still play a role in providing surgeons with estimations of the position of deeper anatomical structures. To our knowledge, surface landmarks for the position of the odontoid process have not been investigated. We have therefore performed an anatomical study to investigate such a landmark. One-centimeter metallic rods were placed on the philtrum of the upper lip of 20 cadaveric head specimens. To assess the position relative to the odontoid process, we took lateral and anteroposterior radiographs and recorded the measurements. Descriptive findings from radiographic observations indicated a reasonable approximation between the philtrum and the midpoint of the odontoid process. Based on our results, we suggest that the philtrum of the upper lip can serve as a first line estimation of the position of the odontoid process and can assist in verifying this bony structure following the use of image guidance.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0390-1
       
 
 
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