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Showing 1 - 200 of 2345 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)

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Journal Cover Anatomical Science International
  [SJR: 0.301]   [H-I: 26]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1447-6959 - ISSN (Online) 1447-073X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682–1771): father of pathologic anatomy and
           pioneer of modern medicine
    • Authors: Sanjib Kumar Ghosh
      Pages: 305 - 312
      Abstract: Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682–1771) was an Italian anatomist who introduced the anatomo-clinical concept in medicine and established anatomy as the instrument to identify the seat and etiology of any disease. He was professor of anatomy at the prestigious University of Padua for more than 50 years. His first documented text in anatomy, Adversaria Anatomica was published in three volumes between 1706 and 1719. His accurate anatomical descriptions of human organs enhanced his reputation as the most famous anatomist of Europe during that period. Morgagni published the most important work of his life, the masterpiece in pathologic anatomy, De Sedibus, in 1761. The text is based on his pathologic observations from about 700 autopsy dissections of patients whom he had treated during their lifetime. De Sedibus provides the reader with a precise correlation between the anatomo-pathologic findings at post-mortem and the clinical symptoms of a disease observed during a lifetime. Morgagni’s ability to integrate and synthesize information set him apart from his contemporaries, and his anatomo-clinical method was a major breakthrough in the history of medicine as it helped physicians to diagnose a disease, analyse the prognosis of that disease and prepare a management protocol for the same. His achievements led to the emergence of pathologic anatomy as an exact science and with him began modern medicine.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0373-7
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 3 (2017)
  • Roles of PKR in differentiation and apoptosis of bone-related cells
    • Authors: Tatsuji Haneji
      Pages: 313 - 319
      Abstract: Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase which is activated by double-stranded RNAs and related to several signal transduction pathways. To examine the effects of PKR on bone metabolism, we established PKR-K/R mutant cells in which amino acid lysine at 296 is substituted with arginine. PKR regulated apoptosis in osteoblastic cells via nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) cascade. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with osteoblast differentiation medium differentiated into osteoblasts, while the mutant cells did not differentiate into osteoblasts. RAW246.7 cells triggered with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) formed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated giant cells, whereas PKR-K/R mutant RAW cells did not. Differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts was caused by NF-κB activation and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) ubiquitination and degradation. We also demonstrated involvement of PKR in chondrocyte differentiation. PKR prevented tumor necrosis factor-α- and interleukin 1α-induced bone resorption in calvaria and artificially induced periodontal disease in rat. Our findings indicate that PKR regulates bone metabolism in vitro and in vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0385-3
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 3 (2017)
  • Prevalence of caries in deciduous teeth in early modern Japan: analyses of
           human skeletons from Hitotsubashi (Tokyo, Japan)
    • Authors: Tomohito Nagaoka
      Pages: 320 - 329
      Abstract: The early modern Edo period in Japan refers to the division of chronological age dated from the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries. During that period, the social structure was stratified, with warriors at the top, followed by farmers, and finally townsmen at the bottom. I aimed to examine carious lesions in deciduous teeth in the commoners from the city of Edo (now Tokyo), to compare them with those in the warriors and commoners from Kyushu, and to reveal differences in the incidence of caries across social classes and regions. I examined 843 deciduous teeth of 115 individuals from the Hitotsubashi site in Tokyo. The comparative samples were obtained from warriors and commoners whose remains were excavated from the Sougenji and Kyoumachi sites, respectively, in Kyushu [Oyamada et al. (2008) Anthropol Sci 116:9–15]. The caries frequency in the Hitotsubashi sample was 11.3 %. Carious lesions in the upper teeth were more frequent than those in the lower teeth in all age groups. The upper incisors exhibited the highest frequency of caries, while there was almost no caries in the lower incisors and canines. I also found population differences in deciduous caries among the Edo populations. Remains of teeth excavated from Hitotsubashi were found to have a mild degree of caries compared to remains of teeth excavated from Sougenji and Kyoumachi in Kyushu in terms of caries frequency and location. Thus, the influence of regional differences in diet and living circumstances was stronger than expected, and the variation observed in the frequency of deciduous caries among the Edo populations cannot be explained by social class alone.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0335-0
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 3 (2017)
  • Quercetin ameliorates peripheral nerve ischemia–reperfusion injury
           through the NF-kappa B pathway
    • Authors: Mohammadreza Gholami; Zahra Khanipour Khayat; Khatereh Anbari; Zia Obidavi; Alimohammad Varzi; Mandana Beigi Boroujeni; Mohsen Alipour; Ali Niapoor; Anneh Mohammad Gharravi
      Pages: 330 - 337
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of quercetin against ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury induced in the sciatic nerve of the rat. Quercetin (20 mg/kg) was given during ischemia just before reperfusion. Four groups of rats (Q+IR3, Q+IR7, Q+IR14, and Q+IR28) received 3, 7, 14, and 28 days of reperfusion, respectively, after the intraperitoneal injection of quercetin. After reperfusion, a behavioral test was performed and the sciatic functional index was calculated. Each sciatic nerve was stained to check for edema and ischemic fiber degeneration. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect TNF-alpha and NF-kappa B, and TUNEL staining was carried out to detect apoptosis. The Q+IR3, Q+IR7, and Q+IR14 groups showed significantly increased behavioral scores and ameliorated sciatic functional index values compared to IR-injured rats that received vehicle alone during ischemia and then the same period of reperfusion. The Q+IR3, Q+IR7, Q+IR14, and Q+IR28 groups presented significant ischemic fiber degeneration (IFD), TNF-alpha expression, and apoptosis as compared with the IR-injured and perfused rats that did not receive quercetin. The Q+IR3, Q+IR7, and Q+IR28 groups also exhibited significantly decreased NF-kappa B expression (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.026) as compared with the IR-injured rats that were perfused but did not receive quercetin. These results imply that quercetin may be beneficial in the treatment of sciatic IR injury because of its antiapoptotic and antiinflammatory effects and its ability to decrease the expression of NF-kappa B.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0336-z
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 3 (2017)
  • Age-related fibromuscular dysplasia in the human left ventricle papillary
           muscles arteries
    • Authors: Christos E. Nerantzis; Nikolaos G. Karakoukis; George C. Di Lernia; Sotirios G. Bouzianis; Nikolaos G. Sakelaris; Emmanouil B. Agapitos
      Pages: 338 - 342
      Abstract: We describe histologically cases of patients between 31 and 60 years of age who had fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) in the tunica media (TM) of the left ventricle papillary muscles (PM) arteries. We also compared them with our previous findings in subjects younger than 30 years of age. We examined histologically samples taken from the tip of the anterior PM of the left ventricle in 200 healthy male hearts. In 33 cases (16.5 %), FMD was in the TM. We divided these cases into three subgroups (A, B, C) based on the degree of replacement of smooth muscle cells by fibrous tissue, and thus identified 17, 11 and 5 cases, respectively. Until the age of 41, the typical lesions were often localized within the TM. Beyond that age, the fibrous tissue increased in the TM wall and in the surrounding area of the vessels, causing dysfunction of the PM. Degenerative lesions, as well as inflammatory infiltration, were found after the age of 53. The findings of this study will be useful to cardiologists and cardiac surgeons, in pointing out that, after the age of 44 years old, some PM and their supporting valves may present a degree of dysfunction.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0337-y
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 3 (2017)
  • Facial pillars in dogs: an anatomical study
    • Authors: Michal Kyllar; Vaclav Paral; Martin Pyszko; Barbora Doskarova
      Pages: 343 - 351
      Abstract: This study describes the facial pillar system in dolichocephalic and brachycephalic breeds of dogs, and highlights its differences. Knowledge of facial pillar system anatomy is imperative to carry out successful fracture repair. The aim of our study was to describe the pillar system of the facial skeleton in dogs, and compare different shapes of dog skulls using native skulls, radiographs and computed tomography (CT). The heads of brachycephalic and dolichocephalic dogs were investigated following a maceration process using trans-illumination, radiography and CT. Ground sections were created from bones of the facial skeleton for investigation of osteon directions. This study has revealed that the facial skeleton of the dog has numerous sinuses supported by vertically and horizontally oriented bone pillars. These pillars can be divided into five principal regions in dolichocephalic skulls and six principal regions in brachycephalic skulls. Radiographic imaging of both the brachiocephalic and dolichocephalic skulls was not capable of discerning bone pillars. Computed tomography transverse and horizontal section images discerned all pillars observed in the illuminated skulls.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0338-x
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 3 (2017)
  • Morphological features of the tongue and laryngeal entrance in two
           predatory birds with similar feeding preferences: common kestrel ( Falco
           tinnunculus ) and Hume’s tawny owl ( Strix butleri )
    • Authors: Mohamed M. A. Abumandour; Neveen E. R. El-Bakary
      Pages: 352 - 363
      Abstract: The aim of this investigation was to describe the morphological characters of the tongue of two predatory birds with similar feeding preferences, i.e. the common kestrel and Hume’s tawny owl. Descriptive information on the lingual morphology of these two birds, particularly Hume’s tawny owl, is incomplete. We found that the lingual apex of the owl has an oval, concave, shovel-like form with a bifid lingual tip, while that of the kestrel has the shape of a horny tip-like spoon with a central process in addition to there being several filiform-like papillae on the dorsal surface of the apex and body. In the owl, the dorsal surface of the apex and body is subdivided into four U-shaped regions: lingual tip, two lateral regions and a median region. The two lateral regions are characterized by the presence of papillae and several openings of lingual glands, while the median region carries filiform-like papillae. In both birds, the papillary crest is located between the body and root. In the kestrel, there is an additional row of papillae rostral to crest, while in the owl there is a rostral lateral extension of papillae on the lateral lingual surface so the distribution pattern has a W-shape. In the kestrel, the posterior part of lingual body has several openings of glands, while the root lacks glands completely, although it has many taste buds. In the owl, the lingual root is folded and has a large number of gland openings. In the kestrel caudally to the glottis, there are two paramedian transverse rows of pharyngeal papillae with a pair of median huge papillae, while in the owl, there is only one transverse row of papillae. The dorsal and ventral lingual surfaces of both birds are lined with non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0339-9
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 3 (2017)
  • Histological study of the developing pterygoid process of the fetal mouse
    • Authors: Masahito Yamamoto; Kei Kitamura; Masaaki Kasahara; Masamitsu Serikawa; Sakura Katumura; Toshihito Yoshimoto; Tadatoshi Matubayashi; Kento Odaka; Satoru Matsunaga; Shinichi Abe
      Pages: 364 - 372
      Abstract: The pterygoid process undergoes ossification of both the cartilage and membrane. However, few studies have attempted to explore the sequential development of the pterygoid process. Using histological examination, we performed morphological observations of the pterygoid process and surrounding tissue. ICR mice at embryonic days 13.5–18.0 and postnatal day 0 were used for morphological observations of the pterygoid process. By embryonic day 14.5, a mesenchymal cell condensation forming the anlage of the future medial pterygoid process differentiated into osteoid-like tissue and cartilage. At embryonic days 15.5–16.5, cartilage cells were clearly evident in the medial pterygoid process. In the medial pterygoid process, a bone collar was evident and calcified bone tissue surrounded the cartilage. At this point, a mesenchymal cell condensation formed the anlage of the pterygoid hamulus. At embryonic days 17.0–18.0, the cartilages were located along the lower and posterior border of the medial pterygoid process. A metachromatically stained matrix first became detectable around cells located in the pterygoid hamulus. On the other hand, at embryonic day 13.5, a metachromatically stained matrix was already evident in the space between the flattened cells in the lateral pterygoid process. At embryonic day 17.0, a hypertrophic cell zone had clearly formed in the diaphysis. On the basis of our present investigation, the lateral pterygoid process can be classified as primary cartilage, whereas the medial pterygoid process can be classified as secondary cartilage. Furthermore, it was found that the pterygoid hamulus is formed latest in the medial pterygoid process.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0340-3
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 3 (2017)
  • An anatomical study of wormian bones from the eastern part of India: is
           genetic influence a primary determinant of their morphogenesis'
    • Authors: Sanjib Kumar Ghosh; Sudipa Biswas; Suranjali Sharma; Soumya Chakraborty
      Pages: 373 - 382
      Abstract: Over the years a number of investigators have analysed the morphology of wormian bones in different population groups across the world. There have been significant variations between findings reported in these studies, and this has prompted researchers to focus on the influence of genetic factors on the morphology of these bones. In the light of the above observation, we considered it justified to conduct anatomical studies on wormian bones in different population groups; hence, we undertook the present study to look into the morphological details of these bones among a population in the eastern part of India. We observed a total of 120 adult dry human skulls of unknown age and sex, and noted the anatomical details of wormian bones when present. It was observed that wormian bones were present in 45 % of skulls, and that 30 % of skulls had more than one wormian bone. We also found that 2.5 % of the skulls had ten or more wormian bones, which is considered as pathognomonic. Maximum incidence (53.33 %) was observed at the lambdoid suture and minimum incidence at the bregma and metopic suture (0.61 % in each case). We noted a high incidence (21.21 %) of Inca bone/lambdoid ossicle, and bilaterally symmetrical wormian bones were present in 12.5 % study skulls. There were statistically significant (P < 0.05) variations between the findings of the present study and values reported in previous studies conducted in other regions of India and different parts of the world. Our observations favour the view that genetic influence primarily determines the morphology of wormian bones.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0342-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 3 (2017)
  • Simultaneous lateral ponticle with facet-like depression and epitransverse
           process of the atlas
    • Authors: Jocelyn Gonzales; Vlad Voin; Joe Iwanaga; Cameron Schmidt; Christian Fisahn; Fernando Alonso; Rod J. Oskouian; R. Shane Tubbs
      Pages: 383 - 386
      Abstract: The lateral ponticle and epitransverse process are rare anatomical variations found on the atlas vertebra of the cervical spine. When a lateral ponticle occurs, an abnormal bony bridge extends from the superior articular facet to the transverse process. This bony bridge bisects the transverse foramen wherein the vertebral artery normally lies. In this case report, we describe a C1 specimen from an adult male with a lateral ponticle on the right side and an epitransverse process on the left side. Additionally, an articular facet-like structure was also found on the lateral ponticle’s surface. Relevant literature regarding the lateral ponticle across age groups, sex, race, and species is also reviewed. We postulate that genesis of the lateral ponticle of the atlas occurs in utero, specifically during the lateral ossification of the ventral sclerotomes. To our knowledge, an articular facet-like structure on such a ponticle has not been reported previously. Moreover, simultaneous occurrence of a lateral ponticle and contralateral epitransverse process has, to our knowledge, not been reported before.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0393-y
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 3 (2017)
  • Effect of ligamentum teres tear on the development of joint instability
           and articular cartilage damage: an in vivo rabbit study
    • Authors: Jong Hun Baek; Young Soo Chun; Kee Hyung Rhyu; Wan Keun Yoon; Yoon Je Cho
      Abstract: The contribution of the ligamentum teres to the stabilization of the hip joint and the clinical influence of a compromised ligamentum teres are not well known. This study aimed to investigate joint stability and cartilage damage in a rabbit model by surgically inducing a complete ligamentum teres tear. Twenty adult New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Rabbits were divided into complete ligamentum teres tear with capsulotomy (n = 9, group I) and capsulotomy only (n = 10, group II) groups. Unilateral surgery was performed on the left hip. Joint instability was assessed by measuring the preoperative and postoperative acetabulofemoral (A-F) distances. Rabbits were euthanized to assess cartilage damage at 24 weeks postoperatively. The median postoperative A-F distance of the operated side in group I [0.68 cm (0.37–1.04 cm)] was larger than that in group II [0.50 cm (0.30–0.65 cm)] (p = 0.041). The median postoperative A-F distance was larger in the operated side [0.68 cm (0.37–1.04 cm)] compared to the nonoperated side [0.45 cm (0.30–0.75 cm)] in group I; it also was larger in the operated side [0.50 cm (0.30–0.65 cm)] compared to the nonoperated side [0.44 cm (0.32–0.67 cm)] in group II, but only group I showed a significant difference (p = 0.016 and 0.395, respectively). Articular cartilage damage was detected at the apex of the femoral head in two rabbits (22.2%) in group I only. Rabbits with a complete ligamentum teres tear showed significant instability at the hip joint and articular cartilage damage in our rabbit model, supporting the potential clinical importance of ligamentum teres as a hip joint stabilizer.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0406-x
  • Association of high carotid bifurcation and thyrolinguofacial trunk: a
           rare variation
    • Authors: Suresh Narayanan; Senthil Murugan
      Abstract: Variations in the origins and the branching pattern of the carotid system of arteries are not uncommon. Here we report a rare case of higher bifurcation of the common carotid artery (CCA) (at the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone), thyrolinguofacial trunk (TLFT) originating from the CCA, superior laryngeal artery (SLA) arising from the external carotid artery (ECA) on the left side, and linguofacial trunk arising from the ECA on the right side. In the present case, the CCA and carotid bifurcation may have arisen from the second aortic arch. The ECA bud could have developed from parts of the first aortic arch and ventral aorta. Thus, the altered blood flow through these vessels due to high carotid bifurcation could have caused disproportionate growth and shift in the origins of the branches of the ECA. An understanding of the bifurcation of the CCA and the branching pattern of the ECA should prove useful to surgeons performing selective intra-arterial chemotherapy for head and neck cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0405-y
  • Prevalence of cribra orbitalia in Pacopampa during the formative period in
    • Authors: Tomohito Nagaoka; Yuji Seki; Kazuhiro Uzawa; Mai Takigami; Daniel Morales Chocano
      Abstract: Cribra orbitalia is characterized by an aggregation of small apertures in the orbital roof in response to marrow hypertrophy. This pathological change is indicative of biological stress during youth. We examined the prevalence of this lesion in Pacopampa, a ceremonial center of the formative period, located in the northern highlands of Peru. Using this evaluation of cribra orbitalia, we reconstructed aspects of the population’s health and nutritional status during the formation of Andean civilization. We examined 41 orbits of 27 adult individuals (13 males, 14 females) and recorded the macroscopic presence or absence of cribra orbitalia. The presence or absence of cribra orbitalia was the same bilaterally for all 14 individuals having both orbits preserved. The pathology was present in two of the 13 males (15.4%), one of the 14 (7.1%) females, and three of 27 individuals (11.1%) for both sexes combined. There was no difference in the frequency between sexes. The prevalence of cribra orbitalia was found to be lower in Pacopampa than in the comparative data of coastal populations. It is reasonable to assume that the increase in social complexity in Pacopampa was probably unrelated to the decline in overall health of the people.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0404-z
  • Dorsal metacarpal veins: anatomic variation and potential clinical
    • Authors: Sara S. Elmegarhi; Justin Z. Amarin; Maher T. Hadidi; Darwish H. Badran; Islam M. Massad; Amjad M. Bani-Hani; Amjad T. Shatarat
      Abstract: The dorsal metacarpal veins are frequently cannulated. Cannulation success is determined by several variable anatomic features. The objective of this study is to classify, for the first time, the anatomic variants of the dorsal metacarpal veins. In this cross-sectional study, 520 university students and staff were conveniently recruited. The dorsal metacarpal veins in 1040 hands were studied. Venous visibility was enhanced by either tourniquet application or near-infrared illumination. Variant patterns of the dorsal metacarpal veins were classified. The final analysis included 726 hands, for an exclusion rate of 30 %. Eight pattern types were identified. Three anatomic features informed the variation. Bilateral symmetry of the dorsal metacarpal veins was present in 352 participants (83 % of the total). The overall frequency distribution of variants in both hands was similar (P = 0.8). The frequency distribution of variants was subject to sexual dimorphism (P = 0.001), ethnic variation (P < 0.001), and technical variation (P < 0.001). The anatomic variants of the dorsal metacarpal veins were sorted into decreasingly frequent primary, secondary, and tertiary groups. The groups may signify a progressive increase in difficulty of peripheral cannulation, in the mentioned order. As such, primary patterns are the most common and likely the easiest to cannulate, while tertiary patterns are the least common and likely the most difficult to cannulate. The preceding premise, in tandem with the bilateral asymmetry of the veins, is clinically significant. With cannulation difficulty likely signifying an underlying tertiary pattern, the contralateral dorsal metacarpal veins are probabilistically characterized by a primary pattern and are, as such, the easier option for peripheral venous cannulation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0403-0
  • Mental foramen and lingual vascular canals of mandible on MDCT images:
           anatomical study and review of the literature
    • Abstract: The mental foramen and lingual vascular canals are related to vessels and nerves in the mandibular body. The aim of the present study was to determine the number and location of these structures and to make measurements of them. The archived Multidetector Computed Tomography images of 100 adult (15- to 70-year-old) patients were evaluated retrospectively. The diameters of the mental foramens and their distances from the front, back, upper and lower reference points were measured. The distribution of mental foramens with respect to the teeth was also researched. The presence of lingual vascular canals, and the number of median and lateral canals was determined, and the length of the median lingual vascular canals measured. All measurement parameters were analyzed by gender, side and age group. Eleven patients demonstrated a total of 15 accessory mental foramen. Median lingual vascular canals were observed in 100% of cases, with lateral lingual vascular canals determined in 32%. Significant differences were observed in the results of different gender groups (P < 0.05); in contrast, no significant difference was observed related with age or side. Accessory mental foramen was determined mostly in males, and unilaterally on the right side; also, the distances of mental foramen, except the distance from the back border of the mandible (P < 0.05), were found to be higher, bilaterally, in males. Variation of mental foramen, as well as the presence, position and size of lingual vascular canals can be clearly investigated by multidetector computed tomography. A preoperative knowledge of the positions of neurovascular and bone structures is very important for preventing complications that may occur during or after operations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0402-1
  • Anomalous inferior mesenteric artery supplying the ascending, transverse,
           descending, and sigmoid colons
    • Authors: Tamami Abe; Ayako Ujiie; Yuya Taguchi; Shun Satoh; Takahiro Shibuya; Yan Jun; Sumio Isogai; Yoh-ichi Satoh
      Abstract: We have encountered in our anatomical practice the first case and an extremely rare second case in which the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colons were supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery. The causes of colic artery anomalies are generally explained in conjunction with the development of the superior mesenteric artery, which is intimately related to embryonic elongation and midgut rotation. However, this embryological model was inapplicable to both cases. This difficulty motivated us to seek possible relationships with reported anomalous inferior mesenteric arteries in adults as well as their embryological causes. We consider that the aberrant right colic artery found in 2009 is an “intermesenteric artery” which anastomoses the superior (or its middle colic branch) and inferior mesenteric artery, but secondarily lost its origin from the superior mesenteric artery. The aberrant colic artery found in 2010 is a “middle–inferior mesenteric artery” in which the inferior mesenteric artery formed a common trunk with remnant middle mesenteric artery.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0401-2
  • The “polymorphous” history of a polymorphous skull bone: the
    • Authors: Claudia Costea; Serban Turliuc; Andrei Cucu; Gabriela Dumitrescu; Alexandru Carauleanu; Catalin Buzduga; Anca Sava; Irina Costache; Dana Turliuc
      Abstract: For a long time, because of its location at the skull base level, the sphenoid bone was rather mysterious as it was too difficult for anatomists to reach and to elucidate its true configuration. The configuration of the sphenoid bone led to confusion regarding its sutures with the other skull bones, its shape, its detailed anatomy, and the vascular and nervous structures that cross it. This article takes the reader on a journey through time and space, charting the evolution of anatomists’ comprehension of sphenoid bone morphology from antiquity to its conception as a bone structure in the eighteenth century, and ranging from ancient Greece to modern Italy and France. The journey illustrates that many anatomists have attempted to name and to best describe the structural elements of this polymorphous bone.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0399-5
  • Computed tomographic analysis of the internal structure of the metacarpals
           and its implications for hand use, pathology, and surgical intervention
    • Authors: Alison L. Wong; Clifton G. Meals; Christopher B. Ruff
      Abstract: The variation of bone structure and biomechanics between the metacarpals is not well characterized. It was hypothesized that their structure would reflect their common patterns of use (i.e., patterns of hand grip), specifically that trabecular bone density would be greater on the volar aspect of all metacarpal bases, that this would be most pronounced in the thumb, and that the thumb diaphysis would have the greatest bending strength. Cross-sections at basal and mid-diaphyseal locations of 50 metacarpals from 10 human hands were obtained by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. The volar and dorsal trabecular densities of each base were measured and characterized using the volar/dorsal density ratio. The polar stress–strain index (SSIp), a surrogate measure of torsional/bending strength, was measured for each diaphysis and standardized for bone length and mass. Comparisons were made using mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and post hoc tests. Volar/dorsal trabecular density ratios showed even distribution in all metacarpal bases except for the thumb, which showed greater values on the volar aspect. The thumb, second, and third metacarpals all had high bending strength (SSIp), but the thumb’s SSIp relative to its length and trabecular mass was much higher than those of the other metacarpals. Trabecular density of the metacarpal bases was evenly distributed except in the thumb, which also showed higher bending strength relative to its length and mass. Understanding of how these indicators of strength differ across metacarpals may improve both fracture diagnosis and treatment and lays the groundwork for investigating changes with age, hand dominance, and occupation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0400-3
  • The stellate cell system (vitamin A-storing cell system)
    • Authors: Haruki Senoo; Yoshihiro Mezaki; Mutsunori Fujiwara
      Abstract: Past, present, and future research into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, or Ito cells) are summarized and discussed in this review. Kupffer discovered black-stained cells in the liver using the gold chloride method and named them stellate cells (Sternzellen in German) in 1876. Wake rediscovered the cells in 1971 using the same gold chloride method and various modern histological techniques including electron microscopy. Between their discovery and rediscovery, HSCs disappeared from the research history. Their identification, the establishment of cell isolation and culture methods, and the development of cellular and molecular biological techniques promoted HSC research after their rediscovery. In mammals, HSCs exist in the space between liver parenchymal cells (PCs) or hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) of the hepatic lobule, and store 50–80% of all vitamin A in the body as retinyl ester in lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. SCs also exist in extrahepatic organs such as pancreas, lung, and kidney. Hepatic (HSCs) and extrahepatic stellate cells (EHSCs) form the stellate cell (SC) system or SC family; the main storage site of vitamin A in the body is HSCs in the liver. In pathological conditions such as liver fibrosis, HSCs lose vitamin A, and synthesize a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) components including collagen, proteoglycan, glycosaminoglycan, and adhesive glycoproteins. The morphology of these cells also changes from the star-shaped HSCs to that of fibroblasts or myofibroblasts.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0395-9
  • A case of double inferior vena cava with renal, ovarian and iliac vein
    • Authors: Taro Ito; Yayoi Ikeda
      Abstract: We encountered a rare case of an anatomic variant of inferior vena cava (IVC) duplication with renal, ovarian and iliac vein variation in an 81-year-old Japanese female cadaver during a student dissection course of anatomy at Aichi Gakuin University School of Dentistry. The two IVCs ran upwards bilaterally to the abdominal aorta. The left IVC joined with the left renal vein (RV) to form a common trunk that crossed anterior to the aorta and ended at the right IVC. We detected a vein [interiliac vein (IiV)] connecting the two IVCs at the level of the aortic bifurcation. The IiV was formed by the union of two tributaries from the left IVC and a tributary from the left internal iliac vein (IIV) and ran obliquely upwards from left to right. Two right ovarian veins, arising separately from the ipsilateral pampiniform plexus, ran vertically in parallel to each other, and each one independently terminated at the right IVC and the right RV. Two right IIVs, connecting each other with small branches, ascended and separately joined the right external iliac vein. The right and left IIVs were connected to each other. These variations cause abnormal drainage, which could lead to clinical symptoms associated with the dysfunction of the vascular and urogenital systems. Here we describe the detailed anatomical features of the area and discuss the related anatomical and developmental aspects.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0397-7
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