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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Anatomical Science International
  [SJR: 0.301]   [H-I: 26]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1447-6959 - ISSN (Online) 1447-073X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Anatomy of the fasciae and fascial spaces of the maxillofacial and the
           anterior neck regions
    • Authors: Seiichiro Kitamura
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Abstract This review provides an overview of comprehensive knowledge regarding the anatomy of the fasciae and fascial spaces of the maxillofacial and the anterior neck regions, principally from the standpoint of oral surgery, whose descriptions have long been puzzling and descriptively much too complex. The maxillofacial and the anterior neck regions are divided into four portions: the portions superficial and deep to the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia (SfDCF) including its rostral extension to the face, the intermediate portion sandwiched by the splitting SfDCF, and the superficial portion peculiar to the face where the deep structures open on the body surface to form the oral cavity. Different fascial spaces are contained in each of the portions, although the spaces belonging to the portion of the same depth communicate freely with each other. The spaces of the superficial portions are adjacent to the oral cavity and constitute the starting point of deep infections from that cavity. The spaces of the intermediate portion lie around the mandible and occupy the position connecting the superficial and deep portions. Among these spaces, the submandibular and prestyloid spaces play an important role as relay stations conveying the infections into the deep portion. The spaces of the deep portion lie near the cervical viscera and communicate inferiorly with the superior mediastinum, among which the poststyloid space plays a role as a reception center of the infections and conveys the infections into the superior mediastinum particularly by way of the retrovisceral space and the carotid sheath.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0394-x
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • The “polymorphous” history of a polymorphous skull bone: the
    • Authors: Claudia Costea; Serban Turliuc; Andrei Cucu; Gabriela Dumitrescu; Alexandru Carauleanu; Catalin Buzduga; Anca Sava; Irina Costache; Dana Turliuc
      Pages: 14 - 22
      Abstract: Abstract For a long time, because of its location at the skull base level, the sphenoid bone was rather mysterious as it was too difficult for anatomists to reach and to elucidate its true configuration. The configuration of the sphenoid bone led to confusion regarding its sutures with the other skull bones, its shape, its detailed anatomy, and the vascular and nervous structures that cross it. This article takes the reader on a journey through time and space, charting the evolution of anatomists’ comprehension of sphenoid bone morphology from antiquity to its conception as a bone structure in the eighteenth century, and ranging from ancient Greece to modern Italy and France. The journey illustrates that many anatomists have attempted to name and to best describe the structural elements of this polymorphous bone.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0399-5
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • Spinal nerve defects in mouse embryos prenatally exposed to valproic acid
    • Authors: Juramt Bold; Hiromi Sakata-Haga; Yoshihiro Fukui
      Pages: 35 - 41
      Abstract: Abstract To examine in detail spinal nerve defects induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid in mice, pregnant ICR mice were subcutaneously injected with a single dose of 400 mg/kg valproic acid on gestational day 6, 7, 8, or 9, and their embryos were observed on gestational day 10. The whole-mount immunostaining using an anti-neurofilament antibody allowed us to identify spinal nerve defects, such as a loss of bundle, anastomosis among bundles arising from adjacent segment, and a disrupted segmental pattern of the dorsal root ganglia, in valproic acid-exposed embryos. The prevalence of spinal nerve defects was the highest in the embryos exposed to valproic acid on gestational day 8 among the experimental groups. Then, effects of the administration dose of valproic acid on the prevalence of spinal nerve defects were examined on gestational day 10 and found to be dose-dependently increased. It was noteworthy that all embryos exposed to 600 mg/kg of valproic acid on gestational day 8 suffered spinal nerve defects. Folic acid (3 mg/kg/day) supplementation during gestational day 6–10 suppressed the prevalence of valproic acid-induced neural tube defects, which are common malformations in offspring prenatally exposed to valproic acid, but not that of spinal nerve defects. Thus, the spinal nerve defects due to prenatal valproic acid exposure might be induced by mechanisms different from those of neural tube defects. Because spinal nerve defects were predicted to be caused by the disrupted segmental arrangement of the somites and/or that of neural crest cells, which was the origin of the dorsal root ganglia and/or abnormal polarity of the somite, this mouse model with spinal nerve defects at high incidence would be useful to examine the effects of valproic acid on the somitogenesis and morphogenesis of somite-associated structures.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0363-9
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • Suprascapular notch morphology in the pediatric population: a computed
           tomography study
    • Authors: M. Podgórski; M. Polguj; M. Topol; A. Kusak; M. Łukaszewski; P. Grzelak
      Pages: 42 - 47
      Abstract: Abstract Suprascapular notch is characterized by variable morphology. However, its development is not well studied. We hypothesize that it proceeds postnatally. Thus, the aim of this research was to characterize the morphology of the suprascapular notch in a pediatric population based on computed tomography. A retrospective analysis was performed of 291 chest computed tomography examinations of patients under 18 years old taken following other clinical indications. The inclusion criteria were as follows: both scapulae encompassed in a field of view; no artifacts; no pathologies concerning the scapulae. Based on visual assessment and measurements, the suprascapular notch was classified according to a fivefold classification (type I, deeper than wider; type II, equally deep and wide; type III, wider than deeper; type IV, bony foramen; type V, discreet notch). In all, 173 examinations were included (60 females and 113 males). The most common suprascapular notch types were discreet notch (type V, 225 scapulae; 65.0 %) and type III (114 scapulae; 32.9 %). Children with type V suprascapular notch were significantly younger than children with other types (26.1 ± 42.4 months vs. 111.2 ± 66.7 months; p < 0.05). In types I–III, a positive correlation was found between age and dimensions of the suprascapular notch (p < 0.05). This study provides the first description of the suprascapular notch in a pediatric population based on computed tomography. It confirms that morphology of the suprascapular notch undergoes postnatal development.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0364-8
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • Morphology and morphometry of the caudate lobe of the liver in two
    • Authors: Mandeep Gill Sagoo; R. Claire Aland; Edward Gosden
      Pages: 48 - 57
      Abstract: Abstract The caudate lobe of the liver has portal blood supply and hepatic vein drainage independent of the remainder of the liver and may be differentially affected in liver pathologies. Ultrasonographic measurement of the caudate lobe can be used to generate hepatic indices that may indicate cirrhosis. This study investigated the relationship of metrics of the caudate lobe and other morphological features of human livers from a northwest Indian Punjabi population (n = 50) and a UK Caucasian population (n = 25), which may affect the calculation of hepatic indices. The width of the right lobe of the liver was significantly smaller, while the anteroposterior diameter of the caudate lobe and both Harbin’s Index and the Hess Index scores were significantly larger in NWI livers than in UKC livers. The Hess Index score, in particular, is much larger in the NWI population (265 %, p < 0.005). Two caudate lobe features were significantly different between the two populations—the shape of the caudate lobe and the development of the caudate process. This study shows significant population differences exist in several metrics and morphological features of the liver. These differences may affect the calculation of hepatic indices, resulting in a greater percentage of false positives of cirrhosis in the NWI population. Population-specific data are required to correctly determine normal ranges.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0365-7
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • Anatomical and histological structure of the tongue and histochemical
           characteristics of the lingual salivary glands in the Persian squirrel (
           Sciurus anomalus )
    • Authors: Javad Sadeghinezhad; Zahra Tootian; Faezeh Javadi
      Pages: 58 - 68
      Abstract: Abstract This study was carried out to describe the anatomical, histological and mucinous histochemical characteristics of the tongue in the Persian squirrel. This species is a rodent distributed all over the Middle East and recently has been considered a companion animal. Anatomical observations showed the median sulcus on the apex and absence of a lingual prominence in the body. Light and scanning electron microscopy showed that the filiform papillae cover the entire dorsal surface of the tongue, and their sizes increased approaching the root. The fungiform papillae, which contained 1–4 taste buds, were scattered on the apex, margin, body and root of the tongue. Three vallate papillae were observed on the root, each one surrounded by a groove and crescent pad with taste buds on its lateral walls. The foliate papillae on both margins of the tongue contained several laminae with taste buds. The core of the tongue was composed of lingual glands, skeletal muscles and connective tissues. These glands were confined to the body and root, which were composed of serous cells located anteriorly and mucosal and seromucosal cells placed posteriorly. The mucin histochemistry using the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), alcian blue (AB) (pH 1.0 and 2.5), PAS–AB (pH 2.5) and aldehyde fuchsin-AB (pH 2.5) techniques showed that the mucosal content included both carboxylated and sulfated acidic mucins with neutral mucins. The results of this study could contribute to the knowledge of the morphological characteristics of the wild animal tongue and provide data for comparison with other rodents.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0367-5
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • Reevaluation of the superior radial collateral artery in the human upper
    • Authors: Koichiro Ichimura; Shota Kinose; Yuto Kawasaki; Kota Kato; Tatsuo Sakai
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: Abstract The superior radial collateral artery (SRCA) was described in well-established anatomy textbooks published in the 1800s. According to those textbooks, the SRCA originates from the brachial artery, passes transversely between the coracobrachialis and the humerus, and distributes to the most distal portion of the deltoid. The SRCA is not listed in the international standard on anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica, or in modern anatomy textbooks. In the present study, we reevaluated the anatomical features of the SRCA by cadaveric dissection. We found that two kinds of SRCAs were consistently present in the upper arm. One was similar to the previous descriptions of the SRCA in terms of origin and course, but the distribution was somewhat different. The other was similar to the previous descriptions in terms of the distribution, although it differed in origin and course. The discrepancy between the description of the SRCA in classical textbooks and the actual morphologies of the SRCA presumably prompted previous anatomists to question the existence of the SRCA, resulting in its absence from anatomical textbooks after a particular time point.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0368-4
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • Ultrastructural histometric evidence for expansion of the sustentacular
           cell envelope in response to hypersecretion of adrenal chromaffin cells in
    • Authors: Sawetree Pakkarato; Wipawee Thoungseabyoun; Apussara Tachow; Atsara Rawangwong; Yoshiteru Kagawa; Yuji Owada; Hisatake Kondo; Wiphawi Hipkaeo
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Abstract In our previous immuno-light microscopic study with an antibody for fatty acid binding protein of type 7 or brain type (FABP-7, B-FABP), the adrenomedullary sustentacular cells were revealed to have secondary processes that present faint immunostaining and an ill-defined sheet-like appearance, in addition to the well-recognized primary processes that present distinct immunostaining and a fibrous appearance. The secondary processes were regarded as corresponding to known ultrastructural profiles of sustentacular cells with a thickness of less than 0.2 µm (the resolution limit of light microscopy), and the processes were considered to be largely responsible for enveloping chromaffin cells. Due to those findings, the present immuno-electron microscopic study was performed to determine whether the secondary processes change the extent of their envelope for chromaffin cells under the intense secretion induced by water immersion–restraint stress. To achieve this, we focused on immunopositive ultrastructural profiles with a thickness of less than 0.2 µm. The measured lengths of the immunopositive profiles in the specimens from stressed mice were found to be significantly larger than those in specimens from normal mice, indicating an increase in the extent of the envelope of the sheet-like processes for the chromaffin cells. Thus, confining our measurements to the secondary process profiles, not the entire cell profiles, proved to be a key factor in the detection—for the first time—of the change in size of the sustentacular cell envelope upon changes in the secretory activity of enveloped chromaffin cells. The possible functional significance of this change in size is discussed here.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0370-x
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • Earlobe-like peritoneal appendage near the angle of His: a useful landmark
           for demarcating the lateral margin of the gastric cardia
    • Authors: Kanji Hirashima; Fengming Yue; Daihachiro Tomotsune; Katsunori Sasaki
      Pages: 82 - 87
      Abstract: Abstract The gastric cardia—the small area around the cardiac orifice including the abdominal esophagus—is an important target area for abdominal and thoracic surgeries, especially for laparoscopic procedures. In this study of 28 cadavers, a peritoneal earlobe-like appendage near the angle of His was identified as a useful indicator of the lateral margin of the abdominal esophagus, which is otherwise obscure because the peritoneum continues to the diaphragm without definite demarcation of this margin. This structure, which appears equivalent to the epiploic appendages, was commonly found to be present (in 22/28, 78.6 % of the 28 cadavers) and was 4–21 mm × 6–40 mm × 1–4 mm in size, triangular, round, or leaf-like in shape, contained fat, and was on an imaginary line along which the lesser omentum adheres to the lesser curvature and continues to the diaphragm (18/22, 81.8 %). This indicator is associated with the lesser omentum and is part of the gastrophrenic ligament, and could serve as a useful indicator of the margin of the gastric cardia, thus aiding surgeons performing laparoscopic surgery in this region.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0374-6
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • The significance of the supratrochlear aperture (STA) in elbow range of
           motion: an anatomical study
    • Authors: Robert Ndou
      Pages: 88 - 97
      Abstract: Abstract Assessment of the range of motion at a joint is among the methods employed by orthopedic surgeons and physiotherapists to determine courses of therapy and joint recovery. Females tend to have a greater range of motion at the elbow joint than males. In the present case–control study, the elbow extension angle was compared between males and females with and without the supratrochlear aperture. A total of 453 dry humeri and their corresponding ulnae were included in the study, and elbow extension angle was measured using a goniometer. The average extension angle in this sample was 173°, and it was significantly greater when the STA was present ( \(\bar{X}\)  = 175.4°) than when it was absent ( \(\bar{X}\)  = 171°). It was greater in females ( \(\bar{X}\)  = 174.5°) than in males ( \(\bar{X}\)  = 171.3°) irrespective of STA status, and was greater on the left in both sexes. Hyperextension characterized 13 % of the sample, whereas the majority (76 %) showed hypoextension and only a few (11 %) exhibited normal extension. Trochlear notch depth and olecranon–coronoid distance would found to be useful for predicting the presence of the supratrochlear aperture, while the transverse and vertical diameters of the supratrochlear aperture were found to be the most useful parameters when predicting the degree of extension. The functional benefits of hyperextension at the elbow joint are not fully understood. However, these results are important to orthopedic surgeons and physiotherapists as they permit a greater understanding of normal elbow range of motion in the South African population.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0376-4
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • A novel cadaveric study of the morphometry of the serratus anterior
           muscle: one part, two parts, three parts, four'
    • Authors: Alexandra Louise Webb; Elizabeth O’Sullivan; Maria Stokes; Sarah Mottram
      Pages: 98 - 107
      Abstract: Abstract The serratus anterior is portrayed as a homogeneous muscle in textbooks and during functional activities and rehabilitation exercises. It is unclear whether the serratus anterior is composed of subdivisions with distinctive morphology and functions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the serratus anterior could be subdivided into different structural parts on the basis of its segmental architectural parameters. Eight formalin-embalmed serratus anterior muscles were dissected and the attachments of each fascicle documented. Orientation and size of each fascicle were measured and the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) calculated. Three subdivisions of the serratus anterior were identified. A new finding was the discovery of two distinctive fascicles attached to the superior and inferior aspects of rib 2. The rib 2 inferior fascicle had the largest PCSA (mean 1.6 cm2) and attached, with the rib 3 fascicle, along the medial border of the scapula to form the middle division. The rib 2 superior and rib 1 fascicles attached to the superior angle of the scapula (upper division). Fascicles from ribs 4–8/9 attached to the inferior angle of the scapula (lower division). Mean fascicle angle relative to a vertical midline reference and PCSA for each division were 29° and 1.3 cm2 (upper), 90° and 2.2 cm2 (middle) and 59° and 3.0 cm2 (lower). This novel study demonstrated the presence of morphologically distinct serratus anterior subdivisions. The results of this study will inform the development of optimal techniques for the assessment, treatment and rehabilitation of this architecturally complex muscle in shoulder and neck pain.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0379-1
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • Surgical relevance of the lateral costotransverse ligament in relation to
           the dorsal root ganglion
    • Authors: Anthony V. D’Antoni; Peter G. Collin; Rachel A. Graham; Helena M. Kennedy; Tatiana Ndjatou; Pamela Perez; R. Shane Tubbs; Marios Loukas; Piotr B. Kozlowski; Estomith P. Mtui
      Pages: 108 - 113
      Abstract: Abstract The lateral costotransverse ligament, a short band that stabilizes the costovertebral joint, is found in close proximity to the dorsal root ganglion. This ligament is an important surgical landmark during tumor resections or nerve blocks in the paravertebral space. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the morphology of the lateral costotransverse ligament and its relation to the dorsal root ganglion at all levels of the thoracic spine. The thoracic spines of eight embalmed cadavers were dissected bilaterally. The length, width, and thickness of the ligament were measured. The distance from the inferolateral aspect of the ligament to the lateral aspect of the dorsal root ganglion was also measured. Three bilateral groups of lateral costotransverse ligaments, top (on ribs 1–2), middle (on ribs 3–10), and bottom (on ribs 11–12), were compared based on anatomic distinctions between the costotransverse joints, which can influence ligament morphology. Among the three groups, the differences between the length, width, and thickness were not statistically significant. However, the distance from the lateral costotransverse ligament to the dorsal root ganglion differed significantly (P = 0.000), with the middle group having the longest distance, and the bottom group having the shortest distance. This finding can help clinicians and surgeons avoid iatrogenic injuries of neural structures during thoracic spine surgery, or when performing nerve blocks in the paravertebral space.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0381-7
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • Planimetric correlation between the submandibular glands and the pancreas:
           a postmortem ductographic study
    • Authors: Bojan V. Stimec; Zoran Rakocevic; Dejan Ignjatovic; Jean H. D. Fasel
      Pages: 114 - 118
      Abstract: Abstract The salivary glands and pancreas have comparable anatomic and antigenic properties and can share common pathogenetic mechanisms involving toxic or autoimmune processes. The aim of this study is to assess the correlation in size between the normal submandibular glands and the pancreas. The study was based on human autopsy specimens of the pancreas, neck and oral base from 22 adults, both sexes (mean age, 57.9 years). The pancreatic and submandibular ducts were injected with a contrast medium, and the area of the salivary and pancreatic glandular ductograms was measured with the aid of software for quantification of visual information. Samples of tissue from the salivary glands and the pancreas were studied by means of light microscopy. A high correlation was found between the planimetric size of the pancreas and the submandibular glands (correlation coefficient 0.497 and 0.699 for the right and the left gland, respectively). This ratio was close to 5:1. There were no significant differences in size for the left vs. right submandibular gland (p = 0.39). The ductograms were significantly larger in size in males than in females (p < 0.001). This study has proven a positive correlation in planimetric size between the normal submandibular glands and pancreas, a result that is expected to have possible clinical implications in the long-term follow-up of patients with chronic pancreatitis.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0382-6
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • Histological detection of dynamic glial responses in the dysmyelinating
           Tabby - jimpy mutant brain
    • Authors: Masanao Ikeda; M. Ibrahim Hossain; Li Zhou; Masao Horie; Kazuhiro Ikenaka; Arata Horii; Hirohide Takebayashi
      Pages: 119 - 127
      Abstract: Abstract Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are glial cells that form myelin sheaths surrounding the axons in the central nervous system (CNS). Jimpy (jp) mutant mice are dysmyelinating disease models that show developmental abnormalities in myelinated OLs in the CNS. The causative gene in jp mice is the proteolipid protein (PLP) located on the X chromosome. Mutations in the jp allele result in exon 5 skipping and expression of abnormal PLP containing a C-terminal frame shift. Many lines of evidence suggest that abnormal PLP in OLs results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death. To histologically detect glial responses in the jp mutant brain, we performed staining with lineage-specific markers. Using OL markers and OL progenitor cell marker staining, we identified reduced numbers of OL lineage cells in the jp mutant brain. Nuclear staining of the transcription factor Olig1 was observed in the Tabby-jp brain, whereas cytoplasmic Olig1 staining was observed in the wild-type brain at postnatal day 21, suggesting that active myelination was present in the mutant brain. Many microglial cells with activated morphology and intensive staining of CD11b microglia marker were observed in the internal capsule of the mutant brain, a region of white matter containing residual OLs. Activated astrocytes with high glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactivity were also mainly observed in white matter. Finally, we performed in situ hybridization using C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) antisense probes to detect ER stressed cells. CHOP mRNA was strongly expressed in residual OLs in the Tabby-jp mutant mice at postnatal stages. These data show that microglia and astrocytes exhibit dynamic glial activation in response to cell death of OLs during Tabby-jp pathogenesis, and that CHOP antisense probes may be a good marker for the detection of ER-stressed OLs in jp mutant mice.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0383-5
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • Sodium fluoride does not affect the working memory and number of pyramidal
           cells in rat medial prefrontal cortex
    • Authors: Zulhaini Sartika A. Pulungan; Zaenal Muttaqien Sofro; Ginus Partadiredja
      Pages: 128 - 138
      Abstract: Abstract Fluoride is a chemical compound known to bring about fluorosis. It is thought to disrupt the central nervous system because of its ability to induce excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Any damage of pyramidal cells in the prefrontal cortex would result in cognitive function and working memory regulation disorders. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the working memory and estimated total number of medial prefrontal cortex pyramidal cells of adult male rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were assigned into four groups, namely control and three treated groups receiving 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg BW, respectively, of oral NaF solution for 30 days. The working memory test was carried out using a Y-maze. The number of pyramidal cells in the medial prefrontal cortex was estimated using an unbiased stereological method. There was no significant difference among groups in the working memory and number of pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex cells.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0384-4
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • A case of double inferior vena cava with renal, ovarian and iliac vein
    • Authors: Taro Ito; Yayoi Ikeda
      Pages: 139 - 143
      Abstract: Abstract We encountered a rare case of an anatomic variant of inferior vena cava (IVC) duplication with renal, ovarian and iliac vein variation in an 81-year-old Japanese female cadaver during a student dissection course of anatomy at Aichi Gakuin University School of Dentistry. The two IVCs ran upwards bilaterally to the abdominal aorta. The left IVC joined with the left renal vein (RV) to form a common trunk that crossed anterior to the aorta and ended at the right IVC. We detected a vein [interiliac vein (IiV)] connecting the two IVCs at the level of the aortic bifurcation. The IiV was formed by the union of two tributaries from the left IVC and a tributary from the left internal iliac vein (IIV) and ran obliquely upwards from left to right. Two right ovarian veins, arising separately from the ipsilateral pampiniform plexus, ran vertically in parallel to each other, and each one independently terminated at the right IVC and the right RV. Two right IIVs, connecting each other with small branches, ascended and separately joined the right external iliac vein. The right and left IIVs were connected to each other. These variations cause abnormal drainage, which could lead to clinical symptoms associated with the dysfunction of the vascular and urogenital systems. Here we describe the detailed anatomical features of the area and discuss the related anatomical and developmental aspects.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0397-7
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • Anomalous inferior mesenteric artery supplying the ascending, transverse,
           descending, and sigmoid colons
    • Authors: Tamami Abe; Ayako Ujiie; Yuya Taguchi; Shun Satoh; Takahiro Shibuya; Yan Jun; Sumio Isogai; Yoh-ichi Satoh
      Pages: 144 - 148
      Abstract: Abstract We have encountered in our anatomical practice the first case and an extremely rare second case in which the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colons were supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery. The causes of colic artery anomalies are generally explained in conjunction with the development of the superior mesenteric artery, which is intimately related to embryonic elongation and midgut rotation. However, this embryological model was inapplicable to both cases. This difficulty motivated us to seek possible relationships with reported anomalous inferior mesenteric arteries in adults as well as their embryological causes. We consider that the aberrant right colic artery found in 2009 is an “intermesenteric artery” which anastomoses the superior (or its middle colic branch) and inferior mesenteric artery, but secondarily lost its origin from the superior mesenteric artery. The aberrant colic artery found in 2010 is a “middle–inferior mesenteric artery” in which the inferior mesenteric artery formed a common trunk with remnant middle mesenteric artery.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0401-2
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • Network of anatomical texts (NAnaTex), an open-source project for
           visualizing the interaction between anatomical terms
    • Authors: Ryusuke Momota; Aiji Ohtsuka
      Pages: 149 - 153
      Abstract: Abstract Anatomy is the science and art of understanding the structure of the body and its components in relation to the functions of the whole-body system. Medicine is based on a deep understanding of anatomy, but quite a few introductory-level learners are overwhelmed by the sheer amount of anatomical terminology that must be understood, so they regard anatomy as a dull and dense subject. To help them learn anatomical terms in a more contextual way, we started a new open-source project, the Network of Anatomical Texts (NAnaTex), which visualizes relationships of body components by integrating text-based anatomical information using Cytoscape, a network visualization software platform. Here, we present a network of bones and muscles produced from literature descriptions. As this network is primarily text-based and does not require any programming knowledge, it is easy to implement new functions or provide extra information by making changes to the original text files. To facilitate collaborations, we deposited the source code files for the network into the GitHub repository ( so that anybody can participate in the evolution of the network and use it for their own non-profit purposes. This project should help not only introductory-level learners but also professional medical practitioners, who could use it as a quick reference.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0410-1
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 1 (2018)
  • Molecular insights into the mechanisms of M-cell differentiation and
           transcytosis in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues
    • Authors: Shunsuke Kimura
      Abstract: Abstract Microfold cells (M cells), which are located in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering mucosal lymphoid follicles, are specialized epithelial cells that initiate mucosal immune responses. These cells take luminal antigens and transport them via transcytosis across the FAE to the antigen-presenting cells underneath. Several intestinal pathogens exploit M cells as their portal for entry to invade the host and cause disease conditions. Recent studies have revealed that the uptake of antigens by M cells is essential for efficient antigen-specific IgA production and that this process likely maintains the homeostasis of mucosal tissues. The present article reviews recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanism of M-cell differentiation and describes the molecules expressed by M cells that are associated with antigen uptake and/or the transcytosis process. Current efforts to augment M-cell-mediated uptake for use in the development of effective mucosal vaccines are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0418-6
  • Transparent model of temporal bone and vestibulocochlear organ made by 3D
    • Authors: Ryoji Suzuki; Naoto Taniguchi; Fujio Uchida; Akimitsu Ishizawa; Yoshinori Kanatsu; Ming Zhou; Kodai Funakoshi; Hideo Akashi; Hiroshi Abe
      Abstract: Abstract The vestibulocochlear organ is composed of tiny complex structures embedded in the petrous part of the temporal bone. Landmarks on the temporal bone surface provide the only orientation guide for dissection, but these need to be removed during the course of dissection, making it difficult to grasp the underlying three-dimensional structures, especially for beginners during gross anatomy classes. We report herein an attempt to produce a transparent three-dimensional-printed model of the human ear. En bloc samples of the temporal bone from donated cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning, and on the basis of the data, the surface temporal bone was reconstructed with transparent resin and the vestibulocochlear organ with white resin to create a 1:1.5 scale model. The carotid canal was stuffed with red cotton, and the sigmoid sinus and internal jugular vein were filled with blue clay. In the inner ear, the internal acoustic meatus, cochlea, and semicircular canals were well reconstructed in detail with white resin. The three-dimensional relationships of the semicircular canals, spiral turns of the cochlea, and internal acoustic meatus were well recognizable from every direction through the transparent surface resin. The anterior semicircular canal was obvious immediately beneath the arcuate eminence, and the topographical relationships of the vestibulocochlear organ and adjacent great vessels were easily discernible. We consider that this transparent temporal bone model will be a very useful aid for better understanding of the gross anatomy of the vestibulocochlear organ.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0417-7
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