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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
  [SJR: 1.096]   [H-I: 123]   [30 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1618-2650 - ISSN (Online) 1618-2642
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Application of molecularly imprinted polymers for the analysis of
    • Authors: Ying Sun; Yiming Pang; Jingxu Zhang; Zhiwen Li; Jufen Liu; Bin Wang
      Abstract: High-accuracy analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in lipid matrix-based biological samples are highly necessary. We investigated the cleanup performance of the commercially available molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) to analyze PAHs in various biological samples (i.e., butter, peanut oil, pork belly, and human umbilical cord), and compared this method with the commonly used gel permeation chromatography (GPC). After primary cleanup with a MIP or GPC column, the extracts were further cleaned with a neutral aluminum oxide column. Then, we measured 16 PAH congeners using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The MIP method allowed PAH recovery levels as high as those measured with the GPC method to be obtained. More than 95% of the crude fats of butter, peanut oil, and pork belly were removed, although only ~ 50% were removed for human umbilical cord. The scan-mode ion chromatograms of the final extracts cleaned with the MIP method had responses similar to solvent blank for the four types of samples, which were slightly better than those cleaned with GPC. Moreover, the PAH concentrations in the MIP operation blank were generally lower than those of GPC operation blanks. These results indicated that MIP could be applied to the analysis of PAHs in various lipid matrix-based biological samples. Graphical abstract The schematic diagram of a molecularly imprinted polymer column and the elution curves of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and crude fats of various biological samples
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0646-6
  • Improving elution strategies for Chelex®-DGT passive samplers
    • Authors: Delphine Devillers; Rémy Buzier; Adeline Charriau; Gilles Guibaud
      Abstract: Elution of Chelex® binding layers, commonly used for the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT), is recognized as the most important contributor to the uncertainty of DGT measurements. Limiting uncertainty requires the use of optimized procedures and suitable elution recoveries (f e ). This work therefore investigated elution robustness to propose improved strategies. A wide range of conditions were investigated for the main elution parameters (Chelex® particle size, elution time, Chelex® loading, and eluent concentration and volume) on Al(III), Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II). Results showed that the choice of elution conditions should be a compromise driven by study constrains in terms of accuracy, repeatability, sensitivity, and targeted elements. Using experimentally determined recoveries should improve accuracy by approximately 5 to 10% compared to the use of recoveries from the literature. Fast elution of 1 h can be achieved without significant loss of recovery and repeatability except for Cr(III) (8 h minimum). Elution recovery depended on Chelex® loading for Zn and Cr and introducing recoveries adapted to the loading could improve accuracy up to, respectively, 11 and 27%. When standard recoveries are used, a 0.85 f e value would be more appropriate than the common value of 0.8 to minimize inaccuracy (except for Cr). Some flexibility can be applied to elution conditions without a significant change in recovery for most elements: HNO3 concentration of 1–15 M, volume of 1–2 mL, duration of 8–48 h. Cr(III) was unique in its sensitivity to elution condition variations; thus, choice is more restricted for this element. Graphical abstract Decisional tree for choosing elution procedure and recoveries for Chelex®-DGT
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0680-4
  • Peptide self-assembly assisted signal labeling for an electrochemical
           assay of protease activity
    • Authors: Xiangyang Miao; Huizhen Yu; Zhun Gu; Lili Yang; Jiahuan Teng; Ya Cao; Jing Zhao
      Abstract: Abstract Peptide self-assembly holds tremendous promise for a range of applications in chemistry and biology. In the work reported here, we explored the potential functions of peptide self-assembly in electrochemical bioanalysis by developing a peptide self-assembly assisted signal labeling strategy for assaying protease activity. The fundamental principle of this assay is that target-protease-catalyzed specific proteolytic cleavage blocks self-assembly between the probe peptide and signal peptide, thus preventing the signal labeling of electroactive silver nanoparticles on the electrode surface, which in turn causes the electrochemical signal to decrease. Using trypsin as an example protease target, the linear range of this assay was found to be 1 ng mL−1 to 100 mg mL−1, and its detection limit was 0.032 ng mL−1, which are better than the corresponding parameters for previously reported assays. Further experiments also highlighted the good selectivity of the assay method and demonstrated its usability when applied to serum samples. Therefore, this report not only introduces a valuable tool for assaying protease activity, but it also promotes the utilization of peptide self-assembly in electrochemical bioanalysis, as this approach has great potential for practical use in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0636-8
  • Quartz crystal microbalance as an assay to detect anti-drug antibodies for
           the immunogenicity assessment of therapeutic biologics
    • Authors: Evan A. Dubiel; Tamás Fülöp; Sylvain Vigier; Patrick Vermette
      Abstract: Abstract Because of their biological origins, therapeutic biologics can trigger an unwanted deleterious immune response with some patients. The immunogenicity of therapeutic biologics can affect drug efficacy and patient safety by the production of circulating anti-drug antibodies (ADA). In this study, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was developed as an assay to detect ADA. Etanercept (Enbrel®) was covalently grafted to dextran-modified QCM surfaces. Rabbits were immunized with etanercept to generate ADA. Results showed the QCM assay could detect purified ADA from rabbits at concentrations as low as 50 ng/mL, within the sensitivity range of ELISA. The QCM assay could also assess the ADA isotype. It was shown that the ADA were composed of the IgG isotype, but not IgM, as expected. Furthermore, it was shown that QCM surfaces that had been used to detect ADA could be regenerated in glycine-HCl solution and reused. The QCM assay was also demonstrated to detect ADA in crude serum samples. Serum was collected from the rabbits and analyzed before and after etanercept immunization. ADA were clearly detected in serum from rabbits after immunization, but not in serum before immunization. Serum from patients administered with etanercept for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment was also analyzed and compared to serum from healthy donors. Sera from 10 RA patients were analyzed. Results showed one of the RA patient serum samples may have ADA present. In conclusion, QCM appears to be a viable assay to detect ADA for the immunogenicity assessment of therapeutic biologics.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0674-2
  • Spatially and angularly resolved spectroscopy for in-situ estimation of
           concentration and particle size in colloidal suspensions
    • Authors: Yi-Chieh Chen; David Foo; Nicolau Dehanov; Suresh N. Thennadil
      Abstract: Successful implementation of process analytical technology (PAT) hinges on the ability to make continuous or frequent measurements in-line or at-line of critical product attributes such as composition and particle size, the latter being an important parameter for particulate processes such as suspensions and emulsions. A novel probe-based spatially and angularly-resolved diffuse reflectance measurement (SAR-DRM) system is proposed. This instrument, along with appropriate calibration models, is designed for online monitoring of concentration of chemical species and particle size of the particulate species in process systems involving colloidal suspensions. This measurement system was investigated using polystyrene suspensions of various particle radius and concentration to evaluate its performance in terms of the information obtained from the novel configuration which allows the measurement of a combination of incident light at different angles and collection fibres at different distances from the source fibres. Different strategies of processing and combining the SAR-DRM measurements were considered in terms of the impact on partial least squares (PLS) model performance. The results were compared with those obtained using a bench-top instrument which was used as the reference (off-line) instrument for comparison purposes. The SAR-DRM system showed similar performance to the bench top reference instrument for estimation of particle radius, and outperforms the reference instrument in estimating particle concentration. The investigation shows that the improvement in PLS regression model performance using the SAR-DRM system is related to the extra information captured by the SAR-DRM configuration. The differences in SAR-DRM spectra collected by the different collection fibres from different angular source fibres are the dominant reason for the significant improvement in the model performance. The promising results from this study suggest the potential of the SAR-DRM system as an online monitoring tool for processes involving suspensions. Graphical abstract A probe designed to acquire diffuse reflectance measurements at different source-detector distances for three incidence angles 0°, 30° and 45° was used to estimate particle size and concentration of polystyrene beads in aqueous suspension using partial least squares calibration models.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0672-4
  • Advanced bioanalytics for precision medicine
    • Authors: Aldo Roda; Elisa Michelini; Cristiana Caliceti; Massimo Guardigli; Mara Mirasoli; Patrizia Simoni
      Abstract: Precision medicine is a new paradigm that combines diagnostic, imaging, and analytical tools to produce accurate diagnoses and therapeutic interventions tailored to the individual patient. This approach stands in contrast to the traditional “one size fits all” concept, according to which researchers develop disease treatments and preventions for an “average” patient without considering individual differences. The “one size fits all” concept has led to many ineffective or inappropriate treatments, especially for pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease and cancer. Now, precision medicine is receiving massive funding in many countries, thanks to its social and economic potential in terms of improved disease prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. Bioanalytical chemistry is critical to precision medicine. This is because identifying an appropriate tailored therapy requires researchers to collect and analyze information on each patient’s specific molecular biomarkers (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids, and metabolites). In other words, precision diagnostics is not possible without precise bioanalytical chemistry. This Trend article highlights some of the most recent advances, including massive analysis of multilayer omics, and new imaging technique applications suitable for implementing precision medicine. Graphical abstract Precision medicine combines bioanalytical chemistry, molecular diagnostics, and imaging tools for performing accurate diagnoses and selecting optimal therapies for each patient.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0660-8
  • HPAEC-PAD for oligosaccharide analysis—novel insights into analyte
           sensitivity and response stability
    • Authors: Matthias Mechelke; Jonathan Herlet; J. Philipp Benz; Wolfgang H. Schwarz; Vladimir V. Zverlov; Wolfgang Liebl; Petra Kornberger
      Abstract: The rising importance of accurately detecting oligosaccharides in biomass hydrolyzates or as ingredients in food, such as in beverages and infant milk products, demands for the availability of tools to sensitively analyze the broad range of available oligosaccharides. Over the last decades, HPAEC-PAD has been developed into one of the major technologies for this task and represents a popular alternative to state-of-the-art LC-MS oligosaccharide analysis. This work presents the first comprehensive study which gives an overview of the separation of 38 analytes as well as enzymatic hydrolyzates of six different polysaccharides focusing on oligosaccharides. The high sensitivity of the PAD comes at cost of its stability due to recession of the gold electrode. By an in-depth analysis of the sensitivity drop over time for 35 analytes, including xylo- (XOS), arabinoxylo- (AXOS), laminari- (LOS), manno- (MOS), glucomanno- (GMOS), and cellooligosaccharides (COS), we developed an analyte-specific one-phase decay model for this effect over time. Using this model resulted in significantly improved data normalization when using an internal standard. Our results thereby allow a quantification approach which takes the inevitable and analyte-specific PAD response drop into account. Graphical abstract HPAEC-PAD analysis of oligosaccharides and determination of PAD response drop leading to an improved data normalization
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0678-y
  • Selective extraction and determination of chlorogenic acids as combined
           quality markers in herbal medicines using molecularly imprinted polymers
           based on a mimic template
    • Authors: Wenhua Ji; Mingming Zhang; Huijiao Yan; Hengqiang Zhao; Yan Mu; Lanping Guo; Xiao Wang
      Abstract: Abstract We describe a solid-phase extraction adsorbent based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), prepared with use of a mimic template. The MIPs were used for the selective extraction and determination of three chlorogenic acids as combined quality markers for Lonicera japonica and Lianhua qingwen granules. The morphologies and surface groups of the MIPs were assessed by scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and selectivity of the MIPs were systematically compared with those of non-molecularly imprinted polymers. The MIPs showed high selectivity toward three structurally similar chlorogenic acids (chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid). A procedure using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was established for the determination of three chlorogenic acids from Lonicera japonica and Lianhua qingwen granules. The recoveries of the chlorogenic acids ranged from 93.1% to 101.4%. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the three chlorogenic acids were 0.003 mg g−1 and 0.01 mg g−1, respectively. The newly developed method is thus a promising technique for the enrichment and determination of chlorogenic acids from herbal medicines. Graphical Abstract Mimic molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective extraction of chlorogenic acids.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0667-1
  • Rapid determination of the emerging contaminant oxypurinol in surface
           water using solid phase extraction followed by ultra high-performance
           liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection
    • Authors: Tianci Xu
      Abstract: A method has been developed for the trace analysis of oxypurinol that is considered as an active pharmaceutical ingredient and an emerging environmental contaminant. The method achieved the identification and quantification of oxypurinol in surface water samples utilizing solid phase extraction and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection for the first time. Four principal parameters of solid phase extraction were optimized to obtain maximum extraction efficiency. Under the isocratic elution of methanol/water (5:95, v/v) and the excitation/emission wavelength of 254/359 nm, a rapid determination was achieved in 2.0 min with good linearity of 1.05–351 μg/L (coefficient of determination above 0.9998). The limit of detection and method detection limit were 0.210 μg/L and 1.34 ng/L, respectively. Precision of the method was evaluated and a relative standard deviation value of 3.3% was obtained for analyses of six replicate spiking blank samples (200 mL, 176 ng/L) according to the overall proposed procedure. The method showed a great anti-interference ability and average spiked recoveries of oxypurinol in five surface water samples were in the range of 94.5–111%. The ability of the method to detect and correctly identify oxypurinol can significantly promote investigation on the occurrence of oxypurinol in water and its potential (eco-)toxicological effects. Graphical abstract Quantification of the emerging contaminant oxypurinol in s urface water using SPE/UHPLC-FLD
      PubDate: 2017-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0668-0
  • Analytical evaluation of sensor measurements
    • Authors: Günter Gauglitz
      PubDate: 2017-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0624-z
  • Reliable quantification of 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene in urine using a
           conjugated reference compound for calibration
    • Authors: Melanie Zobel; Thomas Göen; Vladimir Belov; Katrin Klotz
      Abstract: After environmental and occupational exposure to naphthalene, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene (1,2-DHN) was shown to be one major metabolite in human naphthalene metabolism. However, the instability of free 1,2-DHN complicates the reliable determination of this promising biomarker in urine. To solve this stability problem, glucuronide conjugates of 1,2-DHN and the corresponding isotopically labelled D6-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene (D6-1,2-DHN) were synthesised and applied as reference material and internal standard in a gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (GC-MS/MS) method. The determination of 1- and 2-naphthol (1-MHN, 2-MHN) was included in the procedure to enable a comprehensive assessment of naphthalene metabolism and exposure. The results of the validation showed a high reliability and sensitivity of the method. The detection limits range from 0.05 to 0.16 μg/L. Precision and repeatability were determined to range from 1.4 to 6.6% for all parameters. The simultaneous determination of 1- and 2-MHN as additional parameters besides 1,2-DHN enables the application of the method for further metabolism and kinetic studies on naphthalene. The use of glucuronide-derivative reference substances and the application of structurally matched isotopic-labelled internal standards for each substance guarantee a reliable quantification of the main naphthalene metabolites 1,2-DHN and 1- and 2-MHN. Graphical abstract Reliable quantification of 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene in urine using a conjugated reference compound for calibration
      PubDate: 2017-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0651-9
  • A highly selective electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted
           polypyrrole-modified gold electrode for the determination of glyphosate in
           cucumber and tap water
    • Authors: Chao Zhang; Yongxin She; Tengfei Li; Fengnian Zhao; Maojun Jin; Yirong Guo; Lufei Zheng; Shanshan Wang; Fen Jin; Hua Shao; Haijin Liu; Jing Wang
      Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPPy) was developed for selective and sensitive detection of the herbicide glyphosate (Gly) in cucumber and tap water samples. The sensor was prepared via synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers on a gold electrode in the presence of Gly as the template molecule and pyrrole as the functional monomer by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The sensor preparation conditions including the ratio of template to functional monomers, number of CV cycles in the electropolymerization process, the method of template removal, incubation time, and pH were optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the DPV peak currents of hexacyanoferrate/hexacyanoferrite changed linearly with Gly concentration in the range from 5 to 800 ng mL−1, with a detection limit of 0.27 ng mL−1 (S/N = 3). The sensor was used to detect the concentration of Gly in cucumber and tap water samples, with recoveries ranging from 72.70 to 98.96%. The proposed sensor showed excellent selectivity, good stability and reversibility, and could detect the Gly in real samples rapidly and sensitively. Graphical abstract Schematic illustration of the experimental procedure to detect Gly using the MIPPy electrode
      PubDate: 2017-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0671-5
  • Upconversion fluorescence immunoassay for imidaclothiz by magnetic
           nanoparticle separation
    • Authors: Xiude Hua; Hongjie You; Peiwen Luo; Zhexuan Tao; He Chen; Fengquan Liu; Minghua Wang
      Abstract: A sensitive fluorescence immunoassay for the detection of imidaclothiz was established by using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as concentration elements and upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as signal labels. The NaYF4/Yb,Er UCNPs and MNPs were conjugated with imidaclothiz monoclonal antibody and imidaclothiz antigen, respectively. Imidaclothiz could compete with the antigen-conjugated MNPs for binding to the antibody-conjugated UCNPs and resulted in a decreased fluorescence signal when the MNPs were separated by an external magnet. Under the optimal conditions, the concentration of imidaclothiz producing 50% inhibition of the signal (IC50), limit of detection (LOD, IC10), and the linear assay range (IC10–IC90) were 14.59, 0.74, and 0.74–289.30 ng mL−1, respectively. The immunoassay exhibited no obvious cross-reactivity with analogues of imidaclothiz except for imidacloprid, with 89.2% cross-reactivity. The average recoveries measured in paddy water, pear, soil, peach, rice, tomato, wheat, and pakchoi were 75.7–105.2%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 11.2%. In addition, the results of the immunoassay correlated well with that of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for authentic samples. Graphical abstract Development of an upconversion fluorescence immunoassay for the detection of imidaclothiz by using antibody-modified upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as the detection probe and antigen-modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as the capture probe.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0653-7
  • High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption
           spectrometry compared with ion chromatography for quantitative
           determination of dissolved fluoride in river water samples
    • Authors: Philip Ley; Manfred Sturm; Thomas A. Ternes; Björn Meermann
      Abstract: In addition to beneficial health effects, fluoride can also have adverse effects on humans, animals, and plants if the daily intake is strongly elevated. One main source of fluoride uptake is water, and thus several ordinances exist in Germany that declare permissible concentrations of fluoride in, for example, drinking water, mineral water, and landfill seepage water. Controlling the fluoride concentrations in aqueous matrices necessitate valid and fast analytical methods. In this work an alternative method for the determination of fluoride in surface waters based on high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFMAS) was applied. Fluoride detection was made possible by the formation of a diatomic molecule, GaF, and detection of characteristic molecular absorption. On HR-CS-GFMAS parameter optimization, the method was adapted to surface water sample analysis. The influence of potential main matrix constituents such as Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl- as well as surface water sampling/storage conditions on the molecular absorption signal of GaF was investigated. Method validation demonstrated a low limit of detection (8.1 μg L-1) and a low limit of quantification (26.9 μg L-1), both sufficient for direct river water sample analysis after 0.45-μm filtration. The optimized HR-CS-GFMAS method was applied for the analysis of real water samples from the rivers Rhine and Moselle. For method validation, samples were also analyzed by an ion chromatography (IC) method. IC and HR-CS-GFMAS results both agreed well. In comparison with IC, HR-CS-GFMAS has higher sample throughput, a lower limit of detection and a lower limit of quantification, and higher selectivity, and is a very suitable method for the analysis of dissolved fluoride in river water. Graphical abstract High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFMAS) was applied for the quantitative analysis of dissolved fluoride in river water samples from the Rhine and the Moselle. Fluoride detection was made possible by the addition of Ga for GaF formation and analysis of characteristic molecular absorption at 211.248 nm. Good agreement between HR-CS-GFMAS and ion chromatography (IC) results was obtained. In comparison with IC, HR-CS-GFMAS had a faster sample throughput and lower limit of detection and limit of quantification.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0647-5
  • Bithiophenic MALDI matrices as valuable leads for the selective detection
           of alkaloids
    • Authors: Ali Jaber; Denis Seraphin; David Guilet; Junichi Osuga; Edmond Cheble; Ghassan Ibrahim; Pascal Richomme; Andreas Schinkovitz
      Abstract: Alkaloids represent a group of biologically most interesting compounds commonly used in modern medicines but also known for exhibiting severe toxic effects. Therefore, the detection of alkaloids is an important issue in quality control of plants, dietary supplements, and herbal pharmaceutical and mostly facilitated by methods such as GC or LC-MS. However, benefitting from the development of selective matrices as well as requiring very little sample preparation, MALDI-MS may also provide a valuable supplement to these standard analytical methods. With this in mind, the present study highlights recent advances in the development of bithiophenic matrix molecules designed for the selective detection of alkaloids. Overall four new bithiophenic matrix molecules (BMs) were tested on different analytes belonging to various chemical families such as alkaloids, curcuminoids, benzopyrones, flavonoids, steroids, and peptides (I). All BMs were further compared to the commercial matrices α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) in terms of their signal response as well as their matrix noise formation (II). Based on these results the most promising candidate, 3-(5′-pentafluorophenylmethylsulfanyl-[2,2′]bithiophenyl-5-ylsulfanyl)propionitrile (PFPT3P), was tested on highly complex samples such as the crude extracts of Colchicum autumnale, RYTMOPASC ® solution (a herbal pharmaceutical containing sparteine and rubijervine), as well as strychnine-spiked human plasma (III). For the latter, an evaluation of the limit of detection was performed. Eventually, a simplified protocol for the direct MALDI detection of major alkaloids from pulverized plant material of Atropa belladonna and Senecio vulgaris is presented (IV). Graphical abstract Selective MALDI MATRICES for Alkaloid Detection
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0634-x
  • Development of a paper-based lateral flow immunoassay for simultaneous
           detection of lipopolysaccharides of Salmonella serovars
    • Authors: Florian Schenk; Patricia Weber; Julian Vogler; Lars Hecht; Andreas Dietzel; Günter Gauglitz
      Abstract: Lateral flow type detection is becoming interesting not only in regions with a poor medical infrastructure but also for practitioners in day-to-day clinical work or for veterinary control in case of possible epidemics. In this work, we describe the first steps of development of a multi-channel strip with potential internal calibration of multiparametric and colorimetric lateral flow assays for the simultaneous detection of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) and Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis). We structured four channels in the nitrocellulose membrane with a Yb:KGW solid-state femtosecond laser (“cold” ablation process) to form distinct tracks of porous material and used gold nanoparticles for the labeling of the antibodies. In addition, calibration curves of the spot intensities of both serovars are presented, and it was shown that no cross reactivity between the different capture antibodies and LPS occurred. Finally, we detected LPS of both Salmonella serovars simultaneously. The color changes (spot intensities of the reaction zones) were evaluated using the open-source image-processing program ImageJ. Graphical abstract Multiparametric testing, strip A was tested with LPS S. enteritidis ( c=0.01 g/L) and LPS S.typhimurium ( c=0.0001 g/L), strip B with LPS S. enteritidis ( c=0.001 g/L) and LPS S. typhimurium ( c=0.001g/L) and strip C with LPS S. enteritidis (c=0.0001 g/L) and LPS S. typhimurium ( c=0.01 g/L), and read-out
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0643-9
  • Rapid determination of free prolyl dipeptides and 4-hydroxyproline in
           urine using flow-gated capillary electrophoresis
    • Authors: Ning Zhang; Qingfu Zhu; Maojun Gong
      Abstract: Unhydrolyzed prolyl hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) and total 4-hydroxyproline (Hyp) in urine have been suggested as disease biomarkers for bone turnover and osteoporosis. Here, a rapid method was developed to accurately and selectively determine free prolyl compounds in unhydrolyzed urine samples. Urine samples were treated with o-phthalaldehyde to block primary amines followed by selective fluorogenic derivatization of secondary amines using 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F) at room temperature. The derivatized mixture was then directly analyzed and quantitated on a flow-gated capillary electrophoresis system. Six prolyl compounds: Pro-Hyp, Pro-Pro, Pro-Gly, Pro-Leu, Hyp, and Pro in unhydrolyzed urine samples were separated in 30 s, which was > 60-fold faster than the reported HPLC method, using the separation buffer (pH 9.2) composed of tetraborate, cholate, and deoxycholate at 40 mM each. The limits of detection were ~ 20 nM for the dipeptides and ~ 60 nM for Hyp and Pro. The levels of these prolyl compounds in fresh urine samples were determined by using the one-point standard addition method with nipecotic acid as the internal standard. The present protocol was significantly simplified compared with reported techniques, which could improve accuracy and analytical speed. This method is potentially useful in the determination of prolyl dipeptides and Hyp in biological fluids. Graphical abstract Rapid quantitative analysis of prolyl dipeptides in urine using flow-gated capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0666-2
  • Nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots as a fluorescence probe combined with
           magnetic solid-phase extraction purification for analysis of folic acid in
           human serum
    • Authors: Meng Wang; Yang Jiao; Chunsheng Cheng; Jianhao Hua; Yaling Yang
      Abstract: A novel and sensitive method based on nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots as a fluorescence probe coupled with magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) purification for analysis of folic acid (FA) in human serum samples has been established for the first time. In the developed system, magnetic nanoparticles coated with hexanoic acid (Fe3O4@C6) were synthesized by a one-step chemical co-precipitation method with good magnetic properties and dispersibility for sample purification, and it is better to be separated from the sample. High fluorescence nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs), simply prepared using a one-step hydrothermal method with nitrilotriacetic acid, could be selectively quenched by FA. Based on this phenomenon, a fluorescence assay was proposed for specific determination of FA. Various operational experiment parameters have been studied and optimized in detail. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the detection limit of the proposed method for FA was evaluated to be 0.5 nM (S/N = 3), while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.2% (n = 6). Finally, the proposed method was applied for determination of trace levels of FA from human serum samples and quantitative recoveries were achieved within the range of 95.7–103.5%. All of the results showed that the proposed method had significant application in further research. Graphical abstract Schematic of synthesis of N-CQDs and schematic of suggested mode for analysis of folic acid (FA).
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0665-3
  • Online coupling of immunoextraction, digestion, and microliquid
           chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of sarin and
           soman-butyrylcholinesterase adducts in human plasma
    • Authors: Maud Bonichon; Valentina Valbi; Audrey Combès; Charlotte Desoubries; Anne Bossée; Valérie Pichon
      Abstract: Organophosphorus nerve agent (OPNA) adducts formed with human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE) can be used as biomarker of OPNA exposure. Indeed, intoxication by OPNAs can be confirmed by the LC/MS2 analysis of a specific HuBuChE nonapeptide on which OPNAs covalently bind. A fast, selective, and highly sensitive online method was developed to detect sarin and soman adducts in plasma, including immunoextraction by anti-HuBuChE antibodies, pepsin digestion on immobilized enzyme reactors (IMER), and microLC/MS2 analysis of the OPNA adducts. The potential of three different monoclonal antibodies, covalently grafted on sepharose, was compared for the extraction of HuBuChE. The online method developed with the most promising antibodies allowed the extraction of up to 100% of HuBuChE contained in plasma and the digestion of 45% of it in less than 40 min. Moreover, OPNA-HuBuChE adducts, aged OPNA adducts, and unadducted HuBuChE could be detected (with S/N > 2000), even in plasma spiked with a low concentration of OPNA (10 ng mL−1). Finally, the potential of this method was compared to approaches involving other affinity sorbents, already described for HuBuChE extraction. Graphical abstract Online coupling of immunoextraction, digestion, and microliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of organophosphorous nerve agent adducts formed with human butyrylcholinesterase
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0640-z
  • Preparation of a PM 2.5 -like reference material in sufficient quantities
           for accurate monitoring of anions and cations in fine atmospheric dust
    • Authors: Jean Charoud-Got; Giovanni Emma; John Seghers; Marie-France Tumba-Tshilumba; Anna Santoro; Andrea Held; James Snell; Håkan Emteborg
      Abstract: A reference material of a PM2.5-like atmospheric dust material has been prepared using a newly developed method. It is intended to certify values for the mass fraction of SO4 2−, NO3 −, Cl− (anions) and Na+, K+, NH4 +, Ca2+, Mg2+ (cations) in this material. A successful route for the preparation of the candidate reference material is described alongside with two alternative approaches that were abandoned. First, a PM10-like suspension was allowed to stand for 72 h. Next, 90% of the volume was siphoned off. The suspension was spiked with appropriate levels of the desired ions just prior to drop-wise shock-freezing in liquid nitrogen. Finally, freeze drying of the resulting ice kernels took place. In using this approach, it was possible to produce about 500 g of PM2.5-like material with appropriate characteristics. Fine dust in 150-mg portions was filled into vials under an inert atmosphere. The final candidate material approaches the EN12341 standard of a PM2.5-material containing the ions mentioned in Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Union. The material should be analysed using the CEN/TR 16269:2011 method for anions and cations in PM2.5 collected on filters. The method described here is a relatively rapid means to obtain large quantities of PM2.5. With access to smaller freeze dryers, still 5 to 10 g per freeze-drying cycle can be obtained. Access to such quantities of PM2.5-like material could potentially be used for different kinds of experiments when performing research in this field. Graphical abstract The novelty of the method lies in transformation of a suspension with fine particulate matter to a homogeneous and stable powder with characteristics similar to air-sampled PM2,5. The high material yield in a relatively short time is a distinct advantage in comparison with collection of air-sampled PM2,5
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0670-6
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