Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2626 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2626 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
aBIOTECH : An Intl. J. on Plant Biotechnology and Agricultural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adversity and Resilience Science : J. of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Functional Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.978
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 32  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1618-2650 - ISSN (Online) 1618-2642
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Persistent and mobile organic compounds—an environmental challenge
    • PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Development of a capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry method for
           the analysis of metformin and its transformation product guanylurea in
    • Abstract: Abstract A method with capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry was optimized to determine the uptake of metformin and its metabolite guanylurea by zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) exposed under laboratory conditions. Metformin was extracted from fish tissues by sonication in methanol, resulting in an absolute recovery of almost 90%. For the extraction of guanylurea from brown trout, solid-phase extraction was implemented with a recovery of 84%. The use of a mixture of methanol and glacial acetic acid as a non-aqueous background electrolyte was vital to achieve robust analysis using a bare fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of +30 kV. Problems with adsorption associated with an aqueous background electrolyte were eliminated using a non-aqueous background electrolyte made of methanol/acetic acid (97:3) with 25 mM ammonium acetate (for zebrafish embryos) or 100 mM ammonium acetate (for brown trouts), depending on the sample complexity and matrix influences. High resolution and high separation selectivity from matrix components were achieved by optimization of the ammonium acetate concentration in the background electrolyte. An extensive evaluation of matrix effects was conducted with regard to the complex matrices present in the fish samples. They required adapting the background electrolyte to higher concentrations. Applying this method to extracts of zebrafish embryos and brown trout tissue samples, limits of detection for both metformin and guanylurea in zebrafish embryos (12.2 μg/l and 15 μg/l) and brown trout tissues (15 ng/g and 34 ng/g) were in the low μg/l or ng/g range. Finally, metformin and guanylurea could be both quantified for the first time in biota samples from exposure experiments.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Column bleed in the analysis of highly polar substances: an overlooked
           aspect in HRMS
    • Abstract: Abstract To close the “analytical gap” in the liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of highly polar substances, two techniques which have been suggested earlier were tested in terms of retention factors and detection limits: hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and mixed-mode chromatography (MMC). A substance mix of 55 analytes ranging from logD − 8.2 to 3.4 and 17 different LC columns, also comprising additional reversed-phase columns were used. Contrary to most reversed-phase columns, column bleed has been identified as an important factor, which may cause serious restrictions during high-resolution mass spectrometric detection (HRMS). We found that highly abundant background masses continuously eluting from the columns heavily influence ion transmission to the detector. As a result, the linear dynamic range as well as the sensitivity decreases and thus limits the HRMS applicability of some columns. We therefore recommend a thorough investigation of ion transmission during HRMS method development. This will help to maintain the high potential of HRMS in terms of qualitative and quantitative screening analysis.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Source-related smart suspect screening in the aqueous environment: search
           for tire-derived persistent and mobile trace organic contaminants in
           surface waters
    • Abstract: A variant of suspect screening by liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) is proposed in this study: Samples of a potential source of contamination and of an environmental sample close to this source are first analyzed in a non-targeted manner to select source-related suspects and to identify them. The suspect list compiled from such an exercise is then applied to LC-HRMS data of environmental samples to ascribe and to identify persistent and mobile contaminants in the water cycle that may originate from the source under study. This approach was applied to tire crumb rubber (source) and road dust (close to source); by comparison of the two data sets, 88% of the features detected in tire leachate could be excluded. Of the 48 suspects remaining, a total of 41 could be tentatively identified as either related to hexamethoxymethyl melamine or cyclic amines, benzothiazoles, or glycols. Subsequently, environmental samples were searched for these suspects: 85% were determined in an urban creek after a combined sewer overflow and 67% in the influent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). These exceptionally high rates of positive findings prove that this source-related smart suspect screening effectively directs the effort of selecting and identifying unknown contaminants to those related to the source of interest. The WWTP effluent and the urban creek during dry weather also showed the presence of numerous contaminants that may stem from tire and road wear particles (TRWP) in road runoff. Contribution from other sources, however, cannot be ruled out. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Applicability of mixed-mode chromatography for the simultaneous analysis
           of C 1 -C 18 perfluoroalkylated substances
    • Abstract: Abstract A new analytical method for the determination of 22 perfluoroalkylated (carboxylic and sulfonic) acids in water samples is presented. The method’s objective was to achieve the simultaneous quantification of compounds with different chain lengths (from C1 to C18). To this end, 500 mL of water were extracted with Oasis WAX solid-phase extraction cartridges and eluted with 3 mL of 5% ammonia in methanol. After evaporation to dryness, extracts were reconstituted in methanol:ultrapure water (1:1) and analyzed by mixed-mode liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MMLC-MS/MS) using a weak anion exchange/reversed-phase column. The method provided good results, with limits of quantification lower than 1 ng/L in river water for most of compounds, except the two perfluorocarboxylic acids with the longest alkyl chain (>C14) and trifluoroacetic acid, for which a blank contamination problem was observed. The method proved good trueness and precision in both ultrapure and river water (R ≥ 81%, RSD ≤ 15%). After validation, the method was applied to the analysis of nine water samples where nine perfluoroalkylated acids were quantified. Seven of them were ultrashort- (C1-C4) and short-chain (C4-C8) perfluoroalkylated acids, pointing out the importance of developing methods capable to target such substances for further monitoring.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Development of an LC-MS method for determination of nitrogen-containing
           heterocycles using mixed-mode liquid chromatography
    • Abstract: Abstract N-containing heterocycles (NCHs) are largely used as precursors for pharmaceuticals and can enter the environment. Some NCHs have been shown to be toxic, persistent, and very mobile in the environment. Thus, they have received increasing attention in the past years. However, the analysis of these polar compounds in environmental samples is still a challenge for liquid chromatography. This paper investigates the use of mixed-mode liquid chromatography (MMLC), which has reversed-phase and ion exchange characteristics for measurements of NCHs in water. NCHs with low pKa (i.e., < 2.5) display mainly reversed-phase interactions (neutral species) with the stationary phase and those with higher pKa (i.e., > 5) interact by a mixture of reversed-phase/ion exchange/HILIC mechanism. It was also shown that the presented method performs well in the quantification of the majority of the selected NCHs in surface water with MDLs between 3 and 6 μg/L, a low matrix effect and recoveries in the range of 77–96% except for pyridazine exhibiting 32% were achieved. The method was successfully employed to follow the degradation of NCHs in ozonation.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Are (fluorinated) ionic liquids relevant environmental contaminants'
           High-resolution mass spectrometric screening for per- and polyfluoroalkyl
           substances in environmental water samples led to the detection of a
           fluorinated ionic liquid
    • Abstract: Fragmentation flagging (FF), a high-resolution mass spectrometric screening variant that utilizes intentionally produced indicative in-source fragments, was used to screen for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface waters. Besides expected legacy PFAS, FF enabled the detection of some rarely investigated representatives, such as trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA). Additionally, a novel PFAS was detected and identified as tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (FAP) via MS/MS experiments and confirmed with a reference standard. The first monitoring of FAP in 20 different surface waters revealed a localized contamination affecting three connected rivers with peak concentrations of up to 3.4 μg/L. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time FAP has been detected in environmental water samples. The detection of FAP, which is exclusively used as a constituent of ionic liquids (ILs), raises questions about the environmental relevance of ILs in general and particularly fluorinated ILs. A following comprehensive literature search revealed that ILs have already been intensely discussed as potential environmental contaminants, but findings reporting ILs in environmental (water) samples are almost non-existent. Furthermore, we address the relevance of ILs in the context of persistent, mobile, and toxic chemicals, which are at present gaining increasing scientific and regulatory interest, and as part of the PFAS “dark matter” that represents the gap between the amount of fluorine originating from known PFAS and the total adsorbable organically bound fluorine. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Optimized hidden target screening for very polar molecules in surface
           waters including a compound database inquiry
    • Abstract: Abstract Highly polar trace organic compounds, which are persistent, mobile, and toxic (PMT) or are very persistent and very mobile (vPvM) in the aquatic environment, may pose a risk to surface water, ground water, and drinking water supplies. Despite the advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, there often exists an analytical blind spot when it comes to very polar chemicals. This study seeks to make a broad polarity range analytically accessible by means of serially coupling reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Moreover, a workflow is presented using optimized data processing of nontarget screening (NTS) data and subsequently generating candidate lists for the identification of very polar molecules via an open-access NTS platform and implemented compound database. First, key input parameters and filters of the so-called feature extraction algorithms were identified, and numerical performance indicators were defined to systematically optimize the data processing method. Second, all features from the very polar HILIC elution window were uploaded to the STOFF-IDENT database as part of the FOR-IDENT open-access NTS platform, which contains additional physicochemical information, and the features matched with potential compounds by their accurate mass. The hit list was filtered for compounds with a negative log D value, indicating that they were (very) polar. For instance, 46 features were assigned to 64 candidate compounds originating from a set of 33 samples from the Isar river in Germany. Three PMT candidates (e.g., guanylurea, melamine, and 1,3-dimethylimidazolidin-2-one) were illustratively validated using the respective reference standards. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that polarity-extended chromatography reproducibly retards and separates (very) polar compounds from surface waters. These findings further indicate that a transparent and robust data processing workflow for nontarget screening data is available for addressing new (very) polar substances in the aqueous environment.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Matrix effects in the analysis of polar organic water contaminants with
    • Abstract: Matrix effects have been shown to be very pronounced and highly variable in the analysis of mobile chemicals, which may severely exacerbate accurate quantification. These matrix effects, however, are still scarcely studied in combination with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and for very polar chemicals. In this study, the matrix effects of 26 polar model analytes were investigated in enriched drinking water, wastewater treatment plant effluent and solutions of inorganic salts, utilizing post-column infusion of the analytes into a HILIC–electrospray ionisation (ESI)–high-resolution mass spectrometry system. These experiments revealed the occurrence of structure-specific and unspecific matrix effects. The unspecific matrix effects were mainly observed in positive ESI polarity and predominantly coincided with a high ion count, resulting in ion suppression of all analytes. Thus, the excess charge is hypothesized to be the limiting factor in ion formation. Structure-specific matrix effects were more pronounced in negative ESI polarity and even structurally similar compounds were observed to react entirely differently: perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids were suppressed, while perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids were simultaneously enhanced. These matrix effects were traced back to inorganic anions and cations, which eluted over a significant fraction of the chromatographic run time with this setup. Hence, it was concluded that inorganic ions are a main cause for matrix effects in the analysis of mobile chemicals utilizing HILIC. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Trace-level determination of phosphonates in liquid and solid phase of
           wastewater and environmental samples by IC-ESI-MS/MS
    • Abstract: Phosphonates are increasingly used as water-softening agents in detergents, care products, and industrial processes. Despite poor biodegradability, high removal rates during wastewater treatment (WWT) have been observed, owing to strong adsorption affinity to activated sludge and mineral surfaces. Due to phosphonates representing challenging analytes, no method for the compound-specific quantification of phosphonates from solid samples has hitherto been published. In order to improve the data foundation on the environmental fate of phosphonates, an analytical method based on anion exchange chromatography and detection by electrospray ionization coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed, allowing the trace quantification of phosphonates from surface water (LOQs between 0.04 and 0.16 μg/L), wastewater (LOQs between 0.6 and 2.3 μg/L), sediment and suspended matter of rivers (LOQ < 0.1 mg/kg), and suspended matter of wastewater (LOQ < 1 mg/kg). Specificity and selectivity were enhanced by the implementation of isotope-labeled internal phosphonate standards derived through synthesis. This study describes the development of a comprehensive tool set for the determination of aminotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP), diethylenetriaminepenta(methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP), ethylenediaminetetra(methylenephosphonic acid) (EDTMP), 1-hydroxyethanediphosphonic acid (HEDP), and 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTC) during WWT and in the aqueous environment. In the investigated matrices, HEDP and PBTC were generally present in highest and EDTMP in lowest abundance. The phosphonate contents detected in river water were in the sub to low μg/L range, depending on the wastewater burden, whereas contents in the low to medium μg/L range were found in untreated wastewater. The loads of the solid phases exceeded the contents of the corresponding liquid phases by roughly three orders of magnitude. Current data imply that phosphonates undergo significant partitioning to the solid phase during WWT and in natural water bodies. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • A rapid method for quantification of persistent and mobile organic
           substances in water using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to
           high-resolution mass spectrometry
    • Abstract: Persistent and mobile organic substances (PM substances) are a threat to the quality of our water resources. While screening studies revealed widespread occurrence of many PM substances, rapid trace analytical methods for their quantification in large sample sets are missing. We developed a quick and generic analytical method for highly mobile analytes in surface water, groundwater, and drinking water samples based on enrichment through azeotrope evaporation (4 mL water and 21 mL acetonitrile), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and quantification using a compound-specific correction factor for apparent recovery. The method was validated using 17 PM substances. Sample preparation recoveries were between 60 and 110% for the vast majority of PM substances. Strong matrix effects (most commonly suppressive) were observed, necessitating a correction for apparent recoveries in quantification. Apparent recoveries were neither concentration dependent nor dependent on the water matrix (surface or drinking water). Method detection and quantification limits were in the single- to double-digit ng L−1 ranges, precision expressed as relative standard deviation of quadruplicate quantifications was on average < 10%, and trueness experiments showed quantitative results within ± 30% of the theoretical value in 77% of quantifications. Application of the method to surface water, groundwater, raw water, and finished drinking water revealed the presence of acesulfame and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid up to 70 and 19 μg L−1, respectively. Melamine, diphenylguanidine, p-dimethylbenzenesulfonic acid, and 4-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine were found in high ng L−1 concentrations. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Stable carbon isotope analysis of polyphosphonate complexing agents by
           anion chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry: method
           development and application
    • Abstract: Abstract Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis (carbon CSIA) by liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) is a novel and promising tool to elucidate the environmental fate of polar organic compounds such as polyphosphonates, strong complexing agents for di- and trivalent cations with growing commercial importance over the last decades. Here, we present a LC-IRMS method for the three widely used polyphosphonates 1-hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonate (HEDP), amino tris(methylenephosphonate) (ATMP), and ethylenediamine tetra(methylenephosphonate) (EDTMP). Separation of the analytes, as well as ATMP and its degradation products, was carried out on an anion exchange column under acidic conditions. Quantitative wet chemical oxidation inside the LC-IRMS interface to CO2 was achieved for all three investigated polyphosphonates at a comparatively low sodium persulfate concentration despite the described resilience of HEDP towards oxidative breakdown. The developed method has proven to be suitable for the determination of carbon isotope fractionation of ATMP transformation due to manganese-catalyzed reaction with molecular oxygen, as well as for equilibrium sorption of ATMP to goethite. A kinetic isotope effect was associated with the investigated reaction pathway, whereas no detectable isotope fractionation could be observed during sorption. Thus, CSIA is an appropriate technique to distinguish between sorption and degradation processes that contribute to a concentration decrease of ATMP in laboratory batch experiments. Our study highlights the potential of carbon CSIA by LC-IRMS to gain a process-based understanding of the fate of polyphosphonate complexing agents in environmental as well as technical systems.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for the direct analysis of
           glyphosate: method development and application to beer beverages and
           environmental studies
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, we developed and validated a CE-TOF-MS method for the quantification of glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and its major degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in different samples including beer, media from toxicological analysis with Daphnia magna, and sorption experiments. Using a background electrolyte (BGE) of very low pH, where glyphosate is still negatively charged but many matrix components become neutral or protonated, a very high separation selectivity was reached. The presence of inorganic salts in the sample was advantageous with regard to preconcentration via transient isotachophoresis. The advantages of our new method are the following: no derivatization is needed, high separation selectivity and thus matrix tolerance, speed of analysis, limits of detection suitable for many applications in food and environmental science, negligible disturbance by metal chelation. LODs for glyphosate were < 5 μg/L for both aqueous and beer samples, the linear range in aqueous samples was 5–3000 μg/L, for beer samples 10–3000 μg/L. For AMPA, LODs were 3.3 and 30.6 μg/L, and the linear range 10–3000 μg/L and 50–3000 μg/L, for aqueous and beer samples, respectively. Recoveries in beer samples for glyphosate were 94.3–110.7% and for AMPA 80.2–100.4%. We analyzed 12 German and 2 Danish beer samples. Quantification of glyphosate and AMPA was possible using isotopically labeled standards without enrichment, purification, or dilution, only degassing and filtration were required for sample preparation. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of the method for other strong acids, relevant in food and environmental sciences such as N-acetyl glyphosate, N-acetyl AMPA (present in some glyphosate resistant crop), trifluoroacetic acid, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, glufosinate and its degradation product 3-(methylphosphinico)propionic acid, oxamic acid, and others.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • LC-MS screening of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in contaminated
           soil by Kendrick mass analysis
    • Abstract: The application of contaminated paper sludge on arable land in southwest Germany caused the occurrence of a broad range of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on soil. Recently, the dead-end transformation products (TPs) perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid were detected in groundwater and drinking water. The precursors and other transformation products mostly remained unknown. Therefore, HRMS screening by Kendrick mass analysis and assignment of homologous series in combination with suspect screening were applied to identify original PFASs and their TPs in four different soil samples from sites where contaminated paper sludge was applied. In total, twelve compound classes comprising more than 61 PFASs could be fully or tentatively identified. The data reveal that contamination mainly originates from polyfluorinated dialkylated phosphate esters (from 4:2/6:2 to 12:2/14:2), N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide ethanol–based phosphate diesters (only C8/C8) and transformation products of these precursors. Contamination patterns can be attributed to PFASs used for paper impregnation and can vary slightly from site to site. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Challenges in the analytical determination of ultra-short-chain
           perfluoroalkyl acids and implications for environmental and human health
    • Abstract: Abstract Ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids have recently gained attention due to increasing environmental concentrations being observed. The most well-known ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acid is trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) which has been studied since the 1990s. Potential sources and the fate of ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids other than TFA are not well studied and data reporting their environmental occurrence is scarce. The analytical determination of ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids is challenging due to their high polarity resulting in low retention using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Furthermore, recent studies have reported varying extraction recoveries in water samples depending on the water matrix and different methods have been suggested to increase the extraction recovery. The present review gives an overview of the currently used analytical methods and summarizes the findings regarding potential analytical challenges. In addition, the current state of knowledge regarding TFA and other ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids, namely perfluoropropanoic acid, trifluoromethane sulfonic acid, perfluoroethane sulfonic acid, and perfluoropropane sulfonic acid‚ are reviewed. Both known and potential sources as well as environmental concentrations are summarized and discussed together with their fate and the environmental and human implications.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Expanded coverage of non-targeted LC-HRMS using atmospheric pressure
           chemical ionization: a case study with ENTACT mixtures
    • Abstract: Non-targeted analysis (NTA) is a rapidly evolving analytical technique with numerous opportunities to improve and expand instrumental and data analysis methods. In this work, NTA was performed on eight synthetic mixtures containing 1264 unique chemical substances from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Non-Targeted Analysis Collaborative Trial (ENTACT). These mixtures were analyzed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) using both positive and negative polarities for a total of four modes. Out of the 1264 ENTACT chemical substances, 1116 were detected in at least one ionization mode, 185 chemicals were detected using all four ionization modes, whereas 148 were not detected. Forty-four chemicals were detected only by APCI, and 181 were detected only by ESI. Molecular descriptors and physicochemical properties were used to assess which ionization type was preferred for a given compound. One ToxPrint substructure (naphthalene group) was found to be enriched in compounds only detected using APCI, and eight ToxPrints (e.g., several alcohol moieties) were enriched in compounds only detected using ESI. Examination of physicochemical parameters for ENTACT chemicals suggests that those with higher aqueous solubility preferentially ionized by ESI−. While ESI typically detects a larger number of compounds, APCI offers chromatograms with less background, fewer co-elutions, and additional chemical space coverage, suggesting both should be considered for broader coverage in future NTA research. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Analysis of mobile chemicals in the aquatic environment—current
           capabilities, limitations and future perspectives
    • Abstract: Persistent and mobile water contaminants are rapidly developing into a focal point of environmental chemistry and chemical regulation. Their defining parameter that sets them apart from the majority of regularly monitored and regulated contaminants is their mobility in the aquatic environment, which is intrinsically tied to a high polarity. This high polarity, however, may have severe implications in the analytical process and thus the most polar of these mobile contaminants may not be covered by widely utilized trace-analytical methods, and thus, alternatives are required. In this review, we infer the physical and chemical properties of mobile water contaminants from a set of almost 1800 prioritized REACH chemicals and discuss the implications these substance properties may have on four integral steps of the analytical process: sampling and sample storage, sample pre-treatment, separation and detection. We discuss alternatives to widely utilized trace-analytical methods, examine their application range and limitations, highlight potential analytical techniques on the horizon and emphasize research areas we believe still offer the most room for further improvement. While we have a comprehensive set of analytical methods to cover a large portion of the known mobile chemicals, these methods are still only infrequently utilized. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Enrichment-free analysis of anionic micropollutants in the sub-ppb range
           in drinking water by capillary electrophoresis-high resolution mass
    • Abstract: Abstract Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) used for water analysis is not ideal for the analysis of highly polar and ionic contaminants because of low retention. Capillary electrophoresis (CE), on the other hand, is perfectly suited for the separation of ionic compounds but rarely applied in environmental analysis due to the weak concentration sensitivity when coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). However, novel interface designs and MS technology strongly improve the sensitivity. Here, a method is presented enabling the screening of anionic micropollutants in drinking water without sample pretreatment by coupling of CE to an Orbitrap mass spectrometer by a nanoflow sheath liquid interface. Targeted analysis of halogenated acetic acids, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, and perfluorooctanoic and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid was conducted in drinking water samples which were chlorinated for disinfection. A bare fused silica capillary with an optimized background electrolyte (BGE) for separation consisting of 10% acetic acid with 10% isopropanol with large volume sample injection and optimized interface parameters offer limits of quantification in the range of < 0.1 to 0.5 μg/L with good linearity (R2 > 0.993) and repeatability (14% standard deviation in area). Concentrations of the target analytes ranged from 0.1 to 6.2 μg/L in the water samples. Masses corresponding to halogenated methanesulfonic acids have been found as suspects and were subsequently verified by standards. Mono-, dichloro-, and bromochloro methanesulfonic acid were quantified in a range of 0.2 to 3.6 μg/L. Furthermore, five sulfonic acids, four organosulfates, and the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and cyclamate as well as inorganics such as halides, halogenates, phosphate, and sulfate could be determined as suspects among more than 300 features in a non-targeted screening. Overall, this approach demonstrates the great potential of CE-nanoESI-MS for the screening of ionic contaminants in environmental samples, complementary to chromatographic approaches.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • Assessment of the chemical pollution status of the Dniester River Basin by
           wide-scope target and suspect screening using mass spectrometric
    • Abstract: The quality of the Dniester River Basin has been seriously impacted by the chemicals released by agriculture, industry, and wastewater discharges. To assess its current chemical pollution status, a transboundary monitoring campaign was conducted in May 2019. Thirteen surface water, 13 sediment, and three biota samples were collected and analyzed using generic sample preparation methods for the determination of organic substances by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Wide-scope target and suspect screening resulted in detection of Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority substances and emerging contaminants, whereas the raw data were stored in NORMAN Digital Sample Freezing Platform (DSFP) for future retrospective screening. Furthermore, risk assessment was performed to prioritize detected substances and propose a draft list of river basin–specific pollutants. All studied metals (As, Hg, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni) were detected in the surface water and sediments. In total, 139 organic contaminants belonging to various chemical classes (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, drugs of abuse, stimulants, sweeteners, industrial chemicals, and their transformation products) were detected. The highest cumulative concentration of contaminants was observed in surface water from the Byk River, a tributary of the Dniester (Moldova). Concentrations of WFD priority substances diuron and mercury and EU Watch List neonicotinoid compounds imidacloprid and thiamethoxam exceeded their environmental quality standards (EQS), whereas concentrations of 23 emerging substances exceeded their predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) at minimum one site. Emerging contaminants telmisartan, metolachlor, terbuthylazine, and 4-acetamidoantipyrine were prioritized as potential river basin–specific pollutants. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
  • An effective approach for size characterization and mass quantification of
           silica nanoparticles in coffee creamer by AF4-ICP-MS
    • Abstract: Silicon dioxide (SiO2) has been used as a food additive (E551) for decades. However, some safety concerns have been raised recently due to the detection of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) in a variety of foodstuffs and their unknown long-term health risk to humans. In order for risk assessment to be conducted, it is essential to establish a reliable, valid, and pragmatic method for analysis of SiO2 NPs in foods for estimation of exposure. This paper presents an effective approach for both size characterization and mass quantification of SiO2 NPs in commercial high-fat coffee creamer using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). SiO2 NPs from coffee creamer were well extracted after cleanup with hexane in a two-phase (hexane vs. water) aqueous environment. Size determination of SiO2 NPs was performed by on-line AF4-ICP-MS based on calibration with monodispersed standards. The dominant primary size of SiO2 NPs in the studied sample was 36.5 nm. The mass percentages of SiO2 NPs (vs. total SiO2) were 18.6% for the dominant primary nano-silica particles by prechannel calibration and 35.7% for total SiO2 NPs (≤ 100 nm) by postchannel calibration, with recoveries of 89–96% for the former and 75% for the latter. The established approach was demonstrated to be efficient and practical for routine analysis of polydispersed SiO2 NPs with wide nano-size distribution in coffee creamer. This method may be extended to monitor the presence of SiO2 NPs in other similar complex food matrices. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2020-07-04
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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