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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
  [SJR: 1.096]   [H-I: 123]   [32 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1618-2650 - ISSN (Online) 1618-2642
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Sensitive electrochemical detection of sodium azide based on the
           electrocatalytic activity of the pasting liquid of a carbon paste
    • Authors: Kaixuan Li; Moyan Han; Fengxia Wu; Anaclet Nsabimana; Wei Zhang; Jianping Li; Guobao Xu
      Abstract: Sodium azide (NaN3) is highly toxic and widely used in, for example, automobile airbags and biochemical laboratories. The electrochemical detection of sodium azide on commonly used electrodes is challenging due to sluggish electron transfer, but it has been achieved using a boron-doped diamond thin-film electrode and a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode. Utilizing the electrocatalytic activity of the pasting liquid of a carbon paste electrode, we developed an effective method for the electrochemical detection of sodium azide in which silicone oil was employed as the pasting liquid of the carbon paste electrode. This simple and cheap silicone-oil-based carbon paste electrode exhibited comparable sensitivity to the boron-doped diamond thin-film electrode and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode. The limit of detection for sodium azide at the silicone-oil-based carbon paste electrode was found to be 0.1 μM. Recoveries from diluted human serum samples were between 97.2 and 101.3%. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1144-1
  • Antigen-free control wells in an ELISA set-up for the determination of
           autoantibodies against G protein-coupled receptors—a requisite for
           correct data evaluation
    • Authors: Annekathrin Haberland; Johannes Müller; Gerd Wallukat; Katrin Wenzel
      Abstract: First functional acting autoantibodies against G protein-coupled receptors such as the beta2-adrenoceptor in e.g. asthmatic patients have already been discovered in the early 1980s of the last century using assays that show their functional activity. Today, almost 40 years later, the measurement of such autoantibodies is still a challenge. Bioassays able to show the functional activity of such autoantibodies against G protein-coupled receptors are still the ne plus ultra for their detection and also classification when additionally exploiting specific receptor blockers for the neutralisation of the effect. Bioassays based on living cells make specific demands on the laboratories and are, therefore not suitable for every routine laboratory. Routine diagnostics, therefore, ideally requires different assays based on e.g. solid-phase technology, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology. Here, endeavours are going on, using either the exact epitopes of such autoantibodies, if known, for trapping the autoantibodies, or the complete receptor in biological or artificial membranes that are immobilised onto a plastic carrier (ELISA principle). Here, we question and discuss the outcome of such tests, especially, if no controls such as the non-coated plastic carrier or the corresponding receptor-free membrane coat is offered as control in parallel, in light of the manifold experiences already collected with even non-agonistic acting autoantibodies by Güven et al. (J Immunol Methods 403:26–36, 2014).
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1172-x
  • Tools for detecting insect semiochemicals: a review
    • Authors: Alexandra Nava Brezolin; Janine Martinazzo; Daniela Kunkel Muenchen; Alana Marie de Cezaro; Aline Andressa Rigo; Clarice Steffens; Juliana Steffens; Maria Carolina Blassioli-Moraes; Miguel Borges
      Abstract: Semiochemicals are chemical compounds that are released by many species as a means of intra- and interspecific communication. Insects have extremely advanced olfactory systems; indeed, they rely on smell when performing many of their main behaviors, such as oviposition, breeding, prey location, and defense. This characteristic of insects implies that semiochemicals could be used for various applications, including in agriculture, where they could be employed along with other tools to control pest insects. The aim of this review is to present the main techniques used and the state of the art in the detection of semiochemicals, focusing on pheromones. In addition to the traditional methods of identifying semiochemicals, such as gas chromatography coupled to a high-resolution detection mode (e.g., flame ionization (FID), electron capture (ECD), photoionization (PID), or mass spectrometry (MS)), other tools are addressed in this review, including sensors and biosensors. While these new technologies may be used under laboratory conditions to improve or complement technologies that are already being used, they are mainly intended for use as new agricultural tools for detecting and controlling pest insects in the field.
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1118-3
  • Development and validation of LC/APCI-MS method for the quantification of
           oat ceramides in skin permeation studies
    • Authors: Efrem N. Tessema; Tsige Gebre-Mariam; Andrej Frolov; Johannes Wohlrab; Reinhard H. H. Neubert
      Abstract: Ceramides (CERs) are the backbone of the intercellular lipid lamellae of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the skin. Skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and aged skin are characterized by dysfunctional skin barrier and dryness which are associated with reduced levels of CERs. Replenishing the depleted epidermal CERs with exogenous CERs has been shown to have beneficial effects in improving the skin barrier and hydration. The exogenous CERs such as phyto-derived CERs (PhytoCERs) can be delivered deep into the SC using novel topical formulations. This, however, requires investigating the rate and extent of skin permeation of CERs. In this study, an LC/APCI-MS method to detect and quantify PhytoCERs in different layers of the skin has been developed and validated. The method was used to investigate the skin permeation of PhytoCERs using Franz diffusion cells after applying an amphiphilic cream containing PhytoCERs to the surface of ex vivo human skin. As plant-specific CERs are not commercially available, well-characterized CERs isolated from oat (Avena abyssinica) were used as reference standards for the development and validation of the method. The method was linear over the range of 30–1050 ng/mL and sensitive with limit of detection and quantification of 10 and 30 ng/mL, respectively. The method was also selective, accurate, and precise with minimal matrix effect (with mean matrix factor around 100%). Even if more than 85% of oat CERs in the cream remained in the cream after the incubation periods of 30, 100, and 300 min, it was possible to quantify the small quantities of oat CERs distributed across the SC, epidermis, and dermis of the skin indicating the method’s sensitivity. Therefore, the method can be used to investigate the skin permeation of oat CERs from the various pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products without any interference from the skin constituents such as the epidermal lipids. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-06-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1162-z
  • Mass spectrometry-based proteomics for system-level characterization of
           biological responses to engineered nanomaterials
    • Authors: Tong Zhang; Matthew J. Gaffrey; Brian D. Thrall; Wei-Jun Qian
      Abstract: The widespread use of engineered nanomaterials or nanotechnology makes the characterization of biological responses to nanomaterials an important area of research. The application of omics approaches, such as mass spectrometry-based proteomics, has revealed new insights into the cellular responses of exposure to nanomaterials, including how nanomaterials interact and alter cellular pathways. In addition, exposure to engineered nanomaterials often leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and cellular oxidative stress, which implicates a redox-dependent regulation of cellular responses under such conditions. In this review, we discuss quantitative proteomics-based approaches, with an emphasis on redox proteomics, as a tool for system-level characterization of the biological responses induced by engineered nanomaterials. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1168-6
  • Fully automated sample preparation procedure to measure drugs of abuse in
           plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Tiphaine Robin; Alan Barnes; Sylvain Dulaurent; Neil Loftus; Sigrid Baumgarten; Stéphane Moreau; Pierre Marquet; Souleiman El Balkhi; Franck Saint-Marcoux
      Abstract: For the analysis of drugs and pharmaceutical compounds in biological matrices, extraction procedures are typically used for LC-MS/MS analysis often requiring manual steps in sample preparation. In this study, we report a fully automated extraction method carried out by a programable liquid handler directly coupled to an LC-MS/MS system for the determination of 42 components (illicit drugs and/or metabolites) (plus 20 deuterated internal standards). The acquisition was performed in positive ionization mode with up to 15 MRM transitions per compound, each with optimized collision energy (MRM spectrum mode) to enable qualitative library searching in addition to quantitation. After placing the sample tube into the system, no further intervention was necessary: automated preparation used 50 μL of blood or plasma with 3 μL of extracted sample injected for analysis. The method was validated according to the requirements of ISO 15189. The limit of detection and quantification was 1–5 ng/mL depending on the compound. Stability experiments found that historic calibration curve data files could accurately quantify for up to 1 month with less than 20% uncertainty. Comparison to a QuEChERS method was made using patient samples providing a regression correlation R2 = 0.98 between the two methods. This approach was successfully designed to support parallel sample preparation and analysis therefore significantly increasing sample throughput and reduced cycle times. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1159-7
  • A one-pot, isothermal DNA sample preparation and amplification platform
           utilizing aqueous two-phase systems
    • Authors: Sherine F. Cheung; Matthew F. Yee; Nguyen K. Le; Benjamin M. Wu; Daniel T. Kamei
      Abstract: Infectious diseases remain one of the major causes of death worldwide in developing countries. While screening via conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the gold standard in laboratory testing, its limited applications at the point-of-care have prompted the development of more portable nucleic acid detection systems. These include isothermal DNA amplification techniques, which are less equipment-intensive than PCR. Unfortunately, these techniques still require extensive sample preparation, limiting user accessibility. In this study, we introduce a novel system that combines thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA) with a Triton X-100 micellar aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to achieve cell lysis, lysate processing, and enhanced nucleic acid amplification in a simple, one-step process. The combined one-pot system was able to amplify and detect a target gene from whole-cell samples containing as low as 102 cfu/mL, and is the first known application of ATPSs to isothermal DNA amplification. This system’s ease-of-use and sensitivity underlie its potential as a point-of-care diagnostic platform to detect for infectious diseases. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1178-4
  • Flow field-flow fractionation and multi-angle light scattering as a
           powerful tool for the characterization and stability evaluation of
           drug-loaded metal–organic framework nanoparticles
    • Authors: Barbara Roda; Valentina Marassi; Andrea Zattoni; Francesco Borghi; Resmi Anand; Valentina Agostoni; Ruxandra Gref; Pierluigi Reschiglian; Sandra Monti
      Abstract: Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with UV-Vis spectroscopy, multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and refractive index (RI) detection has been applied for the characterization of MIL-100(Fe) nanoMOFs (metal–organic frameworks) loaded with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drugs for the first time. Empty nanoMOFs and nanoMOFs loaded with azidothymidine derivatives with three different degrees of phosphorylation were examined: azidothymidine (AZT, native drug), azidothymidine monophosphate (AZT-MP), and azidothymidine triphosphate (AZT-TP). The particle size distribution and the stability of the nanoparticles when interacting with drugs have been determined in a time frame of 24 h. Main achievements include detection of aggregate formation in an early stage and monitoring nanoMOF morphological changes as indicators of their interaction with guest molecules. AF4-MALS proved to be a useful methodology to analyze nanoparticles engineered for drug delivery applications and gave fundamental data on their size distribution and stability. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1176-6
  • Rapid determination of designer benzodiazepines, benzodiazepines, and
           Z-hypnotics in whole blood using parallel artificial liquid membrane
           extraction and UHPLC-MS/MS
    • Authors: Linda Vårdal; Gladys Wong; Åse Marit Leere Øiestad; Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard; Astrid Gjelstad; Elisabeth Leere Øiestad
      Abstract: Benzodiazepines (BZD) and Z-hypnotics are frequently analyzed in forensic laboratories, and in 2012, the designer benzodiazepines (DBZD) emerged on the illegal drug scene. DBZD represent a particular challenge demanding new analytical methods. In this work, parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME) is used for sample preparation of DBZD, BZD, and Z-hypnotics in whole blood prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. PALME of BZD, DBZD, and Z-hypnotics was performed from whole blood samples, and the analytes were extracted across a supported liquid membrane (SLM) and into an acceptor solution of dimethyl sulfoxide and 200 mM formic acid (75:25, v/v). The method was validated according to EMA guidelines. The method was linear throughout the calibration range (R2 > 0.99). Intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision, as well as matrix effects, were within the guideline limit of ± 15%. LOD and LLOQ ranged from 0.10 to 5.0 ng mL−1 and 3.2 to 160 ng mL−1, respectively. Extraction recoveries were reproducible and above 52%. The method was specific, and the analytes were stable in the PALME extracts for 4 and 10 days at 10 and − 20 °C. No carry-over was observed within the calibration range. PALME and UHPLC-MS/MS for the determination of DBZD, BZD, and Z-hypnotics in whole blood are a green and low-cost alternative that provides high sample throughput (96-well format), extensive sample clean-up, good sensitivity, and high reproducibility. The presented method is also the first method incorporating analysis of DBZD, BZD, and Z-hypnotics in whole blood in one efficient analysis. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1147-y
  • Colorimetric determination of glutathione in human serum and cell lines by
           exploiting the peroxidase-like activity of CuS-polydopamine-Au composite
    • Authors: Yanying Wang; Yaqin Liu; Fang Ding; Xiaoyan Zhu; Li Yang; Ping Zou; Hanbing Rao; Qingbiao Zhao; Xianxiang Wang
      Abstract: In this study, we developed a simple colorimetric approach to detect glutathione (GSH). The proposed approach is based on the ability of CuS-PDA-Au composite material to catalytically oxidize 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to ox-TMB to induce a blue color with an absorption peak centered at 652 nm. However, the introduction of GSH can result in a decrease in oxidized TMB; similarly, it can combine with Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) on the surface of CuS-PDA-Au composite material. Both approaches can result in a fading blue color and a reduction of the absorbance at 652 nm. Based on this above, we proposed a technique to detect GSH quantitatively and qualitatively through UV-Vis spectroscopy and naked eye, respectively. This approach demonstrates a low detection limit of 0.42 μM with a broad detection range of 5 × 10−7–1 × 10−4 M with the assistance of UV-Vis spectroscopy. More importantly, this approach is convenient and rapid. This method was successfully applied to GSH detection in human serum and cell lines. Graphical abstract A colorimetric approach has been developed by exploiting the peroxidase-like activity of CuS-polydopamine-Au composite for sensitive glutathione detection.
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1117-4
  • Molecular switch-modulated fluorescent copper nanoclusters for selective
           and sensitive detection of histidine and cysteine
    • Authors: Zefeng Gu; Zhijuan Cao
      Abstract: A novel assay for histidine and cysteine has been constructed based on modulation of fluorescent copper nanoclusters (CuNCs) by molecular switches. In our previous work, a dumbbell DNA template with a poly-T (thymine) loop has been developed as an excellent template for the formation of strongly fluorescent CuNCs. Herein, for the first time, we established this biosensor for sensing two amino acids by using dumbbell DNA-templated CuNCs as the single probe. Among 20 natural amino acids, only histidine and cysteine can selectively quench fluorescence emission of CuNCs, because of the specific interaction of these compounds with copper ions. Furthermore, by using nickel ions (Ni2+) and N-ethylmaleimide as the masking agents for histidine and cysteine respectively, an integrated logic gate system was designed by coupling with the fluorescent CuNCs and demonstrated selective and sensitive detection of cysteine and histidine. Under optimal conditions, cysteine can be detected in the concentration ranges of 0.01–10.0 μM with the detection limit (DL) of as low as 98 pM, while histidine can be detected in the ranges of 0.05–40.0 μM with DL of 1.6 nM. In addition, histidine and cysteine can be observed with the naked eye under a hand-held UV lamp (DL, 50 nM), which can be easily adapted to automated high-throughput screening. Finally, the strategy has been successfully utilized for biological fluids. The proposed system can be conducted in homogeneous solution, eliminating the need for organic cosolvents, separation processes of nanomaterials, or any chemical modifications. Overall, the assay provides an alternative method for simultaneous detection of cysteine and histidine by taking the advantages of high speed, no label and enzyme requirement, and good sensitivity and specificity, and will satisfy the great demand for determination of amino acids in fields such as food processing, biochemistry, pharmaceuticals, and clinical analysis. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1149-9
  • Enhanced molecular recognition for imprinted monolithic column containing
           polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes by dendritic effect of mesoporous
           molecular sieve scaffolds
    • Authors: Fang-Fang Yang; Zai-Xuan Li; Yu-Jing Xu; Yan-Ping Huang; Zhao-Sheng Liu
      Abstract: The dendritic effect of nano mesoporous molecular sieve was first used to enhance molecular recognition of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs)-based polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS). In this study, the MIPs were made using S-naproxen (S-NAP) as template molecule, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumtetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4)/DMSO as binary porogens, 1-propylmethacrylate-heptaisobutyl substituted as POSS monomer, and mesoporous molecular sieve (Mobil composition of matter No. 41, MCM-41) as dendritic scaffold. The influence of synthesis parameters on the imprinting effect, including the content of POSS monomer and derivatized MCM-41-MPS, the ratio of template to monomer, and the ratio of binary porogens were also investigated, respectively. The morphology of the polymers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and X-ray powder diffraction. The results showed that POSS&MCM-41-MPS MIP had a stronger imprinting effect with an imprinting factor 6.86, which is approximately 2.4, 2.3, and 3 times than that of POSS MIP, MCM-41-MPS MIP, and conventional MIP, respectively. The increase of affinity might be attributed to impediment of the chain motion of polymer due to improved POSS aggregation and the dipole interaction between the POSS units by introduce of MCM-41-MPS as scaffolds. The resulting POSS&MCM-41-MPS MIP was used as adsorbent for the enrichment of S-NAP in solid-phase extraction with a high recovery of 97.65% and the value of RSD was 0.94%.
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1166-8
  • Angela Montanari, Caterina Barone, Michele Barone, and Anna Santangelo:
           Thermal treatments of canned foods
    • Authors: Jing Chen
      PubDate: 2018-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1158-8
  • Combination of 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and principal
           component analysis to evaluate the lipid fluidity of
           flutamide-encapsulated lipid nanoemulsions
    • Authors: Shigehiko Takegami; Keita Ueyama; Atsuko Konishi; Tatsuya Kitade
      Abstract: The lipid fluidity of various lipid nanoemulsions (LNEs) without and with flutamide (FT) and containing one of two neutral lipids, one of four phosphatidylcholines as a surfactant, and sodium palmitate as a cosurfactant was investigated by the combination of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA). In the 1H NMR spectra, the peaks from the methylene groups of the neutral lipids and surfactants for all LNE preparations showed downfield shifts with increasing temperature from 20 to 60 °C. PCA was applied to the 1H NMR spectral data obtained for the LNEs. The PCA resulted in a model in which the first two principal components (PCs) extracted 88% of the total spectral variation; the first PC (PC-1) axis and second PC (PC-2) axis accounted for 73 and 15%, respectively, of the total spectral variation. The Score-1 values for PC-1 plotted against temperature revealed the existence of two clusters, which were defined by the neutral lipid of the LNE preparations. Meanwhile, the Score-2 values decreased with rising temperature and reflected the increase in lipid fluidity of each LNE preparation, consistent with fluorescence anisotropy measurements. In addition, the changes of Score-2 values with temperature for LNE preparations with FT were smaller than those for LNE preparations without FT. This indicates that FT encapsulated in LNE particles markedly suppressed the increase in lipid fluidity of LNE particles with rising temperature. Thus, PCA of 1H NMR spectra will become a powerful tool to analyze the lipid fluidity of lipid nanoparticles. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1154-z
  • Correction to: Branched-chain dicationic ionic liquids for fatty acid
           methyl ester assessment by gas chromatography
    • Authors: Mohsen Talebi; Rahul A. Patil; Leonard M. Sidisky; Alain Berthod; Daniel W. Armstrong
      Abstract: The authors would like to call the reader’s attention to the fact that the original publication included some corrections needed to be addressed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1139-y
  • Influence of septic system wastewater treatment on titanium dioxide
           nanoparticle subsurface transport mechanisms
    • Authors: Travis Waller; Ian M. Marcus; Sharon L. Walker
      Abstract: Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are commonly incorporated into food and consumer applications to enhance a specific product aspect (i.e., optical properties). Life cycle analyses revealed ENMs can be released from products during usage and reach wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with titanium dioxide (TiO2) accounting for a large fraction. As such, food grade (FG) TiO2, a more common form of TiO2 in wastewater, was used in this study. Nanomaterials in WWTPs have been well characterized, although the problematic septic system has been neglected. Elution and bioaccumulation of TiO2 ENMs from WTTPs in downriver sediments and microorganisms has been observed; however, little is known about mechanisms governing the elution of FG TiO2 from the septic drainage system. This study characterized the transport behavior and mechanisms of FG TiO2 particles in porous media conditions after septic waste treatment. FG and industrial grade (IG) TiO2 (more commonly studied) were introduced to septic tank effluent and low-ionic strength electrolyte solutions prior to column transport experiments. Results indicate that FG TiO2 aggregate size (200–400 nm) remained consistent across solutions. Additionally, elution of FG and IG TiO2 was greatest in septic effluent at the higher nanoparticle concentration (100 ppm). FG TiO2 was well retained at the low (2 ppm) concentration in septic effluent, suggesting that particles that escape the septic system may still be retained in drainage field before reaching the groundwater system, although eluted particles are highly stabilized. Findings provide valuable insight into the significance of the solution environment at mediating differences observed between uniquely engineered nanomaterials. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1136-1
  • Gold-coated polydimethylsiloxane microwells for high-throughput
           electrochemiluminescence analysis of intracellular glucose at single cells
    • Authors: Juan Xia; Junyu Zhou; Ronggui Zhang; Dechen Jiang; Depeng Jiang
      Abstract: In this communication, a gold-coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip with cell-sized microwells was prepared through a stamping and spraying process that was applied directly for high-throughput electrochemiluminescence (ECL) analysis of intracellular glucose at single cells. As compared with the previous multiple-step fabrication of photoresist-based microwells on the electrode, the preparation process is simple and offers fresh electrode surface for higher luminescence intensity. More luminescence intensity was recorded from cell-retained microwells than that at the planar region among the microwells that was correlated with the content of intracellular glucose. The successful monitoring of intracellular glucose at single cells using this PDMS chip will provide an alternative strategy for high-throughput single-cell analysis. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1160-1
  • Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-CE-MS):
           coupling MS-interfering capillary electromigration methods with mass
    • Authors: Johannes Schlecht; Kevin Jooß; Christian Neusüß
      Abstract: Electromigration separation techniques often demand certain compounds in the electrolyte to achieve the required selectivity and efficiency. These compounds, including the electrolyte itself, ampholytes, polymeric compounds for sieving, complexing agents, tensides, etc. are often non-volatile. Thus, interference with the electrospray ionization process is a common issue, impeding direct coupling of such electrolyte systems to mass spectrometry. Still, several options exist to obtain mass spectra after separation, including offline fractionation, alternative ionization, dilution, or the change to volatile constituents. In the first part of this article, these methods are discussed. However, all of these options are a compromise of separation performance and sensitivity of mass spectrometric detection. Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-CE-MS) systems represent a promising alternative to the aforementioned challenges, as they allow the use of existing methods with best separation performance in combination with sensitive mass characterization. In this context, the second part of this article is dedicated to the advantages, limitations, and applications of this approach. Finally, an outlook towards future developments is given.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1157-9
  • Identification and accurate quantification of structurally related peptide
           impurities in synthetic human C-peptide by liquid chromatography–high
           resolution mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Ming Li; Ralf D. Josephs; Adeline Daireaux; Tiphaine Choteau; Steven Westwood; Robert I. Wielgosz; Hongmei Li
      Abstract: Peptides are an increasingly important group of biomarkers and pharmaceuticals. The accurate purity characterization of peptide calibrators is critical for the development of reference measurement systems for laboratory medicine and quality control of pharmaceuticals. The peptides used for these purposes are increasingly produced through peptide synthesis. Various approaches (for example mass balance, amino acid analysis, qNMR, and nitrogen determination) can be applied to accurately value assign the purity of peptide calibrators. However, all purity assessment approaches require a correction for structurally related peptide impurities in order to avoid biases. Liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-hrMS) has become the key technique for the identification and accurate quantification of structurally related peptide impurities in intact peptide calibrator materials. In this study, LC-hrMS-based methods were developed and validated in-house for the identification and quantification of structurally related peptide impurities in a synthetic human C-peptide (hCP) material, which served as a study material for an international comparison looking at the competencies of laboratories to perform peptide purity mass fraction assignments. More than 65 impurities were identified, confirmed, and accurately quantified by using LC-hrMS. The total mass fraction of all structurally related peptide impurities in the hCP study material was estimated to be 83.3 mg/g with an associated expanded uncertainty of 3.0 mg/g (k = 2). The calibration hierarchy concept used for the quantification of individual impurities is described in detail. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1155-y
  • Development of a method for the simultaneous determination of multi-class
           pesticides in earthworms by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem
           electrospray mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Gaëlle Daniele; Florent Lafay; Céline Pelosi; Clémentine Fritsch; Emmanuelle Vulliet
      Abstract: Agricultural intensification, and in particular the use of pesticides, leads over the years to a loss of biodiversity and a decline of ecosystem services in cultivated zones and agricultural landscapes. Among the animal communities involved in the functioning of agro-ecosystems, earthworms are ubiquitous and recognized as indicators of land uses and cultural practices. However, little data is available on the levels of pesticides in such organisms in natura, which would allow estimating their actual exposure and the potentially resulting impacts. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a sensitive analytical methodology to detect and quantify 27 currently used pesticides in earthworms (Allolobophora chlorotica). A modified QuEChERS extraction was implemented on individual earthworms. This step was followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The whole analytical method was validated on spiked earthworm blank samples, with regard to linearity (from 1 to 100 method limit of quantification, r2 > 0.95), intra-day precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) < 15%), inter-day precision (RSD < 20%), recoveries (mainly in the range 70–110%), and limits of detection and of quantification (inferior to 5 ng/g for most of the pesticides). The developed method was successfully applied to determine the concentrations of pesticides in nine individuals collected in natura. Up to five of the selected pesticides have been detected in one individual. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1151-2
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