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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2354 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2354 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing
  [SJR: 0.21]   [H-I: 37]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-1979 - ISSN (Online) 0925-1030
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Transmitter leakage cancellation technique for CMOS SAW-less radio
    • Authors: Maryamsadat Shokrekhodaei; Aminghasem Safarian; Mojtaba Atarodi
      Pages: 383 - 394
      Abstract: A novel method of transmitter (TX) leakage cancellation is presented to improve the dynamic range of the receiver for wideband code division multiple access applications. The large TX leakage is attenuated within the low noise amplifier (LNA) output using a feed-forward path without any LNA noise figure degradation. A prototype has been designed and laid out in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. It achieves a maximum TX rejection of 18.5 dB with only 5.2 mA current consumption from 1.8 V supply voltage. LNA P-1dBCP (1 dB gain compression point) against TX leakage improves by more than 10 dB. Post layout simulations verify these results. Proposed structure dispels the requirement of off-chip surface acoustic wave filter.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1054-8
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2017)
  • Impulse response analysis of carrier-modulated multiband RF-interconnect
    • Authors: Yanghyo Kim; Wei-Han Cho; Yuan Du; Jason Cong; Tatsuo Itoh; Mau-Chung Frank Chang
      Pages: 395 - 413
      Abstract: Impulse response of energy-efficient multiband RF-interconnect (MRFI) is analyzed to quantify its information capacity for transmitting digital data via various types of physical wires. Our analyses in frequency domain (also transferrable to time domain if needed) indicate that a baseband-equivalent impulse response can be established for MRFI under coherently communicated systems. We can further express such response in an explicit form for MRFI with low-pass transmission nature. It also reveals its distinct capability in signal equalization as a result of its RF-carrier down-conversion process. Furthermore, the analysis offers a guidance of how to construct baseband-equivalent impulse response when transmission lines contain non-ideal effects such as frequency notches and in-band ripples.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1058-4
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2017)
  • A subthreshold low-power CMOS LC-VCO with high immunity to PVT variations
    • Authors: Imen Ghorbel; Fayrouz Haddad; Wenceslas Rahajandraibe; Mourad Loulou
      Pages: 415 - 426
      Abstract: Internet of things is a topic of rising interest and intensive research, where power consumption is one of its most relevant challenges. This article presents a new radiofrequency subthreshold ultra low power LC voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). A graphical inductor optimization approach has been proposed and used to design the LC VCO leading to high performances in terms of power consumption, chip area and phase noise. It uses the adaptive body biasing technique to ensure high immunity to process, voltage and temperature variations. Realized in a 130 nm CMOS technology, the VCO occupies a total area of 0.234 mm2. The measured frequency varies between 2.34 and 2.43 GHz. The post-layout simulation results show a phase noise of −116.1 dBc/Hz @1 MHz offset frequency, while the measured phase noise is −107.36 @1 MHz due to noisy measuring environment. The presented VCO provides a measured power consumption of only 168 μW from 0.6 V supply voltage, making it suitable for ultra low power applications.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1047-7
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2017)
  • Making use of semiconductor manufacturing process variations: FinFET-based
           physical unclonable functions for efficient security integration in the
    • Authors: Venkata P. Yanambaka; Saraju P. Mohanty; Elias Kougianos
      Pages: 429 - 441
      Abstract: In a typical design environment, semiconductor manufacturing variations are considered as challenges for nanoelectronic circuit design engineers. This has led to multi-front research on process variations analysis and its mitigations. As a paradigm shift of that trend the present article explores the use of semiconductor manufacturing variations for enhancing security of systems using FinFET technology as an example. FinFETs were introduced to replace high- \(\kappa \) transistors in nanoelectronic applications. From microprocessors to graphic processing units, FinFETs are being used commercially today. Along with the technological advancements in computing and networking, the number of cyber attacks has also increased. Simultaneously, numerous implementations of the Internet of Things are already present. In this environment, one small security flaw is enough to place the entire network in danger. Encrypting communications in such an environment is vital. Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) can be used to encrypt device to device communications and are the main focus of this paper. PUFs are hardware primitives which rely on semiconductor manufacturing variations to generate characteristics which are used for this purpose. Two different designs of a ring oscillator PUF are introduced, one with low power consumption trading off device performance and one high-performance trading off device power consumption. There is an 11% decrease in power consumption with the low power model along with a simple design and fabrication. Performance of the device can be increased with almost no increase in power consumption.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1053-9
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2017)
  • A fast training method for memristor crossbar based multi-layer neural
    • Authors: Raqibul Hasan; Tarek M. Taha; Chris Yakopcic
      Pages: 443 - 454
      Abstract: Memristor crossbar arrays carry out multiply–add operations in parallel in the analog domain which is the dominant operation in a neural network application. On-chip training of memristor neural network systems have the significant advantage of being able to get around device variability and faults. This paper presents a novel technique for on-chip training of multi-layer neural networks implemented using a single crossbar per layer and two memristors per synapse. Using two memristors per synapse provides double the synaptic weight precision when compared to a design that uses only one memristor per synapse. Proposed system utilizes a novel variant of the back-propagation (BP) algorithm to reduce both circuit area and training time. During training, all the memristors in a crossbar are updated in four steps in parallel. We evaluated the training of the proposed system with some nonlinearly separable datasets through detailed SPICE simulations which take crossbar wire resistance and sneak-paths into consideration. The proposed training algorithm trained the nonlinearly separable functions with a slight loss in accuracy compared to training with the traditional BP algorithm.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1051-y
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2017)
  • Performance and simulation accuracy evaluation of analog circuits with
           enclosed layout transistors
    • Authors: Guilherme S. Cardoso; Tiago R. Balen
      Pages: 455 - 466
      Abstract: This paper presents an investigation on two important issues related to the application of enclosed layout transistor (ELT) to the design of analog building blocks: the performance impacts, related to the geometrical asymmetry and capacitances of drain and source terminals and the possible errors of commercial design tools when performing the layout versus schematic and layout extraction tasks. A common-source (CS) amplifier is considered as case study, to which the ELT layout technique is applied. SPICE simulations are performed, considering different methodologies to estimate the effective aspect ratio (W/L) of the ELT devices. The extracted equivalent W/L using a commercial design tool is compared with well-known mathematical models presented in the literature. Simulations were carried out considering three different channel lengths for the CS amplifier. The possibility of setting the transistor drain as inner or outer terminal of the ELT was also investigated. According to obtained results, considering a 0.18 µm technology, there may be significant performance differences, both in DC and AC behavior of the amplifier, and significant divergences of the extracted W/L, when compared to the analyzed models. Additionally, in order to improve the achievable aspect ratio range of square ELTs, we propose to use parallel and series associations of enclosed devices. Depending on the desired W/L, it is also possible to save silicon area with such associations.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1050-z
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2017)
  • Analysis of effect of feedback current variation in CT Delta-Sigma
           modulators with Gm-C integrators
    • Authors: Hua Tang
      Pages: 467 - 476
      Abstract: In design of Continuous-time Delta-Sigma modulators, the feedback DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter) is typically implemented with a switched current circuit. It is desired that these DAC current circuits provide constant current across clock cycles for each modulator output level. However, when Delta-Sigma modulators are implemented with Gm-C integrators, the DAC feedback current circuits are directly connected to the integrator outputs that may have high-swing voltages and this results in varying DAC feedback current. In this paper, we analyze the effect of feedback current variation caused by high-swing integrator output voltages in Delta-Sigma modulators built with Gm-C integrators. It is shown that feedback current variation may significantly degrade the performance of Delta-Sigma modulators mainly due to the non-linearity of current variation dependence on the integrator output voltage, while mismatch of current variation has minor effect.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1049-5
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2017)
  • Parametric fault detection of analog circuits based on Bhattacharyya
    • Authors: Supriyo Srimani; Manas Kumar Parai; Kasturi Ghosh; Hafizur Rahaman
      Pages: 477 - 488
      Abstract: This paper presents a fault detection algorithm to detect parametric fault in linear and weakly non-linear analog circuits by Bhattacharyya measure, a statistical metric. Linear feedback shift register (LFSR) generated pseudo-random bit sequences are fed to digital-to-analog converter (DAC) to obtain random analog input stimuli for the circuit under test (CUT). Bhattacharyya coefficient is measured from the probability density function (PDF) of the output. The non-Gaussian auto-regressive model is used to estimate the PDF. Component tolerance is mapped into statistical space by Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed methodology is validated through three benchmark circuits: continuous-time low pass state variable filter circuit, fourth order low pass Chebyshev filter circuit and cascade amplifier. All the circuits are simulated with CADENCE Virtuoso using UMC-180nm technology. Defect screening is also measured with linear regression analysis. Detectability of the proposed method for parametric fault is reasonably large in comparison to functional test method.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1052-x
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2017)
  • Design and analysis of high Transconductance Current Follower
           Transconductance Amplifier (CFTA) and its applications
    • Authors: Shweta Kumari; Maneesha Gupta
      Pages: 489 - 506
      Abstract: A high transconductance Current Follower Transconductance Amplifier (CFTA) is proposed in this paper. The proposed CFTA consists of current follower and transconductance stage with NMOS cross-coupling to enhance the transconductance. The NMOS cross coupling stage forms negative transconductance which results in higher transconductance and wider tuning range without affecting its output swing and bandwidth performance. The proposed CFTA operates at ±0.6 V supply voltage, provides 8.5 mS transconductance and dissipates 1.7 mW power. To verify the high performance of proposed CFTA, a current mode quadrature oscillator and biquad filter have been designed and simulated. Cadence virtuoso schematic composer has been used to verify the performance of proposed CFTA and its applications with TSMC 0.18 µm technology parameters.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1036-x
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2017)
  • Design and analysis of a high speed double-tail comparator with isomorphic
           latch-preamplifier pairs and tail bootstrapping
    • Authors: S. Rahmani; M. B. Ghaznavi-Ghoushchi
      Pages: 507 - 521
      Abstract: Analog comparators are the basic circuit elements in analog to digital converters. In this paper, we present a high speed double-tail comparator with isomorphic latch-preamplifier pairs and tail bootstrapping. We used NAND gates because of its higher speed than the NOR gate, as SR-NAND-latch in second stage. The first stage is composed of two parts, preamplifier and voltage boosting block. Preamplifier utilized in a structure similar to latch, and voltages boosting increases the effective supply voltage in clock transition times, results in reduced delay. This results in a desirable speed at lower supply with reduced power consumption. The presented comparator is designed and simulated in both of 0.18-μm and 65-nm CMOS technologies. Simulation results in 0.18-μm show delay of proposed comparator reduced about 35% than conventional comparator. The proposed comparator operates correctly by 2.8 GHz at 1.1 V supply voltage with only 1.3 mW power. The simulation results in 65-nm CMOS technology show that delay and power consumption of isomorphic latch-preamplifier have significant reduction than the results in 180-nm. The proposed comparator is well-suited for mix-signal applications and SAR-ADC.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1048-6
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2017)
  • Ultra low power beta multiplier-based current reference circuit
    • Authors: Shailesh Singh Chouhan; Kari Halonen
      Pages: 523 - 529
      Abstract: This work presents a current reference circuit fabricated in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The reference current is obtained by applying thermal compensation voltage in the conventional self-biased or beta multiplier-based current reference circuit. Eight prototypes of the proposed architecture were measured which have resulted into the mean reference current of 26.1 nA with the temperature coefficient of 202.1 ppm/°C. These measurements were performed in the temperature range of − 40 to + 85 °C. The circuit is capable of working over the supply voltage range of 1–2 V with the measured mean line sensitivity of 2.18%/V. The maximum measured power dissipation of the circuit is 104 nW at 2 V.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1057-5
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2017)
  • Design of low leakage process tolerant SRAM cell
    • Authors: D. Anitha; K. Manjunathachari; P. Sathish Kumar; G. Prasad
      Pages: 531 - 538
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel 8 Transistor Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) cell is proposed to reduce the static power introduced by sub threshold and gate leakages, thus reducing the total power dissipation. The power dissipation of the proposed cell in standby mode has reduced considerably, compared to the conventional 6 Transistor SRAM cell and NC SRAM cell. A better stability is achieved in this cell under different process corners. The proposed technique reduces the standby power to 6.22 nW, which is almost negligible compared to that of a 6T SRAM cell (4.23 uW). Hence, the proposed cell is more suitable for standby mode operation. The total power of the proposed cell is reduced by 25.6% and the read-stability is increased by 40% compared to the conventional 6T SRAM cell. Cadence (Virtuoso) tools are used for simulation with gpdk 45-nm process technology.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1061-9
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2017)
  • High-dynamic-range programmable gain amplifier with linear-in-dB and DAC
           gain control
    • Authors: Xu Cheng; Liang Zhang; Xianjin Deng
      Abstract: This paper presents a high dynamic range programmable gain amplifier (PGA) with linear-in-dB and digital to analog converter (DAC) gain control using a BiCMOS process. The proposed PGA is composed of a folded Gilbert variable gain amplifier cell, a DC offset cancellation circuitry, two inductorless fixed gain amplifiers with bandwidth extension, a symmetrical exponential voltage generator, a novel buffer amplifier with active inductive peaking for testing purposes and a 10 bit R-2R DAC. The linear-in-dB and DAC gain control scheme facilitate the analog baseband gain tuning accuracy and stability, which also provides an efficient way for digital baseband automatic gain control. The PGA chip is fabricated using 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. With a power consumption of 80 mA@1.2 V supply voltage, the fabricated circuit exhibits a tunable gain range of − 30–27 dB (DAC linear gain step guaranteed), a 3 dB bandwidth of around 3.5 GHz and a gain resolution of better than 0.07 dB.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1086-0
  • A capacitive multi-threshold threshold gate design to reach a
           high-performance PVT-tolerant 4:2 compressor by carbon nanotube FETs
    • Authors: Mojtaba Maleknejad; Reza Faghih Mirzaee; Keivan Navi; Hamid Reza Naji
      Abstract: This paper presents two new 4:2 compressors based on capacitive multi-threshold threshold logic (MTTG), and Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors (CNFETs). The entire capacitor network is divided into two groups in one of the proposed designs. As a result, the number of voltage levels is reduced and the entire structure becomes less sensitive to Process, Voltage, and Temperature variations in comparison with other similar capacitive Threshold Logic (TL) circuits. All designs are simulated by Synopsys HSPICE and 32 nm CNFET technology in different situations and conditions. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the second proposed design. It operates 55.9% faster and consumes about 7.2% less power than the second best TL structure (CSTFA). It also operates 16.2% faster and consumes 13.6% less energy in comparison with a traditional design (BLG). Moreover, estimations show that the first proposed design occupies the least area among the capacitive TL circuits.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1077-1
  • A compact low-power algorithmic A/D converter implemented on a large scale
           FPAA chip
    • Authors: Tzu-Yun Wang; Sheng-Yu Peng; Jennifer Hasler
      Abstract: This paper presents an impact and low power algorithmic ADC which is implemented on a large scale field programmable analog array chip. The proposed circuit is merely composed of the elements within a single computational analog block (CAB) to minimize the area and parasitic effects. The feedback residue is amplified by a simple operational transconductance amplifier with a gain of \(-\,2\) . Therefore, a new algorithm for the conversion process is proposed for this negative gain structure. Furthermore, owing to the floating-gate technique adopted in this work, the parameters and routes of the ADC achieve exceptional reconfigurability. The offset, reset, reference, threshold voltages, and gain all can be adjusted for optimizing the ADC performance. The measured results of the DNL is + 2/− 1 LSB and the INL is + 1.8/− 1.4 LSB, respectively. Under an 8-bit resolution and a 62.5 Hz sampling frequency condition, the measured effective number of bit is 7.6 bits. The total current consumption of the OTAs and FGOTAs is \(1.6\,\upmu\) A under a 2.5 V supply voltage. Each CAB which includes all components, switches, and routings occupies an area of \(400 \times 500\,{\mathrm{mm}}^2\) .
      PubDate: 2017-11-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1084-2
  • Single OTRA based two quadrant analog voltage divider
    • Authors: Bal Chand Nagar; Sajal K. Paul
      Abstract: In this paper an analog voltage divider employing a single operational transresistance amplifier as active element is proposed. Its extension as square-rooter and inverse function has also been discussed. The circuit is found to function as a two quadrant divider. The realization of the circuit as a resistorless configuration is also given which eases monolithic integration and consumes less space. The performance of the proposed circuit is verified through PSPICE (Cadence EDA Tools) simulations using 0.25 µm CMOS technology parameters provided by MOSIS (AGILENT). The various simulation results confirm the feasibility of the proposed circuits.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1085-1
  • A fully integrated switched-capacitor DC–DC converter with hybrid
           output regulation
    • Authors: Kyunghoon Chung; Seong-Kwan Hong; Oh-Kyong Kwon
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a fully integrated switched-capacitor (SC) DC–DC converter with hybrid output regulation that allows a predictable switching noise spectrum. The proposed hybrid output regulation method is based on the digital capacitance modulation for fine regulation and the automatic frequency scaling for coarse regulation. The automatic frequency scaler and on-chip current sensor are implemented to adjust the switching frequency at one of the frequencies generated by a binary frequency divider with change in load current. Thus, the switching noise spectrum of the proposed SC DC–DC converter can be predicted over the entire load range. In addition, the bottom-plate losses due to the parasitic capacitances of the flying capacitors and the gate-drive losses due to the gate capacitances of switches are reduced at light load condition since the switching frequency is automatically adjusted. The proposed SC DC–DC converter was implemented in a 0.13 µm CMOS process with 1.5 V devices, and its measurement results show that the peak efficiency and the efficiency at light load condition are 69.2% and higher than 45%, respectively, while maintaining a predictable switching noise spectrum.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1080-6
  • A 7.9 μA multi-step phase-domain ADC for GFSK demodulators
    • Authors: Shaoquan Gao; Hanjun Jiang; Zhaoyang Weng; Yanshu Guo; Jingjing Dong; Fule Li; Zhihua Wang
      Abstract: The phase-domain analog-to-digital converter (Ph-ADC) is proved to be more power efficient than traditional amplitude ADCs in wireless receivers . A low power multi-step Ph-ADC for zero intermediate frequency (IF) GFSK receivers as defined in Bluetooth low energy protocol is proposed in this paper. With dedicatedly designed binary code scheme and multi-step operation, the Ph-ADC requires only 52 current elements and one comparator, in contrast to the design in literature using 260 current elements and 8 comparators. Non-idealities due to transconductance errors and offset errors are theoretically analyzed, followed by a design strategy to minimize trip point errors. Simulation results show that the digital intensive Ph-ADC consumes only 7.9 μA current from a 1.8 V supply when implemented in a 180 nm CMOS process. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the maximum trip point error is only 2.3°, which is less than 1/8 least significant bit. When the Ph-ADC is used in a GFSK demodulator, the required IF Eb/N0 is 13.5 dB to achieve a bit error rates of 0.1%.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1081-5
  • An efficient method of Pareto-optimal front generation for analog circuits
    • Authors: Sudip Kundu; Pradip Mandal
      Abstract: In this paper, an efficient deterministic methodology for generating Pareto-optimal front (PoF) of analog circuits is proposed. The proposed methodology utilizes modified epsilon constraint method along with geometric programming based circuit sizer to determine the Pareto-optimal points (PoPs) of the analog circuits. The generated PoPs are then modeled to generate the PoFs. The efficiency of the proposed methodology and the accuracy of the generated PoF has been verified with respect to that of the commonly used stochastic approach. It is found that to generate PoF having similar spread, the proposed methodology takes only 20 min whereas the stochastic approach takes 60 h. It also has been observed that the accuracy of the generated PoF using the proposed methodology improved by more than 10% with respect to that of the stochastic approach. The proposed methodology has been implemented to generate the PoF of a two-stage Op-Amp, fully differential folded cascode Op-Amp, fully differential single-stage and two-stage Op-Amps. The generated PoFs have been utilized for (1) feasibility checking for a user given specification of an Op-Amp, (2) performance prediction and (3) topology selection of the analog circuit. As per authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper which deals with all the aspects, i.e., generation, modeling and application of the PoF of the analog circuits.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1073-5
  • Correction to: A subthreshold low-power CMOS LC-VCO with high immunity to
           PVT variations
    • Authors: Imen Ghorbel; Fayrouz Haddad; Wenceslas Rahajandraibe; Mourad Loulou
      Abstract: The original publication of the article contains an error in the author Dr. Loulou’s biography. The correct version of the biography is given below.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10470-017-1068-2
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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