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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2573 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2573 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Amino Acids
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.135
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 7  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1438-2199 - ISSN (Online) 0939-4451
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2573 journals]
  • Killing Streptococcus mutans in mature biofilm with a combination of
           antimicrobial and antibiofilm peptides
    • Abstract: Abstract Biofilm poses a serious challenge for the treatment of bacterial infections, as it endows bacteria a pronounced resistance to traditional antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered potential substitutes for antibiotics. Combinational use of AMPs with other compounds to exert antibiofilm effects has been proved to be an effective means to reduce their toxicity and maximize their antimicrobial activity. However, the combination of various AMPs with different action mechanisms is rarely investigated. A newly designed lytic AMP ZXR-2.3 combined with antibiofilm peptide IDR-1018 or KT2 was tested for the antibiofilm effect on mature Streptococcus mutans biofilms. In general, the combination of ZXR-2.3 + IDR-1018 displayed synergistic effect on both biofilm eradication and bacterial killing, while ZXR-2.3 + KT2 showed no obvious synergism. The confocal images of preformed S. mutans biofilms confirmed the effective bactericidal activity of ZXR-2.3 + IDR-1018. A tube system was applied to investigate the biofilm infection under a flow of medium and SEM images indicated the biofilm disruption and bacterial killing effects of ZXR-2.3 + IDR-1018. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that IDR-1018 induced dramatic changes in the mRNA expressions of the quorum sensing (QS) related genes comC, comD, vicR, and vicK of S. mutans in mature biofilms, whereas the other peptides and ciprofloxacin did not cause obvious changes in these genes. This might explain the better synergism of ZXR-2.3 and IDR-1018. The results of this study provide a potential application using the combination of different AMPs in the treatment of mature biofilm infection.
      PubDate: 2019-12-03
  • Design, synthesis and valued properties of surfactin oversimplified
    • Abstract: Abstract Surfactins are important lipopeptides produced by Bacillus subtilis that present strong surface activity. These biosurfactants find applications in various fields, from environmental remediation to medicine. The use of surfactins in remediation is hampered by production costs; the medical applications are also reframed because of the hemolytic activity of the cyclic peptide. To reduce costs and working time, the present work focused on the design, chemical synthesis and characterization of simple linear variants of surfactins having only l-amino acids and lauric acid at the N-terminal. Carboxyl-free and amidated analogues with negative, null and positive net charges at physiological pH were successfully obtained. The synthetic isoforms of surfactins showed high surface activity and ability to inhibit both growth and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans cells. Therefore, these properties make these low-cost synthetic peptides relevant and promising new compounds for science, industry and, mainly, dental care.
      PubDate: 2019-11-28
  • Taurine attenuates Cr(VI)-induced cellular and DNA damage: an in vitro
           study using human erythrocytes and lymphocytes
    • Abstract: Abstract Hexavalent chromium [(Cr(VI)] is widely used in several industries, but human exposure results in multiple organ toxicity. Enhanced generation of free radicals and reactive species is thought to play a key role in Cr(VI)-induced toxicity. We have examined the effect of taurine, a simple sulphur-containing amino acid and an antioxidant, on potassium dichromate [K2Cr2O7, a Cr(VI) compound]-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human blood cells. Erythrocytes were treated with K2Cr2O7, either alone or after incubation with different concentrations of taurine. Treatment of erythrocytes with K2Cr2O7 alone led to marked increase in generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, lipid and protein oxidation. This was accompanied by decrease in total sulfhydryl and glutathione content and lowered antioxidant power of the cells. This suggests that Cr(VI) induces oxidative stress in the cells. Incubation of erythrocytes with taurine prior to addition of K2Cr2O7, resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, mitigation of oxidative stress and amelioration of antioxidant power of these cells. It also restored the activities of several metabolic, antioxidant and membrane-bound enzymes. Cr(VI)-induced damage to erythrocyte membrane and lymphocyte DNA was also significantly attenuated by prior administration of taurine. These results suggest that taurine can function as a chemoprotectant against Cr(VI)-induced oxidative injury and can be potentially used to mitigate the toxic effects of this transition metal ion.
      PubDate: 2019-11-28
  • On-resin multicomponent 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of
           cyclopentanone–proline enamines and sulfonylazides as an efficient tool
           for the synthesis of amidino depsipeptide mimics
    • Abstract: Abstract Depsipeptides are biologically active peptide derivatives that possess a high therapeutic interest. The development of depsipeptide mimics characterized by a chemical diversity could lead to compounds with enhanced features and activity. In this work, an on-resin multicomponent procedure for the synthesis of amidino depsipeptide mimics is described. This approach exploits a metal-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of cyclopentanone–proline enamines and sulfonylazides. In this reaction, the obtained primary cycloadduct undergoes a ring opening and molecular rearrangement giving access to a linear sulfonyl amidine functionalized with both a peptide chain and a diazoalkane. The so-obtained diazo function “one pot” reacts with the carboxylic group of N-Fmoc-protected amino acids leading to amidino depsipeptide mimics possessing a C4 aliphatic chain. An important advantage of this procedure is the possibility to easily obtain amidino-functionalized derivatives that are proteolytically stable peptide bond bioisosteres. Moreover, the conformational freedom given by the alkyl chain could promote the obtainment of cyclic depsipeptide with a stabilized secondary structure as demonstrated with both in silico calculations and experimental conformational studies. Finally, labeled depsipeptide mimics can be also synthesized using a fluorescent sulfonylazide in the multicomponent reaction.
      PubDate: 2019-11-28
  • Synthesis of homoagmatine and GC–MS analysis of tissue homoagmatine and
           agmatine: evidence that homoagmatine but not agmatine is a metabolite of
           pharmacological L-homoarginine in the anesthetized rat
    • Abstract: Abstract Low L-homoarginine (hArg) concentrations in human blood and urine are associated with renal and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, yet the underlying mechanisms and the biological activities of hArg are elusive. In humans and rats, hArg is metabolized to l-lysine. The aim of the present work was to study hArg metabolism to agmatine (Agm) and homoagmatine (hAgm) in the anesthetized rat. Using a newly developed and validated GC–MS method and a newly synthesized and structurally characterized hAgm we investigated the metabolism of i.p. administered hArg (0, 20, 220, 440 mg/kg) to hAgm and Agm in lung, kidney, liver and heart in anesthetized rats. Our study provides unequivocal evidence that hArg is metabolized to hAgm but not to Agm. Whether hAgm derived from hArg’s metabolism may contribute to the pathophysiological significance of endogenous hArg and for the favoured effects of pharmacological hArg remains to be demonstrated. The biology of hArg warrants further investigations.
      PubDate: 2019-11-27
  • Valine supplementation during late pregnancy in gilts increases colostral
           protein synthesis through stimulating mTOR signaling pathway in mammary
    • Abstract: Abstract Mammary gland development during late pregnancy in sows is a major factor affecting the composition of colostrum and milk and the pre-weaning growth of piglets, while valine is essential for protein and nitrogen metabolism in mammary gland of sow. However, the effects of valine and its underlying mechanism on mammary gland development during late pregnancy are still unclear. Here, we hypothesized that dosage of dietary valine during late pregnancy will affect protein synthesis of colostrum in gilts. The results showed that supplementation of valine during late pregnancy significantly increased content of protein (P < 0.01), fat (P = 0.02) and solids-non-fat (P = 0.04) in colostrum. Our in vitro study also confirmed that valine supplementation increased protein synthesis and cell proliferation in porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMEC). Furthermore, these changes were associated with elevated phosphorylation levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4EBP1) in valine-supplemented cells, which could be effectively blocked by the antagonists of mTOR. These findings indicated that valine enhanced mammary gland development and protein synthesis in colostrum via the mTOR signaling pathway. These results, using an in vivo and in vitro model, helped to understand the beneficial effects of dietary valine supplementation on gilts.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Effects of histidine load on ammonia, amino acid, and adenine nucleotide
           concentrations in rats
    • Abstract: Abstract The unique capability of proton buffering is the rationale for using histidine (HIS) as a component of solutions for induction of cardiac arrest and myocardial protection in cardiac surgery. In humans, infusion of cardioplegic solution may increase blood plasma HIS from ~ 70 to ~ 21,000 µM. We examined the effects of a large intravenous dose of HIS on ammonia and amino acid concentrations and energy status of the body. Rats received 198 mM HIS intravenously (20 ml/kg) or vehicle. Samples of blood plasma, urine, liver, and soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were analysed at 2 or 24 h after treatment. At 2 h after HIS load, we found higher HIS concentration in all examined tissues, higher urea and ammonia concentrations in blood and urine, lower ATP content and higher AMP/ATP ratio in the liver and muscles, higher concentrations of almost all examined amino acids in urine, and lower glycine concentration in blood plasma, liver, and muscles when compared with controls. Changes in other amino acids were tissue dependent, markedly increased alanine and glutamate in the blood and the liver. At 24 h, the main findings were lower ATP concentrations in muscles, lower concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) in blood plasma and muscles, and higher carnosine content in SOL when compared with controls. It is concluded that a load of large HIS dose results in increased ammonia levels and marked alterations in amino acid and energy metabolism. Pathogenesis is discussed in the article.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
  • Oral taurine improves critical power and severe-intensity exercise
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the effects of acute oral taurine ingestion on: (1) the power–time relationship using the 3-min all-out test (3MAOT); (2) time to exhaustion (TTE) 5% > critical power (CP) and (3) the estimated time to complete (Tlim) a range of fixed target intensities. Twelve males completed a baseline 3MAOT test on a cycle ergometer. Following this, a double-blind, randomised cross-over design was followed, where participants were allocated to one of four conditions, separated by 72 h: TTE + taurine; TTE + placebo; 3MAOT + taurine; 3MAOT + placebo. Taurine was provided at 50 mg kg−1, whilst the placebo was 3 mg kg−1 maltodextrin. CP was higher (P < 0.05) in taurine (212 ± 36 W) than baseline (197 ± 40 W) and placebo (193 ± 35 W). Work end power was not affected by supplement (P > 0.05), yet TTE 5% > CP increased (P < 0.05) by 1.7 min after taurine (17.7 min) compared to placebo (16.0 min) and there were higher (P < 0.001) estimated Tlim across all work targets. Acute supplementation of 50 mg kg−1 of taurine improved CP and estimated performance at a range of severe work intensities. Oral taurine can be taken prior to exercise to enhance endurance performance.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Synthesis of α/β dipeptides containing linear or cyclic
           α-dehydro-β-amino acids as scaffolds for bioactive compounds
    • Abstract: Abstract The synthesis of α/β dipeptides containing linear or cyclic α-dehydro-β-amino acids has been performed starting from alkylidene acetacetamides, which were obtained from α-amino esters via Ir-catalyzed allylic amination. Differently hindered carbonates were synthesized via a protocol involving chemoselective Luche’s reduction, acylation, and allylic amination. Depending on the nature of the selected α-amino acid, we observed strong influence on the product regiochemistry due to the carbonate size and the amino-acid side chain. In particular, complete regioselectivity was observed in the aminic allylation of carbonates deriving from amino acids possessing a methylene unit in β-position. On the contrary, methyl carbonates deriving from β-branched amino acid afforded different results depending on the hindrance of the carbonate. Moreover, spontaneous cyclization was observed for carbamate-containing intermediates, allowing to obtain peptidomimetic polyfunctionalized dihydropyrimidine-2,4-dione. Finally, by inverting the order of reduction/acylation steps on the starting alkylidene acetoacetamides, the formation of polyfunctionalized 1,3-oxazinane-2,4-dione was obtained demonstrating the wide applications of these substrates for the preparation of bioactive peptidomimetics.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Design of therapeutically improved analogue of the antimicrobial peptide,
           indolicidin, using a glycosylation strategy
    • Abstract: Abstract Indolicidin is a member of cathelicidin family which displays broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Severe toxicity and aggregation propensity associated with indolicidin pose a huge limitation to its probable therapeutic application. We are reporting the use of glycosylation strategy to design an analogue of indolicidin and subsequently explore structural and functional effects of sugar on it. Our study led to the design of a potent antibacterial glycosylated peptide, [βGlc-T9,K7]indolicidin, which showed decreased toxicity against erythrocytes and macrophage cells and thus a higher therapeutic selectivity. The incorporation of sugar also increased the solubility of the peptide. The mode of bacterial killing, functional stability, LPS binding, and cytokine inhibitory potential of the peptide, however, seemed unaffected upon glycosylation. Absence of significant changes in structure upon glycosylation accounts for the possibly retained functions and mode of action of the peptide. Our report thus presents the designing of an indolicidin analogue with improved therapeutic potential by substituting aromatic amino acid with glycosylated amino acid as a promising strategy for the first time.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Protective effect of taurine against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in
           rats: echocardiographical and histological findings
    • Abstract: Abstract Doxorubicin (DOXO) may cause serious cardiotoxic effects that limit its use as an antineoplastic agent. We aimed to evaluate the protective role of taurine (TAU), a beta amino acid with antioxidant activity, against DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity in a rat model. Thirty-one male Sprague–Dawley rats (300–400 g) were randomized into four groups: control (n = 7, intraperitoneal [ip] saline for 14 days), TAU (n = 8, 150 mg/kg body weight TAU ip for 14 days), DOXO (n = 8, 25 mg/kg body weight DOXO ip on 12th, 13th, and 14th days), and DOXO + TAU (n = 8, TAU for 14 days and DOXO on 12th, 13th, and 14th days). The left ventricular functions were evaluated on 15th day by echocardiography. The heart tissues were then excised for histological evaluation. In DOXO group, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), fractional shortening (FS), and mitral lateral annulus (s') velocity were significantly lower, and the left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters (LVEDD, LVESD) were significantly higher than control group (p < 0.05), indicating a significant deterioration in left ventricular functions. However, in comparison to DOXO group, LVESD, LVEDD, LVEF, FS, and s' were significantly improved in DOXO + TAU group (p < 0.05). On histological evaluation, contrary to the normal cellular structure of cardiomyocytes in control and TAU groups, DOXO group showed increased nuclear or cytoplasmic changes and infiltrative cell proliferation (p < 0.001), which were remarkably reduced in DOXO + TAU group (p < 0.001). TAU treatment has a protective effect against DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity on echocardiographical and histological evaluation. For common use of TAU to prevent DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity, our findings should be confirmed by clinical studies.
      PubDate: 2019-10-31
  • Correction to: Rapid acidolysis of benzyl group as a suitable approach for
           syntheses of peptides naturally produced by oxidative stress and
           containing 3-nitrotyrosine
    • Abstract: This errata is for paper “Rapid acidolysis of benzyl group as a suitable approach for syntheses
      PubDate: 2019-10-25
  • Molecular insights into the inhibitory mechanism of bi-functional
           bis-tryptoline triazole against β-secretase (BACE1) enzyme
    • Abstract: Abstract The β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (β-secretase, BACE1) is involved in the formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide that aggregates into soluble oligomers, amyloid fibrils, and plaques responsible for the neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD). BACE1 is one of the prime therapeutic targets for the design of inhibitors against AD as BACE1 participate in the rate-limiting step in Aβ production. Jiaranaikulwanitch et al. reported bis-tryptoline triazole (BTT) compound as a potent inhibitor against BACE1, Aβ aggregation as well as possessing metal chelation and antioxidant activity. However, the molecular mechanism of BACE1 inhibition by BTT remains unclear. Thus, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to elucidate the inhibitory mechanism of BTT against BACE1. MD simulations highlight that BTT interact with catalytic aspartic dyad residues (Asp32 and Asp228) and active pocket residues of BACE1. The hydrogen-bond interactions, hydrophobic contacts, and π–π stacking interactions of BTT with flap residues (Val67–Asp77) of BACE1 confine the movement of the flap and help to achieve closed (non-active) conformation. The PCA analysis highlights lower conformational fluctuations for BACE1–BTT complex, which suggests enhanced conformational stability in comparison to apo-BACE1. The results of the present study provide key insights into the underlying inhibitory mechanism of BTT against BACE1 and will be helpful for the rational design of novel inhibitors with enhanced potency against BACE1.
      PubDate: 2019-10-25
  • Preclinical evaluation of a 64 Cu-labeled disintegrin for PET imaging of
           prostate cancer
    • Abstract: Abstract A novel recombinant disintegrin, vicrostatin (VCN), displays high binding affinity to a broad range of human integrins in substantial competitive biological advantage over other integrin-based antagonists. In this study, we synthesized a new 64Cu-labeled VCN probe and evaluated its imaging properties for prostate cancer in PC-3 tumor-bearing mice. Macrocyclic chelating agent 1,8-diamino-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]-eicosine (DiAmSar) was conjugated with PEG unit and followed by coupling with VCN. The precursor was then radiolabeled with positron emitter 64Cu (t1/2 = 12.7 h) in ammonium acetate buffer to provide 64Cu-Sar-PEG-VCN, which was subsequently subjected to in vitro studies, small animal PET, and biodistribution studies. The PC-3 tumor-targeting efficacy of 64Cu-Sar-PEG-VCN was compared to a cyclic RGD peptide-based PET probe (64Cu-Sar-RGD). 64Cu labeling was achieved in 75% decay-corrected yield with radiochemical purity of  > 98%. The specific activity of 64Cu-Sar-PEG-VCN was estimated to be 37 MBq/nmol. MicroPET imaging results showed that 64Cu-Sar-PEG-VCN has preferential tumor uptake and good tumor retention in PC-3 tumor xenografts. As compared to 64Cu-Sar-RGD, 64Cu-Sar-PEG-VCN produces higher tumor-to-muscle (T/M) imaging contrast ratios at 2 h (4.66 ± 0.34 vs. 2.88 ± 0.46) and 24 h (4.98 ± 0.80 vs. 3.22 ± 0.30) post-injection (pi) and similar tumor-to-liver ratios at 2 h (0.43 ± 0.09 vs. 0.37 ± 0.04) and 24 h (0.57 ± 0.13 vs. 0.52 ± 0.07) pi. The biodistribution results were consistent with the quantitative analysis of microPET imaging, demonstrating good T/M ratio (2.73 ± 0.36) of 64Cu-Sar-PEG-VCN at 48 h pi in PC-3 tumor xenografts. For both microPET and biodistribution studies at 48 h pi, the PC-3 tumor uptake of 64Cu-Sar-PEG-VCN is lower than that of 64Cu-Sar-RGD. 64Cu-Sar-PEG-VCN has the potential for in vivo imaging of prostate cancer with PET, which may provide a unique non-invasive method to quantitatively localize and characterize prostate cancer.
      PubDate: 2019-10-16
  • Evaluation of polyamines as marker of melanoma cell proliferation and
           differentiation by an improved high-performance liquid chromatographic
    • Abstract: Abstract The differentiation therapy is focused on the identification of new agents able to impair the proliferative and metastatic potential of cancer cells through the induction of differentiation. Although several markers of cell differentiation on tumor cells have been identified, their causal relationship with neoplastic competence has not been characterized in sufficient detail to propose their use as new pharmacological targets useful for the design of new differentiation agents. Polyamine level in cancer cells and in body fluids was proposed as potential marker of cell proliferation and differentiation. The main advantage of this marker is the possibility to evaluate the antineoplastic activity of new drugs able to induce cell differentiation and consequently to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. The presented report shows a simply and highly reproducible reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) derivatives of polyamines: putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM). The novelty of this method is the fluorescence response for OPA-derivate of SPM, generally low in other procedures, that has been significantly improved by the use of a fully endcapped packing material with minimal silanol interactions. The limits of detection for PUT, CAD, SPD and SPM were 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.4 pmol/mL, respectively. The analysis time was ≤ 20 min, and the relative recovery rate was of about 97%. To verify the usefulness of this method, it has been validated in a murine melanoma cell line (B16-F10) treated with two theophylline derivatives (namely 8-chlorotheophylline and 8-bromotheophylline). These two compounds increased the activity of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) and the synthesis of melanin, two recognized markers of melanoma cell differentiation, and significantly reduced the levels of intracellular polyamines.
      PubDate: 2019-10-15
  • Cysteine homeostasis under inhibition of protein synthesis in Escherichia
           coli cells
    • Abstract: Abstract Increased intracellular cysteine poses a potential danger to cells due to the high ability of cysteine to reduce free iron and promote the Fenton reaction. Here, we studied ways to maintain cysteine homeostasis in E. coli cells while inhibiting protein synthesis with valine or chloramphenicol. When growing wild-type bacteria on minimal medium with sulfate, an excess of cysteine resulting from the inhibition of protein synthesis is mainly incorporated into glutathione (up to 90%), which, therefore, can be considered as cysteine buffer. The share of hydrogen sulfide, which is the product of cysteine degradation by cysteine synthase B (CysM), does not exceed 1–3%, the rest falls on free cysteine, exported from cells. As a result, intracellular free cysteine is maintained at a low level (about 0.1 mM). The lack of glutathione in the gshA mutant increases H2S production and excretion of cysteine and leads to a threefold increase in the level of intracellular cysteine in response to valine and chloramphenicol. The relA mutants, exposed to valine, produce more H2S, dramatically accelerate the export of glutathione and accumulate more cysteine in the cytoplasm than their parent, which indicates that the regulatory nucleotide (p)ppGpp is involved in maintaining cysteine homeostasis. Disruption of cysteine homeostasis in gshA and relA mutants increases their sensitivity to peroxide stress.
      PubDate: 2019-10-15
  • PlantAFP: a curated database of plant-origin antifungal peptides
    • Abstract: Abstract Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a severe problem caused by fungi in human and plant species across the world. They pose a worldwide threat to food security as well as human health. Fungal infections are increasing now day by day worldwide, and the current antimycotic drugs are not effective due to the emergence of resistant strains. Therefore, it is an urgent need for the finding of new plant-origin antifungal peptides (PhytoAFPs). Huge numbers of peptides were extracted from different plant species which play a protective role against fungal infection. Hundreds of plant-origin peptides with antifungal activity have already been reported. So there is a requirement of a dedicated platform which systematically catalogs plant-origin peptides along with their antifungal properties. PlantAFP database is a resource of experimentally verified plant-origin antifungal peptides, collected from research articles, patents, and public databases. The current release of PlantAFP database contains 2585 peptide entries among which 510 are unique peptides. Each entry provides comprehensive information of a peptide that includes its peptide sequence, peptide name, peptide class, length of the peptide, molecular mass, antifungal activity, and origin of peptides. Besides this primary information, PlantAFP stores peptide sequences in SMILES format. In order to facilitate the user, many tools have been integrated into this database that includes BLAST search, peptide search, SMILES search, and peptide-mapping is also included in the database. PlantAFP database is accessible at
      PubDate: 2019-10-14
  • Susceptibility of protein therapeutics to spontaneous chemical
           modifications by oxidation, cyclization, and elimination reactions
    • Abstract: Abstract Peptides and proteins are preponderantly emerging in the drug market, as shown by the increasing number of biopharmaceutics already approved or under development. Biomolecules like recombinant monoclonal antibodies have high therapeutic efficacy and offer a valuable alternative to small-molecule drugs. However, due to their complex three-dimensional structure and the presence of many functional groups, the occurrence of spontaneous conformational and chemical changes is much higher for peptides and proteins than for small molecules. The characterization of biotherapeutics with modern and sophisticated analytical methods has revealed the presence of contaminants that mainly arise from oxidation- and elimination-prone amino-acid side chains. This review focuses on protein chemical modifications that may take place during storage due to (1) oxidation (methionine, cysteine, histidine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine), (2) intra- and inter-residue cyclization (aspartic and glutamic acid, asparagine, glutamine, N-terminal dipeptidyl motifs), and (3) β-elimination (serine, threonine, cysteine, cystine) reactions. It also includes some examples of the impact of such modifications on protein structure and function.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Asymmetric dimethylarginine aggravates blood–retinal barrier breakdown
           of diabetic retinopathy via inhibition of intercellular communication in
           retinal pericytes
    • Abstract: Abstract Blood–retinal barrier breakdown is the main pathological characteristics of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was reported to be elevated in DR patients. In this study, we observed the dynamic profile of ADMA, retinal morphology and permeability of BRB at 2, 4 or 8 week of diabetic rats induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (60 mg/kg) and in cultured rat retinal pericytes pretreated with d-glucose (30 mM) for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days or ADMA (3, 10, 30 μM) for 24, 48 and 72 h, trying to explore the effects of ADMA on blood–retinal barrier in DR. Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and the expression of blood–retinal barrier-specific component connexin 43 (Cx43) were examined in diabetic rats or cultured retinal pericytes to elucidate whether ADMA impacted blood–retinal barrier function via damaging Cx43-GJIC. The results showed that with increasing duration of diabetes, the ultrastructure of blood–retinal barrier of diabetic rats appeared cell junction damage, apoptosis of retinal pericytes and breakdown of barrier successively. The increases in retinal permeability, ADMA levels and Cx43 expression, and abnormal GJIC were observed in diabetic rats and retinal pericytes exposed to d-glucose (30 mM). A glucose-like effect was seen using ADMA or another l-arginine analogue NG-monomethyl-l-arginine or dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAHs) siRNA, implicating that ADMA aggravated the breakdown of blood–retinal barrier via damaging Cx43-GJIC.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • High plasma guanidinoacetate-to-homoarginine ratio is associated with high
           all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rate in adult renal transplant
    • Abstract: Abstract l-Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) is the main producer of the creatine precursor, guanidinoacetate (GAA), and l-homoarginine (hArg). We and others previously reported lower levels of circulating and urinary hArg in renal transplant recipients (RTR) compared to healthy subjects. In adults, hArg emerged as a novel risk factor for renal and cardiovascular adverse outcome. Urinary GAA was found to be lower in children and adolescents with kidney transplants compared to healthy controls. Whether GAA is also a risk factor in the renal and cardiovascular systems of adults, is not yet known. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the significance of circulating GAA and the GAA-to-hArg molar ratio (GAA/hArg) in adult RTR. We hypothesized that GAA/hArg represents a measure of the balanced state of the AGAT activity in the kidneys, and would prospectively allow assessing a potential association between GAA/hArg and long-term outcome in RTR. The median follow-up period was 5.4 years. Confounders and potential mediators of GAA/hArg associations were evaluated with multivariate linear regression analyses, and the association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality or death-censored graft loss was studied with Cox regression analyses. The study cohort consisted of 686 stable RTR and 140 healthy kidney donors. Median plasma GAA concentration was significantly lower in the RTR compared to the kidney donors before kidney donation: 2.19 [1.77–2.70] µM vs. 2.78 [2.89–3.35] µM (P < 0.001). In cross-sectional multivariable analyses in RTR, HDL cholesterol showed the strongest association with GAA/hArg. In prospective analyses in RTR, GAA/hArg was associated with a higher risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR): 1.35 [95% CI 1.19–1.53]) and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 1.46 [95% CI 1.24–1.73]), independent of potential confounders. GAA but not GAA/hArg was associated with death-censored graft loss in crude survival and Cox regression analyses. The association of GAA and death-censored graft loss was lost after adjustment for eGFR. Our study suggests that in the kidneys of RTR, the AGAT-catalyzed biosynthesis of GAA is decreased. That high GAA/hArg is associated with a higher risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality may suggest that low plasma hArg is a stronger contributor to these adverse outcomes in RTR than GAA.
      PubDate: 2019-09-18
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