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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Amino Acids
  [SJR: 1.362]   [H-I: 83]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2199 - ISSN (Online) 0939-4451
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Acrolein toxicity at advanced age: present and future
    • Authors: Kazuei Igarashi; Takeshi Uemura; Keiko Kashiwagi
      Pages: 217 - 228
      Abstract: It is thought that tissue damage at advanced age is mainly caused by ROS (reactive oxygen species, O2 −, H2O2, and ·OH). However, it was found that acrolein (CH2=CH–CHO) is more toxic than ROS, and is mainly produced from spermine (SPM), one of the polyamines, rather than from unsaturated fatty acids. Significant amounts of SPM are present normally as SPM–ribosome complexes, and contribute to protein synthesis. However, SPM was released from ribosomes due to the degradation of ribosomal RNA by ·OH or the binding of Ca2+ to ribosomes, and acrolein was produced from free SPM by polyamine oxidases, particularly by SPM oxidase. Acrolein inactivated several proteins such as GAPDH (glycelaldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), and also stimulated MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) activity. Acrolein-conjugated GAPDH translocated to nucleus, and caused apoptosis like nitrosylated GAPDH. Through acrolein conjugation with several proteins, acrolein causes tissue damage during brain stroke, dementia, renal failure, and primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Thus, development of acrolein scavengers with less side effects is very important to maintain QOL (quality of life) of elderly people.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2527-x
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 2 (2018)
  • Classification of G-protein coupled receptors based on a rich generation
           of convolutional neural network, N-gram transformation and multiple
           sequence alignments
    • Authors: Man Li; Cheng Ling; Qi Xu; Jingyang Gao
      Pages: 255 - 266
      Abstract: Sequence classification is crucial in predicting the function of newly discovered sequences. In recent years, the prediction of the incremental large-scale and diversity of sequences has heavily relied on the involvement of machine-learning algorithms. To improve prediction accuracy, these algorithms must confront the key challenge of extracting valuable features. In this work, we propose a feature-enhanced protein classification approach, considering the rich generation of multiple sequence alignment algorithms, N-gram probabilistic language model and the deep learning technique. The essence behind the proposed method is that if each group of sequences can be represented by one feature sequence, composed of homologous sites, there should be less loss when the sequence is rebuilt, when a more relevant sequence is added to the group. On the basis of this consideration, the prediction becomes whether a query sequence belonging to a group of sequences can be transferred to calculate the probability that the new feature sequence evolves from the original one. The proposed work focuses on the hierarchical classification of G-protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs), which begins by extracting the feature sequences from the multiple sequence alignment results of the GPCRs sub-subfamilies. The N-gram model is then applied to construct the input vectors. Finally, these vectors are imported into a convolutional neural network to make a prediction. The experimental results elucidate that the proposed method provides significant performance improvements. The classification error rate of the proposed method is reduced by at least 4.67% (family level I) and 5.75% (family Level II), in comparison with the current state-of-the-art methods. The implementation program of the proposed work is freely available at:
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2512-4
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 2 (2018)
  • Functional roles of agmatinase during the peri-implantation period of
           pregnancy in sheep
    • Authors: Yasser Y. Lenis; Mohammed A. Elmetwally; Wanjin Tang; Carey Satterfield; Kathrin Dunlap; Guoyao Wu; Fuller W. Bazer
      Pages: 293 - 308
      Abstract: This study investigated the effect of agmatine (Agm) in proliferation of ovine trophecdoderm cells (oTr1) as well as the importance of the arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and agmatinase (AGMAT) alternative pathway for synthesis of polyamines in ovine conceptuses during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) were used to inhibit translation of mRNAs for ODC1 alone, AGMAT alone, and their combination. Rambouillet ewes (N = 50) were assigned randomly to the following treatments on Day 8 of pregnancy: MAO control (n = 10); MAO-ODC1 (n = 8); MAO-ADC (n = 6); MAO-ODC1:MAO-ADC (n = 9); or MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT (n = 9). Ewes were ovario-hysterectomized on Day 16 of pregnancy to obtain uterine flushings, uterine endometrium, and conceptus tissues. Inhibition of translation of both ODC1 and AGMAT resulted in 22% of ewes having morphologically and functionally normal (elongated and healthy) conceptuses designated MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT (A). But, 78% of the MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT ewes had morphologically and functionally abnormal (not elongated and fragmented) conceptuses designated MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT (B). The pregnancy rate was less (22%; P < 0.05) for MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT ewes than for MAO-control (80%), MAO-ODC1 (75%), MAO-ADC (84%), and MAO-ODC1:MAO-ADC (44%) ewes. Moreover, inhibition of translational of both ODC1 and AGMAT mRNAs increased expression of ADC, SLC22A1, SLC22A2, and SLC22A3 mRNAs, as well as abundances of agmatine, putrescine, spermindine, and spermine in conceptus tissue. However, MAO-ODC1:AGMAT(B) ewes had greater abundances of agmatine, putrescine, and spermidine and reduced amounts of spermine in uterine flushes. Thus, in vivo knockdown of translation of ODC1 and AGMAT mRNAs increased expression of genes for the synthesis and transport of polyamines in ovine conceptuses during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2515-1
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 2 (2018)
  • Imaging the expression of glypican-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma by PET
    • Authors: Zhen Wang; Yan-Jiang Han; Shun Huang; Meng Wang; Wen-Lan Zhou; Hong-Sheng Li; Quan-Shi Wang; Hu-Bing Wu
      Pages: 309 - 320
      Abstract: The glypican-3 (GPC3) receptor is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target. GPC3-targeted molecular imaging will be helpful to differentiate diagnosis and guide therapy. In the present study, we will develop a novel PET probe for imaging the expression of GPC-3. L5 (sequence: RLNVGGTYFLTTRQ), a GPC3 targeting peptide, was labeled with 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and 18F-fluoride. Cell binding tests were performed to identify the binding specificity of FAM-L5 and 18F radiolabeled peptide. MicroPET/CT imaging was used to determine the potential of a novel PET tracer for visualizing HCC tumors with a high expression of GPC3. In vitro binding tests showed that the uptake of FAM-L5 in HepG2 cells (high expression of GPC3) was significantly higher than that of HL-7702 cells (negative expression of GPC3) (mean fluorescent intensity: 14,094 ± 797 vs. 2765 ± 314 events, t = 32.363, P = 0.000). Confocal fluorescent imaging identified that FAM-L5 accumulated where the GPC3 receptor was located. A novel PET tracer (18F-AlF-NODA-MP-6-Aoc-L5) was successfully labeled by chelation chemistry. In vitro cell uptake studies showed that 18F-AlF-NODA-MP-6-Aoc-L5 can bind to HepG2 tumor cells and was stable in PBS and mouse serum stability tests. MicroPET/CT showed that HepG2 tumors could be clearly visualized with a tumor/muscle ratio of 2.46 ± 0.53. However, the tumor/liver ratio was low (0.93 ± 0.16) due to the high physiological uptake in the liver. This study demonstrates that FAM and the 18F-labeled L5 peptide can selectively target HCC with a high expression of GPC3 in vitro and in vivo. 18F-AlF-NODA-MP-C6-L5 has the potential to be a GPC3 target tracer but requires some chemical modifications to achieve a high enough tumor/liver ratio for detection of the tumor in the liver.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2517-z
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 2 (2018)
  • Fibroblast-like synoviocyte migration is enhanced by IL-17-mediated
           overexpression of l -type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) via the
           mTOR/4E-BP1 pathway
    • Authors: Zhao Yu; Wang Lin; Zhang Rui; Pan Jihong
      Pages: 331 - 340
      Abstract: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), activated synovial fibroblasts have the ability to invade joint cartilage, actively contributing to joint destruction in RA. The mechanisms underlying this cell migration and invasion remain unclear. Our previous results and data from the GEO profile indicate that the l-type amino acid transporter gene, LAT1, is overexpressed in the synovium of RA. To identify its potential role in RA, fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from patients with RA were used to determine the effects of suppressing the LAT1 genes using RNA interference and the LAT inhibitor, BCH. We found that BCH exposure reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream target 4EBP1, radiolabeled leucine uptake, and migration of RA FLS. LAT1 silencing by siRNA presented effects similar to BCH inhibition. Treatment of cells with IL-17 stimulated the expression of LAT1. In contrast, applying an inhibitor of mTOR pathway, temsirolimus, or silencing eIF4E neutralized the stimulation of IL-17 on LAT1. BCH and siLAT1 also resulted in lower IL-17-stimulated leucine uptake and cell migration. These results suggest that the migration of RA FLS is aggravated by IL-17-mediated overexpression of LAT1 via mTOR/4E-BP1 pathway. In conclusion, further investigation is warranted into LAT1 as a potential target for drug therapies aimed at attenuating migration of transformed-appearing fibroblasts and subsequently preventing further erosion of bone and cartilage.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2520-4
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 2 (2018)
  • Inverse correlation between maternal plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine
           (ADMA) and birthweight percentile in women with impaired placental
           perfusion: circulating ADMA as an NO-independent indicator of fetal growth
    • Authors: Dimitrios Tsikas; Alexander Bollenbach; Makrina D. Savvidou
      Pages: 341 - 351
      Abstract: l-Arginine (Arg) is the enzymatic precursor of nitric oxide (NO) which has multiple biological functions. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) are endogenous inhibitors of NO. We hypothesized that the ADMA and SDMA have additional biological functions in pregnancy, beyond NO synthesis, and may play a role in the regulation of birthweight (BW). To investigate this issue, we measured the plasma concentration of ADMA, SDMA, Arg and the NO metabolites nitrite and nitrate, at 23–25 weeks of gestation in women with normal placental function (Group 1) and in women with impaired placental perfusion; 19 of these women had normal outcome (Group 2), 14 had a fetus that was growth restricted (Group 3), and 10 women eventually developed preeclampsia (Group 4). BW percentile was found to inversely correlate with maternal plasma ADMA concentration in Group 3 (r = − 0.872, P < 0.001) and in Group 4 (r = − 0.800, P < 0.05). But, BW percentile did not correlate with the maternal plasma concentration of Arg, SDMA, nitrate or nitrite. Our results suggest that maternal plasma ADMA concentration is an important indicator of fetal growth restriction in women with impaired placental perfusion independent of NO.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2522-2
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 2 (2018)
  • Intestinal amino acid and peptide transporters in broiler are modulated by
           dietary amino acids and protein
    • Authors: Artyom Karlovich Osmanyan; Shahab Ghazi Harsini; Reza Mahdavi; Vladimir Ivanovich Fisinin; Anna Leonidovna Arkhipova; Tatiana Teodorovna Glazko; Svetlana Nikolaevna Kovalchuk; Gleb Yurievich Kosovsky
      Pages: 353 - 357
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of three levels of digestible amino acids (DAA; 100, 107 and 114% of Cobb recommendations) on mRNA abundance of peptide (PepT1) and amino acid (AA) transporters in 480-day-old broilers during prestarter period. Jejunal mRNA levels of the PepT1 and b0,+AT increased as DAA level increased from 100 to 114%. The expression of CAT1 mRNA in the jejunum was higher in birds fed 100% DAA diet. The transport systems B0AT and y+LAT1 were not affected by the dietary treatments. These results demonstrated that dietary content of protein and DAA differentially affected the expression of intestinal peptide and AA transporters to modulate absorption of peptide and AA in broilers.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2510-6
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 2 (2018)
  • d -Proline: Comment to “An overview on d -amino acids”
    • Authors: Simone König; Heather Marco; Gerd Gäde
      Pages: 359 - 361
      Abstract: An excellent 2017 review in this journal about d-amino acids by Genchi aims for a comprehensive representation of the current state of knowledge. Unfortunately, information about both d-proline and proline racemase is almost entirely missing. In our investigations into d/l-Pro-containing neuropeptides in cicadas, we have performed literature surveys in this context. Proline racemases in bacteria are known since 1957; their function has been studied mostly in prokaryotes and, more recently, proline racemase was identified in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Published data on d-proline and/or proline racemase in other species are rare or non-existent.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2511-5
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 2 (2018)
  • Taurine is an amino acid with the ability to activate autophagy in
    • Authors: Hiroki Kaneko; Masaki Kobayashi; Yuhei Mizunoe; Maho Yoshida; Hiromine Yasukawa; Shunsuke Hoshino; Rei Itagawa; Takuma Furuichi; Naoyuki Okita; Yuka Sudo; Masato Imae; Yoshikazu Higami
      Abstract: Alterations in adipocyte characteristics are highly implicated in the pathology of obesity. In a recent article, we demonstrated that high-fat diet-induced obesity impairs lysosomal function, thereby suppressing autophagy in mice white adipose tissue. Taurine, an amino acid naturally contained in the normal diet and existing ubiquitously in tissues, has been reported to improve insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in animal models, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. From these findings, we hypothesized that improvement of obese pathology by taurine may be mediated through recovery of autophagy. In matured 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes, treatment with taurine-promoted autophagy. Moreover, taurine-induced nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of autophagy- and lysosome-related factors. As this translocation is regulated by several kinase pathways, including extracellular signal-related kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and mechanistic target of rapamycin protein kinase complex 1 (MTORC1), we examined related signaling elements. Consequently, taurine-reduced phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 but did not alter the phosphorylation of MTORC1 pathway-associated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase or ribosomal protein S6 kinase. Taken together, these results suggest that taurine may enhance TFEB nuclear translocation through ERK1/2 to accelerate autophagy. The effect discovered in this study may represent a novel mechanism for the improvement of obesity-related pathology by taurine.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-018-2550-6
  • Analysis of fumarate-sensitive proteins and sites by exploiting residue
           interaction networks
    • Authors: Gianluca Miglio
      Abstract: Fumarate adduction to cysteines has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders. Its role, however, still remains elusive, and the need of predictive methods has not yet been met. The reactivity of cysteines found in fumarate-sensitive proteins was predicted when the collected data for eight network-type features were analyzed using classification models. Therefore, methods for evaluating the likelihood of a cysteine site to be modified by fumarate could be developed by combining concepts of network theory and machine learning.
      PubDate: 2018-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-018-2548-0
  • New aspects of antiproliferative activity of 4-hydroxybenzyl
           isothiocyanate, a natural H 2 S-donor
    • Authors: Halina Jurkowska; Maria Wróbel; Dominika Szlęzak; Ewa Jasek-Gajda
      Abstract: The effect of 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate (HBITC), a natural H2S-donor from white mustard seeds (Sinapis alba), on the proliferation of human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and glioblastoma (U87MG) cells was studied and some aspects of the mechanism of its activity were suggested. The inhibition of both SH-SY5Y and U87MG cell proliferation was associated with an increase in the thiosulfate level, the number of cells with the inactive form of Bcl-2 protein, and with a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, HBITC results in downregulation of p53 protein and upregulation of p21 protein levels in SH-SY5Y cells. In the presence of elevated levels of H2S and thiosulfate, the sulfhydryl groups of p53 protein as well as Bcl-2 protein could be modified via HBITC-induced S-sulfuration or by oxidative stress. It seems that the induction of p21 protein level is mediated in SH-SY5Y cells by p53-independent mechanisms. In addition, HBITC-treatment caused downregulation of the level of mitochondrial rhodanese and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, and consequently increased the level of the reactive oxygen species in SH-SY5Y cells.
      PubDate: 2018-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-018-2546-2
  • Taurine protects noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons in a mouse
           Parkinson’s disease model by inhibiting microglial M1 polarization
    • Authors: Liyan Hou; Yuning Che; Fuqiang Sun; Qingshan Wang
      Abstract: Beyond nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC/NE) neurons are also degenerated in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. We previously reported that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation contributes to LC/NE neurodegeneration. The purpose of this study is aimed to test whether taurine, an endogenous amino acid, could be able to protect LC/NE neurons through inhibition of microglial activation using paraquat and maneb-induced mouse PD model. Taurine (150 mg/kg) was administrated (i.p) to mice 30 min prior to paraquat (10 mg/kg) and maneb (30 mg/kg) intoxication for consecutive 6 weeks (twice per week). The results clearly demonstrated that paraquat and maneb co-exposure resulted in loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the LC in mice, which was significantly ameliorated by taurine. Mechanistically, inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation contributed to taurine-afforded neuroprotection. Taurine attenuated paraquat and maneb-induced microglial activation and M1 polarization as well as release of proinflammatory cytokines in brainstem of mice. Taurine also abrogated microglial NADPH oxidase activation and oxidative damage in paraquat and maneb-treated mice. Furthermore, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) but not signal transducers and activators of transcription 1/3 (STAT1/3) signaling pathway participated in taurine-inhibited microglial activation. Collectively, taurine exerted LC/NE neuroprotection against microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. The robust neuroprotective effects of taurine suggest that taurine may be a promising candidate for potential therapy for patients suffering from PD.
      PubDate: 2018-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-018-2547-1
  • Ameliorative effects of taurine against diabetes: a review
    • Authors: Inam-u-llah; Fengyuan Piao; Rana Muhammad Aadil; Raheel Suleman; Kaixin Li; Mengren Zhang; Pingan Wu; Muhammad Shahbaz; Zulfiqar Ahmed
      Abstract: Diets in rats and humans have shown promising results. Taurine improved glucagon activity, promoted glycemic stability, modified glucose levels, successfully addressed hyperglycemia via advanced glycation end-product control, improved insulin secretion and had a beneficial effect on insulin resistance. Taurine treatment performed well against oxidative stress in brain, increased the secretion of required hormones and protected against neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy in diabetes compared with the control. Taurine has been observed to be effective in treatments against diabetic hepatotoxicity, vascular problems and heart injury in diabetes. Taurine was shown to be effective against oxidative stress. The mechanism of action of taurine cannot be explained by one pathway, as it has many effects. Several of the pathways are the advanced glycation end-product pathway, PI3-kinase/AKT pathway and mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. The worldwide threat of diabetes underscores the urgent need for novel therapeutic measures against this disorder. Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) is a natural compound that has been studied in diabetes and diabetes-induced complications.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-018-2544-4
  • Demethylation of methionine and keratin damage in human hair
    • Authors: Kamila Borowczyk; Joanna Suliburska; Hieronim Jakubowski
      Abstract: Growing human head hair contains a history of keratin and provides a unique model for studies of protein damage. Here, we examined mechanism of homocysteine (Hcy) accumulation and keratin damage in human hair. We found that the content of Hcy-keratin increased along the hair fiber, with levels 5–10-fold higher levels in older sections at the hair’s tip than in younger sections at hair’s base. The accumulation of Hcy led to a complete loss of keratin solubility in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The increase in Hcy-keratin was accompanied by a decrease in methionine-keratin. Levels of Hcy-keratin were correlated with hair copper and iron in older hair. These relationships were recapitulated in model experiments in vitro, in which Hcy generation from Met exhibited a similar dependence on copper or iron. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy-keratin accumulation is due to copper/iron-catalyzed demethylation of methionine residues and contributes to keratin damage in human hair.
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-018-2545-3
  • Characterization of structural and functional role of selenocysteine in
           selenoprotein H and its impact on DNA binding
    • Authors: Sagar H. Barage; Deepti D. Deobagkar; Vijay B. Baladhye
      Abstract: Selenoproteins are a group of proteins which contain selenocysteine (Sec or U) in their primary structure. Selenoproteins play a critical role in antioxidant defense, hormone metabolism, immune responses and muscle development. The selenoprotein H (SELENOH) is essential in the regulation of gene expression in response to redox status and antioxidant defense. It has Sec residue located in conserved CXXU motif similar to other selenoproteins. However, exact biological function of Sec residue in SELENOH is not known in detail. Therefore, it is essential to understand the structural and functional role of Sec in SELENOH. In the present study, homology modelling and MD simulation were performed to understand the role of Sec residue in SELENOH. The modelled 3D structure of wild-SELENOH along with two mutants (Mut-U44C and Mut-41CS–SC44) was subjected to MD simulation. Based on simulation results, we demonstrate that wild-SELENOH structure is dynamically stabilized by network of intramolecular hydrogen bonding and internal residue contacts facilitated by Sec residue. In contrast, notable differences have been observed in residue contacts and stability in other two mutant structures. Additionally, docking studies revealed that 3PRGRKRK9 motif of wild-SELENOH interacts with HSE and STRE of DNA molecule as observed experimentally. Similar to earlier reports, our sequence analysis study pinpoints conserved 3PRGRKRK9 motif present in SELENOH perform dual role as AT-hook motif and NLS. Overall, the obtained results clearly illustrate Sec residue plays an important role to restore functionally active conformation of SELENOH. The present study broadened our current understanding regarding the role of selenocysteine in protein structure and function.
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-018-2543-5
  • Understanding the antimicrobial properties/activity of an 11-residue Lys
           homopeptide by alanine and proline scan
    • Authors: P. Carvajal-Rondanelli; M. Aróstica; C. A. Álvarez; C. Ojeda; F. Albericio; L. F. Aguilar; S. H. Marshall; F. Guzmán
      Abstract: Previous work demonstrated that lysine homopeptides adopt a polyproline II (PPII) structure. Lysine homopeptides with odd number of residues, especially with 11 residues (K11), were capable of inhibiting the growth of a broader spectrum of bacteria than those with an even number. Confocal studies also determined that K11 was able to localize exclusively in the bacterial membrane, leading to cell death. In this work, the mechanism of action of this peptide was further analyzed focused on examining the structural changes in bacterial membrane induced by K11, and in K11 itself when interacting with bacterial membrane lipids. Moreover, alanine and proline scans were performed for K11 to identify relevant positions in structure conformation and antibacterial activity. To do so, circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was conducted in saline phosphate buffer (PBS) and in lipidic vesicles, using large unilamellar vesicles (LUV), composed of 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) or bacterial membrane lipid. Antimicrobial activity of K11 and their analogs was evaluated in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 exposed to the Lys homopeptide at MIC concentration showed blisters and bubbles formed on the bacterial surface, suggesting that K11 exerts its action by destabilizing the bacterial membrane. CD analysis revealed a remarkably enhanced PPII structure of K11 when replacing some of its central residues by proline in PBS. However, when such peptide analogs were confronted with either DMPG-LUV or membrane lipid extract-LUV, the tendency to form PPII structure was severely weakened. On the contrary, K11 peptide showed a remarkably enhanced PPII structure in the presence of DMPG-LUV. Antibacterial tests revealed that K11 was able to inhibit all tested bacteria with an MIC value of 5 µM, while proline and alanine analogs have a reduced activity on Listeria monocytogenes. Besides, the activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus was affected in most of the alanine-substituted analogs. However, lysine substitutions by alanine or proline at position 7 did not alter the activity against all tested bacterial strains, suggesting that this position can be screened to find a substitute amino acid yielding a peptide with increased antibacterial activity. These results also indicate that the PPII secondary structure of K11 is stabilized by the interaction of the peptide with negatively charged phospholipids in the bacterial membrane, though not being the sole determinant for its antimicrobial activity.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-018-2542-6
  • l -Arginine regulates protein turnover in porcine mammary epithelial cells
           to enhance milk protein synthesis
    • Authors: Qingquan Ma; Shengdi Hu; Makoto Bannai; Guoyao Wu
      Abstract: Milk is an important food for mammalian neonates, but its insufficient production is a nutritional problem for humans and other animals. Recent studies indicate that dietary supplementation with l-arginine (Arg) increases milk production in mammals, including sows, rabbits, and cows. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The present study was conducted with porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMECs) to test the hypothesis that Arg enhances milk protein synthesis via activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) cell signaling. PMECs were cultured for 4 days in Arg-free basal medium supplemented with 10, 50, 200, or 500 μmol/L Arg. Rates of protein synthesis and degradation in cells were determined with the use of l-[ring-2,4-3H]phenylalanine. Cell medium was analyzed for β-casein and α-lactalbumin, whereas cells were used for quantifying total and phosphorylated levels of mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), ubiquitin, and proteasome. Addition of 50–500 μmol/L Arg to culture medium increased (P < 0.05) the proliferation of PMECs and the synthesis of proteins (including β-casein and α-lactalbumin), while reducing the rates of proteolysis, in a dose-dependent manner. The phosphorylated levels of mTOR, p70S6K and 4EBP1 were elevated (P < 0.05), but the abundances of ubiquitin and proteasome were lower (P < 0.05), in PMECs supplemented with 200–500 μmol/L Arg, compared with 10–50 μmol/L Arg. These results provide a biochemical basis for the use of Arg to enhance milk production by sows and have important implications for improving lactation in other mammals (including humans and cows).
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-018-2541-7
  • Selection and identification of novel peptides specifically targeting
           human cervical cancer
    • Authors: Xiaomin Liu; Jingwen Peng; Jie He; Qiaoran Li; Jianbin Zhou; Xiaoqiu Liang; Shengsong Tang
      Abstract: Cervical cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths among females in underdeveloped countries. This study aimed to identify several novel cervical cancer-specific targeting peptides (CSPs) to provide new methods for the effective diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. Peptide library screening in vivo was performed on human cervical cancer xenografts with Ph.D.™-12 and C7C phage display peptide libraries. Two specific peptide sequences (GDALFSVPLEVY and KQNLAEG), which were enriched in tumors, were screened, and respectively, named CSP-GD and CSP-KQ through three rounds of biopanning. The in vivo tumor-targeting ability of these peptides was identified by injecting them into mice with cervical cancer xenograft. CSPs were compounded and labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The specificity and affinity of FITC-CSPs were evaluated in human cervical cancer cell lines and tissue microarrays in vitro by immunofluorescent staining. Results showed that FITC-CSP-GD and FITC-CSP-KQ evidently and specifically bound to the cell membrane and cytoplasm of SiHa, ME-180, and C-33A cells in vitro. In human cervical cancer tissue, FITC-CSP-GD and FITC-CSP-KQ strongly targeted human cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissues, respectively. A bright FITC signal was located mainly on the cell membrane and cytoplasm of tumor cells. In conclusion, the novel 12-residue peptide CSP-GD and 7-residue peptide CSP-KQ could specifically target human cervical cancer and may have the potential to be used in the diagnosis and targeted therapy of cervical cancer.
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-018-2539-1
  • Comparative effects of acute-methionine loading on the plasma sulfur-amino
           acids in NAC-supplemented HIV+ patients and healthy controls
    • Authors: Roberto Carlos Burini; Maria Doroteia Borges-Santos; Fernando Moreto; Yong- Ming Yu
      Abstract: In this study, an acute overloading of methionine (MetLo) was used to investigate the trassulfuration pathway response comparing healthy controls and HIV+ patients under their usual diet and dietary N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) supplementation. MetLo (0.1 g Met/kg mass weight) was given after overnight fasting to 20 non-HIV+ control subjects (Co) and 12 HIV+ HAART-treated patients. Blood samples were taken before and after the MetLo in two different 7-day dietary situations, with NAC (1 g/day) or with their usual diet (UD). The amino acids (Met, Hcy, Cys, Tau, Ser, Glu and Gln) and GSH were determined by HPLC and their inflow rate into circulation (plasma) was estimated by the area under the curve (AUC). Under UD, the HIV+ had lower plasma GSH and amino acids (excepting Hcy) and higher oxidative stress (GSSG/GSH ratio), similar remethylation (RM: Me/Hcy + Ser ratio), transmethylation (TM; Hcy/Met ratio) and glutaminogenesis (Glu/Gln ratio), lower transsulfuration (TS: Cys/Hcy + Ser ratio) and Cys/Met ratio and, higher synthetic rates of glutathione (GG: GSH/Cys ratio) and Tau (TG: Tau/Cys ratio). NAC supplementation changed the HIV pattern by increasing RM above control, normalizing plasma Met and TS and, increasing plasma GSH and GG above controls. However, plasma Cys was kept always below controls probably, associatively to its higher consumption in GG (more GSSG than GSH) and TG. The failure of restoring normal Cys by MetLo, in addition to NAC, in HIV+ patients seems to be related to increased flux of Cys into GSH and Tau pathways, probably strengthening the cell-antioxidant capacity against the HIV progression (registered at, NCT00910442).
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-018-2538-2
  • Hepatic glutamate transport and glutamine synthesis capacities are
           decreased in finished vs. growing beef steers, concomitant with increased
           GTRAP3-18 content
    • Authors: J. Huang; Y. Jia; Q. Li; W. R. Burris; P. J. Bridges; J. C. Matthews
      Abstract: Hepatic glutamate uptake and conversion to glutamine is critical for whole-body N metabolism, but how this process is regulated during growth is poorly described. The hepatic glutamate uptake activities, protein content of system \({\text{X}}^{ - }_{\text{AG}}\) transporters (EAAC1, GLT-1) and regulatory proteins (GTRAP3-18, ARL6IP1), glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and content, and glutathione (GSH) content, were compared in liver tissue of weaned Angus steers randomly assigned (n = 8) to predominantly lean (growing) or predominantly lipid (finished) growth regimens. Steers were fed a cotton seed hull-based diet to achieve final body weights of 301 or 576 kg, respectively, at a constant rate of growth. Liver tissue was collected at slaughter and hepatic membranes fractionated. Total (75%), Na+-dependent (90%), system \({\text{X}}^{ - }_{\text{AG}}\) -dependent (abolished) glutamate uptake activity, and EAAC1 content (36%) in canalicular membrane-enriched vesicles decreased as steers developed from growing (n = 6) to finished (n = 4) stages, whereas Na+-independent uptake did not change. In basolateral membrane-enriched vesicles, total (60%), Na+-dependent (60%), and Na+-independent (56%) activities decreased, whereas neither system \({\text{X}}^{ - }_{\text{AG}}\) -dependent uptake nor protein content changed. EAAC1 protein content in liver homogenates (n = 8) decreased in finished vs. growing steers, whereas GTRAP3-18 and ARL6IP1 content increased and GLT-1 content did not change. Concomitantly, hepatic GS activity decreased (32%) as steers fattened, whereas GS and GSH contents did not differ. We conclude that hepatic glutamate uptake and GS synthesis capacities are reduced in livers of finished versus growing beef steers, and that hepatic system \({\text{X}}^{ - }_{\text{AG}}\) transporter activity/EAAC1 content is inversely proportional to GTRAP3-18 content.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-018-2540-8
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