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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Amino Acids
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.135
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 8  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1438-2199 - ISSN (Online) 0939-4451
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Branched-chain polyamine stabilizes RNA polymerase at elevated
           temperatures in hyperthermophiles
    • Abstract: Branched-chain polyamines (BCPAs) are unique polycations found in (hyper)thermophiles. Thermococcus kodakarensis grows optimally at 85 °C and produces the BCPA N4-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine by sequential addition of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM) aminopropyl groups to spermidine (SPD) by BCPA synthase A (BpsA). The T. kodakarensis bpsA deletion mutant (DBP1) did not grow at temperatures at or above 93 °C, and grew at 90 °C only after a long lag period following accumulation of excess cytoplasmic SPD. This suggests that BCPA plays an essential role in cell growth at higher temperatures and raises the possibility that BCPA is involved in controlling gene expression. To examine the effects of BCPA on transcription, the RNA polymerase (RNAP) core fraction was extracted from another bpsA deletion mutant, DBP4 (RNAPDBP4), which carried a His-tagged rpoL, and its enzymatic properties were compared with those of RNAP from wild-type (WT) cells (RNAPWT). LC–MS analysis revealed that nine ribosomal proteins were detected from RNAPWT but only one form RNAPDBP4. These results suggest that BCPA increases the linkage between RNAP and ribosomes to achieve efficient coupling of transcription and translation. Both RNAPs exhibited highest transcription activity in vitro at 80 °C, but the specific activity of RNAPDBP4 was lower than that of RNAPWT. Upon addition of SPD and BCPA, both increased the transcriptional activity of RNAPDBP4; however, elevation by BCPA was achieved at a tenfold lower concentration. Addition of BCPA also protected RNAPDBP4 against thermal inactivation at 90 °C. These results suggest that BCPA increases transcriptional activity in T. kodakarensis by stabilizing the RNAP complex at high temperatures.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
  • Discrimination power of knowledge-based potential dictated by the dominant
           energies in native protein structures
    • Abstract: Extracting a well-designed energy function is important for protein structure evaluation. Knowledge-based potential functions are one type of the energy functions which can be obtained from known protein structures. The pairwise potential between atom types is approximated using Boltzmann’s law which relates the frequency of atom types to its potential. The total energy is approximated as a summation of pairwise potential between the atomic pairs. In the present study, the performance of knowledge-based potential function was assessed based on the strength of interaction between groups of amino acids. The dominant energies involved in the pairwise potentials were revealed by eigenvalue analysis of the matrix, the elements of which represent the energy between amino acids. For this purpose, the matrix including the mean of the energies of residue–residue interaction types was constructed using 500 native protein structures. The matrix has a dominant eigenvalue and amino acids, with LEU, VAL, ILE, PHE, TYR, ALA and TRP having high values along the dominant eigenvector. The results show that the ranking of amino acids is consistent with the power of amino acids in discriminating native structures using K-alphabet reduced model. In the reduced interactions, only amino acids from a subset of all 20 amino acids, along with their interactions are considered to assess the energy. In the K-alphabet reduced model, the reduced structures are constructed based on only the K-amino acid types. The dominant K-alphabet reduced model derived for the k-first amino acids in the list [LEU, VAL, PHE, ILE, TYR, ALA, TRP] of amino acids has the best discrimination of native structure among all possible K-alphabet reduced models. Knowledge-based potentials might be improved with a new strategy.
      PubDate: 2019-05-16
  • Isolation from Stevia rebaudiana of DMDP acetic acid, a novel iminosugar
           amino acid: synthesis and glycosidase inhibition profile of glycine and
           β-alanine pyrrolidine amino acids
    • Abstract: DMDP acetic acid [N-carboxymethyl-2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-d-mannitol] 5 from Stevia rebaudiana is the first isolated natural amino acid derived from iminosugars bearing an N-alkyl acid side chain; it is clear from GCMS studies that such derivatives with acetic and propionic acids are common in a broad range of plants including mulberry, Baphia, and English bluebells, but that they are very difficult to purify. Reaction of unprotected pyrrolidine iminosugars with aqueous glyoxal gives the corresponding N-acetic acids in very high yield; Michael addition of both pyrrolidine and piperidine iminosugars and that of polyhydroxylated prolines to tert-butyl acrylate give the corresponding N-propionic acids in which the amino group of β-alanine is incorporated into the heterocyclic ring. These easy syntheses allow the identification of this new class of amino acid in plant extracts and provide pure samples for biological evaluation. DMDP N-acetic and propionic acids are potent α-galactosidase inhibitors in contrast to potent β-galactosidase inhibition by DMDP.
      PubDate: 2019-05-11
  • Novel stable analogues of the neurotensin C-terminal hexapeptide
           containing unnatural amino acids
    • Abstract: Neurotensin (NT) (pGlu–Leu–Tyr–Glu–Asn–Lys–Pro–Arg–Arg–Pro–Tyr–Ile–Leu) exerts a dual function as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the central nervous system and as a hormone/cellular mediator in periphery. This dual function of NT establishes a connection between brain and peripheral tissues that renders this peptide a central player in energy homeostasis. Many biological actions of NT are mediated through its interaction with three types of NT receptors (NTS receptors). Despite its role in energy homeostasis, NT has a short half-life that hampers further determination of the biological actions of this peptide and its receptors in brain and periphery. The short half-life of NT is due to the proteolytic degradation of its C-terminal side by several endopeptidases. Therefore, it is important to synthesize NT analogues with resistant bonds against metabolic deactivation. Based on these findings, we herein report the synthesis of ten linear, two cyclic and two dimeric analogues of NT with modifications in its structure that improve their metabolic stability, while retaining the ability to bind to NTS receptors. Modifications at position 11 (introduction of d-Tyrosine (OEthyl) [d-Tyr(Et)] or d-1-naphtylalanine [d-1-Nal] were combined with introduction of a l-Lysine or a d-Arginine at positions 8 or 9, and 1-[2-(aminophenyl)-2-oxoethyl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (AOPC) at positions 7 or 8, resulting in compounds NT4-NT21. AOPC is an unnatural amino acid with promise in applications as a building block for the synthesis of peptidomimetic compounds. To biologically evaluate these analogues, we determined their plasma stability and their binding affinities to type 1 NT receptor (NTS1), endogenously expressed in HT-29 cells, Among the fourteen NT analogues, compounds, NT5, NT6, and NT8, which have d-Tyr(Et) at position 11, bound to NTS1 in a dose–response manner and with relatively high affinity but still lower than that of the natural peptide. Despite their lower binding affinities compared to NT, the NT5, NT6, and NT8 exhibited a remarkably higher stability, as a result of their chemistry, which provides protection from enzymatic activity. These results will set the basis for the rational design of novel NT molecules with improved pharmacological properties and enhanced enzymatic stability.
      PubDate: 2019-05-11
  • The hypertrehalosaemic neuropeptide conformational twins of cicadas
           consist of only l -amino acids: are they cis – trans isomers'
    • Abstract: It is known for almost 25 years that the corpora cardiaca (neurosecretory glands) of cicadas synthesize two isobaric peptides with hypertrehalosaemic activity denominated Placa-HrTH-I and II. Both decapeptides have the same amino acid sequence (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp-Gly-Asn amide) and mass, but differ in their chromatographic retention time. The slightly more hydrophobic peptide, Placa-HrTH-II, co-elutes with the synthetic peptide of the same sequence and is less active in biological assays than Placa-HrTH-I. Ion mobility separation in conjunction with high-resolution mass spectrometry detected the differing structural feature between both peptides in the region Pro6-Ser7-Trp8. Here, it was shown that Placa-HrTH-I co-eluted with a synthetic peptide containing d-Pro in position 6, while dextrorotatory amino acid residues in positions 7 and 8 could be excluded in this way. Amino acid hydrolysis followed by chiral analysis using a relative of Marfey’s reagent was then used to validate the presence of d-Pro in Placa-HrTH-I. Interestingly, this experiment unambiguously proved both the absence of d-Pro and the presence of l-Pro in Placa-HrTH-I. Racemization as a reason for the structural differences of the twin adipokinetic hormones was hence ruled out and cis–trans isomerism as the likely alternative came into focus. It remains to be investigated if Pro6 in cis-conformation is indeed present and responsible for the increased bioactivity of Placa-HrTH-I.
      PubDate: 2019-05-09
  • The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters PEPT2, PHT1 and PHT2 mediate
           the uptake of carnosine in glioblastoma cells
    • Abstract: The previous studies demonstrated that carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) inhibits the growth of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Considering carnosine for the treatment of glioblastoma, we investigated which proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters (POTs) are present in glioblastoma cells and how they contribute to the uptake of carnosine. Therefore, mRNA expression of the four known POTs (PEPT1, PEPT2, PHT1, and PHT2) was examined in three glioblastoma cell lines, ten primary tumor cell cultures, in freshly isolated tumor tissue and in healthy brain. Using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, the uptake of carnosine was investigated in the presence of competitive inhibitors and after siRNA-mediated knockdown of POTs. Whereas PEPT1 mRNA was not detected in any sample, expression of the three other transporters was significantly increased in tumor tissue compared to healthy brain. In cell culture, PHT1 expression was comparable to expression in tumor tissue, PHT2 exhibited a slightly reduced expression, and PEPT2 expression was reduced to normal brain tissue levels. In the cell line LN405, the competitive inhibitors β-alanyl-l-alanine (inhibits all transporters) and l-histidine (inhibitor of PHT1/2) both inhibited the uptake of carnosine. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of PHT1 and PHT2 revealed a significantly reduced uptake of carnosine. Interestingly, despite its low expression at the level of mRNA, knockdown of PEPT2 also resulted in decreased uptake. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the transporters PEPT2, PHT1, and PHT2 are responsible for the uptake of carnosine into glioblastoma cells and full function of all three transporters is required for maximum uptake.
      PubDate: 2019-05-09
  • Genetic regulation of dimethylarginines and endothelial dysfunction in
           rheumatoid arthritis
    • Abstract: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) confers an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk which accounts for much of the premature morbidity and mortality observed in this population. Alterations in vascular function and morphology leading to increased atherosclerotic burden are considered the main drivers of CVD in RA individuals with systemic inflammation playing a key role in the dysregulation of endothelial homeostasis and initiation of vascular injury. Dimethylarginines are endogenous inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase and have emerged as novel, independent biomarkers of CVD in a wide range of conditions associated with vascular pathology. In RA several reports have demonstrated abnormal dimethylarginine metabolism attributable to various factors such as systemic inflammation, decreased degradation or upregulated synthesis. Although a causal relationship between dimethylarginines and vascular damage in RA has not been established, the tight interrelations between inflammation, dimethylarginines and endothelial dysfunction suggest that determination of dimethylarginine regulators may shed more light in the pathophysiology of the atherosclerotic process in RA and may also provide new therapeutic targets. The Alanine–Glyoxylate Aminotransferase 2 (AGTX2)-dependent pathway is a relatively recently discovered alternative pathway of dimethylarginine catabolism and its role on RA-related atherosclerotic disease is yet to be established. As factors affecting dimethylarginine concentrations linked to CVD risk and endothelial dysfunction are of prominent clinical relevance in RA, we present preliminary evidence that gene variants of AGTX-2 may influence dimethylarginine levels in RA patients and provide the rationale for larger studies in this field.
      PubDate: 2019-05-06
  • Distinct associations between plasma osteoprotegerin, homoarginine and
           asymmetric dimethylarginine in chronic kidney disease male patients with
           coronary artery disease
    • Abstract: High plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and low homoarginine (hArg) predict adverse renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. In patients with chronic kidney disease and stable coronary artery disease, plasma OPG correlated with hArg (r = − 0.37, P = 0.03) and the hArg/ADMA molar ratio (r = − 0.46, P = 0.009), which was maintained upon adjustment for renal function. Elevated OPG levels and decreased hArg/ADMA ratios independently predicted 4-year composite CV and renal endpoints (CV death or progression to dialysis). Thus, high OPG and low hArg/ADMA ratio, albeit interrelated, appear to independently contribute to adverse clinical outcome.
      PubDate: 2019-05-02
  • Clinical significance of LOXL4 expression and features of LOXL4-associated
           protein–protein interaction network in esophageal squamous cell
    • Abstract: Lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4), a member of the LOX family proteins, catalyzes oxidative deamination of lysine residues in collagen and elastin, which are responsible for maintaining extracellular matrix homeostasis. In this study, the mRNA expression of LOXL4 in seven esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines and 15 ESCC pairs of clinical samples were examined. Furthermore, LOXL4 protein levels in the ESCC cell lines were determined using western blotting. With the use of immunofluorescence, LOXL4 was observed to be localized primarily in the cytoplasm, but was also present in the nucleus. In addition, the results indicated that the upregulated expression of LOXL4 was associated with poor survival in patients with ESCC even following curative resection (P = 0.010). Similar Kaplan–Meier estimator curves for proteins that interact with LOXL4, SUV39H1 (P = 0.014) and COL2A1 (P = 0.011), were plotted. The analyses based on the protein–protein interaction network depicted the expression of LOXL4 and its associated proteins as well as their functions, suggesting that LOXL4 and its associated proteins may serve a significant role in the development and progression of ESCC. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that LOXL4 is a potential biomarker for patients with ESCC, as well as SUV39H1 and COL2A1, and high expression levels of these genes are associated with poor prognosis in patients with ESCC.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Silver cluster–amino acid interactions: a quantum-chemical study
    • Abstract: Binding of silver ion (Ag+) and two atomic neutral silver cluster (Ag2) with a set of amino acids has been studied using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and ab initio MP2 method. We show that binding energy with Ag2 is higher for deprotonated anionic amino acids. Cysteine, aspartic acid, and tyrosine with deprotonated side chain exhibit the highest binding energy (Gbind) values among all the amino acids: − 30.1 kcal mol−1, − 30.7 kcal mol−1, and − 30.9 kcal mol−1, respectively. Binding energies of deprotonated cysteine, glutamic acid, tyrosine, and aspartic acid with silver ion Ag+ are reported here for the first time. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis has also been performed to calculate charge transfer, natural populations, occupancies, and Wiberg bond indices of the amino acid–Ag2 complexes. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) theory was used to establish the nature of interactions. It was shown that, in most cases, the bonds between amino acid and Ag2 cluster are partially electrostatic and partially covalent.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Elevated circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine levels in rheumatoid
           arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) death. Elevated asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels have been reported to be an independent predictor of CVD morbidity and mortality, however, the role of ADMA in RA remains undetermined. To derive a more accurate estimation on circulating ADMA levels in RA patients, a meta-analysis was performed. Embase, PubMed, and The Cochrane Library database (up to October 7 2018) were used to acquire published literatures. Heterogeneity test was performed by the Q statistic and quantified using I2. Publication bias was evaluated using a funnel plot and Egger’s linear regression test. A total of 174 articles were identified, 16 studies with 1365 subjects (666 RA patients and 699 healthy individuals) were ultimately included. Plasma/serum ADMA levels appeared to be higher in RA patients than healthy controls (SMD = 0.84, 95% CI 0.32, 1.35). By assessing the BMI, age, disease duration and disease activity as subgroups, BMI ≥ 24 and BMI < 24 groups both showed elevated ADMA levels than controls, disease duration ≥ 8, age < 50 and disease activity ≥ 3.2 and < 5.1 group had a higher ADMA level than control groups. However, disease duration < 8, disease activity ≥ 5.1 and age ≥ 50 groups showed no difference between two groups. Circulating ADMA levels are higher in RA patients compared with healthy controls. In addition, ADMA levels are influenced by age, disease duration and disease activity.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Maternal l -proline supplementation during gestation alters amino acid and
           polyamine metabolism in the first generation female offspring of C57BL/6J
    • Abstract: We recently reported that dietary supplementation with l-proline (proline) during gestation improved embryonic survival in C57BL/6J mice. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the effect of maternal proline supplementation on embryonic survival can be carried forward to the first generation female offspring. In the F0 generation, pregnant dams were fed a purified diet supplemented with 0 (control) or 5 g proline/kg diet. The F1 female adult offsprings were bred to fertile males. Fetal survival at embryonic day (E)12.5 and reproductive outcomes at term birth were recorded. The concentrations of amino acids, ammonia, and urea in plasma and amniotic fluid, as well as concentrations of polyamines in placental tissues and amniotic fluid at E12.5 were determined. Results showed that the F1 generation female offspring from proline-supplemented dams had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of glutamate and taurine in plasma; of putrescine and spermidine in placental tissues; and of glycine, taurine, and spermidine in amniotic fluid at E12.5, as compared with F1 generation female offsprings from dams without proline supplementation. Concentration of proline in the plasma of offspring mice from proline-supplemented dams were lower (P < 0.05), as compared with the control group. No differences in fetal survival, reproductive outcomes, or concentrations of ammonia and urea in plasma and amniotic fluid were observed between the two groups of F1 female offspring. Collectively, our results indicate that the benefits of maternal proline supplementation during gestation on improving embryonic survival and fetal growth in F0 females are not transmitted to their F1 generation females.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Comparative stability of ficin and papain in acidic conditions and the
           presence of ethanol
    • Abstract: Proteolytic enzymes are used for proteolysis and peptide synthesis which can be run in various conditions including low pH value and the presence of ethanol. The most common cysteine protease applied in acidic–alcoholic conditions is well-characterized papain. Ficin, which is closely related to papain in terms of proteolytic activity and substrate specificity, could potentially be applied in the alcoholic beverage industry and peptide synthesis. The aim of this study was to compare papain and ficin stability in process conditions. Comparative stability study showed that ficin as a mixture of different isoforms has a broader range of stability in respect of pH and cold storage stability, in comparison to papain. It retains about 70% of initial activity after 3-week cold storage at low pH and in the presence of ethanol. Unlike ficin, papain loses about 70% of initial activity in the same incubation period as it is more prone to non-native aggregation that was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The presence of multiple isoforms of ficin stabilizes the protease against cold denaturation and aggregation, making it more suitable for biotechnological and laboratory usage than single papain isoform. It is more cold-stable in alcoholic–acidic and acidic conditions suggesting possible replacement of papain with even lower enzyme concentration.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Computational characterization of structural and functional roles of
           DREB1A , DREB1B and DREB1C in enhancing cold tolerance in rice plant
    • Abstract: Rice serves as the major food for almost half of the world population. Because of its origin in the tropical and subtropical area, rice is more sensitive towards cold stress. Three homologs of DREB1, namely DREB1A, DREB1B and DREB1C are induced Queryduring cold stress and after binding with GCC-box in the promoter region of the target gene, they enhance cold tolerance in rice plants. Though the majority of DREBs bind GCC-box, the degree of activation varies among DREBs. The protein encoded via these three transcription factors contains a common domain, namely AP2/ERF. In silico method was utilised to predict 3D structure of each AP2/ERF domain. The molecular dynamic analysis suggests, under the normal environmental condition, in each AP2/ERF domain, a positive correlation exists between β-strands and the movement of C-α is constrained. However, during cold stress, when AP2/ERF domain binds with GCC-box present in the promoter region of the target gene, mean pressure of each three AP2/ERF domain gets lowered and final potential energy increases. A positive correlation between β-strands gets disrupted and C-α experiences random movement suggesting enhanced activity of DREB1A, DREB1B and DREB1C during cold stress and enhancement of cold tolerance in plants. Further, MM/PBSA calculations for protein–DNA affinities reveal that, due to lack of α2 in DREB1C, the binding affinity of GCC-box with AP2/ERF domain of DREB1A > DREB1B > DREB1C. Thus, due to a better binding affinity with GCC-box, DREB1A and DREB1B can be utilised in near future for increasing cold tolerance of rice plant and increasing yield.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • The additive effect of type 2 diabetes on fibrinogen, von Willebrand
           factor, tryptophan and threonine in people living with HIV
    • Abstract: Chronic immune activation and ensuing inflammation that accompany HIV infection lead to adverse metabolic consequences and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined the additive effects of T2D on circulating biomarkers involved in inflammation, coagulation, and vascular function along with plasma amino acids in people living with HIV (PLWH). This cross-sectional study included PLWH with and without T2D (n = 32 total). Analyses involved a multiplex platform for circulating biomarkers and gas chromatography–vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy for plasma amino acids. In PLWH and T2D, both fibrinogen (2.0 ± 0.6 vs 1.6 ± 0.4 µg/mL, p = 0.02) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) (40.8 ± 17.2 vs 26.7 ± 13.8 µg/mL, p = 0.02) were increased and tryptophan (47 ± 6 vs 53 ± 8 nmol/mL, p = 0.03) and threonine (102 ± 25 vs 125 ± 33 nmol/mL, p = 0.03) were decreased. Fibrinogen, as a biomarker of inflammation, and vWF, as a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction, are augmented by the combined effects of HIV and T2D and may contribute to the pathogenesis of T2D in PLWH. Chronic immune activation and inflammation compromise the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, which increases mucus production. Tryptophan metabolism is altered by a loss of intestinal membrane integrity and threonine is consumed in the production of mucus. Metabolic competition arising from increased protein synthesis in the setting of chronic inflammation along with the associated loss in intestinal membrane integrity may be a primary mechanism in the pathogenesis of T2D in PLWH and requires further investigation.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • A novel comprehensive paradigm for the etiopathogenesis of multiple
           sclerosis: therapeutic approaches and future perspectives on its treatment
    • Abstract: It is well recognized that variation in the geographical distribution of prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) exists: increasing the latitude its prevalence increases as well, but the underlying causes of such dissimilarity still remained elusive as of today. Currently, the most accredited hypothesis is that the closer to the equator the more pronounced is the amount of sunlight which, in turn, increases the production of vitamin D. Cholecalciferol is indeed deficient in MS patients, but this factor does not explain by itself the etiopathogenesis of the disease. In the present study, to search for a pattern and provide a model of the disease’s etiology consistent with this regional factor, as well with its changing ethnic, sex-ratio, lifestyle variations and the other unexplained aspects of MS, an extensive analysis of peer-reviewed literature and data was conducted. The arisen hypothesis was that, increasing the latitude, the factor that varies and can have the stronger effect on the human organism, is the continuous and ever-increasing diversity of the natural light–dark cycle. The consequent effort of the suprachiasmatic nucleus to entrain the organism’s circadian rhythm affects the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis resulting in desynchronizing the central and peripheral circadian clocks and pathologizing the immunitary system. To verify such hypothesis, a theoretical framework of the etiopathogenesis, coherent with the gathered literature, was conceived and a demonstration to corroborate it was eventually devised and performed. The results underscored that people living in countries subjected to a further circadian disruptive factor, as daylight saving time, have a 6.35 times higher prevalence of MS than States placed on their same latitude that do not observe it, thus strongly supporting the hypothesis. As further reinforcement of the conclusions, it is worth mentioning that the levels of polyamines rise abruptly in autoimmune diseases. Moreover, among their numerous roles, these polycations participate to the regulation of the circadian clock so their sudden variation might disrupt it. Following these interesting findings, new perspectives in therapies are, therefore, proposed.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Carnosine’s inhibitory effect on glioblastoma cell growth is
           independent of its cleavage
    • Abstract: The naturally occurring dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) inhibits the growth of tumor cells. As its component l-histidine mimics the effect, we investigated whether cleavage of carnosine is required for its antineoplastic effect. Using ten glioblastoma cell lines and cell cultures derived from 21 patients suffering from this malignant brain tumor, we determined cell viability under the influence of carnosine and l-histidine. Moreover, we determined expression of carnosinases, the intracellular release of l-histidine from carnosine, and whether inhibition of carnosine cleavage attenuates carnosine’s antineoplastic effect. We observed a significantly higher response of the cells to l-histidine than to carnosine with regard to cell viability in all cultures. In addition, we detected protein and mRNA expression of carnosinases and a low but significant release of l-histidine in cells incubated in the presence of 50 mM carnosine (p < 0.05), which did not correlate with carnosine’s effect on viability. Furthermore, the carnosinase 2 inhibitor bestatin did not attenuate carnosine’s effect on viability. Interestingly, we measured a ~ 40-fold higher intracellular abundance of l-histidine in the presence of 25 mM extracellular l-histidine compared to the amount of l-histidine in the presence of 50 mM carnosine, both resulting in a comparable decrease in viability. In addition, we also examined the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 mRNA, which was comparably influenced by l-histidine and carnosine, but did not correlate with effects on viability. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the antineoplastic effect of carnosine is independent of its cleavage.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Comparison between the effects of selenomethionine and S
           -adenosylmethionine in preventing cholestasis-induced rat liver damage
    • Abstract: We aimed to evaluate whether two methionine-related compounds, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and selenomethionine (SM), could lessen liver damage induced by regurgitated bile in a model of rat bile duct ligation (BDL). Hepatoprotective potentials of S-adenosylmethionine and selenomethionine were estimated based on the changes of serum liver damage parameters (aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase activity, and bilirubin concentration), tissue oxidative [xanthine oxidase (XO) and catalase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels] and inflammatory [tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α) concentration] parameters, and morphological liver tissue alterations that follow cholestasis. The treatment regimens proved themselves able to prevent significant liver damage induced by cholestasis. Both SAM and SM decreased XO activity and TBARS levels and increased catalase activity, while only SM significantly reduced TNF-α concentration. Morphological changes related to bile-induced liver damage were also found to be partially diminished by SAM and SM. In view of the mechanisms of action of the two tested methionine-derived compounds, one might say that SM predominantly acted as an antioxidant, while SAM exerted its activity by potentially modulating different gene expression and protein structures. It is also worth mentioning that this is the first study (to the best of our knowledge) that dealt with the effects of SM on BDL-induced liver injury in rats and of the findings that speak favorably of this powerful antioxidant.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Structure-guided approach to identify a novel class of anti-leishmaniasis
           diaryl sulfide compounds targeting the trypanothione metabolism
    • Abstract: Leishmania protozoans are the causative agent of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease consisting of three major clinical forms: visceral leishmaniasis (VL), cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. VL is caused by Leishmania donovani in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent and by Leishmania infantum in Europe, North Africa, and Latin America, and causes an estimated 60,000 deaths per year. Trypanothione reductase (TR) is considered to be one of the best targets to find new drugs against leishmaniasis. This enzyme is fundamental for parasite survival in the human host since it reduces trypanothione, a molecule used by the tryparedoxin/tryparedoxin peroxidase system of Leishmania to neutralize the hydrogen peroxide produced by host macrophages during infection. Recently, we solved the X-ray structure of TR in complex with the diaryl sulfide compound RDS 777 (6-(sec-butoxy)-2-((3-chlorophenyl)thio)pyrimidin-4-amine), which impairs the parasite defense against the reactive oxygen species by inhibiting TR with high efficiency. The compound binds to the catalytic site and engages in hydrogen bonds the residues more involved in the catalysis, namely Glu466′, Cys57 and Cys52, thereby inhibiting the trypanothione binding. On the basis of the RDS 777–TR complex, we synthesized structurally related diaryl sulfide analogs as TR inhibitors able to compete for trypanothione binding to the enzyme and to kill the promastigote in the micromolar range. One of the most active among these compounds (RDS 562) was able to reduce the trypanothione concentration in cell of about 33% via TR inhibition. RDS 562 inhibits selectively Leishmania TR, while it does not inhibit the human homolog glutathione reductase.
      PubDate: 2019-04-29
  • Modelling of protein turnover provides insight for metabolic demands on
           those specific amino acids utilised at disproportionately faster rates
           than other amino acids
    • Abstract: The nitrogen balance is regulated by factors such as diet, physical activity, age, pathogenic challenges, and climatic conditions. A paradigm was developed from published recommended rates of protein intake (g/kg/day) with corresponding rates of endogenous protein turnover and excretion, to extrapolate amino acid balances under various conditions. The average proportions of amino acids in the ingested proteins representing a well-balanced diet were used to assess intake and an average human composition profile from five major high-turnover proteins in the body to assess endogenous protein turnover. The amino acid excretion profiles for urine and sweat were constructed for males and females from published data. The model calculated the nitrogen balances for a range of amino acids to determine the amino acid requirements to support daily exertion. Histidine, serine, glycine, and ornithine were in negative balances in males and females and this potential deficit was greater in the higher body-mass ranges. Conversely, leucine, isoleucine, and valine were conserved during nitrogen flux and resulted in positive balances. The model was run under a scenario of high demand for the synthesis of IgG during a response to an infectious challenge which indicated that these were increased requirements for tyrosine, threonine, and valine. It was concluded that these amino acids represent points of limitation to anabolic metabolism by restriction of their supply at critical times of demand. This would especially occur under conditions of fitness training, maintaining intensive exercise regimes, facilitating responses to pathogenic challenge, or recovery from injury.
      PubDate: 2019-04-26
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