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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2345 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2345 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)

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Journal Cover Amino Acids
  [SJR: 1.362]   [H-I: 83]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2199 - ISSN (Online) 0939-4451
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Glucose transportation in the brain and its impairment in Huntington
           disease: one more shade of the energetic metabolism failure?
    • Authors: Veronica Morea; Eris Bidollari; Gianni Colotti; Annarita Fiorillo; Jessica Rosati; Lidia De Filippis; Ferdinando Squitieri; Andrea Ilari
      Pages: 1147 - 1157
      Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD) or Huntington’s chorea is the most common inherited, dominantly transmitted, neurodegenerative disorder. It is caused by increased CAG repeats number in the gene coding for huntingtin (Htt) and characterized by motor, behaviour and psychiatric symptoms, ultimately leading to death. HD patients also exhibit alterations in glucose and energetic metabolism, which result in pronounced weight loss despite sustained calorie intake. Glucose metabolism decreases in the striatum of all the subjects with mutated Htt, but affects symptom presentation only when it drops below a specific threshold. Recent evidence points at defects in glucose uptake by the brain, and especially by neurons, as a relevant component of central glucose hypometabolism in HD patients. Here we review the main features of glucose metabolism and transport in the brain in physiological conditions and how these processes are impaired in HD, and discuss the potential ability of strategies aimed at increasing intracellular energy levels to counteract neurological and motor degeneration in HD patients.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2417-2
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 7 (2017)
  • The repertoire of bitter taste receptor genes in canids
    • Authors: Shuai Shang; Xiaoyang Wu; Jun Chen; Huanxin Zhang; Huaming Zhong; Qinguo Wei; Jiakuo Yan; Haotian Li; Guangshuai Liu; Weilai Sha; Honghai Zhang
      Pages: 1159 - 1167
      Abstract: Bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) play important roles in mammalian defense mechanisms by helping animals detect and avoid toxins in food. Although Tas2r genes have been widely studied in several mammals, minimal research has been performed in canids. To analyze the genetic basis of Tas2r genes in canids, we first identified Tas2r genes in the wolf, maned wolf, red fox, corsac fox, Tibetan fox, fennec fox, dhole and African hunting dog. A total of 183 Tas2r genes, consisting of 118 intact genes, 6 partial genes and 59 pseudogenes, were detected. Differences in the pseudogenes were observed among nine canid species. For example, Tas2r4 was a pseudogene in the dog but might play a functional role in other canid species. The Tas2r42 and Tas2r10 genes were pseudogenes in the maned wolf and dhole, respectively, and the Tas2r5 and Tas2r34 genes were pseudogenes in the African hunting dog; however, these genes were intact genes in other canid species. The differences in Tas2r pseudogenes among canids might suggest that the loss of intact Tas2r genes in canid species is species-dependent. We further compared the 183 Tas2r genes identified in this study with Tas2r genes from ten additional carnivorous species to evaluate the potential influence of diet on the evolution of the Tas2r gene repertoire. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the Tas2r genes from the 18 species intermingled across the tree, suggesting that Tas2r genes are conserved among carnivores. Within canids, we found that some Tas2r genes corresponded to the traditional taxonomic groupings, while some did not. PIC analysis showed that the number of Tas2r genes in carnivores exhibited no positive correlation with diet composition, which might be due to the limited number of carnivores included in our study.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2422-5
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 7 (2017)
  • Suppression of Th1 differentiation by tryptophan supplementation in vivo
    • Authors: Tobias V. Lanz; Simon Becker; Soumya R. Mohapatra; Christiane A. Opitz; Wolfgang Wick; Michael Platten
      Pages: 1169 - 1175
      Abstract: Metabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan (trp) is a key endogenous immunosuppressive pathway restricting inflammatory responses. Tryptophan metabolites promote regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation and suppress proinflammatory T helper cell (Th)1 and Th17 phenotypes. It has been shown that treatment with natural and synthetic tryptophan metabolites can suppress autoimmune neuroinflammation in preclinical animal models. Here, we tested if oral intake of tryptophan would increase immunosuppressive tryptophan metabolites and ameliorate autoimmune neuroinflammation as a safe approach to treat autoimmune disorders like multiple sclerosis (MS). Without oral supplementation, systemic kynurenine levels decrease during the initiation phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, indicating systemic activation of tryptophan metabolism. Daily oral gavage of up to 10 mg/mouse/day was safe and increased serum kynurenine levels by more than 20-fold for more than 3 h after the gavage. While this treatment resulted in suppression of myelin-specific Th1 responses, there was no relevant impact on clinical disease activity. These data show that oral trp supplementation at subtoxic concentrations suppresses antigen-specific Th1 responses, but suggest that the increase in trp metabolites is not sustained enough to impact neuroinflammation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2415-4
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 7 (2017)
  • Comparative proteomic analysis provides insight into 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic
           acid biosynthesis in honey bee workers
    • Authors: Xiao-Hui Yang; Shi-Fa Yang; Rui-Ming Wang
      Pages: 1177 - 1192
      Abstract: 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) is the major compound produced from the mandibular glands (MGs) of honey bee workers. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanisms of 10-HDA biosynthesis. In our study, based on investigating the 10-HDA secretion pattern and the morphological characteristics of MGs from honey bee workers of different ages, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in the MGs of workers with different 10-HDA production. In total, 59 up-regulated protein species representing 45 unique proteins were identified in high 10-HDA-producing workers by 2-DE–MALDI–TOF/TOF MS. These proteins were involved in carbohydrate/energy metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, protein metabolism and folding, antioxidation, cytoskeleton, development and cell signaling. Proteins related to fatty acid metabolism, including fatty acid synthase and β-oxidation enzymes, are potentially crucial proteins involved in 10-HDA biosynthesis pathway. And RNA interference (RNAi) results demonstrated that knockdown of electron transfer flavoprotein subunit beta (ETF-β), one of the protein related to fatty acid metabolism, decreased 10-HDA production of worker bees, suggesting that ETF-β was necessary for 10-HDA biosynthesis. This study reveals the characteristics of MGs of worker bees at different developmental stages and proteins associated with 10-HDA biosynthesis, which provides the first insight into the molecular mechanism of 10-HDA biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2418-1
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 7 (2017)
  • Low plasma homoarginine concentration is associated with high rates of
           all-cause mortality in renal transplant recipients
    • Authors: Arslan Arinc Kayacelebi; Isidor Minović; Erik Hanff; Anne-Roos S. Frenay; Martin H. de Borst; Martin Feelisch; Harry van Goor; Stephan J. L. Bakker; Dimitrios Tsikas
      Pages: 1193 - 1202
      Abstract: In renal transplant recipients (RTR), we recently found that low urinary excretion of homoarginine (hArg) is associated with mortality and graft failure. However, it is not known whether such prospective associations also hold true for plasma concentrations of hArg. In the present study, we therefore determined plasma concentrations of hArg in the same cohort, i.e. in 687 RTR (functioning graft ≥1 year), and in 140 healthy donors, before and after kidney donation. Plasma hArg concentrations were significantly lower in RTR compared to healthy controls [1.24 (0.95–1.63) µM vs. 1.58 (1.31–2.03) µM, P < 0.001], and kidney donation resulted in a decrease in plasma hArg concentration to 1.41 (1.10–1.81) µM (P < 0.001). In RTR, multivariable linear regression analysis revealed BMI (β = 0.124), heart rate (β = −0.091), pre-emptive transplantation (β = 0.078), antidiabetic medication (β = −0.091), eGFR (β = 0.272), plasma PTH (β = −0.098), uric acid (β = 0.137), alkaline phosphatase (β = −0.100), HDL (β = −0.111), NT-pro-BNP (β = −0.166), and urinary urea excretion (β = 0.139) as main determinants of plasma hArg (all P < 0.05). In RTR, plasma hArg concentration was inversely associated with all-cause [hazard ratio (HR) 0.59 (95% CI 0.50–0.70), P < 0.001] and cardiovascular mortality [HR 0.50 (0.39–0.66), P < 0.001], both expressed per standard deviation change in log-transformed hArg, independent of potential confounders. To conclude, our results suggest that the kidney is a major hArg production site and an important modulator of hArg homeostasis in the renal and cardiovascular systems. Moreover, low plasma hArg is independently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in RTR, which corroborates the cardiovascular importance of preserving kidney function after transplantation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2420-7
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 7 (2017)
  • Variations of isovaline structure related to activity in the formalin foot
           assay in mice
    • Authors: Timothy Fung; Yahya I. Asiri; Richard Wall; Stephan K. W. Schwarz; Ernest Puil; Bernard A. MacLeod
      Pages: 1203 - 1213
      Abstract: Current centrally acting analgesics such as opioids are associated with adverse effects that limit their use and threaten patient safety. Isovaline is a novel prototype analgesic that produces peripheral antinociception in several pain models with little or no effect on the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to establish a preliminary structure–activity relationship for isovaline derivatives by assaying efficacy in the formalin foot assay and central adverse effect profile in mice. Selected compounds were tested using the formalin foot assay to determine efficacy in reducing formalin-induced behaviors. Of the compounds tested, R-isovaline, S-isovaline, and 1-amino-1-cyclobutanecarboxylic acid reduced nocifensive behavior in phase II of the assay. These effects occurred without affecting performance on the rotarod, indicating that the reduction in nocifensive behaviors was not due to sedation or motor incoordination. Modifications to isovaline that increased its steric size without a cyclobutane ring formation produced compounds with no activity in the formalin foot assay. These findings indicate that the conformational stability of isovaline or the ability to form a cyclobutane ring is necessary for activity in the formalin foot assay.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2421-6
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 7 (2017)
  • Oral arginine supplementation protects female mice from the onset of
           non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
    • Authors: Cathrin Sellmann; Christian Degen; Cheng Jun Jin; Anika Nier; Anna Janina Engstler; Dana Hasan Alkhatib; Jean-Pascal De Bandt; Ina Bergheim
      Pages: 1215 - 1225
      Abstract: Dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation has been proposed to have positive effects on the development of liver diseases. In the present study, we investigate if an oral Arg supplementation in diet protects mice fed a fructose, fat and cholesterol enriched Western-style diet (WSD) from the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a liquid control diet or a liquid WSD ± Arg (2.49 g/kg body weight/day) for 6 weeks. Indices of liver injury, glucose metabolism and intestinal permeability were determined. While Arg supplementation had no effects on body weight gain, fasting blood glucose levels were significantly lower in WSD+Arg-fed mice than in C+Arg-fed animals. WSD-fed mice developed liver steatosis accompanied with inflammation, both being significantly attenuated in WSD+Arg-fed mice. These effects of Arg supplementation went along with a protection against WSD-induced decreased tight junction protein levels in the upper parts of the small intestine, increased levels of bacterial endotoxin in portal plasma as well as increased hepatic toll-like receptor-4 mRNA and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct levels. In conclusion, Arg supplementation may protect mice from the development of NASH.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2423-4
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 7 (2017)
  • Effects of dietary l -tryptophan supplementation on intestinal response to
           chronic unpredictable stress in broilers
    • Authors: Yunshuang Yue; Yuming Guo; Ying Yang
      Pages: 1227 - 1236
      Abstract: Stress has been recognized as a critical risk factor for gastrointestinal diseases in both humans and animals. However, nutritional strategies to attenuate stress-induced intestinal barrier function and underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that l-tryptophan enhanced intestinal barrier function by regulating mucosal serotonin metabolism in chronic unpredictable stress-exposed broilers. One-day-old male broilers (Arbor Acres) were fed a basal diet supplemented with or without l-tryptophan in the absence or presence of chronic unpredictable stress. Feed intake, body weight gain, plasma corticosterone and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), intestinal permeability, mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA), and mRNA levels for tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, protein abundance for claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1 were determined. Stress exposure led to elevated plasma corticosterone (P < 0.05), increased intestinal permeability (P < 0.05), reduced growth performance (P < 0.05), and decreased sIgA secretion compared with the controls. These effects were largely reversed (P < 0.05) by l-tryptophan supplementation. Western blot analysis showed that stress exposure resulted in decreased protein abundance for occludin, claudin-1, and ZO-1, which was attenuated by l-tryptophan. mRNA levels for IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were increased, but those for IL-10 were decreased, in the jejunal tissue of broilers subjected to stress. This effect of stress on cytokine expression was abolished by l-tryptophan treatment. The effects of stress were associated with decreased plasma concentration of 5-HT (P < 0.05), and reduced (P < 0.05) mRNA levels for TPH1. l-Tryptophan supplementation markedly attenuated stress-induced alterations in 5-HT and TPH1 mRNA level in jejunal tissues of broilers. Collectively, these results indicate that l-tryptophan supplementation alleviates chronic unpredictable stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction by regulating 5-HT metabolism in broilers.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2424-3
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 7 (2017)
  • An insecticidal toxin from Nephila clavata spider venom
    • Authors: Lin Jin; Mingqian Fang; Mengrou Chen; Chunling Zhou; Rose Ombati; Md Abdul Hakim; Guoxiang Mo; Ren Lai; Xiuwen Yan; Yumin Wang; Shilong Yang
      Pages: 1237 - 1245
      Abstract: Spiders are the most successful insect predators given that they use their venom containing insecticidal peptides as biochemical weapons for preying. Due to the high specificity and potency of peptidic toxins, discoveries of insecticidal toxins from spider venom have provided an opportunity to obtain natural compounds for agricultural applications without affecting human health. In this study, a novel insecticidal toxin (μ-NPTX-Nc1a) was identified and characterized from the venom of Nephila clavata. Its primary sequence is GCNPDCTGIQCGWPRCPGGQNPVMDKCVSCCPFCPPKSAQG which was determined by automated Edman degradation, cDNA cloning, and MS/MS analysis. BLAST search indicated that Nc1a shows no similarity with known peptides or proteins, indicating that Nc1a belongs to a novel family of insecticidal peptide. Nc1a displayed inhibitory effects on NaV and KV channels in cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons. The median lethal dose (LD50) of Nc1a on cockroach was 573 ng/g. Herein, a study that identifies a novel insecticidal toxin, which can be a potential candidate and/or template for the development of bioinsecticides, is presented.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2425-2
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 7 (2017)
  • Conformational stabilization of FOX–DNA complex architecture to
           sensitize prostate cancer chemotherapy
    • Authors: Bin Chen; Huiqiang Wang; Zhun Wu; Bo Duan; Peide Bai; Kaiyan Zhang; Wei Li; Jiaxin Zheng; Jinchun Xing
      Pages: 1247 - 1254
      Abstract: The forkhead box (FOX) transcription factor is a family of tumor suppressors that negatively regulates the tumorigenesis activity of prostate cancer; stabilization of FOX–DNA complex architecture has been recognized as a new and promising strategy for sensitizing cancer chemotherapy. Here, we described a systematic method that combined in silico analysis and in vitro assay to investigate the intermolecular interaction between FOX DNA-binding domain (DBD) and its cognate DNA partner. The structural and energetic information harvested from the molecular investigation were used to guide high-throughput virtual screening against a structurally diverse, nonredundant library of natural product compounds, aiming at discovery of novel small-molecule medicines that can conformationally stabilize and promote FOX–DNA recognition and interaction. The screening identified a number of theoretically promising hits, which were then examined by using fluorescence anisotropy assay to determine their binding potency for FOX DBD domain. The antitumor activity of identified high-affinity compounds was also tested at cellular level. Structural dynamics analysis found that the small-molecule stabilizers can shift the conformational equilibrium of FOX DBD to DNA-bound state, thus promoting the protein domain to bind tightly with its DNA partner.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2426-1
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 7 (2017)
  • Free leucine supplementation during an 8-week resistance training program
           does not increase muscle mass and strength in untrained young adult
    • Authors: Andreo Fernando Aguiar; Alan Pablo Grala; Rubens Alexandre da Silva; Lúcio Flávio Soares-Caldeira; Francis Lopes Pacagnelli; Alex Silva Ribeiro; Douglas Kratki da Silva; Walquíria Batista de Andrade; Mario Carlos Welin Balvedi
      Pages: 1255 - 1262
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of free leucine supplementation on changes in skeletal muscle mass and strength during a resistance training (RT) program in previously untrained, young subjects. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 20 healthy young (22 ± 2 years) participants were assigned to two groups: a placebo-supplement group (PLA, N = 10) or a leucine-supplement group (LEU, N = 10). Both groups underwent an 8-week hypertrophic RT program (2 days/week), consuming an equivalent amount of leucine (3.0 g/day in a single post-training dose) or placebo (cornstarch). Quadriceps muscle strength, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vastus lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris (RF), as well as the habitual dietary intake were assessed before and after the 8-week intervention period. There was a similar improvement in muscle strength (Leg press, LEU: +33% vs. PLA: +37%; P > 0.05, and knee extension, LEU: +31% vs. PLA: 34%; P > 0.05) and CSA (VL, LEU: 8.9% vs. PLA: 9.6%; P > 0.05, and RF, LEU: +21.6% vs. PLA: + 16.4%; P > 0.05) in the both groups from pre- to post-training. In addition, there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in daily dietary intake between the LEU and PLA groups before and after the intervention period. Free leucine supplementation (3.0 g/day post-training) does not increase muscle strength or CSA during RT in healthy young subjects consuming adequate dietary protein intake.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2427-0
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 7 (2017)
  • Oligo- and polypeptide conjugates of cationic porphyrins: binding,
           cellular uptake, and cellular localization
    • Authors: Ádám Orosz; Szilvai Bősze; Gábor Mező; Ildikó Szabó; Levente Herényi; Gabriella Csík
      Pages: 1263 - 1276
      Abstract: Recently, we have characterized the DNA and nucleoprotein (NP) binding of bis(4-N-methylpyridyl)-15,20-di(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (BMPCP) and meso-tri(4-N-methylpyridyl)-mono(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (TMPCP) and their tetrapeptide conjugates (BMPCP-4P2 and TMPCP-4P, respectively). In this work, we investigated the interaction of TMPCP conjugated to the tetrapeptide branches of branched chain polymeric polypeptide with poly-l-lysine backbone (AK) with DNA or NP using spectroscopic methods. Analysis of absorption spectra revealed the external binding but no intercalation of TMPCP-AK to DNA. There was no evidence for the interaction between TMPCP-AK and encapsidated DNA. Furthermore, we examined the cellular uptake of BMPCP and TMPCP and their tetra- or polypeptide conjugates by flow cytometry and analyzed how charge, size, and structure of the compounds affect their incorporation. In comparison, liposomal association constants of these derivatives were determined. BMPCP-4P2 accumulated the most, and porphyrins with two positive charges (BMPCP and BMPCP-4P2) showed better accumulation than the tri-cationic TMPCP or TMPCP-4P. Cellular uptake of polycationic TMPCP-AK was significantly lower than that of the free or tetrapeptide conjugated derivatives. The subcellular localization of all the five compounds was investigated in co-localization studies by confocal microscopy with special attention to their nuclear localization. Neither free nor conjugated BMPCP or TMPCP was co-localized with nuclear marker. Instead, these derivatives showed co-localization with lysosomal and mitochondrial fluorescent probes. TMPCP-AK conjugate had different localization patterns appearing mainly in mitochondria and cytoplasmic vesicles. Our results may contribute to the further design of DNA-targeting porphyrin-based constructs.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2428-z
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 7 (2017)
  • Rapid preparation of bioluminescent tracers for relaxin family peptides
           using sortase-catalysed ligation
    • Authors: Jia-Hui Wang; Xiao-Xia Shao; Meng-Jun Hu; Dian Wei; Wei-Han Nie; Ya-Li Liu; Zeng-Guang Xu; Zhan-Yun Guo
      Abstract: Relaxin family is a group of peptide hormones with a variety of biological functions by activating G protein-coupled receptors RXFP1–4. We recently developed bioluminescent tracers for their receptor-binding assays by chemical conjugation with the ultrasensitive NanoLuc reporter. To simplify preparation of the bioluminescent tracers, in the present study, we established a sortase-catalysed ligation approach using the chimeric R3/I5 as a model. Following catalysis by recombinant sortase A, a NanoLuc reporter carrying the LPETG sortase recognition motif at the C-terminus was efficiently ligated to an R3/I5 peptide carrying four successive Gly residues at the A-chain N-terminus, via the formation of a peptide bond between the C-terminal LPET sequence of NanoLuc and the A-chain N-terminal Gly residue of R3/I5. Saturation binding assays demonstrated that the NanoLuc-ligated R3/I5 retained high binding affinity to RXFP3 and RXFP4, with the calculated dissociation constants (K d) of 4.34 ± 0.33 nM (n = 3) and 5.66 ± 0.54 nM (n = 3), respectively. Using the NanoLuc-ligated R3/I5 as a tracer in competition binding assays, binding potencies of various ligands towards RXFP3 and RXFP4 were conveniently quantified. This work provides a simple method for rapid preparation of bioluminescent tracers for relaxin family peptides and other protein/peptide hormones for ligand–receptor interaction studies.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2455-9
  • Isoprenyl carboxyl methyltransferase inhibitors: a brief review including
           recent patents
    • Authors: Woo Seok Yang; Seung-Gu Yeo; Sungjae Yang; Kyung-Hee Kim; Byong Chul Yoo; Jae Youl Cho
      Abstract: Among the enzymes involved in the post-translational modification of Ras, isoprenyl carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT) has been explored by a number of researchers as a significant enzyme controlling the activation of Ras. Indeed, inhibition of ICMT exhibited promising anti-cancer activity against various cancer cell lines. This paper reviews patents and research articles published between 2009 and 2016 that reported inhibitors of ICMT as potential chemotherapeutic agents targeting Ras-induced growth factor signaling. Since ICMT inhibitors can modulate Ras signaling pathway, it might be possible to develop a new class of anti-cancer drugs targeting Ras-related cancers. Researchers have discovered indole-based small-molecular ICMT inhibitors through high-throughput screening. Researchers at Duke University identified a prototypical inhibitor, cysmethynil. At Singapore University, Ramanujulu and his colleagues patented more potent compounds by optimizing cysmethynil. In addition, Rodriguez and Stevenson at Universidad Complutense De Madrid and Cancer Therapeutics CRC PTY Ltd., respectively, have developed inhibitors based on formulas other than the indole base. However, further optimization of chemicals targeted to functional groups is needed to improve the characteristics of ICMT inhibitors related to their application as drugs, such as solubility, effectiveness, and safety, to facilitate clinical use.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2454-x
  • Dityrosine administration induces dysfunction of insulin secretion
           accompanied by diminished thyroid hormones T3 function in pancreas of mice
    • Authors: Yin-Yi Ding; Zhu-Qing Li; Xiang-Rong Cheng; Yu-Mei Ran; Sha-Ji Wu; Yonghui Shi; Guowei Le
      Abstract: Oxidized tyrosine products are commonly found in food with high protein content and have been demonstrated to cause damage of liver and kidney in our previous studies. Dityrosine (Dityr) is a typical oxidized tyrosine product. Due to its structural homology with thyroid hormones T3, we assumed that one of the endocrine systems most likely considered in connection with its disruption by Dityr may be the T3 action. T3 plays important roles in insulin synthesis, and thyroid hormone resistance (RTH) is associated with the impairment of glucose metabolism. Therefore, this study determined whether Dityr exposure impaired T3 function in pancreas leading to glucose metabolism disruption. After 10-week gavage with Dityr, mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and disturbed energy metabolism. The elevated free THs content in plasma, the up-regulation of THs synthesis-specific genes expressions in thyroid glands, and the increased thyroid follicles histology shapes and areas indicated that Dityr enhanced the THs synthesis in thyroid glands. In addition, Dityr-induced RTH, which reflected as elevated plasma free THs in the presence of unsuppressed thyroid stimulating hormone. The mRNA downregulation of membrane transporter of T3 (MCT8) and co-activator factors (RXRα, Src-1), together with the decreased protein level of thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ1) in pancreas illustrated that the activation ability of T3 to downstream gene involved in insulin synthesis was suppressed by Dityr. In MIN-6 cell experiment, T3 improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by upregulating mRNA levels of insulin synthesis-related genes (Ins2, MafA, Pdx1) and T3 action-related genes, as well as increasing protein level of TRβ1. These data suggest that Dityr suppress T3-regulated insulin synthesis stimulated by glucose via an indirect way of decreasing sensibility to T3 in pancreas. All these findings indicate that Dityr can disrupt THs function in pancreas leading to glucose metabolism disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2442-1
  • Increases in circulating amino acids with in-feed antibiotics correlated
           with gene expression of intestinal amino acid transporters in piglets
    • Authors: Miao Yu; Chunlong Mu; Yuxiang Yang; Chuanjian Zhang; Yong Su; Zan Huang; Kaifan Yu; Weiyun Zhu
      Abstract: In-feed antibiotics have been commonly used to promote the growth performance of piglets. The antibiotics can increase protein utilization, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. The present study investigated the effects of in-feed antibiotics on intestinal AA transporters and receptors to test the hypothesis that the alteration of circulating AA profiles may be concomitant with the change of intestinal AA transporters and receptors. Sixteen litters of piglets at day 7 started to receive creep feed with (Antibiotic) or without (Control) antibiotic. Piglets were weaned at day 23 after birth, and fed the same diets until day 42. In-feed antibiotics did not affect the BW of 23-day-old (P = 0.248), or 42-day-old piglets (P = 0.089), but increased the weight gain to feed ratio from day 23 to 42 (P = 0.020). At day 42 after birth, antibiotic treatment increased the concentrations of most AAs in serum (P < 0.05), and decreased the concentrations of most AAs in jejunal and ileal digesta. Antibiotics upregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression levels for jejunal AAs transporters (CAT1, EAAC1, ASCT2, y+LAT1), peptide transporters (PepT1), and Na+–K+–ATPase (ATP1A1), and ileal AA transporters (ASCT2, y+LAT1, b0,+AT, and B0AT1), and ATP1A1. The antibiotics also upregulated the mRNA expression of jejunal AAs receptors T1R3 and CaSR, and ileal T1R3. Protein expression levels for jejunal AA transporters (EAAC1, b0,+AT, and ASCT2) and PepT1 were also upregulated. Correlation analysis revealed that the alterations of AA profiles in serum after the in-feed antibiotics were correlated with the upregulations of mRNA expression levels for key AA transporters and receptors in the small intestine. In conclusion, the in-feed antibiotics increased serum level of most AAs and decreased most AAs in the small intestine. These changes correlated with the upregulations of mRNA expression levels for key AA transporters and receptors in the small intestine. The findings provide further insights into the mechanism of in-feed antibiotics, which may provide new framework for designing alternatives to antibiotics in animal feed in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2451-0
  • Analysis of BMAA enantiomers in cycads, cyanobacteria, and mammals: in
           vivo formation and toxicity of d -BMAA
    • Authors: J. S. Metcalf; Doug Lobner; Sandra Anne Banack; Gregory A. Cox; Peter B. Nunn; Peter B. Wyatt; Paul Alan Cox
      Abstract: Chronic dietary exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) triggers neuropathology in non-human primates, providing support for the theory that BMAA causes a fatal neurodegenerative illness among the indigenous Chamorro people of Guam. However, since there are two stereoisomers of BMAA, it is important to know if both can occur in nature, and if so, what role they might play in disease causation. As a first step, we analysed both BMAA enantiomers in cyanobacteria, cycads, and in mammals orally dosed with l-BMAA, to determine if enantiomeric changes could occur in vivo. BMAA in cyanobacteria and cycads was found only as the l-enantiomer. However, while the l-enantiomer in mammals was little changed after digestion, we detected a small pool of d-BMAA in the liver (12.5%) of mice and in the blood plasma of vervets (3.6%). Chiral analysis of cerebrospinal fluid of vervets and hindbrain of mice showed that the free BMAA in the central nervous system was the d-enantiomer. In vitro toxicity investigations with d-BMAA showed toxicity, mediated through AMPA rather than NMDA receptors. These findings raise important considerations concerning the neurotoxicity of BMAA and its relationship to neurodegenerative disease.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2445-y
  • Roles of amino acids in preventing and treating intestinal diseases:
           recent studies with pig models
    • Authors: Yulan Liu; Xiuying Wang; Yongqing Hou; Yulong Yin; Yinsheng Qiu; Guoyao Wu; Chien-An Andy Hu
      Abstract: Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering. Our interests have been using amino acids as therapeutics in pig and human disease models. Amino acids not only play an important role in protein biosynthesis, but also exert significant physiological effects in regulating immunity, anti-oxidation, redox regulation, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and animal behavior. Recent studies in pigs have shown that specific dietary amino acids can improve intestinal integrity and function under normal and pathological conditions that protect the host from different diseases. In this review, we summarize several pig models in intestinal diseases and how amino acids can be used as therapeutics in treating pig and human diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2450-1
  • Controlled release of BSA-linked cisplatin through a PepGel
           self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel scaffold
    • Authors: Jun Liang; Gang Liu; Jing Wang; Xiuzhi Susan Sun
      Abstract: Previously, it has been reported that a novel PepGel (h9e peptide) can be triggered into a solid physical hydrogel by the addition of selected ions and proteins for various biomedical applications. Moreover, PepGel displays shear-thinning and repeatedly reversible sol–gel transfer properties that enable it to be easily transferred via an injector. In this study, PepGel is proposed as a carrier for controlled releases of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-bound or -linked drugs. BSA-linked cisplatin (BSA–CP) is used as a model drug in this study and plays two roles: as a trigger of hydrogel and as a target drug for controlled release. Results of fluorescence instrument show that PepGel significantly quenches the fluorescence of Trp in the hydrophobic subdomain of BSA, indicating a strong interaction. Images of TEM and fluorescence confocal microscopy indicate that BSA–CP is dispersed in the PepGel fibers and at the same time enhances the fiber aggregation. Through UV instrument, it is found that PepGel can effectively inhibit the diffusion of BSA–CP even at concentrations below 0.3 wt% and that the rate of BSA–CP release could be controlled by adjusting the concentration of PepGel. Cell culture studies on the performance of the PepGel are carried out using HeLa cells, and the cell viability is observed to be consistent with the data of drug release. The results showed that PepGel nanofiber scaffolds could potentially be used as an effective carrier for controlled releases of BSA-bound or -linked drugs.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2444-z
  • The first identified cathelicidin from tree frogs possesses
           anti-inflammatory and partial LPS neutralization activities
    • Authors: Lixian Mu; Lei Zhou; Juanjuan Yang; Li Zhuang; Jing Tang; Tong Liu; Jing Wu; Hailong Yang
      Abstract: As of February 2017, approximately 7639 amphibian species have been described in the AmphibiaWeb database. However, only 20 cathelicidin-like antimicrobial peptides have been identified to date from 10 amphibian species. Half of these peptides were identified from genome sequences and have not yet been functionally characterized. In this study, a novel cathelicidin-like peptide designated cathelicidin-PP was purified from the skin of tree frog Polypedates puerensis. Cathelicidin-PP is a 32 residue peptide of sequence ASENGKCNLLCLVKKKLRAVGNVIKTVVGKIA. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that cathelicidin-PP mainly adopts a β-sheet structure in membrane-mimetic solutions. Cathelicidin-PP exhibits potent antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi, especially Gram-negative bacteria. Meanwhile, it shows low cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that cathelicidin-PP kills bacteria through the disruption of the bacterial cell membrane integrity. Furthermore, cathelicidin-PP exerts significant anti-inflammatory functions by inhibiting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated generation of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6. The MAPKs (ERK, JNK, and p38) and NF-κB signaling pathways are involved in the anti-inflammatory effect. Cathelicidin-PP caused partial neutralization of LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative PCR indicated that infection of tree frogs with bacteria causes increased expression of cathelicidin-PP in immune-related tissues. Taken together, cathelicidin-PP is the first identified cathelicidin-like peptide from tree frogs. Our findings demonstrate that in addition to direct bactericidal capacity, cathelicidin-PP also possesses immunomodulatory properties, including partial neutralization of LPS, and inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2449-7
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