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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Amino Acids
  [SJR: 1.362]   [H-I: 83]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2199 - ISSN (Online) 0939-4451
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Roles of amino acids in preventing and treating intestinal diseases:
           recent studies with pig models
    • Authors: Yulan Liu; Xiuying Wang; Yongqing Hou; Yulong Yin; Yinsheng Qiu; Guoyao Wu; Chien-An Andy Hu
      Pages: 1277 - 1291
      Abstract: Abstract Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering. Our interests have been using amino acids as therapeutics in pig and human disease models. Amino acids not only play an important role in protein biosynthesis, but also exert significant physiological effects in regulating immunity, anti-oxidation, redox regulation, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and animal behavior. Recent studies in pigs have shown that specific dietary amino acids can improve intestinal integrity and function under normal and pathological conditions that protect the host from different diseases. In this review, we summarize several pig models in intestinal diseases and how amino acids can be used as therapeutics in treating pig and human diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2450-1
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 8 (2017)
  • Focus on O -phosphohydroxylysine, O -phosphohydroxyproline, N 1
           -phosphotryptophan and S -phosphocysteine
    • Authors: Matthew J. Piggott; Paul V. Attwood
      Pages: 1309 - 1323
      Abstract: Abstract The synthesis and chemistry of the lesser-known phosphoamino acids, O-phosphohydroxylysine, O-phosphohydroxyproline, N 1-phosphotryptophan and S-phosphocysteine are described in detail. In addition, where anything at all is known, the biological synthesis, occurrence and functions of these phosphoamino acids are described. Of these phosphoamino acids, only N 1-phosphotryptophan has not been reported to occur in proteins; however, apart from the roles of S-phosphocysteine in the sugar transporter component (EII) and in catalysis by protein phosphotyrosine phosphatase, little is currently known about the biological roles of the phosphoamino acids when they occur as post-translational modifications.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2446-x
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 8 (2017)
  • Evaluation of neurotensin receptor 1 as a potential imaging target in
           pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
    • Authors: Xiaoqin Yin; Mengzhe Wang; Hui Wang; Huaifu Deng; Tingting He; Yue Tan; Zehua Zhu; Zhanhong Wu; Shuo Hu; Zibo Li
      Pages: 1325 - 1335
      Abstract: Abstract Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest human malignancies and lack of effective diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Accumulating evidence suggests that the neurotensin (NT) and neurotensin receptors (NTRs) play key roles in pancreatic adenocarcinoma growth and survival. In this study, we not only evaluate the NTR1 expression in pancreatic cancer patient samples, but also explore the PET and fluorescence imaging of NTR1 expression in pancreatic cancer animal models. The NTR1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry staining in clinical patient tissue samples with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, insulinoma, and pancreatitis. The results showed 79.4% positive rate of NRT1 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, compared with 33.3 and 22.7% in insulinoma and pancreatitis samples, respectively. High NTR1 gene expression was also found in Panc-1 cells and confirmed by cell immunofluorescence. 64Cu-AmBaSar-NT and IRDye800-NT were synthesized as imaging probes and maintained the majority of NTR1-binding affinity. In vivo imaging demonstrated that 64Cu-AmBaSar-NT has prominent tumor uptake (3.76 ± 1.45 and 2.29 ± 0.10%ID/g at 1 and 4 h post-injection). NIR fluorescent imaging with IRDye800-NT demonstrated good tumor-to-background contrast (8.09 ± 0.38 × 108 and 6.67 ± 0.43 × 108 (p/s/cm2/sr)/(μW/cm2) at 30 and 60 min post-injection). Fluorescence guided surgery was also performed as a proof of principle experiment. In summary, our results indicated that NTR1 is a promising target for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma imaging and therapy. The imaging probes reported here may not only be considered for improved diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, but also has the potential to be fully integrated into patient screening and treatment monitoring of future NTR1 targeted therapies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2430-5
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 8 (2017)
  • Sex differences in amino acids lost via sweating could lead to
           differential susceptibilities to disturbances in nitrogen balance and
           collagen turnover
    • Authors: R. H. Dunstan; D. L. Sparkes; B. J. Dascombe; C. J. Stevens; G. R. Murphy; M. M. Macdonald; J. Gottfries; C.-G. Gottfries; T. K. Roberts
      Pages: 1337 - 1345
      Abstract: Abstract Fluid collected during sweating is enriched with amino acids derived from the skin’s natural moisturising factors and has been termed “faux” sweat. Little is known about sex differences in sweat amino acid composition or whether faux sweat amino acid losses affect nitrogen balance. Faux sweat collected by healthy adults (n = 47) after exercise, and at rest by chronic fatigue patients, was analysed for amino acid composition. Healthy females had higher total amino acid concentrations in sweat (10.5 ± 1.2 mM) compared with healthy males (6.9 ± 0.9 mM). Females had higher levels of 13 amino acids in sweat including serine, alanine and glycine. Higher hydroxyproline and proline levels suggested greater collagen turnover in females. Modelling indicated that with conservative levels of exercise, amino acid losses in females via faux sweat were triple than those predicted for urine, whereas in males they were double. It was concluded that females were more susceptible to key amino acid loss during exercise and/or hot conditions. Females reporting chronic fatigue had higher levels of methionine in faux sweat than healthy females. Males reporting chronic fatigue had higher levels of numerous amino acids in faux sweat compared to healthy males. Higher amino acid loss in faux sweat associated with chronic fatigue could contribute to a hypometabolic state. Depending on activity levels, climatic conditions and gender, amino acid losses in sweat and skin leachate could influence daily protein turnover where periods of continuously high turnover could lead to a negative net nitrogen balance.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2431-4
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 8 (2017)
  • Lac- l -TTA, a novel lactose-based amino acid–sugar conjugate for
           anti-metastatic applications
    • Authors: Giovanni N. Roviello; Roberta Iannitti; Rosanna Palumbo; Hayarpi Simonyan; Caterina Vicidomini; Valentina Roviello
      Pages: 1347 - 1353
      Abstract: Here we describe the synthesis, chromatographic purification, MS and NMR characterization of a new lactosyl-derivative, i.e. a lactosyl thiophenyl-substituted triazolyl-thione l-alanine (Lac-L-TTA). This amino acid–sugar conjugate was prepared by solution synthesis in analogy to the natural fructosyl-amino acids. Furthermore, we investigated the inhibition of PC-3 prostate cancer cell colony formation by this lactose derivative in comparison with the less polar fructose-based derivative, Fru-L-TTA. This let us to compare the properties of the artificial derivative, object of the present work, with the monosaccharide-based counterpart and to obtain a preliminary information on the influence of polarity on such biological activity. A significantly higher anticancer effect of Lac-L-TTA with respect to the fructose analogue emerged from our study suggesting that the anti-metastatic potential of fructosyl-amino acids can be enhanced by increasing the polarity of the compounds, for example by introducing disaccharide moieties in place of fructose.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2433-2
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 8 (2017)
  • Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel peptides as potential
           agents with anti-tumor and multidrug resistance-reversing activities
    • Authors: Bo Zhang; Wei Shi; Jieming Li; Chen Liao; Mingxue Li; Wenlong Huang; Hai Qian
      Pages: 1355 - 1364
      Abstract: Abstract Tumor chemotherapy is an important mean in the clinical treatment of metastatic cancer,but low selectivity and drug resistance restrict its clinical application. BP100 is a multifunctional membrane-active peptide with high antimicrobial activity. We selected BP100 as a lead peptide, designed and synthesized a series of BP100 analogs through solid-phase synthesis. Amongst them, peptides with the Tyr10 residue substituted by leucine and histidine showed the highest anti-cancer activity. Further experiments revealed that BP100 and its analogs could disrupt the cell membrane and trigger the cytochrome C release into cytoplasm, which ultimately resulted in apoptosis. Meanwhile, BP100 and its analogs also exhibited effective anti-tumor activity against multidrug-resistant cells, showing multidrug resistance-reversing effects. In conclusion, these peptides might be promising candidates for cancer therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2434-1
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 8 (2017)
  • GPNA inhibits the sodium-independent transport system l for neutral amino
    • Authors: Martina Chiu; Cosimo Sabino; Giuseppe Taurino; Massimiliano G. Bianchi; Roberta Andreoli; Nicola Giuliani; Ovidio Bussolati
      Pages: 1365 - 1372
      Abstract: Abstract l-γ-Glutamyl-p-nitroanilide (GPNA) is widely used to inhibit the glutamine transporter ASCT2, although it is known that it also inhibits other sodium-dependent amino acid transporters. In a panel of human cancer cell lines, which express the system l transporters LAT1 and LAT2, GPNA inhibits the sodium-independent influx of leucine and glutamine. The kinetics of the effect suggests that GPNA is a low affinity, competitive inhibitor of system l transporters. In Hs683 human oligodendroglioma cells, the incubation in the presence of GPNA, but not ASCT2 silencing, lowers the cell content of leucine. Under the same conditions the activity of mTORC1 is inhibited. Decreased cell content of branched chain amino acids and mTORC1 inhibition are observed in most of the other cell lines upon incubation with GPNA. It is concluded that GPNA hinders the uptake of essential amino acids through system l transporters and lowers their cell content.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2436-z
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 8 (2017)
  • β-Alanine intercede metabolic recovery for amelioration of human
           cervical and renal tumors
    • Authors: Muthuraman Pandurangan; Gansukh Enkhtaivan; Bhupendra Mistry; Rahul V. Patel; Sohyun Moon; Doo Hwan Kim
      Pages: 1373 - 1380
      Abstract: Abstract β-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid and presents as a major component of various sports supplements. It is a non-proteogenic amino acid, formed in vivo by degradation of carnosine, anserine, balenine, and dihydrouracil. The present study was aimed at investigating the anti-tumor effects of β-alanine in renal and cervical tumor cells. Sulforhodamine-B assay and flow cytometric analysis were used to measure cell viability. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression was analyzed using FITC-conjugated fluorescent antibody. The cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content was measured using bioluminescence method. Cell migration was determined by the simple standard-scratch method. β-Alanine reduced renal and cervical cell growth significantly. Percentage of inhibition of renal and cervical tumor cells was increased at higher concentration of β-alanine. LDH expression and ATP content were significantly reduced in renal and cervical tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. Renal and cervical tumor cell migration were significantly reduced following 10 and 100 mM of β-alanine treatment. In our study, β-alanine exerts no significant effect on normal MDCK cells except a marginal effect at the highest concentration (100 mM). In summary, our experimental data suggest that β-alanine may be a potential anti-tumor agent exhibiting several anti-cancer effects in renal and cervical tumor cells.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2437-y
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 8 (2017)
  • Novel DNA/RNA-targeting amino acid beacon for the versatile incorporation
           at any position within the peptide backbone
    • Authors: Tamara Šmidlehner; Ivo Piantanida
      Pages: 1381 - 1388
      Abstract: Abstract One-pot tandem synthesis was for the first time applied to attach fluorophore to the amino acid side chain, yielding amino acid ready for peptide coupling at the N-terminus, and also upon activation at the C-terminus. Two new compounds differing only in fluorophore-linker length showed exceptional fluorimetric and CD recognition between DS-RNA and DS-DNA, thus being promising beacons for versatile peptide incorporation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2438-x
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 8 (2017)
  • Glycotriazole-peptides derived from the peptide HSP1: synergistic effect
           of triazole and saccharide rings on the antifungal activity
    • Authors: Eduardo F. C. Junior; Carlos F. R. C. Guimarães; Lucas L. Franco; Ricardo J. Alves; Kelly C. Kato; Helen R. Martins; José D. de Souza Filho; Marcelo P. Bemquerer; Victor H. O. Munhoz; Jarbas M. Resende; Rodrigo M. Verly
      Pages: 1389 - 1400
      Abstract: Abstract This work proposes a strategy that uses solid-phase peptide synthesis associated with copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition reaction to promote the glycosylation of an antimicrobial peptide (HSP1) containing a carboxyamidated C-terminus (HSP1-NH2). Two glycotriazole-peptides, namely [p-Glc-trz-G1]HSP1-NH2 and [p-GlcNAc-trz-G1]HSP1-NH2, were prepared using per-O-acetylated azide derivatives of glucose and N-acetylglucosamine in the presence of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O) and sodium ascorbate as a reducing agent. In order to investigate the synergistic action of the carbohydrate motif linked to the triazole-peptide structure, a triazole derivative [trz-G1]HSP1-NH2 was also prepared. A set of biophysical approaches such as DLS, Zeta Potential, SPR and carboxyfluorescein leakage from phospholipid vesicles confirmed higher membrane disruption and lytic activities as well as stronger peptide-LUVs interactions for the glycotriazole-peptides when compared to HSP1-NH2 and to its triazole derivative, which is in accordance with the performed biological assays: whereas HSP1-NH2 presents relatively low and [trz-G1]HSP1-NH2 just moderate fungicidal activity, the glycotriazole-peptides are significantly more effective antifungal agents. In addition, the glycotriazole-peptides and the triazole derivative present strong inhibition effects on ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans, when compared to HSP1-NH2 alone. In conclusion, the increased fungicidal activity of the glycotriazole-peptides seems to be the result of (A) more pronounced membrane-disruptive properties, which is related to the presence of a saccharide ring, together with (B) the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis, which seems to be related to the presence of both the monosaccharide and the triazole rings.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2441-2
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 8 (2017)
  • Dityrosine administration induces dysfunction of insulin secretion
           accompanied by diminished thyroid hormones T3 function in pancreas of mice
    • Authors: Yin-Yi Ding; Zhu-Qing Li; Xiang-Rong Cheng; Yu-Mei Ran; Sha-Ji Wu; Yonghui Shi; Guowei Le
      Pages: 1401 - 1414
      Abstract: Abstract Oxidized tyrosine products are commonly found in food with high protein content and have been demonstrated to cause damage of liver and kidney in our previous studies. Dityrosine (Dityr) is a typical oxidized tyrosine product. Due to its structural homology with thyroid hormones T3, we assumed that one of the endocrine systems most likely considered in connection with its disruption by Dityr may be the T3 action. T3 plays important roles in insulin synthesis, and thyroid hormone resistance (RTH) is associated with the impairment of glucose metabolism. Therefore, this study determined whether Dityr exposure impaired T3 function in pancreas leading to glucose metabolism disruption. After 10-week gavage with Dityr, mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and disturbed energy metabolism. The elevated free THs content in plasma, the up-regulation of THs synthesis-specific genes expressions in thyroid glands, and the increased thyroid follicles histology shapes and areas indicated that Dityr enhanced the THs synthesis in thyroid glands. In addition, Dityr-induced RTH, which reflected as elevated plasma free THs in the presence of unsuppressed thyroid stimulating hormone. The mRNA downregulation of membrane transporter of T3 (MCT8) and co-activator factors (RXRα, Src-1), together with the decreased protein level of thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ1) in pancreas illustrated that the activation ability of T3 to downstream gene involved in insulin synthesis was suppressed by Dityr. In MIN-6 cell experiment, T3 improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by upregulating mRNA levels of insulin synthesis-related genes (Ins2, MafA, Pdx1) and T3 action-related genes, as well as increasing protein level of TRβ1. These data suggest that Dityr suppress T3-regulated insulin synthesis stimulated by glucose via an indirect way of decreasing sensibility to T3 in pancreas. All these findings indicate that Dityr can disrupt THs function in pancreas leading to glucose metabolism disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2442-1
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 8 (2017)
  • Post-resistance exercise ingestion of milk protein attenuates plasma TNFα
           and TNFr1 expression on monocyte subpopulations
    • Authors: Adam J. Wells; Adam R. Jajtner; Alyssa N. Varanoske; David D. Church; Adam M. Gonzalez; Jeremy R. Townsend; Carleigh H. Boone; Kayla M. Baker; Kyle S. Beyer; Gerald T. Mangine; Leonardo P. Oliveira; David H. Fukuda; Jeffrey R. Stout; Jay R. Hoffman
      Pages: 1415 - 1426
      Abstract: Abstract Attenuating TNFα/TNFr1 signaling in monocytes has been proposed as a means of mitigating inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a milk protein supplement on TNFα and monocyte TNFr1 expression. Ten resistance-trained men (24.7 ± 3.4 years; 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; 176.0 ± 4.9 cm) ingested supplement (SUPP) or placebo (PL) immediately post-exercise in a randomized, cross-over design. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (BL), immediately (IP), 30-min (30P), 1-h (1H), 2-h (2H), and 5-h (5H) post-exercise to assess plasma concentrations of myoglobin; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα); and expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFr1) on classical, intermediate, and non-classical monocytes. Magnitude-based inferences were used to provide inferences on the true effects of SUPP compared to PL. Plasma TNFα concentrations were “likely attenuated” (91.6% likelihood effect) from BL to 30P in the SUPP group compared with PL (d = 0.87; mean effect: 2.3 ± 2.4 pg mL−1). TNFr1 expressions on classical (75.9% likelihood effect) and intermediate (93.0% likelihood effect) monocytes were “likely attenuated” from BL to 2H in the SUPP group compared with PL (d = 0.67; mean effect: 510 ± 670 RFU, and d = 1.05; mean effect: 2500 ± 2300 RFU, respectively). TNFr1 expression on non-classical monocytes was “likely attenuated” (77.6% likelihood effect) from BL to 1H in the SUPP group compared with PL (d = 0.69; mean effect: 330 ± 430 RFU). Ingestion of a milk protein supplement immediately post-exercise appears to attenuate both plasma TNFα concentrations and TNFr1 expression on monocyte subpopulations in resistance-trained men.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2443-0
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 8 (2017)
  • Analysis of BMAA enantiomers in cycads, cyanobacteria, and mammals: in
           vivo formation and toxicity of d -BMAA
    • Authors: J. S. Metcalf; Doug Lobner; Sandra Anne Banack; Gregory A. Cox; Peter B. Nunn; Peter B. Wyatt; Paul Alan Cox
      Pages: 1427 - 1439
      Abstract: Abstract Chronic dietary exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) triggers neuropathology in non-human primates, providing support for the theory that BMAA causes a fatal neurodegenerative illness among the indigenous Chamorro people of Guam. However, since there are two stereoisomers of BMAA, it is important to know if both can occur in nature, and if so, what role they might play in disease causation. As a first step, we analysed both BMAA enantiomers in cyanobacteria, cycads, and in mammals orally dosed with l-BMAA, to determine if enantiomeric changes could occur in vivo. BMAA in cyanobacteria and cycads was found only as the l-enantiomer. However, while the l-enantiomer in mammals was little changed after digestion, we detected a small pool of d-BMAA in the liver (12.5%) of mice and in the blood plasma of vervets (3.6%). Chiral analysis of cerebrospinal fluid of vervets and hindbrain of mice showed that the free BMAA in the central nervous system was the d-enantiomer. In vitro toxicity investigations with d-BMAA showed toxicity, mediated through AMPA rather than NMDA receptors. These findings raise important considerations concerning the neurotoxicity of BMAA and its relationship to neurodegenerative disease.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2445-y
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 8 (2017)
  • Expression of cationic amino acid transporters in pig skeletal muscles
           during postnatal development
    • Authors: Aiko Ishida; Akane Ashihara; Kazuki Nakashima; Masaya Katsumata
      Abstract: Abstract The cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) protein family transports lysine and arginine in cellular amino acid pools. We hypothesized that CAT expression changes in pig skeletal muscles during rapid pig postnatal development. We aimed to investigate the tissue distribution and changes in the ontogenic expression of CATs in pig skeletal muscles during postnatal development. Six piglets at 1, 12, 26, 45, and 75 days old were selected from six litters, and their longissimus dorsi (LD), biceps femoris (BF), and rhomboideus (RH) muscles, and their stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, liver, kidney, heart, and cerebrum were collected. CAT-1 was expressed in all the 12 tissues investigated. CAT-2 (CAT-2A isoform) expression was highest in the skeletal muscle and liver and lowest in the jejunum, ileum, kidney, and heart. CAT-3 was expressed mainly in the colon and detected in the jejunum, ileum, and cerebrum. The CAT-1 expression was higher in the skeletal muscle of day 1 pigs than in that of older pigs (P < 0.05). The CAT-2 mRNA level was lowest at day 1, but increased with postnatal development (P < 0.05). There was no significant change in CAT-1 expression among the LD, BF, and RH during postnatal development (P > 0.05); however, there was a change in CAT-2 expression. The CAT-2 expression was highest in the LD of 12-, 26-, 45-, and 75-day-old pigs, followed by the BF and RH (P < 0.05). These results suggest that CAT-1 and CAT-2 play different roles in pig skeletal muscles during postnatal development.
      PubDate: 2017-08-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2478-2
  • Purification of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides
           from casein hydrolysate by IMAC-Ni 2+
    • Authors: Shanguang Wu; Xuezhen Feng; Yuan Lu; Yuting Lu; Saisai Liu; Yuhong Tian
      Abstract: Abstract Casein proteins were hydrolyzed by papain to identify inhibitory peptides of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). The hydrolysate was fractionized by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC-Ni2+). The fraction with high ACE inhibitory activity was enriched and further chromatographed on a reverse-phase column to yield four fractions. Among the fractions, the L4 fraction exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity and was identified by sequence analysis as Trp-Tyr-Leu-His-Tyr-Ala (WYLHYA), with IC50 value of 16.22 ± 0.83 µM in vitro. This peptide was expected to be applied as an ingredient for preventing hypertension and IMAC-Ni2+ may provide a simple method for purification of ACE inhibitory peptides.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2475-5
  • Protein binding hot spots prediction from sequence only by a new ensemble
           learning method
    • Authors: Shan-Shan Hu; Peng Chen; Bing Wang; Jinyan Li
      Abstract: Abstract Hot spots are interfacial core areas of binding proteins, which have been applied as targets in drug design. Experimental methods are costly in both time and expense to locate hot spot areas. Recently, in-silicon computational methods have been widely used for hot spot prediction through sequence or structure characterization. As the structural information of proteins is not always solved, and thus hot spot identification from amino acid sequences only is more useful for real-life applications. This work proposes a new sequence-based model that combines physicochemical features with the relative accessible surface area of amino acid sequences for hot spot prediction. The model consists of 83 classifiers involving the IBk (Instance-based k means) algorithm, where instances are encoded by important properties extracted from a total of 544 properties in the AAindex1 (Amino Acid Index) database. Then top-performance classifiers are selected to form an ensemble by a majority voting technique. The ensemble classifier outperforms the state-of-the-art computational methods, yielding an F1 score of 0.80 on the benchmark binding interface database (BID) test set.Availability:
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2474-6
  • Retro analog concept: comparative study on physico-chemical and biological
           properties of selected antimicrobial peptides
    • Authors: Damian Neubauer; Maciej Jaśkiewicz; Dorian Migoń; Marta Bauer; Karol Sikora; Emilia Sikorska; Elżbieta Kamysz; Wojciech Kamysz
      Abstract: Abstract Increasing drug resistance of common pathogens urgently needs discovery of new effective molecules. Antimicrobial peptides are believed to be one of the possible solutions of this problem. One of the approaches for improvement of biological properties is reversion of the sequence (retro analog concept). This research is based on investigation of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi, hemolysis of erythrocytes, interpretation of the circular dichroism spectra, measurement of counter-ion content, and assessment of the peptide hydrophobicity and self-assembly using reversed-phase chromatography. The experiments were conducted using the following peptides: aurein 1.2, CAMEL, citropin 1.1, omiganan, pexiganan, temporin A, and their retro analogs. Among the compounds studied, only retro omiganan showed an enhanced antimicrobial and a slightly increased hemolytic activity as compared to parent molecule. Moreover, retro pexiganan exhibited high activity towards Klebsiella pneumoniae, whereas pexiganan was in general more or equally active against the rest of tested microorganisms. Furthermore, the determined activity was closely related to the peptide hydrophobicity. In general, the reduced hemolytic activity correlates with lower antimicrobial activity. The tendency to self-association and helicity fraction in SDS seems to be correlated. The normalized RP-HPLC—temperature profiles of citropin 1.1 and aurein 1.2, revealed an enhanced tendency to self-association than that of their retro analogs.
      PubDate: 2017-07-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2473-7
  • Physico-chemical characterization of formulations containing endomorphin-2
    • Authors: Anna Olejnik; Alicja Kapuscinska; Grzegorz Schroeder; Izabela Nowak
      Abstract: Abstract In this study semisolid formulations containing AcYPFF (N-acetyl-Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) tetrapeptide were obtained and characterized in terms of rheology, stability by multiple light scattering and particle size distribution by laser diffraction. Additionally, the release studies of tetrapeptide from formulations obtained were performed. The influence of different factors such as semisolid and membrane type on tetrapeptide release rate was examined. The release experiments of tetrapeptide modified with palmitoyl group (PalmYPFF) were also carried out. The results proved that formulation type and its rheological properties strongly determined the permeation process of the tetrapeptide. The fastest release of tetrapeptide was observed from hydrogel that had the lowest viscosity. The kinetic data of tetrapeptide released from oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions prepared at elevated temperature showed good fit to the Higuchi equation, whereas when AcYPFF was released from oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion prepared with the addition of auto-emulsifier high linearity with Korsmeyer–Peppas model was observed. While when tetrapeptide was released from Hydrogel the most suitable model was the first-order kinetics. It was suggested that mechanism that led to the release of tetrapeptide from all formulations was non-Fickian diffusion transport. The presence of palmitoyl group changed the solubility of tetrapeptide both in formulation and receptor fluid and thus the release rate of active compound was modified.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2470-x
  • Stabilization of Angiotensin-(1–7) by key substitution with a cyclic
           non-natural amino acid
    • Authors: Anita Wester; Marc Devocelle; E. Ann Tallant; Mark C. Chappell; Patricia E. Gallagher; Francesca Paradisi
      Abstract: Abstract Angiotensin-(1–7) [Ang-(1–7)], a heptapeptide hormone of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, is a promising candidate as a treatment for cancer that reflects its anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties. However, the peptide’s therapeutic potential is limited by the short half-life and low bioavailability resulting from rapid enzymatic metabolism by peptidases including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP 3). We report the facile assembly of three novel Ang-(1–7) analogues by solid-phase peptide synthesis which incorporates the cyclic non-natural δ-amino acid ACCA. The analogues containing the ACCA substitution at the site of ACE cleavage exhibit complete resistance to human ACE, while substitution at the DDP 3 cleavage site provided stability against DPP 3 hydrolysis. Furthermore, the analogues retain the anti-proliferative properties of Ang-(1–7) against the 4T1 and HT-1080 cancer cell lines. These results suggest that ACCA-substituted Ang-(1–7) analogues which show resistance against proteolytic degradation by peptidases known to hydrolyze the native heptapeptide may be novel therapeutics in the treatment of cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2471-9
  • Biased selection of propagation-related TUPs from phage display peptide
    • Authors: Hesam Motaleb Zade; Reihaneh Keshavarz; Hosna Sadat Zahed Shekarabi; Babak Bakhshinejad
      Abstract: Abstract Phage display is rapidly advancing as a screening strategy in drug discovery and drug delivery. Phage-encoded combinatorial peptide libraries can be screened through the affinity selection procedure of biopanning to find pharmaceutically relevant cell-specific ligands. However, the unwanted enrichment of target-unrelated peptides (TUPs) with no true affinity for the target presents an important barrier to the successful screening of phage display libraries. Propagation-related TUPs (Pr-TUPs) are an emerging but less-studied category of phage display-derived false-positive hits that are displayed on the surface of clones with faster propagation rates. Despite long regarded as an unbiased selection system, accumulating evidence suggests that biopanning may create biological bias toward selection of phage clones with certain displayed peptides. This bias can be dependent on or independent of the displayed sequence and may act as a major driving force for the isolation of fast-growing clones. Sequence-dependent bias is reflected by censorship or over-representation of some amino acids in the displayed peptide and sequence-independent bias is derived from either point mutations or rare recombination events occurring in the phage genome. It is of utmost interest to clean biopanning data by identifying and removing Pr-TUPs. Experimental and bioinformatic approaches can be exploited for Pr-TUP discovery. With no doubt, obtaining deeper insight into how Pr-TUPs emerge during biopanning and how they could be detected provides a basis for using cell-targeting peptides isolated from phage display screening in the development of disease-specific diagnostic and therapeutic platforms.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2452-z
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