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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Amino Acids
  [SJR: 1.362]   [H-I: 83]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2199 - ISSN (Online) 0939-4451
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Recent advances on polyproline II
    • Authors: Tarun Jairaj Narwani; Hubert Santuz; Nicolas Shinada; Akhila Melarkode Vattekatte; Yassine Ghouzam; Narayanasamy Srinivasan; Jean-Christophe Gelly; Alexandre G. de Brevern
      Pages: 705 - 713
      Abstract: Abstract About half of the globular proteins are composed of regular secondary structures, α-helices, and β-sheets, while the rest are constituted of irregular secondary structures, such as turns or coil conformations. Other regular secondary structures are often ignored, despite their importance in biological processes. Among such structures, the polyproline II helix (PPII) has interesting behaviours. PPIIs are not usually associated with conventional stabilizing interactions, and recent studies have observed that PPIIs are more frequent than anticipated. In addition, it is suggested that they may have an important functional role, particularly in protein–protein or protein–nucleic acid interactions and recognition. Residues associated with PPII conformations represent nearly 5% of the total residues, but the lack of PPII assignment approaches prevents their systematic analysis. This short review will present current knowledge and recent research in PPII area. In a first step, the different methodologies able to assign PPII are presented. In the second step, recent studies that have shown new perspectives in PPII analysis in terms of structure and function are underlined with three cases: (1) PPII in protein structures. For instance, the first crystal structure of an oligoproline adopting an all-trans polyproline II (PPII) helix had been presented; (2) the involvement of PPII in different diseases and drug designs; and (3) an interesting extension of PPII study in the protein dynamics. For instance, PPIIs are often linked to disorder region analysis and the precise analysis of a potential PPII helix in hypogonadism shows unanticipated PPII formations in the patient mutation, while it is not observed in the wild-type form of KISSR1 protein.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2385-6
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2017)
  • Structural analyses combined with small-angle X-ray scattering reveals
           that the retention of heme is critical for maintaining the structure of
           horseradish peroxidase under denaturing conditions
    • Authors: Hyung Jin Cha; Do Soo Jang; Kyeong Sik Jin; Kwan Yong Choi
      Pages: 715 - 723
      Abstract: Abstract We analyzed the structure of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) under denaturing conditions of 9 M urea or 6 M guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl). Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated the existence of native-like secondary structure of holo-HRP in 9 M urea. In addition, slight changes in near-UV and Soret region CD spectra of holo-HRP in 9 M urea suggest that the tertiary structure of holo-HRP and the binding of heme remain partially intact in this condition. A transition in the thermal unfolding transition curve of holo-HRP in 9 M urea indicated the existence of a considerable amount of secondary structure. However, no secondary structure, tertiary structure, or interaction between heme and HRP were observed in holo-HRP in 6 M GdnHCl. Small-angle X-ray scattering indicated that although distal and proximal domains of holo-HRP in 9 M urea might be partially unfolded, the central region that contains the heme might maintain its tertiary structure. Our results suggest that retention of the heme is essential for maintenance of the structure of HRP under highly denaturing conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-016-2372-3
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2017)
  • Na + /H + exchanger 3 inhibitor diminishes the amino-acid-enhanced
           transepithelial calcium transport across the rat duodenum
    • Authors: Nithipak Thammayon; Kannikar Wongdee; Kornkamon Lertsuwan; Panan Suntornsaratoon; Jirawan Thongbunchoo; Nateetip Krishnamra; Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
      Pages: 725 - 734
      Abstract: Abstract Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE)-3 is important for intestinal absorption of nutrients and minerals, including calcium. The previous investigations have shown that the intestinal calcium absorption is also dependent on luminal nutrients, but whether aliphatic amino acids and glucose, which are abundant in the luminal fluid during a meal, similarly enhance calcium transport remains elusive. Herein, we used the in vitro Ussing chamber technique to determine epithelial electrical parameters, i.e., potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (Isc), and transepithelial resistance, as well as 45Ca flux in the rat duodenum directly exposed on the mucosal side to glucose or various amino acids. We found that mucosal glucose exposure led to the enhanced calcium transport, PD, and Isc, all of which were insensitive to NHE3 inhibitor (100 nM tenapanor). In the absence of mucosal glucose, several amino acids (12 mM in the mucosal side), i.e., alanine, isoleucine, leucine, proline, and hydroxyproline, markedly increased the duodenal calcium transport. An inhibitor for NHE3 exposure on the mucosal side completely abolished proline- and leucine-enhanced calcium transport, but not transepithelial transport of both amino acids themselves. In conclusion, glucose and certain amino acids in the mucosal side were potent stimulators of the duodenal calcium absorption, but only amino-acid-enhanced calcium transport was NHE3-dependent.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-016-2374-1
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2017)
  • Piceatannol attenuates homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress
           and endothelial cell damage via heme oxygenase-1 expression
    • Authors: Jin-Sang Kil; Sun-Oh Jeong; Hun-Taeg Chung; Hyun-Ock Pae
      Pages: 735 - 745
      Abstract: Abstract A growing body of evidence implicates endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-induced cellular dysfunction and apoptosis as important factors to a variety of diseases. In endothelial cells (ECs), the sulfur-containing amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) causes EC apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through induction of ER stress. Here, we have investigated whether piceatannol (Pic), a resveratrol analog, could protect ECs against Hcy-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and ER stress, with specific emphasis on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human ECs, we determined the effects of Hcy and Pic on annexin V positivity, glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression, X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp-1) mRNA slicing, and ROS-sensitive dihydroethidium (DHE) oxidation. Hcy increased annexin V-positive cells, DHE oxidation, GRP78 and CHOP expression and Xbp-1 mRNA splicing, indicating that Hcy induces apoptosis, oxidative stress and ER stress. Pretreatment of ECs with Pic significantly inhibited Hcy-induced apoptosis, ROS generation and ER stress. Pic also increased HO-1 expression via activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Interestingly, the inhibitory effects of Pic on Hcy-induced apoptosis, ROS generation and ER stress were abolished by down-regulation of HO-1 expression, while mimicked by treatment of ECs with the HO-1 inducer hemin. Overall, these results suggest that Pic may protect ECs against Hcy-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and ER stress via Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-016-2375-0
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2017)
  • Collapsin response mediator protein 2: high-resolution crystal structure
           sheds light on small-molecule binding, post-translational modifications,
           and conformational flexibility
    • Authors: Matti Myllykoski; Anne Baumann; Kenneth Hensley; Petri Kursula
      Pages: 747 - 759
      Abstract: Abstract Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) is a neuronal protein involved in axonal pathfinding. Intense research is focusing on its role in various neurological diseases. Despite a wealth of studies, not much is known about the molecular mechanisms of CRMP-2 function in vivo. The detailed structure–function relationships of CRMP-2 have also largely remained unknown, in part due to the fact that the available crystal structures lack the C-terminal tail, which is known to be a target for many post-translational modifications and protein interactions. Although CRMP-2, and other CRMPs, belong to the dihydropyrimidinase family, they have lost the enzymatic active site. Drug candidates for CRMP-2-related processes have come up during the recent years, but no reports of CRMP-2 complexes with small molecules have emerged. Here, CRMP-2 was studied at 1.25-Å resolution using X-ray crystallography. In addition, ligands were docked into the homotetrameric structure, and the C-terminal tail of CRMP-2 was produced recombinantly and analyzed. We have obtained the human CRMP-2 crystal structure at atomic resolution and could identify small-molecule binding pockets in the protein. Structures obtained in different crystal forms highlight flexible regions near possible ligand-binding pockets. We also used the CRMP-2 structure to analyze known or suggested post-translational modifications at the 3D structural level. The high-resolution CRMP-2 structure was also used for docking experiments with the sulfur amino acid metabolite lanthionine ketimine and its ester. We show that the C-terminal tail is intrinsically disordered, but it has conserved segments that may act as interaction sites. Our data provide the most accurate structural data on CRMPs to date and will be useful in further computational and experimental studies on CRMP-2, its function, and its binding to small-molecule ligands.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-016-2376-z
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effect of timing of collection of salivary metabolomic biomarkers on oral
           cancer detection
    • Authors: Shigeo Ishikawa; Masahiro Sugimoto; Kenichiro Kitabatake; Micheal Tu; Ayako Sugano; Iku Yamamori; Asuka Iba; Kazuyuki Yusa; Miku Kaneko; Sana Ota; Kana Hiwatari; Ayame Enomoto; Tomita Masaru; Mitsuyoshi Iino
      Pages: 761 - 770
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of duration after meals for saliva collections for oral cancer detection using metabolomics. Saliva samples were collected from oral cancer patients (n = 22) and controls (n = 44). Saliva from cancer patients was collected 12 h after dinner, and 1.5 and 3.5 h after breakfast. Control subjects fasted >1.5 h prior to saliva collection. Hydrophilic metabolites were analyzed using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. Levels of 51 metabolites differed significantly in controls vs. oral cancer patients at the 12-h fasting time point (P < 0.05). Fifteen and ten metabolites differed significantly at the 1.5- and 3.5-h time points, respectively. The area of under receiver operating characteristic curve for discriminating oral cancer patients from controls was greatest at the 12-h fasting time point. The collection time after meals affects levels of salivary metabolites for oral cancer screening. The 12-h fasting after dinner time point is optimal. This study contributes to design of saliva collection protocols for metabolomics-based biomarker discovery.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2378-5
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2017)
  • Alteration of metabolomic markers of amino-acid metabolism in piglets with
           in-feed antibiotics
    • Authors: Chunlong Mu; Yuxiang Yang; Kaifan Yu; Miao Yu; Chuanjian Zhang; Yong Su; Weiyun Zhu
      Pages: 771 - 781
      Abstract: Abstract In-feed antibiotics have been used to promote growth in piglets, but its impact on metabolomics profiles associated with host metabolism is largely unknown. In this study, to test the hypothesis that antibiotic treatment may affect metabolite composition both in the gut and host biofluids, metabolomics profiles were analyzed in antibiotic-treated piglets. Piglets were fed a corn-soy basal diet with or without in-feed antibiotics from postnatal day 7 to day 42. The serum biochemical parameters, metabolomics profiles of the serum, urine, and jejunal digesta, and indicators of microbial metabolism (short-chain fatty acids and biogenic amines) were analyzed. Compared to the control group, antibiotics treatment did not have significant effects on serum biochemical parameters except that it increased (P < 0.05) the concentration of urea. Antibiotics treatment increased the relative concentrations of metabolites involved in amino-acid metabolism in the serum, while decreased the relative concentrations of most amino acids in the jejunal content. Antibiotics reduced urinary 2-ketoisocaproate and hippurate. Furthermore, antibiotics decreased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of propionate and butyrate in the feces. Antibiotics significantly affected the concentrations of biogenic amines, which are derived from microbial amino-acid metabolism. The three major amines, putrescine, cadaverine, and spermidine, were all increased (P < 0.05) in the large intestine of antibiotics-treated piglets. These results identified the phenomena that in-feed antibiotics may have significant impact on the metabolomic markers of amino-acid metabolism in piglets.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2379-4
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2017)
  • Comprehensive analysis of the l -arginine/ l -homoarginine/nitric oxide
           pathway in preterm neonates: potential roles for homoarginine and
           asymmetric dimethylarginine in foetal growth
    • Authors: Anna Buck; Arslan Arinc Kayacelebi; Kristine Chobanyan-Jürgens; Sabine Illsinger; Bettina Bohnhorst; Bibiana Beckmann; Erik Hanff; Anibh M. Das; Dimitrios Tsikas; Thomas Lücke
      Pages: 783 - 794
      Abstract: Abstract l-Arginine (Arg) and l-homoarginine (hArg) are precursors of nitric oxide (NO), a signalling molecule with multiple important roles in human organism. In the circulation of adults, high concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and low concentrations of hArg emerged as cardiovascular risk factors. Yet, the importance of the Arg/hArg/NO pathway, especially of hArg and ADMA, in preterm neonates is little understood. We comprehensively investigated the Arg/hArg/NO pathway in 106 healthy preterm infants (51 boys, 55 girls) aged between 23 + 6 and 36 + 1 gestational weeks. Babies were divided into two groups: group I consisted of 31 babies with a gestational age of 23 + 6 – 29 + 6 weeks; group II comprised 75 children with a gestational age of 30 + 0 – 36 + 1 weeks. Plasma and urine concentrations of ADMA, SDMA, hArg, Arg, dimethylamine (DMA) which is the major urinary ADMA metabolite, as well as of nitrite and nitrate, the major NO metabolites, were determined by GC–MS and GC–MS/MS methods. ADMA and hArg plasma levels, but not the hArg/ADMA molar ratio, were significantly higher in group II than in group I: 895 ± 166 nM vs. 774 ± 164 nM (P = 0.001) for ADMA and 0.56 ± 0.04 µM vs. 0.48 ± 0.08 µM (P = 0.010) for hArg. There was no statistical difference between the groups with regard to urinary ADMA (12.2 ± 4.6 vs 12.8 ± 3.6 µmol/mmol creatinine; P = 0.61) and urinary SDMA. Urinary hArg, ADMA, SDMA correlated tightly with each other. Urinary excretion of DMA was slightly higher in group I compared to group II: 282 ± 44 vs. 247 ± 35 µmol/mmol creatinine (P = 0.004). The DMA/ADMA molar ratio in urine was tendentiously higher in neonates of group I compared to group II: 27 ± 13 vs. 20 ± 5 (P = 0.065). There were no differences between the groups with respect to Arg in plasma and to nitrite and nitrate in plasma and urine. In preterm neonates, ADMA and hArg biosynthesis increases with gestational age without remarkable changes in the hArg/ADMA ratio or NO biosynthesis. Our study suggests that ADMA and hArg are involved in foetal growth.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2382-9
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2017)
  • Contributions of system A subtypes to α-methylaminoisobutyric acid uptake
           by placental microvillous membranes of human and rat
    • Authors: Yu Takahashi; Tomohiro Nishimura; Tetsuo Maruyama; Masatoshi Tomi; Emi Nakashima
      Pages: 795 - 803
      Abstract: Abstract System A consists of three subtypes, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 (SNAT1), SNAT2, and SNAT4, which are all expressed in the placenta. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contributions of each of the three subtypes to total system A-mediated uptake in placental MVM of human and rat, using betaine and l-arginine as subtype-selective inhibitors of SNAT2 and SNAT4, respectively. Appropriate concentrations of betaine and l-arginine for subtype-selective inhibition in SNAT-overexpressing cells were identified. It was found that 10 mM betaine specifically and almost completely inhibited human and rat SNAT2-mediated [14C]α-methylaminoisobutyric acid ([14C]MeAIB) uptake, while 5 mM l-arginine specifically and completely inhibited [3H]glycine uptake via human SNAT4, as well as [14C]MeAIB uptake via rat SNAT4. In both human and rat placental MVM vesicles, sodium-dependent uptake of [14C]MeAIB was almost completely inhibited by 20 mM unlabeled MeAIB. l-Arginine (5 mM) partly inhibited the uptake in humans, but hardly affected that in rats. Betaine (10 mM) partly inhibited the uptake in rats, but hardly affected it in humans. These results suggest that SNAT1 is most likely the major contributor to system A-mediated MeAIB uptake by human and rat MVM vesicles and that the remaining uptake is mainly mediated by SNAT4 in humans and SNAT2 in rats. Thus, inhibition studies using betaine and l-arginine are useful to characterize the molecular mechanisms of system A-mediated transport.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2384-7
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Antifreeze glycopeptides: from structure and activity studies
           to current approaches in chemical synthesis
    • Authors: Małgorzata Urbańczyk; Jerzy Góra; Rafał Latajka; Norbert Sewald
      Pages: 805 - 805
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2381-x
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2017)
  • Thanks to our reviewers in 2016
    • Pages: 807 - 809
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2380-y
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effect of Oaz1 overexpression on goose ovarian granulosa cells
    • Authors: Bo Kang; Dongmei Jiang; Hui He; Rong Ma; Ziyu Chen; Zhixin Yi
      Abstract: Abstract Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1) regulates both polyamine biosynthesis and transport and acts as a tumor suppressor because of its functions in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and growth. However, the roles of OAZ1 in the regulation of polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis and hormone receptor expression in granulosa cells (GCs) from geese have not been determined. To define the roles of OAZ1 in primary GCs, we constructed and transfected an Oaz1 overexpression vector with a thymidine deletion into primary GCs. Oaz1 overexpression induced 65 and 30% decreases in the putrescine and spermidine contents, respectively, 225% increase in the spermine content and up-regulated the expression levels of genes associated with polyamine metabolism (but Oaz2). The Ccnd1, Pcna, Bax and Caspase 3 mRNA expression levels in GCs overexpressing Oaz1 were significantly higher than the expression levels in the vehicle group (p < 0.05). Additionally, a slight increase in the E2 concentration in the culture medium and enhanced Er, Fshr and Lhr expression were observed in the GCs 24 h after Oaz1 overexpression (p < 0.05). These data suggested that Oaz1 up-regulated the expression of genes related to polyamine metabolic enzymes and reproductive hormone receptors, disturbed intracellular polyamine homeostasis, and affected the transcription of genes associated to cell proliferation and apoptosis in goose primary GCs. Taken together, our results indicate that modifying polyamine metabolism by Oaz1 may interfere with the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis and responsiveness of ovary toward hormones in goose GCs.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2411-8
  • Enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism in humans
    • Authors: María M. Adeva-Andany; Laura López-Maside; Cristóbal Donapetry-García; Carlos Fernández-Fernández; Cristina Sixto-Leal
      Abstract: Abstract Branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) are structurally related to branched-chain fatty acids. Leucine is 2-amino-4-methyl-pentanoic acid, isoleucine is 2-amino-3-methyl-pentanoic acid, and valine is 2-amino-3-methyl-butanoic acid. Similar to fatty acid oxidation, leucine and isoleucine produce acetyl-coA. Additionally, leucine generates acetoacetate and isoleucine yields propionyl-coA. Valine oxidation produces propionyl-coA, which is converted into methylmalonyl-coA and succinyl-coA. Branched-chain aminotransferase catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, a reversible transamination that converts branched-chain amino acids into branched-chain ketoacids. Simultaneously, glutamate is converted in 2-ketoglutarate. The branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain ketoacids to produce branched-chain acyl-coA intermediates, which then follow separate catabolic pathways. Human tissue distribution and function of most of the enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid catabolism is unknown. Congenital deficiencies of the enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism are generally rare disorders. Some of them are associated with reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and respiratory chain dysfunction that may contribute to their clinical phenotype. The biochemical phenotype is characterized by accumulation of the substrate to the deficient enzyme and its carnitine and/or glycine derivatives. It was established at the beginning of the twentieth century that the plasma level of the branched-chain amino acids is increased in conditions associated with insulin resistance such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, the potential clinical relevance of this elevation is uncertain.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2412-7
  • Zebrafish as a model to evaluate peptide-related cancer therapies
    • Authors: Austin Y. Shull; Chien-An A. Hu; Yong Teng
      Abstract: Abstract Peptide-derived drug discovery has experienced a remarkable resurgence in the past decade since the failure of small-molecule modulators to effectively access the large binding surfaces of intracellular protein–protein interactions as well as “undruggable” residues of certain disease-driving proteins. However, the effectiveness of peptide-based cancer therapies is being questioned in light of declines in pharmaceutical R&D efficiency. As a model of whole organism, zebrafish provide a means to develop promising peptide and protein anticancer agents in an informative, cost-effective and time-efficient manner, which also allows for surveying mechanisms of drug action and optimization of drug delivery system. This review highlights the achievements and potential of zebrafish for modelling human cancer and for peptide-based drug discovery and development. Specific challenges, possible strategies and future prospects are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2388-3
  • Validation of dopamine receptor DRD1 and DRD2 antibodies using receptor
           deficient mice
    • Authors: Tamara Stojanovic; Michaela Orlova; Fernando J. Sialana; Harald Höger; Stanislav Stuchlik; Ivan Milenkovic; Jana Aradska; Gert Lubec
      Abstract: Abstract Dopamine receptors 1 and 2 (DRD1, DRD2) are essential for signaling in the brain for a multitude of brain functions. Previous work using several antibodies against these receptors is abundant but only the minority of antibodies used have been validated and, therefore, the results of these studies remain uncertain. Herein, antibodies against DRD1 (Merck Millipore AB1765P, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-14001, Sigma Aldrich D2944, Alomone Labs ADR-001) and DRD2 (Abcam ab21218, Merck Millipore AB5084P, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-5303) have been tested using western blotting and immunohistochemistry on mouse striatum (wild type and corresponding knock-out mice) and when specific, they were further evaluated on rat and human striatum. Moreover, a DRD1 antibody and a DRD2 antibody that were found specific in our tests were used for immunoprecipitation with subsequent mass spectrometrical identification of the immunoprecipitate. Two out of nine antibodies (anti DRD1 Sigma Aldrich D2944 and anti DRD2 Merck Millipore AB5084P) against the abovementioned dopamine receptors were specific for DRD1 and DRD2 as evaluated by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and the immunoprecipitate indeed contained DRD1 and DRD2 as revealed by mass spectrometry. The observed findings may question the use of so far non-validated antibodies against the abovementioned dopamine receptors. Own observations may be valuable for the interpretation of previous results and the design of future studies using dopamine receptors DRD1 or DRD2.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2408-3
  • Improved positron emission tomography imaging of glioblastoma cancer using
           novel 68 Ga-labeled peptides targeting the urokinase-type plasminogen
           activator receptor (uPAR)
    • Authors: Mathias Dyrberg Loft; Yao Sun; Changhao Liu; Camilla Christensen; Daijuan Huang; Andreas Kjaer; Zhen Cheng
      Abstract: Abstract The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in several cancers including glioblastoma (GBM) and is an established biomarker for metastatic potential. The uPAR-targeting peptide AE105-NH2 (Ac-Asp-Cha-Phe-(D)Ser-(D)Arg-Tyr-Leu-Trp-Ser-CONH2) is a promising candidate for non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of uPAR. Despite the optimal physical properties of 68Ga for peptide-based PET imaging, low tumor uptakes have previously been reported using 68Ga-labeled AE105-NH2-based tracers. In an attempt to optimize the tumor uptake, we developed three novel tracers with alkane (AOC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacers inserted between AE105-NH2 and the radio metal chelator 2-(4,7-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7-triazonan-1-yl)pentanedioic acid (NODAGA). The resulting tracers NODAGA-AOC-AE105-NH2, NODAGA-PEG3-AE105-NH2 and NODAGA-PEG8-AE105-NH2 were compared to the non-spacer version, NODAGA-AE105-NH2. Following radiolabeling with 68Ga, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo performance in mice bearing subcutaneous tumors derived from the uPAR-expressing human GBM cell line U87MG. In vivo PET/CT imaging showed that introduction of PEG spacers more than doubled the in vivo tumor uptake after 1 h compared with the non-spacer version: 68Ga-NODAGA-PEG3-AE105-NH2 (2.08 ± 0.37%ID/g) and 68Ga-NODAGA-PEG8-AE105-NH2 (2.01 ± 0.22%ID/g) vs. 68Ga-NODAGA-AE105-NH2 (0.70 ± 0.40%ID/g), p < 0.05. In addition, 68Ga-NODAGA-PEG8-AE105-NH2 showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) tumor-to-background contrast (3.68 ± 0.23) than the other tracers. The specific tumor-targeting property of 68Ga-NODAGA-PEG8-AE105-NH2 was established by effectively blocking the tumor uptake with co-injection of unlabeled AE105-NH2 (1 h: unblocked 2.01 ± 0.22%ID/g vs. blocked 1.24 ± 0.09%ID/g, p < 0.05). Ex vivo biodistribution confirmed the improved tumor uptakes of the PEG-modified tracers. 68Ga-NODAGA-PEG8-AE105-NH2 is thus a promising candidate for human translation for PET imaging of GBM.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2407-4
  • Amino acids intake and physical fitness among adolescents
    • Authors: Luis Gracia-Marco; On behalf of the HELENA Study Group; Silvia Bel-Serrat; Magdalena Cuenca-Garcia; Marcela Gonzalez-Gross; Raquel Pedrero-Chamizo; Yannis Manios; Ascensión Marcos; Denes Molnar; Kurt Widhalm; Angela Polito; Jeremy Vanhelst; Maria Hagströmer; Michael Sjöström; Anthony Kafatos; Stefaan de Henauw; Ángel Gutierrez; Manuel J. Castillo; Luis A. Moreno
      Abstract: Abstract The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5–17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity was objectively measured. Socioeconomic status was obtained via questionnaires. Lower limbs muscular fitness seems to be positively associated with tryptophan, histidine and methionine intake in boys, regardless of centre, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and total energy intake (model 1). However, these associations disappeared once carbohydrates intake was controlled for (model 2). In girls, only proline intake seems to be positively associated with lower limbs muscular fitness (model 2) while cardiorespiratory fitness seems to be positively associated with leucine (model 1) and proline intake (models 1 and 2). None of the observed significant associations remained significant once multiple testing was controlled for. In conclusion, we failed to detect any associations between any of the evaluated AAs and physical fitness after taking into account the effect of multiple testing.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2393-6
  • Comparative analysis of internalisation, haemolytic, cytotoxic and
           antibacterial effect of membrane-active cationic peptides: aspects of
           experimental setup
    • Authors: Kata Horváti; Bernadett Bacsa; Tamás Mlinkó; Nóra Szabó; Ferenc Hudecz; Ferenc Zsila; Szilvia Bősze
      Abstract: Abstract Cationic peptides proved fundamental importance as pharmaceutical agents and/or drug carrier moieties functioning in cellular processes. The comparison of the in vitro activity of these peptides is an experimental challenge and a combination of different methods, such as cytotoxicity, internalisation rate, haemolytic and antibacterial effect, is necessary. At the same time, several issues need to be addressed as the assay conditions have a great influence on the measured biological effects and the experimental setup needs to be optimised. Therefore, critical comparison of results from different assays using representative examples of cell penetrating and antimicrobial peptides was performed and optimal test conditions were suggested. Our main goal was to identify carrier peptides for drug delivery systems of antimicrobial drug candidates. Based on the results of internalisation, haemolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial activity assays, a classification of cationic peptides is advocated. We found eight promising carrier peptides with good penetration ability of which Penetratin, Tat, Buforin and Dhvar4 peptides showed low adverse haemolytic effect. Penetratin, Transportan, Dhvar4 and the hybrid CM15 peptide had the most potent antibacterial activity on Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC lower than 1.2 μM) and Transportan was effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well. The most selective peptide was the Penetratin, where the effective antimicrobial concentration on pneumococcus was more than 250 times lower than the HC50 value. Therefore, these peptides and their analogues will be further investigated as drug delivery systems for antimicrobial agents.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2402-9
  • l -Glutamine and l -arginine protect against enterotoxigenic Escherichia
           coli infection via intestinal innate immunity in mice
    • Authors: Gang Liu; Wenkai Ren; Jun Fang; Chien-An Andy Hu; Guiping Guan; Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi; Jie Yin; Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan; Shuai Chen; Yuanyi Peng; Yulong Yin
      Abstract: Abstract Dietary glutamine (Gln) or arginine (Arg) supplementation is beneficial for intestinal health; however, whether Gln or Arg may confer protection against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is not known. To address this, we used an ETEC-infected murine model to investigate the protective effects of Gln and Arg. Experimentally, we pre-treated mice with designed diet of Gln or Arg supplementation prior to the oral ETEC infection and then assessed mouse mortality and intestinal bacterial burden. We also determined the markers of intestinal innate immunity in treated mice, including secretory IgA response (SIgA), mucins from goblet cells, as well as antimicrobial peptides from Paneth cells. ETEC colonized in mouse small intestine, including duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and inhibited the mRNA expression of intestinal immune factors, such as polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), cryptdin-related sequence 1C (CRS1C), and Reg3γ. We found that dietary Gln or Arg supplementation decreased bacterial colonization and promoted the activation of innate immunity (e.g., the mRNA expression of pIgR, CRS1C, and Reg3γ) in the intestine of ETEC-infected mice. Our results suggest that dietary arginine or glutamine supplementation may inhibit intestinal ETEC infection through intestinal innate immunity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2410-9
  • Differential distribution of amino acids in plants
    • Authors: Vinod Kumar; Anket Sharma; Ravdeep Kaur; Ashwani Kumar Thukral; Renu Bhardwaj; Parvaiz Ahmad
      Abstract: Abstract Plants are a rich source of amino acids and their individual abundance in plants is of great significance especially in terms of food. Therefore, it is of utmost necessity to create a database of the relative amino acid contents in plants as reported in literature. Since in most of the cases complete analysis of profiles of amino acids in plants was not reported, the units used and the methods applied and the plant parts used were different, amino acid contents were converted into relative units with respect to lysine for statistical analysis. The most abundant amino acids in plants are glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Pearson’s correlation analysis among different amino acids showed that there were no negative correlations between the amino acids. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to relative amino acid contents of different families. Alismataceae, Cyperaceae, Capparaceae and Cactaceae families had close proximity with each other on the basis of their relative amino acid contents. First three components of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 79.5% of the total variance. Factor analysis (FA) explained four main underlying factors for amino acid analysis. Factor-1 accounted for 29.4% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on glycine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine and valine. Factor-2 explained 25.8% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on alanine, aspartic acid, serine and tyrosine. 14.2% of the total variance was explained by factor-3 and had maximum loadings on arginine and histidine. Factor-4 accounted 8.3% of the total variance and had maximum loading on the proline amino acid. The relative content of different amino acids presented in this paper is alanine (1.4), arginine (1.8), asparagine (0.7), aspartic acid (2.4), cysteine (0.5), glutamic acid (2.8), glutamine (0.6), glycine (1.0), histidine (0.5), isoleucine (0.9), leucine (1.7), lysine (1.0), methionine (0.4), phenylalanine (0.9), proline (1.1), serine (1.0), threonine (1.0), tryptophan (0.3), tyrosine (0.7) and valine (1.2).
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2401-x
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