Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2626 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2626 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
aBIOTECH : An Intl. J. on Plant Biotechnology and Agricultural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adversity and Resilience Science : J. of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Functional Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Amino Acids
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.135
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 7  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1438-2199 - ISSN (Online) 0939-4451
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Effects of dietary starch and lipid levels on the protein retention and
           growth of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides )
    • Abstract: Protein accretion in some fish species is affected by dietary lipids, starch and their interactions, but this aspect of nutrition is largely unknown in largemouth bass (LMB). Therefore, we designed six experimental diets with three starch levels (5%, 10%, and 15%; dry matter  basis) and two lipid levels (10% and 12.5%; dry matter basis) to evaluate the effects of dietary starch and lipid levels on the protein retention, growth, feed utilization, and liver histology of LMB. There were three tanks (18 fish per tank, ~ 4.85 g per fish) per dietary treatment group and the trial lasted for 8 weeks. Fish were fed to apparent satiation twice daily. Results indicated that increasing the dietary starch level from 5 to 15% reduced (P < 0.05) absolute feed intake (AFI; − 9.0%, − 15% and − 14% on days 14–28, 28–42, and 42–56, respectively) and weight gains (− 4.4% and − 6.5% on days 42 and 56, respectively) of LMB. Increasing the dietary lipid level from 10 to 12.5% reduced (P < 0.05) AFI (− 9.7%, − 11.7% and − 11.9% on days 14–28, 28–42; and 42–56, respectively), weight gains (− 4.2%, − 5.9% and − 6.9% on days 28, 42 and 56, respectively), and survival rate (by a 5.6% unit) of LMB. The retention of dietary protein and some amino acids in the body was affected by dietary starch or lipid levels and their interactions. The viscerosomatic index (VSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), and intraperitoneal fat ratio (IPFR) increased with increasing the dietary starch level from 5 to 15%. Compared with 10% lipids, 12.5% lipids in diets increased IPFR but had no effect on VSI or HSI. The concentrations of glucose in serum increased with increasing the dietary starch level from 5 to 15% at 4 to 24 h after feeding, with the effect of dietary lipids being time-dependent. Compared with a 5%-starch diet, fish fed a diet with 10%- or 15%-starch exhibited an enlarged and pale liver with excessive glycogen. Based on these findings, we recommend dietary lipid and starch levels to be 10% and < 10%, respectively, for juvenile LMB to maximize the retention of dietary protein in their bodies.
      PubDate: 2020-07-09
  • Vectorial transport of the arginine derivatives asymmetric
           dimethylarginine (ADMA) and l -homoarginine by OATP4C1 and P-glycoprotein
           studied in double-transfected MDCK cells
    • Abstract: Elevated plasma concentrations of the uremic toxin asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and low plasma concentrations of l-homoarginine are independently associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. Key enzymes involved in the homeostasis of both arginine derivatives are expressed in proximal tubule cells of the kidney. To get access to these enzymes, transport proteins are important. One of the transporters mediating the transport of ADMA and l-homoarginine is the solute carrier superfamily (SLC) member OATP4C1, located in the basolateral membrane of proximal tubule cells. To gain insights into the role of export pumps in the transport of both substances, we established a double-transfected MDCK cell line expressing OATP4C1 and the export pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Using MDCK cell monolayers, we demonstrated in time-dependent and concentration-dependent vectorial transport experiments that ADMA and l-homoarginine are transported from the basolateral to the apical compartment of MDCK-OATP4C1-P-gp cells with significantly higher transport rates compared to single-transfected MDCK-OATP4C1, MDCK-P-gp and MDCK-VC (control) cells (e.g. transport ratio MDCK-OATP4C1-P-gp/MDCK-VC: for 50 µM ADMA = 2.0-fold, for 50 µM l-homoarginine  = 3.4-fold). These results indicate that both OATP4C1 and P-gp transport the arginine derivatives ADMA and l-homoarginine and are, therefore, important for the homoeostasis of both substances.
      PubDate: 2020-07-08
  • SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 gene expression in small intestine correlates
           with age
    • Abstract: Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients, especially in younger patients. Our hypothesis was that intestinal SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 expression depends on patients’ age. We examined duodenal biopsies from 43 healthy human adults. ACE2 gene expression was directly correlated with age (Spearman’s r = 0.317, p = 0.039). With each year, duodenal ACE2 expression increased by 0.083 RU. The higher intestinal ACE2 mRNA expression in older patients may impact on their susceptibility to develop intestinal symptoms.
      PubDate: 2020-07-05
  • Highly efficient and enantioselective syntheses of ( 2S,3R )-3-alkyl- and
           alkenylglutamates from Fmoc-protected Garner’s aldehyde
    • Abstract: A 6-step enantioselective synthesis of (2S,3R)-3-alkyl/alkenylglutamates, including the biologically significant amino acid, (2S,3R)-3-methylglutamate, protected for Fmoc SPPS, is reported. Overall yields range from 52–65%. Key to the success of these syntheses was the development of a high-yielding 2-step synthesis of Fmoc Garner’s aldehyde followed by a Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons reaction to give the corresponding Fmoc Garner’s enoate in a 94% yield. The diastereoselective 1,4-addition of lithium dialkylcuprates to the Fmoc Garner’s enoate was explored. Significant decomposition occurred when using lithium diethylcuprate and conditions previously reported for the 1,4-addition of lithium dialkylcuprates to Boc or Cbz-protected Garner’s enoate. An optimization study of this reaction resulted in a robust set of conditions that addressed the shortcomings of previously reported conditions. Under these conditions, highly diastereoselective (> 20:1 in most cases) 1,4-addition reactions of lithium dialkyl/dialkenylcuprates to the Fmoc Garner’s enoate were achieved in 76–99% yield. The resulting 1,4-addition products were easily converted into the Fmoc-(2S,3R)-3-alkyl/alkenylglutamates in two steps.
      PubDate: 2020-07-03
  • Efficient synthesis of amino acids capped gold nanoparticles from easily
           reducible aryldiazonium tetrachloroaurate(III) salts for cellular uptake
    • Abstract: Biomimetic synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) is critical in biomedical applications. Gold bioconjugates were fabricated by capping the water-dispersible gold-carbon nanoparticles with tyrosine, tryptophan and cysteine amino acids. Incubation of the water-soluble and easily reducible aryldiazonium gold(III) salt [HOOC-4-C6H4N≡N]AuCl4 with amino acids at room temperature formed a purple color over a few minutes with tryptophan and tyrosine and over two hours with cysteine. Rarely that cysteine is capable of reducing gold(III) precursors; however, a cysteine capped gold bioconjugate was synthesized and characterized in this study. Capping GNPs with amino acids was confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and agarose gel electrophoresis. Depending on the amino acid, synthesized particles size was 27.2 ± 5.4 nm, 14.6 ± 7.7 nm and 8.6 ± 2.6 nm for tyrosine, tryptophan and cysteine, respectively. The amino acids capped GNPs showed negligible cytotoxicity to human dermal normal fibroblast cell lines. The highly water dispersible bioconjugates were studied for in vitro cellular uptake by HeLa cancer cells using confocal laser scan microscopy (CLSM) after being labelled with FITC (GNPs-COOH-FITC) and the nuclei were counter stained with DAPI fluorescent dyes. The biomimetic route for the synthesis of the amino acids reduced gold-carbon nanoparticles will benefit the applications in biomedical devices and biosensors.
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
  • Asymmetric dimethylarginine and l -homoarginine prospectively relate to
           carotid wall thickness in a South African cohort
    • Abstract: Background and aims The l-arginine derivatives asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), as well as l-homoarginine may have opposing effects in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate (i) 5-year changes in arginine derivatives, and (ii) the association between baseline arginine derivatives and follow-up measures of carotid wall thickness in South Africans. Methods and results This study included men (n = 187) and women (n = 396) who took part in the 2010 and 2015 data collections of the South African arm of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Arginine derivatives were determined in plasma with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and cross-sectional wall area (CSWA) were determined with B-mode ultrasonography. Results Mean values of arginine derivatives did not change over time. In the study group, follow-up cIMT (β = − 0.10 p = 0.018) and CSWA (β = − 0.12; p = 0.004) inversely associated with baseline l-homoarginine, and cIMT inversely associated with ADMA (β = − 0.09; p = 0.033). In women, CSWA inversely associated with both ADMA (β = − 0.11; p = 0.034) and l-homoarginine (β = − 0.11; p = 0.024). No such associations were found in men. Conclusion These results suggest that higher levels of l-homoarginine may play a protective role against vascular injury and delay progression of carotid wall thickening in this cohort. The role of ADMA in atherosclerosis deserves further investigation in this population.
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
  • Creatine, guanidinoacetate and homoarginine in statin-induced myopathy
    • Abstract: Our study evaluated the effect of creatine and homoarginine in AGAT- and GAMT-deficient mice after simvastatin exposure. Balestrino and Adriano suggest that guanidinoacetate might explain the difference between AGAT- and GAMT-deficient mice in simvastatin-induced myopathy. We agree with Balestrino and Adriano that our data shows that (1) creatine possesses a protective potential to ameliorate statin-induced myopathy in humans and mice and (2) homoarginine did not reveal a beneficial effect in statin-induced myopathy. Third, we agree that guanidinoacetate can be phosphorylated and partially compensate for phosphocreatine. In our study, simvastatin-induced damage showed a trend to be less pronounced in GAMT-deficient mice compared with wildtype mice. Therefore, (phospo) guanidinoacetate cannot completely explain the milder phenotype of GAMT-deficient mice, but we agree that it might contribute to ameliorate statin-induced myopathy in GAMT-deficient mice compared with AGAT-deficient mice. Finally, we agree with Balestino and Adriano that AGAT metabolites should further be evaluated as potential treatments in statin-induced myopathy.
      PubDate: 2020-06-27
  • Intramolecular distribution of 13 C/ 12 C isotopes in amino acids of
           diverse origins
    • Abstract: Carbon stable isotope analysis can provide information about the origin and synthetic pathways that produce organic molecules, with applications in chemical, medical and (bio)geochemical sciences. The 13C/12C isotope ratios of organics such as amino acids are most commonly obtained as whole molecule averages. In this study, we apply proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to conduct position-specific carbon isotope analyses of l-/d-alanine, l-threonine and l-histidine from different sources, in addition to molecule average stable isotope analyses obtained via mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate that carbon isotope ratios can vary significantly between the individual carbon positions within an amino acid. For example, the β- and γ- carbons of l-threonine can differ in 13C/12C ratio by > 20 ‰. Comparisons of the position-specific and whole molecule average stable isotope abundances show that whole molecule analyses can mask the intramolecular isotope variation. These results provide the first experimentally measured position-specific isotope ratios for alpha and side chain carbons of alanine, threonine and histidine. Comparison with previous ab initio calculations of intramolecular equilibrium fractionation shows that the carbon isotope distributions are not at equilibrium, thus kinetic isotope effects play a significant role in amino acid synthesis. We hypothesize that position-specific 13C/12C isotope ratios provide an “isotopic fingerprint” that can give insight into the origin or synthesis pathway that formed an amino acid, and that this emerging analytical field will be a valuable addition to traditional stable isotope analysis.
      PubDate: 2020-06-27
  • Design of substrates and inhibitors of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2
           (GRK2) based on its phosphorylation reaction
    • Abstract: The G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) family consists of seven cytosolic serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases, and among them, GRK2 is involved in the regulation of an enormous range of both G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and non-GPCR substrates that participate in or regulate many critical cellular processes. GRK2 dysfunction is associated with multiple diseases, including cancers, brain diseases, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and therefore GRK2-specific substrates/inhibitors are needed not only for studies of GRK2-mediated cellular functions but also for GRK2-targeted drug development. Here, we first review the structure, regulation and functions of GRK2, and its synthetic substrates and inhibitors. We then highlight recent work on synthetic peptide substrates/inhibitors as promising tools for fundamental studies of the physiological functions of GRK2, and as candidates for applications in clinical diagnostics.
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
  • Molecular definition of the interaction between a tumor-specific
           tetrabranched peptide and LRP6 receptor
    • Abstract: The tumor-specific tetrabranched peptide NT4 binds membrane sulfate glycosaminoglycans and receptors belonging to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) family, like LRP6, which are overexpressed in cancer. The binding occurs through a multimeric positively-charged motif of NT4 that interacts with negatively charged motives in both glycosaminoglycans and LRP receptors. LRP6 has an essential function in canonical Wnt signaling, acting together with receptors of the Frizzled family as coreceptor for Wnt ligands. The extracellular domain of LRP6 contains four YWTD β-propellers, which are fundamental for interactions with ligands, such as Wnt and Wnt inhibitors. To investigate the molecular interactions between the NT4 peptide and LRP6 receptor, we synthesized a library of epitope mapping peptides reproducing the YWTD β-propeller 3 and 4 of LRP6. The peptides that showed to bind NT4 represented the portion of LRP6 located on the top face of β-propeller 3 and contained negatively charged residues, including glutamic acid-708 which is known to be involved in Wnt3a interaction. The results pave the way for a possible development of peptide inhibitors of Wnt3a pathway to be used as drugs in oncology.
      PubDate: 2020-06-17
  • Effect of UVB solar irradiation on Laccase enzyme: evaluation of the
           photooxidation process and its impact over the enzymatic activity for
           pollutants bioremediation
    • Abstract: The multi-copper Laccase enzyme corresponds to one of the most investigated oxidoreductases for potential uses in xenobiotic bioremediation. In this work, we have investigated the photo-degradation process of Laccase from Trametesversicolor induced by UVB light and the influence on its activity over selected substrates. Laccase undergoes photo-degradation when irradiated with UVB light, and the process depends on the presence of oxygen in the medium. With the kinetic data obtained from stationary and time resolved measurements, a photo-degradation mechanism of auto-sensitization was proposed for the enzyme. Laccase generates singlet oxygen, by UVB light absorption, and this reactive oxygen species can trigger the photo-oxidation of susceptible amino acids residues present in the protein structure. The catalytic activity of Laccase was evaluated before and after UVB photolysis over hydroxy-aromatic compounds and substituted phenols which represent potential pollutants. The dye bromothymol blue, the antibiotic rifampicin and the model compound syringaldazine, were selected as substrates. The values of the kinetic parameters determined in our experiments indicate that the photo-oxidative process of Laccase has a very negative impact on its overall catalytic function. Despite this, we have not found evidence of structural damage by SDS-PAGE and circular dichroism experiments, which indicate that the enzyme retained its secondary structure. We believe that, given the importance of Laccase in environmental bioremediation, the information found about the stability of this kind of biomolecule exposed to UV solar irradiation may be relevant in the technological design and/or optimization of decontamination strategies.
      PubDate: 2020-06-17
  • The effects of taurine supplementation on glycemic control and serum lipid
           profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind,
           placebo-controlled trial
    • Abstract: Previous studies have suggested that taurine has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects on experimental diabetic models. Therefore, this clinical trial was designed to explore the impacts of taurine supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profile in the patients with T2DM. This study was conducted on 45 patients with T2DM in Tabriz Sheikhor-raees Polyclinic and Imam-Reza Hospital Endocrine Center. Subjects were randomly divided into taurine and placebo groups. Accordingly, the taurine group (n = 23) received taurine 3000 mg/daily and the placebo group (n = 22) took crystalline microcellulose/daily for the duration of 8 weeks. At baseline and after the trial completion, fasting blood samples were obtained from the patients to assess the glycemic indicators and lipid profile. Independent t test, paired t test, Pearson’s correlation, and analysis of covariance was used for analysis. At the end of the study, levels of FBS (p = 0.01), insulin (p = 0.01), HOMA-IR (p = 0.003), TC (p = 0.013), and LDL-C (p = 0.041) significantly decreased in the taurine group compared to the placebo group. In addition, there was no significant changes in HbA1c, triglyceride, HDL-C, anthropometric indicators or dietary intakes by passing 8 weeks from the intervention. In conclusion, the findings of the current study indicated that taurine supplementation (3000 mg/day) for 8 weeks could improve the glycemic indexes and lipid profiles including TC and LDL-C in the patients with T2DM.
      PubDate: 2020-05-29
  • Effect of point mutation on structure–function correlation of hemoglobin
           variants, HbE and HbD Punjab
    • Abstract: Hemoglobinopathies are examples of autosomal recessive disorders of human hemoglobin. Hemoglobin E (HbE) and Hemoglobin D Punjab (HbD Punjab) are two of the most common hemoglobin variants geographically spread across Asian continent. These two variants differ from normal human hemoglobin (HbA) at a single amino acid residue caused by the point mutation of β globin gene. The presence of the mutated amino acid residue causes perturbation in the function of both variants. However, the structure–function correlation of these variants has not been established yet. In the present study, we analyzed the conformational changes associated with oxygenation of hemoglobin variants using hydrogen/deuterium exchange-based mass spectrometry of backbone amide hydrogens of α and β globin chains in the tetrameric hemoglobin molecule. We also performed the functional assay of these variants using oxygen dissociation equilibrium curve. Compared to HbA, both variants showed reduced oxygen affinity, as reported earlier. The functional perturbations exhibited by these variants were correlated well with their structural alterations with respect to the reported changes in the residue level interactions upon oxygenation of normal hemoglobin, monitored through the hydrogen/deuterium exchange kinetics of several peptic peptides originated from the isotopically exchanged oxy and deoxy forms of HbE and HbD Punjab.
      PubDate: 2020-05-28
  • Epibrassinolide-induced autophagy occurs in an Atg5-independent manner due
           to endoplasmic stress induction in MEF cells
    • Abstract: Epibrassinolide (EBR), a polyhydroxysteroid belongs to plant growth regulator family, brassinosteroids and has been shown to have a similar chemical structure to mammalian steroid hormones. Our findings indicated that EBR could trigger apoptosis in cancer cells via induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, caused by protein folding disturbance in the ER. Normal cells exhibited a remarkable resistance to EBR treatment and avoid from apoptotic cell death. The unfolded protein response clears un/misfolded proteins and restore ER functions. When stress is chronic, cells tend to die due to improper cellular functions. To understand the effect of EBR in non-malign cells, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells were investigated in detail for ER stress biomarkers, autophagy, and polyamine metabolism in this study. Evolutionary conserved autophagy mechanism is a crucial cellular process to clean damaged organelles and protein aggregates through lysosome under the control of autophagy-related genes (ATGs). Cells tend to activate autophagy to promote cell survival under stress conditions. Polyamines are polycationic molecules playing a role in the homeostasis of important cellular events such as cell survival, growth, and, proliferation. The administration of PAs has been markedly extended the lifespan of various organisms via inducing autophagy and inhibiting oxidative stress. Our data indicated that ER stress is induced following EBR treatment in MEF cells as well as MEF Atg5−/− cells. In addition, autophagy is activated following EBR treatment by targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR in wildtype (wt) cells. However, EBR-induced autophagy targets ULK1 in MEF cells lacking Atg5 expression. Besides, EBR treatment depleted the PA pool in MEF cells through the alterations of metabolic enzymes. The administration of Spd with EBR further increased autophagic vacuole formation. In conclusion, EBR is an anticancer drug candidate with selective cytotoxicity for cancer cells, in addition the induction of autophagy and PA metabolism are critical for responses of normal cells against EBR.
      PubDate: 2020-05-24
  • Glycine metabolomic changes induced by anticancer agents in A549 cells
    • Abstract: Glycine plays a key role in rapidly proliferating cancer cells such as A549 cells. Targeting glycine metabolism is considered as a potential means for cancer treatment. However, the drug-induced alterations in glycine metabolism have not yet been investigated. Herein, a total of 34 glycine metabolites were examined in A549 cells with or without anticancer drug treatment. This work showed all tested anticancer agents could alter glycine metabolism in A549 cells including inhibition of pyruvate metabolism and down-regulation of betaine aldehyde and 5′-phosphoribosylglycinamide. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis exhibited the difference between control and each drug-treated group. In general, cisplatin, camptothecin, and SAHA could induce the significant down-regulation of more metabolites, compared with afatinib, gefitinib, and targretin. Both glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and purine metabolism were significantly disturbed by the treatment with afatinib, gefitinib, and targretin. However, the treatment using cisplatin, camptothecin, and SAHA was considered to be highly responsible for the perturbation of glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and cysteine and methionine metabolism. Finally, multivariate analysis for control and all drug-treated groups revealed 11 altered metabolites with a significant difference. It implies anti-cancer agents with different mechanisms of action might induce different comprehensive changes of glycine metabolomics. The current study provides fundamental insights into the acquisition of the role of anti-cancer agents in glycine metabolism while suppressing cancer cell proliferation, and may aid the development of cancer treatment targeting glycine metabolism.
      PubDate: 2020-05-19
  • Biological macromolecule binding and anticancer activity of synthetic
           alkyne-containing l -phenylalanine derivatives
    • Abstract: Herein, we described the synthesis of two l-phenylalanines α-derivatized with a terminal alkyne moiety whose structures differed by phenyl ring halogen substitution (two o-Cl in 1 vs. one p-Br in 2) and investigated their effect on biological macromolecules and living cells. We explored their interaction with quadruplex DNA (G4 DNA), using tel26 and c-myc as models, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). By CD spectroscopy, we found that 1 caused minor tel26 secondary structure changes, leading also to a slight thermal stabilization of this hybrid antiparallel/parallel G4 structure, while the c-myc parallel topology remained essentially unchanged upon 1 binding. Other CD evidences showed the ability of 1 to bind BSA, while molecular docking studies suggested that the same molecule could be housed into the hydrophobic cavity between sub-domains IIA, IIB, and IIIA of the protein. Furthermore, preliminary aggregation studies, based on concentration-dependent spectroscopic experiments, suggested the ability of 1 to aggregate forming noncovalent polymeric systems in aqueous solution. Differently from 1, the bromine-modified compound was able to bind Cu(II) ion, likely with the formation of a CuL2 complex, as found by UV spectroscopy. Finally, cell tests excluded any cytotoxic effect of both compounds toward normal cells, but showed slight antiproliferative effects of 2 on PC3 cancerous cells at 24 h, and of 1 on both T98G and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells at 48 h.
      PubDate: 2020-05-19
  • Design of BRC analogous peptides based on the complex BRC8–RAD51 and the
           preliminary study on the peptide structures
    • Abstract: BRCA2 is an important tumor suppressor gene that plays a critical role in preserving the stability of cellular genetic information, participating in DNA repair by engaging in binding interactions with RAD51 proteins. However, the lack of structural data on BRCA2 and RAD51 makes the study of their interaction mechanism still a great challenge. We characterize the structure of the BRC8–RAD51 complex using ZDOCK protein docking software and identify the potential non-conserved active site of BRC8 via virtual alanine scanning, utilizing the obtained results to synthesize BRC8, its six analogous peptides (BRC8-1 to BRC8-6), and critical peptide fragment of RAD51 (RAD51(231–260)) by Fmoc solid-phase synthesis. The analogous peptides are found to exhibit a secondary structure significantly different from that of BRC8 by circular dichroism spectroscopy, which indicates that mutation sites determined by computer-aided simulation correspond to key amino acid residues substantially affecting polypeptide structure. On the other hand, the secondary structure of RAD51(231–260) was also considerably influenced by its interaction with BRC8 and analogs, e.g., the fraction of the α-helical structure in RAD51(231–260) increased to 23.6, 15.1, and 13.5% upon interaction with BRC8-1, BRC8-3, and BRC8-6, respectively. The results show that the properties of C-terminal amino acid residues significantly influence peptide–peptide interactions, in agreement with the results of virtual alanine scanning. Therefore, computer-aided simulation was confirmed to be a technique that is useful for narrowing down the range of sites responsible for interactions between peptides or proteins, and provides new inspirations for the design of peptides with strong interactions.
      PubDate: 2020-05-16
  • Nutrition and metabolism of glutamate and glutamine in fish
    • Abstract: Glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) comprise a large proportion of total amino acids (AAs) in fish in the free and protein-bound forms. Both Glu and Gln are synthesized de novo from other α-amino acids and ammonia. Although these two AAs had long been considered as nutritionally non-essential AAs for an aquatic animal, they must be included adequately in its diet to support optimal health (particularly intestinal health) and maximal growth. In research on fish nutrition, Glu has been used frequently as an isonitrogenous control on the basis of the assumption that this AA has no nutritional or physiological function. In addition, purified diets used for feeding fish generally lack glutamine. As functional AAs, Glu and Gln are major metabolic fuels for tissues of fish (including the intestine, liver, kidneys, and skeletal muscle), and play important roles not only in protein synthesis but also in glutathione synthesis and anti-oxidative reactions. The universality of Glu and Gln as abundant intracellular AAs depends on their enormous versatility in metabolism. Dietary supplementation with Glu and Gln to farmed fish can improve their growth performance, intestinal development, innate and adaptive immune responses, skeletal muscle development and fillet quality, ammonia removal, and the endocrine status. Glu (mainly as monosodium glutamate), glutamine, or AminoGut (a mixture of Glu and Gln) is a promising feed additive to reduce the use of fishmeal, while gaining the profitability of global aquaculture production. Thus, the concept of dietary requirements of fish for Glu and Gln is a paradigm shift in the nutrition of aquatic animals (including fish).
      PubDate: 2020-05-13
  • RETRACTED ARTICLE: An insightful 20-year recollection since the birth of
           pseudo amino acid components
    • PubDate: 2020-05-01
  • Microwave-assisted cleavage of cysteine perfluoroaryl thioethers
    • Abstract: The cysteine- perfluoroarene SNAr reaction allows for the sequence-specific attachment of dyes and affinity tags to peptides and proteins. However, while many methods exist for the desulfuration of native and functionalized cysteine residues, there are no reports of their application to perfluoroarylated cysteines. Herein we report both the hydrogenolysis of a perfluoroarylated cysteine to alanine and elimination to dehydroalanine, reactions that are both accelerated by microwave irradiation.
      PubDate: 2020-04-29
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