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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2354 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2354 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Amino Acids
  [SJR: 1.362]   [H-I: 83]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2199 - ISSN (Online) 0939-4451
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Zebrafish as a model to evaluate peptide-related cancer therapies
    • Authors: Austin Y. Shull; Chien-An A. Hu; Yong Teng
      Pages: 1907 - 1913
      Abstract: Peptide-derived drug discovery has experienced a remarkable resurgence in the past decade since the failure of small-molecule modulators to effectively access the large binding surfaces of intracellular protein–protein interactions as well as “undruggable” residues of certain disease-driving proteins. However, the effectiveness of peptide-based cancer therapies is being questioned in light of declines in pharmaceutical R&D efficiency. As a model of whole organism, zebrafish provide a means to develop promising peptide and protein anticancer agents in an informative, cost-effective and time-efficient manner, which also allows for surveying mechanisms of drug action and optimization of drug delivery system. This review highlights the achievements and potential of zebrafish for modelling human cancer and for peptide-based drug discovery and development. Specific challenges, possible strategies and future prospects are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2388-3
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 12 (2017)
  • l -Glutamine and l -arginine protect against enterotoxigenic Escherichia
           coli infection via intestinal innate immunity in mice
    • Authors: Gang Liu; Wenkai Ren; Jun Fang; Chien-An Andy Hu; Guiping Guan; Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi; Jie Yin; Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan; Shuai Chen; Yuanyi Peng; Yulong Yin
      Pages: 1945 - 1954
      Abstract: Dietary glutamine (Gln) or arginine (Arg) supplementation is beneficial for intestinal health; however, whether Gln or Arg may confer protection against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is not known. To address this, we used an ETEC-infected murine model to investigate the protective effects of Gln and Arg. Experimentally, we pre-treated mice with designed diet of Gln or Arg supplementation prior to the oral ETEC infection and then assessed mouse mortality and intestinal bacterial burden. We also determined the markers of intestinal innate immunity in treated mice, including secretory IgA response (SIgA), mucins from goblet cells, as well as antimicrobial peptides from Paneth cells. ETEC colonized in mouse small intestine, including duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and inhibited the mRNA expression of intestinal immune factors, such as polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), cryptdin-related sequence 1C (CRS1C), and Reg3γ. We found that dietary Gln or Arg supplementation decreased bacterial colonization and promoted the activation of innate immunity (e.g., the mRNA expression of pIgR, CRS1C, and Reg3γ) in the intestine of ETEC-infected mice. Our results suggest that dietary arginine or glutamine supplementation may inhibit intestinal ETEC infection through intestinal innate immunity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2410-9
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 12 (2017)
  • Metabolite signatures of doxorubicin induced toxicity in human induced
           pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes
    • Authors: Umesh Chaudhari; James K. Ellis; Vilas Wagh; Harshal Nemade; Jürgen Hescheler; Hector C. Keun; Agapios Sachinidis
      Pages: 1955 - 1963
      Abstract: Drug-induced off-target cardiotoxicity, particularly following anti-cancer therapy, is a major concern in new drug discovery and development. To ensure patient safety and efficient pharmaceutical drug development, there is an urgent need to develop more predictive cell model systems and distinct toxicity signatures. In this study, we applied our previously proposed repeated exposure toxicity methodology and performed 1H NMR spectroscopy-based extracellular metabolic profiling in culture medium of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) exposed to doxorubicin (DOX), an anti-cancer agent. Single exposure to DOX did not show alteration in the basal level of extracellular metabolites while repeated exposure to DOX caused reduction in the utilization of pyruvate and acetate, and accumulation of formate compared to control culture medium. During drug washout, only pyruvate showed reversible effect and restored its utilization by hiPSC-CMs. On the other hand, formate and acetate showed irreversible effect in response to DOX exposure. DOX repeated exposure increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in culture medium suggesting cytotoxicity events, while declined ATP levels in hiPSC-CMs. Our data suggests DOX perturbed mitochondrial metabolism in hiPSC-CMs. Pyruvate, acetate and formate can be used as metabolite signatures of DOX induced cardiotoxicity. Moreover, the hiPSC-CMs model system coupled with metabolomics technology offers a novel and powerful approach to strengthen cardiac safety assessment during new drug discovery and development.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2419-0
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 12 (2017)
  • Short-term supplementation of isocaloric meals with l -tryptophan affects
           pig growth
    • Authors: H. N. Liu; C.-A. A. Hu; M. M. Bai; Gang Liu; M. C. B. Tossou; K. Xu; F. N. Li; P. Liao; X. F. Kong; X. Wu; Y. L. Yin
      Pages: 2009 - 2014
      Abstract: l-Tryptophan (Trp) and some of its metabolites regulate the circadian rhythm in mammals. We aimed to investigate the effects of short-term supplementation of Trp in isocaloric meals on growth performance using the parameters of multiple blood biomarkers and free amino acids in growing pigs. A total of 32 Landrace × Yorkshire barrows with a mean body weight of 8.64 (±1.13) kg were randomly assigned to four groups and then fed with various concentrations of Trp diets daily. Our results showed that sequential supplementation of different concentrations of Trp in isocaloric meals decreased the feed:gain (F:G) ratio (P = 0.079) and plasma urea and albumin (P = 0.019), whereas the level of total protein did not. Among the essential and conditionally essential amino acids, the concentrations of histidine, isoleucine, proline, threonine, arginine, and valine in the plasma decreased (P < 0.05), whereas the concentrations of Trp, glycine, serine, and methionine increased (P < 0.01). In addition, concentrations of branched chain amino acids also significantly decreased (P = 0.004), while the rate of conversion of Trp to branched chain amino acids increased (P < 0.001). Taken together, we show that administration of a high concentration of Trp in breakfast with decreasing concentrations of Trp in lunch and dinner positively affected feed utilization and improved feed efficiency, at least in part, through the optimization of amino acid interconversions and nitrogen utilization.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2440-3
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 12 (2017)
  • Controlled release of BSA-linked cisplatin through a PepGel
           self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel scaffold
    • Authors: Jun Liang; Gang Liu; Jing Wang; Xiuzhi Susan Sun
      Pages: 2015 - 2021
      Abstract: Previously, it has been reported that a novel PepGel (h9e peptide) can be triggered into a solid physical hydrogel by the addition of selected ions and proteins for various biomedical applications. Moreover, PepGel displays shear-thinning and repeatedly reversible sol–gel transfer properties that enable it to be easily transferred via an injector. In this study, PepGel is proposed as a carrier for controlled releases of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-bound or -linked drugs. BSA-linked cisplatin (BSA–CP) is used as a model drug in this study and plays two roles: as a trigger of hydrogel and as a target drug for controlled release. Results of fluorescence instrument show that PepGel significantly quenches the fluorescence of Trp in the hydrophobic subdomain of BSA, indicating a strong interaction. Images of TEM and fluorescence confocal microscopy indicate that BSA–CP is dispersed in the PepGel fibers and at the same time enhances the fiber aggregation. Through UV instrument, it is found that PepGel can effectively inhibit the diffusion of BSA–CP even at concentrations below 0.3 wt% and that the rate of BSA–CP release could be controlled by adjusting the concentration of PepGel. Cell culture studies on the performance of the PepGel are carried out using HeLa cells, and the cell viability is observed to be consistent with the data of drug release. The results showed that PepGel nanofiber scaffolds could potentially be used as an effective carrier for controlled releases of BSA-bound or -linked drugs.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2444-z
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 12 (2017)
  • Alanyl-glutamine but not glycyl-glutamine improved the proliferation of
           enterocytes as glutamine substitution in vitro
    • Authors: Bie Tan; Honglan Liu; Guangzu He; Hao Xiao; Dingfu Xiao; Yanhong Liu; Jianping Wu; Jun Fang; Yulong Yin
      Pages: 2023 - 2031
      Abstract: The synthetic dipeptides alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) and glycyl-glutamine (Gly-Gln) are used as Gln substitution to provide energy source in the gastrointestinal tract due to their high solubility and stability. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Gln, Ala-Gln and Gly-Gln on mitochondrial respiration and protein turnover of enterocytes. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) were cultured for 2 days in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s-F12 Ham medium (DMEM-F12) containing 2.5 mM Gln, Ala-Gln or Gly-Gln. Results from 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation and flow cytometry analysis indicated that there were no differences in proliferation between free Gln and Ala-Gln-treated cells, whereas Gly-Gln treatment inhibited the cell growth compared with Gln treatment. Significantly lower mRNA expressions of Sp1 and PepT1 were also observed in Gly-Gln-treated cells than that of Ala-Gln treatment. Ala-Gln treatment increased the basal respiration and ATP production, compared with free Gln and Gly-Gln treatments. There were no differences in protein turnover between free Gln and Ala-Gln-treated cells, but Gly-Gln treatment reduced protein synthesis and increased protein degradation. Ala-Gln treatment stimulated mTOR activation whereas Gly-Gln decreased mTOR phosphorylation and increased the UB protein expression compared with free Gln treatment. These results indicate that Ala-Gln has the very similar functional profile to free Gln in porcine enterocytes in vitro and can be substituted Gln as energy and protein sources in the gastrointestinal tract.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2460-z
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 12 (2017)
  • The effect of aspartate supplementation on the microbial composition and
           innate immunity on mice
    • Authors: Peng Bin; Shaojuan Liu; Shuai Chen; Zhaoying Zeng; Ruilin Huang; Yulong Yin; Gang Liu
      Pages: 2045 - 2051
      Abstract: The study was conducted to investigate the changes of intestinal microbiota composition and innate immunity with different dietary dosages of aspartate (Asp) supplementation. Thirty-six female ICR mice were divided randomly to four groups and thereafter fed the basal diets (controls) or those supplemented with additional 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% aspartate. After 2 week feeding, microbial composition in ileum and feces, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine, and innate immune factors in ileum were determined. The ratio of Firmicutes: Bacteroidetes in ileum and feces decreased in 0.5 and 1.0% Asp-supplemented groups, whereas this ratio increased in feces in 2.0% Asp-supplemented group. Meanwhile, the gene expression of IL-17 and IFN-γ in ileum decreased in 1.0% Asp-supplemented group; the gene expression in ileum of Muc2 decreased in 0.5 and 1.0% Asp-supplemented groups. Dietary supplementation with 2.0% Asp enhanced the expression of pIgR and Crp1 as compared to the other three groups. The results indicated that dietary 1.0% Asp supplementation lowers the ratio of Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes, which affects the innate immunity by decreasing the gene expression of IL-17, IFN-γ, and Muc2 in ileum.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2467-5
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 12 (2017)
  • Melatonin alters amino acid metabolism and inflammatory responses in
           colitis mice
    • Authors: Gang Liu; Qian Jiang; Shuai Chen; Jun Fang; Wenkai Ren; Jie Yin; Kang Yao; Yulong Yin
      Pages: 2065 - 2071
      Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. This study explored the hypothesis that melatonin has beneficial functions in the mouse model of colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), with a specific focus on the expression of intestinal inflammatory cytokines and the serum levels of amino acids. The results revealed that mice with melatonin supplementation had a reduction in weight loss and disease index induced by DSS treatment. Melatonin stifled the expression of colonic IL-17 in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Melatonin also lowered the serum levels of Asp, Ser, Met, and Leu (p < 0.05), but increased those of Glu and Cys (p < 0.05). Thus, melatonin treatment is promising and may function as a potential adjuvant therapy to alleviate the clinical symptoms of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2489-z
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 12 (2017)
  • Escherichia coli aggravates endoplasmic reticulum stress and triggers
           CHOP-dependent apoptosis in weaned pigs
    • Authors: Qian Jiang; Shuai Chen; Wenkai Ren; Gang Liu; Kang Yao; Guoyao Wu; Yulong Yin
      Pages: 2073 - 2082
      Abstract: Intestinal cells can sense the presence of pathogens and trigger many important signaling pathways to maintain tissue homeostasis and normal function. Escherichia coli and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are the main pathogenic factors of intestinal disease in pigs. However, the roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and its mediated apoptosis in intestinal malfunction induced by E. coli or LPS remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether ERS could be activated by E. coli fed to piglets and whether the underlying mechanisms of this disease process could be exploited. Eighteen weaned pigs (21 days old) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (n = 9 per group). After pre-feeding for 1 week, the diets of the piglets in one group were supplemented with E. coli (W25 K, 109 cells kg−1 diet) for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, all piglets were slaughtered to collect jejunum and ileum samples. Western blotting and immunofluorescence experiments were used to determine the expression levels and histological locations of ERS and its downstream signaling proteins. The intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 (IPEC-J2) was used as in vitro model to investigate the possible mechanism. The results showed that E. coli supplementation in the diet increased the GRP78 expression in the jejunum and ileum, especially in the jejunal epithelium and ileac germinal center, and elevated the expression levels of CHOP (in both the jejunum and ileum) and caspase-11 (in the ileum), indicating that ERS and CHOP–caspase-11 dependent apoptosis were activated in the porcine small intestine. Moreover, as demonstrated by in vitro experiments, the CHOP inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate alleviated the damage to IPEC-J2 cells induced by LPS derived from E. coli. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that ERS can be triggered in the small intestine by dietary supplementation with E. coli and that CHOP–caspase-11 dependent apoptosis may play a key role in maintaining normal homeostasis of the intestine in response to pathogenic factors.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2492-4
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 12 (2017)
  • A review of the relationship between the gut microbiota and amino acid
    • Authors: Rui Lin; Wentian Liu; Meiyu Piao; Hong Zhu
      Pages: 2083 - 2090
      Abstract: New evidence has emerged in recent years to suggest a strong link between the human gut microbiota, its metabolites, and various physiological aspects of hosts along with important pathophysiological dimensions of diseases. The research indicates that the gut microbiota can facilitate metabolite production in two ways: first, the resident species of the gut microbiota use the amino acids produced from food or the host as elements for protein synthesis, and second, conversion or fermentation are used to drive nutrient metabolism. Additionally, the gut microbiota can synthesize several nutritionally essential amino acids de novo, which is a potential regulatory factor in amino acid homeostasis. The primary objective of this review is to summarize the current literature relating to the ways in which microbial amino acids contribute to host amino acid homeostasis.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2493-3
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 12 (2017)
  • Pre-clinical study of a TNFR1-targeted 18 F probe for PET imaging of
           breast cancer
    • Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) is overexpressed in several varieties of carcinoma, including breast cancer. WH701 (Ala-Thr-Ala-Gln-Ser-Ala-Tyr-Gly), which was identified by phage display, can specifically bind to TNFR1. In this study, we labeled WH701 with 18F and investigated its tumor diagnostic value. WH701 was synthesized by standard Fmoc-solid phase synthetic protocols and conjugated by NOTA–NHS. NOTA–WH701 was radiolabeled with 18F using NOTA–AlF chelation reaction. The tumor target properties were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using MCF-7 xenografts and inflammation models. [18F]AlF–NOTA–WH701 was labeled in 25 min with a decay-corrected yield of 38.1 ± 4.8% (n = 5) and a specific activity of 10.4–13.0 GBq/μmol. WH701 had relatively high affinity for MCF-7 cells in vitro and [18F]AlF–NOTA–WH701 displayed relatively high tumor uptake in vivo. The tumor to muscle ratio was 4.25 ± 0.56 at 30 min post-injection (p.i.); further, there was a significant difference between the tumor/muscle and inflammation/muscle (3.22 ± 0.56) ratio, which could differentiate the tumor and inflammation. The tumor uptake of [18F]AlF–NOTA–WH701 could be inhibited by 71.1% by unlabeled WH701 at 30 min p.i. We have developed a promising PET tracer [18F]AlF–NOTA–WH701 for the noninvasive detection of breast cancer in vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14
  • Anti-endotoxin mechanism of the KW4 peptide in inflammation in RAW 264.7
           cells induced by LTA and drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 1630
    • Abstract: Drug-resistant microorganism infections cause serious disease and can lead to mortality and morbidity. In particular, Staphylococcus aureus induces pyrogenic and toxigenic infections, and drug-resistance occurs rapidly. Multidrug-resistant S. aureus, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, can also cause immunodeficiency and immune deficiency syndrome from lipoteichoic acid. However, antimicrobial peptides, such as KW4, have strong antimicrobial activity, low cytotoxicity, and high neutralization activity against endotoxin substances from Gram-negative bacteria. The objective of this study was to use a synthetic KW4 antimicrobial peptide to evaluate the inhibition of drug-resistance development, antimicrobial activity, and neutralizing activity in S. aureus Gram-positive bacteria. The KW4 peptide showed strong antimicrobial activity against drug-resistant S. aureus strains and significantly increased the anti-neutralizing activity of lipoteichoic acid in S. aureus 1630 drug-resistant bacteria. In addition, S. aureus ATCC 29213 did not develop resistance to KW4 as with other antibiotic drugs. These results suggest that the KW4 peptide is an effective antibiotic and anti-neutralizing agent against multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13
  • Inverse correlation between maternal plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine
           (ADMA) and birthweight percentile in women with impaired placental
           perfusion: circulating ADMA as an NO-independent indicator of fetal growth
    • Abstract: l-Arginine (Arg) is the enzymatic precursor of nitric oxide (NO) which has multiple biological functions. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) are endogenous inhibitors of NO. We hypothesized that the ADMA and SDMA have additional biological functions in pregnancy, beyond NO synthesis, and may play a role in the regulation of birthweight (BW). To investigate this issue, we measured the plasma concentration of ADMA, SDMA, Arg and the NO metabolites nitrite and nitrate, at 23–25 weeks of gestation in women with normal placental function (Group 1) and in women with impaired placental perfusion; 19 of these women had normal outcome (Group 2), 14 had a fetus that was growth restricted (Group 3), and 10 women eventually developed preeclampsia (Group 4). BW percentile was found to inversely correlate with maternal plasma ADMA concentration in Group 3 (r = − 0.872, P < 0.001) and in Group 4 (r = − 0.800, P < 0.05). But, BW percentile did not correlate with the maternal plasma concentration of Arg, SDMA, nitrate or nitrite. Our results suggest that maternal plasma ADMA concentration is an important indicator of fetal growth restriction in women with impaired placental perfusion independent of NO.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
  • Oral treatment with a rattlesnake native polypeptide crotamine efficiently
           inhibits the tumor growth with no potential toxicity for the host animal
           and with suggestive positive effects on animal metabolic profile
    • Abstract: The efficacy of crotamine as antitumoral was first demonstrated by daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of low doses of this toxin in an animal model bearing melanoma tumors. Significant inhibition of tumor growth and increased lifespan of mice bearing tumor was also noticed after 21 consecutive days of this daily IP administration of crotamine. However, due to the limited acceptance of treatments by IP route in clinical conditions, herein, we evaluated the antitumor effect of this native polypeptide employing the oral route. The efficacy of crotamine in inhibiting the melanoma growth in vivo, even after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of the animal, was confirmed here. In addition, biochemical biomarkers and also histopathological analysis showed both the absence of any potential toxic effects in tissues or organs of the animal in which the highest accumulation of crotamine is expected. Interestingly, a reduction of weight gain was observed mainly in animals with tumor treated with crotamine by IP route, but not by oral administration. Albeit, oral administered crotamine was able to significantly decrease the body weight gain of healthy animals without tumor. Taking advantage of this same experimental animal models receiving crotamine by oral route, it was possible to show metabolic changes as the increased capacity of glucose clearance, which was accompanied by a reduction of the total cholesterol, and by increased high-density lipoprotein levels, both observed mainly in the absence of tumor. Triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein were also significantly decreased, but only in the absence of tumor. Taken together, these data suggest a clear trend for metabolic positive effects and mischaracterize unhealthy condition of animals, with or without tumors, treated with crotamine for 21 days. In addition, this study confirmed the efficacy of crotamine administered by oral route as antitumor agent, which besides the additional advantage of administration convenience and decreased risk of toxic effects, allowed the serendipitous observation of several positive metabolic effects on treated animals.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
  • Investigation of the interaction of β-methylamino- l -alanine with
           eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins
    • Abstract: There is a strong body of evidence linking the non-protein amino acid (NPAA) β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) to the development of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. BMAA has been found globally, is produced by a number of organisms including cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates; and has been shown to biomagnify through trophic levels. The role of BMAA in neurodegenerative disease is highlighted by its presence in the brains of a number of neurodegenerative disease patients, where it was found in a protein-bound form. We have previously shown that BMAA is bound to cell proteins, and results in the upregulation of the unfolded protein response, an endoplasmic reticulum stress response activated by the presence of misfolded proteins within the cell. Structurally aberrant proteins are features of a number of neurodegenerative diseases, and further investigation of how BMAA interacts with proteins is crucial to our understanding of its toxicity. Here we use radiolabelled BMAA to investigate the interaction and binding of BMAA to eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins. We found differences in the presence and distribution of protein-bound BMAA between E. coli and neuroblastoma cells, with an increase in binding over time only seen in the eukaryotic cells. We also found that BMAA was unable to bind to pure proteins, or cell lysate in native or denaturing conditions, indicating that biological processing is required for BMAA to bind to proteins.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
  • Imaging the expression of glypican-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma by PET
    • Abstract: The glypican-3 (GPC3) receptor is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target. GPC3-targeted molecular imaging will be helpful to differentiate diagnosis and guide therapy. In the present study, we will develop a novel PET probe for imaging the expression of GPC-3. L5 (sequence: RLNVGGTYFLTTRQ), a GPC3 targeting peptide, was labeled with 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and 18F-fluoride. Cell binding tests were performed to identify the binding specificity of FAM-L5 and 18F radiolabeled peptide. MicroPET/CT imaging was used to determine the potential of a novel PET tracer for visualizing HCC tumors with a high expression of GPC3. In vitro binding tests showed that the uptake of FAM-L5 in HepG2 cells (high expression of GPC3) was significantly higher than that of HL-7702 cells (negative expression of GPC3) (mean fluorescent intensity: 14,094 ± 797 vs. 2765 ± 314 events, t = 32.363, P = 0.000). Confocal fluorescent imaging identified that FAM-L5 accumulated where the GPC3 receptor was located. A novel PET tracer (18F-AlF-NODA-MP-6-Aoc-L5) was successfully labeled by chelation chemistry. In vitro cell uptake studies showed that 18F-AlF-NODA-MP-6-Aoc-L5 can bind to HepG2 tumor cells and was stable in PBS and mouse serum stability tests. MicroPET/CT showed that HepG2 tumors could be clearly visualized with a tumor/muscle ratio of 2.46 ± 0.53. However, the tumor/liver ratio was low (0.93 ± 0.16) due to the high physiological uptake in the liver. This study demonstrates that FAM and the 18F-labeled L5 peptide can selectively target HCC with a high expression of GPC3 in vitro and in vivo. 18F-AlF-NODA-MP-C6-L5 has the potential to be a GPC3 target tracer but requires some chemical modifications to achieve a high enough tumor/liver ratio for detection of the tumor in the liver.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04
  • Phosphorylation of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate enzymes: an intriguing and
           neglected topic
    • Abstract: Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes catalyze a wide range of reactions of amino acids and amines, with the exception of glycogen phosphorylase which exhibits peculiar both substrate preference and chemical mechanism. They represent about 4% of the gene products in eukaryotic cells. Although structure–function investigations regarding these enzymes are copious, their regulation by post-translational modifications is largely unknown. Protein phosphorylation is the most common post-translational modification fundamental in mediating diverse cellular functions. This review aims at summarizing the current knowledge on regulation of PLP enzymes by phosphorylation. Starting from the paradigmatic PLP-dependent glycogen phosphorylase, the first phosphoprotein discovered, we collect data in literature regarding functional phosphorylation events of eleven PLP enzymes belonging to different fold types and discuss the impact of the modification in affecting their activity and localization as well as the implications on the pathogenesis of diseases in which many of these enzymes are involved. The pivotal question is to correlate the structural consequences of phosphorylation among PLP enzymes of different folds with the functional modifications exerted in terms of activity or conformational changes or others. Although the literature shows that the phosphorylation of PLP enzymes plays important roles in mediating diverse cellular functions, our recapitulation of clue findings in the field makes clear that there is still much to be learnt. Besides mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses, further biochemical and structural studies on purified native proteins are imperative to fully understand and predict how phosphorylation regulates PLP enzymes and to find the relationship between addition of a phosphate moiety and physiological response.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04
  • Fibroblast-like synoviocyte migration is enhanced by IL-17-mediated
           overexpression of l -type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) via the
           mTOR/4E-BP1 pathway
    • Authors: Zhao Yu; Wang Lin; Zhang Rui; Pan Jihong
      Abstract: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), activated synovial fibroblasts have the ability to invade joint cartilage, actively contributing to joint destruction in RA. The mechanisms underlying this cell migration and invasion remain unclear. Our previous results and data from the GEO profile indicate that the l-type amino acid transporter gene, LAT1, is overexpressed in the synovium of RA. To identify its potential role in RA, fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from patients with RA were used to determine the effects of suppressing the LAT1 genes using RNA interference and the LAT inhibitor, BCH. We found that BCH exposure reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream target 4EBP1, radiolabeled leucine uptake, and migration of RA FLS. LAT1 silencing by siRNA presented effects similar to BCH inhibition. Treatment of cells with IL-17 stimulated the expression of LAT1. In contrast, applying an inhibitor of mTOR pathway, temsirolimus, or silencing eIF4E neutralized the stimulation of IL-17 on LAT1. BCH and siLAT1 also resulted in lower IL-17-stimulated leucine uptake and cell migration. These results suggest that the migration of RA FLS is aggravated by IL-17-mediated overexpression of LAT1 via mTOR/4E-BP1 pathway. In conclusion, further investigation is warranted into LAT1 as a potential target for drug therapies aimed at attenuating migration of transformed-appearing fibroblasts and subsequently preventing further erosion of bone and cartilage.
      PubDate: 2017-12-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2520-4
  • Functional roles of agmatinase during the peri-implantation period of
           pregnancy in sheep
    • Authors: Yasser Y. Lenis; Mohammed A. Elmetwally; Wanjin Tang; Carey Satterfield; Kathrin Dunlap; Guoyao Wu; Fuller W. Bazer
      Abstract: This study investigated the effect of agmatine (Agm) in proliferation of ovine trophecdoderm cells (oTr1) as well as the importance of the arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and agmatinase (AGMAT) alternative pathway for synthesis of polyamines in ovine conceptuses during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) were used to inhibit translation of mRNAs for ODC1 alone, AGMAT alone, and their combination. Rambouillet ewes (N = 50) were assigned randomly to the following treatments on Day 8 of pregnancy: MAO control (n = 10); MAO-ODC1 (n = 8); MAO-ADC (n = 6); MAO-ODC1:MAO-ADC (n = 9); or MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT (n = 9). Ewes were ovario-hysterectomized on Day 16 of pregnancy to obtain uterine flushings, uterine endometrium, and conceptus tissues. Inhibition of translation of both ODC1 and AGMAT resulted in 22% of ewes having morphologically and functionally normal (elongated and healthy) conceptuses designated MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT (A). But, 78% of the MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT ewes had morphologically and functionally abnormal (not elongated and fragmented) conceptuses designated MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT (B). The pregnancy rate was less (22%; P < 0.05) for MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT ewes than for MAO-control (80%), MAO-ODC1 (75%), MAO-ADC (84%), and MAO-ODC1:MAO-ADC (44%) ewes. Moreover, inhibition of translational of both ODC1 and AGMAT mRNAs increased expression of ADC, SLC22A1, SLC22A2, and SLC22A3 mRNAs, as well as abundances of agmatine, putrescine, spermindine, and spermine in conceptus tissue. However, MAO-ODC1:AGMAT(B) ewes had greater abundances of agmatine, putrescine, and spermidine and reduced amounts of spermine in uterine flushes. Thus, in vivo knockdown of translation of ODC1 and AGMAT mRNAs increased expression of genes for the synthesis and transport of polyamines in ovine conceptuses during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2017-12-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2515-1
  • Targeting VEGF receptors with non-neutralizing cyclopeptides for imaging
    • Authors: Luisa Calvanese; Andrea Caporale; Giuseppina Focà; Emanuela Iaccarino; Annamaria Sandomenico; Nunzianna Doti; Ivana Apicella; Giuseppina Maria Incisivo; Sandro De Falco; Lucia Falcigno; Gabriella D’Auria; Menotti Ruvo
      Abstract: Pharmacological strategies aimed at preventing cancer growth are in most cases paralleled by diagnostic investigations for monitoring and prognosticating therapeutic efficacy. A relevant approach in cancer is the suppression of pathological angiogenesis, which is principally driven by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or closely related factors and by activation of specific receptors, prevailingly VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, set on the surface of endothelial cells. Monitoring the presence of these receptors in vivo is henceforth a way to predict therapy outcome. We have designed small peptides able to bind and possibly antagonize VEGF ligands by targeting VEGF receptors. Peptide systems have been designed to be small, cyclic and to host triplets of residues known to be essential for VEGF receptors recognition and we named them ‘mini-factors’. They have been structurally characterized by CD, NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Mini-factors do bind with different specificity and affinity VEGF receptors but none blocks receptor activity. Following derivatization with suitable tracers they have been employed as molecular probes for sensing receptors on cell surface without affecting their activity as is usually observed with other binders having neutralizing activity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2519-x
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