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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Amino Acids
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.135
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1438-2199 - ISSN (Online) 0939-4451
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the dietary
           non-proteinogenic amino acid l -azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (Aze)
    • Abstract: In addition to the 20 protein amino acids that are vital to human health, hundreds of naturally occurring amino acids, known as non-proteinogenic amino acids (NPAAs), exist and can enter the human food chain. Some NPAAs are toxic through their ability to mimic protein amino acids and this property is utilised by NPAA-containing plants to inhibit the growth of other plants or kill herbivores. The NPAA l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (Aze) enters the food chain through the use of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by-products as feed in the livestock industry and may also be found in sugar beet by-product fibre supplements. Aze mimics the protein amino acid l-proline and readily misincorporates into proteins. In light of this, we examined the toxicity of Aze to mammalian cells in vitro. We showed decreased viability in Aze-exposed cells with both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. This was accompanied by alterations in endosomal–lysosomal activity, changes to mitochondrial morphology and a significant decline in mitochondrial function. In summary, the results show that Aze exposure can lead to deleterious effects on human neuron-like cells and highlight the importance of monitoring human Aze consumption via the food chain.
      PubDate: 2019-07-13
       
  • Central regulation of feeding behavior through neuropeptides and amino
           acids in neonatal chicks
    • Abstract: Animals at the neonatal stage have to eat more to support better growth and health. However, it is difficult to understand the mechanism of feeding during an early stage of life in the brain of the rodent model. Chickens are precocial and they can look for their food by themselves right after hatching. Neonatal chicks have a relatively large-sized brain; therefore, the drugs are easy to administer centrally and changes in food intake can be clearly monitored. Sleeping status, which affects food intake, can be estimated from the posture. The closest vertebrate outgroup to mammals is birds, but it was reported that the organization of the human genome is closer to that of the chicken than the mouse. Thus, it is important to understand the central mechanism of feeding regulation in the neonatal chicks. In neuropeptides, the number of candidates as the orexigenic factor was less than those as the anorexigenic factor, even at an early growth stage. Some of the neuropeptides have reverse effects, e.g., ghrelin and prolactin releasing peptides, or no effects compared to the effects confirmed in mammals. Some of the genetic differences between meat-type (broiler) and layer-type chickens would explain the difference in food intake. On the other hand, it was difficult to explain the feeding mechanism by neuropeptides alone, as neonatal chicks have a repeated feeding, sleeping, and resting behavior within a short period. Some of the amino acids and their metabolites act centrally to regulate feeding with sedative and hypnotic effects. In conclusion, endogenous neuropeptides and endogenous and/or exogenous nutrients like amino acids collaborate to regulate feeding behavior in neonatal chicks.
      PubDate: 2019-07-13
       
  • 1-Substituted sialorphin analogues—synthesis, molecular modelling and in
           vitro effect on enkephalins degradation by NEP
    • Abstract: Rat sialorphin (Gln-His-Asn-Pro-Arg) is a natural blocker of neprilysin (NEP) that belongs to the family of endogenous opioid peptide-degrading enzymes. Studies have confirmed the efficiency of sialorphin in blocking the activity of NEP, both in vitro and in vivo. It has been demonstrated that this inhibitor has a strong analgesic, anti-inflammatory, immunological and metabolic effect either directly or indirectly by affecting the level of Met/Leu-enkephalins. In this work, sialorphin and their 12 analogues were synthesised using the solid-phase method. The effect of the peptides on the degradation of Met-enkephalin by NEP and metabolic degradation in human plasma was investigated in vitro. We show that the change in the N-terminal amino acid configuration from l to d in almost all peptides, except d-Arg-His-Asn-Pro-Arg (peptide XI), led to the abolition of their inhibitory activity. With molecular modelling technique we explained the structural properties of the l and d-arginine located on the N-terminal part of the peptide. The detailed analysis of the protein binding pocket allowed us to explain why d-arginine is so unique among all d residues. Peptide XI showed the highest stability among the tested peptides in human plasma. For instance sialorphin after a 2-hour incubation in human plasma was almost completely decomposed, while the level of peptide XI dropped to 45% after 48 h under these conditions.
      PubDate: 2019-07-13
       
  • Up-regulation of HIF-1α is associated with neuroprotective effects of
           agmatine against rotenone-induced toxicity in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells
           
    • Abstract: Agmatine, a metabolite generated by arginine decarboxylation, has been reported as neuromodulator and neuroactive substance. Several findings suggest that agmatine displays neuroprotective effects in several models of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). It has been hypothesized that biogenic amines may be involved in neuroprotection by scavenging oxygen radicals, thus preventing the generation of oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction, that leads to a reduction of oxygen consumption, followed by activation of prolyl hydroxylase and decrease of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) levels, has been demonstrated to play a role in PD pathogenesis. Using rotenone-treated differentiated SH-SY5Y cells as the in vitro PD model, we here investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying agmatine neuroprotective effects. Our results showed that the preliminary addition of agmatine induces HIF-1α activation, and prevents the rotenone-induced production of free radical species, and the activation of apoptotic pathways by inhibiting mitochondrial membrane potential decrease and caspase 3 as well as cytochrome c increase. Notably, these effects are mediated by HIF-1α, as indicated by experiments using a HIF-1α inhibitor. The present findings suggest that the treatment with agmatine is able to counteract the neuronal cell injury evoked by mitochondrial toxins.
      PubDate: 2019-07-10
       
  • Automated feature engineering improves prediction of protein–protein
           interactions
    • Abstract: Over the last decade, various machine learning (ML) and statistical approaches for protein–protein interaction (PPI) predictions have been developed to help annotating functional interactions among proteins, essential for our system-level understanding of life. Efficient ML approaches require informative and non-redundant features. In this paper, we introduce novel types of expert-crafted sequence, evolutionary and graph features and apply automatic feature engineering to further expand feature space to improve predictive modeling. The two-step automatic feature-engineering process encompasses the hybrid method for feature generation and unsupervised feature selection, followed by supervised feature selection through a genetic algorithm (GA). The optimization of both steps allows the feature-engineering procedure to operate on a large transformed feature space with no considerable computational cost and to efficiently provide newly engineered features. Based on GA and correlation filtering, we developed a stacking algorithm GA-STACK for automatic ensembling of different ML algorithms to improve prediction performance. We introduced a unified method, HP-GAS, for the prediction of human PPIs, which incorporates GA-STACK and rests on both expert-crafted and 40% of newly engineered features. The extensive cross validation and comparison with the state-of-the-art methods showed that HP-GAS represents currently the most efficient method for proteome-wide forecasting of protein interactions, with prediction efficacy of 0.93 AUC and 0.85 accuracy. We implemented the HP-GAS method as a free standalone application which is a time-efficient and easy-to-use tool. HP-GAS software with supplementary data can be downloaded from: http://www.vinca.rs/180/tools/HP-GAS.php.
      PubDate: 2019-07-05
       
  • Regulation of arginine biosynthesis, catabolism and transport in
           Escherichia coli
    • Abstract: Already very early, the study of microbial arginine biosynthesis and its regulation contributed significantly to the development of new ideas and concepts. Hence, the term “repression” was proposed by Vogel (The chemical basis of heredity, The John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1957) (in opposition to induction) to describe the relative decrease in acetylornithinase production in Escherichia coli cells upon arginine supplementation, whereas the term “regulon” was coined by Maas and Clark (J Mol Biol 8:365–370, 1964) for the ensemble of arginine biosynthetic genes dispersed over the E. coli chromosome but all subjected to regulation by the trans-acting argR gene product. Since then, unraveling of the molecular mechanisms controlling arginine biosynthesis, catabolism, and transport in and out the cell, have revealed moonlighting activities of enzymes and transcriptional regulators that generate unexpected interconnections between at first sight totally unrelated cellular processes, and have continued to replenish scientific knowledge and stimulated creative thinking. Furthermore, arginine is much more than just a common amino acid for protein synthesis. It may also be used as sole source of nitrogen by E. coli and a source of nitrogen, carbon and energy by many other bacteria. It is a substrate for the synthesis of polyamines, and important for the extreme acid resistance of E. coli. Furthermore, the guanidino group of arginine is well suited to engage in multiple interactions involving hydrogen bonds and ionic interactions with proteins and nucleic acids. Here, we combine major historical discoveries with current state of the art knowledge on arginine biosynthesis, catabolism and transport, and especially the regulation of these processes in E. coli, with reference to other microorganisms.
      PubDate: 2019-07-03
       
  • The hypertrehalosaemic neuropeptide conformational twins of cicadas
           consist of only l -amino acids: are they cis – trans isomers'
    • Abstract: It is known for almost 25 years that the corpora cardiaca (neurosecretory glands) of cicadas synthesize two isobaric peptides with hypertrehalosaemic activity denominated Placa-HrTH-I and II. Both decapeptides have the same amino acid sequence (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp-Gly-Asn amide) and mass, but differ in their chromatographic retention time. The slightly more hydrophobic peptide, Placa-HrTH-II, co-elutes with the synthetic peptide of the same sequence and is less active in biological assays than Placa-HrTH-I. Ion mobility separation in conjunction with high-resolution mass spectrometry detected the differing structural feature between both peptides in the region Pro6-Ser7-Trp8. Here, it was shown that Placa-HrTH-I co-eluted with a synthetic peptide containing d-Pro in position 6, while dextrorotatory amino acid residues in positions 7 and 8 could be excluded in this way. Amino acid hydrolysis followed by chiral analysis using a relative of Marfey’s reagent was then used to validate the presence of d-Pro in Placa-HrTH-I. Interestingly, this experiment unambiguously proved both the absence of d-Pro and the presence of l-Pro in Placa-HrTH-I. Racemization as a reason for the structural differences of the twin adipokinetic hormones was hence ruled out and cis–trans isomerism as the likely alternative came into focus. It remains to be investigated if Pro6 in cis-conformation is indeed present and responsible for the increased bioactivity of Placa-HrTH-I.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Isolation from Stevia rebaudiana of DMDP acetic acid, a novel iminosugar
           amino acid: synthesis and glycosidase inhibition profile of glycine and
           β-alanine pyrrolidine amino acids
    • Abstract: DMDP acetic acid [N-carboxymethyl-2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-d-mannitol] 5 from Stevia rebaudiana is the first isolated natural amino acid derived from iminosugars bearing an N-alkyl acid side chain; it is clear from GCMS studies that such derivatives with acetic and propionic acids are common in a broad range of plants including mulberry, Baphia, and English bluebells, but that they are very difficult to purify. Reaction of unprotected pyrrolidine iminosugars with aqueous glyoxal gives the corresponding N-acetic acids in very high yield; Michael addition of both pyrrolidine and piperidine iminosugars and that of polyhydroxylated prolines to tert-butyl acrylate give the corresponding N-propionic acids in which the amino group of β-alanine is incorporated into the heterocyclic ring. These easy syntheses allow the identification of this new class of amino acid in plant extracts and provide pure samples for biological evaluation. DMDP N-acetic and propionic acids are potent α-galactosidase inhibitors in contrast to potent β-galactosidase inhibition by DMDP.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Genetic regulation of dimethylarginines and endothelial dysfunction in
           rheumatoid arthritis
    • Abstract: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) confers an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk which accounts for much of the premature morbidity and mortality observed in this population. Alterations in vascular function and morphology leading to increased atherosclerotic burden are considered the main drivers of CVD in RA individuals with systemic inflammation playing a key role in the dysregulation of endothelial homeostasis and initiation of vascular injury. Dimethylarginines are endogenous inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase and have emerged as novel, independent biomarkers of CVD in a wide range of conditions associated with vascular pathology. In RA several reports have demonstrated abnormal dimethylarginine metabolism attributable to various factors such as systemic inflammation, decreased degradation or upregulated synthesis. Although a causal relationship between dimethylarginines and vascular damage in RA has not been established, the tight interrelations between inflammation, dimethylarginines and endothelial dysfunction suggest that determination of dimethylarginine regulators may shed more light in the pathophysiology of the atherosclerotic process in RA and may also provide new therapeutic targets. The Alanine–Glyoxylate Aminotransferase 2 (AGTX2)-dependent pathway is a relatively recently discovered alternative pathway of dimethylarginine catabolism and its role on RA-related atherosclerotic disease is yet to be established. As factors affecting dimethylarginine concentrations linked to CVD risk and endothelial dysfunction are of prominent clinical relevance in RA, we present preliminary evidence that gene variants of AGTX-2 may influence dimethylarginine levels in RA patients and provide the rationale for larger studies in this field.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Discrimination power of knowledge-based potential dictated by the dominant
           energies in native protein structures
    • Abstract: Extracting a well-designed energy function is important for protein structure evaluation. Knowledge-based potential functions are one type of the energy functions which can be obtained from known protein structures. The pairwise potential between atom types is approximated using Boltzmann’s law which relates the frequency of atom types to its potential. The total energy is approximated as a summation of pairwise potential between the atomic pairs. In the present study, the performance of knowledge-based potential function was assessed based on the strength of interaction between groups of amino acids. The dominant energies involved in the pairwise potentials were revealed by eigenvalue analysis of the matrix, the elements of which represent the energy between amino acids. For this purpose, the matrix including the mean of the energies of residue–residue interaction types was constructed using 500 native protein structures. The matrix has a dominant eigenvalue and amino acids, with LEU, VAL, ILE, PHE, TYR, ALA and TRP having high values along the dominant eigenvector. The results show that the ranking of amino acids is consistent with the power of amino acids in discriminating native structures using K-alphabet reduced model. In the reduced interactions, only amino acids from a subset of all 20 amino acids, along with their interactions are considered to assess the energy. In the K-alphabet reduced model, the reduced structures are constructed based on only the K-amino acid types. The dominant K-alphabet reduced model derived for the k-first amino acids in the list [LEU, VAL, PHE, ILE, TYR, ALA, TRP] of amino acids has the best discrimination of native structure among all possible K-alphabet reduced models. Knowledge-based potentials might be improved with a new strategy.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters PEPT2, PHT1 and PHT2 mediate
           the uptake of carnosine in glioblastoma cells
    • Abstract: The previous studies demonstrated that carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) inhibits the growth of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Considering carnosine for the treatment of glioblastoma, we investigated which proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters (POTs) are present in glioblastoma cells and how they contribute to the uptake of carnosine. Therefore, mRNA expression of the four known POTs (PEPT1, PEPT2, PHT1, and PHT2) was examined in three glioblastoma cell lines, ten primary tumor cell cultures, in freshly isolated tumor tissue and in healthy brain. Using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, the uptake of carnosine was investigated in the presence of competitive inhibitors and after siRNA-mediated knockdown of POTs. Whereas PEPT1 mRNA was not detected in any sample, expression of the three other transporters was significantly increased in tumor tissue compared to healthy brain. In cell culture, PHT1 expression was comparable to expression in tumor tissue, PHT2 exhibited a slightly reduced expression, and PEPT2 expression was reduced to normal brain tissue levels. In the cell line LN405, the competitive inhibitors β-alanyl-l-alanine (inhibits all transporters) and l-histidine (inhibitor of PHT1/2) both inhibited the uptake of carnosine. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of PHT1 and PHT2 revealed a significantly reduced uptake of carnosine. Interestingly, despite its low expression at the level of mRNA, knockdown of PEPT2 also resulted in decreased uptake. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the transporters PEPT2, PHT1, and PHT2 are responsible for the uptake of carnosine into glioblastoma cells and full function of all three transporters is required for maximum uptake.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Novel stable analogues of the neurotensin C-terminal hexapeptide
           containing unnatural amino acids
    • Abstract: Neurotensin (NT) (pGlu–Leu–Tyr–Glu–Asn–Lys–Pro–Arg–Arg–Pro–Tyr–Ile–Leu) exerts a dual function as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the central nervous system and as a hormone/cellular mediator in periphery. This dual function of NT establishes a connection between brain and peripheral tissues that renders this peptide a central player in energy homeostasis. Many biological actions of NT are mediated through its interaction with three types of NT receptors (NTS receptors). Despite its role in energy homeostasis, NT has a short half-life that hampers further determination of the biological actions of this peptide and its receptors in brain and periphery. The short half-life of NT is due to the proteolytic degradation of its C-terminal side by several endopeptidases. Therefore, it is important to synthesize NT analogues with resistant bonds against metabolic deactivation. Based on these findings, we herein report the synthesis of ten linear, two cyclic and two dimeric analogues of NT with modifications in its structure that improve their metabolic stability, while retaining the ability to bind to NTS receptors. Modifications at position 11 (introduction of d-Tyrosine (OEthyl) [d-Tyr(Et)] or d-1-naphtylalanine [d-1-Nal] were combined with introduction of a l-Lysine or a d-Arginine at positions 8 or 9, and 1-[2-(aminophenyl)-2-oxoethyl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (AOPC) at positions 7 or 8, resulting in compounds NT4-NT21. AOPC is an unnatural amino acid with promise in applications as a building block for the synthesis of peptidomimetic compounds. To biologically evaluate these analogues, we determined their plasma stability and their binding affinities to type 1 NT receptor (NTS1), endogenously expressed in HT-29 cells, Among the fourteen NT analogues, compounds, NT5, NT6, and NT8, which have d-Tyr(Et) at position 11, bound to NTS1 in a dose–response manner and with relatively high affinity but still lower than that of the natural peptide. Despite their lower binding affinities compared to NT, the NT5, NT6, and NT8 exhibited a remarkably higher stability, as a result of their chemistry, which provides protection from enzymatic activity. These results will set the basis for the rational design of novel NT molecules with improved pharmacological properties and enhanced enzymatic stability.
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
       
  • Synthetic peptide-labelled micelles for active targeting of cells
           overexpressing EGF receptors
    • Abstract: The goal of nanomedicine is to transport drugs to pathological tissues, reducing side effects while increasing targeting and efficacy. Aggregates grafted by bioactive molecules act as the active targeting agents. Among bioactive molecules, peptides, which are able to recognize overexpressed receptors on cancer cell membranes, appear to be very promising. The aim of this study was to formulate analog peptide-labeled micelles enabled to potentially deliver highly hydrophobic drugs to cancer cells overexpressing epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR). The selected synthetic peptide sequences were anchored to a hydrophobic moiety, aiming to obtain amphiphilic peptide molecules. Mixed micelles were formulated with Pluronic® F127. These micelles were fully characterized by physico-chemical methods, estimating the critical micellar concentration (CMC) by fluorescence. Their sizes were established by dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. Then, micelles were also tested in vitro for their binding capacity to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines overexpressing EGFR.
      PubDate: 2019-06-25
       
  • Components of the GABAergic signaling in the peripheral cholinergic
           synapses of vertebrates: a review
    • Abstract: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Since the 1970s, many studies have focused on the role of GABA in the mammalian peripheral nervous system, and particularly in the cholinergic synapses. In this review, we present current findings for the cholinergic neurons of vegetative ganglia as well as for the neurons innervating smooth and striated muscles. Synaptic contacts formed by these neurons contain GABA and the enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase, which catalyzes the synthesis of GABA from glutamate. Newly formed GABA is released in the cholinergic synapses and mostly all the peripheral cholinergic synaptic contacts contain iono- and metabotropic GABA receptors. Although the underlying molecular mechanism of the release is not well understood, still, it is speculated that GABA is released by a vesicular and/or non-vesicular way via reversal of the GABA transporter. We also review the signaling role of GABA in the peripheral cholinergic synapses by modulating acetylcholine release, but its exact physiological function remains to be elucidated.
      PubDate: 2019-06-24
       
  • Hydration of serine–metal cation complexes: implication for the role of
           water in the origin of homochirality on the Earth
    • Abstract: It may be taken for granted that the processes that occurred in water were of crucial importance for the origin of life. Therefore, it is quite likely that water was also important with respect to the origin of homochirality. Here, it is shown, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, that the efficiency of hydration of homochiral serine–metal cation complexes is different from that of heterochiral serine–metal cation complexes. The differences in the efficiency of hydration of homo and heterochiral metal cation–amino acid complexes could lead to the amplification of formation of homochiral peptides in water solution from which life emerged.
      PubDate: 2019-06-20
       
  • Synthesis, in vitro and cellular antioxidant activity evaluation of novel
           peptides derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein hydrolysate:
           structure–function relationship
    • Abstract: The relationship between structure and function of primary antioxidant peptide, YR-10 (YGKPVAVPAR) was considered by synthesizing three analogues including YHR-10 (YGKHVAVHAR), GA-8 (GKPVAVPA) and PAR-3 (PAR). Antioxidant activity was determined through in vitro and cellular assays. Substitution of Pro with His in the structure of YR-10 led to significant (P < 0.05) higher ABTS radical scavenging and ferric reducing activity. Following in silico simulated gastrointestinal digestion, Tyr and Arg were omitted, respectively, from N and C-terminal positions and resulted in decreasing DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging, and ferric reducing activities. PAR-3 showed the best inhibitory activity on linoleic acid oxidation. Pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with YR-10, YHR-10, and GA-8 (1000 µM) before exposure to H2O2 (160 µM) resulted in 34.10%, 39.66% and 29.159% reduction in malondialdehyde and 53.52%, 17.02% and 24.71% reduction in protein carbonyl levels. The peptide pretreatment reduced catalase level in cells and PAR-3 exhibited the most protective effects on the viability of cells exposed to oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2019-06-17
       
  • Investigation of the impact of PTMs on the protein backbone conformation
    • Abstract: Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are known to play a critical role in the regulation of protein functions. Their impact on protein structures and their link to disorder regions have already been spotted in the past decade. Nonetheless, the high diversity of PTM types and the multiple schemes of protein modifications (multiple PTMs, of different types, at different time, etc.) make difficult the direct confrontation of PTM annotations and protein structure data. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of the residue modifications on the protein structures at the local level. Thanks to a dedicated structure database, namely PTM-SD, a large screen of PTMs have been done and analyzed at local protein conformation levels using the structural alphabet protein blocks (PBs). We investigated the relation between PTMs and the backbone conformation of modified residues, of their local environment, and at the level of the complete protein structure. The two main PTM types (N-glycosylation and phosphorylation) have been studied in non-redundant datasets, and then four different proteins were focused, covering three types of PTMs: N-glycosylation in renin endopeptidase and liver carboxylesterase, phosphorylation in cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and methylation in actin. We observed that PTMs could either stabilize or destabilize the backbone structure, at a local and global scale, and that these effects depend on the PTM types.
      PubDate: 2019-06-10
       
  • Dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid alters the
           expression of amino acid transporters in skeletal muscle of growing pigs
    • Abstract: Sixty Duroc × Large White × Landrace pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 77.1 ± 1.3 kg were selected to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with arginine (Arg) and/or glutamic acid (Glu) on free amino acid (FAA) profiles, expression of AA transporters, and growth-related genes in skeletal muscle. The animals were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups (basic diet, iso-nitrogenous, Arg, Glu, and Arg + Glu groups). The results showed that plasma Glu concentration was lowest in the Arg + Glu group and highest in the Glu group (P < 0.05). In the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, the concentrations of histidine, Arg, and taurine in the Arg + Glu group were higher, and the concentrations of 3-methylhistidine was lower, than in the basic diet group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of ASC amino acid transporter-2 (ASCT2), L-type AA transporter 1, and sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 in the LD muscle, as well as the mRNA levels of ASCT2 and proton-assisted amino acid transporter in the biceps femoris (BF) muscle, were higher in the Arg + Glu group compared to the basic diet group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of the muscle-specific RING finger-1 and muscle atrophy F-box genes in the LD muscle were downregulated in the Glu and Arg + Glu groups compared to the basic diet group (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that dietary supplementation with both Arg and Glu increases intramuscular FAA concentrations and decreases the mRNA levels of genes involved in protein degradation in skeletal muscle.
      PubDate: 2019-06-07
       
  • Central, but not systemic, thermoregulatory effects of leptin are impaired
           in rats with obesity: interactions with GABA B agonist and antagonist
    • Abstract: Leptin is an adipokine that regulates body weight by decreasing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. Besides the effects on food intake, leptin can regulate energy expenditure at least in part by modulating thermogenesis. Many of the effects of leptin are attributable to action in the central nervous system, particularly in the hypothalamus. Common forms of obesity are associated with increased leptin levels and a failure to suppress feeding and mediate weight loss in response to exogenous leptin. This apparent leptin ineffectiveness defines a state of so-called leptin resistance. We examined the effect of leptin on core body temperature in rats with normal weight and diet-induced obesity (DIO), as well as thermoregulatory interactions between leptin and GABAB-agonist and an antagonist. We found that leptin retains the ability to induce hyperthermic effect in rats with DIO. Additionally, temperature responses produced by GABAB agonist and antagonist are altered in a state of obesity and by administration of leptin. We evaluated whether the medial preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus (MPA) still remains sensitive to leptin action during DIO. Using extracellular recordings of neurons and phospho-signal transducer and the activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) immunohistochemistry, we have provided strong evidence that leptin signaling in the MPA is impaired in obese rats. We believe that leptin resistance in the MPA may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity and obesity-related disease states.
      PubDate: 2019-05-28
       
  • Branched-chain amino acid catabolism of Thermoanaerobacter strain AK85 and
           the influence of culture conditions on branched-chain alcohol formation
    • Abstract: The bioprocessing of amino acids to branched-chain fatty acids and alcohols is described using Thermoanaerobacter strain AK85. The amino acid utilization profile was evaluated without an electron scavenger, with thiosulfate, and in a co-culture with a methanogen. There was an emphasis on the production of branched-chain alcohols and fatty acids from the branched-chain amino acids, particularly the influence of culture conditions which was investigated using isoleucine, which revealed that the concentration of thiosulfate was of great importance for the branched-chain alcohols/fatty acid ratio produced. Kinetic studies show that branched-chain amino acid fermentation is relatively slow as compared to glucose metabolism with the concentrations of the branched-chain alcohol increasing over time. To understand the flow of electrons and to investigate if the branched-chain fatty acid was being converted to branched-chain alcohol, enzyme assays and fermentation studies using 13C-labeled leucine and 3-methyl-1-butyrate were performed which indeed suggest that carboxylic acid reduction is a source of branched-chain alcohols when Thermoanaerobacter strain AK85 was cultivated with thiosulfate as an electron scavenger.
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
       
 
 
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