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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Amino Acids
  [SJR: 1.362]   [H-I: 83]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2199 - ISSN (Online) 0939-4451
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism in humans
    • Authors: María M. Adeva-Andany; Laura López-Maside; Cristóbal Donapetry-García; Carlos Fernández-Fernández; Cristina Sixto-Leal
      Pages: 1005 - 1028
      Abstract: Branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) are structurally related to branched-chain fatty acids. Leucine is 2-amino-4-methyl-pentanoic acid, isoleucine is 2-amino-3-methyl-pentanoic acid, and valine is 2-amino-3-methyl-butanoic acid. Similar to fatty acid oxidation, leucine and isoleucine produce acetyl-coA. Additionally, leucine generates acetoacetate and isoleucine yields propionyl-coA. Valine oxidation produces propionyl-coA, which is converted into methylmalonyl-coA and succinyl-coA. Branched-chain aminotransferase catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, a reversible transamination that converts branched-chain amino acids into branched-chain ketoacids. Simultaneously, glutamate is converted in 2-ketoglutarate. The branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain ketoacids to produce branched-chain acyl-coA intermediates, which then follow separate catabolic pathways. Human tissue distribution and function of most of the enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid catabolism is unknown. Congenital deficiencies of the enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism are generally rare disorders. Some of them are associated with reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and respiratory chain dysfunction that may contribute to their clinical phenotype. The biochemical phenotype is characterized by accumulation of the substrate to the deficient enzyme and its carnitine and/or glycine derivatives. It was established at the beginning of the twentieth century that the plasma level of the branched-chain amino acids is increased in conditions associated with insulin resistance such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, the potential clinical relevance of this elevation is uncertain.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2412-7
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • The potential of silk sericin protein as a serum substitute or an additive
           in cell culture and cryopreservation
    • Authors: Ting-Ting Cao; Yu-Qing Zhang
      Pages: 1029 - 1039
      Abstract: Cell culture and cryopreservation are necessary for clinical therapy and cells storage. The addition of 10% (v/v) foetal bovine serum (FBS) to basal culture media has been common practice and is one of the most widely used methods. FBS media added with 10% DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) have also been used for cryopreservation cells. Ideally, FBS should be avoided because of high cost and bio-safety. Silk sericin has been used as a serum substitute and an additive due to its good hydrophilicity and biological safety. This article summarizes a few details about the processing of sericin and its application as a serum substitute or an additive for cell culture and cryopreservation media. Sericin can be a potential novel serum substitute or an additive for cell culture and cryopreservation media.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2396-3
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Amino acids intake and physical fitness among adolescents
    • Authors: Luis Gracia-Marco; On behalf of the HELENA Study Group; Silvia Bel-Serrat; Magdalena Cuenca-Garcia; Marcela Gonzalez-Gross; Raquel Pedrero-Chamizo; Yannis Manios; Ascensión Marcos; Denes Molnar; Kurt Widhalm; Angela Polito; Jeremy Vanhelst; Maria Hagströmer; Michael Sjöström; Anthony Kafatos; Stefaan de Henauw; Ángel Gutierrez; Manuel J. Castillo; Luis A. Moreno
      Pages: 1041 - 1052
      Abstract: The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5–17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity was objectively measured. Socioeconomic status was obtained via questionnaires. Lower limbs muscular fitness seems to be positively associated with tryptophan, histidine and methionine intake in boys, regardless of centre, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and total energy intake (model 1). However, these associations disappeared once carbohydrates intake was controlled for (model 2). In girls, only proline intake seems to be positively associated with lower limbs muscular fitness (model 2) while cardiorespiratory fitness seems to be positively associated with leucine (model 1) and proline intake (models 1 and 2). None of the observed significant associations remained significant once multiple testing was controlled for. In conclusion, we failed to detect any associations between any of the evaluated AAs and physical fitness after taking into account the effect of multiple testing.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2393-6
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Comparative analysis of internalisation, haemolytic, cytotoxic and
           antibacterial effect of membrane-active cationic peptides: aspects of
           experimental setup
    • Authors: Kata Horváti; Bernadett Bacsa; Tamás Mlinkó; Nóra Szabó; Ferenc Hudecz; Ferenc Zsila; Szilvia Bősze
      Pages: 1053 - 1067
      Abstract: Cationic peptides proved fundamental importance as pharmaceutical agents and/or drug carrier moieties functioning in cellular processes. The comparison of the in vitro activity of these peptides is an experimental challenge and a combination of different methods, such as cytotoxicity, internalisation rate, haemolytic and antibacterial effect, is necessary. At the same time, several issues need to be addressed as the assay conditions have a great influence on the measured biological effects and the experimental setup needs to be optimised. Therefore, critical comparison of results from different assays using representative examples of cell penetrating and antimicrobial peptides was performed and optimal test conditions were suggested. Our main goal was to identify carrier peptides for drug delivery systems of antimicrobial drug candidates. Based on the results of internalisation, haemolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial activity assays, a classification of cationic peptides is advocated. We found eight promising carrier peptides with good penetration ability of which Penetratin, Tat, Buforin and Dhvar4 peptides showed low adverse haemolytic effect. Penetratin, Transportan, Dhvar4 and the hybrid CM15 peptide had the most potent antibacterial activity on Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC lower than 1.2 μM) and Transportan was effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well. The most selective peptide was the Penetratin, where the effective antimicrobial concentration on pneumococcus was more than 250 times lower than the HC50 value. Therefore, these peptides and their analogues will be further investigated as drug delivery systems for antimicrobial agents.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2402-9
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • MAP kinase p38 is a novel target of CacyBP/SIP phosphatase
    • Authors: Agnieszka M. Topolska-Woś; Sara Rosińska; Anna Filipek
      Pages: 1069 - 1076
      Abstract: Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are important players in cellular signaling pathways. Recently, it has been shown that CacyBP/SIP serves as a phosphatase for one of the MAP kinases, ERK1/2. Through dephosphorylation of this kinase CacyBP/SIP modulates the transcriptional activity of Elk-1 and the activity of the CREB-BDNF pathway. In this work, using NB2a cell lysate and recombinant proteins, we show that CacyBP/SIP binds and dephosphorylates another member of the MAP kinase family, p38. Analysis of recombinant full-length CacyBP/SIP and its three major domains, N-terminal, middle CS and C-terminal SGS, indicates that the middle CS domain is responsible for p38 dephosphorylation. Moreover, we show that CacyBP/SIP might be implicated in response to oxidative stress. Dephosphorylation of phospho-p38 by CacyBP/SIP in NB2a cells treated with hydrogen peroxide is much more effective than in control ones. In conclusion, involvement of CacyBP/SIP in the regulation of p38 kinase activity, in addition to that of ERK1/2, might point to the function of CacyBP/SIP in pro-survival and pro-apoptotic pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2404-7
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Phototriggered release of tetrapeptide AAPV from coumarinyl and pyrenyl
    • Authors: Filipa C. Santos; Ana M. S. Soares; M. Sameiro T. Gonçalves; Susana P. G. Costa
      Pages: 1077 - 1088
      Abstract: Ala–Ala–Pro–Val (AAPV) is a bioactive tetrapeptide that inhibits human neutrophil elastase, an enzyme involved in skin chronic inflammatory diseases like psoriasis. Caged derivatives of this peptide were prepared by proper N- and C-terminal derivatisation through a carbamate or ester linkage, respectively, with two photoactive moieties, namely 7-methoxycoumarin-2-ylmethyl and pyren-2-ylmethyl groups. These groups were chosen to assess the influence of the photosensitive group and the type of linkage in the controlled photo release of the active molecule. The caged peptides were irradiated at selected wavelengths of irradiation (254, 300, and 350 nm), and the photolytic process was monitored by HPLC–UV. The results established the applicability of the tested photoactive groups for the release of AAPV, especially for the derivative bearing the carbamate-linked pyrenylmethyl group, which displayed the shortest irradiation times for the release at the various wavelengths of irradiation (ca. 4 min at 254 nm, 8 min at 300 nm and 46 min at 350 nm).
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2405-6
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Improved positron emission tomography imaging of glioblastoma cancer using
           novel 68 Ga-labeled peptides targeting the urokinase-type plasminogen
           activator receptor (uPAR)
    • Authors: Mathias Dyrberg Loft; Yao Sun; Changhao Liu; Camilla Christensen; Daijuan Huang; Andreas Kjaer; Zhen Cheng
      Pages: 1089 - 1100
      Abstract: The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in several cancers including glioblastoma (GBM) and is an established biomarker for metastatic potential. The uPAR-targeting peptide AE105-NH2 (Ac-Asp-Cha-Phe-(D)Ser-(D)Arg-Tyr-Leu-Trp-Ser-CONH2) is a promising candidate for non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of uPAR. Despite the optimal physical properties of 68Ga for peptide-based PET imaging, low tumor uptakes have previously been reported using 68Ga-labeled AE105-NH2-based tracers. In an attempt to optimize the tumor uptake, we developed three novel tracers with alkane (AOC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacers inserted between AE105-NH2 and the radio metal chelator 2-(4,7-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7-triazonan-1-yl)pentanedioic acid (NODAGA). The resulting tracers NODAGA-AOC-AE105-NH2, NODAGA-PEG3-AE105-NH2 and NODAGA-PEG8-AE105-NH2 were compared to the non-spacer version, NODAGA-AE105-NH2. Following radiolabeling with 68Ga, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo performance in mice bearing subcutaneous tumors derived from the uPAR-expressing human GBM cell line U87MG. In vivo PET/CT imaging showed that introduction of PEG spacers more than doubled the in vivo tumor uptake after 1 h compared with the non-spacer version: 68Ga-NODAGA-PEG3-AE105-NH2 (2.08 ± 0.37%ID/g) and 68Ga-NODAGA-PEG8-AE105-NH2 (2.01 ± 0.22%ID/g) vs. 68Ga-NODAGA-AE105-NH2 (0.70 ± 0.40%ID/g), p < 0.05. In addition, 68Ga-NODAGA-PEG8-AE105-NH2 showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) tumor-to-background contrast (3.68 ± 0.23) than the other tracers. The specific tumor-targeting property of 68Ga-NODAGA-PEG8-AE105-NH2 was established by effectively blocking the tumor uptake with co-injection of unlabeled AE105-NH2 (1 h: unblocked 2.01 ± 0.22%ID/g vs. blocked 1.24 ± 0.09%ID/g, p < 0.05). Ex vivo biodistribution confirmed the improved tumor uptakes of the PEG-modified tracers. 68Ga-NODAGA-PEG8-AE105-NH2 is thus a promising candidate for human translation for PET imaging of GBM.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2407-4
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Validation of dopamine receptor DRD1 and DRD2 antibodies using receptor
           deficient mice
    • Authors: Tamara Stojanovic; Michaela Orlova; Fernando J. Sialana; Harald Höger; Stanislav Stuchlik; Ivan Milenkovic; Jana Aradska; Gert Lubec
      Pages: 1101 - 1109
      Abstract: Dopamine receptors 1 and 2 (DRD1, DRD2) are essential for signaling in the brain for a multitude of brain functions. Previous work using several antibodies against these receptors is abundant but only the minority of antibodies used have been validated and, therefore, the results of these studies remain uncertain. Herein, antibodies against DRD1 (Merck Millipore AB1765P, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-14001, Sigma Aldrich D2944, Alomone Labs ADR-001) and DRD2 (Abcam ab21218, Merck Millipore AB5084P, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-5303) have been tested using western blotting and immunohistochemistry on mouse striatum (wild type and corresponding knock-out mice) and when specific, they were further evaluated on rat and human striatum. Moreover, a DRD1 antibody and a DRD2 antibody that were found specific in our tests were used for immunoprecipitation with subsequent mass spectrometrical identification of the immunoprecipitate. Two out of nine antibodies (anti DRD1 Sigma Aldrich D2944 and anti DRD2 Merck Millipore AB5084P) against the abovementioned dopamine receptors were specific for DRD1 and DRD2 as evaluated by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and the immunoprecipitate indeed contained DRD1 and DRD2 as revealed by mass spectrometry. The observed findings may question the use of so far non-validated antibodies against the abovementioned dopamine receptors. Own observations may be valuable for the interpretation of previous results and the design of future studies using dopamine receptors DRD1 or DRD2.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2408-3
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • The role of l -arginine/ l -homoarginine/nitric oxide pathway for aortic
           distensibility and intima-media thickness in stroke patients
    • Authors: Arash Haghikia; Georgi Radoslavov Yanchev; Arslan Arinc Kayacelebi; Erik Hanff; Nils Bledau; Christian Widera; Kristina Sonnenschein; Aiden Haghikia; Karin Weissenborn; Johann Bauersachs; Udo Bavendiek; Dimitrios Tsikas
      Pages: 1111 - 1121
      Abstract: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and l-homoarginine (hArg) are l-arginine (Arg) metabolites derived from different pathways. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) and subsequent proteolysis of proteins containing methylarginine residues release ADMA. Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) converts Arg to hArg and guanidinoacetate (GAA). While high concentrations of ADMA and low concentrations of hArg in the blood have been established as cardiovascular risk markers, the cardiovascular relevance of GAA is still unexplored. Arg and hArg are substrates and ADMA is an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS). The cardiovascular effects of ADMA and hArg have been related to NO, a potent endogenous vasodilator. ADMA and hArg are considered to exert additional, not yet explored, presumably NO-unrelated effects and to act antagonistically in the renal and cardiovascular systems. Although the physiological role of Arg, ADMA, hArg and NO for endothelial function in small- and medium-sized arteries has been intensively studied in the past, the clinical relevance of aortic wall remodeling still remains unclear. Here, we evaluated potential relation between aortic distensibility (AD) or aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) and circulating ADMA, hArg, GAA, and the NO metabolites nitrite and nitrate in the plasma of 78 patients (24 females, 54 males; aged 59 ± 14 years) with recent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). All biochemical parameters were determined by stable-isotope dilution gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. AD and aIMT were measured by transesophageal echocardiography. Arg, hArg, ADMA and GAA median plasma concentrations (µM) were determined to be 61, 1.43, 0.50 and 2.16, respectively. hArg, ADMA and GAA correlated closely with Arg. Nitrite, nitrate and creatinine median plasma concentrations (µM) were 2.49, 48.7, and 84.1, respectively. Neither AD (2.61 vs. 1.85 10−6 × cm2 × dyn−1, P = 0.064) nor aIMT (1.25 vs. 1.13 mm, P = 0.596) differed between females and males. The hArg/ADMA molar ratio (r = −0.351, P = 0.009), nitrate (r = 0.364, P = 0.007) and nitrite (r = 0.329, P = 0.015) correlated with aIMT but not with AD. Arg, hArg, ADMA and GAA correlated with aIMT but not with AD. The results demonstrate a strong relation between the Arg/NO pathway and aortic atherosclerosis but not with AD suggesting different mechanisms underlying the two aspects of aortic wall remodeling.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2409-2
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Effect of Oaz1 overexpression on goose ovarian granulosa cells
    • Authors: Bo Kang; Dongmei Jiang; Hui He; Rong Ma; Ziyu Chen; Zhixin Yi
      Pages: 1123 - 1132
      Abstract: Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1) regulates both polyamine biosynthesis and transport and acts as a tumor suppressor because of its functions in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and growth. However, the roles of OAZ1 in the regulation of polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis and hormone receptor expression in granulosa cells (GCs) from geese have not been determined. To define the roles of OAZ1 in primary GCs, we constructed and transfected an Oaz1 overexpression vector with a thymidine deletion into primary GCs. Oaz1 overexpression induced 65 and 30% decreases in the putrescine and spermidine contents, respectively, 225% increase in the spermine content and up-regulated the expression levels of genes associated with polyamine metabolism (but Oaz2). The Ccnd1, Pcna, Bax and Caspase 3 mRNA expression levels in GCs overexpressing Oaz1 were significantly higher than the expression levels in the vehicle group (p < 0.05). Additionally, a slight increase in the E2 concentration in the culture medium and enhanced Er, Fshr and Lhr expression were observed in the GCs 24 h after Oaz1 overexpression (p < 0.05). These data suggested that Oaz1 up-regulated the expression of genes related to polyamine metabolic enzymes and reproductive hormone receptors, disturbed intracellular polyamine homeostasis, and affected the transcription of genes associated to cell proliferation and apoptosis in goose primary GCs. Taken together, our results indicate that modifying polyamine metabolism by Oaz1 may interfere with the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis and responsiveness of ovary toward hormones in goose GCs.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2411-8
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Genetic variations in the alanine–glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2)
           gene and dimethylarginines levels in rheumatoid arthritis
    • Authors: Theodoros Dimitroulas; James Hodson; Vasileios F. Panoulas; Aamer Sandoo; Jacqueline Smith; George Kitas
      Pages: 1133 - 1141
      Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with high rates of cardiovascular events mainly due to coronary and cerebrovascular atherosclerotic disease. Asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric (SDMA) dimethylarginines are endogenous inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and have been repeatedly linked with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in the general population and various disease settings. Alanine–glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGTX2) is considered an alternative metabolic pathway contributing to the clearance of dimethylarginines in humans. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of specific AGXT-2 gene polymorphisms on circulating levels of ADMA or SDMA in patients with RA. Serum ADMA and SDMA levels were measured in 201 individuals with RA [median age: 67 years (IQR: 59–73), 155 females]. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AGXT-2 gene—rs37369 and rs28305—were genotyped. Distributions of SDMA and ADMA were skewed, hence comparisons across the gene polymorphisms were performed using Kruskal–Wallis tests, and summarized using medians and interquartile ranges. Univariable analysis did not demonstrate a significant difference in the levels of SDMA or ADMA amongst the different genotypic groups of either rs37369AGXT2 (p = 0.800, 0.977) or rs28305AGXT2 (p = 0.463, 0.634). In multivariable analyses, ADMA levels were found to be significantly associated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate and estimated glomerular filtration rate, whilst SDMA levels were significantly associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. After adjustments for these factors, the relationship between the AGXT2 gene variants and both ADMA and SDMA remained non-significant. Our study in a well-characterized RA population did not show an association between serum concentrations of dimethylarginines and genetic variants of the AGXT2 gene.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2413-6
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Glutamate and α-ketoglutarate: key players in glioma
    • Authors: Andreas Maus; Godefridus J. Peters
      Pages: 1143 - 1143
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2414-5
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Human splanchnic amino-acid metabolism
    • Authors: Evelien P. J. G. Neis; S. Sabrkhany; I. Hundscheid; D. Schellekens; K. Lenaerts; S. W. Olde Damink; E. E. Blaak; C. H. C. Dejong; Sander S. Rensen
      Pages: 1145 - 1145
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2416-3
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Functions of pregnane X receptor in self-detoxification
    • Authors: Liuqin He; Xihong Zhou; Niu Huang; Huan Li; Tiejun Li; Kang Yao; Yanan Tian; Chien-An Andy Hu; Yulong Yin
      Abstract: Pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a crucial regulator of nutrient metabolism and metabolic detoxification such as metabolic syndrome, xenobiotic metabolism, inflammatory responses, glucose, cholesterol and lipid metabolism, and endocrine homeostasis. Notably, much experimental and clinical evidence show that PXR senses xenobiotics and triggers the detoxification response to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, intestinal inflammatory diseases and liver fibrosis. In this review we summarize recent advances on remarkable metabolic and regulatory versatility of PXR, and we emphasizes its role and potential implication as an effective modulator of self-detoxification in animals and humans.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2435-0
  • Novel DNA/RNA-targeting amino acid beacon for the versatile incorporation
           at any position within the peptide backbone
    • Authors: Tamara Šmidlehner; Ivo Piantanida
      Abstract: One-pot tandem synthesis was for the first time applied to attach fluorophore to the amino acid side chain, yielding amino acid ready for peptide coupling at the N-terminus, and also upon activation at the C-terminus. Two new compounds differing only in fluorophore-linker length showed exceptional fluorimetric and CD recognition between DS-RNA and DS-DNA, thus being promising beacons for versatile peptide incorporation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2438-x
  • β-Alanine intercede metabolic recovery for amelioration of human
           cervical and renal tumors
    • Authors: Muthuraman Pandurangan; Gansukh Enkhtaivan; Bhupendra Mistry; Rahul V. Patel; Sohyun Moon; Doo Hwan Kim
      Abstract: β-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid and presents as a major component of various sports supplements. It is a non-proteogenic amino acid, formed in vivo by degradation of carnosine, anserine, balenine, and dihydrouracil. The present study was aimed at investigating the anti-tumor effects of β-alanine in renal and cervical tumor cells. Sulforhodamine-B assay and flow cytometric analysis were used to measure cell viability. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression was analyzed using FITC-conjugated fluorescent antibody. The cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content was measured using bioluminescence method. Cell migration was determined by the simple standard-scratch method. β-Alanine reduced renal and cervical cell growth significantly. Percentage of inhibition of renal and cervical tumor cells was increased at higher concentration of β-alanine. LDH expression and ATP content were significantly reduced in renal and cervical tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. Renal and cervical tumor cell migration were significantly reduced following 10 and 100 mM of β-alanine treatment. In our study, β-alanine exerts no significant effect on normal MDCK cells except a marginal effect at the highest concentration (100 mM). In summary, our experimental data suggest that β-alanine may be a potential anti-tumor agent exhibiting several anti-cancer effects in renal and cervical tumor cells.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2437-y
  • GPNA inhibits the sodium-independent transport system l for neutral amino
    • Authors: Martina Chiu; Cosimo Sabino; Giuseppe Taurino; Massimiliano G. Bianchi; Roberta Andreoli; Nicola Giuliani; Ovidio Bussolati
      Abstract: l-γ-Glutamyl-p-nitroanilide (GPNA) is widely used to inhibit the glutamine transporter ASCT2, although it is known that it also inhibits other sodium-dependent amino acid transporters. In a panel of human cancer cell lines, which express the system l transporters LAT1 and LAT2, GPNA inhibits the sodium-independent influx of leucine and glutamine. The kinetics of the effect suggests that GPNA is a low affinity, competitive inhibitor of system l transporters. In Hs683 human oligodendroglioma cells, the incubation in the presence of GPNA, but not ASCT2 silencing, lowers the cell content of leucine. Under the same conditions the activity of mTORC1 is inhibited. Decreased cell content of branched chain amino acids and mTORC1 inhibition are observed in most of the other cell lines upon incubation with GPNA. It is concluded that GPNA hinders the uptake of essential amino acids through system l transporters and lowers their cell content.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2436-z
  • An insecticidal toxin from Nephila clavata spider venom
    • Authors: Lin Jin; Mingqian Fang; Mengrou Chen; Chunling Zhou; Rose Ombati; Md Abdul Hakim; Guoxiang Mo; Ren Lai; Xiuwen Yan; Yumin Wang; Shilong Yang
      Abstract: Spiders are the most successful insect predators given that they use their venom containing insecticidal peptides as biochemical weapons for preying. Due to the high specificity and potency of peptidic toxins, discoveries of insecticidal toxins from spider venom have provided an opportunity to obtain natural compounds for agricultural applications without affecting human health. In this study, a novel insecticidal toxin (μ-NPTX-Nc1a) was identified and characterized from the venom of Nephila clavata. Its primary sequence is GCNPDCTGIQCGWPRCPGGQNPVMDKCVSCCPFCPPKSAQG which was determined by automated Edman degradation, cDNA cloning, and MS/MS analysis. BLAST search indicated that Nc1a shows no similarity with known peptides or proteins, indicating that Nc1a belongs to a novel family of insecticidal peptide. Nc1a displayed inhibitory effects on NaV and KV channels in cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons. The median lethal dose (LD50) of Nc1a on cockroach was 573 ng/g. Herein, a study that identifies a novel insecticidal toxin, which can be a potential candidate and/or template for the development of bioinsecticides, is presented.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2425-2
  • Effects of dietary l -tryptophan supplementation on intestinal response to
           chronic unpredictable stress in broilers
    • Authors: Yunshuang Yue; Yuming Guo; Ying Yang
      Abstract: Stress has been recognized as a critical risk factor for gastrointestinal diseases in both humans and animals. However, nutritional strategies to attenuate stress-induced intestinal barrier function and underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that l-tryptophan enhanced intestinal barrier function by regulating mucosal serotonin metabolism in chronic unpredictable stress-exposed broilers. One-day-old male broilers (Arbor Acres) were fed a basal diet supplemented with or without l-tryptophan in the absence or presence of chronic unpredictable stress. Feed intake, body weight gain, plasma corticosterone and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), intestinal permeability, mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA), and mRNA levels for tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, protein abundance for claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1 were determined. Stress exposure led to elevated plasma corticosterone (P < 0.05), increased intestinal permeability (P < 0.05), reduced growth performance (P < 0.05), and decreased sIgA secretion compared with the controls. These effects were largely reversed (P < 0.05) by l-tryptophan supplementation. Western blot analysis showed that stress exposure resulted in decreased protein abundance for occludin, claudin-1, and ZO-1, which was attenuated by l-tryptophan. mRNA levels for IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were increased, but those for IL-10 were decreased, in the jejunal tissue of broilers subjected to stress. This effect of stress on cytokine expression was abolished by l-tryptophan treatment. The effects of stress were associated with decreased plasma concentration of 5-HT (P < 0.05), and reduced (P < 0.05) mRNA levels for TPH1. l-Tryptophan supplementation markedly attenuated stress-induced alterations in 5-HT and TPH1 mRNA level in jejunal tissues of broilers. Collectively, these results indicate that l-tryptophan supplementation alleviates chronic unpredictable stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction by regulating 5-HT metabolism in broilers.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2424-3
  • Lac- l -TTA, a novel lactose-based amino acid–sugar conjugate for
           anti-metastatic applications
    • Abstract: Here we describe the synthesis, chromatographic purification, MS and NMR characterization of a new lactosyl-derivative, i.e. a lactosyl thiophenyl-substituted triazolyl-thione l-alanine (Lac-L-TTA). This amino acid–sugar conjugate was prepared by solution synthesis in analogy to the natural fructosyl-amino acids. Furthermore, we investigated the inhibition of PC-3 prostate cancer cell colony formation by this lactose derivative in comparison with the less polar fructose-based derivative, Fru-L-TTA. This let us to compare the properties of the artificial derivative, object of the present work, with the monosaccharide-based counterpart and to obtain a preliminary information on the influence of polarity on such biological activity. A significantly higher anticancer effect of Lac-L-TTA with respect to the fructose analogue emerged from our study suggesting that the anti-metastatic potential of fructosyl-amino acids can be enhanced by increasing the polarity of the compounds, for example by introducing disaccharide moieties in place of fructose.
      PubDate: 2017-05-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00726-017-2433-2
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