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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2350 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
International Journal of Fracture
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.916
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-2673 - ISSN (Online) 0376-9429
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Modeling of structural failure of Zircaloy claddings induced by multiple
           hydride cracks
    • Authors: Ruijie Liu; Ahmed Mostafa; Zhijun Liu
      Abstract: Abstract Zirconium alloys have been serving as primary structural materials for nuclear fuel claddings. Structural failure analysis under extreme conditions is critical to the assessment of the performance and safety of nuclear fuel claddings. This work focuses on simulating structural failure of Zircaloy tubes with multiple hydride defects through modeling explicit crack propagation in ductile media. First, we developed an integrated cladding failure model by taking into account both crack initiation induced by hydride/matrix interface separation and ligament tearing-off between activated hydride cracks. Second, to accommodate the initiation, propagation, and coalescence of multiple cracks in finite plastic media we incorporated this structural failure model into a coupled continuous/discontinuous Galerkin (DG) based finite element code, a traditionally preferred implicit numerical framework. Third, to improve the adaptive placement of DG interface elements for crack propagation and to identify potential coalescence of cracks due to the interaction between adjacent hydride cracks, we defined a special failure index for the assessment of potential failure zones using both true plastic strain developed and predicted failure strain based on the Johnson–Cook material failure criterion. Finally, by calibrating the proposed material failure model using a cluster of Zircaloy material experimental tests, we successfully simulated a complete failure process of a fuel cladding tube with multiple hydride cracks.
      PubDate: 2018-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0312-9
       
  • A diffusion-based approach for modelling crack tip behaviour under
           fatigue-oxidation conditions
    • Authors: R. J. Kashinga; L. G. Zhao; V. V. Silberschmidt; R. Jiang; P. A. S. Reed
      Abstract: Abstract Modelling of crack tip behaviour was carried out for a nickel-based superalloy subjected to high temperature fatigue in a vacuum and air. In a vacuum, crack growth was entirely due to mechanical deformation and thus it was sufficient to use accumulated plastic strain as a criterion. To study the strong effect of oxidation in air, a diffusion-based approach was applied to investigate the full interaction between fatigue and oxygen penetration at a crack tip. Penetration of oxygen into the crack tip induced a local compressive stress due to dilatation effect. An increase in stress intensity factor range or dwell times imposed at peak loads resulted in enhanced accumulation of oxygen at the crack tip. A crack growth criterion based on accumulated levels of oxygen and plastic strain at the crack tip was subsequently developed to predict the crack growth rate under fatigue-oxidation conditions. The predicted crack-growth behaviour compared well with experimental results.
      PubDate: 2018-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0311-x
       
  • On fatigue crack growth in plastically compressible hardening and
           hardening–softening–hardening solids using crack-tip blunting
    • Authors: Shushant Singh; Debashis Khan
      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, mode I crack subjected to cyclic loading has been investigated for plastically compressible hardening and hardening–softening–hardening solids using the crack tip blunting model where we assume that the crack tip blunts during the maximum load and re-sharpening of the crack tip takes place under minimum load. Plane strain and small scale yielding conditions have been assumed for analysis. The influence of cyclic stress intensity factor range ( \(\Delta \hbox {K})\) , load ratio (R), number of cycles (N), plastic compressibility ( \({\upalpha })\) and material softening on near tip deformation, stress–strain fields were studied. The present numerical calculations show that the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), convergence of the cyclic trajectories of CTOD to stable self-similar loops, plastic crack growth, plastic zone shape and size, contours of accumulated plastic strain and hydrostatic stress distribution near the crack tip depend significantly on \(\Delta \hbox {K}\) , R, N, \({\upalpha }\) and material softening. For both hardening and hardening–softening–hardening materials, yielding occurs during both loading and unloading phases, and resharpening of the crack tip during the unloading phase of the loading cycle is very significant. The similarities are revealed between computed near tip stress–strain variables and the experimental trends of the fatigue crack growth rate. There was no crack closure during unloading for any of the load cycles considered in the present study.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0310-y
       
  • Geomechanical optimization of hydraulic fracturing in unconventional
           reservoirs: a semi-analytical approach
    • Authors: Ali Taghichian; Hamid Hashemalhoseini; Musharraf Zaman; Zon-Yee Yang
      Abstract: Abstract Unconventional drilling and completion architecture includes drilling multilateral horizontal wells in the direction of minimum horizontal stress and simultaneous multistage fracturing treatments perpendicular to the wellbore. This drilling and stimulation strategy is utilized in order to raise the connectivity of the reservoir to the wellbore, thereby remedying the low permeability problem, increasing reserve per well, enhancing well productivity, and improving project economics in this type of reservoir. However, in order to have the highest production with the least cost, an optimization technique should be used for the fracturing treatment. According to the fact that aperture, propagation direction, and propagation potential of hydraulic fractures are of paramount importance in optimization of the fracking treatment, in this research paper, these three major factors are studied in detail, the control variables on these three factors are examined, and the effect of each factor is quantified by proposing a complete set of equations. Using the proposed set of equations, one can make a good estimate about the fracture aperture (directly controlling the fracture conductivity), the stress shadow size (directly controlling the fracture path), and the change of stress intensity factor (directly controlling the fracture propagation potential). A geomechanical optimization procedure is then presented for toughness-dominated and viscosity-dominated regimes based on the proposed equations that can be used for estimation of different optimal fracturing patterns. The most efficient fracturing pattern can be determined afterward via considering the cumulative production using a reservoir simulator e.g. ECLIPSE, Schlumberger. This procedure is likely to offer an optimal simultaneous multistage hydraulic fracture treatment without deviation or collapse, with no fracture trapping, with the highest possible propagation potential in the hydrocarbon producing shale layer, and a predicted aperture for proppant type/size decision and conductivity of the fractures.
      PubDate: 2018-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0309-4
       
  • Microstructural damage evolution and arrest in binary Fe–high-Mn alloys
           with different deformation temperatures
    • Authors: Motomichi Koyama; Takahiro Kaneko; Takahiro Sawaguchi; Kaneaki Tsuzaki
      Abstract: Abstract We investigated the damage evolution behaviors of binary Fe–28–40Mn alloys (mass%) from 93 to 393 K by tensile testing. The underlying mechanisms of the microstructure-dependent damage evolution behavior were uncovered by damage quantification coupled with in situ strain mapping and post-mortem microstructure characterization. The damage growth behaviors could be classified into three types. In type I, the Fe–28Mn alloy at 93 K showed premature fracture associated with ductile damage initiation and subsequent quasi-cleavage damage growth associated with the \(\upvarepsilon \) -martensitic transformation. In type II, the Fe–28Mn alloy at 293 K and the Fe–32Mn alloy at 93 K showed delayed damage growth but did not stop growing. In type III, when the stacking fault energy was \(>\,\) 19 \(\hbox {mJ/m}^{2}\) , the damage was strongly arrested until final ductile failure.
      PubDate: 2018-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0307-6
       
  • Failure mechanisms and fracture energy of hybrid materials
    • Authors: Najam Sheikh; Sivasambu Mahesh
      Abstract: Abstract A shear-lag model of hybrid materials is developed. The model represents an alternating arrangement of two types of aligned linear elastic fibres, embedded in a linear elastic matrix. Fibre and matrix elements are taken to fail deterministically when the axial and shear stresses in them reach their respective strengths. An efficient solution procedure for determining the stress state for arbitrary configurations of broken fibre and matrix elements is developed. Starting with a single fibre break, this procedure is used to simulate progressive fibre and matrix failure, up to composite fracture. The effect of (1) the ratio of fibre stiffnesses, and (2) the ratio of the fibre tensile strength to matrix shear strength, on the composite failure mechanism, fracture energy, and failure strain is characterised. Experimental observations, reported in the literature, of the fracture behaviour of two hybrid materials, viz., hybrid unidirectional composites, and double network hydrogels, are discussed in the framework of the present model.
      PubDate: 2018-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0306-7
       
  • Ductile-to-brittle transition in tensile failure due to shear-affected
           zone with a stress-concentration source: a comparative study on
           punched-plate tensile-failure characteristics of precipitation-hardened
           and dual-phase steels
    • Authors: Shigeru Hamada; Jiwang Zhang; Kejin Zhang; Motomichi Koyama; Toshihiro Tsuchiyama; Tatsuo Yokoi; Hiroshi Noguchi
      Abstract: Abstract The effect of shear-affected zone (SAZ), with a stress-concentration source induced by the punching process, on tensile properties was investigated. Tests using honed specimens (which have the same shapes and stress-concentration without any SAZ) and smooth specimens were conducted to compare the effect with that of the punched specimens. Dual-phase steel, which has a high work-hardening ability and low yield strength, and precipitation-hardened steel, which has a low work-hardening ability and high yield strength, were used in the tests. Materials with two tensile strength grades were prepared from both types of steel. Only the precipitation-hardened steel with higher strength grade punched specimen showed a brittle fracture with extremely short fracture-elongation, whereas the other specimens showed a ductile fracture. The fracture surface analysis revealed that cracks initiated in the maximum shear stress plane of the SAZ under tensile loading at first. We call the crack “shear crack.” The steel which showed brittle fracture used in this study easily exhibited plastic-strain localization compared with the other steels. If the shear crack is sharp, then the transition from ductile to brittle failure tends to occur. Furthermore, the strength characteristics of the punched specimen depend on the crack length dependency of the strength resistance and the failure phenomenon of the original material.
      PubDate: 2018-08-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0304-9
       
  • Numerical modeling of the nucleation of facets ahead of a primary crack
           under mode I + III loading
    • Authors: Aurélien Doitrand; Dominique Leguillon
      Abstract: Abstract A numerical study of crack front segmentation under mode I + III loading is proposed. Facets initiation ahead of a parent crack is predicted through a tridimensional application of the coupled criterion. Crack initiation shape, orientation and spacing are determined for any mode mixity ratio by coupling a stress and an energy criterion using matched asymptotic expansions. The stress and the energy conditions are computed through a 3D finite element modeling of a periodic network of facets ahead of the parent crack. The initiation shape, loading and spacing of facets depend on the blunted parent crack tip radius. A good estimate of facet orientations is obtained based on the direction of maximum tensile stress. The facet shapes, determined using the stress isocontours, are qualitatively similar to those observed experimentally. The order of magnitude of numerical predictions of facets spacing is very close to experimental measurements.
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0305-8
       
  • The configurational-forces view of the nucleation and propagation of
           fracture and healing in elastomers as a phase transition
    • Authors: Aditya Kumar; K. Ravi-Chandar; Oscar Lopez-Pamies
      Abstract: Abstract In a recent contribution, Kumar et al. (J Mech Phys Solids 112:523–551, 2018) have introduced a macroscopic theory aimed at describing, explaining, and predicting the nucleation and propagation of fracture and healing in elastomers undergoing arbitrarily large quasistatic deformations. The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative derivation of this theory—originally constructed as a generalization of the variational theory of brittle fracture of Francfort and Marigo (J Mech Phys Solids 46:1319–1342, 1998) to account for physical attributes innate to elastomers that have been recently unveiled by experiments at high spatio-temporal resolution—cast as a phase transition within the framework of configurational forces. A second objective of this paper is to deploy the theory to probe new experimental results on healing in silicone elastomers.
      PubDate: 2018-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0302-y
       
  • Modeling of plasticity and fracture behavior of X65 steels: seam weld and
           seamless pipes
    • Authors: Marcelo Paredes; Junhe Lian; Tomasz Wierzbicki; Mihaela E. Cristea; Sebastian Münstermann; Philippe Darcis
      Abstract: Abstract A non-associated/associated flow rule coupled with an anisotropic/isotropic quadratic yield function is presented to describe the mechanical responses of two distinct X65 pipeline steels. The first as a product of the cold-rolling forming (UOE) process also known as seam weld pipes and the second as a result of high temperature piercing process called seamless tube manufacturing. The experimental settings consist of a wide range of sample types, whose geometric characteristics represent different state of stresses and loading modes. For low to intermediate stress triaxiality levels, flat specimens are extracted at different material orientations along with notched round bar samples for high stress triaxialities. The results indicate that despite the existing differences in plasticity between materials due to anisotropy induced processes, material failure can be characterized by an isotropic weighting function based on the modified Mohr–Coulomb (MMC) criterion. The non-associated flow rule allows for inclusion of strain directional dependence in the definition of equivalent plastic strain by means of scalar anisotropy (Lankford) coefficients and thus keeping the original capabilities of the MMC model.
      PubDate: 2018-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0303-x
       
  • Numerical assessment of temperature effects on concrete failure behavior
    • Authors: Marianela Ripani; Sonia Vrech; Guillermo Etse
      Abstract: Abstract This work focuses on the evaluation of temperature effects on concrete failure behavior and modes by means of a realistic thermodynamically consistent non-local poroplastic constitutive model, previously developed by the authors, which is modified in this work. In this regard, two original contributions are presented and discussed. Firstly, and based on significant published experimental results related to this very complex aspect such as the effects of temperature in concrete failure, a temperature dependent non-associated flow rule is introduced to the poroplastic constitutive model to more accurately account for the temperature dependent inelastic volumetric behavior of concrete in post-peak regime. This is crucial for improving overall model accuracy, particularly regarding the temperature effects on concrete released energy during degradation processes. Secondly, and more importantly, the explicit solution of the localization condition in terms of the critical hardening modulus is developed regarding the non-local poroplastic constitutive model reformulated in this work, which allows the analysis of localized failure modes in the form of discontinuous bifurcation of quasi-brittle porous materials like concrete under different temperature, hydraulic and stress state scenarios. Also numerical procedures are followed, which also allow the evaluation of temperature effects on the critical directions for localized failure or cracking which is performed in this work for a wide spectrum of stress states and temperatures. Both, undrained and drained hydraulic conditions are evaluated. The results in this work demonstrate the soundness of the proposed constitutive model modifications and of the derived explicit solution for the critical hardening modulus to accurately predict the temperature effects on both, concrete volumetric behavior, and on the failure modes and related critical cracking direction. They also demonstrate that concrete failure mode and critical localization directions are highly sensitive to temperature, particularly in the compressive regime.
      PubDate: 2018-07-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0301-z
       
  • On crack tip stress fields in pseudoelastic shape memory alloys
    • Authors: Gülcan Özerim; Günay Anlaş; Ziad Moumni
      Abstract: Abstract In a domain of reasonable accuracy around the crack tip, asymptotic equations can provide closed form expressions that can be used in formulation of crack problem. In some studies on shape memory alloys (SMAs), although the pseudoelastic behavior results in a nonlinear stress–strain relation, stress distribution in the vicinity of the crack tip is evaluated using asymptotic equations of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). In pseudoelastic (SMAs), upon loading, stress increases around the crack tip and martensitic phase transformation occurs in early stages. In this paper, using the similarity in the loading paths of a pseudoelastic SMA and a strain hardening material, the stress–strain relation is represented by nonlinear Ramberg–Osgood equation which is originally proposed for strain hardening materials, and the stress distribution around the crack tip of a pseudoelastic SMA plate is reworked using the Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren (HRR) solution, first studied by Hutchinson. The size of the transformation region around the crack tip is calculated in closed form using a thermodynamic force that governs the martensitic transformation together with the asymptotic equations of HRR. A UMAT is written to separately describe the thermo-mechanical behavior of pseudoelastic SMAs. The results of the present study are compared to the results of LEFM, computational results from ABAQUS, and experimental results for the case of an edge cracked NiTi plate. Both set of asymptotic equations are shown to have different dominant zones around the crack tip with HRR equations representing the martensitic transformation zone more accurately.
      PubDate: 2018-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0300-0
       
  • Notch sensitivity of orthotropic solids: interaction of tensile and shear
           damage zones
    • Authors: Harika C. Tankasala; Vikram S. Deshpande; Norman A. Fleck
      Abstract: Abstract The macroscopic tensile strength of a panel containing a centre-crack or a centre-hole is predicted, assuming the simultaneous activation of multiple cohesive zones. The panel is made from an orthotropic elastic solid, and the stress raiser has both a tensile cohesive zone ahead of its tip, and shear cohesive zones in an orthogonal direction in order to represent two simultaneous damage mechanisms. These cohesive zones allow for two modes of fracture: (i) crack extension by penetration, and (ii) splitting in an orthogonal direction. The sensitivity of macroscopic tensile strength and failure mode to the degree of orthotropy is explored. The role of notch acuity and notch size are assessed by comparing the response of the pre-crack to that of the circular hole. This study reveals the role of the relative strength and relative toughness of competing damage modes in dictating the macroscopic strength of a notched panel made from an orthotropic elastic solid. Universal failure mechanism maps are constructed for the pre-crack and hole for a wide range of material orthotropies. The maps are useful for predicting whether failure is by penetration or kinking. Case studies are developed to compare the predictions with observations taken from the literature for selected orthotropic solids. It is found that synergistic strengthening occurs: when failure is by crack penetration ahead of the stress raiser, the presence of shear plastic zones leads to an enhancement of macroscopic strength. In contrast, when failure is by crack kinking, the presence of a tensile plastic zone ahead of the stress raiser has only a mild effect upon the macroscopic strength.
      PubDate: 2018-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0296-5
       
  • Strain-injection and crack-path field techniques for 3D crack-propagation
           modelling in quasi-brittle materials
    • Authors: I. F. Dias; J. Oliver; O. Lloberas-Valls
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a finite element approach for modelling three-dimensional crack propagation in quasi-brittle materials, based on the strain injection and the crack-path field techniques. These numerical techniques were already tested and validated by static and dynamic simulations in 2D classical benchmarks [Dias et al., in: Monograph CIMNE No-134. International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Barcelona, (2012); Oliver et al. in Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 274:289–348, (2014); Lloberas-Valls et al. in Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 308:499–534, (2016)] and, also, for modelling tensile crack propagation in real concrete structures, like concrete gravity dams [Dias et al. in Eng Fract Mech 154:288–310, (2016)]. The main advantages of the methodology are the low computational cost and the independence of the results on the size and orientation of the finite element mesh. These advantages were highlighted in previous works by the authors and motivate the present extension to 3D cases. The proposed methodology is implemented in the finite element framework using continuum constitutive models equipped with strain softening and consists, essentially, in injecting the elements candidate to capture the cracks with some goal oriented strain modes for improving the performance of the injected elements for simulating propagating displacement discontinuities. The goal-oriented strain modes are introduced by resorting to mixed formulations and to the Continuum Strong Discontinuity Approach (CSDA), while the crack position inside the finite elements is retrieved by resorting to the crack-path field technique. Representative numerical simulations in 3D benchmarks show that the advantages of the methodology already pointed out in 2D are kept in 3D scenarios.
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0293-8
       
  • Fracture of pre-cracked thin metallic conductors due to electric current
           induced electromagnetic force
    • Authors: Deepak Sharma; B. Subba Reddy; Praveen Kumar
      Abstract: Abstract We investigated propagation of a sharp crack in a thin metallic conductor with an edge crack due to electric current induced electromagnetic forces. Finite element method (FEM) simulations showed mode I crack opening in the edge-cracked conductor due to the aforementioned (i.e., self-induced) electromagnetic forces. Mode I stress intensity factor due to the self-induced electromagnetic forces, \(K_{\mathrm{IE},}\) was evaluated numerically as \(K_{\mathrm{IE}}=\upmu l^{2}j^{2}(\uppi a)^{0.5}f(a/w)\) , where \(\upmu \) is the magnetic permeability, l is the length of the conductor, a is the crack length, j is the current density, w is the width of the sample and f(a / w) is a geometric factor. Effect of dynamic electric current loading on edge-cracked conductor, incorporating the effects of induced currents, was also studied numerically, and dynamic stress intensity factor, \(K_{\mathrm{IE,d}}\) , was observed to vary as \(K_{\mathrm{IE,d}} \sim f_{d}(a/w)j^{2}(\uppi a)^{1.5}\) . Consistent with the FEM simulation, experiments conducted using \(12\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) thick Al foil with an edge crack showed propagation of sharp crack due to the self-induced electromagnetic forces at pulsed current densities of \(\ge \) \(1.85\times 10^{9}\,\hbox {A/m}^{2}\) for \(a/w = 0.5\) . Further, effects of current density, pulse-width and ambient temperature on the fracture behavior of the Al foil were observed experimentally and corroborated with FEM simulations.
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0299-2
       
  • Fracture of pre-cracked metallic conductors under combined electric
           current and mechanical loading
    • Authors: Deepak Sharma; B. Subba Reddy; Praveen Kumar
      Abstract: Abstract Recently, we reported fracture of edge cracked thin metallic conductors upon passing only electric current, i.e., due to the self-induced electromagnetic forces. In this study, effect of simultaneous application of an electric current and a mechanical load on fracture of a thin edge-cracked conductor is investigated. Firstly, finite element method (FEM) simulation was performed to analyze the interaction between stress fields due to the electric current and the far-field mechanical loading. FEM simulations showed that stress fields as well as stress intensity factors due to each stimulus can be linearly superimposed to calculate their respective values under the combined loading. To corroborate the FEM results, experiments were conducted where a mechanical load was applied along with the electric pulse current. The critical current density required to propagate the sharp crack under combined loading decreased and the rate of crack propagation per electric current pulse drastically increased. Effect of mode-mixity on the fracture behavior of thin metallic foil under the combined loading was also studied by applying the mechanical load at different angles relative to the crack, and it was observed that the crack could be deflected at a desired, pre-determined angle by changing the mode mixity.
      PubDate: 2018-06-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0298-3
       
  • Quantification and microstructural origin of the anisotropic nature of the
           sensitivity to brittle cleavage fracture propagation for hot-rolled
           pipeline steels
    • Authors: F. Tankoua; J. Crépin; P. Thibaux; S. Cooreman; A.-F. Gourgues-Lorenzon
      Abstract: Abstract This work proposes a quantitative relationship between the resistance of hot-rolled steels to brittle cleavage fracture and typical microstructural features, such as microtexture. More specifically, two hot-rolled ferritic pipeline steels were studied using impact toughness and specific quasistatic tensile tests. In drop weight tear tests, both steels exhibited brittle out-of-plane fracture by delamination and by so-called “abnormal” slant fracture, here denoted as “brittle tilted fracture” (BTF). Their sensitivity to cleavage cracking was thoroughly determined in the fully brittle temperature range using round notched bars, according to the local approach to fracture, taking anisotropic plastic flow into account. Despite limited anisotropy in global texture and grain morphology, a strong anisotropy in critical cleavage fracture stress was evidenced for the two steels, and related through a Griffith-inspired approach to the size distribution of clusters of unfavorably oriented ferrite grains (so-called “potential cleavage facets”). It was quantitatively demonstrated that the occurrence of BTF, as well as the sensitivity to delamination by cleavage fracture, is primarily related to an intrinsically high sensitivity of the corresponding planes to cleavage crack propagation across potential cleavage facets.
      PubDate: 2018-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0297-4
       
  • Applicability of hierarchical fiber bundle materials to mechanical
           environments
    • Authors: X. L. Ji; L. X. Li
      Abstract: Abstract Biomaterials use a hierarchical structure to optimize their self-healing behavior, for instance. However, the behavior may be constrained under different mechanical environments. In this paper, a system is suggested that the mechanical environment is modeled as a spring connected in series with the fiber bundle material. For the spring, the elastic behavior with stiffness is obeyed while, for the fiber bundle material, the nonlinear elastic constitutive relation is obeyed according to the Weibull distribution and the Daniels’ theory. Relying on the principle of total potential, the applicability condition is proposed for the system and the critical stiffness is thus derived for the spring. The applicability of hierarchical fiber bundle materials is finally investigated. The results show that the hierarchy can significantly change the critical stiffness, and hence demonstrates quite different applicability to a given mechanical environment.
      PubDate: 2018-06-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0290-y
       
  • An efficient numerical method for quasi-static crack propagation in
           heterogeneous media
    • Authors: A. Markov; S. Kanaun
      Abstract: Abstract The paper is devoted to the problem of slow crack growth in heterogeneous media. The crack is subjected to arbitrary pressure distribution on the crack surface. The problem relates to construction of the so-called equilibrium crack. For such a crack, stress intensity factors are equal to the material fracture toughness at each point of the crack contour. The crack shape and size depend on spatial distributions of the elastic properties and fracture toughness of the medium, and the type of loading. In the paper, attention is focused on the case of layered elastic media when a planar crack propagates orthogonally to the layers. The problem is reduced to a system of surface integral equations for the crack opening vector and volume integral equations for stresses in the medium. For discretization of these equations, a regular node grid and Gaussian approximating functions are used. For iterative solution of the discretized equations, fast Fourier transform technique is employed. An iteration process is proposed for the construction of the crack shape in the process of crack growth. Examples of crack evolution for various properties of medium and types of loading are presented.
      PubDate: 2018-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0284-9
       
  • 3D model of transversal fracture propagation from a cavity caused by
           Herschel–Bulkley fluid injection
    • Authors: Sergey Cherny; Vasily Lapin; Dmitriy Kuranakov; Olga Alekseenko
      Abstract: Abstract The paper presents an extension of authors’ previous model for a 3D hydraulic fracture with Newtonian fluid, which aims to account for the Herschel–Bulkley fluid rheology and to study the associated effects. This fluid rheology model is the most suitable for description of modern complex fracturing fluids, in particular, for description of foamed fluids that have been successfully utilized recently as fracturing fluids in tight and ultra-tight unconventional formations with high clay contents. Another advantage of using Herschel–Bulkley rheological law in the hydraulic fracture model consists in its generality as its particular cases allow describing the behavior of the majority of non-Newtonian fluids employed in hydraulic fracturing. Except the Herschel–Bulkley fluid flow model the considered model of hydraulic fracturing includes the model of the rock stress state. It is based on the elastic equilibrium equations that are solved by the dual boundary element method. Also the hydraulic fracturing model contains the new mixed mode propagation criterion, which states that the fracture should propagate in the direction in which mode  \({{\mathrm{\mathrm {II}}}}\) and mode  \({{\mathrm{\mathrm {III}}}}\) stress intensity factors both vanish. Since it is not possible to make both modes zero simultaneously the criterion proposes a functional that depends on both modes and is minimized along the fracture front in order to obtain the direction of propagation. Solution for Herschel–Bulkley fluid flow in a channel is presented in detail, and the numerical algorithm is described. The developed model has been verified against some reference solutions and sensitivity of fracture geometry to rheological fluid parameters has been studied to some extent.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10704-018-0289-4
       
 
 
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