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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Insectes Sociaux
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.918
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1420-9098 - ISSN (Online) 0020-1812
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • How deep to dig'
    • Authors: M. Breed
      Pages: 199 - 200
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0622-y
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 2 (2018)
  • Preadaptation for asexual queen succession: queen tychoparthenogenesis
           produces neotenic queens in the termite Reticulitermes okinawanus
    • Authors: T. Nozaki; T. Yashiro; K. Matsuura
      Pages: 225 - 231
      Abstract: Social insects have evolved diverse breeding systems. In the termite species Reticulitermes speratus, queens produce their neotenic replacements parthenogenetically while producing other colony members sexually. This asexual queen succession (AQS) system enables the colony to undergo queen succession and increase the number of queens while avoiding king–daughter inbreeding, which must otherwise result in loss of genetic diversity in the workforce. The evolution of this sophisticated breeding system requires both parthenogenetic ability and parthenogens’ developmental priority to become neotenic queens. However, the evolutionary process of these two components is unknown. In this study, we investigated the caste fate of the offspring produced by tychoparthenogenesis in a non-AQS termite species Reticulitermes okinawanus. The hatching rate of unfertilized eggs in R. okinawanus (0.97%) was much lower than that in the AQS species R. speratus (75%). Flow cytometry and genetic analyses were used to demonstrate that R. okinawanus tychoparthenogenesis produced diploid homozygous females. One-third of the daughters from unfertilized eggs developed into neotenics, while no sexually produced daughters differentiated into neotenics. These results suggest that parthenogenetic daughters have the developmental propensity to become neotenic queens prior to the inception of AQS.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0603-1
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 2 (2018)
  • Working in the rain' Why leaf-cutting ants stop foraging when
           it’s raining
    • Authors: A. G. Farji-Brener; M. C. Dalton; U. Balza; A. Courtis; I. Lemus-Domínguez; R. Fernández-Hilario; D. Cáceres-Levi
      Pages: 233 - 239
      Abstract: Understanding how environmental factors modulate foraging is key to recognizing the adaptive value of animal behavior, especially in ectothermic organisms such as ants. We experimentally analyzed the effect of rain on the foraging of leaf-cutting ants, a key ant group that is commonly found in rainy habitats. Specifically, we experimentally discriminate among direct and indirect effects of rain on laden ants and explore whether ants respond to rain predictors by incrementing their speed. Watered loads were frequently dropped although ants were not wet, and watered ants also dropped their loads although loads were not wet. Watered leaf fragments increased their weight by 143% and were dropped independently with regards to area or symmetry. Watering the trail did not affect the proportion of ants that dropped their loads. Ants increased their speed by 30% after experimental increments in relative humidity and the noise of raindrops on leaves near the trail. Our experimental results confirm earlier anecdotic evidence of the negative effect of rainfall on the foraging of leaf-cutting ants. We demonstrate that rain can strongly limit ant foraging through different mechanisms, affecting both the ant itself, and the maneuverability of laden ants, by increasing the weight of their loads. We also depict behavioral responses that may mitigate this negative effect on foraging: walking faster at signals of rainfall to reduce the portion of leaf fragments lost. Our results illustrate how environmental factors can directly and indirectly constrain ant foraging and highlight the relevance of behavioral responses to mitigate these effects.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0605-z
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 2 (2018)
  • Extended lifespan and overlapping of generations in a gall-forming social
           aphid, Quadrartus yoshinomiyai
    • Authors: K. Uematsu; H. Shibao
      Pages: 241 - 249
      Abstract: The evolutionary relationship between sociality and extended lifespan has been studied in many taxa. We investigated the seasonal population dynamics and individual lifespan in a gall-forming social aphid, Quadrartus yoshinomiyai, whose wingless adults defend the colony after ceasing reproduction. The galls of this species are completely closed for over a year, which facilitates monitoring aphid mortality rates in natural galls. Gall foundresses, which were born before winter and formed galls in April, were alive until December, indicating that they can survive for a year. The second-generation wingless adults, born in May or June of the first year, were alive in mature galls collected in March or April of the second year. Morphometric analysis revealed an overlap of three generations in a mature gall; the appendages of the second-generation wingless adults were smaller than those of the third-generation wingless adults. Our results suggest that the extended lifespan, favored in a completely closed gall where extrinsic mortality is very low, promotes the overlap of generations and post-reproductive colony defense by the wingless adults. An extended post-reproductive lifespan might also be favored if the cost of death by the potentially rapid spread of infectious diseases in the completely closed space exceeds the cost of living without reproduction.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0604-0
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 2 (2018)
  • Characteristics of dispersal flight and disperser production in an Asian
           dry-wood termite, Neotermes koshunensis (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae)
    • Authors: K. Sugio; Y. Miyaguni; I. Tayasu
      Pages: 323 - 330
      Abstract: Differences in the dispersal flight patterns among termite families are correlated with the difference between the two life history characteristics exhibited by this group: “separate-piece nesters” versus “single-piece nesters.” However, information remains limited on the phenology and the life history characteristics of single-piece nesters, impeding our understanding of this topic. We report the flight phenology of an Asian single-piece nester termite Neotermes koshunensis on Okinawa Island, Japan. In 1983–1984, a light-trap survey showed that N. koshunensis exhibited an extended dispersal flight period from late April to early November, peaking in June, with a female-biased sex ratio. Between 1983 and 2012, the collection of 134 whole colonies of N. koshunensis from the surrounding area confirmed the presence of alates and pre-alate nymphs within the colonies over 7 months, reflecting the extended flight season of this termite species, probably in association with the extended dispersal flight season. However, in some cases, alates and pre-alate nymphs were also retained in the colonies after the dispersal flight season (i.e., winter, from December to February). The daily number of trapped alates in 1983 was positively correlated with temperature and relative humidity; however, alate production inside the colony was also positively correlated with temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation. Thus, these environmental factors might promote the flight activity of this termite by enhancing alate production inside the colony. Furthermore, temperature also had a significantly positive effect in the model incorporating the density of alates in the colony, along with environmental factors; thus, temperature might facilitate the release of alate from colonies. The accumulation of information on the phenology and life history characteristics of alate advances our understanding of the different dispersal strategies used by termites, providing insights into how the different families have evolved.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0616-9
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 2 (2018)
  • Hissing of A. cerana japonica is not only a direct aposematic response but
           also a frequent behavior during daytime
    • Authors: Satoshi Kawakita; Kotaro Ichikawa; Fumio Sakamoto; Kazuyuki Moriya
      Pages: 331 - 337
      Abstract: Hissing behavior of honey bees is simultaneous wing movement of multiple honey bees, and loud sounds or vibrations are produced from their movements. In previous the study, hissing sound of honey bees has historically been considered as an aposematic signal. This is because hissing is generally observed when disturbance occur, such as mechanical disturbance or visually disturbing stimuli like hornets approaching the colony. Few studies, however, have investigated situations in which honey bees hiss. In this study, 24-h sound recording and video monitoring were conducted to investigate when the Japanese honey bees (Apis cerana japonica) hissed and checked the external environment of the colony when they hissed. As a result, we found that A. cerana japonica hissed not only when hornets approached but also when there was no obvious threatening stimulus outside the colony. In addition, clear diurnal patterns of hissing were observed. It is still not clear whether hissing in A. cerana japonica is more than aposematic signal or not, but our findings of unique occurrence patterns of their hissing raise question about the potential function of hissing behavior in A. cerana japonica.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0617-8
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 2 (2018)
  • Thievery in rainforest fungus-growing ants: interspecific assault on
           culturing material at nest entrance
    • Authors: M. U. V. Ronque; G. H. Migliorini; P. S. Oliveira
      Abstract: Cleptobiosis in social insects refers to a relationship in which members of a species rob food resources, or other valuable items, from members of the same or a different species. Here, we report and document in field videos the first case of cleptobiosis in fungus-growing ants (Atta group) from a coastal, Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. Workers of Mycetarotes parallelus roam near the nest and foraging paths of Mycetophylax morschi and attack loaded returning foragers of M. morschi, from which they rob cultivating material for the fungus garden. Typically, a robbing Mycetarotes stops a loaded returning Mycetophylax, vigorously pulls away the fecal item from the forager’s mandibles, and brings the robbed item to its nearby nest. In our observations, all robbed items consisted of arthropod feces, the most common culturing material used by M. parallelus. Robbing behavior is considered a form of interference action to obtain essential resources needed by ant colonies to cultivate the symbiont fungus. Cleptobiosis between fungus-growing ants may increase colony contamination, affect foraging and intracolonial behavior, as well as associated microbiota, with possible effects on the symbiont fungus. The long-term effects of this unusual behavior, and associated costs and benefits for the species involved, clearly deserve further investigation.
      PubDate: 2018-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0632-9
  • Genomic footprint of evolution of eusociality in bees: floral food use and
           CYPome “blooms”
    • Authors: Reed M. Johnson; Brock A. Harpur; Kathleen A. Dogantzis; Amro Zayed; May R. Berenbaum
      Abstract: Comparative analyses of genomes of ten bee species representing different degrees of social complexity have demonstrated that independent transitions to eusociality are often accompanied by or lead to expansions or contractions of gene families (albeit different families across independent lineages). Because collective gathering, processing, and storage of plant products is a hallmark of bee social complexity, we examined the genomic inventory of cytochrome P450 genes (the CYPome) in these ten genomes, to search for footprints of eusociality in phytochemical detoxification pathways and, using a Bayesian implementation of the McDonald–Kreitman test, evidence of adaptive evolution within P450 lineages associated with food processing in eusocial florivorous Bombus and Apis species versus eusocial carnivorous Polistes species.We found no patterns linking CYPome size to level of social complexity within the ten bee genomes at the gene family level; however, a pattern emerged at the subfamily level, with the CYP6AS subfamily most diverse in perennial eusocial resin-collecting bees. In Apis mellifera, several CYP6AS enzymes are known to metabolize flavonols, ubiquitous constituents of nectar and honey, pollen and beebread, and resins and propolis. CYP6AS subfamily size varies from 7 in the solitary Habropoda laboriosa and the facultatively eusocial Lasioglossum albipes to 17 in the perennial eusocial Melipona quadrifasciatus; the degree of sociality across the ten species is correlated with CYP6AS inventory size (Spearman’s rho = 0.704, p < 0.023). Remarkably, there is perfect overlap between CYP6AS genes upregulated by the flavonol quercetin in A. mellifera and CYP6AS genes with signs of adaptive evolution in either Apis or Bombus. Our finding of positive selection on CYP6AS genes in Apis and Bombus, but not Polistes supports the hypothesis that CYP6AS subfamily expansion was involved in facilitating the shift from carnivory to florivory in bees. That some CYP6AS enzymes metabolize flavonoids suggests that subfamily expansion results from increased evolutionary exposure to these phytochemicals, through concentration of nectar into honey, pollen into beebread, and plant resins into propolis. Accompanying the evolutionary progression from solitary to perennial eusocial behavior in bees is a transition from short-term storage of ephemeral low-quality resources to concentrating and stockpiling those resources for colony use, with a concomitant need for phytochemical detoxification.
      PubDate: 2018-05-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0631-x
  • Termite diversity and species composition in heath forests, mixed
           dipterocarp forests, and pristine and selectively logged tropical peat
           swamp forests in Brunei
    • Authors: T. Bourguignon; C. A. L. Dahlsjö; K. A. Salim; T. A. Evans
      Abstract: Since the 1970s Southeast Asian peat swamp forests have been increasingly threatened by anthropogenic disturbance. Peat swamps act as refuge for many endangered species, and they may turn into a net producer of CO2 and greatly contribute to climate change if cleared and drained. As one of the main invertebrate decomposers in the tropics, termites are likely to play a major role in peat forests. In this paper, we used a grid-based sampling plot protocol to sample termites in Brunei. We sampled termite communities in pristine and selectively logged peat swamp forests, that we compared with termite communities sampled in heath and dipterocarp forests. More precisely, we determined: (i) termite species diversity in peat swamp forests, and (ii) how termites respond to peat swamp logging. We found that species richness was the highest in the mixed dipterocarp forest. Selective logging had limited impact on species richness in peat swamp forest, suggesting that termite communities are resilient to limited amount of perturbations. Further data are needed to better understand the impact peat swamp clearance has on termite populations and their contribution to climate change.
      PubDate: 2018-05-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0630-y
  • Limited size-related variation in behavioral performance among workers of
           the exceptionally polymorphic ant Pheidole rhea
    • Authors: D. G. Gordon; M. Moreau; V. Fourcassie; J. F. A. Traniello
      Abstract: Colony fitness is thought to be enhanced through task specialization by physical castes in social insect species that have evolved polymorphic workers. Using the exceptionally polymorphic ant Pheidole rhea as a model, we explored the relationship of worker size and behavior with respect to division of labor by morphologically variable subcastes, hypothesizing that the behavior of minor workers, soldiers, and supersoldiers would align with their social roles. We assayed the ability of different-size workers to detect trail pheromone, generate nest-search locomotion patterns, and recognize non-nestmates and respond with aggressive defense. Our analyses revealed that the largest size class of workers, supersoldiers, can detect trail pheromone at concentrations lower than those eliciting responses from either minors or soldiers. However, there were no size-related differences in locomotion patterns associated with nest-search behavior in a featureless arena, nor was there worker variation in responses to a non-nestmate conspecific. Although the striking polymorphism and allometry of workers suggest role divergence and division of labor in P. rhea, similarity in responses to stimuli associated with extranidal task performance may reflect the conservation of behavioral programs across strongly polymorphic workers.
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0629-4
  • The gut microbiome is associated with behavioural task in honey bees
    • Authors: J. C. Jones; C. Fruciano; J. Marchant; F. Hildebrand; S. Forslund; P. Bork; P. Engel; W. O. H. Hughes
      Abstract: The gut microbiome is recognised as playing an integral role in the health and ecology of a wide variety of animal taxa. However, the relationship between social behavioural traits and the microbial community has received little attention. Honey bees are highly social and the workers perform different behavioural tasks in the colony that cause them to be exposed to different local environments. Here we examined whether the gut microbial community composition of worker honey bees is associated with the behavioural tasks they perform, and therefore also the local environment they are exposed to. We set up five observation hives, in which all workers were matched in age and observed the behaviour of marked bees in each colony over 4 days. The gut bacterial communities of bees seen performing predominantly foraging or predominantly in nest tasks were then characterised and compared based on amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our results show that some core members of the unique honey bee gut bacterial community are represented in different relative abundances in bees performing different behavioural tasks. The differentially represented bacterial taxa include some thought to be important in carbohydrate metabolism and transport, and also linked to bee health. The results suggest an influence of task-related local environment exposure and diet on the honey bee gut microbial community and identify focal core taxa for further functional analyses.
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0624-9
  • Infection-related variation in cuticle thickness in the ant Myrmica
           scabrinodis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
    • Authors: E. Csata; J. Billen; A. Bernadou; J. Heinze; B. Markó
      Abstract: Cuticle quality is of vital importance in insects. It prevents desiccation, provides mechanical strength and protects against pathogens. The within-species variation of cuticular structure is affected by many factors. We investigated the relationship of the presence/absence of the ectoparasitic fungus Rickia wasmannii and cuticle thickness of its ant host Myrmica scabrinodis. Infected ants had thinner cuticle than uninfected ones, while there were also differences among populations. It is unclear whether reduced thickness is the host’s response, or whether the fungus infects preferentially colonies with ants that have a thin cuticle. Either way, within-species variation is linked to the presence of an epicuticular parasite.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0628-5
  • Associative learning of non-nestmate odor marks between colonies of the
           stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin (Apidae, Meliponini) during
    • Authors: Erik Solórzano-Gordillo; Julio C. Rojas; Leopoldo Cruz-López; Daniel Sánchez
      Abstract: Stingless bees use chemical signals to communicate nestmates the location of rich food sources. Such information may be intercepted by conspecifics from other colonies. In this study, we investigated if chemical information from non-nestmates can be used to orient foragers of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana to food sources. In the first experiment, foragers were exposed to feeders that were differentially odor-marked by nestmates and non-nestmates, and their preferences for both types of feeders were recorded. In a second experiment, we marked different feeders with mandibular or labial gland extracts of nestmates and non-nestmates. Results from the first experiment indicate that foragers were able to associate odor marks from non-nestmates with rich food sources. In the second experiment, we observed that foragers did not differentiate between the gland extracts of nestmates and those from non-nestmates. We discuss these findings within a behavioral and ecological framework.
      PubDate: 2018-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0626-7
  • Colony defensive behavior by the swarm-founding wasp Parachartergus
           pseudoapicalis : increase on investment predicts the intensity of nest
    • Authors: E. L. S. Brito; M. Aragão; G. M. M. Santos
      Abstract: The parental investment (PI) theory predicts that animals that have the ability to care for their offspring should defend them with an optimal intensity to minimize the risks of predation. This study evaluates the stages of development that are more valued and, therefore, are more protected by the colonies of the founding wasp Parachartergus pseudoapicalis. We determined the effects on the colony defense intensity of colony size, adult population, and immature population size for different stages. As predicted by PI theory, we found that defense intensity was related to colony investment in offspring. In addition, we found no association between the number of adults in the colony and the defense intensity, whereas a greater number of immatures in the pupal stage in the colony led to greater defense intensity. Our study highlights the importance of parental care in social insects and the changes in defense behavior present in colonies with different compositions of individuals at different stages.
      PubDate: 2018-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0627-6
  • The dacetine ant Strumigenys arizonica , an apparent obligate commensal of
           the fungus-growing ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis in southwestern North
    • Authors: K. W. Gray; S. P. Cover; R. A. Johnson; C. Rabeling
      Abstract: Over 40 years ago, the dacetine ant Strumigenys arizonica was discovered in a nest of the fungus-growing ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis at Madera Canyon in the Santa Rita Mountains of the southwestern United States. This discovery suggested that the two species form compound nests, but this hypothesis has not been investigated. Here, we characterize this symbiosis through an analysis of collection records supplemented by recent field and laboratory observations. Our observations show that S. arizonica and T. arizonensis form compound nests that are a type of commensalistic symbiosis. Individuals of S. arizonica forage in galleries and tunnels of T. arizonensis nests but do not steal fungus or brood. Instead, individuals of S. arizonica hunt collembolans in the internal refuse piles of T. arizonensis nests. Interestingly, S. arizonica was never found independent of its host T. arizonensis over a significant portion of the geographic range of T. arizonensis. These results suggest a tight but asymmetric association where compound nesting is obligate for S. arizonica and facultative for T. arizonensis.
      PubDate: 2018-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0625-8
  • The membrane phospholipid composition of honeybee ( Apis mellifera )
           workers reflects their nutrition, fertility, and vitellogenin stores
    • Authors: J. Wegener; U. Jakop; J. Schiller; K. Müller
      Abstract: Pollen feeding in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is dependent on the caste, ethotype, and dominance status of individuals. Pollen is the near-exclusive external source of lipids for the colony. Lipids from pollen are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acyl residues, which, because of their sensitivity to lipid peroxidation, have been suggested to limit the lifespan of individual bees. We here investigated whether the spectrum of phosphatidylcholine (PC), the main class of membrane-constituting lipids in insects, is indeed, connected to pollen feeding. We further studied the relationship between pollen feeding, PC spectra, and fat-body stores of vitellogenin, an indicator of potential longevity in bees. For this, we determined the pollen consumption, PC spectra, abdominal vitellogenin stores, and behavioral as well as reproductive status of individuals in queenless groups of workers. In contrast to earlier studies, we found that reproduction in workers is not universally linked to trophallactic dominance alone, but can be accompanied by strong pollen consumption. Pollen consumption seemed connected to a strong remodeling of tissue PC spectra. There was no systematic link between these spectra and trophallactic activity, but individuals with strongly deviating spectra also showed extreme behavioral profiles. Abdominal vitellogenin was strongly and positively linked to pollen-influenced PC spectra and the prevalence of polyunsaturated fatty acyl residues, contradicting the hypothesis that pollen consumption is systematically leading to a shorter lifespan in workers. Our results suggest that the association between pollen consumption, short lifespan, and functional sterility that differentiates workers from queens cannot in all cases be extended to the situation within the worker caste.
      PubDate: 2018-05-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0623-x
  • Occupation of wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix nests by Myrmica and
           Lasius ants
    • Authors: M. Maziarz; R. K. Broughton; G. Hebda; T. Wesołowski
      Abstract: Bird nests can provide habitats for various invertebrates, including ectoparasites, scavengers, and predators. Records of ants associating with active bird nests mostly involve the insects searching for food, with some exceptional records of ants raising their broods (eggs, larvae or pupae) within songbird nests in nest-boxes or tree cavities. We present data for a previously undocumented, but apparently regular, occurrence of ants and their broods within the active nests of a songbird, the wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix (Bechstein, 1793), which builds domed nests on the ground in European forests. Systematic recording found ants, mostly Myrmica ruginodis Nylander, 1846, in 43% of 80 wood warbler nests in the primary forest of Białowieża National Park (Poland) during the springs of 2016–2017, including ant broods in 30%. Ad hoc records from this site in 2004–2015 found ants in a further 29% of 163 nests, including broods in 20%, indicating a regular association. However, examination of 37 nests from secondary forest in Switzerland and Great Britain founds ants in only 14%, and broods in just 5%. We discuss the potential drivers and mechanisms of the observed association between breeding wood warblers and ants, including the apparent difference in frequency between the primary and secondary forests.
      PubDate: 2018-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0613-z
  • Different reproductive strategies and their possible relation to
           inbreeding risk in the bumble bee Bombus terrestris
    • Authors: Gherardo Bogo; Natasha de Manincor; Alessandro Fisogni; Marta Galloni; Laura Zavatta; Laura Bortolotti
      Abstract: In many species, inbreeding avoidance mechanisms prevent mating between close relatives, but these mechanisms are poorly studied in bumble bees. The probability of inbred matings within a colony in eusocial insects may depend on the timing of gyne and male emergence and on their sex ratio. In this study, we compared the development of 35 colonies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris from founding to the emergence of the last gyne, and we investigated the probability of inbred mating in colonies with fertile newborn gynes and males. We calculated a novel colony inbreeding risk index (IRI), which considers the overlap period between fertile gynes and males, their numbers, and the colony sex ratio. We found that the IRI values were strictly correlated with the time elapsed between the gyne point and the switch point (i.e., from the moment of deposition of the first diploid egg that produces a gyne to the first haploid egg). We separated the colonies into two groups based on the mean value of the IRI: colonies with low IRI produced more gynes (93.8 ± 9.4), for a longer period (32.1 ± 1.8 days) and with a lower percentage of overlapped gynes (69 ± 5%) than colonies with high IRI (57.1 ± 21 gynes, 23.3 ± 2.9 days, and 100% overlapped gynes, respectively). A low IRI is connected to a reduced risk of inbred mating, while colonies with a high IRI may be advantaged in conditions of isolation, in case of the absence of non-related reproducers. Inbreeding risk index proved to be a good indicator of the colony reproductive strategy.
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0611-1
  • Mapping Azteca barbifex Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) dispersal in
           georeferenced orange ( Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) orchard in the Eastern
           Amazon, Brazil
    • Authors: P. R. S. Farias; A. Y. Harada; C. C. Filgueiras; B. G. Lima; T. M. Sales; A. G. Silva; B. H. S. Souza
      Abstract: Damage to orange trees (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) as a result of Azteca barbifex Forel infestation in orchards of the Eastern Amazon, Brazil, has caused concern among farmers. The presence or absence of A. barbifex ants was sampled in a georeferenced orchard with 4600 plants from June 2007 to June 2008, and the six most representative months of infestation were analyzed. Dispersion patterns of A. barbifex were studied using semivariograms to determine the most suitable spatial distribution model of the species and kriging maps were drawn. Spherical semivariogram models best fit the spatial dispersion patterns of A. barbifex, showing that the patterns of damage resulted from attack foci. The density of A. barbifex nests increased during the dry period, with drastic reduction in the rainy season. The results show that geostatistics is a useful tool for evaluating A. barbifex spatial and temporal distributions and to define reliable sampling plans for use in integrated pest management.
      PubDate: 2018-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0610-2
  • High levels of tolerance between nestmates and non-nestmates in the
           primitively eusocial sweat bee Halictus scabiosae (Rossi) in Turkey
           (Hymenoptera: Halictidae)
    • Authors: V. H. Gonzalez; R. Patton; M. Plascencia; A. O. Girişgin; I. Çakmak; J. F. Barthell
      Abstract: Eusocial sweat bees with variable intra-colony relatedness due to multiple foundresses and/or worker drifting may express high levels of tolerance among non-nestmates. We used circle-tube arenas to test hypotheses related to this phenomenon in Halictus scabiosae (Rossi), an obligately eusocial species with frequent inter-nest worker drifting. We conducted experiments in mid-July with bees from a nest aggregation found on the Uludağ University campus, near the city of Bursa, in the Republic of Turkey. We recorded high frequencies of tolerant behaviors in both nestmate and non-nestmate trials. Among tolerant behaviors, mutual passing was more common in pairs of nestmates while non-aggressive contacts were more common in non-nestmate pairs. Moderate levels of aggression were frequent, particularly in nestmate trials, and avoidance was more common in non-nestmate pairs. Except for the moderate levels of aggression, our results are similar to those on Lasioglossum malachurum Kirby, another obligately eusocial species with strong tolerance for conspecifics and with nests that often include a mixture of related and unrelated workers. Thus, our observations support the hypothesis that reduced intra-colony relatedness, resulting from multiple foundresses and/or drifting among conspecific colonies of eusocial sweat bees, is correlated with high levels of tolerance among nestmates.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00040-018-0602-2
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