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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
  [SJR: 0.864]   [H-I: 39]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1175-3277 - ISSN (Online) 1179-187X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Coxibs Refocus Attention on the Cardiovascular Risks of Non-Aspirin NSAIDs
    • Authors: Dixon Thomas; Zoya Ali; Seeba Zachariah; Kishore Gnana Sam Sundararaj; Matthew Van Cuyk; Jason C. Cooper
      Pages: 343 - 346
      Abstract: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were differentiated from steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines to help clinicians who needed to use anti-inflammatory agents that were safer than steroids. With market entry of rofecoxib in 1999, NSAIDs were then further classified into traditional NSAIDs and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors (coxibs), the latter posing potentially fewer gastrointestinal risks. In 2005, rofecoxib was withdrawn from the market because of concerns about the risk of heart attack and stroke with long-term use, and clinical practice began focusing more on the cardiovascular versus gastrointestinal safety of coxibs. Since then, many coxibs have remained unapproved by the US FDA or have been removed from the market. This article explains how coxibs refocused attention on the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs and the general implications of that. COX-2 activity/specificity is one factor associated with increased cardiovascular risks; however, these risks cannot be attributed to coxibs alone. The traditional NSAIDs (i.e., meloxicam, etodolac, and nabumetone) have significant COX-2 specificity, but naproxen and ibuprofen have less specificity. All NSAIDs, whether traditional or a coxib, pose some cardiovascular risks. It is possible that clinicians continue to focus more on decreasing the immediate gastric risks than preventing the later cardiovascular risks. The cardiovascular risks posed by NSAIDs should not be disregarded for the sake of achieving gastrointestinal benefits. Current recommendations suggest NSAIDs should be considered a single class of non-aspirin NSAIDs. Preferred NSAIDs are ibuprofen and naproxen. Coxibs are preferred in patients with low cardiovascular risk and high gastrointestinal risk who are intolerant to anti-dyspepsia therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0223-6
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 5 (2017)
  • Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks: Colchicine in Cardiovascular Medicine
    • Authors: Kevin Chen; Aldo L. Schenone; Nyal Borges; Michael Militello; Venu Menon
      Pages: 347 - 360
      Abstract: Colchicine is one of the oldest known drugs that remains part of the current pharmacopeia. Recent studies have examined the efficacy of colchicine in cardiology with promising results. We conducted a search of electronic databases for studies on colchicine in cardiovascular medicine published through October 2016. As the utilization of colchicine in the management of cardiac conditions grows, it is paramount that internists and cardiologists are familiarized with its benefits and risks. We present a comprehensive review of the role of colchicine in the management of cardiovascular diseases with a strong emphasis on side effects and potential drug interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0226-3
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 5 (2017)
  • The Real Role of β-Blockers in Daily Cardiovascular Therapy
    • Authors: Csaba András Dézsi; Veronika Szentes
      Pages: 361 - 373
      Abstract: The role of β-adrenoceptor antagonists (β-blockers) in cardiovascular therapy has been subject to diverse trends and changes over the decades. With the advent of a wide variety of excellent drugs for the treatment of antihypertension, β-blockers have been relegated from the first-line treatment of essential hypertension. However, they remain the drugs of first choice in recommendations from the respective medical societies for heart failure, coronary artery disease, and atrial fibrillation as well as in hypertension complicated with heart failure, angina pectoris, or prior myocardial infarction. When indicated, cardioselective β-blockers should be prescribed in patients with diabetes mellitus or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We review the available evidence for the use of β-blockers in clinical conditions in which recommendations can be made for everyday practice.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0221-8
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 5 (2017)
  • Recommendations for Managing Drug–Drug Interactions with Statins and
           HIV Medications
    • Authors: Barbara S. Wiggins; Donald G. Lamprecht; Robert L. Page; Joseph J. Saseen
      Pages: 375 - 389
      Abstract: The discovery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has enabled individuals to live longer. As a result, HIV is now often considered a chronic condition. However, as a result of the increase in longevity or the HIV treatment modalities themselves, individuals with HIV are at high risk for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Therefore, these patients should be optimized with pharmacologic therapy to lower their cardiovascular risk through the addition of statin therapy to their regimen. Unfortunately, many medications utilized to treat HIV interact with this class of agents, making prescribing of statin therapy in these patients challenging. While several classes of ARTs do not pose an increased risk of drug–drug interactions with statins, HIV treatment often requires several combinations of medications, enhancing the complexity and drug–drug interaction risk. Clinicians should be aware of interactions with statins and ART and carefully review the degree and clinical significance of each particular medication. With this understanding, the appropriate statin as well as statin dose can be selected in order to optimize the treatment of this patient population, while minimizing the potential risk of adverse effects.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0222-7
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 5 (2017)
  • Adherence to Treatment, Safety, Tolerance, and Effectiveness of
           Perindopril/Amlodipine Fixed-Dose Combination in Greek Patients with
           Hypertension and Stable Coronary Artery Disease: A Pan-Hellenic
           Prospective Observational Study of Daily Clinical Practice
    • Authors: Charalampos I. Liakos; Dimitrios P. Papadopoulos; Vasilios T. Kotsis
      Pages: 391 - 398
      Abstract: Background Initiation of antihypertensive therapy with a two-drug fixed-dose combination (FDC) in a single tablet may be recommended in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events to improve adherence and effectiveness. Preferred combinations include an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor with a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist. Objective This study assessed adherence to and the safety, tolerance, and effectiveness of the perindopril/amlodipine FDC in Greek patients with hypertension and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) over a 4-month period. Methods A total of 1907 patients with hypertension and CAD (59.1% males) who had recently (≤2 weeks) commenced treatment with the perindopril/amlodipine FDC (5/5, 5/10, 10/5, or 10/10 mg) were studied at baseline and at 1 and 4 months. Adherence to treatment was assessed with the Morisky Medication-taking Adherence Scale (MMAS). Results Seven patients (0.4%) did not attend the scheduled visits. In total, 1607 (84.6%) patients received a constant treatment dose throughout the study. High adherence (MMAS score = 0) was reported by 1592 (83.6%), 1628 (85.7%), and 1477 (77.7%) patients at the second and the third visit and at both visits, respectively. Adverse reactions were reported by only 13 (0.7%) patients, were all minor, and did not result in treatment discontinuation. Office blood pressure (BP) was significantly decreased at the third visit (130.8 ± 8.4/78.2 ± 6.4 mmHg) compared with baseline (156.5 ± 15.0/89.9 ± 9.6 mmHg; p < 0.001), regardless of previous antihypertensive treatment. Patients with grade 1, 2, and 3 hypertension at baseline showed a reduction in BP of 19.3/9.4, 31.5/13.5, and 47.8/22.2 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.001). Uncontrolled hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) was notably reduced from 90.3% at baseline to 18.5% at the third visit. Conclusions The perindopril/amlodipine FDC is characterized by high adherence and effectiveness, regardless of previous treatment. Degree of BP reduction was related to baseline BP levels. Clinical trials registration number (Protocol Number): IC4 – 05985 – 011 – GRC.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0232-5
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 5 (2017)
  • The Value of Evidence in the Decision-Making Process for Reimbursement of
           Pharmacogenetic Dosing of Warfarin
    • Authors: Andrej Janzic; Igor Locatelli; Mitja Kos
      Pages: 399 - 408
      Abstract: Background After early clinical trials that evaluated pharmacogenetic (PG) algorithms, many healthcare payers were reluctant to cover this technology and, consequently, PG dosing of warfarin could not be translated into clinical practice. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the value of upgrading evidence relating to PG dosing of warfarin from the healthcare payer perspective. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated PG dosing of warfarin were identified through a systematic literature search, and their findings were combined by a cumulative meta-analysis. A health economic model was used to estimate economic outcomes and to calculate the expected value of perfect information (EVPI) as a measure of the value of clinical trials for decision makers. Results Nine RCTs were identified and included in our analysis. The estimated difference in the percentage of time in the therapeutic range was 5.6 percentage points in 2007, decreasing to 4.3 percentage points when all studies were included. At a reimbursement price of €160 per PG testing, the EVPI for the clinical benefit was estimated at €80 and €90 per patient in 2007 and 2014, respectively. A reduction in the price of PG testing to €40, which was observed in this period, resulted in an EVPI of €3 per patient. Conclusions The estimated cumulative effect of PG dosing has remained similar since 2007, but additional evidence has contributed to a more precise estimation. While these variations should not affect the reimbursement decision, a large decline in the cost of PG testing in recent years calls for reconsideration.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0233-4
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 5 (2017)
  • Acknowledgement to Referees
    • PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0257-9
  • Impact of Trimetazidine Treatment on 5-year Clinical Outcomes in Patients
    • Authors: Yong Hoon Kim; Ae-Young Her; Seung-Woon Rha; Byoung Geol Choi; Se Yeon Choi; Jae Kyeong Byun; Ahmed Mashaly; Yoonjee Park; Won Young Jang; Woohyeun Kim; Jah Yeon Choi; Eun Jin Park; Jin Oh Na; Cheol Ung Choi; Hong Euy Lim; Eung Ju Kim; Chang Gyu Park; Hong Seog Seo; Dong Joo Oh
      Abstract: Objective We aimed to evaluate the additive benefit of trimetazidine with well-known antispasmodic agents such as calcium channel blockers and nitrate in patients with significant coronary artery spasm (CAS) as assessed by acetylcholine provocation test up to 5 years. Methods A total 1727 patients with significant CAS were enrolled. They were divided into two groups: a trimetazidine group (trimetazidine, diltiazem, and nitrate, n = 695), and control group (diltiazem and nitrate, n = 473). After propensity score matching analysis, two matched groups (441 pairs, n = 882, C-statistic = 0.673) were generated. The individual and composite clinical end points [mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), revascularization, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), major adverse cardiac events (MACE), major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and recurrent angina] were assessed up to 5 years for the two groups. Results At 5 years, there were similar incidences of individual and composite hard endpoints including mortality, MI, revascularization, CVA, MACE, MACCE, and recurrent angina in the two groups. Conclusions Additional long-term (5-year) treatment with trimetazidine in combination with diltiazem and nitrate in patients with significant CAS was not associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with combination therapy with diltiazem and nitrate only (without trimetazidine).
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0254-z
  • Benefit-Risk Assessment of Crataegus Extract WS 1442: An
           Evidence-Based Review
    • Authors: Christian J. F. Holubarsch; Wilson S. Colucci; Jaan Eha
      Abstract: Preparations from Crataegus (hawthorn) have a long history in the treatment of heart failure. WS 1442 is a dry extract from hawthorn leaves with flowers (4–6.6:1), extraction solvent of ethanol 45% (w/w), adjusted to 17.3–20.1% of oligomeric procyanidins. Nonclinical studies show that WS 1442 has positive inotropic and antiarrhythmic properties and protects the myocardium from ischemic damage, reperfusion injury, and hypertension-related hypertrophy, improves endothelial functions such as NO synthesis, and delays endothelial senescence. Randomized, controlled trials in patients with heart failure have demonstrated that the herbal medicinal product increases functional capacity, alleviates disabling symptoms, and improves health-related quality of life, all of which have become important targets of heart failure therapy according to current disease management guidelines. Clinical trials (including a 2-year mortality study with polypharmacy and > 1300 patients exposed) and post-marketing surveillance studies have shown that WS 1442 has a very favorable safety profile both as monotherapy and as add-on therapy, where no drug interactions have been observed. No specific adverse reactions to WS 1442 are known to date. WS 1442 may thus help to close the therapeutic gap between systolic and diastolic heart failure for which evidence of efficacy for other cardioactive drugs is sparse. Scientific evidence shows that WS 1442 is safe and has a beneficial effect in patients with heart failure corresponding to New York Heart Association classes II or III. The benefit-risk assessment for WS 1442 is therefore positive.
      PubDate: 2017-10-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0249-9
  • Comparing the Impact of Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products on
           Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
    • Authors: Randall P. Sharp; Barry J. Gales; Riaz Sirajuddin
      Abstract: Elevated levels of triglycerides are associated with pancreatitis and an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Numerous pharmacologic therapies are available to treat hypertriglyceridemia, including prescription omega-3 fatty acids, which reduce triglyceride levels by 20–50%. Available data indicate the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be beneficial for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Products containing DHA may increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and, subsequently, coronary heart disease risk. We reviewed prescription omega-3 fatty acid products, of which two—omega-3 acid ethyl esters (OM3EE) and omega-3 carboxylic acid (OM3CA)—contain both DHA and EPA, whereas the other—icosapent ethyl (IPE)—contains EPA only. We identified three retrospective chart reviews and three case reports comparing IPE with OM3EE, whereas two studies compared IPE with placebo. We also reviewed the major studies of OM3EE versus placebo used to gain US FDA approval. LDL-C levels decreased or did not increase significantly in all available studies and case reports in patients receiving the IPE product, with the best data supporting a dose of 4 g per day. The majority of studies only included patients taking IPE concomitantly with statins, but limited data from one study using IPE monotherapy showed a small reduction in LDL-C. Many questions remain regarding IPE, including whether the product reduces cardiovascular events and mortality.
      PubDate: 2017-10-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0253-0
  • Ivabradine in Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: Preliminary
           Experience in Children
    • Authors: Grazia Delle Donne; Ferran Rosés Noguer; Jan Till; Tushar Salukhe; Sanjay K. Prasad; Piers E. F. Daubeney
      Abstract: Objective Ivabradine is a selective and specific inhibitor of the I(f) current in the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes. It decreases heart rate and myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during exercise. It is used in adults for management of heart failure and angina, but promising results have been obtained in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). There is little experience of ivabradine in childhood, although it is used on a compassionate basis. Our aim was to review our experience of ivabradine in a retrospective evaluation of pediatric patients with POTS. Methods We evaluated all patients younger than 18 years for whom ivabradine had been prescribed for this indication, from February 2008 to June 2014. Results Twenty-two patients were identified (15 female). Median age was 14.5 years (11–17 years). The ivabradine dosage after up-titration was 0.1 mg/kg per dose twice daily. In 15 (68%) symptoms improved. Ivabradine was suspended in five, but only in one for worsening of symptoms. There was a reduction in heart rate on resting electrocardiogram (EKG) from a mean (standard deviation) of 82.5 (13.6) bpm to a mean of 71 (16.5) bpm (p = 0.007). No patient had increased duration of QTc (p = 0.44). One (4.5%) experienced phosphenes. Conclusions From this initial experience, ivabradine is safe in patients younger than 18 years with POTS. We observed improvement of symptoms in 68% and phosphenes in less than 5%. Further studies are needed to assess the safety in a randomized control setting.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0248-x
  • Selective BET Protein Inhibition with Apabetalone and Cardiovascular
           Events: A Pooled Analysis of Trials in Patients with Coronary Artery
    • Authors: Stephen J. Nicholls; Kausik K. Ray; Jan O. Johansson; Alan Gordon; Michael Sweeney; Chris Halliday; Ewelina Kulikowski; Norman Wong; Susan W. Kim; Gregory G. Schwartz
      Abstract: Background Inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins can modulate lipoprotein and inflammatory factors that mediate atherosclerosis. The impact of the BET inhibitor, apabetalone, on cardiovascular events is unknown. Objective Our objective was to investigate the impact of apabetalone on cardiovascular event rates in a pooled analysis of clinical studies in patients with established coronary artery disease. Methods We conducted a pooled analysis of patients (n = 798) with coronary artery disease who participated in clinical trials (ASSERT, ASSURE, SUSTAIN) that evaluated the impact of 3–6 months of treatment with apabetalone on lipid parameters and coronary atherosclerosis. The incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, hospitalization for cardiovascular causes) in the treatment groups was evaluated. Results At baseline, patients treated with apabetalone were more likely to be Caucasian, have a history of dyslipidemia, and be undertreated with ß-blocker and anti-platelet agents. Treatment with apabetalone produced the following dose-dependent changes compared with placebo: increases in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) of up to 6.7% (P < 0.001), increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) of up to 6.5% (P < 0.001), increases in large HDL particles of up to 23.3% (P < 0.001), and decreases in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) of − 21.1% (P = 0.04). Apabetalone treatment did not affect atherogenic lipoproteins compared with placebo. Patients treated with apabetalone experienced fewer major adverse cardiovascular events than those treated with placebo (5.9 vs. 10.4%; P = 0.02), a finding that was more prominent in patients with diabetes (5.4 vs. 12.7%; P = 0.02), with baseline HDL-C < 39 mg/dl (5.5 vs. 12.8%; P = 0.01), or with elevated hsCRP levels (5.4 vs. 14.2%; P = 0.02). Conclusion Pooled analysis of short-term studies demonstrated fewer cardiovascular events among patients treated with the BET protein inhibitor, apabetalone, than among those treated with placebo. BET protein inhibition warrants further investigation as a novel approach to cardiovascular risk reduction.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0250-3
  • Does Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Mitigate Statin-Associated Muscle
           Symptoms' Pharmacological and Methodological Considerations
    • Authors: Beth A. Taylor
      Abstract: Statin drugs markedly reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and consequently the incidence of cardiac events. In approximately 5–10% of adults, these drugs are associated with a range of muscle side effects such as muscle pain, cramping and weakness. Reduction in mitochondrial coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), or ubiquinone, has been proposed as a mechanism for these statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and thus various formulations of CoQ10 are marketed and consumed for the prevention and treatment of SAMS. However, data supporting the efficacy of CoQ10 are equivocal, with some studies showing that CoQ10 supplementation reduces the incidence and severity of SAMS and others finding no beneficial effects of supplementation. Methodological and pharmacological issues may confound interpretation of data on this topic. For example, many patients who report SAMS, such as those who have been enrolled in previous CoQ10 studies, may be experiencing non-specific (non-statin-associated) muscle pain. In addition, the effectiveness of oral CoQ10 supplementation to increase mitochondrial CoQ10 in human skeletal muscle is not well established. This manuscript will critically evaluate the published data on the efficacy of CoQ10 supplements in the prevention and treatment of SAMS.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0251-2
  • Comparison of Prescribing Practices with Direct Acting Oral Anticoagulant
    • Authors: Evan Draper; Brandon Parkhurst; Blake Carley; Kori Krueger; Tonja Larson; Sara Griesbach
      Abstract: Background The goal of anticoagulation management programs is to prevent thrombosis while minimizing the risks of hemorrhage. Direct acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) selectively inhibit coagulation proteins to inhibit thrombosis. Previous studies suggest patient monitoring and education provided through anticoagulation services enhance adherence and decrease adverse outcomes in patients receiving DOAC therapy. Objective The objectives of this study were to describe DOAC prescribing adherence to anticoagulation service protocols and to observe whether enrollment in an anticoagulation service resulted in greater prescribing adherence to DOAC protocols. Methods A retrospective cohort study evaluated all initial prescriptions of apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban at Marshfield Clinic from 19 October 2010 to 21 August 2014. Three algorithms analyzed patient and prescription data extracted from the organization’s electronic health record and classified prescriptions as per protocol or not per protocol. The algorithms classified not per protocol prescriptions as off-label indication, renal impairment [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 ml/min], hepatic impairment (rivaroxaban and apixaban), advanced age >74 years (dabigatran), dose too low, or dose too high. The analysis assessed whether enrollment in the Marshfield Clinic Anticoagulation Service DOAC monitoring process was associated with increased adherence to protocols. Results In aggregate, 72% of apixaban prescriptions, 52% of dabigatran prescriptions, and 70% of rivaroxaban prescriptions were per protocol. Off-label indications and dosage too low were the most common not per protocol reasons for apixaban and rivaroxaban prescriptions. Age ≥75 years and off-label indication were the most common not per protocol reasons for dabigatran prescriptions. Enrollment in the anticoagulation service process was not associated with increased adherence to protocols. Conclusion A significant proportion of DOAC prescriptions did not adhere to protocol expectations. While enrollment in DOAC management through the Marshfield Clinic Anticoagulation Service was not associated with increased adherence to protocols, opportunities exist to optimize DOAC prescribing. Defining ideal DOAC management requires additional research.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0243-2
  • Provision of Lifestyle Counseling and the Prescribing of Pharmacotherapy
           for Hyperlipidemia Among US Ambulatory Patients: A National Assessment of
           Office-Based Physician Visits
    • Authors: Rebekah M. Jackowski; Elizabeth K. Pogge; Nicole K. Early; Kathleen A. Fairman; David A. Sclar
      Abstract: Background An estimated 27.8% of the United States (US) population aged ≥20 years has hyperlipidemia, defined as total serum cholesterol of ≥240 mg/dL. A previous study of US physician office visits for hyperlipidemia in 2005 found both suboptimal compliance and racial/ethnic disparities in screening and treatment. Objective The aim was to estimate current rates of laboratory testing, lifestyle education, and pharmacotherapy for hyperlipidemia. Methods Data were derived from the US National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS), a nationally representative study of office-based physician visits, for 2013–2014. Patients aged ≥20 years with a primary or secondary diagnosis of hyperlipidemia were sampled. Study outcomes included receipt or ordering of total cholesterol testing, diet/nutrition counseling, exercise counseling, and pharmacotherapy prescription including statins, ezetimibe, omega-3 fatty acids, niacin, or combination therapies. Results Compared with previously reported results for 2005, rates of pharmacotherapy have remained static (52.2 vs. 54.6% for 2005 and 2013–2014, respectively), while rates of lifestyle education have markedly declined for diet/nutrition (from 39.7 to 22.4%) and exercise (from 32.1 to 16.0%). Lifestyle education did not vary appreciably by race/ethnicity in 2013–2014. However, rates of lipid testing were much higher for whites (41.6%) than for blacks (29.9%) or Hispanics (34.2%). Tobacco education was ordered/provided in only 4.0% of office visits. Conclusion Compliance with guidelines for the screening and treatment of hyperlipidemia remains suboptimal, and rates of lifestyle education have declined since 2005. There exists an urgent need for enhanced levels of provider intervention to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with hyperlipidemia.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0247-y
  • Patient Characteristics and Real-World Treatment Patterns Among Early
           Users of PCSK9 Inhibitors
    • Authors: Pallavi B. Rane; Jeetvan Patel; David J. Harrison; Jason Shepherd; Andrea Leith; Hollie Bailey; James Piercy
      Abstract: Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and are approved for patients with familial hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease who require additional LDL-C lowering. Objective Our objective was to characterize patients receiving PCSK9i medications in real-world practice and describe physician-reported treatment patterns among dyslipidemia patients using PCSK9i or other lipid-lowering therapy. Methods We analyzed data from a point-in-time Adelphi dyslipidemia disease-specific programme (DSP) survey conducted in the USA in 2016. Physicians provided treatment history, laboratory values, patient characteristics, and comorbidities for treated patients. To ensure sufficient numbers of PCSK9i-treated patients, we conducted systematic oversampling of patients being prescribed PCSK9i. Outcomes included patient characteristics and physician-reported treatment patterns. Results The DSP included 159 physicians, who provided information on 1522 patients (304 PCSK9i; 1218 non-PCSK9i). Mean ± standard deviation (SD) baseline LDL-C levels were 180.0 ± 39.7 mg/dl for PCSK9i patients and 159.2 ± 40.5 mg/dl for non-PCSK9i patients. Prior statin use was reported in 69.1% of PCSK9i patients and 19.5% of non-PCSK9i patients, and physician-reported statin intolerance was observed in 31.6% of PCSK9i and 5.3% of non-PCSK9i patients. Use of statins only was reported in 40.5% of PCSK9i and 88.8% of non-PCSK9i patients. The most common physician-reported reasons for change to PCSK9i were lack of efficacy (70.2%) and muscle-related symptoms (myalgia 28.6%; myopathy 11.1%). Conclusions Physicians surveyed appeared to prescribe PCSK9i medications appropriately. PCSK9i-treated patients had higher rates of cardiovascular comorbidities and physician-determined statin intolerance, had higher LDL-C levels, and received more lines of therapy than non-PCSK9i patients.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0246-z
  • Comparative Efficacy of Drugs for Preventing Acute Kidney Injury after
           Cardiac Surgery: A Network Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Xi Chen; Tianlun Huang; Xuan Cao; Gaosi Xu
      Abstract: Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery and has been associated with increased hospital length of stay, mortality, and costs. Objective We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacologic strategies for preventing AKI after cardiac surgery. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) up to 6 May 2017 and the reference lists of relevant articles about trials. The outcome was the occurrence of AKI. This is the first network meta-analysis of the different prevention strategies using Bayesian methodology. Results The study included 63 articles with 19,520 participants and evaluated the effect of ten pharmacologic strategies to prevent AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Compared with placebo, the odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of AKI was 0.24 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16–0.34] with natriuretic peptide, 0.33 (95% CI 0.14–0.70) with fenoldopam, 0.54 (95% CI 0.31–0.84) with dexmedetomidine, 0.56 (95% CI 0.29–0.95) with low-dose erythropoietin, 0.63 (95% CI 0.43–0.88) with levosimendan, 0.76 (95% CI 0.52–1.10) with steroids, 0.83 (95% CI 0.48–1.40) with high-dose erythropoietin, 0.85 (95% CI 0.64–1.14) with N-acetylcysteine, 0.96 (95% CI 0.69–1.29) with sodium bicarbonate, and 1.05 (95% CI 0.70–1.41) with statins. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve probabilities indicated that natriuretic peptide was the best treatment therapy and that fenoldopam ranked second. Conclusions Natriuretic peptide is probably the preferred pharmacologic strategy to prevent AKI in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery, especially in those at high risk of AKI.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0245-0
  • All-Cause, Stroke-, and Bleed-Specific Healthcare Costs: Comparison among
           Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation (NVAF) Newly Treated with
           Dabigatran or Warfarin
    • Authors: Adrienne M. Gilligan; Pranav Gandhi; Xue Song; Cheng Wang; Caroline Henriques; Stephen Sander; David M. Smith
      Abstract: Objective Our objective was to compare all-cause and stroke- and bleed-specific healthcare costs among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) treated with dabigatran or warfarin. Methods Administrative claims data from the MarketScan® Databases for 2009–2014 were used. Patients with NVAF newly treated with dabigatran were matched 1:1 to those treated with warfarin. All-cause and stroke- and bleed-specific costs per patient per month (PPPM) ($US, year 2015 values) up to a 12-month follow-up period were analyzed. Stroke- or bleed-specific costs were defined as hospitalizations with stroke or bleed as the primary discharge diagnosis and outpatient claims with stroke or bleed diagnosis in any position. Differences in costs between dabigatran and warfarin users were assessed using descriptive and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 18,980 dabigatran-treated patients were matched to corresponding warfarin-treated patients. Adjusted all-cause total healthcare, inpatient, and outpatient costs were significantly lower for the dabigatran cohort ($US3053 vs. 3433; $US904 vs. 1194; $US1594 vs. 1894, respectively; all p < 0.001), but mean pharmacy costs were significantly higher ($US556 vs. 345, p < 0.001). Stroke-specific total healthcare and outpatient costs were significantly lower for the dabigatran than for the warfarin cohort ($US30.37 vs. 40.99 and $US7.36 vs. 12.20, respectively; p < 0.05 for both values). Similarly, bleed-specific total healthcare and inpatient costs were significantly lower for the dabigatran than for the warfarin cohort ($US50.00 vs. 73.49 and $US27.75 vs. 48.66, respectively; p < 0.01 for both values). Conclusion Patients receiving dabigatran had significantly lower total all-cause, inpatient, and outpatient costs but higher pharmacy costs than those receiving warfarin. In addition, stroke-specific total and outpatient costs and bleed-specific total and inpatient costs were significantly lower in dabigatran users compared with warfarin users.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0244-1
  • Angioedema Among Hypertensive Patients Treated with Aliskiren or Other
           Antihypertensive Medications in the United States
    • Authors: Raymond G. Schlienger; Jonathan R. Korn; Elizabeth Wehler; Sandra Lopez Leon; Jason Yeaw
      Abstract: Background A non-interventional study suggested that use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or aliskiren was associated with an angioedema risk three times that of beta-blockers (BBs). Objective The aim was to assess angioedema incidence rates (IRs) and the relative angioedema risk of aliskiren compared to other antihypertensive drugs (AHDs). Methods A cohort study in hypertensive patients with an AHD prescription between 2007 and 2012 was conducted using data from the US PharMetrics Plus™ claims database. Angioedema was identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9CM) code 995.1. Additionally, a nested case–control analysis was conducted to assess the relative angioedema risk of aliskiren or other AHDs versus BBs. Results A total of 3,090,114 patients were included (aliskiren n = 30,720). There were 15,744 angioedema events (IR 2.28/1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.24–2.32). Aliskiren IRs were: any aliskiren 2.58 (2.08–3.17), aliskiren monotherapy 1.71 (0.74–3.37), aliskiren fixed-dose combination (FDC) 1.27 (0.41–2.96), and aliskiren free-standing combination (FSC) 2.93 (2.31–3.66). The case–control analysis included 15,100 angioedema cases and 60,400 controls; the angioedema risk for both aliskiren monotherapy and FDC was not significantly different from BBs [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 0.99 (95% CI 0.45–2.20) and 1.06 (0.40–2.76)]; aliskiren FSC was associated with an increased angioedema risk [adjOR 3.29 (2.42–4.48)], mainly driven by concomitant ACEI use [adjOR 7.03 (4.10–12.05)]. Conclusions The IR and risk of angioedema in patients with aliskiren monotherapy or FDC are comparable to BBs. The higher IR and risk of angioedema identified in the aliskiren FSC group may largely be driven by the concomitant use of ACEIs.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0242-3
  • The Ratio of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) to Arachidonic Acid may be a
           Residual Risk Marker in Stable Coronary Artery Disease Patients Receiving
           Treatment with Statin Following EPA Therapy
    • Authors: Shigemasa Tani; Ken Nagao; Kenji Kawauchi; Tsukasa Yagi; Wataru Atsumi; Rei Matsuo; Atsushi Hirayama
      Abstract: Background We investigated the relationship between the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) level, a major residual risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), in statin-treated CAD patients following EPA therapy. Methods We conducted a 6-month, prospective, randomized clinical trial to investigate the effect of the additional administration of EPA on the EPA/AA ratio and the serum non-HDL-C level in stable CAD patients receiving statin treatment. We assigned CAD patients already receiving statin therapy to an EPA group (1800 mg/day; n = 50) or a control group (n = 50). Results A significant reduction in the serum non-HDL-C level was observed in the EPA group, compared with the control group (−9.7 vs. −1.2%, p = 0.01). A multiple-regression analysis with adjustments for coronary risk factors revealed that achieved EPA/AA ratio was more reliable as an independent and significant predictor of a reduction in the non-HDL-C level at a 6-month follow-up examination (β = −0.324, p = 0.033) than the absolute change in the EPA/AA ratio. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were found between the baseline levels and the absolute change values of both non-HDL-C and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, both markers of residual risk of CAD, indicating that patients with a higher baseline residual risk achieved a greater reduction. Conclusion The present results suggest that the achieved EPA/AA ratio, but not the absolute change in EPA/AA ratio, following EPA therapy might be a useful marker for the risk stratification of CAD among statin-treated patients with a high non-HDL-C level. Clinical Trial Registration UMIN ( Study ID: UMIN000010452.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0238-z
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