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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
  [SJR: 0.864]   [H-I: 39]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1175-3277 - ISSN (Online) 1179-187X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Antithrombotic Therapy After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
    • Authors: Raul Moreno
      Pages: 265 - 271
      Abstract: Current guidelines for patients who are undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation but who do not require anticoagulation recommend double antiplatelet therapy for 3–6 months after the procedure, followed by aspirin indefinitely. However, these guidelines are based on expert consensus rather than clinical trials. Several randomized trials are currently evaluating alternative antithrombotic strategies, and recommendations will likely change when their results become available.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0218-3
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2017)
  • The Positive Regulation of eNOS Signaling by PPAR Agonists in
           Cardiovascular Diseases
    • Authors: Cristina Maccallini; Adriano Mollica; Rosa Amoroso
      Pages: 273 - 281
      Abstract: Increasing evidence shows that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) plays an essential role in the regulation of vascular endothelial function through a range of mechanisms, including non-metabolic. Among these, the PPAR-mediated activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) appears to be of considerable importance. The regulated and sustained bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) in the endothelium is essential to avoid the development of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension or atherosclerosis. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the different effects of specific PPAR ligands on NO bioavailability could be useful in the development of novel or multi-targeted PPAR agonists. In this review, we report the most meaningful and up-to-date in vitro and in vivo studies of the regulation of NO production performed by different PPAR agonists. Insights into the molecular mechanisms of PPAR-mediated eNOS activation are also provided. Although findings from animal studies in which the activation of PPARα, PPARβ/δ, or PPARγ have provided clear vasoprotective effects have been promising, several benefits from PPAR agonists are offset by unwanted outcomes. Therefore, new insights could be useful in the development of tissue-targeted PPAR agonists with more tolerable side effects to improve treatment options for cardiovascular diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0220-9
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2017)
  • Management of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Current
           Challenges and Future Directions
    • Authors: Bharathi Upadhya; Dalane W. Kitzman
      Pages: 283 - 298
      Abstract: Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most common form of HF in patients older than 65 years. Among elderly women living in the community, HFpEF comprises nearly 90% of incident HF cases. The health and economic impact of HFpEF is at least as great as that of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with similar severity of acute hospitalization rates and substantial mortality. Despite the importance of HFpEF, our understanding of its pathophysiology is incomplete, and optimal treatment remains largely undefined. Unlike the management of HFrEF, there is a paucity of large evidence-based trials demonstrating morbidity and mortality benefit for the treatment of HFpEF. The agents tested in trials to date, which were based upon an incomplete understanding of the pathophysiology of HFpEF, have not been positive. There is an urgent need to understand HFpEF pathophysiology and to focus on developing novel therapeutic targets.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0219-2
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2017)
  • Efficacy and Safety of Lomitapide in Hypercholesterolemia
    • Authors: Xin Liu; Peng Men; Yuhui Wang; Suodi Zhai; Zhigang Zhao; George Liu
      Pages: 299 - 309
      Abstract: Background Despite extensive use of statins, patients with hypercholesterolemia, especially homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), do not achieve recommended targets of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). There is an urgent need for novel options that could reduce proatherogenic lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Lomitapide, a microsomal triglyceride transport protein (MTP) inhibitor, was approved three years ago as an orphan drug for the treatment of patients with HoFH. Objective Our aim was to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of lomitapide and to provide guidance for clinicians. Methods We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases and to identify valid studies published before 31 October 2016 that included lomitapide-treated patients who did or did not undergo lipid-lowering therapy. We assessed the quality of different studies. Data were extracted and evaluated for quality by two reviewers. Results Studies reporting lomitapide therapy included one randomized controlled trial, three single-arm studies, and five case reports. In patients with HoFH, lomitapide reduced levels of LDL-C, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides with or without other lipid-lowering therapy, including apheresis. In non-HoFH patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, lomitapide also showed favorable effects on changes in LDL-C and triglycerides. However, both HoFH and non-HoFH patients experienced a reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1). The most common adverse event was gastrointestinal disorder, and others included liver transaminase elevation and hepatic fat accumulation. Long-term use of lomitapide was associated with an increased risk of progressing to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Conclusions Lomitapide improved most lipid parameters but not HDL-C or ApoA-1 in patients with HoFH and in non-HoFH patients, and gastrointestinal disorders were the most common adverse event. The possible benefits of lomitapide should be further evaluated and viewed against its possible long-term side effects.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0214-7
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2017)
  • A Systematic Review of Add-on Pharmacologic Therapy in the Treatment of
           Resistant Hypertension
    • Authors: Anita P. Tataru; Arden R. Barry
      Pages: 311 - 318
      Abstract: Introduction The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of add-on pharmacologic therapies in the treatment of resistant hypertension (RH), defined as blood pressure (BP) above target despite three antihypertensive agents. Methods A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL,, and Google Scholar (inception to June 2016) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any antihypertensive agent with control in patients with RH. Outcomes of interest included differences in BP, cardiovascular events, and serious adverse events. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in RCTs was used to evaluate the quality of the included trials. Results Six RCTs were identified, including 749 participants. Four RCTs compared spironolactone with placebo and two used an active comparator. Four of the six studies did not report sufficient information regarding methods. A quantitative meta-analysis was not performed because of clinical heterogeneity among the RCTs. Compared with placebo, spironolactone reduced mean office BP by ~10 to 20 mmHg/~3 to 9 mmHg and home BP by ~10/4 mmHg. Compared with doxazosin or bisoprolol, spironolactone reduced clinic and home systolic BP, but not diastolic BP. Hyperkalemia occurred in ~3% of patients receiving spironolactone. Cardiovascular events were not consistently reported. All trials were limited by low enrollment, short follow-up, and inconsistent reporting of clinically meaningful outcomes and/or serious adverse events. Conclusions Spironolactone has the best evidence as add-on pharmacologic therapy in patients with RH, but data are limited.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0224-5
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2017)
  • The 100 Most Influential Papers in the Field of Thrombolytic Therapy: A
           Bibliometric Analysis
    • Authors: Tariq Jamal Siddiqi; Muhammad Shariq Usman; Muhammad Shahzeb Khan; Kaneez Fatima; Alexander Norbash; Adnan Iqbal Qureshi; Abdur Rahman Khan; Faisal Khosa
      Pages: 319 - 333
      Abstract: Background Bibliometric analyses are used by researchers and research funding agencies to help determine areas of greatest interest, and consequently which topics and domains warrant increased research attention. Bibliometric analyses have similarly been published in a number of clinical subspecialties concerning areas of specific medical interest; however, a thorough literature search revealed that such a study has been absent in the field of thrombolytics to date. To bridge this gap, we conducted a citation analysis of the 100 most influential articles on thrombolytics. Methods Scopus was selected as the database of choice. Two independent researchers explored the database to extract relevant articles. The articles were ranked according to the number of citations, and a sequential list of the top 100 original articles was prepared in descending order. A detailed analysis was carried out to identify trends and uncover significant discriminators. A second list containing the top 10 review articles was also separately prepared. Results The 100 most-cited articles regarding thrombolytics were published between 1973 and 2015, with the most articles (n = 29) published in the 5-year period extending from 1996 to 2000. The total number of citations of these 100 most-cited articles ranged from a low of 389 to a high of 6971, with a median of 612.5 citations. These 100 most-cited articles originated from 26 different countries, with more than half from the USA (n = 54), followed by the next most popular countries of origin Germany (n = 20) and France (n = 15). The New England Journal of Medicine (n = 26) and The Lancet (n = 26) contributed the majority of the articles. Conclusion Our analysis provides insight into the span of research activity and the nature of inquiry dealing with ‘thrombolytic therapy,’ with the hope that such analysis may help to effectively guide future research. Our analysis also yielded a list of the most highly cited and presumably most impactful guideline articles within this field, for distinct consideration.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0227-2
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effect of Milrinone Infusion on Pulmonary Vasculature and Stroke Work
           Indices: A Single-Center Retrospective Analysis in 69 Patients Awaiting
           Cardiac Transplantation
    • Authors: Dmitry Abramov; Nicholas A. Haglund; Thomas G. Di Salvo
      Pages: 335 - 342
      Abstract: Background Although milrinone infusion is reported to benefit left ventricular function in chronic left heart failure, few insights exist regarding its effects on pulmonary circulation and right ventricular function. Methods We retrospectively reviewed right heart catheterization data at baseline and during continuous infusion of milrinone in 69 patients with advanced heart failure and analyzed the effects on ventricular stroke work indices, pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial compliance. Results Compared to baseline, milrinone infusion after a mean 58 ± 61 days improved mean left ventricular stroke work index (1540 ± 656 vs. 2079 ± 919 mmHg·mL/m2, p = 0.0007) to a much greater extent than right ventricular stroke work index (616 ± 346 vs. 654 ± 332, p = 0.053); however, patients with below median stroke work indices experienced a significant improvement in both left and right ventricular stroke work performance. Overall, milrinone reduced left and right ventricular filling pressures and pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance by approximately 20%. Despite an increase in pulmonary artery capacitance (2.3 ± 1.6 to 3.0 ± 2.0, p = 0.013) and a reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance (3.8 ± 2.3 to 3.0 ± 1.7 Wood units), milrinone did not reduce the transpulmonary gradient (13 ± 7 vs. 12 ± 6 mmHg, p = 0.252), the pulmonary artery pulse pressure (25 ± 10 vs. 24 ± 10, p = 0.64) or the pulmonary artery diastolic to pulmonary capillary wedge gradient (2.0 ± 6.5 vs. 2.4 ± 6.0, p = 0.353). Conclusion Milrinone improved left ventricular stroke work indices to a greater extent than right ventricular stroke work indices and had beneficial effects on right ventricular net input impedance, predominantly via augmentation of left ventricular stroke volume and passive unloading of the pulmonary circuit. Patients who had the worst biventricular performance benefited the most from chronic milrinone infusion.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0225-4
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2017)
  • Defining the Place of Ezetimibe/Atorvastatin in the Management of
    • Authors: António Miguel Ferreira; Pedro Marques da Silva
      Pages: 169 - 181
      Abstract: Statin–ezetimibe combinations are a potentially advantageous therapeutic option for high-risk patients who need additional lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). These combinations may overcome some of the limitations of statin monotherapy by blocking both sources of cholesterol. Recently, a fixed-dose combination with atorvastatin, one of the most extensively studied statins, was approved and launched in several countries, including the USA. Depending on atorvastatin dose, this combination provides LDL-C reductions of 50–60%, triglyceride reductions of 30–40%, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increases of 5–9%. Studies comparing the lipid-lowering efficacy of the atorvastatin–ezetimibe combination with the alternatives of statin dose titration or switching to a more potent statin consistently showed that combination therapy provided greater LDL-C reduction, translating into a greater proportion of patients achieving lipid goals. Simvastatin–ezetimibe combinations have been shown to reduce the incidence of major atherosclerotic events in several clinical settings to a magnitude that seems similar to that observed with statins for the same degree of absolute LDL-C lowering. The atorvastatin–ezetimibe combination has also been shown to induce the regression of coronary atherosclerosis measured by intravascular ultrasound in a significantly greater proportion of patients than atorvastatin alone. Atorvastatin–ezetimibe combinations are generally well tolerated. Previous concerns of a possible increase in the incidence of cancer with ezetimibe were dismissed in large trials with long follow-up periods. In this paper, we examine the rationale for an atorvastatin–ezetimibe combination, review the evidence supporting it, and discuss its potential role in the management of dyslipidemia.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0205-0
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
  • Iron Therapy in Patients with Heart Failure and Iron Deficiency: Review of
           Iron Preparations for Practitioners
    • Authors: Marcin Drozd; Ewa A. Jankowska; Waldemar Banasiak; Piotr Ponikowski
      Pages: 183 - 201
      Abstract: In patients with heart failure (HF), iron deficiency (ID) correlates with decreased exercise capacity and poor health-related quality of life, and predicts worse outcomes. Both absolute (depleted iron stores) and functional (where iron is unavailable for dedicated tissues) ID can be easily evaluated in patients with HF using standard laboratory tests (assessment of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation). Intravenous iron therapy in iron-deficient patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction has been shown to alleviate HF symptoms and improve exercise capacity and quality of life. In this paper, we provide information on how to diagnose ID in HF. Further we discuss pros and cons of different iron preparations and discuss the results of major trials implementing iron supplementation in HF patients, in order to provide practical guidance for clinicians on how to manage ID in patients with HF.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0211-2
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
  • Interpreting Cardiovascular Endpoints in Trials of Antihyperglycemic Drugs
    • Authors: Himika Chawla; Nikhil Tandon
      Pages: 203 - 215
      Abstract: In view of the significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and concerns raised about the CV safety of some glucose-lowering drugs, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued guidance for the industry in 2008 to demonstrate CV safety for the approval of all new antihyperglycemic drugs. Seven randomized controlled trials involving around 60,000 participants have been completed so far and have demonstrated the CV safety of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (saxagliptin, alogliptin and sitagliptin), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (lixisenatide, liraglutide and semaglutide) and a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (empagliflozin) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Three of these trials have in fact reported superiority of the study drug over placebo in terms of CV outcomes. However, all these trials were primarily designed as non-inferiority trials to exclude an unacceptable risk of CV events with these drugs in the shortest possible time period. The potential long-term benefit or risks were not assessed effectively as the median follow-up in these studies was limited to 1.5–3 years. Also, these trials included patients with relatively long duration of diabetes, advanced atherosclerosis and higher CV risk. Thus, these trials were not intended to assess CV benefit and are best interpreted as evidence for CV safety of these antihyperglycemic medications.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0215-6
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
  • Managing Cardiovascular Risk in Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency
    • Authors: James J. Maciejko
      Pages: 217 - 231
      Abstract: Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare, life-threatening, autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the LIPA gene, which encodes for lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). This enzyme is necessary for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride in lysosomes. Deficient LAL activity causes accumulation of these lipids in lysosomes and a marked decrease in the cytoplasmic free cholesterol concentration, leading to dysfunctional cholesterol homeostasis. The accumulation of neutral lipid occurs predominantly in liver, spleen, and macrophages throughout the body, and the aberrant cholesterol homeostasis causes a marked dyslipidemia. LAL-D is characterized by accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and hepatic microvesicular or mixed steatosis, leading to inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver failure. LAL-D presents as a clinical continuum with two phenotypes: the infantile-onset phenotype, formally referred to as Wolman disease, and the later-onset phenotype, formerly referred to as cholesteryl ester storage disease. Infants with LAL-D present within the first few weeks of life with vomiting, diarrhea, hepatosplenomegaly, failure to thrive and rapid progression to liver failure and death by 6–12 months of age. Children and young adults with LAL-D generally present with marked dyslipidemia, hepatic enzyme elevation, hepatomegaly and mixed steatosis by liver biopsy. The average age of the initial signs and symptoms of the later-onset phenotype is about 5 years old. The typical dyslipidemia is a significantly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration and a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration, placing these individuals at heightened risk for premature ASCVD. Diagnosis of the later-onset phenotype of LAL-D requires a heightened awareness of the disease because the dyslipidemia and hepatic transaminase elevation combination are common and overlap with other metabolic disorders. LAL-D should be considered in the differential diagnosis of healthy weight children and young adults with unexplained hepatic transaminase elevation accompanied by an elevated LDL-C level (>160 mg/dL) and low HDL-C level (<35 mg/dL) that is not caused by monogenic and polygenic lipid disorders or secondary factors. Treatment of LAL-D with sebelipase alfa (LAL replacement enzyme) should be considered as the standard of treatment in all individuals diagnosed with LAL-D. Other ASCVD risk factors that may be present (hypertension, tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, etc.) should be managed appropriately, consistent with secondary prevention goals.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0216-5
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
  • Results of an International Postmarketing Surveillance Study of pl-VEGF165
           Safety and Efficacy in 210 Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease
    • Authors: Roman Deev; Igor Plaksa; Ilia Bozo; Artur Isaev
      Pages: 235 - 242
      Abstract: Introduction The effective treatment of chronic lower limb ischemia is one of the most challenging issues confronting vascular surgeons. Current pharmacological therapies play an auxiliary role and cannot prevent disease progression, and new treatment methods are needed. pl-VEGF165, a gene therapy drug, was approved in Russia for the treatment of atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) after clinical studies in 2011. The study drug is an original gene construction in which pl-VEGF165 1.2 mg is the active substance. Objective This postmarketing surveillance study was undertaken to evaluate the safety (identification of uncommon side effects) and efficacy of gene therapy in patients in routine clinical practice. Methods In total, 210 patients with stage II–III chronic limb ischemia (according to the Fontaine classification modified by AV Pokrovsky) in 33 healthcare facilities in Russia and the Ukraine were enrolled in the study. The control group (n = 60) received conservative therapy without prostaglandins and prostacyclins, and the treatment group (n = 150) received treatment with pl-VEGF165 as two intramuscular injections for a total dose of 2.4 mg. Pain-free walking distance (PWD) (the primary efficacy criterion for Fontaine stages II–III), blood flow linear velocity (BFLV), and ankle-brachial index (ABI) were monitored for 6 months. The safety of pl-VEGF165 gene transfer in terms of the trial protocol was initially evaluated 6 months after the start of the study; adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded during both routine visits and unscheduled requests for medical care. Results Overall, PWD increased by 177%, from 100.3 ± 6.9 to 277.1 ± 16.2 m (p = 0.0001), in the treatment group, whereas the mean value was unchanged in the control group (p = 0.218). Both BFLV and ABI values increased by 24% (p = 0.0001) in the treatment group but decreased in the control group. The greatest therapeutic effect was observed for stage III disease: PWD increased by 683% (p = 0.0001). No angiogenic therapy-related AEs or side effects were recorded, and target limb salvage was 96 and 97% in the treatment and control groups, respectively. The results obtained in this study are not significantly different from those observed in the phase IIb/III registration clinical study completed in 2011. Conclusion pl-VEGF165 intramuscular gene transfer is an effective treatment for moderate to severe claudication due to chronic lower limb ischemia in routine clinical practice. identifier: NCT02369809.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0210-3
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
  • Rates of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use in Patients with
           Established Cardiovascular Disease: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Study
           from NHANES 2009–2010
    • Authors: Gregory Castelli; Ashley Petrone; Jun Xiang; Carl Shrader; Dana King
      Pages: 243 - 249
      Abstract: Purpose Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever in the USA. Unfortunately, NSAIDs have been associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, especially among NSAID users with established cardiovascular disease (CVD). In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released an initial warning regarding NSAID use and CVD risk, and recently, in July 2015, released an updated statement strengthening this initial warning. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the rates of NSAID use among patients with CVD following the 2005 FDA warning regarding NSAID use and increased CVD risk. Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010. Participants’ CVD status was determined by self-reported diagnosis. Current use of over the counter (OTC) NSAIDs was defined by self-reported use of ibuprofen or naproxen, and we identified the current use of prescription NSAIDs in the database of prescription medication. Results Respondents with CVD were 2.1 times more likely to use OTC NSAIDs or prescription NSAIDs than respondents without CVD. Among CVD patients, respondents with angina and myocardial infarction were 60% more likely to use any form of NSAID, and respondents with congestive heart failure were less likely to use any form of NSAID than those with other forms of CVD. Conclusions Our results indicate that there is still a large proportion of CVD patients using NSAIDs. It is now crucial to determine the reasons why prescribers are still prescribing NSAIDs despite the FDA warning.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0212-1
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
  • No Effect of Omega-3 Carboxylic Acids on Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
           of Warfarin or on Platelet Function When Co-administered with
           Acetylsalicylic Acid: Results of Two Phase I Studies in Healthy Volunteers
    • Authors: Elliot Offman; Michael Davidson; Catarina Nilsson
      Pages: 251 - 260
      Abstract: Background Omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) can lower triglyceride levels. Objective Our objective was to assess the effects of OM3-CA on warfarin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-dependent and independent platelet activation when co-administered with ASA in two phase I studies. Methods In ECLIPSE II (NCT01431690), 26 participants received warfarin 25 mg on days 1 and 22 and OM3-CA 4 g once daily from day 8 to day 28. In OM-EPA-007 (NCT01486433), 52 participants received simvastatin 40 mg plus ASA 81 mg once daily for 14 days, with or without OM3-CA 4 g. Lack of a drug–drug interaction was indicated when 90% confidence intervals (CIs) fell entirely within the range 80–125% for least-squares mean (LSM) ratios of area under the concentration–time curve (AUC), maximum observed plasma concentration (C max), international normalized ratio (INR) AUC to 168 h and maximum INR. Results In ECLIPSE II, 90% CIs for LSM ratios of with:without OM3-CA fell within 80–125% for AUC and C max of S- and R-warfarin enantiomers. The 90% CIs for LSM ratios of with:without OM3-CA fell within 80–125% for INR AUC to 168 h after dosing and for maximum INR of warfarin. In OM-EPA-007, no significant effect of OM3-CA was observed on ASA-dependent or ASA-independent platelet activation. No deaths or serious adverse events occurred in either study. Conclusion OM3-CA did not affect the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of warfarin or the pharmacodynamic effects of ASA. OM3-CA did not affect platelet function when co-administered with ASA.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0217-4
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
  • Long-Term Follow-up of Patients with Coronary Slow Flow Phenomenon
    • Authors: Kenji Sadamatsu; Yasuaki Koga; Hideki Tashiro
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0241-4
  • The Effect of Endothelin Receptor Antagonists in Patients with Eisenmenger
           Syndrome: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Abdelrahman Elshafay; Duy Hieu Truong; Mohamed M. AboElnas; Hossam Idrees; Hatem G. Metwali; Nguyen Lam Vuong; Omar Ahmed Saad; Kenji Hirayama; Nguyen Tien Huy
      Abstract: Introduction The efficacy of endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) in the management of Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) remains controversial. The aim of this study is to systemically review the safety and effects of ERAs in improving the quality of life and basic cardiac functions of these patients. Methods Twelve databases were searched, including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Virtual Health Library, World Health Organization (WHO) Global Health Library, Google Scholar, POPLINE, Systems for Information of Grey Literature in Europe, New York Academy of Medicine,, metaRegister of Controlled Trials and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, through August 2016. We included randomized clinical trials addressing the effect of ERAs on cardiac functions in patients with ES. The quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Results We included two trials represented by four papers, of which three papers reported the efficacy of bosentan against placebo and one paper reported the results of a combination of bosentan and sildenafil versus placebo and bosentan. One trial showed a significant effect of bosentan treatment over placebo on indexed pulmonary vascular resistance and mean pulmonary artery pressure, but a non-significant increase in 6-min walk distance and a non-significant effect on systemic pulse oximetry. The other trial reported the safe but non-significant effect of combination therapy of bosentan and sildenafil compared with bosentan and placebo. Conclusions This study demonstrated safety and improved hemodynamic effects of bosentan in ES, with a controversial effect on exercise capacity. Further randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up duration are needed to confirm these results.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0240-5
  • The Ratio of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) to Arachidonic Acid may be a
           Residual Risk Marker in Stable Coronary Artery Disease Patients Receiving
           Treatment with Statin Following EPA Therapy
    • Authors: Shigemasa Tani; Ken Nagao; Kenji Kawauchi; Tsukasa Yagi; Wataru Atsumi; Rei Matsuo; Atsushi Hirayama
      Abstract: Background We investigated the relationship between the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) level, a major residual risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), in statin-treated CAD patients following EPA therapy. Methods We conducted a 6-month, prospective, randomized clinical trial to investigate the effect of the additional administration of EPA on the EPA/AA ratio and the serum non-HDL-C level in stable CAD patients receiving statin treatment. We assigned CAD patients already receiving statin therapy to an EPA group (1800 mg/day; n = 50) or a control group (n = 50). Results A significant reduction in the serum non-HDL-C level was observed in the EPA group, compared with the control group (−9.7 vs. −1.2%, p = 0.01). A multiple-regression analysis with adjustments for coronary risk factors revealed that achieved EPA/AA ratio was more reliable as an independent and significant predictor of a reduction in the non-HDL-C level at a 6-month follow-up examination (β = −0.324, p = 0.033) than the absolute change in the EPA/AA ratio. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were found between the baseline levels and the absolute change values of both non-HDL-C and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, both markers of residual risk of CAD, indicating that patients with a higher baseline residual risk achieved a greater reduction. Conclusion The present results suggest that the achieved EPA/AA ratio, but not the absolute change in EPA/AA ratio, following EPA therapy might be a useful marker for the risk stratification of CAD among statin-treated patients with a high non-HDL-C level. Clinical Trial Registration UMIN ( Study ID: UMIN000010452.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0238-z
  • Effects of Levosimendan on Patients with Heart Failure Complicating Acute
           Coronary Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Authors: Guokai Shang; Xinyan Yang; Daijun Song; Yun Ti; Yuanyuan Shang; Zhihao Wang; Mengxiong Tang; Yun Zhang; Wei Zhang; Ming Zhong
      Abstract: Background The prognosis for patients with heart failure (HF), including cardiogenic shock (CS), complicating acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains poor. Objective This study aimed to review the relevant literature and evaluate whether levosimendan was associated with better clinical outcomes in these patients. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library databases for randomized controlled trials that investigated levosimendan compared with any control in patients with HF/CS complicating ACS. Results A total of 1065 patients from nine trials were included in this study. Analysis showed that levosimendan significantly reduced total mortality and the incidence of worsening HF. In patients with HF-ACS, levosimendan was associated with reduced mortality. In patients with CS-ACS, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Levosimendan contributed to significantly reduced mortality when compared with placebo, but no significant reduction was seen compared with dobutamine. Compared with controls, levosimendan decreased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and systemic vascular resistance and increased cardiac index, with no significant difference observed between the groups in terms of heart rate. Levosimendan non-significantly increased the risk of hypotension but did not increase the risk of ischemic episodes, sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, or ventricular arrhythmias. Conclusion Levosimendan appears to be a promising drug to reduce mortality and worsening HF in patients with HF/CS-ACS. It appears to provide hemodynamic benefit and was associated with an increased risk of hypotension.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0237-0
  • 66th Annual Scientific Sessions of the American College of Cardiology:
           17–19 March 2017; Washington, DC, USA
    • Authors: Amitabh Prakash
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0234-3
  • Erratum to: Managing Cardiovascular Risk in Lysosomal Acid Lipase
    • Authors: James J. Maciejko
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0228-1
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