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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
  [SJR: 0.864]   [H-I: 39]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1175-3277 - ISSN (Online) 1179-187X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Does Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Mitigate Statin-Associated Muscle
           Symptoms' Pharmacological and Methodological Considerations
    • Authors: Beth A. Taylor
      Pages: 75 - 82
      Abstract: Statin drugs markedly reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and consequently the incidence of cardiac events. In approximately 5–10% of adults, these drugs are associated with a range of muscle side effects such as muscle pain, cramping and weakness. Reduction in mitochondrial coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), or ubiquinone, has been proposed as a mechanism for these statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and thus various formulations of CoQ10 are marketed and consumed for the prevention and treatment of SAMS. However, data supporting the efficacy of CoQ10 are equivocal, with some studies showing that CoQ10 supplementation reduces the incidence and severity of SAMS and others finding no beneficial effects of supplementation. Methodological and pharmacological issues may confound interpretation of data on this topic. For example, many patients who report SAMS, such as those who have been enrolled in previous CoQ10 studies, may be experiencing non-specific (non-statin-associated) muscle pain. In addition, the effectiveness of oral CoQ10 supplementation to increase mitochondrial CoQ10 in human skeletal muscle is not well established. This manuscript will critically evaluate the published data on the efficacy of CoQ10 supplements in the prevention and treatment of SAMS.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0251-2
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2018)
  • Comparing the Impact of Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products on
           Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
    • Authors: Randall P. Sharp; Barry J. Gales; Riaz Sirajuddin
      Pages: 83 - 92
      Abstract: Elevated levels of triglycerides are associated with pancreatitis and an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Numerous pharmacologic therapies are available to treat hypertriglyceridemia, including prescription omega-3 fatty acids, which reduce triglyceride levels by 20–50%. Available data indicate the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be beneficial for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Products containing DHA may increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and, subsequently, coronary heart disease risk. We reviewed prescription omega-3 fatty acid products, of which two—omega-3 acid ethyl esters (OM3EE) and omega-3 carboxylic acid (OM3CA)—contain both DHA and EPA, whereas the other—icosapent ethyl (IPE)—contains EPA only. We identified three retrospective chart reviews and three case reports comparing IPE with OM3EE, whereas two studies compared IPE with placebo. We also reviewed the major studies of OM3EE versus placebo used to gain US FDA approval. LDL-C levels decreased or did not increase significantly in all available studies and case reports in patients receiving the IPE product, with the best data supporting a dose of 4 g per day. The majority of studies only included patients taking IPE concomitantly with statins, but limited data from one study using IPE monotherapy showed a small reduction in LDL-C. Many questions remain regarding IPE, including whether the product reduces cardiovascular events and mortality.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0253-0
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2018)
  • The Effect of Endothelin Receptor Antagonists in Patients with Eisenmenger
           Syndrome: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Abdelrahman Elshafay; Duy Hieu Truong; Mohamed M. AboElnas; Hossam Idrees; Hatem G. Metwali; Nguyen Lam Vuong; Omar Ahmed Saad; Kenji Hirayama; Nguyen Tien Huy
      Pages: 93 - 102
      Abstract: Introduction The efficacy of endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) in the management of Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) remains controversial. The aim of this study is to systemically review the safety and effects of ERAs in improving the quality of life and basic cardiac functions of these patients. Methods Twelve databases were searched, including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Virtual Health Library, World Health Organization (WHO) Global Health Library, Google Scholar, POPLINE, Systems for Information of Grey Literature in Europe, New York Academy of Medicine,, metaRegister of Controlled Trials and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, through August 2016. We included randomized clinical trials addressing the effect of ERAs on cardiac functions in patients with ES. The quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Results We included two trials represented by four papers, of which three papers reported the efficacy of bosentan against placebo and one paper reported the results of a combination of bosentan and sildenafil versus placebo and bosentan. One trial showed a significant effect of bosentan treatment over placebo on indexed pulmonary vascular resistance and mean pulmonary artery pressure, but a non-significant increase in 6-min walk distance and a non-significant effect on systemic pulse oximetry. The other trial reported the safe but non-significant effect of combination therapy of bosentan and sildenafil compared with bosentan and placebo. Conclusions This study demonstrated safety and improved hemodynamic effects of bosentan in ES, with a controversial effect on exercise capacity. Further randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up duration are needed to confirm these results.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0240-5
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2018)
  • Patient Characteristics and Real-World Treatment Patterns Among Early
           Users of PCSK9 Inhibitors
    • Authors: Pallavi B. Rane; Jeetvan Patel; David J. Harrison; Jason Shepherd; Andrea Leith; Hollie Bailey; James Piercy
      Pages: 103 - 108
      Abstract: Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and are approved for patients with familial hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease who require additional LDL-C lowering. Objective Our objective was to characterize patients receiving PCSK9i medications in real-world practice and describe physician-reported treatment patterns among dyslipidemia patients using PCSK9i or other lipid-lowering therapy. Methods We analyzed data from a point-in-time Adelphi dyslipidemia disease-specific programme (DSP) survey conducted in the USA in 2016. Physicians provided treatment history, laboratory values, patient characteristics, and comorbidities for treated patients. To ensure sufficient numbers of PCSK9i-treated patients, we conducted systematic oversampling of patients being prescribed PCSK9i. Outcomes included patient characteristics and physician-reported treatment patterns. Results The DSP included 159 physicians, who provided information on 1522 patients (304 PCSK9i; 1218 non-PCSK9i). Mean ± standard deviation (SD) baseline LDL-C levels were 180.0 ± 39.7 mg/dl for PCSK9i patients and 159.2 ± 40.5 mg/dl for non-PCSK9i patients. Prior statin use was reported in 69.1% of PCSK9i patients and 19.5% of non-PCSK9i patients, and physician-reported statin intolerance was observed in 31.6% of PCSK9i and 5.3% of non-PCSK9i patients. Use of statins only was reported in 40.5% of PCSK9i and 88.8% of non-PCSK9i patients. The most common physician-reported reasons for change to PCSK9i were lack of efficacy (70.2%) and muscle-related symptoms (myalgia 28.6%; myopathy 11.1%). Conclusions Physicians surveyed appeared to prescribe PCSK9i medications appropriately. PCSK9i-treated patients had higher rates of cardiovascular comorbidities and physician-determined statin intolerance, had higher LDL-C levels, and received more lines of therapy than non-PCSK9i patients.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0246-z
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2018)
  • Selective BET Protein Inhibition with Apabetalone and Cardiovascular
           Events: A Pooled Analysis of Trials in Patients with Coronary Artery
    • Authors: Stephen J. Nicholls; Kausik K. Ray; Jan O. Johansson; Alan Gordon; Michael Sweeney; Chris Halliday; Ewelina Kulikowski; Norman Wong; Susan W. Kim; Gregory G. Schwartz
      Pages: 109 - 115
      Abstract: Background Inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins can modulate lipoprotein and inflammatory factors that mediate atherosclerosis. The impact of the BET inhibitor, apabetalone, on cardiovascular events is unknown. Objective Our objective was to investigate the impact of apabetalone on cardiovascular event rates in a pooled analysis of clinical studies in patients with established coronary artery disease. Methods We conducted a pooled analysis of patients (n = 798) with coronary artery disease who participated in clinical trials (ASSERT, ASSURE, SUSTAIN) that evaluated the impact of 3–6 months of treatment with apabetalone on lipid parameters and coronary atherosclerosis. The incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, hospitalization for cardiovascular causes) in the treatment groups was evaluated. Results At baseline, patients treated with apabetalone were more likely to be Caucasian, have a history of dyslipidemia, and be undertreated with ß-blocker and anti-platelet agents. Treatment with apabetalone produced the following dose-dependent changes compared with placebo: increases in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) of up to 6.7% (P < 0.001), increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) of up to 6.5% (P < 0.001), increases in large HDL particles of up to 23.3% (P < 0.001), and decreases in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) of − 21.1% (P = 0.04). Apabetalone treatment did not affect atherogenic lipoproteins compared with placebo. Patients treated with apabetalone experienced fewer major adverse cardiovascular events than those treated with placebo (5.9 vs. 10.4%; P = 0.02), a finding that was more prominent in patients with diabetes (5.4 vs. 12.7%; P = 0.02), with baseline HDL-C < 39 mg/dl (5.5 vs. 12.8%; P = 0.01), or with elevated hsCRP levels (5.4 vs. 14.2%; P = 0.02). Conclusion Pooled analysis of short-term studies demonstrated fewer cardiovascular events among patients treated with the BET protein inhibitor, apabetalone, than among those treated with placebo. BET protein inhibition warrants further investigation as a novel approach to cardiovascular risk reduction.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0250-3
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2018)
  • Impact of Trimetazidine Treatment on 5-year Clinical Outcomes in Patients
    • Authors: Yong Hoon Kim; Ae-Young Her; Seung-Woon Rha; Byoung Geol Choi; Se Yeon Choi; Jae Kyeong Byun; Ahmed Mashaly; Yoonjee Park; Won Young Jang; Woohyeun Kim; Jah Yeon Choi; Eun Jin Park; Jin Oh Na; Cheol Ung Choi; Hong Euy Lim; Eung Ju Kim; Chang Gyu Park; Hong Seog Seo; Dong Joo Oh
      Pages: 117 - 127
      Abstract: Objective We aimed to evaluate the additive benefit of trimetazidine with well-known antispasmodic agents such as calcium channel blockers and nitrate in patients with significant coronary artery spasm (CAS) as assessed by acetylcholine provocation test up to 5 years. Methods A total 1727 patients with significant CAS were enrolled. They were divided into two groups: a trimetazidine group (trimetazidine, diltiazem, and nitrate, n = 695), and control group (diltiazem and nitrate, n = 473). After propensity score matching analysis, two matched groups (441 pairs, n = 882, C-statistic = 0.673) were generated. The individual and composite clinical end points [mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), revascularization, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), major adverse cardiac events (MACE), major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and recurrent angina] were assessed up to 5 years for the two groups. Results At 5 years, there were similar incidences of individual and composite hard endpoints including mortality, MI, revascularization, CVA, MACE, MACCE, and recurrent angina in the two groups. Conclusions Additional long-term (5-year) treatment with trimetazidine in combination with diltiazem and nitrate in patients with significant CAS was not associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with combination therapy with diltiazem and nitrate only (without trimetazidine).
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0254-z
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2018)
  • One-Year Clinical Effectiveness Comparison of Prasugrel with Ticagrelor:
           Results from a Retrospective Observational Study using an Integrated
           Claims Database
    • Authors: Mark B. Effron; Kavita V. Nair; Cliff Molife; Stuart Y. Keller; Robert L. Page; Jason C. Simeone; Brian Murphy; Beth L. Nordstrom; Yajun Zhu; Patrick L. McCollam; George W. Vetrovec
      Pages: 129 - 141
      Abstract: Background No direct comparisons of ticagrelor and prasugrel with 1-year clinical follow-up have been reported. Objectives Our objective was to compare 1-year clinical outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) managed with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and treated with either ticagrelor or prasugrel in a real-world setting. Methods This retrospective study included patients from a payer database who were aged ≥18 years and had ACS managed with PCI with no history of transient ischemic attack (TIA)/stroke. Data were propensity matched for prasugrel use with a 3:1 prasugrel:ticagrelor ratio. Post-discharge net adverse clinical event (NACE) rate at 1 year was evaluated for noninferiority using a pre-defined 20% margin. NACE was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) or rehospitalization for bleeding. Results In total, 15,788 ACS-PCI patients were included (prasugrel 12,797; ticagrelor 2991). Prasugrel-treated patients were younger; less likely to be female, have prior myocardial infarction (MI), diabetes, or non-ST-segment elevation MI (NSTEMI); and more likely to have unstable angina (UA) than ticagrelor-treated patients. Prior to matching, NACE and MACE (P < 0.01) were lower, with no difference in bleeding with prasugrel compared with ticagrelor. After matching, there was no significant difference in baseline characteristics. Noninferiority was demonstrated for NACE, MACE, and bleeding between prasugrel and ticagrelor. NACE and MACE were significantly lower with prasugrel use, primarily driven by heart failure, with no significant difference in all-cause death, MI, UA, revascularization, TIA/stroke, or bleeding. Conclusions In this retrospective study, physicians preferentially used prasugrel rather than ticagrelor in younger ACS-PCI patients with lower risk of bleeding or comorbidities. After propensity matching, clinical outcomes associated with prasugrel were noninferior to those with ticagrelor.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0255-y
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2018)
  • Association of Beta-Blockers with Survival on Patients Presenting with ACS
           Treated with PCI: A Propensity Score Analysis from the BleeMACS Registry
    • Authors: Fabrizio D’Ascenzo; Dario Celentani; Alessandro Brustio; Alberto Grosso; Sergio Raposeiras-Roubín; Emad Abu-Assi; Jose Paulo Simao Henriques; Jorge Saucedo; José Ramón González-Juanatey; Stephen B. Wilton; Wouter J. Kikkert; Iván Nuñez-Gil; Albert Ariza-Sole; Xiantao Song; Dimitrios Alexopoulos; Christoph Liebetrau; Tetsuma Kawaji; Zenon Huczek; Shao-Ping Nie; Toshiharu Fujii; Luis Correia; Masa-aki Kawashiri; José María García-Acuña; Danielle Southern; Emilio Alfonso; Belén Terol; Alberto Garay; Dongfeng Zhang; Yalei Chen; Ioanna Xanthopoulou; Neriman Osman; Helge Möllmann; Hiroki Shiomi; Michal Kowara; Krzysztof Filipiak; Xiao Wang; Yan Yan; Jing-Yao Fan; Yuji Ikari; Takuya Nakahayshi; Kenji Sakata; Masakazu Yamagishi; Oliver Kalpak; Sasko Kedev; Claudio Moretti; Maurizio D’Amico; Fiorenzo Gaita
      Abstract: Purpose The aim was to evaluate prognostic value of beta-blocker (BB) administration in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) patients in the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) era. Methods and Results The BleeMACS project is a multicenter, observational, retrospective registry enrolling patients with ACS worldwide in 15 hospitals. Patients discharged with BB therapy were compared to those discharged without a BB before and after propensity score with matching. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 1 year. Secondary endpoints included in-hospital reinfarction, in-hospital heart failure, 1-year myocardial infarction, 1-year bleeding and 1-year composite of death and recurrent myocardial infarction. After matching, 2935 patients for each group were enrolled. The primary endpoint of 1-year death was significantly lower in the group on BB therapy (4.5 vs 7%, p < 0.05), while only a trend was noted for recurrent acute myocardial infarction (4.5 vs 4.9%, p = 0.54). These results were consistent for patients older than 80 years of age, for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, and for those discharged with complete versus incomplete revascularization, but not for non-STEMI/unstable angina patients. Conclusions BB therapy was related to 1-year lower risk of all-cause mortality, independently from completeness of revascularization, admission diagnosis, age and ejection fraction. Randomized controlled trials for patients treated with PCI for ACS should be performed.
      PubDate: 2018-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0273-4
  • Vitamins for Prevention of Contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury: A
           Systematic Review and Trial Sequential Analysis
    • Authors: Yongxing Xu; Xinming Zheng; Boran Liang; Jianjun Gao; Zhaoyan Gu
      Abstract: Background To date, universally accepted preventive measures for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) do not exist, and they warrant further research. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vitamins, including vitamin C and E, for prevention of CI-AKI. Methods We electronically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. The outcome of interest was the incidence of CI-AKI. Results A total of 19 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled analysis showed that vitamin C plus saline [relative risk (RR) = 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49–0.82, p = 0.0005] and vitamin E plus saline (RR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.24–0.62, p < 0.0001) significantly reduced the incidence of CI-AKI compared to saline alone. The effect of vitamin C plus saline was further confirmed by trial sequential analysis (TSA). However, TSA indicated that more trials are required to confirm the efficacy of vitamin E plus saline. There was no significant difference in preventing CI-AKI between vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.47–1.71, p = 0.75), between vitamin C plus NAC and saline (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.30–1.30, p =  0.20), as well as between vitamin C plus NAC and NAC (RR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.49–1.92, p = 0.93). Conclusions Vitamin C plus saline administration is effective at reducing the risk of CI-AKI. Evidence for the use of vitamin E plus saline in this context is encouraging, but more trials are required. Furthermore, this meta-analysis and TSA indicated insufficient power to draw a definitive conclusion on the effect of vitamin C plus NAC, versus saline or NAC alone, which needs to be explored further.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0274-3
  • A Systematic Review on the Protective Effect of N -Acetyl Cysteine Against
           Diabetes-Associated Cardiovascular Complications
    • Abstract: Introduction Heart failure is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes. No treatment currently exists to specifically protect these patients at risk of developing cardiovascular complications. Accelerated oxidative stress-induced tissue damage due to persistent hyperglycemia is one of the major factors implicated in deteriorated cardiac function within a diabetic state. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), through its enhanced capacity to endogenously synthesize glutathione, a potent antioxidant, has displayed abundant health-promoting properties and has a favorable safety profile. Objective An increasing number of experimental studies have reported on the strong ameliorative properties of NAC. We systematically reviewed the data on the cardioprotective potential of this compound to provide an informative summary. Methods Two independent reviewers systematically searched major databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, and Embase for available studies reporting on the ameliorative effects of NAC as a monotherapy or in combination with other therapies against diabetes-associated cardiovascular complications. We used the ARRIVE and JBI appraisal guidelines to assess the quality of individual studies included in the review. A meta-analysis could not be performed because the included studies were heterogeneous and data from randomized clinical trials were unavailable. Results Most studies support the ameliorative potential of NAC against a number of diabetes-associated complications, including oxidative stress. We discuss future prospects, such as identification of additional molecular mechanisms implicated in diabetes-induced cardiac damage, and highlight limitations, such as insufficient studies reporting on the comparative effect of NAC with common glucose-lowering therapies. Information on the comparative analysis of NAC, in terms of dose selection, administration mode, and its effect on different cardiovascular-related markers is important for translation into clinical studies. Conclusions NAC exhibits strong potential for the protection of the diabetic heart at risk of myocardial infarction through inhibition of oxidative stress. The effect of NAC in preventing both ischemia and non-ischemic-associated cardiac damage is also of interest. Consistency in dose selection in most studies reported remains important in dose translation for clinical relevance.
      PubDate: 2018-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0275-2
  • Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Heart Failure: Current State and
           Future Directions
    • Authors: Tuoyo O. Mene-Afejuku; Persio D. López; Adedoyin Akinlonu; Carissa Dumancas; Ferdinand Visco; Savi Mushiyev; Gerald Pekler
      Abstract: Heart failure affects nearly 26 million people worldwide. Patients with heart failure are frequently affected with atrial fibrillation, and the interrelation between these pathologies is complex. Atrial fibrillation shares the same risk factors as heart failure. Moreover, it is associated with a higher-risk baseline clinical status and higher mortality rates in patients with heart failure. The mechanisms by which atrial fibrillation occurs in a failing heart are incompletely understood, but animal studies suggest they differ from those that occur in a healthy heart. Data suggest that heart failure-induced atrial fibrosis and atrial ionic remodeling are the underlying abnormalities that facilitate atrial fibrillation. Therapeutic considerations for atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure include risk factor modification and guideline-directed medical therapy, anticoagulation, rate control, and rhythm control. As recommended for atrial fibrillation in the non-failing heart, anticoagulation in patients with heart failure should be guided by a careful estimation of the risk of embolic events versus the risk of hemorrhagic episodes. The decision whether to target a rate-control or rhythm-control strategy is an evolving aspect of management. Currently, both approaches are good medical practice, but recent data suggest that rhythm control, particularly when achieved through catheter ablation, is associated with improved outcomes. A promising field of research is the application of neurohormonal modulation to prevent the creation of the “structural substrate” for atrial fibrillation in the failing heart.
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0276-1
  • A Literature Review of Genetic Markers Conferring Impaired Response to
           Cardiovascular Drugs
    • Authors: Hitesh Shukla; Jessica Louise Mason; Abdullah Sabyah
      Abstract: Pharmacogenetics is an emerging area of medicine, and more work is needed to fully integrate it into a clinical setting for the benefit of patients. Genetic markers can influence the action of many drugs, including those that prevent and treat cardiovascular conditions. Genotyping is not yet commonplace, but guidelines are being put in place to help practitioners determine the effect a genetic marker may have on certain drugs. With advancements in genetic technology and falling costs, genotyping could be available to all patients via a simple saliva test. This would be a cost-effective way for practitioners to determine the most effective treatment for individuals, reducing “trial and error,” adverse effects, and rehospitalization rates and increasing patient compliance. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide, so using the most effective medication to treat or prevent them is of utmost importance in reducing incidence and mortality.
      PubDate: 2018-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0267-2
  • Comparative Effectiveness of Inclisiran 100, 300, and 500 mg in a
           Population with Hyperlipidemia: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized
           Controlled Trials
    • Authors: Yang Wang; Jinsong Wang; Shenming Wang
      Abstract: Background To our knowledge, inclisiran was the first agent composed of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to be preliminarily used to reduce proatherogenic lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Inclisiran was evaluated in large clinical trials but did not receive government approval. The ability of inclisiran to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) greatly improved its chances of becoming a novel therapeutic option for patients with hyperlipidemia. Objective Our goal was to summarize the preliminary effectiveness and safety data for inclisiran. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, the OVID EMB Reviews database, and Clinical Trials with the keyword “inclisiran” to find all related randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five recently published RCTs involving 583 adults aged 18–65 years with hyperlipidemia were included in the analysis. Results Subgroup analysis suggested that inclisiran 100 mg (standard mean difference [SMD] − 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] − 2.51 to − 1.66; p < 0.05), 300 mg (SMD − 2.74; 95% CI − 3.61 to − 1.87; p < 0.05), and 500 mg (SMD − 2.21; 95% CI − 2.62 to − 1.80; p < 0.05) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced LDL-C and total cholesterol even though pooled analysis showed no LDL-C-lowering effect (SMD 0.15; 95% CI − 0.34 to 0.04; p = 0.116). Compared with patients receiving placebo, pooled and subgroup analysis of patients receiving inclisiran showed no favorable changes in triglycerides or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p > 0.05). The most commonly reported adverse events were musculoskeletal pain, nasopharyngitis, headache, and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), none of which were significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions To date, inclisiran has been effective in treating hyperlipidemia. Major adverse events were not identified, although other possible adverse events may be discovered with more RCTs and extensive long-term follow-up.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0270-7
  • Effect of Oral Branched-Chain Amino Acids on Serum Albumin Concentration
           in Heart Failure Patients with Hypoalbuminemia: Results of a Preliminary
    • Authors: Yuichi Uchino; Masafumi Watanabe; Munenori Takata; Eisuke Amiya; Kensuke Tsushima; Takeshi Adachi; Yukio Hiroi; Toshikazu Funazaki; Issei Komuro
      Abstract: Background We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to determine whether supplementation with oral branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) improves serum albumin and clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) patients with hypoalbuminemia. Methods and results We randomly assigned 18 in-hospital HF patients with serum albumin < 3.5 g/dL to receive oral BCAA granules (LIVACT®) for 28 days during their hospital stay or until discharge (BCAA group; N = 9) or to receive no supplementation (controls; N = 9), in addition to recommended HF therapy. The primary endpoints were changes from baseline in serum albumin and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR). Sixteen patients completed the study. The mean (± standard deviation) period of BCAA supplementation was 18.4 ± 8.4 days. Serum albumin significantly increased in the BCAA group [mean difference vs baseline, 0.44 g/dL; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13–0.76; P = 0.014] and did not change in controls (0.18 g/dL; 95% CI − 0.05 to 0.40; P = 0.108). CTR significantly decreased in the BCAA group (− 2.3%; 95% CI − 3.8 to − 0.8; P = 0.014) and did not change in controls (− 1.0%; 95% CI − 2.3 to 0.3; P = 0.111). Conclusion In-hospital HF patients with hypoalbuminemia supplemented with BCAAs showed increased serum albumin and decreased CTR. Clinical trial registration number UMIN000004488 []
      PubDate: 2018-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0269-0
  • Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Combination Therapy in Practice
    • Authors: Marsha Burks; Simone Stickel; Nazzareno Galiè
      Abstract: Combination therapy is now regarded as the standard of care in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is becoming widely used in clinical practice. Given the inherent complexities of combining medications, there is a need for practical advice on implementing this treatment strategy in the clinic. Drawing on our experience and expertise, within this review, we discuss some of the challenges associated with administration of combination therapy in PAH and how these can be addressed in the clinic. Despite their differing modes of action, all of the currently available classes of PAH therapy induce systemic vasodilation. In initial combination therapy regimens in particular, this may lead to additive side effects and reduced tolerability compared with monotherapy. However, approaches such as staggered treatment initiation and careful up-titration may reduce the risk of additive side effects and have been used successfully in clinical practice, as well as in clinical trials and registry studies. When combination therapy regimens are initiated, it is important that patients are monitored regularly for the presence of any side effects and that these are then managed promptly and appropriately. For patients to attain the best outcomes, the treatment regimen must be tailored to the individual’s specific needs, including consideration of PAH etiology, the presence of comorbidities and concomitant medications beyond PAH therapy, and patient lifestyle and preference. It is also vital that individuals are managed at expert care centers, where multidisciplinary teams have a wealth of specialist experience in treating PAH patients. Adherence to therapy can be a concern in a chronic disease such as PAH, and as treatment regimens become increasingly complex, maintaining good treatment adherence may become more challenging. It is essential that patients are educated on the importance of treatment adherence, and this is a key role for the PAH nurse specialist. For patients who are managed carefully in expert centers with combination therapy regimens that are tailored to their specific needs, a favorable benefit–risk ratio can be achieved. With individual and carefully managed approaches, the excellent results observed with combination therapy in clinical trials can be obtained by patients in a real-world setting.
      PubDate: 2018-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0272-5
  • Author Correction to: Recent Perioperative Pharmacological Prevention of
           Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery: A Narrative Review
    • Authors: Shurong Li; Shufang Fu; Yichen Xiao; Gaosi Xu
      Abstract: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication of cardiac surgery, and related rates of both hospitalization and long-term mortality are increasing. A number of studies have explored the preventive effects of perioperative pharmacological therapy on AKI after cardiac surgery.
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0271-6
  • Cardioprotection by Metformin: Beneficial Effects Beyond Glucose Reduction
    • Authors: Leon Varjabedian; Mohammad Bourji; Leili Pourafkari; Nader D. Nader
      Abstract: Metformin is a biguanide that is widely used as an insulin-sparing agent to treat diabetes. When compared with the general population, diabetics are twice as likely to die from fatal myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure (CHF). There has been a significant concern regarding the use of metformin in patients with CHF because of their higher tendency to develop lactic acidosis. However, large epidemiological trials have reported better cardiovascular prognosis with metformin compared to other glucose-lowering agents among diabetics. Additionally, metformin has reduced the risk of reinfarction and all-cause mortality in patients with coronary artery disease and CHF, respectively. The protection against cardiovascular diseases appears to be independent of the anti-hyperglycemic effects of metformin. These effects are mediated through an increase in 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and by increased phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cardiomyocytes with an increased production of nitric oxide (NO). Metformin preconditions the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury and may improve myocardial remodeling after an ischemic insult. The preponderance of evidence currently suggests that metformin is safe in patients with CHF, prompting the Food and Drug Administration to remove CHF as a contraindication from the package insert of all generic metformin preparations. In this narrative, along with a limited meta-analysis of available studies, we have reviewed the pleiotropic (non-glucose-lowering) effects of metformin that potentially contribute to its cardioprotective properties. Additionally, we have reviewed issues surrounding the safety of metformin in patients with cardiac diseases.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0266-3
  • Author Correction to: Comparative Efficacy of Drugs for Preventing Acute
           Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery: A Network Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Xi Chen; Tianlun Huang; Xuan Cao; Gaosi Xu
      Abstract: In the print publication, the affiliations were incorrectly published. The author affiliations which previously read Xi Chen1 · Tianlun Huang2 · Xuan Cao1 · Gaosi Xu2 1Grade 2013, The Second Clinical Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China 2Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, No. 1, Minde Road, Donghu District, 330006 Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0263-6
  • Warfarin Safety: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Factors Associated with
    • Authors: Paula Mendonça Leite; Aline A. de Freitas; Aline de O. Magalhães Mourão; Maria A. P. Martins; Rachel O. Castilho
      Abstract: Objective The aim of this study was to analyze factors associated with the consumption of medicinal plants by patients being treated with warfarin in a Brazilian anticoagulation clinic and to study the safety of medicinal plant use in patients on warfarin therapy. Methods The study was performed as an observational cross-sectional analysis. Study participants were outpatients on long-term warfarin therapy for at least 2 months for atrial fibrillation or prosthetic cardiac valves. Interviews were carried out concerning information about the habits of medicinal herb consumption, and logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the consumption of herbs. The scientific names of the medicinal plants were identified to search for information on the effects on the hemostasis of the interactions between the medicinal herbs reported and warfarin. Results The mean age of the 273 patients included was 60.8 years; 58.7% were women. Medicinal plants were used by 67% of the participants. No association between demographic and clinical data and the use of medicinal plants was identified. Patients reported a total of 64 different plants, primarily consumed in the form of tea. The plants were mainly used to treat respiratory tract and central nervous system disorders. About 40% of the plants cited have been reported to potentially interfere with the anticoagulation therapy, principally by potentiating the effects of warfarin, which could, increase the risk of bleeding. Conclusion The use of medicinal plants was highly common and widespread in patients receiving warfarin as an anticoagulation therapy. Univariate analysis of variables associated with the consumption of herbs showed no statistically significant difference in the consumption of medicinal plants for any of the sociodemographic and clinical data. The medicinal plants that were reportedly consumed by the patients could affect hemostasis. This study reinforces the need for further studies evaluating the habits of patients consuming medicinal plants and their clinical implications, and will help to design strategies to manage the risks associated with warfarin-herbal interactions.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0268-1
  • Evaluating the Safety and Tolerability of Sacubitril/Valsartan for HFrEF
           Managed Within a Pharmacist Clinic
    • Authors: Elizabeth K. Pogge; Lindsay E. Davis
      Abstract: Objective The objective of this research was to describe the use of pharmacist-managed sacubitril/valsartan therapy in a multi-center, outpatient cardiac group. Background Sacubitril/valsartan, an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNi), is a novel agent for the treatment of heart failure. An ARNi is recommended by national guidelines to be used in place of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy for patients who remain symptomatic. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients initiated and fully titrated on sacubitril/valsartan therapy from July 7, 2015 to March 7, 2017. Results Fifty-two of the 72 symptomatic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients prescribed sacubitril/valsartan during the 21-month period were included in this analysis. The average ejection fraction was 26%. The average age was 69 years. At baseline, 26.9% of patients were not on ACEi/ARB therapy and 13.5% were on target-dose therapy. After completing the uptitration process, the maximally tolerated dose of sacubitril/valsartan was 5.8% low-dose, 7.7% mid-dose, and 86.5% target-dose. Loop and thiazide diuretic use decreased significantly. There was a significant mean reduction in systolic blood pressure of 6 mmHg with no significant changes in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, or potassium levels. Conclusions With close monitoring and follow-up, ARNi therapy was a safe alternative to ACEi/ARB therapy for chronic symptomatic HFrEF when initiated within a pharmacist clinic.
      PubDate: 2018-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0264-5
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