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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
  [SJR: 0.864]   [H-I: 39]   [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1175-3277 - ISSN (Online) 1179-187X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Therapeutic Targeting of Cellular Stress to Prevent Cardiovascular
           Disease: A Review of the Evidence
    • Authors: Arshag D. Mooradian
      Pages: 83 - 95
      Abstract: Abstract The availability of effective drugs targeting the major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has reduced morbidity and mortality. Cumulative relative risk of CVD events can be reduced by 75 % with a combination of aspirin, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist (β-blocker), an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin), and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The principal pharmacodynamics of these drugs cannot explain the entirety of their cardioprotective action, as other drugs with similar pharmacologic targets have not been associated with favorable clinical effects. This raises the possibility that the cardioprotective drugs have a unique pleiotropic activity that contributes to their clinical efficacy. Recent data suggest that reducing cellular stress such as oxidative, inflammatory, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, might be a common denominator of the drugs with proven efficacy in reducing CVD risk. In this communication, the evidence in favor of this hypothesis is discussed, and ongoing trials with therapeutic agents targeting cellular stresses are reviewed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0199-7
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Clinical Pharmacology and Cardiovascular Safety of Naproxen
    • Authors: Dominick J. Angiolillo; Steven M. Weisman
      Pages: 97 - 107
      Abstract: Abstract The voluntary withdrawal of Vioxx (rofecoxib) from the market in 2004, as well as the 2005 and 2014 US FDA Advisory Committee meetings about non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cardiovascular risk, have raised questions surrounding the use of NSAIDs in at-risk populations. This paper discusses the cardiovascular safety profile of naproxen in the context of the NSAID class. The balance of evidence suggests that cardiovascular risk correlates with cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 selectivity, and the low COX-2 selectivity of naproxen results in a lower cardiovascular risk than that of other NSAIDs. The over-the-counter (OTC) use of naproxen is expected to pose minimal cardiovascular risk; however, the benefit–risk ratio and appropriate use should be considered at an individual patient level, particularly to assess underlying conditions that may increase the risk of events. Likewise, regulatory authorities should revisit label information periodically to ensure labeling reflects the current understanding of benefits and risks.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0200-5
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The Rationale for and Clinical Pharmacology of Prasugrel 5 mg
    • Authors: Joseph A. Jakubowski; David Erlinge; Dimitrios Alexopoulos; David S. Small; Kenneth J. Winters; Paul A. Gurbel; Dominick J. Angiolillo
      Pages: 109 - 121
      Abstract: Abstract Prasugrel is a third-generation thienopyridine platelet P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist administered with aspirin for the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with planned percutaneous coronary intervention. Prasugrel is administered periprocedurally at an oral loading dose of 60 mg followed by daily maintenance doses (MDs) of 10 mg for most patients and 5 mg for patients weighing <60 kg or aged ≥75 years. Data from a prasugrel phase III study, TRITON-TIMI 38, suggested that a lower MD might be more suitable for patients weighing <60 kg or aged ≥75 years; subsequent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have indicated that prasugrel 5 mg reduced platelet reactivity in these populations to an extent similar to that of prasugrel 10 mg in heavier or younger patients. Clinical experience with prasugrel 5 mg is limited, and additional studies are needed to verify the clinical efficacy and safety of this dose in these challenging populations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0202-3
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cost Effectiveness of Apixaban versus Warfarin or Aspirin for Stroke
           Prevention in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: A Greek Perspective
    • Authors: Kostas Athanasakis; Nadia Boubouchairopoulou; Eleftheria Karampli; Filippos Tarantilis; Paraskevi Savvari; Aikaterini Bilitou; John Kyriopoulos
      Pages: 123 - 133
      Abstract: Background Strokes attributed to atrial fibrillation (AF) represent a major cause of adult disability and a great burden to society and healthcare systems. Objectives Our objective was to assess the cost effectiveness of apixaban, a direct acting oral anticoagulant (DOAC), versus warfarin or aspirin for patients with AF in the Greek healthcare setting. Methods We used a previously published Markov model to simulate clinical events for patients with AF treated with apixaban, the vitamin K antagonist (VKA) warfarin, or aspirin. Clinical events (ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, other major bleed, clinically relevant non-major bleed, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular [CV] hospitalizations) were modeled using efficacy data from the ARISTOTLE and AVERROES clinical trials. The cohort’s baseline characteristics also sourced from these trials. Among VKA-suitable patients, 64.7% were men with a mean age of 70 years and average CHADS2 (cardiac failure, hypertension, age, diabetes, stroke2) score of 2.1, whereas 58.5% of VKA-unsuitable patients were men with a mean age of 70 years and a CHADS2 score of 2.0. A panel of experts (cardiologists and internists) provided information on the resource use associated with the management of AF. Cost calculations reflect the local clinical setting and a third-party payer perspective (€, discounted at 3%). Results Based on a simulation of 1000 VKA-suitable patients over a lifetime horizon, the use of apixaban versus warfarin resulted in 26 fewer strokes and systemic embolisms in total, 65 fewer bleeds, 41 fewer myocardial infarctions, and 29 fewer CV-related deaths, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €14,478/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). For VKA-unsuitable patients, apixaban versus aspirin resulted in 72 fewer strokes and systemic embolisms and 57 fewer CV-related deaths, with an ICER of €7104/QALY. Sensitivity analyses indicated that results were robust. Conclusions Based on the present analysis, apixaban represents a cost-effective treatment option versus warfarin and aspirin for the prevention of stroke in patients with AF from a Greek healthcare payer perspective over a lifetime horizon.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0204-1
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Consensus on the Statin of Choice in Patients with Impaired Glucose
           Metabolism: Results of the DIANA Study
    • Authors: Jesús Millán Núñez-Cortés; Aleix Cases Amenós; Juan Francisco Ascaso Gimilio; Vivencio Barrios Alonso; Vicente Pascual Fuster; Juan Carles Pedro-Botet Montoya; Xavier Pintó Sala; Adalberto Serrano Cumplido
      Pages: 135 - 142
      Abstract: Introduction and Objectives Despite the recognized clinical benefit of statins on cardiovascular prevention, providing correct management of hypercholesterolaemia, possible adverse effects of their use cannot be disregarded. Previously published data shows that there is a risk of developing diabetes mellitus or experiencing changes in glucose metabolism in statin-treated patients. The possible determining factors are the drug characteristics (potency, dose), patient characteristics (kidney function, age, cardiovascular risk and polypharmacy because of multiple disorders) and the pre-diabetic state. Methods In order to ascertain the opinion of the experts (primary care physicians and other specialists with experience in the management of this type of patient) we conducted a Delphi study to evaluate the consensus rate on diverse aspects related to the diabetogenicity of different statins, and the factors that influence their choice. Results Consensus was highly significant concerning aspects such as the varying diabetogenicity profiles of different statins, as some of them do not significantly worsen glucose metabolism. There was an almost unanimous consensus that pitavastatin is the safest statin in this regard. Conclusions Factors to consider in the choice of a statin regarding its diabetogenicity are the dose and patient-related factors: age, cardiovascular risk, diabetes risk and baseline metabolic parameters (which must be monitored during the treatment), as well as kidney function.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0197-9
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cardiovascular Safety of Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors: A
           Meta-Analysis of Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trials
    • Authors: Islam Y. Elgendy; Ahmed N. Mahmoud; Amr F. Barakat; Akram Y. Elgendy; Marwan Saad; Ahmed Abuzaid; Siddarth A. Wayangankar; Anthony A. Bavry
      Pages: 143 - 155
      Abstract: Background Large randomized trials have shown conflicting evidence regarding the cardiovascular safety of dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Systematic reviews have been limited by incomplete data and inclusion of observational studies. This study aimed to systematically evaluate the cardiovascular safety of DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomized trials that compared DPP-4 inhibitors versus placebo and reported cardiovascular outcomes. The main outcome assessed in this analysis was heart failure. Other outcomes included all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were primarily constructed using Peto’s model. Results A total of 90 trials with 66,730 patients were included. Compared with placebo, DPP-4 inhibitors were associated with a non-significant increased risk of heart failure [OR 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99–1.25, P = 0.07] at a mean of 108 weeks. The risk of all-cause mortality (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.94–1.12, P = 0.53), cardiovascular mortality (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.92–1.14, P = 0.72), myocardial infarction (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88–1.09, P = 0.69), and ischemic stroke (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.85–1.15, P = 0.92) was similar between both groups. Conclusion In patients with type 2 diabetes, the safety profile of DPP-4 inhibitors is similar to placebo. As a class, there is only weak evidence for an increased risk of heart failure.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0208-x
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Acknowledgement to Referees
    • Pages: 1 - 4
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0207-y
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Recent Perioperative Pharmacological Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury
           after Cardiac Surgery: A Narrative Review
    • Authors: Shurong Li; Shufang Fu; Yichen Xiao; Gaosi Xu
      Pages: 17 - 25
      Abstract: Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication of cardiac surgery, and related rates of both hospitalization and long-term mortality are increasing. A number of studies have explored the preventive effects of perioperative pharmacological therapy on AKI after cardiac surgery. However, the mechanisms of AKI are multifaceted, and no universal treatment has been confirmed as beneficial. We review and analyze several current perioperative pharmacological therapies for AKI after cardiac surgery to identify promising preventive strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0194-z
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Comparing Stroke and Bleeding with Rivaroxaban and Dabigatran in Atrial
           Fibrillation: Analysis of the US Medicare Part D Data
    • Authors: Inmaculada Hernandez; Yuting Zhang
      Pages: 37 - 47
      Abstract: Background No studies have directly compared the effectiveness and safety of dabigatran and rivaroxaban using US Medicare data. Objective Our objective was to compare effectiveness and safety between rivaroxaban 20 mg/dabigatran 150 mg and rivaroxaban 15 mg/dabigatran 75 mg among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods Using 2010–2013 US Medicare Part D data, we selected patients with AF initiating dabigatran 150/75 mg or rivaroxaban 20/15 mg between 4 November 2011 (when rivaroxaban was approved) and 31 December 2013. Our sample included 7322 patients receiving dabigatran 150 mg, 5799 patients receiving rivaroxaban 20 mg, 1818 receiving dabigatran 75 mg, and 2568 receiving rivaroxaban 15 mg. We followed them until stroke, other thromboembolic events, bleeding, discontinuation or switch of an anticoagulant, death, or 31 December 2013. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models with propensity score weighting to compare clinical outcomes between groups. Results There was no difference in the risk of stroke between dabigatran 150 mg and rivaroxaban 20 mg (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.97–1.13) or between dabigatran 75 mg and rivaroxaban 15 mg (HR 1.05; 95 % CI 0.94–1.18). Compared with dabigatran 150 mg, rivaroxaban 20 mg was associated with a higher risk of other thromboembolic events (HR 1.28; 95 % CI 1.14–1.44), major bleeding (HR 1.32; 95 % CI 1.17–1.50), and death (HR 1.36; 95 % CI 1.19–1.56). The risk of thromboembolic events other than stroke (HR 1.37; 95 % CI 1.15–1.62), major bleeding (HR 1.51; 95 % CI 1.25–1.82), and death (HR 1.21; 95 % CI 1.04–1.41) was also higher for rivaroxaban 15 mg than for dabigatran 75 mg. Conclusions There was no difference in stroke prevention between rivaroxaban and dabigatran; however, rivaroxaban was associated with a higher risk of thromboembolic events other than stroke, death, and bleeding.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0189-9
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to: Managing Cardiovascular Risk in Lysosomal Acid Lipase
           Deficiency
    • Authors: James J. Maciejko
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0228-1
       
  • Management of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Current
           Challenges and Future Directions
    • Authors: Bharathi Upadhya; Dalane W. Kitzman
      Abstract: Abstract Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most common form of HF in patients older than 65 years. Among elderly women living in the community, HFpEF comprises nearly 90% of incident HF cases. The health and economic impact of HFpEF is at least as great as that of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with similar severity of acute hospitalization rates and substantial mortality. Despite the importance of HFpEF, our understanding of its pathophysiology is incomplete, and optimal treatment remains largely undefined. Unlike the management of HFrEF, there is a paucity of large evidence-based trials demonstrating morbidity and mortality benefit for the treatment of HFpEF. The agents tested in trials to date, which were based upon an incomplete understanding of the pathophysiology of HFpEF, have not been positive. There is an urgent need to understand HFpEF pathophysiology and to focus on developing novel therapeutic targets.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0219-2
       
  • The Positive Regulation of eNOS Signaling by PPAR Agonists in
           Cardiovascular Diseases
    • Authors: Cristina Maccallini; Adriano Mollica; Rosa Amoroso
      Abstract: Abstract Increasing evidence shows that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) plays an essential role in the regulation of vascular endothelial function through a range of mechanisms, including non-metabolic. Among these, the PPAR-mediated activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) appears to be of considerable importance. The regulated and sustained bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) in the endothelium is essential to avoid the development of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension or atherosclerosis. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the different effects of specific PPAR ligands on NO bioavailability could be useful in the development of novel or multi-targeted PPAR agonists. In this review, we report the most meaningful and up-to-date in vitro and in vivo studies of the regulation of NO production performed by different PPAR agonists. Insights into the molecular mechanisms of PPAR-mediated eNOS activation are also provided. Although findings from animal studies in which the activation of PPARα, PPARβ/δ, or PPARγ have provided clear vasoprotective effects have been promising, several benefits from PPAR agonists are offset by unwanted outcomes. Therefore, new insights could be useful in the development of tissue-targeted PPAR agonists with more tolerable side effects to improve treatment options for cardiovascular diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0220-9
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of Lomitapide in Hypercholesterolemia
    • Authors: Xin Liu; Peng Men; Yuhui Wang; Suodi Zhai; Zhigang Zhao; George Liu
      Abstract: Background Despite extensive use of statins, patients with hypercholesterolemia, especially homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), do not achieve recommended targets of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). There is an urgent need for novel options that could reduce proatherogenic lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Lomitapide, a microsomal triglyceride transport protein (MTP) inhibitor, was approved three years ago as an orphan drug for the treatment of patients with HoFH. Objective Our aim was to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of lomitapide and to provide guidance for clinicians. Methods We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify valid studies published before 31 October 2016 that included lomitapide-treated patients who did or did not undergo lipid-lowering therapy. We assessed the quality of different studies. Data were extracted and evaluated for quality by two reviewers. Results Studies reporting lomitapide therapy included one randomized controlled trial, three single-arm studies, and five case reports. In patients with HoFH, lomitapide reduced levels of LDL-C, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides with or without other lipid-lowering therapy, including apheresis. In non-HoFH patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, lomitapide also showed favorable effects on changes in LDL-C and triglycerides. However, both HoFH and non-HoFH patients experienced a reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1). The most common adverse event was gastrointestinal disorder, and others included liver transaminase elevation and hepatic fat accumulation. Long-term use of lomitapide was associated with an increased risk of progressing to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Conclusions Lomitapide improved most lipid parameters but not HDL-C or ApoA-1 in patients with HoFH and in non-HoFH patients, and gastrointestinal disorders were the most common adverse event. The possible benefits of lomitapide should be further evaluated and viewed against its possible long-term side effects.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0214-7
       
  • Antithrombotic Therapy After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
    • Authors: Raul Moreno
      Abstract: Abstract Current guidelines for patients who are undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation but who do not require anticoagulation recommend double antiplatelet therapy for 3–6 months after the procedure, followed by aspirin indefinitely. However, these guidelines are based on expert consensus rather than clinical trials. Several randomized trials are currently evaluating alternative antithrombotic strategies, and recommendations will likely change when their results become available.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0218-3
       
  • No Effect of Omega-3 Carboxylic Acids on Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
           of Warfarin or on Platelet Function When Co-administered with
           Acetylsalicylic Acid: Results of Two Phase I Studies in Healthy Volunteers
           
    • Authors: Elliot Offman; Michael Davidson; Catarina Nilsson
      Abstract: Background Omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) can lower triglyceride levels. Objective Our objective was to assess the effects of OM3-CA on warfarin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-dependent and independent platelet activation when co-administered with ASA in two phase I studies. Methods In ECLIPSE II (NCT01431690), 26 participants received warfarin 25 mg on days 1 and 22 and OM3-CA 4 g once daily from day 8 to day 28. In OM-EPA-007 (NCT01486433), 52 participants received simvastatin 40 mg plus ASA 81 mg once daily for 14 days, with or without OM3-CA 4 g. Lack of a drug–drug interaction was indicated when 90% confidence intervals (CIs) fell entirely within the range 80–125% for least-squares mean (LSM) ratios of area under the concentration–time curve (AUC), maximum observed plasma concentration (C max), international normalized ratio (INR) AUC to 168 h and maximum INR. Results In ECLIPSE II, 90% CIs for LSM ratios of with:without OM3-CA fell within 80–125% for AUC and C max of S- and R-warfarin enantiomers. The 90% CIs for LSM ratios of with:without OM3-CA fell within 80–125% for INR AUC to 168 h after dosing and for maximum INR of warfarin. In OM-EPA-007, no significant effect of OM3-CA was observed on ASA-dependent or ASA-independent platelet activation. No deaths or serious adverse events occurred in either study. Conclusion OM3-CA did not affect the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of warfarin or the pharmacodynamic effects of ASA. OM3-CA did not affect platelet function when co-administered with ASA.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0217-4
       
  • Interpreting Cardiovascular Endpoints in Trials of Antihyperglycemic Drugs
    • Authors: Himika Chawla; Nikhil Tandon
      Abstract: Abstract In view of the significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and concerns raised about the CV safety of some glucose-lowering drugs, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued guidance for the industry in 2008 to demonstrate CV safety for the approval of all new antihyperglycemic drugs. Seven randomized controlled trials involving around 60,000 participants have been completed so far and have demonstrated the CV safety of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (saxagliptin, alogliptin and sitagliptin), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (lixisenatide, liraglutide and semaglutide) and a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (empagliflozin) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Three of these trials have in fact reported superiority of the study drug over placebo in terms of CV outcomes. However, all these trials were primarily designed as non-inferiority trials to exclude an unacceptable risk of CV events with these drugs in the shortest possible time period. The potential long-term benefit or risks were not assessed effectively as the median follow-up in these studies was limited to 1.5–3 years. Also, these trials included patients with relatively long duration of diabetes, advanced atherosclerosis and higher CV risk. Thus, these trials were not intended to assess CV benefit and are best interpreted as evidence for CV safety of these antihyperglycemic medications.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0215-6
       
  • Managing Cardiovascular Risk in Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency
    • Authors: James J. Maciejko
      Abstract: Abstract Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare, life-threatening, autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the LIPA gene, which encodes for lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). This enzyme is necessary for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride in lysosomes. Deficient LAL activity causes accumulation of these lipids in lysosomes and a marked decrease in the cytoplasmic free cholesterol concentration, leading to dysfunctional cholesterol homeostasis. The accumulation of neutral lipid occurs predominantly in liver, spleen, and macrophages throughout the body, and the aberrant cholesterol homeostasis causes a marked dyslipidemia. LAL-D is characterized by accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and hepatic microvesicular or mixed steatosis, leading to inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver failure. LAL-D presents as a clinical continuum with two phenotypes: the infantile-onset phenotype, formally referred to as Wolman disease, and the later-onset phenotype, formerly referred to as cholesteryl ester storage disease. Infants with LAL-D present within the first few weeks of life with vomiting, diarrhea, hepatosplenomegaly, failure to thrive and rapid progression to liver failure and death by 6–12 months of age. Children and young adults with LAL-D generally present with marked dyslipidemia, hepatic enzyme elevation, hepatomegaly and mixed steatosis by liver biopsy. The average age of the initial signs and symptoms of the later-onset phenotype is about 5 years old. The typical dyslipidemia is a significantly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration and a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration, placing these individuals at heightened risk for premature ASCVD. Diagnosis of the later-onset phenotype of LAL-D requires a heightened awareness of the disease because the dyslipidemia and hepatic transaminase elevation combination are common and overlap with other metabolic disorders. LAL-D should be considered in the differential diagnosis of healthy weight children and young adults with unexplained hepatic transaminase elevation accompanied by an elevated LDL-C level (>160 mg/dL) and low HDL-C level (<35 mg/dL) that is not caused by monogenic and polygenic lipid disorders or secondary factors. Treatment of LAL-D with sebelipase alfa (LAL replacement enzyme) should be considered as the standard of treatment in all individuals diagnosed with LAL-D. Other ASCVD risk factors that may be present (hypertension, tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, etc.) should be managed appropriately, consistent with secondary prevention goals.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0216-5
       
  • Pitavastatin: A Review in Hypercholesterolemia
    • Authors: Sheridan M. Hoy
      Abstract: Abstract Oral pitavastatin (Livalo®; Livazo®) is a competitive HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor that is available in the EU for the reduction of elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in adults with primary hypercholesterolemia and combined (mixed) dyslipidemia. In short-term, phase III or IV studies in this patient population, pitavastatin 1–4 mg once daily was generally no less effective than presumed equipotent dosages of atorvastatin and simvastatin (including in patients with type 2 diabetes or ≥2 cardiovascular risk factors) and was superior to pravastatin (including in patients aged ≥65 years) in lowering LDL-C levels. Pitavastatin provided sustained LDL-C-lowering efficacy over up to 60 weeks’ therapy in extension studies, and was associated with short- and longer-term improvements in several other lipid parameters. Short- and longer-term outcomes in studies in Asian patients were consistent with these findings. Pitavastatin was generally well tolerated and did not appear to adversely affect glucose metabolism parameters (e.g. fasting blood glucose, fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, glycated hemoglobin) in short- and longer-term prospective and post-marketing surveillance studies in adults. Moreover, in combination with lifestyle modification advice, it was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of progression from impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes relative to lifestyle modification advice alone in a longer-term study in Japanese subjects. Thus, pitavastatin is an effective treatment option in adults with primary hypercholesterolemia and combined (mixed) dyslipidemia, including those at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0213-8
       
  • Selexipag: A Review in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
    • Abstract: Abstract Selexipag (Uptravi®) is an orally active, first-in-class, selective prostacyclin IP receptor agonist. Selexipag was approved recently in the EU for the long-term treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in adult patients with WHO functional class (FC) II or III as combination therapy in patients insufficiently controlled with an endothelin receptor antagonist and/or a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor or as monotherapy in patients who are not candidates for these therapies, and in the USA for the treatment of PAH (WHO Group I) to delay disease progression and reduce the risk of hospitalization for PAH. Selexipag (200–1600 μg twice daily, as tolerated) significantly reduced the risk of the primary composite endpoint of all-cause death or a complication related to PAH (whichever happened first) versus placebo in patients with PAH (mainly WHO FC II or III) in the large, randomized, placebo-controlled GRIPHON study. The treatment effect was largely driven by significant reductions in disease progression and hospitalization for PAH. However, selexipag did not significantly reduce all-cause mortality. Additionally, the observed treatment effect was consistent in a broad range of prespecified subgroups, including treatment-naïve patients and those patients who were already receiving PAH-specific treatment at baseline. Exercise capacity was also improved with selexipag versus placebo. Selexipag was generally well tolerated, with an adverse event profile consistent with other therapies targeting the prostacyclin pathway. Thus, selexipag extends the treatment options available in patients with PAH.
      PubDate: 2016-12-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0209-9
       
  • Erratum to: Optimizing the Use of Cangrelor in the Real World
    • Authors: Arman Qamar; Deepak L. Bhatt
      PubDate: 2016-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0201-4
       
 
 
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