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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2574 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2574 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.951
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 17  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1175-3277 - ISSN (Online) 1179-187X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2574 journals]
  • Lipid-Lowering Efficacy of Ezetimibe in Patients with Atherosclerotic
           Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses
    • Abstract: Introduction Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), especially those with recent (< 1 year) acute coronary syndrome (ACS), are at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events. This risk can be reduced by lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. A comprehensive meta-analysis on the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of ezetimibe is lacking. This study attempts to address this gap. Methods A systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials evaluating the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of ezetimibe in the ASCVD population was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for publications from database inception to August 2018 and for conference abstracts from 2015 to August 2018. Meta-analyses were conducted to evaluate the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of ezetimibe in the ASCVD population and the recent ACS subgroup. Results In total, 12 studies were eligible for the meta-analyses. Treatment with combination ezetimibe plus statin therapy showed greater absolute LDL-C reduction than statin monotherapy (mean difference − 21.86 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI] − 26.56 to − 17.17; p < 0.0001) after 6 months of treatment (or at a timepoint closest to 6 months). Similarly, in patients with recent ACS, combination ezetimibe plus statin therapy was favorable compared with statin monotherapy (mean treatment difference − 19.19 mg/dL; 95% CI − 25.22 to − 13.16; p < 0.0001). Conclusions Ezetimibe, when added to statin therapy, provided a modest additional reduction in LDL-C compared with statin monotherapy. However, this may not be sufficient for some patients with ASCVD who have especially high LDL-C levels despite optimal statin therapy.
      PubDate: 2019-11-14
  • Dexmedetomidine Reduces Atrial Fibrillation After Adult Cardiac Surgery: A
           Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Abstract: Background Dexmedetomidine has been shown to have antiarrhythmic effects by exhibiting sympatholytic properties and activating the vagus nerve in preclinical studies. Results from clinical trials of dexmedetomidine on atrial fibrillation (AF) following adult cardiac surgery are controversial. Materials and methods We searched EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the antiarrhythmic effect of dexmedetomidine versus placebo or other anesthetic drugs in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The primary outcome was the incidence of AF. The secondary outcomes were ventricular arrhythmias [ventricular fibrillation (VF), ventricular tachycardia (VT)], mechanical ventilation (MV) duration, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and hospital length of stay, and all-cause mortality. Results Thirteen trials with a total of 1684 study patients were selected. Compared with controls, dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative AF [odds ratio (OR) 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58–0.97; P = 0.03] and VT (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.11–0.48; P < 0.0001). No significant difference for the incidence of VF existed (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.21–3.03; P = 0.74). There was no significant difference between groups in MV duration [weighted mean difference (WMD) − 0.10; 95% CI − 0.42 to 0.21; P = 0.52], postoperative ICU stay (WMD − 0.49; 95% CI − 2.64 to 1.66; P = 0.65), hospital stay (WMD − 0.01; 95% CI − 0.16 to 0.13; P = 0.88) and mortality (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.15–2.37; P = 0.46). Conclusions Perioperative administration of dexmedetomidine in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery reduced the incidence of postoperative AF and VT. But there was no significant difference in incidence of VF, MV duration, ICU stay, hospital stay and mortality.
      PubDate: 2019-11-14
  • Effects of Metformin on Left Ventricular Size and Function in Hypertensive
           Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results of a Randomized,
           Controlled, Multicenter, Phase IV Trial
    • Abstract: Background Metformin is the most widely used oral antihyperglycemic agent for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the possible benefits of metformin on diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart failure (HF), acute or unstable HF remains a precaution for its use. Objective The aim of the present prospective randomized controlled trial was to assess whether metformin treatment has beneficial effects on patients with T2DM with hypertension without overt HF. Methods A total of 164 patients (92 males, 72 females; median age 66 years) were included in this study. Patients with T2DM with a history of hypertension were randomized 1:1 to treatment for 1 year with either metformin (metformin-treated group) or other hypoglycemic agents (control group). The primary endpoints were changes in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, left ventricular (LV) mass index, and indicators of LV diastolic function. We also evaluated changes in both clinical findings and blood laboratory examination data. Results We observed no significant changes between baseline and 1-year post-treatment in LV mass index, BNP levels, or E/e′ (early diastolic transmitral flow velocity/early diastolic mitral annular velocity; an indicator of LV diastolic function) in either the metformin-treated (n = 83) or the control (n = 81) groups. The metformin-treated group had a significant reduction of body mass index (BMI) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), but the control group did not. We determined that renal function, including serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate, deteriorated significantly in the control group but not in the metformin-treated group. Conclusion LV mass and diastolic function were not affected after 1 year of metformin treatment in patients with T2DM. However, we observed benefits in terms of reductions in both BMI and LDL-C levels and preservation of renal function. Trial Registration UMIN000006504. Registered 7 October 2011.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
  • Tinzaparin Sodium Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Chronic Kidney
           Disease: Practical Implications
    • Abstract: Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are the mainstay of the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Due to their renal elimination, the risk of accumulation with the related bleeding risk may represent a limitation for the use of LMWHs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as the risk of major bleeding is increased in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) < 30 mL/min, especially in patients with cancer. LMWH structure and molecular weight (MW) are heterogeneous among available agents. The elimination of tinzaparin, which has the highest mean MW among LMWHs, is less dependent on renal function as it is also metabolized through the reticuloendothelial system. A subcutaneous therapeutic dose of tinzaparin (175 IU/kg) once daily has been shown to cause no accumulation of anti-factor Xa activity in patients with CrCl ≥ 20 mL/min. Clinical experience from randomized controlled studies has shown no significant impact of CKD on bleeding risk in cancer patients receiving treatment doses of tinzaparin. This suggests that in these patients the use of treatment doses of tinzaparin does not require anticoagulation monitoring or dose adjustment.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
  • Ubiquinol Improves Endothelial Function in Patients with Heart Failure
           with Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Single-Center, Randomized Double-Blind
           Placebo-Controlled Crossover Pilot Study
    • Abstract: Background Endothelial dysfunction is reportedly associated with worse outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure. Ubiquinol is a reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) that may improve endothelial function. Objective We assessed the hypothesis that ubiquinol improves peripheral endothelial function in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study, 14 patients with stable HFrEF were randomly and blindly allocated to ubiquinol 400 mg/day or placebo for 3 months. After a 1-month washout period, patients were crossed over to the alternative treatment. Before and after each treatment, we assessed peripheral endothelial function using the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) and analyzed it using the natural logarithm of RHI (LnRHI). Results Peripheral endothelial function as assessed by LnRHI tended to improve with ubiquinol 400 mg/day for 3 months (p = 0.076). Original RHI values were also compared, and RHI significantly improved with ubiquinol treatment (pre-RHI 1.57 [interquartile range (IQR) 1.39–1.80], post-RHI 1.74 [IQR 1.63–2.02], p = 0.026), but not with placebo (pre-RHI 1.67 [IQR 1.53–1.85], post-RHI 1.51 [IQR 1.39–2.11], p = 0.198). Conclusions Ubiquinol 400 mg/day for 3 months led to significant improvement in peripheral endothelial function in patients with HFrEF. Ubiquinol may be a therapeutic option for individuals with HFrEF. Large-scale randomized controlled trials of CoQ10 supplementation in patients with HFrEF are needed. Clinical Trial Registration Japanese University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN-ICDR). Clinical Trial identifier number UMIN000012604.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Reversal of Apixaban and Rivaroxaban Using Activated Prothrombin Complex
           Concentrates in Patients with Major Bleeding
    • Abstract: Background Clinical experience with using activated prothrombin complex concentrates (aPCCs) to reverse the effects of factor Xa inhibitors is limited. Objectives Our objective was to assess the achievement of effective clinical hemostasis using aPCC in patients on chronic apixaban or rivaroxaban therapy presenting with major bleeding in whom a reversal agent is warranted. We also assessed the safety of the drug. Methods A retrospective medical records review was conducted at a tertiary referral medical center in the USA. Patients presenting with major bleeding while receiving apixaban or rivaroxaban and treated with aPCC were included. Clinical hemostasis was assessed using International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis Scientific and Standardization Subcommittee criteria. Results A total of 35 patients were included in the study. The most common site of bleeding was intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) (n = 18 [51.4%]), followed by gastrointestinal bleed (n = 10 [28.6%]). Clinical hemostasis was achieved in 24 (68.6%) patients; 11 patients (31.4%) did not achieve clinical hemostasis; nine of these patients had ICH. Seven of the patients who did not achieve hemostasis died during hospitalization. Three (8.6%) patients experienced thromboembolic events during hospitalization. In total, 21 (60%) patients were receiving concomitant medications that interact with anti-factor Xa inhibitors and can increase the risk of bleeding. Conclusions Our study suggests that aPCC could be an option in patients with major bleeding associated with apixaban or rivaroxaban. It may be an alternative for patients who need anticoagulation reversal if the specific antidote, andexanet alfa, is unavailable.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
  • Acknowledgement to Referees
    • PubDate: 2019-11-04
  • Bioequivalence of a Newly Developed Dabigatran Etexilate Tablet Versus the
           Commercial Capsule and Impact of Rabeprazole-Induced Elevated Gastric pH
           on Exposure in Healthy Subjects
    • Abstract: Background and Objective Dabigatran etexilate (DE) is an anticoagulant with proven efficacy and tolerability for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. For the commercial capsule, a complex formulation is used to maintain the acidic microenvironment required for maximal absorption. Consequently, its efficacy and safety are similar with or without concomitant intake of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). A simplified DE tablet formulation was developed and tested in two studies. One investigated bioequivalence (BE) of the novel DE tablet versus the commercial DE capsule. The other investigated DE bioavailability (BA) under pretreatment with the PPI rabeprazole and assessed the effect of elevated pH on exposure to dabigatran. Methods BE of the novel DE tablet versus the DE capsule was assessed in a randomized two-treatment, four-period, two-sequence crossover study (NCT03070171). The effect of rabeprazole on the BA of the DE tablet was assessed in an open-label, single-arm study (NCT03143166). Both studies were conducted at sites in Japan. Participants were healthy male volunteers, aged ≥ 20–40 years. In the BE study, participants received the DE tablet or capsule (single oral dose, 110 mg); primary endpoints were area under the concentration–time curve from baseline to the last quantifiable data point (AUC0–tz) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of unconjugated dabigatran. In the relative BA study, participants received the DE tablet (single oral dose, 110 mg) with or without rabeprazole pretreatment (once daily for 5 days, 20 mg); primary endpoints were AUC0–tz and Cmax of total dabigatran. Results In total, 160 participants were randomized in the BE study; 36 participants were enrolled in the BA study. The 90% confidence intervals of geometric mean (gMean) ratios for AUC0–tz (101.4–116.0%) and Cmax (101.8–116.6%) of unconjugated dabigatran were within pre-defined acceptance criteria for BE. In the relative BA study, the gMeans of AUC0–tz (667 to 192 ng h/mL) and Cmax (83.1 to 21.8 ng/mL) were decreased by approximately 70% when the tablet was administered under rabeprazole pretreatment. The reduction in BA was observed at a mean gastric pH of 5.3. Treatment was well tolerated; no deaths, serious adverse events (AEs) or significant AEs were reported in either study. Conclusion The DE tablet demonstrated BE to the capsule; however, at high gastric pH, BA of the tablet was reduced by approximately 70%, which may lead to reduced efficacy. Data indicate the importance of examining not only BE under standard conditions, but relative BA at elevated gastric pH. Such investigations may avoid the reduced BA at elevated pH that is quite common in the target population (the elderly and/or patients treated with gastric-acid modifying co-medications), and therefore reduce treatment failure with DE. Registration: identifier numbers: NCT03070171, and NCT03143166
      PubDate: 2019-10-30
  • Predictors of Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Friedreich’s Ataxia in a
           16-Year Observational Study
    • Abstract: Background Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is a cerebellar ataxia due to GAA repeat expansions in the FXN gene, and in affected patients, lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) leads to poorer prognosis. We aimed to identify patients likely to develop worsening LVEF at an early stage. Methods We included 115 FRDA patients aged 30 ± 10 years with 620 ± 238 GAA repeats on the shorter allele and disease onset of 15 ± 7 years. Results At baseline, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was present in 53%, with LVEF 65 ± 7%, LV end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) 43 ± 5 mm, septal wall thickness (SWT) 11.8 ± 2.7 mm, and posterior wall thickness 11.1 ± 2.5 mm. After a mean follow-up of 13 ± 6 years, LVEF ≤ 50% was observed in 12 patients. The main determinants of LVEF ≤ 50% were GAA repeat number on the shorter allele (odds ratio [OR] 1.007, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.003–1.012, p = 0.002), LVEDD (OR 1.217, 95% CI 1.058–1.399, p = 0.006), and SWT (OR 1.352, 95% CI 1.016–1.799, p = 0.04). High-risk patients were predicted 5 years before LVEF ≤ 50% occurred: area under the curve of 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.97. Patients with GAA repeats > 800 were categorized as high risk, patients with 500 < GAA < 800 were high risk if LVEDD was ≥ 52.6 mm and SWT was ≥ 13.3 mm, and patients with GAA < 500 were low risk if LVEDD was < 52.6 mm and SWT was < 13.3 mm. Conclusions Echocardiographic follow-up combined with size assessment of GAA repeat expansions is a powerful tool to identify patients at high risk of developing LV systolic dysfunction up to 5 years before clinical symptoms. Further studies are mandatory to investigate if these patients would benefit from cardiac interventions.
      PubDate: 2019-10-25
  • Overall Mortality and LDL Cholesterol Reduction in Secondary Prevention
           Trials of Cardiovascular Disease
    • Abstract: Pooled data from randomized clinical trials on lipid-lowering therapy have provided valuable information and clinical insights. Although cardiovascular disease is a common cause of death, mortality data have rarely been prominent in key lipid trials. The 4S, LIPID and HPS trials were the first to demonstrate a reduction in overall mortality. Lower- versus higher-intensity statin trials and non-statin lipid-lowering trials with ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors proved that additional lipid lowering significantly reduces the occurrence of cardiovascular events. However, only the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial showed a reduction in all-cause mortality. The aim of the present narrative review was to contrast these results with those of other key lipid trials: those assessing statins compared with placebo, those evaluating intensive- versus moderate-intensity lipid-lowering therapy and, finally, those investigating non-statin lipid-lowering therapies.
      PubDate: 2019-10-25
  • Non-inferiority Trial Design in Drug Development: A Primer for
           Cardiovascular Healthcare Professionals
    • Abstract: Noninferiority trials, in which a new treatment is compared with a standard active treatment, are becoming increasingly popular in cardiovascular medicine. A noninferiority trial seeks to test whether the effect of a new drug is not unacceptably worse than that of an active comparator by more than a predefined noninferiority margin. Noninferiority trials are typically used when a new drug is anticipated to have an efficacy profile similar to its comparator and offers advantages over the existing drug (better toxicity profile, less expensive, less invasive, simpler regimen, shorter treatment duration, different resistance profile). Given the high number of noninferiority trials, it is vital that clinicians fully understand the clinical impacts of the results. Nonetheless, assessing noninferiority in a trial is complex, in both the design and the analysis phases. The crucial issue in the design of a noninferiority trial is the definition of the noninferiority margin, accounting for both statistical (summarizing the historical evidence of the active comparator from randomized controlled trials) and clinical (choosing the fraction of the effect of the old drug that should be “preserved” by the new drug) considerations. We review the role of noninferiority trials in the development of new cardiovascular treatments and discuss a variety of key issues involved in the design and conduction of noninferiority trials, using some examples from real clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine.
      PubDate: 2019-10-24
  • Efficacy and Safety of Clopidogrel, Prasugrel and Ticagrelor in ACS
           Patients Treated with PCI: A Propensity Score Analysis of the RENAMI and
           BleeMACS Registries
    • Abstract: Introduction Real-life data comparing clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor for unselected patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are lacking, as are data for the temporal distribution of ischemic and bleeding risks. Methods A total of 19,825 patients were enrolled from the RENAMI and BleeMACS registries. Both were multicenter, retrospective, observational registries including the data and outcomes of consecutive patients with ACS who underwent primary PCI and were discharged with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). We evaluated the long-term outcome stratified by the different antiplatelet agents. Results A total of 14,105 patients (71.2%) were treated with clopidogrel, 2364 patients (11.9%) with prasugrel and 3356 patients (16.9%) with ticagrelor. After propensity score matching, at 1 year, prasugrel reduced the incidence of net adverse clinical events (NACE; a composite endpoint of all-cause death, myocardial infarction [MI] and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium [BARC] 3–5 bleeding) (4.2% vs.7.6%, p = 0.002) and of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; a composite endpoint of death and MI) compared with clopidogrel (2.6% vs. 5.2%, p = 0.007). Ticagrelor decreased rates of MACE compared with clopidogrel (2.7% vs. 6.2%, p < 0.001), but not of NACE (6.6% vs. 8.7%, p = 0.07). Ticagrelor presented similar performance in terms of MACE compared with prasugrel (2.8% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.56), with a trend towards a reduction in MI (0.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.56), but with higher risk of BARC 3–5 bleedings (3.8% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.04). In the daily risk analysis, clopidogrel presented a binomial distribution with a peak of ischemic risk at 3 months, which decreased towards bleedings; prasugrel had a constant equivalence between opposite risks; and ticagrelor constantly reduced recurrent MIs despite higher risk of BARC 3–5 events. Conclusion In real life, ticagrelor is more effective in reducing ischemic events during the first year after ACS, despite an increased risk of major bleedings, while prasugrel assures a better balance between ischemic and bleeding recurrent events.
      PubDate: 2019-10-05
  • Obesity Paradox in Atrial Fibrillation: Implications for Outcomes and
           Relationship with Oral Anticoagulant Drugs
    • Abstract: In the last 40 years, concern about the obesity epidemic has increased. Data from the current literature highlight a strong relationship between obesity and atrial fibrillation (AF), particularly in relation to an increased risk for incident and recurrent AF. A phenomenon called the “obesity paradox” has emerged: the apparently counterintuitive evidence from epidemiological data indicating that overweight and obese patients may have a better prognosis than healthy-weight patients. A differential impact of oral anticoagulants (OACs) in terms of effectiveness and safety in the various body mass index categories has been postulated, particularly in the comparison between non-vitamin-K antagonist oral anticoagulants and vitamin K antagonists. This review aims to summarize the evidence on the impact of obesity in patients with AF, focusing on descriptions of the obesity paradox and its relationships with OAC treatment.
      PubDate: 2019-10-04
  • Pharmacoinvasive Approach with Streptokinase in Low to Intermediate Risk
           ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: Insights from the Tamil
           Nadu-STEMI Initiative
    • PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Effects of Statins to Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Heart Failure
           Patients: Findings from the EPICAL2 Cohort Study
    • Abstract: Introduction The addition of statins to standard care in heart failure (HF) patients remains controversial in clinical practice. Large-scale clinical trials failed to show mortality benefits, but uncertainty persists in real-world settings. Objective We evaluated whether the prescription of statins at hospital discharge is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality at up to 1 year of follow-up in HF patients. Methods We analyzed data from Epidémiologie et Pronostic de l’Insuffisance Cardiaque Aiguë en Lorraine (EPICAL2) cohort study of 2254 hospitalized acute HF patients who were admitted to 21 hospitals located in northeast France for acute HF between October 2011 and October 2012 and who received statins at discharge compared with patients who did not. We used propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses to estimate the treatment effects of statins, and a multivariable Cox proportional-hazards model to examine survival with statin use, adjusting for patient demographics, HF characteristics, medical history, comorbidities, drug treatment and other known potential confounders. We plotted Kaplan–Meier survivor curves, and used log-rank test to determine the equality of survivor functions. Results We included 2032 patients in this investigation: 919 (45%) in the statin-treated group and 1113 (55%) in the control group. The estimated average statin-treatment effects for all-cause mortality in HF failed to demonstrate a significant effect on mortality [Z = − 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) − 0.11 to 0.007, p value = 0.083, and Z = − 0.95, 95% CI − 1.34 to 0.46, p value = 0.34] for propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses, respectively. Moreover, the Cox proportional-hazards model showed that statin prescription was not significantly associated with the rate of death (hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% CI 0.66–1.11, p value = 0.26), adjusted for all confounders. Conclusion In patients with HF (and reduced or preserved ejection fraction), the prescription of statins did not appear to be associated with better survival after 1 year of follow-up in the EPICAL2 cohort. We cannot exclude that a subpopulation of HF patients may have some benefits compared with the whole HF population or that there might be a lack of power to show such effect. Clinical Trial Registration NCT02880358.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Prasugrel vs. Ticagrelor for Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Undergoing
    • Abstract: Background The newer P2Y12 inhibitors have better efficacy than clopidogrel. However, whether ticagrelor or prasugrel have a better comparative safety and efficacy profile, especially in the long-term, remains inconclusive. Objective We compared prasugrel and ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods MEDLINE and the Cochrane library were queried for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies comparing prasugrel with ticagrelor in patients with ACS undergoing PCI. Random-effects pooling was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were stratified by duration of follow-up (short term [≤ 3 months] and long term [≥ 1 year]) and study design. Results In total, 14 studies (six RCTs, eight observational studies), including 40,188 patients, met eligibility criteria. Pooled analysis did not indicate that prasugrel significantly decreased all-cause mortality compared with ticagrelor in the short term (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.20–1.20; p = 0.11) or long term (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.48–1.15; p = 0.38). Pooled observational studies showed significantly lower long-term all-cause mortality (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.43–0.92; p = 0.02) and short-term stent thrombosis (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.28–0.75; p = 0.002) with prasugrel. No significant difference was observed in the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, bleeding, or repeat revascularization between the two groups. Results remained similar after stratification according to follow-up and study design. Conclusions The present analysis suggests that prasugrel might have a better efficacy profile than ticagrelor in patients with ACS undergoing PCI. However, this advantage was only seen in pooled observational studies and is likely to be affected by selection bias.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Effect of Warfarin on Ischemic Stroke, Bleeding, and Mortality in Patients
           with Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis
    • Abstract: Background There is limited information on the risks and benefits of anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving peritoneal dialysis. Objective The aim was to determine the risk of mortality, ischemic stroke, and bleeding associated with warfarin use in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving peritoneal dialysis. Patients and methods This is a retrospective observational study of a multi-ethnic cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation receiving peritoneal dialysis in the United States. Using a dialysis registry, we identified 476 patients with atrial fibrillation receiving peritoneal dialysis. Among these patients, 115 (24%) were treated with warfarin. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare risks of mortality, ischemic stroke and bleeding between the groups. Results Compared to untreated patients, patients receiving warfarin were older (67.3 ± 10.8 vs 62.9 ± 13.3 years) and more likely to be white (42% vs 31%). Prevalence of comorbidities including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, heart failure, and prior ischemic stroke were similar between the two groups. All cause mortality rates were 19.9 per 100 person-years in the warfarin group and 21.0 per 100 person-years in the untreated group. There was no difference between groups in the risk of mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–1.2, p = 0.28], ischemic stroke (HR 2.3, 95% CI 0.94–5.4, p = 0.07), hemorrhagic stroke (HR 2.0, 95% CI 0.32–12.8, p = 0.46), gastrointestinal bleeding (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.39–2.2, p = 0.86), or any bleeding (HR 1.2, 95% 0.60–2.3, p = 0.65). Even in the subgroup of patients with > 70% time in therapeutic range, no association was seen between warfarin treatment and mortality. Conclusion There is no significant association between warfarin treatment with risks of mortality, ischemic stroke or bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving peritoneal dialysis.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Novel Oral Anticoagulants for the Prevention of Stroke in Patients with
           Atrial Fibrillation and Hypertension: A Meta-Analysis
    • Abstract: Introduction Hypertension is associated with increased risk of stroke and bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of hypertension status in patients with AF receiving treatment with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Methods PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched from the inception of each database to November 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated NOACs versus warfarin in patients with AF and hypertension were identified. A meta-analysis was performed using random- or fixed-effects models according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results Five trials (72,967 patients, including 51,378 patients with hypertension) were enrolled. NOACs significantly reduced the risk of stroke and systemic embolism (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81–0.94, n = 51,378 patients), hemorrhagic stroke (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.41–0.74, n = 28,818 patients), death from any cause (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.97, n = 43,101 patients), major bleeding (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.74–0.83, n = 51,378 patients) and intracranial bleeding (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.38–0.67, n = 27,185 patients). The benefits of NOACs in comparison with warfarin were consistent in AF patients with or without hypertension (Pinteraction for all outcomes > 0.05). Conclusions Our findings suggest that NOACs can be recommended for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with AF and hypertension.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Do Patients need Lifelong β-Blockers after an Uncomplicated
           Myocardial Infarction'
    • Abstract: The lifelong use of β-adrenoceptor antagonists (β-blockers) after a myocardial infarction (MI) has been the standard of care based on trials performed before the era of revascularization, when heart failure was common. Large randomized trials in the mid-1980s demonstrated that β-blockers played a major role in improving the in-hospital and long-term survival of patients admitted for MI. However, the implementation of rapid myocardial reperfusion led to a substantial survival benefit and a reduction of heart failure because of reduced infarct size. Modern large longitudinal registries did not provide sufficient evidence to support long-term β-blocker therapy in patients with uncomplicated acute MI. The long-term prescription of this therapy has become a matter of debate given the lack of contemporary evidence, frequent side effects, and treatment adherence issues. Furthermore, this shift into the reperfusion era led to a downgraded recommendation for the use of β-blockers in post-MI patients (class IIa B recommendation) in the 2017 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommendations for the treatment of ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI). Three large ongoing multicenter randomized trials (AβYSS, REDUCE-SWEDEHEART, and REBOOT-CNIC) are evaluating early discontinuation of β-blockers after an uncomplicated acute MI. The tested hypothesis is that β-blocker withdrawal is safe versus major adverse cardiovascular events and improves quality of life by reducing side effects. Thus, the present review summarizes the exhaustive evidence-based data for long-term β-blocker use after uncomplicated MI and the ongoing trials.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Adenosine and the Cardiovascular System
    • Abstract: Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside with a short half-life that regulates many physiological functions involving the heart and cardiovascular system. Among the cardioprotective properties of adenosine are its ability to improve cholesterol homeostasis, impact platelet aggregation and inhibit the inflammatory response. Through modulation of forward and reverse cholesterol transport pathways, adenosine can improve cholesterol balance and thereby protect macrophages from lipid overload and foam cell transformation. The function of adenosine is controlled through four G-protein coupled receptors: A1, A2A, A2B and A3. Of these four, it is the A2A receptor that is in a large part responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of adenosine as well as defense against excess cholesterol accumulation. A2A receptor agonists are the focus of efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to develop new cardiovascular therapies, and pharmacological actions of the atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory drug methotrexate are mediated via release of adenosine and activation of the A2A receptor. Also relevant are anti-platelet agents that decrease platelet activation and adhesion and reduce thrombotic occlusion of atherosclerotic arteries by antagonizing adenosine diphosphate-mediated effects on the P2Y12 receptor. The purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of adenosine on cell types found in the arterial wall that are involved in atherosclerosis, to describe use of adenosine and its receptor ligands to limit excess cholesterol accumulation and to explore clinically applied anti-platelet effects. Its impact on electrophysiology and use as a clinical treatment for myocardial preservation during infarct will also be covered. Results of cell culture studies, animal experiments and human clinical trials are presented. Finally, we highlight future directions of research in the application of adenosine as an approach to improving outcomes in persons with cardiovascular disease.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
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