Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2570 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2570 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.951
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1175-3277 - ISSN (Online) 1179-187X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2570 journals]
  • Potentially Harmful Medication Use Among Medicare Patients with Heart
           Failure
    • Abstract: Background The unintentional prescribing of medications harmful for patients with heart failure (HF) remains an ongoing problem. The American Heart Association published a scientific statement detailing a list of medications that may worsen or exacerbate a patient’s HF. The use of potentially harmful medications has not been studied in Medicare patients with HF. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of prescribing these harmful medications in a Medicare-enrolled medication therapy management (MTM)-eligible population with HF and to identify the characteristics associated with this potentially harmful prescribing. Methods This cross-sectional analysis involved utilization of a national MTM provider’s database for the 2018 calendar year. Eligible patients were included if they were Medicare enrolled, MTM eligible, and with International Classification of Disease 9/10 codes for HF. Counts and percentages were used to describe the prevalence of potentially harmful medication use and prescribing, by physician specialty. Exploratory logistic regression assessed the relationship between unique patient characteristics and potentially harmful prescribing. Results A total of 13,250 patients were included, of whom 7017 (53%) were prescribed at least one potentially harmful medication. The most frequently prescribed medications in this cohort were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; 3357, 25%), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors (3117, 24%), and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs; 936, 7%). A logistic regression found female sex, increasing polypharmacy, years qualified for MTM, higher poverty level, number of prescribers, and number of pharmacies were associated with potentially harmful medication prescribing. Of 17,548 potentially harmful medications encountered in a 4-month span, 9433 (54%) were prescribed by physician primary care providers. Conclusions Over one-half of patients with HF were prescribed one or more potentially harmful medication(s). Automated monitoring of prescription claims and implementation of alerts in electronic health records in primary care is warranted to reduce potentially harmful medication use among Medicare MTM-eligible patients.
      PubDate: 2020-02-21
       
  • Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Alirocumab
           in Healthy Chinese Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind,
           Placebo-Controlled, Ascending Single-Dose Study
    • Abstract: Background The addition of alirocumab (a fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 [PCSK9]) to background statin therapy provides significant incremental low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering and cardiovascular event risk reduction. Objectives Our objectives were to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of single ascending doses of alirocumab in healthy Chinese subjects. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase I study, 35 Chinese subjects (aged 21–45 years) with baseline LDL-C > 100 mg/dL (2.59 mmol/L) were randomized to receive a single 1 mL subcutaneous injection of alirocumab 75, 150, or 300 mg, or placebo, and followed up for ~ 12 weeks. Results Treatment-emergent adverse events, most frequently nasal congestion and dry throat, were reported in three of seven or eight subjects in each alirocumab dose group (two of seven in the placebo group). One patient receiving alirocumab 300 mg had a mild local injection-site reaction. No alirocumab recipients demonstrated antidrug antibodies. Maximum alirocumab serum concentrations (6–34 mg/dL) occurred at a median of 3–7 days across the dose groups. Maximum mean LDL-C reductions from baseline were observed on days 8, 15, and 22 with alirocumab 75 (55.3%), 150 (63.7%), and 300 mg (73.7%), respectively. Mean free PCSK9 levels were reduced to below the lower limit of quantification within 4 h of dosing. Total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were reduced with alirocumab. Conclusions In Chinese subjects, alirocumab 75, 150, and 300 mg was safe and well-tolerated. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters, including clinically meaningful reductions in LDL-C and other lipids/lipoproteins, were consistent with data from Japanese and Western populations. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02979015.
      PubDate: 2020-02-21
       
  • Evaluation of the Safety and Effectiveness of Direct-Acting Oral
           Anticoagulants in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Coexisting
           Valvular Heart Disease
    • Abstract: Background Current guidelines recommend direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) over warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and valvular heart disease (VHD) without a mechanical valve or moderate to severe mitral stenosis. However, real-world data to support the safety and efficacy of DOACs in this patient population are lacking. Objective Our objective was to assess the safety and effectiveness of DOACs in patients with AF and VHD. Methods This retrospective chart review evaluated patients aged ≥ 18 years with a diagnosis of AF and at least moderate VHD on echocardiogram. Patients were included if they received ≥ 1 month of DOAC therapy from December 2016 to December 2018. Patients were excluded if they received dual antiplatelet therapy or had additional indications for anticoagulation. The primary outcomes were incidence of stroke or systemic embolism (SSE) and major bleeding. Results In total, 200 patients were included (disease type: aortic, n = 50; mitral, n = 50; tricuspid, n = 50; multivalve, n = 50). Most patients received apixaban (n = 133 [66.5%]) followed by rivaroxaban (n = 50 [25%]) and dabigatran (n = 17 [8.5%]). No patients received edoxaban. The mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4.25 and was similar among DOAC cohorts (p = 0.380). The overall SSE rate was 3.5% and was highest for dabigatran (n = 3 [17.6%]) compared with the other DOACs (apixaban, n = 1 [0.8%]; rivaroxaban, n = 3 [6%]; p = 0.001). Rates were similar among different valve types (aortic, n = 3 [6%]; mitral, n = 1 [2%]; tricuspid, n = 2 [4%]; multivalve, n = 1 [2%]; p = 0.653). The overall rate of major bleeding was 5.5% and did not differ among the DOACs (apixaban, n = 5 [3.8%]; rivaroxaban, n = 4 [8%]; dabigatran, n = 2 [11.8%]; p = 0.264) or valve type (aortic, n = 3 [6%]; mitral, n = 2 [4%]; tricuspid, n = 2 [4%]; multivalve, n = 4 [8%]; p = 0.787). Conclusions In patients with AF and VHD, rates of major bleeding were similar among the DOACs and valve types; however, more patients receiving dabigatran experienced SSE. Further studies are needed to validate these findings.
      PubDate: 2020-02-11
       
  • Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) Inhibitors for Cardiovascular
           Disease Prevention
    • Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because of these associated risks, managing diabetes and CVD, including heart failure (HF), has become a joint effort to reduce the risk of adverse outcomes. Although many patients with T2DM are receiving preventive therapies for CVD, their residual risk remains high for atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). Recent data regarding the use of antidiabetic medications to prevent negative cardiovascular outcomes has revealed a positive association with reduced major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). One class of medications, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, are at the forefront of the cardiovascular outcomes prevention discussion. The clinical data presented in this review indicate the potential cardiovascular benefits of SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients with CVD and its potential value as a treatment option in preventing CVD in various patient populations.
      PubDate: 2020-02-11
       
  • Risk of Cardiovascular Outcomes and Antihypertensive Triple Combination
           Therapy Among Elderly Patients with Hypertension Enrolled in a Medicare
           Advantage Plan (MAP)
    • Abstract: Objectives The aim was to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular-specific hospitalizations with different types of antihypertensive triple combination therapy among patients enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Plan (MAP). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients with hypertension enrolled in a Texas MAP between January 2014 and December 2016. Antihypertensive combination therapy users were classified into three treatment groups: single-pill triple combination, fixed-dose dual combination plus a third agent, and free triple combination. Group differences were assessed using Chi-square tests for binary variables and Student’s t tests for continuous variables. Cox proportional hazards model was performed to assess the association between type of combination therapy and risk of cardiovascular-specific hospitalization adjusting for potential confounders. Results A total of 10,836 triple combination users were identified. The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) hospitalization for the fixed-dose dual combination plus a third agent group [hazard ratio (HR) 3.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.80–8.12] and for the free triple combination therapy group (HR 3.65, 95% CI 1.43–9.31) was significantly higher than for the single-pill triple combination group. Conclusion Single-pill triple combination therapy was significantly associated with a lower risk of CVD hospitalizations in comparison to other types of triple combination therapy.
      PubDate: 2020-02-11
       
  • Spotlight from the American Society for Preventive Cardiology on Key
           Features of the 2018
           AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guidelines on the
           Management of Blood Cholesterol
    • Abstract: The 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol retains focus on recommendations for statin treatment in the original four statin-eligible groups [those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), diabetes, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥ 190 mg/dL, and higher risk primary prevention] without the use of treatment initiation or target LDL-C levels from the earlier 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline, but has several new features. First, patients with primary prevention are divided into those who are at low (< 5%), borderline (5% to < 7.5%), intermediate (7.5% to < 20%), and high (≥ 20%) risk based on the ASCVD risk estimator. Moreover, the new guideline goes further to consider a wider range of factors [now called “risk enhancers”—premature family history of ASCVD, persistently high LDL-C, chronic kidney disease (CKD), metabolic syndrome, conditions specific to women, inflammatory diseases, and high-risk ethnicities] that can be used to better inform the treatment decision. Moreover, more detailed recommendations on how the results of coronary calcium scanning can be used to inform the treatment decision are provided, including how it may be used to “de-risk” certain patients for delaying or avoiding the use of statin therapy. There are also specific sections for cholesterol management in other patient subgroups including women, children, certain ethnic groups, those with CKD, chronic inflammatory disorders and HIV, as well as discussion on the management of hypertriglyceridemia. Importantly, for persons with known ASCVD, a distinction is made for those who are at “very high risk” based on having had two major ASCVD events or one major event and two or more other high risk conditions, such as diabetes or other major risk factors, or bypass surgery or percutaneous intervention. Finally, the concept of a threshold LDL-C for initiating a non-statin therapy (after considering highest tolerated statin dosage) is provided, with ezetimibe recommended as the key non-statin to be added if the LDL-C still remains ≥ 70 mg/dL for all ASCVD patients, and in those who are at “very high risk”, further consideration for using a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor. While the new guideline does have greater detail (and arguably, complexity), the refinements provide a strategy for guiding the clinician to target both statin and non-statin therapy to those most likely to derive benefit.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation Following Cardiac Surgery: From
           Pathogenesis to Potential Therapies
    • Abstract: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a major complication after cardiac surgery which can lead to high rates of morbidity and mortality, an enhanced length of hospital stay, and an increased cost of care. POAF is postulated to be a multifactorial phenomenon; however, some major pathogeneses have been proposed, including inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and autonomic dysfunction. Genetic studies also showed that inflammatory pathways, beta-1 adrenoreceptor variants, G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 gene variants, and non-coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 4q25 chromosomal locus are involved in this phenomenon. Moreover, several predisposing factors lead to the development of POAF, consisting of pre-, intra-, and postoperative contributors. The main predisposing factors comprise age, prior history of major cardiovascular risk factors, and ischemia-reperfusion injury during surgery. The management of POAF is based on the usual therapies used for non-surgical AF, including medications for either rate control or rhythm control in hemodynamically unstable patients. The perioperative administration of β-blockers and some antiarrhythmic agents has been recommended in major international guidelines. In addition, upstream therapies consisting of colchicine, magnesium, statins, and antioxidants have attenuated the incidence of POAF; however, some uncomfortable side effects developed in large randomized trials. The use of anticoagulation has also resulted in less mortality in patients with POAF at higher risk of thromboembolic events. Despite these recommendations, the actual regimen for the prevention of POAF remains controversial. In this review, we highlight the pathogenesis, predisposing factors, and potential therapeutic options for the management of patients at risk for or with POAF following cardiac surgery.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Effect of Spironolactone on Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Heart
           Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Post-Hoc Analysis of the
           Randomized, Placebo-Controlled TOPCAT Trial
    • Abstract: Background Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with heart failure (HF) and a reduced ejection fraction. The efficacy of MRAs for AF prevention in patients with HF and a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is unclear. Objectives We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized placebo-controlled trial to determine the efficacy of spironolactone in reducing new-onset AF and recurrence of AF in 2733 patients with symptomatic HFpEF. Methods Patients with and without prevalent AF at baseline were included, and those with permanent AF were excluded. Patients were randomized 1:1 to spironolactone or placebo. The risk of new-onset AF or the recurrence of AF was quantified using hazard ratios (HRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results At baseline, 2228 (64.7%) patients had no history of AF (spironolactone, n = 1111; placebo, n = 1117), whereas 505 (18.4%) patients had prevalent AF (spironolactone, n = 260; placebo, n = 245). During a median follow-up of 3.1 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2.0–4.9), the incidence of new-onset AF was similar in both treatment arms: spironolactone 5.2% (n = 58) versus placebo 4.4% (n = 49); p = 0.41. The risk of new-onset AF was similar in both treatment arms: HR 1.19; 95% CI 0.81–1.74; p = 0.38. AF recurrence was also similar in both treatment arms during a median follow-up of 3.3 years (IQR 1.9–4.7): spironolactone 11.5% (n = 30) versus placebo 11.8% (n = 29); p = 1.00. The risk of recurrence of AF did not differ per treatment arm: HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.57–1.58; p = 0.83. Conclusion Spironolactone does not reduce the risk of new-onset AF or AF recurrence in patients with HFpEF. This is in contrast to results in cohorts of patients with HF and a reduced ejection fraction. Clinical trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier no. NCT00094302 (TOPCAT).
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Educational Impact on Apixaban Adherence in Atrial Fibrillation (the
           AEGEAN STUDY): A Randomized Clinical Trial
    • Abstract: Introduction Adherence to non-vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) may be lower than to vitamin K antagonists because NOACs do not require routine monitoring. Objective We assessed the impact of an educational program on adherence and persistence with apixaban in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Methods Patients with NVAF eligible for NOACs with one or more stroke risk factor (prior stroke/transient ischemic attack, age ≥ 75 years, hypertension, diabetes, or symptomatic heart failure) were randomized (1:1) to standard of care (SOC) or SOC with additional educational (information booklet, reminder tools, virtual clinic access). The primary outcome was adherence to apixaban (2.5 or 5 mg twice daily) at 24 weeks. Patients receiving the educational program were re-randomized (1:1) to continue the program for 24 further weeks or to switch to secondary SOC. Implementation adherence and persistence were reassessed at 48 weeks. Results In total, 1162 patients were randomized (SOC, 583; educational program, 579). Mean implementation adherence ± standard deviation (SD) at 24 weeks was 91.6% ± 17.1 for SOC and 91.9% ± 16.1 for the educational program arm; results did not differ significantly between groups at any time-point. At 48 weeks, implementation adherence was 90.4% ± 18.0, 90.1% ± 18.6, and 89.3% ± 18.1 for continued educational program, SOC, and secondary SOC, respectively; and corresponding persistence was 86.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 81.3–89.7), 85.2% (95% CI 81.5–88.2), and 87.8% (95% CI 83.4–91.1). Serious adverse events were similar across groups. Conclusion High implementation adherence and persistence with apixaban were observed in patients with NVAF receiving apixaban. The educational program did not show additional benefits. Clinical trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT01884350].
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • High-Dose Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Prevention: Finally Living
           Up to Their Potential'
    • Abstract: Despite the widespread use of statins in the setting of high cardiovascular risk, many patients continue to experience clinical events. This highlights the need to identify additional therapeutic strategies for high-risk patients. Interest in the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent cardiovascular disease has been high for several decades. Despite promising results from before the statin era, many clinical trials have produced disappointing findings regarding products containing conventional doses of omega-3 fatty acids. More recent clinical trials using high doses of omega-3 fatty acids in targeted populations have suggested potential benefit when targeting the risk driven by atherogenic dyslipidemia. We review the clinical implications of completed and ongoing trials.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Comparative Real-Life Effectiveness and Safety of Dabigatran or
           Rivaroxaban vs. Vitamin K Antagonists: A High-Dimensional Propensity Score
           Matched New Users Cohort Study in the French National Healthcare Data
           System SNDS
    • Abstract: Background Clinical trials have indicated that the direct-acting oral anticoagulants dabigatran and rivaroxaban have better risk/benefit profiles than do vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Objective Our objective was to compare the 1-year real-life risk of major clinical events with dabigatran or rivaroxaban versus VKAs for NVAF. Methods This was a high-dimensional propensity score (hdPS)-matched cohort study of new users of dabigatran, rivaroxaban or VKAs for NVAF in the French national healthcare systems database in 2013 followed-up for 1 year [22]. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for clinical events and death were determined during exposure. Results In 2013, a total of 103,101 new anticoagulant users had definite NVAF: 44,653 VKA, 27,060 dabigatran, and 31,388 rivaroxaban. In matched populations, HRs were as follows for dabigatran versus VKAs (20,489 per group): stroke and systemic embolism (SSE) 0.75 (95% CI 0.63–0.88), clinically relevant bleeding (CRB) 0.58 (95% CI 0.51–0.66), hemorrhagic stroke (HS) 0.22 (95% CI 0.14–0.36), gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) 0.98 (95% CI 0.80–1.19), acute coronary syndrome (ACS) 0.79 (95% CI 0.65–0.95), death 0.74 (95% CI 0.67–0.82), composite (any of the above) 0.71 (95% CI 0.66–0.76). For matched rivaroxaban versus VKA (23,053 per group) HRs were as follows: SSE 0.98 (95% CI 0.85–1.14), CRB 0.83 (95% CI 0.75–0.92), HS 0.65 (95% CI 0.49–0.87), GIB 1.08 (95% CI 0.90–1.30), ACS 0.84 (95% CI 0.71–1.00), death 0.77 (95% CI 0.71–0.84), composite 0.84 (95% CI 0.79–0.89). Numbers needed to treat to observe one fewer death were 49 ± 0.05 with dabigatran or rivaroxaban versus VKAs. Conclusion Consistent with results from clinical trials and other observational studies, dabigatran and rivaroxaban were at least as effective and safer than VKAs for the prevention of thromboembolic events in NVAF over 1 year in the French population. Study registration European Medicines Agency EUPAS 13017 (www.encepp.eu) Clinicaltrials.gov id NCT02785354.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Long-Term Quality of Prescription for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial
           Infarction (STEMI) Patients: A Real World 1-Year Follow-Up Study
    • Abstract: Aim American and European associations of cardiology published specific guidelines about recommended drugs for secondary prevention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Our aim was to assess whether drug prescription for STEMI patients was in accordance with the guidelines at discharge and after 1 year. Method We used data of 361 patients admitted for STEMI in a tertiary hospital in Switzerland from 2014 to 2016. We assessed the adequacy of prescription of recommended drugs at two time points: discharge and after 1 year. Medications assessed were aspirin, P2Y12 inhibitors, statin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and β-blockers. We took into account several criteria like statin dosage (low versus high intensity) and presence of contraindication for consideration of optimal therapy. Predictors of incomplete prescription of guideline medications were then assessed with multivariate logistic regression models. Results From discharge (n = 358) to 1-year follow-up (n = 303), rate of optimal prescription was reduced from 98.6 to 91.7% for aspirin, from 93.9 to 79.1% for P2Y12 inhibitors, from 83.8 to 65.7% for statins, from 98.6 to 95.6% for ACEIs/ARBs, and from 97.1 to 96.9% for β-blockers. Predictors of incomplete prescription of guideline medications at discharge were female sex (odds ratio [OR] 2.54, p = 0.007), active or former smoker status (OR 2.29, p = 0.017), multivessel disease (OR 2.07, p = 0.022), left ventricular ejection fraction < 40% (OR 2.49, p = 0.008), and transfer to cardiac surgery (OR 9.66, p = 0.018). At 1 year, age > 65 (OR 1.92, p = 0.036) remained the only significant predictor. Conclusion The present study showed a high prescription rate of guideline-recommended medications in a referral center for primary percutaneous coronary intervention. At discharge, women and co-morbid patients were at the highest risk of incomplete prescription of guideline medications, whereas long-term prescription was suboptimal for elderly. A drug lacking at time of discharge was rarely introduced within the year, which underscores the paramount importance of optimal prescription at time of discharge. Strategies like implementing a standardized prescription could reduce the proportion of suboptimal prescription. It could therefore be one way to improve the long-term quality of care of our patients to the highest level. This study used local data from AMIS Plus—National Registry of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Switzerland (NCT01305785).
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of Direct Oral Anticoagulants Versus Warfarin in
           Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Across BMI Categories: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis
    • Abstract: Objectives Concerns have arisen recently over the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). This meta-analysis aimed to explore if there is an “obesity paradox” in anticoagulated AF patients, and compare the treatment effects between DOACs and warfarin in AF patients across BMI categories. Methods We systematically searched the PubMed and Embase databases until February 26, 2019 for relevant studies. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and pooled by a random-effects model. Results A total of nine studies were included. Compared with normal weight, underweight was associated with an increased risk of stroke or systemic embolism (SSE) (RR 1.98, 95% CI 1.19–3.28), whereas either overweight or obesity was related with reduced rates of SSE (overweight: RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71–0.91; obesity: RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.61–0.78) and all-cause death (overweight: RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.64–0.83; obesity: RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66–0.79). Compared with patients receiving warfarin, patients receiving DOACs who were underweight, normal weight or overweight all had decreased risks of SSE (underweight: RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.46–0.80; normal weight: RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58–0.91; overweight: RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–0.99) and major bleeding (underweight: RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.55–0.81; normal weight: RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58–0.90; overweight: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.71–0.96), while obese DOAC users were at no higher risks for SSE and major bleeding. Conclusions There may be an obesity paradox in anticoagulated patients with AF. DOACs have better efficacy and safety profiles than warfarin in underweight, normal weight and overweight patients, and are not inferior to warfarin in obese patients.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
       
  • Effects of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents on Cardiovascular Outcomes in
           Weight Excess Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Background Obesity hypertension is an ongoing pandemic. The first-line medications to treat this condition are still subject to debate. We compared diuretics, calcium-channel blockers (CCB), beta-blockers (BB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) as an initial antihypertensive therapy for prevention of cardiovascular morbimortality of hypertensive individuals who are overweight or obese. Methods We conducted a search of the literature for randomized clinical trials in which at least 50% of the participants were overweight or obese. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, acute myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF), stroke, or end-stage renal disease. Results Our search yielded 16 randomized studies. Comparisons of two classes of drugs with at least two studies indicated that (1) CCB and ACEI increased the risk of HF [relative risk (RR) = 2.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–4.40] and stroke [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.13; 1.00–1.26]), respectively, compared to diuretics; and (2) CCB showed a reduction in stroke (HR = 0.77; 0.66–0.89) and total mortality (HR = 0.94; 0.87–1.01) compared to the BB atenolol. Comparisons of two classes of antihypertensive medications with only one study showed that the risk of MI was higher with ARB valsartan versus CCB (HR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.02–1.38, p = 0.02). In contrast, losartan lowered the risk of a composite cardiovascular outcome compared to atenolol (HR = 0.87; 95% CI 0.77–0.98, p = 0.02). Conclusions In hypertensive subjects with excess weight, diuretics are more effective for preventing HF and stroke than CCB and ACEI, respectively. CCB are a good first-line choice for prevention of cardiovascular disease, except HF.
      PubDate: 2020-01-03
       
  • Evolution of Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Starting
           Macitentan After the Discontinuation of Other Endothelin-Receptor
           Antagonists: Results of a Retrospective Study
    • Abstract: Background Macitentan is the latest endothelin-receptor antagonist (ERA) approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), presenting enhanced properties over previous ERAs. Objective We describe the clinical and echocardiographic evolution of patients with PAH who started macitentan after discontinuing bosentan/ambrisentan. Methods This was a retrospective series of patients with different etiologies who started macitentan after the suspension of other ERAs under routine clinical practice at five Spanish hospitals. World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC), 6-min walk distance (6MWD), levels of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cardiac imaging data were collected and described at baseline (before macitentan initiation) and after 3, 6, and 12 months, when available. Results In total, 12 patients (ten women; mean age 65.63 ± 13.27 years) were observed. At baseline, most patients were receiving concomitant PAH medications, and five patients were classed as WHO-FC III. After 3 months of macitentan treatment, WHO-FC had improved in four patients, 6MWD increased in eight patients, and NT-proBNP levels and right atrial area were lowered in seven and eight patients, respectively. Similar results were observed after 6 and 12 months. Macitentan was well-tolerated, with no PAH hospitalizations, septostomies, transplants, or deaths registered. Conclusions Our results suggest that switching to macitentan in patients with PAH who discontinued bosentan/ambrisentan was well-tolerated and effective. Further studies are needed to confirm these observations.
      PubDate: 2019-12-27
       
  • Statins, LDL Cholesterol Control, Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, and
           Atherosclerosis Progression: A Clinical Perspective
    • Abstract: Despite the longstanding and widespread use of statins, they are used quite inefficiently in everyday clinical practice. This might be because of a lack of robust evidence or the wide variety of different guidelines that are frequently changed. Using data from clinical trials and some simple mathematical modeling, we sought to expand upon the relation between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control and cardiovascular risk to offer a firm basis for independent decision making in everyday clinical practice. Analysis of the dose–response curves of different statins indicated that doubling the dose will provide a < 5% extra LDL-C gradient and that the relationship among different statin dose equipotencies is fourfold in the lower range and threefold in the higher range. Thus, the use of potent statins at very low doses might overcome patient statin reluctance. Moreover, whereas statins lower LDL-C percentwise, the prevention of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events (ARCVEs) depends on the absolute LDL-C gradient produced and the level of risk. Consequently, and counterintuitively, the lower the baseline LDL-C and/or ARCVE risk, the higher the statin therapy strength required, and approach that is also cost effective. We discuss the issue of threshold versus gradient in terms of clinical trials on plaque regression and speculate on the relationship between LDL-C and atherosclerosis.
      PubDate: 2019-12-16
       
  • Safety of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Monoclonal
           Antibodies in Regard to Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Abstract: Background Evidence shows a positive association between the use of statins and new-onset diabetes. There is, however, contradictory evidence as to whether a similar association exists for the use of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies (PCSK9-mAbs) in regard to incident diabetes. Methods and Results Randomized controlled trials that reported data on the incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus or the worsening of pre-existing diabetes were searched, and risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to compare the endpoints. Twenty-three studies including 65,957 participants were identified. Compared with controls, PCSK9-mAb treatment was not associated with the adverse event of diabetes (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.91–1.02; p = 0.22). When we analysed the trials in terms of PCSK9-mAb type, alirocumab was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of diabetes (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.98; p = 0.01), whereas no significant reduction was observed in participants receiving evolocumab or bococizumab. Interestingly, compared with ezetimibe, which was actively used as lipid-modifying therapy in the control group, PCSK9-mAbs seem to have a lower risk of incident diabetes (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37–0.99; p = 0.04). This meta-analysis also revealed a noticeable increase in the risk of incident diabetes in the evolocumab and alirocumab pool (RR 2.14, 95% CI 1.12–4.07; p = 0.02) when the use of statins was equivalent between the experimental and active comparator arms. Conclusion Compared with placebo or any other comparator, PCSK9-mAb treatment was not associated with the adverse event of diabetes. However, evolocumab and alirocumab show high risk of incident diabetes when there is no interference from unbalanced use of statins. The imbalance in background lipid modifying therapy or different comparators used in the control arms of the studies might have masked the effect of PCSK9-mAb therapy on diabetes.
      PubDate: 2019-12-11
       
  • Effectiveness and Safety of Restarting Oral Anticoagulation in Patients
           with Atrial Fibrillation after an Intracranial Hemorrhage: Analysis of
           Medicare Part D Claims Data from 2010–2016
    • Abstract: Background In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who survive an anticoagulant-related intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), the benefits of restarting oral anticoagulation (OAC) remain unclear. Objective In this study, we sought to determine the effectiveness and safety associated with resumption of OAC in atrial fibrillation patients who survive an ICH. Methods Using 2010–2016 Medicare claims data, we identified patients with non-valvular AF who experienced an OAC-related ICH and survived at least 6 weeks after the ICH (n = 1502). The primary outcomes included the composite of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), thromboembolism (TE), a composite of ischemic stroke/TIA and TE, recurrent ICH, and all-cause mortality. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the association between post-ICH OAC resumption, which was measured in a time-dependent manner, and the risk of primary outcomes, while controlling for a comprehensive list of covariates. Results Among patients who survived an ICH, 69% reinitiated OAC within 6 weeks of the event, and among those who resumed OAC, 83% restarted warfarin. There was no significant difference in the risk of ischemic stroke/TIA (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62–1.21), TE (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.55–1.32), and ischemic stroke/TIA/TE (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.61–1.07) between post-ICH OAC use and non-use. Post-ICH OAC use was associated with a lower risk of recurrent ICH (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.41–0.95) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.37–0.62) compared with non-OAC use. Conclusions In AF patients who survived an ICH, restarting OAC was not associated with a greater risk of recurrent ICH. Evidence from randomized controlled studies is needed to further clarify the clinical benefit of restarting OAC in this high-risk population. Further evaluation of which individuals benefit from restarting OAC is also needed to provide more clinical guidance.
      PubDate: 2019-12-06
       
  • Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System Optimization for Acute
           Decompensated Heart Failure Patients (ROAD-HF): Rationale and Design
    • Abstract: Introduction The long-term benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on outcomes in patients with chronic congestive heart failure are well-known, making them one of the most widely prescribed medications. However, the administration of ACEIs/ARBs in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) can increase the risk of morbidity and mortality secondary to worsening renal function (WRF). A decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during the treatment of ADHF has been associated with an increase in mortality proportional to the degree of WRF. Aim The aim of our study is to determine whether withholding ACEIs/ARBs during the initial 72 h of admission in patients with ADHF will prevent WRF and allow more effective diuresis. Methods Four hundred and thirty patients will be randomized to the intervention (withholding ACEIs/ARBs) or control (continue/start ACEIs/ARBs) arms for 72 h. Primary outcomes include rates of acute kidney injury (AKI), patient global assessment, and change in kinetic eGFR over 72 h, while secondary outcomes include change in weight, fluid balance, change in signs and symptoms of congestion, change in renal function, change in urinary biomarkers (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 [TIMP-2] × insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 [IGFBP7]), patients experiencing treatment failure, hospital length of stay (LOS), cost analysis, mortality within 30 days, and hospital readmissions over 30 days and 1 year. Conclusion This prospective clinical trial will prove if withholding ACEIs/ARBs will prevent AKI in ADHF. It will help us understand the complex interactions between the heart and kidney, and delineate the best treatment strategy for ADHF. Holding ACEIs/ARBs might help preserve renal function, and decrease hospital LOS, readmission rates, and cost of care in ADHF. Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03695120.
      PubDate: 2019-12-04
       
  • Acknowledgement to Referees
    • PubDate: 2019-11-04
       
 
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