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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.951
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 16  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1175-3277 - ISSN (Online) 1179-187X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Clinical Use of Digitalis: A State of the Art Review
    • Authors: Thomas F. Whayne
      Pages: 427 - 440
      Abstract: The history of digitalis is rich and interesting, with the first use usually attributed to William Withering and his study on the foxglove published in 1785. However, some knowledge of plants with digitalis-like effects used for congestive heart failure (CHF) was in evidence as early as Roman times. The active components of the foxglove (Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata) are classified as cardiac glycosides or cardiotonic steroids and include the well-known digitalis leaf, digitoxin, and digoxin; ouabain is a rapid-acting glycoside usually obtained from Strophanthus gratus. These drugs are potent inhibitors of cellular membrane sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase). For most of the twentieth century, digitalis and its derivatives, especially digoxin, were the available standard of care for CHF. However, as the century closed, many doubts, especially regarding safety, were raised about their use as other treatments for CHF, such as decreasing the preload of the left ventricle, were developed. Careful attention is needed to maintain the serum digoxin level at ≤ 1.0 ng/ml because of the very narrow therapeutic window of the medication. Evidence for benefit exists for CHF with reduced ejection fraction (EF), also referred to as heart failure with reduced EF (HFrEF), especially when considering the combination of mortality, morbidity, and decreased hospitalizations. However, the major support for using digoxin is in atrial fibrillation (AF) with a rapid ventricular response when a rate control approach is planned. The strongest support of all for digoxin is for its use in rate control in AF in the presence of a marginal blood pressure, since all other rate control medications contribute to additional hypotension. In summary, these days, digoxin appears to be of most use in HFrEF and in AF with rapid ventricular response for rate control, especially when associated with hypotension. The valuable history of the foxglove continues; it has been modified but not relegated to the garden or the medical history book, as some would advocate.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0292-1
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2018)
  • Antithromboembolic Strategies for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
           Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
    • Authors: Ayesha Ather; Benjamin Laliberte; Brent N. Reed; Ashley Schenk; Kristin Watson; Sandeep Devabhakthuni; Vincent Y. See
      Pages: 441 - 455
      Abstract: We set out to synthesize available data on antithrombotic strategies for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), with a focus on triple antithrombotic therapy (triple therapy [TT]; dual antiplatelet therapy plus an anticoagulant) versus dual therapy (DT; one antiplatelet agent and an anticoagulant). We searched OVID MEDLINE and PubMed from January 2005 to September 2017 using the search terms oral anticoagulant, triple therapy, dual therapy, acute coronary syndrome, percutaneous coronary intervention, and atrial fibrillation (limited to randomized controlled trials, observational studies, English language, minimum 6–12 months of follow-up, minimum 100 human patients). We excluded surveys, literature reviews, articles not directly related to TT versus DT, incomplete studies, and short-term in-hospital studies. All eligible studies were reviewed to evaluate possible antithrombotic management strategies for patients with AF undergoing PCI. Extracted studies were categorized according to the specific anticoagulant (vitamin K antagonist vs. direct-acting oral anticoagulant) and P2Y12 inhibitor used. Each category review was followed by a discussion providing insight into the quality of evidence and implications for practice. We found that the risk of bleeding with TT was higher than with DT, without demonstrated added benefit of reducing major adverse cardiovascular events. TT use should be minimized in patients with high bleeding risk, and patient-specific factors should be critically analyzed to select appropriate antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0287-y
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2018)
  • Oral Antiplatelet Therapy for Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary
    • Authors: Jeffrey S. Berger
      Pages: 457 - 472
      Abstract: Patients surviving an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remain at increased risk of ischemic events long term. This paper reviews current evidence and guidelines for oral antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention following ACS, with respect to decreased risk of ischemic events versus bleeding risk according to individual patient characteristics and risk factors. Specifically, data are reviewed from clinical studies of clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor and vorapaxar, as well as the results of systematic reviews and meta-analyses looking at the benefits and risks of oral antiplatelet therapy, and the relative merits of shorter versus longer duration of dual antiplatelet therapy, in different patient groups.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0291-2
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2018)
  • Focused Treatment of Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction Using
    • Authors: Rex C. Liu
      Pages: 473 - 482
      Abstract: The clinical syndrome of heart failure (HF) can be described as the reduced capacity of the heart to deliver blood throughout the body. To compensate for inadequate tissue perfusion, the renin–angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) become activated, resulting in increased blood pressure, heart rate, and blood volume. Consequent activation of the natriuretic peptide system (NPS) typically balances these effects; however, the NPS is unable to sustain compensation for excessive neurohormonal activation over time. Until recently, mortality benefits have been provided to patients with HF only by therapies that target the RAAS and SNS, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and beta-blockers. Sacubitril/valsartan, the first-in-class angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), targets both the NPS and RAAS to further improve clinical outcomes. This review discusses the focused management of patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and suggests changes to current management paradigms. From this assessment, the evidence supports favoring sacubitril/valsartan over ACEIs or ARBs, and this therapy should be used in conjunction with beta-blockers to further decrease morbidity and mortality in patients with HFrEF.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0280-5
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2018)
  • Early and Late Stent Thrombosis in Patients with Versus Without Diabetes
           Mellitus Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Drug-Eluting
           Stents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Jun Yuan; Guang Ma Xu
      Pages: 483 - 492
      Abstract: Background Nowadays, drug-eluting stents (DES) are most commonly used compared with bare metal stents (BMS) since the former are associated with significantly lower rates of revascularization following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, unpredictable in-stent thrombosis is a major concern with DES, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. Objective In this analysis, we aimed to systematically compare early and late stent thrombosis in patients with versus without diabetes mellitus following PCI with DES. Methods Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials or observational studies comparing patients with diabetes mellitus versus those without it following PCI with DES and they reported acute and sub-acute/early and late stent thrombosis among their clinical outcomes. Early stent thrombosis was defined as stent thrombosis that occurred before 30 days and late stent thrombosis was defined as stent thrombosis that occurred after 30 days following PCI. The statistical analysis was carried out by the new version of the RevMan software (version 5.3), and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were considered as the statistical parameters. Results A total number of 18,910 patients were included in this analysis comparing early and late stent thrombosis in patients with diabetes mellitus (5123 patients) and in patients without diabetes mellitus (13,787 patients). Both groups of patients had similar rates of early stent thrombosis, with an OR of 1.30 (95% CI 0.89–1.91; P = 0.18, I2 = 9%) (4962 patients with diabetes mellitus were compared with 13,392 patients without diabetes mellitus). However, late stent thrombosis was significantly higher in patients with diabetes mellitus, with an OR of 1.95 (95% CI 1.35– 2.81; P = 0.0004, I2 = 0%) (5113 patients with diabetes mellitus and 13,775 patients without diabetes mellitus were compared). Conclusions Both patients with and without diabetes mellitus had a similar rate of early stent thrombosis following PCI with DES. However, diabetes mellitus was associated with a significantly higher rate of late stent thrombosis.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0295-y
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2018)
  • Patients’ Priorities for Oral Anticoagulation Therapy in Non-valvular
           Atrial Fibrillation: a Multi-criteria Decision Analysis
    • Authors: Marieke G. M. Weernink; Melissa C. W. Vaanholt; Catharina G. M. Groothuis-Oudshoorn; Clemens von Birgelen; Maarten J. IJzerman; Janine A. van Til
      Pages: 493 - 502
      Abstract: Introduction Effectiveness of oral anticoagulants (OACs) is critically dependent on patients’ adherence to intake regimens. We studied the relative impact of attributes related to effectiveness, safety, convenience, and costs on the value of OAC therapy from the perspective of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Methods Four attributes were identified by literature review and expert interviews: effectiveness (risk of ischemic stroke), safety (risk of major bleeding, minor bleeding, gastrointestinal complaints), convenience (intake frequency, diet restrictions, international normalized ratio [INR] blood monitoring, pill type/intake instructions), and out-of-pocket costs. Focus groups were held in Spain, Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom (N = 48) to elicit patients’ preferences through the use of the analytical hierarchy process method. Results Effectiveness (60%) and side effects (27%) have a higher impact on the perceived value of OACs than drug convenience (7%) and out-of-pocket costs (6%). As for convenience, eliminating monthly INR monitoring was given the highest priority (40%), followed by reducing diet restrictions (27%), reducing intake frequency (17%) and improving the pill type/intake instructions (15%). The most important side effect was major bleeding (75%), followed by minor bleeding (15%) and gastrointestinal complaints (10%). Furthermore, 71% of patients preferred once-daily intake to twice-daily intake. Discussion Although the relative impact of convenience on therapy value is small, patients have different preferences for options within convenience criteria. Besides considerations on safety and effectiveness, physicians should also discuss attributes of convenience with patients, as it can be assumed that alignment to patient preferences in drug prescription and better patient education could result in higher adherence.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0293-0
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2018)
  • Biomarkers of Thrombosis in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A
           Substudy of the ATOLL Trial Comparing Enoxaparin Versus Unfractionated
    • Authors: Johanne Silvain; for the ATOLL Investigators; Stephen A. O’Connor; Yan Yan; Mathieu Kerneis; Marie Hauguel-Moreau; Michel Zeitouni; Pavel Overtchouk; Annick Ankri; Delphine Brugier; Eric Vicaut; Patrick Ecollan; Sophie Galier; Jean-Philippe Collet; Gilles Montalescot
      Pages: 503 - 511
      Abstract: Background The aim was to compare the peri-procedural biomarkers of coagulation and platelet activation in patients randomly allocated to intravenous enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin (UFH) in the ATOLL randomized trial (NCT00718471). Methods and Results A total of 129 patients (n = 58 enoxaparin and n = 71 UFH) admitted for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were included in this substudy of the ATOLL trial. Activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, anti-Xa activity, von Willebrand factor antigen, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor and soluble CD40 ligand were measured at sheath insertion (T1) and at the end of the PCI (T2) and correlated with 1-month clinical outcomes. Target anticoagulation levels at T2 were more readily achieved in patients receiving enoxaparin compared to those receiving UFH (80.3 vs 18.2%, p < 0.0001). Increased levels of F1 + 2 and TAT measured at T2 were associated with the incidence of the composite ischemic endpoint (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03) and all-cause mortality (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002). Release of F1 + 2 between T1 and T2 also predicted the composite ischemic endpoint (312 ± 513 vs 37 ± 292, p = 0.04) and net clinical outcome (185 ± 405 vs 3.2 ± 278, p = 0.03). Conclusions During primary PCI, enoxaparin achieved therapeutic levels more frequently than UFH. Higher level of thrombin generation measured at the end of the PCI procedure was associated with more frequent ischemic events.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0294-z
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2018)
  • Healthcare Utilization and Expenditures in Working-Age Adults with Atrial
           Fibrillation: The Effect of Switching from Warfarin to Non-Vitamin K Oral
    • Authors: Xue Feng; Usha Sambamoorthi; Kim Innes; Traci LeMasters; Gregory Castelli; Nilanjana Dwibedi; Xi Tan
      Pages: 513 - 520
      Abstract: Objective Our objective was to evaluate the association between switching from warfarin to non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and potential drug–drug interactions (DDIs), healthcare utilization, and expenditures in working-age adults with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from 2010 to 2015 for patients who switched from warfarin to NOACs (switchers) and those who continued to receive warfarin (non-switchers). We identified medications known or suspected to have clinically significant interactions with NOACs or warfarin. We used multivariate logistic regression, negative binomial, and generalized linear models to evaluate the influence of switching to NOACs and of potential DDIs on inpatient visits, outpatient visits, number of outpatient visits, and non-drug medical expenditures. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was also applied in analyses. Results A total of 4126 patients with AF were included in the study. Switching to NOACs was significantly and negatively related to the number of outpatient, inpatient, and emergency room (ER) visits and non-drug medical expenditures. When potential DDIs were included in the models, switching remained significantly associated only with reduced inpatient and outpatient visits. Notably, having at least one potential DDI was associated with an increased likelihood of ER visits and the number of outpatient visits; it was also significantly and positively associated with non-drug medical expenditures. Conclusions Relative to persistent warfarin use, switching to NOACs was associated with fewer inpatient, ER, and outpatient visits and lower non-drug costs. Potential DDIs were also strongly and positively associated with healthcare utilization and expenditures. Both are critical to consider in the management of AF in working-age adults.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0296-x
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2018)
  • Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Tenecteplase Bolus in Acute Ischemic
           Stroke: Results of Two Open-Label, Multicenter Trials
    • Authors: Tirppur C. R. Ramakrishnan; For the Tenecteplase in Stroke Investigators; Somasundaram Kumaravelu; Sunil K. Narayan; Sai S. Buddha; Ch. Murali; Palakkapparampil H. A. Majeed; Salvadeeswaran Meenakshi-Sundaram; Rustom S. Wadia; Vikram Sharma; Indraneel Basu; Pamidimukkala Vijaya; Kizhakkaniyakath A. Salam; Shahid Barmare; Zubin Vaid; K. K. Nirmal Raj; Pandurang R. Wattamwar; Konbappan Asokan; Vijaykumar Dhonge; Shankara Nellikunja; Deepak Namjoshi; Rangasetty Srinivasa; Deepak S. Laddhad; Shirish D. Deshpande; Balakrishnan Raghunath; Jayantee Kalita; Mritunjai Kumar; Usha K. Misra; Methil Pradeep
      Pages: 387 - 395
      Abstract: Background Tenecteplase (TNK-tPA) is a promising third-generation plasminogen activator, because of its greater fibrin specificity and longer half-life than alteplase. There is a paucity of studies on intravenous thrombolysis using TNK-tPA in developing countries. The present study has been undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of TNK-tPA with alteplase. Methods Two studies were conducted. Study I was an open-label, randomized study in which two doses of TNK-tPA (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg) were compared. Study II was an open-label study in which TNK-tPA 0.2 mg/kg bolus was compared with historical controls. The primary endpoint for study I and study II was an improvement of ≥ 8 points or a score of 0 on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) [major neurological improvement (MNI)] at 24 h. Secondary endpoints for both studies were neurological improvement as assessed using the NIHSS score, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score and the Barthel Index (BI) on days 7, 30 and 90. Minimal disability was defined as an mRS score of 0 or 1 and good functional recovery as a BI score of 50–90. Safety was assessed by the proportion of patients having symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) within 36 h and asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at 48 h after treatment. Results In study I, 20 patients received 0.1 mg/kg and 30 received 0.2 mg/kg TNK-tPA. There was no significant difference in MNI at 24 h between 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg TNK-tPA doses. The patients given 0.2 mg/kg TNK-tPA had a significantly better 3-month outcome (minimal disability, p = 0.007). There was no sICH in study I. In study II, 62 patients (one lost to follow-up) received 0.2 mg/kg TNK-tPA. MNI was noted in ten patients (16.4%), 3-month minimal disability was noted in 37 patients (60.7%), and good functional recovery was seen in 33 patients (54.1%). sICH occurred in one patient, and four patients died. Pooled data of patients in study I and study II receiving 0.2 mg/kg TNK-tPA were compared with data from the historical National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) trial. For comparison, the primary endpoint of the NINDS trial (improvement on NIHSS of ≥ 4 points or a score of 0 at 24 h) was taken. The primary endpoint though was not significantly different (58.2% vs. 47%, p = 0.08), but with TNK-tPA, greater neurological improvement, minimal disability (70.3 vs. 39%, p < 0.001) and good functional recovery (36.3 vs. 16%, p < 0.001) was noted at 3 months. There was a lower incidence of sICH (1.1 vs. 6.4%, p = 0.05) and lower 3-month mortality (5.5 vs. 17%, p = 0.01) noted with TNK-tPA compared with alteplase. Conclusions Intravenous TNK-tPA 0.2 mg/kg administered within 3 hours of symptom onset seems to be well tolerated and effective option in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registry—India,; unique identifiers: CTRI/2009/091/000251 and CTRI/2015/02/005556.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0284-1
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2018)
  • Treatment with Mannitol is Associated with Increased Risk for In-Hospital
           Mortality in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Cerebral Edema
    • Authors: Marianthi Papagianni; Konstantinos Tziomalos; Stavroula Kostaki; Stella-Maria Angelopoulou; Konstantinos Christou; Stella D. Bouziana; Maria Vergou; Triantafyllos Didangelos; Christos Savopoulos; Apostolos I. Hatzitolios
      Pages: 397 - 403
      Abstract: Background Current guidelines state that osmotic therapy is reasonable in patients with clinical deterioration from cerebral infarction-related cerebral edema. However, there are limited data on the safety and efficacy of this therapy. We aimed to evaluate the effect of mannitol on the outcome of ischemic stroke-related cerebral edema. Methods and Results We prospectively studied 922 consecutive patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke. Patients who showed space-occupying brain edema with tissue shifts compressing the midline structures received mannitol. The outcome was assessed with dependency rates at discharge (modified Rankin Scale grade 2–5) and in-hospital mortality. Rates of dependency were higher in patients treated with mannitol (n = 86) than in those who were not (97.7 and 58.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). Independent predictors of dependency were age, history of ischemic stroke and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission. Rates of mortality were higher in patients treated with mannitol than in those who were not (46.5 and 5.6%, respectively; p < 0.001). Independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were diastolic blood pressure [relative risk (RR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.08, p < 0.001], NIHSS score at admission (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.14–1.23, p < 0.001) and treatment with mannitol (RR 3.45, 95% CI 1.55–7.69, p < 0.005). Conclusions Administration of mannitol to patients with ischemic stroke-related cerebral edema does not appear to affect the functional outcome and might increase mortality, independently of stroke severity.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0285-0
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2018)
  • Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Sacubitril-Valsartan Compared with
           Enalapril in Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction in
    • Authors: Rungroj Krittayaphong; Unchalee Permsuwan
      Pages: 405 - 413
      Abstract: Background Sacubitril-valsartan is a new medication that has recently been recommended as a replacement for enalapril in the treatment of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Objective This study aimed to determine the cost effectiveness of sacubitril-valsartan compared with enalapril. Methods An analytical decision model was developed to estimate the long-term costs and outcomes from a healthcare perspective. Clinical inputs were mostly derived from the PARADIGM-HF study. Enalapril-related costs, risk of non-cardiovascular death, and all-cause readmission rate were based on data from Thailand. The costs and outcomes were discounted at 3% annually. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated and presented for the year 2017. A series of sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results For the base-case, the increased cost (144,146 vs. 16,048 Thai baht [THB]) of sacubitril-valsartan was associated with gains in both life-years (9.214 vs. 8.367 years) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (7.698 vs. 6.909) compared with enalapril, yielding an ICER of 162,276 THB/QALY ($US4857.11/QALY). This ICER is not considered to be cost effective at the willingness-to-pay (WTP) level of 160,000 THB/QALY. The risk of cardiovascular death and costs of both sacubitril-valsartan and hospitalization influenced the ICER. At a WTP of 160,000 THB/QALY, sacubitril-valsartan had a 48% probability of being a cost-effective treatment. Conclusions At its current price in Thailand, sacubitril-valsartan may not represent good value for the nations’s limited healthcare resources. The cost of sacubitril-valsartan needs to reduce by approximately 2% to yield an ICER below the threshold.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0288-x
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2018)
  • Association Between High-Dose Spironolactone and Decongestion in Patients
           with Acute Heart Failure: An Observational Retrospective Study
    • Authors: Chris J. Kapelios; Maria Bonou; Paraskevi Vogiatzi; George Tzanis; Polyxeni Mantzouratou; Lars H. Lund; John Barbetseas
      Pages: 415 - 422
      Abstract: Background Acute congestive heart failure (ACHF) is a state of severe, secondary hyperaldosteronism. Relief of congestion has prognostic implications. Our aim was to assess associations between high-dose spironolactone and (1) decongestion and (2) safety in patients with ACHF. Methods The charts of 20 patients who were hospitalized with ACHF and received high doses of spironolactone (75–300 mg daily, group A) on top of standard of care (SOC) treatment were retrospectively studied and compared with the ones of 20 matched patients who received SOC treatment alone (group B). Results The two groups were similar as per their baseline characteristics. Mean daily spironolactone dose was 143 ± 56 in group A vs. 25 ± 25 mg in group B (P < 0.001). Patients of group A demonstrated significantly greater daily urine output (median [25th, 75th percentile] 2.9 [2.3, 3.9] vs. 2.2 [1.9, 2.5] L/day, P = 0.009), daily weight loss (1.1 [0.9, 1.7] vs. 0.4 [0.2, 1.2] kg/day, P = 0.005) and total body weight loss (10.5 [7.3, 13.8] vs. 3.8 [3.0, 6.0] kg, P < 0.001) compared with patients of group B. There were no differences in incidence of renal dysfunction, hypokalemia and hyperkalemia. Conclusion In patients with ACHF, administration of high doses of spironolactone on top of SOC treatment appears safe and is associated with greater decongestion than SOC alone.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0290-3
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 5 (2018)
  • Trends in Hospital Visits for Generic and Brand-Name Warfarin Users in
           Québec, Canada: A Population-Based Time Series Analysis
    • Authors: Jacinthe Leclerc; Claudia Blais; Louis Rochette; Denis Hamel; Line Guénette; Paul Poirier
      Abstract: Background Federal standards authorize the commercialization of generic medicines after bioequivalence versus the brand-name originator has been demonstrated. For drugs with narrow therapeutic indexes, such as warfarin, the accepted difference in bioavailability is ≤ 10%. No systematic pharmacovigilance studies are conducted once generics become available. Objective We aimed to assess the impact of the arrival of generic warfarin on hospital visit trends (hospital admissions or emergency room consultations) in warfarin users. Methods This was an observational interrupted time series analysis (2 January 1996 to 1 January 2016). Using the Québec Integrated Chronic Disease Surveillance System, we included all patients who were aged ≥ 66 years, publicly covered and using brand-name or generic warfarin (N = 280,158). We estimated rates of hospital visits in 6-month periods, 5 years before and up to 15 years after the arrival of generic warfarin. Periods before and after were compared using segmented regression models for all users along with exploratory (generic vs. brand name)/subgroup analyses (cardiovascular comorbidities and socioeconomic status). Results Generic warfarin arrived on the market on 2 January 2001. Over the 20-year period of the study, the mean rate of hospital visits was 113 for 100 brand-name or generic users per 6-month period and was similar before and after the arrival of the generics. Up to 15 years after the arrival of the generics, the rates of hospital visits were 10% higher for generic than for brand-name users, which was confirmed by subgroup analyses. Conclusions Overall, we observed no impact on hospital visits after the arrival of generic warfarin in all the population treated with any type of warfarin. However, a higher crude rate of hospital visits among generic users than brand-name users remains to be validated using a different methodology and specific outcomes.
      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0309-9
  • DAPT Plus Cilostazol is Better Than Traditional DAPT or Aspirin Plus
           Ticagrelor as Elective PCI for Intermediate-to-Highly Complex Cases:
           Prospective, Randomized, PRU-Based Study in Taiwan
    • Authors: Yueh-Chung Chen; Feng-Yen Lin; Yi-Wen Lin; Shu-Meng Cheng; Rong-Ho Lin; Chun-Ling Chuang; Jehn-Shing Sheu; Shan-Min Chen; Chao-Chien Chang; Chien-Sung Tsai
      Abstract: Purpose Current treatment guidelines do not recommend different antiplatelet treatments for patients in different coronary risk categories; nor do they consider ethnic differences in responses to individual drugs. Objectives We performed a prospective, single-blind, randomized, comparative study of Taiwanese patients with stable angina and scheduled stent implantation for intermediate-to-highly complex coronary lesions and compared the platelet reactivity unit (PRU) levels and 24-month outcomes of groups receiving three different antiplatelet treatments. Methods Patients (N = 334) were randomized into three treatment groups (aspirin + clopidogrel, aspirin + ticagrelor, or aspirin + clopidogrel + cilostazol) for 6 months of treatment and were then switched to aspirin only. PRU levels were determined 24 h, 7 days, and 1 month after stent implantation. Clinical outcomes and adverse events were recorded over 24 months. Results Clopidogrel treatment reached full effect after 1 month. Ticagrelor decreased PRU levels more than did clopidogrel but often to levels that increased the risk of hemorrhage. The addition of cilostazol to clopidogrel decreased PRU levels earlier and more strongly than clopidogrel alone but not as strongly as did ticagrelor. Ticagrelor treatment caused fewer major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and more episodes of minor bleeding than the other two treatments. Conclusions Clopidogrel appears safer than ticagrelor in Taiwanese patients with stable angina after stent implantation for intermediate-to-highly complex coronary lesions. The addition of cilostazol to clopidogrel may provide a more rapid decrease in PRU to therapeutic levels without increasing the risk of hemorrhage. Clinical trial registration number NCT02101411.
      PubDate: 2018-11-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0302-3
  • Acknowledgement to Referees
    • PubDate: 2018-11-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0311-2
  • Long-Term Effects of Bosentan on Cardiovascular Events in Hispanic
           Patients with Intermittent Claudication: Four-Year Follow-up of the CLAU
    • Authors: Joaquin De Haro; Silvia Bleda; Carmen Gonzalez-Hidalgo; Ignacio Michel; Francisco Acin
      Abstract: Introduction The Clinical and Endothelial Function Assessment after Endothelin Receptor Antagonist (CLAU) trial demonstrated the effect of bosentan on the endothelial function, inflammatory status and claudication distance in Hispanic patients with incipient peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Our aim was to assess the protective effect on cardiovascular events of bosentan versus conventional anti-atherosclerosis therapy. Methods CLAU included 56 patients with intermittent claudication, randomized 1:1 to receive bosentan for 12 weeks (n = 27) or placebo (n = 29), associating the best medical treatment. Log-rank and hazard ratio (HR) analyses were performed to estimate the relative efficacy of bosentan in preventing incidence of major adverse events (MAE) including target limb revascularization (TLR), amputation, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause death; major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE) including TLR, amputation, MI, stroke, and cardiovascular-cause death; and major adverse limb events (MALE), which combines TLR and amputation. Results During the follow-up period (34 ± 5 months), five MAE occurred in the control group only (17.2%), including two TLR, one amputation, one stroke, and an MI. The ratio of event-free survival for MAE to 3 years follow-up was higher in the group treated with bosentan (100% vs 66%, p = 0.01, HR = 76; 95% confidence interval 0.05–104,677, p = 0.24). A similar trend was observed in incidence of MACE (100% vs 66%, p = 0.01) and MALE (100% vs 80%, p = 0.15). Conclusion Treatment with bosentan in the early low-to-mild stages of PAD may prevent cardiovascular events and the need for lower limb revascularization in the Hispanic population. Trial Registration identifier NCT25102012.
      PubDate: 2018-11-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0307-y
  • Optimal Medical Therapy Prescribing Patterns and Disparities Identified in
           Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes at an Academic Medical Center in an
           Area with High Coronary Heart Disease-Related Mortality
    • Authors: Ashley N. Fox; Grant H. Skrepnek; Jamie L. Miller; Nicholas C. Schwier; Toni L. Ripley
      Abstract: Background Coronary heart disease (CHD)-related mortality is high in the southern United States. A five-drug pharmacotherapy regimen for acute coronary syndromes (ACS), defined as optimal medical therapy (OMT), can decrease CHD-related mortality. Studies have indicated that OMT is prescribed 50–60% of the time. Assessment of prescribing could provide insight into the potential etiology of disparate mortality. Objective The aim was to evaluate prescribing of OMT at discharge in patients presenting with an ACS event at an academic medical center and identify patients at risk of not receiving OMT. Methods A single-center, retrospective cohort of patients with ACS diagnosis between July 2013 and July 2015 was investigated, and a multivariable regression analysis conducted to identify populations at risk of not receiving OMT. Results A total of 864 patients were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes, with 533 excluded and 331 analyzed. OMT was prescribed in 69.79%. Patients ≥ 75 years of age [p = 0.003; odds ratio (OR) 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.136–0.673], unstable angina presentation (p = 0.042; OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.307–0.977), and surgical management (p = 0.001; OR 0.22; 95% CI 0.095–0.519) were less likely to receive OMT. Conclusions The percentage of patients prescribed OMT exceeded the reported global percentage of prescribed OMT. However, disparities exist among specific populations.
      PubDate: 2018-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0308-x
  • Assessment of Non-vitamin K Oral Anticoagulants Use in a Tertiary Care
           Center in the USA: A Chart Review of 909 Patients
    • Authors: Marwan Sheikh-Taha; Mary E. Deeb
      Abstract: Background Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have emerged as an attractive alternative to vitamin K antagonists for various thromboembolic indications. However, prescribed NOAC doses are often inconsistent with drug labeling and prescribers might not consider the potential risks associated with concomitant use of other drugs, which can compromise NOACs’ safety and effectiveness. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted in a tertiary care center in USA over a 4-month period. We studied patients whose home medications included NOACs and assessed the appropriateness as per drug labeling, taking into consideration relevant clinical factors and concomitant drug intake. Results A total of 909 patients with a mean age of 70.6 ± 13.1 years, out of which 51.6% were males, were included. The majority of patients received NOACs for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) (70.5%), or deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE) treatment (13.5%). The most common drug prescribed was apixaban (57.8%) followed by rivaroxaban (34.0%), and less frequently dabigatran (7.7%). Inappropriate dosing was significantly more frequent among older patients, those taking NOACs for AF, those taking a higher number of home medications, and those with a lower creatinine clearance. Seven hundred and six patients (77.67%) had at least one drug-NOAC interaction, out of which 515 were rated major interactions. Antiplatelets, amiodarone, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications, and calcium channel blockers were the most commonly interacting drugs. Conclusion A significant number of patients received NOACs at doses inconsistent with the package labeling or had clinically significant drug–drug interactions with NOACs. Efforts are warranted to improve appropriate dosing and avoid significant drug interactions.
      PubDate: 2018-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0310-3
  • Morphine and Ticagrelor Interaction in Primary Percutaneous Coronary
           Intervention in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction:
    • Authors: Frédéric Lapostolle; for the ATLANTIC Investigators; Arnoud W. van’t Hof; Christian W. Hamm; Olivier Stibbe; Patrick Ecollan; Jean-Philippe Collet; Johanne Silvain; Jens Flensted Lassen; Wim M. J. M. Heutz; Leonardo Bolognese; Warren J. Cantor; Angel Cequier; Mohamed Chettibi; Shaun G. Goodman; Christopher J. Hammett; Kurt Huber; Magnus Janzon; Béla Merkely; Robert F. Storey; Jur ten Berg; Uwe Zeymer; Muriel Licour; Anne Tsatsaris; Gilles Montalescot
      Abstract: Background Morphine adversely impacts the action of oral adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor blockers in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, and is possibly associated with differing patient characteristics. This retrospective analysis investigated whether interaction between morphine use and pre-percutaneous coronary intervention (pre-PCI) ST-segment elevation resolution in STEMI patients in the ATLANTIC study was associated with differences in patient characteristics and management. Methods ATLANTIC was an international, multicenter, randomized study of treatment in the acute ambulance/hospital setting where STEMI patients received ticagrelor 180 mg ± morphine. Patient characteristics, cardiovascular history, risk factors, management, and outcomes were recorded. Results Opioids (97.6% morphine) were used in 921 out of 1862 patients (49.5%). There were no significant differences in age, sex or cardiovascular history, but more morphine-treated patients had anterior myocardial infarction and left-main disease. Time from chest pain to electrocardiogram and ticagrelor loading was shorter with morphine (both p = 0.01) but not total ischemic time. Morphine-treated patients more frequently received glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (p = 0.002), thromboaspiration and stent implantation (both p < 0.001). No significant difference between the two groups was found regarding pre-PCI ≥ 70% ST-segment elevation resolution, death, myocardial infarction, stroke, urgent revascularization and definitive acute stent thrombosis. More morphine-treated patients had an absence of pre-PCI Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 3 flow (85.8% vs. 79.7%; p = 0.001) and more had TIMI major bleeding (1.1% vs. 0.1%; p = 0.02). Conclusions Morphine-treatment was associated with increased GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor use, less pre-PCI TIMI 3 flow, and more bleeding. Judicious morphine use is advised with non-opioid analgesics preferred for non-severe acute pain. Trial Registration identifier: NCT01347580.
      PubDate: 2018-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0305-0
  • Potential Uses of Sacubitril/Valsartan: Need for Data on Efficacy and
    • Authors: Fabien Huet; Mariama Akodad; Eran Kalmanovitch; Jerome Adda; Audrey Agullo; Pascal Batistella; Camille Roubille; François Roubille
      Abstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have been the cornerstone for the treatment of heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction for decades. According to recent and promising studies, sacubitril/valsartan (SV) might be efficient in alternative indications in the area of HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, chronic kidney disease, and so on. This review briefly summarizes these promising therapeutic options regarding SV and the potential limits and pitfalls for its use in routine practice (due to cognitive uncertainties).
      PubDate: 2018-10-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0306-z
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