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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2329 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
  [SJR: 0.864]   [H-I: 39]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1175-3277 - ISSN (Online) 1179-187X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Defining the Place of Ezetimibe/Atorvastatin in the Management of
    • Authors: António Miguel Ferreira; Pedro Marques da Silva
      Pages: 169 - 181
      Abstract: Statin–ezetimibe combinations are a potentially advantageous therapeutic option for high-risk patients who need additional lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). These combinations may overcome some of the limitations of statin monotherapy by blocking both sources of cholesterol. Recently, a fixed-dose combination with atorvastatin, one of the most extensively studied statins, was approved and launched in several countries, including the USA. Depending on atorvastatin dose, this combination provides LDL-C reductions of 50–60%, triglyceride reductions of 30–40%, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increases of 5–9%. Studies comparing the lipid-lowering efficacy of the atorvastatin–ezetimibe combination with the alternatives of statin dose titration or switching to a more potent statin consistently showed that combination therapy provided greater LDL-C reduction, translating into a greater proportion of patients achieving lipid goals. Simvastatin–ezetimibe combinations have been shown to reduce the incidence of major atherosclerotic events in several clinical settings to a magnitude that seems similar to that observed with statins for the same degree of absolute LDL-C lowering. The atorvastatin–ezetimibe combination has also been shown to induce the regression of coronary atherosclerosis measured by intravascular ultrasound in a significantly greater proportion of patients than atorvastatin alone. Atorvastatin–ezetimibe combinations are generally well tolerated. Previous concerns of a possible increase in the incidence of cancer with ezetimibe were dismissed in large trials with long follow-up periods. In this paper, we examine the rationale for an atorvastatin–ezetimibe combination, review the evidence supporting it, and discuss its potential role in the management of dyslipidemia.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0205-0
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
  • Iron Therapy in Patients with Heart Failure and Iron Deficiency: Review of
           Iron Preparations for Practitioners
    • Authors: Marcin Drozd; Ewa A. Jankowska; Waldemar Banasiak; Piotr Ponikowski
      Pages: 183 - 201
      Abstract: In patients with heart failure (HF), iron deficiency (ID) correlates with decreased exercise capacity and poor health-related quality of life, and predicts worse outcomes. Both absolute (depleted iron stores) and functional (where iron is unavailable for dedicated tissues) ID can be easily evaluated in patients with HF using standard laboratory tests (assessment of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation). Intravenous iron therapy in iron-deficient patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction has been shown to alleviate HF symptoms and improve exercise capacity and quality of life. In this paper, we provide information on how to diagnose ID in HF. Further we discuss pros and cons of different iron preparations and discuss the results of major trials implementing iron supplementation in HF patients, in order to provide practical guidance for clinicians on how to manage ID in patients with HF.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0211-2
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
  • Interpreting Cardiovascular Endpoints in Trials of Antihyperglycemic Drugs
    • Authors: Himika Chawla; Nikhil Tandon
      Pages: 203 - 215
      Abstract: In view of the significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and concerns raised about the CV safety of some glucose-lowering drugs, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued guidance for the industry in 2008 to demonstrate CV safety for the approval of all new antihyperglycemic drugs. Seven randomized controlled trials involving around 60,000 participants have been completed so far and have demonstrated the CV safety of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (saxagliptin, alogliptin and sitagliptin), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (lixisenatide, liraglutide and semaglutide) and a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (empagliflozin) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Three of these trials have in fact reported superiority of the study drug over placebo in terms of CV outcomes. However, all these trials were primarily designed as non-inferiority trials to exclude an unacceptable risk of CV events with these drugs in the shortest possible time period. The potential long-term benefit or risks were not assessed effectively as the median follow-up in these studies was limited to 1.5–3 years. Also, these trials included patients with relatively long duration of diabetes, advanced atherosclerosis and higher CV risk. Thus, these trials were not intended to assess CV benefit and are best interpreted as evidence for CV safety of these antihyperglycemic medications.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0215-6
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
  • Managing Cardiovascular Risk in Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency
    • Authors: James J. Maciejko
      Pages: 217 - 231
      Abstract: Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare, life-threatening, autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the LIPA gene, which encodes for lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). This enzyme is necessary for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride in lysosomes. Deficient LAL activity causes accumulation of these lipids in lysosomes and a marked decrease in the cytoplasmic free cholesterol concentration, leading to dysfunctional cholesterol homeostasis. The accumulation of neutral lipid occurs predominantly in liver, spleen, and macrophages throughout the body, and the aberrant cholesterol homeostasis causes a marked dyslipidemia. LAL-D is characterized by accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and hepatic microvesicular or mixed steatosis, leading to inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver failure. LAL-D presents as a clinical continuum with two phenotypes: the infantile-onset phenotype, formally referred to as Wolman disease, and the later-onset phenotype, formerly referred to as cholesteryl ester storage disease. Infants with LAL-D present within the first few weeks of life with vomiting, diarrhea, hepatosplenomegaly, failure to thrive and rapid progression to liver failure and death by 6–12 months of age. Children and young adults with LAL-D generally present with marked dyslipidemia, hepatic enzyme elevation, hepatomegaly and mixed steatosis by liver biopsy. The average age of the initial signs and symptoms of the later-onset phenotype is about 5 years old. The typical dyslipidemia is a significantly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration and a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration, placing these individuals at heightened risk for premature ASCVD. Diagnosis of the later-onset phenotype of LAL-D requires a heightened awareness of the disease because the dyslipidemia and hepatic transaminase elevation combination are common and overlap with other metabolic disorders. LAL-D should be considered in the differential diagnosis of healthy weight children and young adults with unexplained hepatic transaminase elevation accompanied by an elevated LDL-C level (>160 mg/dL) and low HDL-C level (<35 mg/dL) that is not caused by monogenic and polygenic lipid disorders or secondary factors. Treatment of LAL-D with sebelipase alfa (LAL replacement enzyme) should be considered as the standard of treatment in all individuals diagnosed with LAL-D. Other ASCVD risk factors that may be present (hypertension, tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, etc.) should be managed appropriately, consistent with secondary prevention goals.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0216-5
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
  • Results of an International Postmarketing Surveillance Study of pl-VEGF165
           Safety and Efficacy in 210 Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease
    • Authors: Roman Deev; Igor Plaksa; Ilia Bozo; Artur Isaev
      Pages: 235 - 242
      Abstract: Introduction The effective treatment of chronic lower limb ischemia is one of the most challenging issues confronting vascular surgeons. Current pharmacological therapies play an auxiliary role and cannot prevent disease progression, and new treatment methods are needed. pl-VEGF165, a gene therapy drug, was approved in Russia for the treatment of atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) after clinical studies in 2011. The study drug is an original gene construction in which pl-VEGF165 1.2 mg is the active substance. Objective This postmarketing surveillance study was undertaken to evaluate the safety (identification of uncommon side effects) and efficacy of gene therapy in patients in routine clinical practice. Methods In total, 210 patients with stage II–III chronic limb ischemia (according to the Fontaine classification modified by AV Pokrovsky) in 33 healthcare facilities in Russia and the Ukraine were enrolled in the study. The control group (n = 60) received conservative therapy without prostaglandins and prostacyclins, and the treatment group (n = 150) received treatment with pl-VEGF165 as two intramuscular injections for a total dose of 2.4 mg. Pain-free walking distance (PWD) (the primary efficacy criterion for Fontaine stages II–III), blood flow linear velocity (BFLV), and ankle-brachial index (ABI) were monitored for 6 months. The safety of pl-VEGF165 gene transfer in terms of the trial protocol was initially evaluated 6 months after the start of the study; adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded during both routine visits and unscheduled requests for medical care. Results Overall, PWD increased by 177%, from 100.3 ± 6.9 to 277.1 ± 16.2 m (p = 0.0001), in the treatment group, whereas the mean value was unchanged in the control group (p = 0.218). Both BFLV and ABI values increased by 24% (p = 0.0001) in the treatment group but decreased in the control group. The greatest therapeutic effect was observed for stage III disease: PWD increased by 683% (p = 0.0001). No angiogenic therapy-related AEs or side effects were recorded, and target limb salvage was 96 and 97% in the treatment and control groups, respectively. The results obtained in this study are not significantly different from those observed in the phase IIb/III registration clinical study completed in 2011. Conclusion pl-VEGF165 intramuscular gene transfer is an effective treatment for moderate to severe claudication due to chronic lower limb ischemia in routine clinical practice. identifier: NCT02369809.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0210-3
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
  • Rates of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use in Patients with
           Established Cardiovascular Disease: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Study
           from NHANES 2009–2010
    • Authors: Gregory Castelli; Ashley Petrone; Jun Xiang; Carl Shrader; Dana King
      Pages: 243 - 249
      Abstract: Purpose Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever in the USA. Unfortunately, NSAIDs have been associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, especially among NSAID users with established cardiovascular disease (CVD). In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released an initial warning regarding NSAID use and CVD risk, and recently, in July 2015, released an updated statement strengthening this initial warning. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the rates of NSAID use among patients with CVD following the 2005 FDA warning regarding NSAID use and increased CVD risk. Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010. Participants’ CVD status was determined by self-reported diagnosis. Current use of over the counter (OTC) NSAIDs was defined by self-reported use of ibuprofen or naproxen, and we identified the current use of prescription NSAIDs in the database of prescription medication. Results Respondents with CVD were 2.1 times more likely to use OTC NSAIDs or prescription NSAIDs than respondents without CVD. Among CVD patients, respondents with angina and myocardial infarction were 60% more likely to use any form of NSAID, and respondents with congestive heart failure were less likely to use any form of NSAID than those with other forms of CVD. Conclusions Our results indicate that there is still a large proportion of CVD patients using NSAIDs. It is now crucial to determine the reasons why prescribers are still prescribing NSAIDs despite the FDA warning.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0212-1
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
  • No Effect of Omega-3 Carboxylic Acids on Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
           of Warfarin or on Platelet Function When Co-administered with
           Acetylsalicylic Acid: Results of Two Phase I Studies in Healthy Volunteers
    • Authors: Elliot Offman; Michael Davidson; Catarina Nilsson
      Pages: 251 - 260
      Abstract: Background Omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) can lower triglyceride levels. Objective Our objective was to assess the effects of OM3-CA on warfarin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-dependent and independent platelet activation when co-administered with ASA in two phase I studies. Methods In ECLIPSE II (NCT01431690), 26 participants received warfarin 25 mg on days 1 and 22 and OM3-CA 4 g once daily from day 8 to day 28. In OM-EPA-007 (NCT01486433), 52 participants received simvastatin 40 mg plus ASA 81 mg once daily for 14 days, with or without OM3-CA 4 g. Lack of a drug–drug interaction was indicated when 90% confidence intervals (CIs) fell entirely within the range 80–125% for least-squares mean (LSM) ratios of area under the concentration–time curve (AUC), maximum observed plasma concentration (C max), international normalized ratio (INR) AUC to 168 h and maximum INR. Results In ECLIPSE II, 90% CIs for LSM ratios of with:without OM3-CA fell within 80–125% for AUC and C max of S- and R-warfarin enantiomers. The 90% CIs for LSM ratios of with:without OM3-CA fell within 80–125% for INR AUC to 168 h after dosing and for maximum INR of warfarin. In OM-EPA-007, no significant effect of OM3-CA was observed on ASA-dependent or ASA-independent platelet activation. No deaths or serious adverse events occurred in either study. Conclusion OM3-CA did not affect the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of warfarin or the pharmacodynamic effects of ASA. OM3-CA did not affect platelet function when co-administered with ASA.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0217-4
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017)
  • Therapeutic Targeting of Cellular Stress to Prevent Cardiovascular
           Disease: A Review of the Evidence
    • Authors: Arshag D. Mooradian
      Pages: 83 - 95
      Abstract: Abstract The availability of effective drugs targeting the major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has reduced morbidity and mortality. Cumulative relative risk of CVD events can be reduced by 75 % with a combination of aspirin, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist (β-blocker), an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin), and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The principal pharmacodynamics of these drugs cannot explain the entirety of their cardioprotective action, as other drugs with similar pharmacologic targets have not been associated with favorable clinical effects. This raises the possibility that the cardioprotective drugs have a unique pleiotropic activity that contributes to their clinical efficacy. Recent data suggest that reducing cellular stress such as oxidative, inflammatory, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, might be a common denominator of the drugs with proven efficacy in reducing CVD risk. In this communication, the evidence in favor of this hypothesis is discussed, and ongoing trials with therapeutic agents targeting cellular stresses are reviewed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0199-7
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Clinical Pharmacology and Cardiovascular Safety of Naproxen
    • Authors: Dominick J. Angiolillo; Steven M. Weisman
      Pages: 97 - 107
      Abstract: Abstract The voluntary withdrawal of Vioxx (rofecoxib) from the market in 2004, as well as the 2005 and 2014 US FDA Advisory Committee meetings about non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cardiovascular risk, have raised questions surrounding the use of NSAIDs in at-risk populations. This paper discusses the cardiovascular safety profile of naproxen in the context of the NSAID class. The balance of evidence suggests that cardiovascular risk correlates with cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 selectivity, and the low COX-2 selectivity of naproxen results in a lower cardiovascular risk than that of other NSAIDs. The over-the-counter (OTC) use of naproxen is expected to pose minimal cardiovascular risk; however, the benefit–risk ratio and appropriate use should be considered at an individual patient level, particularly to assess underlying conditions that may increase the risk of events. Likewise, regulatory authorities should revisit label information periodically to ensure labeling reflects the current understanding of benefits and risks.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0200-5
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Consensus on the Statin of Choice in Patients with Impaired Glucose
           Metabolism: Results of the DIANA Study
    • Authors: Jesús Millán Núñez-Cortés; Aleix Cases Amenós; Juan Francisco Ascaso Gimilio; Vivencio Barrios Alonso; Vicente Pascual Fuster; Juan Carles Pedro-Botet Montoya; Xavier Pintó Sala; Adalberto Serrano Cumplido
      Pages: 135 - 142
      Abstract: Introduction and Objectives Despite the recognized clinical benefit of statins on cardiovascular prevention, providing correct management of hypercholesterolaemia, possible adverse effects of their use cannot be disregarded. Previously published data shows that there is a risk of developing diabetes mellitus or experiencing changes in glucose metabolism in statin-treated patients. The possible determining factors are the drug characteristics (potency, dose), patient characteristics (kidney function, age, cardiovascular risk and polypharmacy because of multiple disorders) and the pre-diabetic state. Methods In order to ascertain the opinion of the experts (primary care physicians and other specialists with experience in the management of this type of patient) we conducted a Delphi study to evaluate the consensus rate on diverse aspects related to the diabetogenicity of different statins, and the factors that influence their choice. Results Consensus was highly significant concerning aspects such as the varying diabetogenicity profiles of different statins, as some of them do not significantly worsen glucose metabolism. There was an almost unanimous consensus that pitavastatin is the safest statin in this regard. Conclusions Factors to consider in the choice of a statin regarding its diabetogenicity are the dose and patient-related factors: age, cardiovascular risk, diabetes risk and baseline metabolic parameters (which must be monitored during the treatment), as well as kidney function.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0197-9
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Cardiovascular Safety of Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors: A
           Meta-Analysis of Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trials
    • Authors: Islam Y. Elgendy; Ahmed N. Mahmoud; Amr F. Barakat; Akram Y. Elgendy; Marwan Saad; Ahmed Abuzaid; Siddarth A. Wayangankar; Anthony A. Bavry
      Pages: 143 - 155
      Abstract: Background Large randomized trials have shown conflicting evidence regarding the cardiovascular safety of dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Systematic reviews have been limited by incomplete data and inclusion of observational studies. This study aimed to systematically evaluate the cardiovascular safety of DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomized trials that compared DPP-4 inhibitors versus placebo and reported cardiovascular outcomes. The main outcome assessed in this analysis was heart failure. Other outcomes included all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were primarily constructed using Peto’s model. Results A total of 90 trials with 66,730 patients were included. Compared with placebo, DPP-4 inhibitors were associated with a non-significant increased risk of heart failure [OR 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99–1.25, P = 0.07] at a mean of 108 weeks. The risk of all-cause mortality (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.94–1.12, P = 0.53), cardiovascular mortality (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.92–1.14, P = 0.72), myocardial infarction (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88–1.09, P = 0.69), and ischemic stroke (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.85–1.15, P = 0.92) was similar between both groups. Conclusion In patients with type 2 diabetes, the safety profile of DPP-4 inhibitors is similar to placebo. As a class, there is only weak evidence for an increased risk of heart failure.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-016-0208-x
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Thromboprophylaxis in Extracorporeal Circuits: Current Pharmacological
           Strategies and Future Directions
    • Authors: Gail M. Annich; Oshri Zaulan; Megan Neufeld; Deborah Wagner; Melissa M. Reynolds
      Abstract: The development of extracorporeal devices for organ support has been a part of medical history and progression since the late 1900s. These types of technology are primarily used and developed in the field of critical care medicine. Unfractionated heparin, discovered in 1916, has really been the only consistent form of thromboprophylaxis for attenuating or even preventing the blood–biomaterial reaction that occurs when such technologies are initiated. The advent of regional anticoagulation for procedures such as continuous renal replacement therapy and plasmapheresis have certainly removed the risks of systemic heparinization and heparin effect, but the challenges of the blood–biomaterial reaction and downstream effects remain. In addition, regional anticoagulation cannot realistically be applied in a system such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation because of the high blood flow rates needed to support the patient. More recently, advances in the technology itself have resulted in smaller, more compact extracorporeal life support (ECLS) systems that can—at certain times and in certain patients—run without any form of anticoagulation. However, the majority of patients on ECLS systems require some type of systemic anticoagulation; therefore, the risks of bleeding and thrombosis persist, the most devastating of which is intracranial hemorrhage. We provide a concise overview of the primary and alternate agents and monitoring used for thromboprophylaxis during use of ECLS. In addition, we explore the potential for further biomaterial and technologic developments and what they could provide when applied in the clinical arena.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0229-0
  • The Value of Evidence in the Decision-Making Process for Reimbursement of
           Pharmacogenetic Dosing of Warfarin
    • Authors: Andrej Janzic; Igor Locatelli; Mitja Kos
      Abstract: Background After early clinical trials that evaluated pharmacogenetic (PG) algorithms, many healthcare payers were reluctant to cover this technology and, consequently, PG dosing of warfarin could not be translated into clinical practice. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the value of upgrading evidence relating to PG dosing of warfarin from the healthcare payer perspective. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated PG dosing of warfarin were identified through a systematic literature search, and their findings were combined by a cumulative meta-analysis. A health economic model was used to estimate economic outcomes and to calculate the expected value of perfect information (EVPI) as a measure of the value of clinical trials for decision makers. Results Nine RCTs were identified and included in our analysis. The estimated difference in the percentage of time in the therapeutic range was 5.6 percentage points in 2007, decreasing to 4.3 percentage points when all studies were included. At a reimbursement price of €160 per PG testing, the EVPI for the clinical benefit was estimated at €80 and €90 per patient in 2007 and 2014, respectively. A reduction in the price of PG testing to €40, which was observed in this period, resulted in an EVPI of €3 per patient. Conclusions The estimated cumulative effect of PG dosing has remained similar since 2007, but additional evidence has contributed to a more precise estimation. While these variations should not affect the reimbursement decision, a large decline in the cost of PG testing in recent years calls for reconsideration.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0233-4
  • Authors’ Reply to Urtasun et al.: “Coxibs Refocus Attention on the
           Cardiovascular Risks of Non-Aspirin NSAIDs”
    • Authors: Dixon Thomas; Seeba Zachariah; Kishore Gnana Sam Sundararaj; Matthew Van Cuyk; Jason C. Cooper
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0236-1
  • Comment on: “Coxibs Refocus Attention on the Cardiovascular Risks of
           Non-Aspirin NSAIDs”
    • Authors: Martin A. Urtasun; Guillermo R. Prozzi; Gustavo H. Marín; Hector O. Buschiazzo; Martín Cañás; Cristian M. Dorati; Perla Mordujovich
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0235-2
  • 66th Annual Scientific Sessions of the American College of Cardiology:
           17–19 March 2017; Washington, DC, USA
    • Authors: Amitabh Prakash
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0234-3
  • Adherence to Treatment, Safety, Tolerance, and Effectiveness of
           Perindopril/Amlodipine Fixed-Dose Combination in Greek Patients with
           Hypertension and Stable Coronary Artery Disease: A Pan-Hellenic
           Prospective Observational Study of Daily Clinical Practice
    • Authors: Charalampos I. Liakos; Dimitrios P. Papadopoulos; Vasilios T. Kotsis
      Abstract: Background Initiation of antihypertensive therapy with a two-drug fixed-dose combination (FDC) in a single tablet may be recommended in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events to improve adherence and effectiveness. Preferred combinations include an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor with a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist. Objective This study assessed adherence to and the safety, tolerance, and effectiveness of the perindopril/amlodipine FDC in Greek patients with hypertension and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) over a 4-month period. Methods A total of 1907 patients with hypertension and CAD (59.1% males) who had recently (≤2 weeks) commenced treatment with the perindopril/amlodipine FDC (5/5, 5/10, 10/5, or 10/10 mg) were studied at baseline and at 1 and 4 months. Adherence to treatment was assessed with the Morisky Medication-taking Adherence Scale (MMAS). Results Seven patients (0.4%) did not attend the scheduled visits. In total, 1607 (84.6%) patients received a constant treatment dose throughout the study. High adherence (MMAS score = 0) was reported by 1592 (83.6%), 1628 (85.7%), and 1477 (77.7%) patients at the second and the third visit and at both visits, respectively. Adverse reactions were reported by only 13 (0.7%) patients, were all minor, and did not result in treatment discontinuation. Office blood pressure (BP) was significantly decreased at the third visit (130.8 ± 8.4/78.2 ± 6.4 mmHg) compared with baseline (156.5 ± 15.0/89.9 ± 9.6 mmHg; p < 0.001), regardless of previous antihypertensive treatment. Patients with grade 1, 2, and 3 hypertension at baseline showed a reduction in BP of 19.3/9.4, 31.5/13.5, and 47.8/22.2 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.001). Uncontrolled hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) was notably reduced from 90.3% at baseline to 18.5% at the third visit. Conclusions The perindopril/amlodipine FDC is characterized by high adherence and effectiveness, regardless of previous treatment. Degree of BP reduction was related to baseline BP levels. Clinical trials registration number (Protocol Number): IC4 – 05985 – 011 – GRC.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0232-5
  • Nuclear Cardiology: Are We Using the Right Protocols and Tracers the Right
    • Authors: Maurizio Dondi; Thomas Pascual; Diana Paez; Andrew J. Einstein
      Abstract: Abstract The field of nuclear cardiology has changed considerably over recent years, with greater attention paid to safety and radiation protection issues. The wider usage of technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging using gamma cameras has contributed to better quality studies and lower radiation exposure to patients. Increased availability of tracers and scanners for positron emission tomography (PET) will help further improve the quality of studies and quantify myocardial blood flow and myocardial flow reserve, thus enhancing the contribution of non-invasive imaging to the management of coronary artery disease. The introduction of new instrumentation such as solid state cameras and new software will help reduce further radiation exposure to patients undergoing nuclear cardiology studies. Results from recent studies, focused on assessing the relationship between best practices and radiation risk, provide useful insights on simple measures to improve the safety of nuclear cardiology studies without compromising the quality of results.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0230-7
  • Clinical Outcomes in Trials Evaluating Lipid-Lowering Drugs
    • Authors: Julie Butters; Alex Brown; Liddy Griffith; Susan Kim; Stephen J. Nicholls
      Abstract: Abstract While statins have formed the cornerstone of strategies for cardiovascular prevention, the residual risk related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other lipoprotein factors provides a landscape for development of new therapies. However, a number of lipid-modifying therapies have failed to reduce cardiovascular event rates in contemporary clinical trials of statin-treated patients. The factors considered in outcome measure selection for clinical trials of novel lipid-lowering therapies are reviewed. Evaluation of lipid-modifying drugs in clinical trials spans a spectrum from their effects on conventional circulating lipid parameters through to their impact on atherosclerotic plaque and ultimately clinical outcomes. The design of these trials has an important impact on the result and ultimate interpretation of these studies.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0231-6
  • Erratum to: Managing Cardiovascular Risk in Lysosomal Acid Lipase
    • Authors: James J. Maciejko
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0228-1
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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