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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
  [SJR: 0.864]   [H-I: 39]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1175-3277 - ISSN (Online) 1179-187X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Pharmaceutical Interventions for Diabetes Prevention in Patients at Risk
    • Authors: Sudesna Chatterjee; Melanie Davies; Kamlesh Khunti
      Pages: 13 - 24
      Abstract: With the rising incidence and prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes globally, it is imperative that diabetes prevention strategies are implemented to stem the flow of new cases. Successful interventions include both lifestyle modification and pharmaceutical agents, and large, multicentre, randomised, controlled studies in different populations have identified the benefits of both. However, translating positive trial outcomes to the real world is particularly challenging, as lifestyle interventions require regular reinforcement from healthcare professionals to be maintained. Pharmaceutical therapies may therefore play an adjunctive role in combination with lifestyle to prevent diabetes. Population-based strategies are also necessary to reduce sedentary behaviour and obesity. Well-established glucose-lowering therapies such as metformin, sulphonylureas, thiazolidinediones and insulin and newer agents such as incretin therapies and sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors have all been investigated in randomised controlled trials for diabetes prevention with varying success. Non-glucose-lowering therapies such as orlistat and renin angiotensin system blockers can prevent diabetes, whereas statins are associated with slightly increased risk. Diabetes prevention strategies should carefully consider the use of these agents according to individual patient circumstances and phenotypic profile.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0239-y
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Comparative Efficacy of Drugs for Preventing Acute Kidney Injury after
           Cardiac Surgery: A Network Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Xi Chen; Tianlun Huang; Xuan Cao; Gaosi Xu
      Pages: 49 - 58
      Abstract: Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery and has been associated with increased hospital length of stay, mortality, and costs. Objective We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacologic strategies for preventing AKI after cardiac surgery. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) up to 6 May 2017 and the reference lists of relevant articles about trials. The outcome was the occurrence of AKI. This is the first network meta-analysis of the different prevention strategies using Bayesian methodology. Results The study included 63 articles with 19,520 participants and evaluated the effect of ten pharmacologic strategies to prevent AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Compared with placebo, the odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of AKI was 0.24 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16–0.34] with natriuretic peptide, 0.33 (95% CI 0.14–0.70) with fenoldopam, 0.54 (95% CI 0.31–0.84) with dexmedetomidine, 0.56 (95% CI 0.29–0.95) with low-dose erythropoietin, 0.63 (95% CI 0.43–0.88) with levosimendan, 0.76 (95% CI 0.52–1.10) with steroids, 0.83 (95% CI 0.48–1.40) with high-dose erythropoietin, 0.85 (95% CI 0.64–1.14) with N-acetylcysteine, 0.96 (95% CI 0.69–1.29) with sodium bicarbonate, and 1.05 (95% CI 0.70–1.41) with statins. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve probabilities indicated that natriuretic peptide was the best treatment therapy and that fenoldopam ranked second. Conclusions Natriuretic peptide is probably the preferred pharmacologic strategy to prevent AKI in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery, especially in those at high risk of AKI.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0245-0
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Ivabradine in Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: Preliminary
           Experience in Children
    • Authors: Grazia Delle Donne; Ferran Rosés Noguer; Jan Till; Tushar Salukhe; Sanjay K. Prasad; Piers E. F. Daubeney
      Pages: 59 - 63
      Abstract: Objective Ivabradine is a selective and specific inhibitor of the I(f) current in the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes. It decreases heart rate and myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during exercise. It is used in adults for management of heart failure and angina, but promising results have been obtained in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). There is little experience of ivabradine in childhood, although it is used on a compassionate basis. Our aim was to review our experience of ivabradine in a retrospective evaluation of pediatric patients with POTS. Methods We evaluated all patients younger than 18 years for whom ivabradine had been prescribed for this indication, from February 2008 to June 2014. Results Twenty-two patients were identified (15 female). Median age was 14.5 years (11–17 years). The ivabradine dosage after up-titration was 0.1 mg/kg per dose twice daily. In 15 (68%) symptoms improved. Ivabradine was suspended in five, but only in one for worsening of symptoms. There was a reduction in heart rate on resting electrocardiogram (EKG) from a mean (standard deviation) of 82.5 (13.6) bpm to a mean of 71 (16.5) bpm (p = 0.007). No patient had increased duration of QTc (p = 0.44). One (4.5%) experienced phosphenes. Conclusions From this initial experience, ivabradine is safe in patients younger than 18 years with POTS. We observed improvement of symptoms in 68% and phosphenes in less than 5%. Further studies are needed to assess the safety in a randomized control setting.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0248-x
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Provision of Lifestyle Counseling and the Prescribing of Pharmacotherapy
           for Hyperlipidemia Among US Ambulatory Patients: A National Assessment of
           Office-Based Physician Visits
    • Authors: Rebekah M. Jackowski; Elizabeth K. Pogge; Nicole K. Early; Kathleen A. Fairman; David A. Sclar
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: Background An estimated 27.8% of the United States (US) population aged ≥20 years has hyperlipidemia, defined as total serum cholesterol of ≥240 mg/dL. A previous study of US physician office visits for hyperlipidemia in 2005 found both suboptimal compliance and racial/ethnic disparities in screening and treatment. Objective The aim was to estimate current rates of laboratory testing, lifestyle education, and pharmacotherapy for hyperlipidemia. Methods Data were derived from the US National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS), a nationally representative study of office-based physician visits, for 2013–2014. Patients aged ≥20 years with a primary or secondary diagnosis of hyperlipidemia were sampled. Study outcomes included receipt or ordering of total cholesterol testing, diet/nutrition counseling, exercise counseling, and pharmacotherapy prescription including statins, ezetimibe, omega-3 fatty acids, niacin, or combination therapies. Results Compared with previously reported results for 2005, rates of pharmacotherapy have remained static (52.2 vs. 54.6% for 2005 and 2013–2014, respectively), while rates of lifestyle education have markedly declined for diet/nutrition (from 39.7 to 22.4%) and exercise (from 32.1 to 16.0%). Lifestyle education did not vary appreciably by race/ethnicity in 2013–2014. However, rates of lipid testing were much higher for whites (41.6%) than for blacks (29.9%) or Hispanics (34.2%). Tobacco education was ordered/provided in only 4.0% of office visits. Conclusion Compliance with guidelines for the screening and treatment of hyperlipidemia remains suboptimal, and rates of lifestyle education have declined since 2005. There exists an urgent need for enhanced levels of provider intervention to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with hyperlipidemia.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0247-y
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Long-Term Follow-up of Patients with Coronary Slow Flow Phenomenon
    • Authors: Kenji Sadamatsu; Yasuaki Koga; Hideki Tashiro
      Pages: 73 - 74
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0241-4
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2018)
  • Evaluating the Safety and Tolerability of Sacubitril/Valsartan for HFrEF
           Managed Within a Pharmacist Clinic
    • Authors: Elizabeth K. Pogge; Lindsay E. Davis
      Abstract: Objective The objective of this research was to describe the use of pharmacist-managed sacubitril/valsartan therapy in a multi-center, outpatient cardiac group. Background Sacubitril/valsartan, an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNi), is a novel agent for the treatment of heart failure. An ARNi is recommended by national guidelines to be used in place of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy for patients who remain symptomatic. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients initiated and fully titrated on sacubitril/valsartan therapy from July 7, 2015 to March 7, 2017. Results Fifty-two of the 72 symptomatic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients prescribed sacubitril/valsartan during the 21-month period were included in this analysis. The average ejection fraction was 26%. The average age was 69 years. At baseline, 26.9% of patients were not on ACEi/ARB therapy and 13.5% were on target-dose therapy. After completing the uptitration process, the maximally tolerated dose of sacubitril/valsartan was 5.8% low-dose, 7.7% mid-dose, and 86.5% target-dose. Loop and thiazide diuretic use decreased significantly. There was a significant mean reduction in systolic blood pressure of 6 mmHg with no significant changes in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, or potassium levels. Conclusions With close monitoring and follow-up, ARNi therapy was a safe alternative to ACEi/ARB therapy for chronic symptomatic HFrEF when initiated within a pharmacist clinic.
      PubDate: 2018-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-018-0264-5
  • Ivabradine for the Treatment of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome:
           A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Megan E. Gee; Alicia K. Watkins; Jamie N. Brown; Emily J. A. Young
      Abstract: Introduction Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) impacts millions of patients, but there is currently no gold standard treatment for this condition. Ivabradine is a novel heart rate (HR) lowering agent that acts on the sinoatrial node cells by selectively inhibiting the If-current. Objective The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence for the efficacy and safety of ivabradine for the treatment of POTS. Methods MEDLINE (from 1956 to August 2017) and EMBASE (from 1957 to August 2017) were queried with the following search term: “postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome” OR “postural tachycardia syndrome” OR “chronic orthostatic intolerance” AND “ivabradine.” Articles in English with clinical outcomes of human patient(s) treated with ivabradine for POTS were included. Results The initial search identified 73 articles. After screening, 13 articles were included. Two prospective open-label trials, three retrospective cohort studies, and eight case reports evaluated the safety and efficacy of ivabradine in a total of 132 patients with postural tachycardia. Overall, ivabradine lowered HR and provided symptomatic relief of POTS without blood pressure lowering. Dizziness, nausea, headache, and fatigue were the most common side effects and often did not lead to discontinuation of treatment. Conclusion Based on this small sample, ivabradine appears to be a reasonable option for patients with POTS who have failed or are unable to tolerate other treatment options, however, but a randomized controlled trial in this population is needed.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0252-1
  • Comparison of Warfarin Requirements in Post-cardiac Surgery Patients:
           Valve Replacement Versus Non-valve Replacement
    • Authors: Logan M. Olson; Andrea M. Nei; David L. Joyce; Narith N. Ou; Ross A. Dierkhising; Scott D. Nei
      Abstract: Introduction Anticoagulation with warfarin affects approximately 140,000 post-cardiac surgery patients every year, yet there remains limited published data in this patient population. Dosing remains highly variable due to intrinsic risk factors that plague cardiac surgery candidates and a lack of diverse literature that can be applied to those who have undergone a cardiac surgery alternative to heart valve replacement (HVR). In the present study, our aim was to compare the warfarin requirements between HVR and non-HVR patients. Methods This was a single-center, retrospective study of post-cardiac surgery patients initiated on warfarin at Mayo Clinic Hospital, Rochester, from January 1st, 2013 to October 31st, 2016. The primary outcome was the maintenance warfarin dose at the earliest of discharge or warfarin day 10 between patients with HVR and non-HVR cardiac surgeries. Results A total of 683 patients were assessed during the study period: 408 in the HVR group and 275 in the non-HVR group. The mean warfarin maintenance doses in the HVR and non-HVR groups were 2.55 mg [standard deviation (SD) 1.52] and 2.43 mg (SD 1.21), respectively (adjusted p = 0.65). A multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for gender, age, body mass index and drug interactions. Conclusions This was the largest study to evaluate warfarin dose requirements in post-cardiac surgery patients and is the first to compare warfarin requirements between HVR and non-HVR patients during the immediate post-operative period. Both groups had similar warfarin requirements, which supports expanding the initial warfarin dosing recommendations of the 9th edition Chest guideline to include non-HVR patients as well as HVR patients.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0261-0
  • Protection from Reperfusion Injury with Intracoronary N -Acetylcysteine in
           Patients with STEMI Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
           in a Cardiac Tertiary Center
    • Authors: Younes Nozari; Azadeh Eshraghi; Azita Hajhossein Talasaz; Mostafa Bahremand; Jamshid Salamzadeh; Mojtaba Salarifar; Hamidreza Pourhosseini; Arash Jalali; Seyedeh Hamideh Mortazavi
      Abstract: Background Evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a principal role in myocardial damage following ischemia/reperfusion events. Recent studies have shown that the antioxidant properties of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may have cardioprotective effects in high doses, but—to the best of our knowledge—few studies have assessed this. Objectives Our objective was to investigate the impact of high-dose NAC on ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in which 100 consecutive patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomly assigned to the case group (high-dose NAC 100 mg/kg bolus followed by intracoronary NAC 480 mg during PCI then intravenous NAC 10 mg/kg for 12 h) or the control group (5% dextrose). We measured differences in peak creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) concentration, highly sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT), thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow, myocardial blush grade (MBG), and corrected thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count (cTFC). Results The peak CK-MB level was comparable between the two groups (P = 0.327), but patients receiving high-dose NAC demonstrated a significantly larger reduction in hs-TnT (P = 0.02). In total, 94% of the NAC group achieved TIMI flow grade 3 versus 80% of the control group (P = 0.03). No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of changes in the cTFC and MBG. Conclusions In this study, NAC improved myocardial reperfusion markers and coronary blood flow, as revealed by differences in peak hs-TnT and TIMI flow grade 3 levels, respectively. Further studies with large samples are warranted to elucidate the role of NAC in this population. identifier: NCT01741207, and the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT; registration number: IRCT201301048698N8.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0258-8
  • Management of Statin Intolerance in 2018: Still More Questions Than
    • Authors: Peter P. Toth; Angelo Maria Patti; Rosaria Vincenza Giglio; Dragana Nikolic; Giuseppa Castellino; Manfredi Rizzo; Maciej Banach
      Abstract: Statin therapy is generally well tolerated and very effective in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, regardless of cholesterol levels; however, it can be associated with various adverse events (myalgia, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and diabetes mellitus, among others). Patients frequently discontinue statin therapy without medical advice because of perceived side effects and consequently increase their risk for cardiovascular events. In patients with statin intolerance, it may be advisable to change the dose, switch to a different statin, or try an alternate-day regimen. If intolerance is associated with all statins—even at the lowest dose—non-statin drugs and certain nutraceuticals can be considered. This review focuses on the definition of statin intolerance and on the development of clinical and therapeutic strategies for its management, including emerging alternative therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0259-7
  • Targeting the Prostacyclin Pathway with Selexipag in Patients with
           Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Receiving Double Combination Therapy:
           Insights from the Randomized Controlled GRIPHON Study
    • Authors: J. Gerry Coghlan; Richard Channick; Kelly Chin; Lilla Di Scala; Nazzareno Galiè; Hossein-Ardeschir Ghofrani; Marius M. Hoeper; Irene M. Lang; Vallerie McLaughlin; Ralph Preiss; Lewis J. Rubin; Gérald Simonneau; Olivier Sitbon; Victor F. Tapson; Sean Gaine
      Abstract: Background In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), combination therapy is an important treatment strategy. Although randomized controlled trial data are available to support the combination of two therapies, data regarding triple combination therapy are few. Objective The phase III GRIPHON trial enrolled 1156 patients with PAH, including 376 receiving background double combination therapy. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of selexipag as a third agent in these patients and further analyzed this subgroup according to symptom burden at baseline as indicated by World Health Organization (WHO) functional class (FC). Methods In this post hoc analysis, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional-hazard models to determine response to selexipag versus placebo on the composite primary endpoint of morbidity/mortality. Baseline characteristics and adverse events were summarized descriptively. Results Of 376 patients receiving background endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE-5i) therapy, 115 had WHO FC II symptoms and 255 had WHO FC III symptoms at baseline. The impact on the primary endpoint of adding selexipag versus placebo to double combination therapy was consistent with the effect in the overall population (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.44–0.90) as well as in patients with WHO FC II and III symptoms. Compared with the overall population, discontinuations due to an adverse event were higher when selexipag was added to background double combination therapy; no safety concerns were identified. Conclusion The addition of selexipag to background double combination therapy with an ERA and PDE-5i provides an incremental benefit similar to that seen in the overall population, including in patients with WHO FC II or III symptoms at baseline. Identifier NCT01106014.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0262-z
  • Nuclear Cardiology: Are We Using the Right Protocols and Tracers the Right
    • Authors: Maurizio Dondi; Thomas Pascual; Diana Paez; Andrew J. Einstein
      Pages: 441 - 446
      Abstract: The field of nuclear cardiology has changed considerably over recent years, with greater attention paid to safety and radiation protection issues. The wider usage of technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging using gamma cameras has contributed to better quality studies and lower radiation exposure to patients. Increased availability of tracers and scanners for positron emission tomography (PET) will help further improve the quality of studies and quantify myocardial blood flow and myocardial flow reserve, thus enhancing the contribution of non-invasive imaging to the management of coronary artery disease. The introduction of new instrumentation such as solid state cameras and new software will help reduce further radiation exposure to patients undergoing nuclear cardiology studies. Results from recent studies, focused on assessing the relationship between best practices and radiation risk, provide useful insights on simple measures to improve the safety of nuclear cardiology studies without compromising the quality of results.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0230-7
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 6 (2017)
  • Clinical Outcomes in Trials Evaluating Lipid-Lowering Drugs
    • Authors: Julie Butters; Alex Brown; Liddy Griffith; Susan Kim; Stephen J. Nicholls
      Pages: 447 - 452
      Abstract: While statins have formed the cornerstone of strategies for cardiovascular prevention, the residual risk related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other lipoprotein factors provides a landscape for development of new therapies. However, a number of lipid-modifying therapies have failed to reduce cardiovascular event rates in contemporary clinical trials of statin-treated patients. The factors considered in outcome measure selection for clinical trials of novel lipid-lowering therapies are reviewed. Evaluation of lipid-modifying drugs in clinical trials spans a spectrum from their effects on conventional circulating lipid parameters through to their impact on atherosclerotic plaque and ultimately clinical outcomes. The design of these trials has an important impact on the result and ultimate interpretation of these studies.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0231-6
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 6 (2017)
  • Comment on: “Coxibs Refocus Attention on the Cardiovascular Risks of
           Non-Aspirin NSAIDs”
    • Authors: Martin A. Urtasun; Guillermo R. Prozzi; Gustavo H. Marín; Hector O. Buschiazzo; Martín Cañás; Cristian M. Dorati; Perla Mordujovich
      Pages: 493 - 495
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0235-2
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 6 (2017)
  • Authors’ Reply to Urtasun et al.: “Coxibs Refocus Attention on the
           Cardiovascular Risks of Non-Aspirin NSAIDs”
    • Authors: Dixon Thomas; Seeba Zachariah; Kishore Gnana Sam Sundararaj; Matthew Van Cuyk; Jason C. Cooper
      Pages: 497 - 498
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0236-1
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 6 (2017)
  • Macitentan in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Focus on Combination
           Therapy in the SERAPHIN Trial
    • Authors: Pavel Jansa; Tomás Pulido
      Abstract: SERAPHIN was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven phase III trial that evaluated the effects of long-term treatment with macitentan, an oral endothelin receptor antagonist, in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The majority of patients were receiving PAH therapy at enrollment, providing the opportunity to evaluate the efficacy and safety of macitentan in combination with other PAH therapies (predominantly phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors [PDE-5i]). In patients receiving background therapy, macitentan reduced the risk of morbidity/mortality by 38% compared with placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0.62; 95% confidence level [CL] 0.43–0.89; p = 0.009). Furthermore, patients receiving macitentan and background therapy had a 37% reduction in the risk of being hospitalized for PAH (HR 0.63; 95% CL 0.41–0.96) compared with patients receiving background therapy only (placebo arm). Macitentan treatment in combination with background therapy was also associated with improvements in exercise capacity, functional class, cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, and health-related quality of life compared with background therapy alone. The safety profile of macitentan as part of a combination therapy regimen was consistent with that of macitentan in the overall SERAPHIN population. The SERAPHIN study has provided evidence that combination therapy with macitentan and a PDE-5i is effective and well tolerated in the management of PAH. Based on these data, and those from subsequent long-term trials, combination therapy is increasingly recognized as an important treatment option for improving long-term outcomes in PAH. Clinical trial registration number: NCT00660179
      PubDate: 2017-12-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0260-1
  • One-Year Clinical Effectiveness Comparison of Prasugrel with Ticagrelor:
           Results from a Retrospective Observational Study using an Integrated
           Claims Database
    • Authors: Mark B. Effron; Kavita V. Nair; Cliff Molife; Stuart Y. Keller; Robert L. Page; Jason C. Simeone; Brian Murphy; Beth L. Nordstrom; Yajun Zhu; Patrick L. McCollam; George W. Vetrovec
      Abstract: Background No direct comparisons of ticagrelor and prasugrel with 1-year clinical follow-up have been reported. Objectives Our objective was to compare 1-year clinical outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) managed with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and treated with either ticagrelor or prasugrel in a real-world setting. Methods This retrospective study included patients from a payer database who were aged ≥18 years and had ACS managed with PCI with no history of transient ischemic attack (TIA)/stroke. Data were propensity matched for prasugrel use with a 3:1 prasugrel:ticagrelor ratio. Post-discharge net adverse clinical event (NACE) rate at 1 year was evaluated for noninferiority using a pre-defined 20% margin. NACE was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) or rehospitalization for bleeding. Results In total, 15,788 ACS-PCI patients were included (prasugrel 12,797; ticagrelor 2991). Prasugrel-treated patients were younger; less likely to be female, have prior myocardial infarction (MI), diabetes, or non-ST-segment elevation MI (NSTEMI); and more likely to have unstable angina (UA) than ticagrelor-treated patients. Prior to matching, NACE and MACE (P < 0.01) were lower, with no difference in bleeding with prasugrel compared with ticagrelor. After matching, there was no significant difference in baseline characteristics. Noninferiority was demonstrated for NACE, MACE, and bleeding between prasugrel and ticagrelor. NACE and MACE were significantly lower with prasugrel use, primarily driven by heart failure, with no significant difference in all-cause death, MI, UA, revascularization, TIA/stroke, or bleeding. Conclusions In this retrospective study, physicians preferentially used prasugrel rather than ticagrelor in younger ACS-PCI patients with lower risk of bleeding or comorbidities. After propensity matching, clinical outcomes associated with prasugrel were noninferior to those with ticagrelor.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0255-y
  • Acknowledgement to Referees
    • PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0257-9
  • Benefit-Risk Assessment of Crataegus Extract WS 1442: An
           Evidence-Based Review
    • Authors: Christian J. F. Holubarsch; Wilson S. Colucci; Jaan Eha
      Abstract: Preparations from Crataegus (hawthorn) have a long history in the treatment of heart failure. WS 1442 is a dry extract from hawthorn leaves with flowers (4–6.6:1), extraction solvent of ethanol 45% (w/w), adjusted to 17.3–20.1% of oligomeric procyanidins. Nonclinical studies show that WS 1442 has positive inotropic and antiarrhythmic properties and protects the myocardium from ischemic damage, reperfusion injury, and hypertension-related hypertrophy, improves endothelial functions such as NO synthesis, and delays endothelial senescence. Randomized, controlled trials in patients with heart failure have demonstrated that the herbal medicinal product increases functional capacity, alleviates disabling symptoms, and improves health-related quality of life, all of which have become important targets of heart failure therapy according to current disease management guidelines. Clinical trials (including a 2-year mortality study with polypharmacy and > 1300 patients exposed) and post-marketing surveillance studies have shown that WS 1442 has a very favorable safety profile both as monotherapy and as add-on therapy, where no drug interactions have been observed. No specific adverse reactions to WS 1442 are known to date. WS 1442 may thus help to close the therapeutic gap between systolic and diastolic heart failure for which evidence of efficacy for other cardioactive drugs is sparse. Scientific evidence shows that WS 1442 is safe and has a beneficial effect in patients with heart failure corresponding to New York Heart Association classes II or III. The benefit-risk assessment for WS 1442 is therefore positive.
      PubDate: 2017-10-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0249-9
  • Comparison of Prescribing Practices with Direct Acting Oral Anticoagulant
    • Authors: Evan Draper; Brandon Parkhurst; Blake Carley; Kori Krueger; Tonja Larson; Sara Griesbach
      Abstract: Background The goal of anticoagulation management programs is to prevent thrombosis while minimizing the risks of hemorrhage. Direct acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) selectively inhibit coagulation proteins to inhibit thrombosis. Previous studies suggest patient monitoring and education provided through anticoagulation services enhance adherence and decrease adverse outcomes in patients receiving DOAC therapy. Objective The objectives of this study were to describe DOAC prescribing adherence to anticoagulation service protocols and to observe whether enrollment in an anticoagulation service resulted in greater prescribing adherence to DOAC protocols. Methods A retrospective cohort study evaluated all initial prescriptions of apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban at Marshfield Clinic from 19 October 2010 to 21 August 2014. Three algorithms analyzed patient and prescription data extracted from the organization’s electronic health record and classified prescriptions as per protocol or not per protocol. The algorithms classified not per protocol prescriptions as off-label indication, renal impairment [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 ml/min], hepatic impairment (rivaroxaban and apixaban), advanced age >74 years (dabigatran), dose too low, or dose too high. The analysis assessed whether enrollment in the Marshfield Clinic Anticoagulation Service DOAC monitoring process was associated with increased adherence to protocols. Results In aggregate, 72% of apixaban prescriptions, 52% of dabigatran prescriptions, and 70% of rivaroxaban prescriptions were per protocol. Off-label indications and dosage too low were the most common not per protocol reasons for apixaban and rivaroxaban prescriptions. Age ≥75 years and off-label indication were the most common not per protocol reasons for dabigatran prescriptions. Enrollment in the anticoagulation service process was not associated with increased adherence to protocols. Conclusion A significant proportion of DOAC prescriptions did not adhere to protocol expectations. While enrollment in DOAC management through the Marshfield Clinic Anticoagulation Service was not associated with increased adherence to protocols, opportunities exist to optimize DOAC prescribing. Defining ideal DOAC management requires additional research.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40256-017-0243-2
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