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European Journal for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (4 followers)
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European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
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Experiments in Fluids    [5 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1432-1114 - ISSN (Online) 0723-4864
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2187 journals]   [SJR: 1.033]   [H-I: 62]
  • Quantitative analysis of 3D hydrodynamic focusing of microparticles by
           digital holographic microscopy
    • Abstract: Abstract In the field of life sciences, the monitoring of biological samples has become a great concern to control the ecosystem evolution. However, their characterization is often time-consuming because the typical size of the organisms/particles of interest is several orders of magnitude smaller than the size of the sample under observation. Optical visualization systems require, then, high magnifications that severely limit the depth of focus and consequently decrease the sampling rate. To tackle this issue, the most straightforward technique consists in focusing the samples to fit the observation field of view by means of so-called "sheath flows". This expedient allows for increasing the overall flow rate, inversely related to the sampling time. In this article, a cost-effective 3D hydro-focusing device is presented. Several flow rates have been tested for both sample and sheath flows, and a thorough investigation of the shape of the focused streamlines conducted in order to validate the prototype design. The 3D position of the sampled micro-objects has been located by digital holographic microscopy and their distribution in cross-sections downstream the injection nozzle compared to numerical simulations. A maximum constriction—ratio between the part of the cross-sections where particles are present with and without focusing sheath flow—of 4.4 % has been observed confirming the potentiality of the technique. Also, a successful match between experiment and numerical simulation has been noted.
      PubDate: 2014-01-22
  • Breakup of liquid jets from non-circular orifices
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this investigation is to study the effect of the orifice geometry on liquid breakup. In order to develop a better understanding of the liquid jet breakup, investigations were carried out in two steps—study of low-pressure liquid jet breakup and high-pressure fuel atomization. This paper presents the experimental investigations conducted to study the flow behavior of low-pressure water jets emanating from orifices with non-circular geometries, including rectangular, square, and triangular shapes and draws a comparison with the flow behavior of circular jets. The orifices had approximately same cross-sectional areas and were machined by electro-discharge machining process in stainless steel discs. The liquid jets were discharged in the vertical direction in atmospheric air at room temperature and pressure conditions. The analysis was carried out for gage pressures varying from 0 to 1,000 psi (absolute pressures from 0.10 to 6.99 MPa). The flow behavior was analyzed using high-speed visualization techniques. To draw a comparison between flow behavior from circular and non-circular orifices, jet breakup length and width were measured. The flow characteristics were analyzed from different directions, including looking at the flow from the straight edges of the orifices as well as their sharp corners. The non-circular geometric jets demonstrated enhanced instability as compared to the circular jets. This has been attributed to the axis-switching phenomenon exhibited by them. As a result, the non-circular jets yielded shorter breakup lengths as compared to the circular jets. In order to demonstrate the presence of axis-switching phenomenon in square and triangular jets, the jet widths were plotted along the axial direction. This technique clearly demonstrated the axis switching occurring in square and triangular jets, which was not clearly visible unlike the case of rectangular jets. To conclude, non-circular geometry induces greater instabilities in the liquid jets, thereby leading to faster disintegration. Thus, non-circular orifice geometries can provide a cheaper solution of improving liquid breakup and thus may enhance fuel atomization as compared to the precise manufacturing techniques of drilling smaller orifices or using costly elevated fuel injection pressure systems.
      PubDate: 2014-01-21
  • Free-stream density perturbations in a reflected-shock tunnel
    • Abstract: Abstract Focused laser differential interferometry is used to quantify the free-stream density perturbations in the T5 reflected-shock tunnel. The investigation of reflected-shock tunnel disturbances is motivated by the study of hypervelocity boundary-layer instability and transition. Past work on hypersonic wind-tunnel noise is briefly reviewed. New results are reported for hypervelocity air flows at reservoir enthalpies between 5 and 18 MJ/kg at Mach ≈ 5.5. Statistical analysis finds no correlation of RMS density perturbations with tunnel run parameters (reservoir pressure, reservoir mass-specific enthalpy, free-stream unit Reynolds number, free-stream Mach number, and shot number). Spectrograms show that the free-stream disturbance level is constant throughout the test time. Power spectral density estimates of each of the experiments are found to collapse upon each other when the streamwise disturbance convection velocity is used to eliminate the time scale. Furthermore, the disturbance level depends strongly on wavelength. If the disturbance wavelength range of interest is between 700 μm and 10 mm, the tunnel noise is measured to be less than 0.5 % with the focused laser differential interferometer.
      PubDate: 2014-01-16
  • The influence of gas phase velocity fluctuations on primary atomization
           and droplet deformation
    • Abstract: Abstract The effects of grid-generated velocity fluctuations on the primary atomization and subsequent droplet deformation of a range of laminar liquid jets are examined using microscopic high-speed backlit imaging of the break-up zone and laser Doppler anemometry of the gas phase separately. This is done for fixed gas mean flow conditions in a miniature wind tunnel experiment utilizing a selection of fuels, turbulence-generating grids and two syringe sizes. The constant mean flow allows for an isolated study of velocity fluctuation effects on primary atomization in a close approximation to homogeneous decaying turbulence. The qualitative morphology of the primary break-up region is examined over a range of turbulence intensities, and spectral analysis is performed in order to ascertain the break-up frequency which, for a case of no grid, compares well with the existing literature. The addition of velocity fluctuations tends to randomize the break-up process. Slightly downstream of the break-up region, image processing is conducted in order to extract a number of metrics, which do not depend on droplet sphericity, and these include droplet aspect ratio and orientation, the latter quantity being somewhat unconventional in spray characterization. A turbulent Weber number $We^{\prime}$ which takes into account gas phase fluctuations is utilized to characterize the resulting droplet shapes, in addition to a mean Weber number <We d>. Above a $We^{\prime}>0.05$ a clear positive relationship exists between the mean aspect ratio of droplets and the turbulent Weber number where $We^{\prime}$ is varied by altering all relevant variables including the velocity root mean square, the initial droplet diameter, the surface tension and the density.
      PubDate: 2014-01-16
  • On the formation of string cavitation inside fuel injectors
    • Abstract: Abstract The formation of vortex or ‘string’ cavitation has been visualised in the flow upstream of the injection hole inlet of an automotive-sized optical diesel fuel injector nozzle operating at pressures up to 2,000 bar. Three different nozzle geometries and three-dimensional flow simulations have been employed to describe how, for two adjacent nozzle holes, their relative positions influenced the formation and hole-to-hole interaction of the observed string cavitation vortices. Each hole was shown to contain two counter-rotating vortices: the first extending upstream on axis with the nozzle hole into the nozzle sac volume and the second forming a single ‘bridging’ string linked to the adjacent hole. Steady-state and transient fuel injection conditions were shown to produce significantly different nozzle-flow characteristics with regard to the formation and interaction of these vortices in the geometries tested, with good agreement between the experimental and simulation results being achieved. The study further confirms that the visualised vortices do not cavitate themselves but act as carriers of gas-phase components within the injector flow.
      PubDate: 2014-01-10
  • Characteristic length scales for vortex detachment on plunging profiles
           with varying leading-edge geometry
    • Abstract: Abstract Experiments on leading-edge vortex (LEV) growth and detachment from a plunging profile have been conducted in a free-surface water tunnel. Direct-force and velocity-field measurements have been performed at a Reynolds number of Re = 10,000, a reduced frequency of k = 0.25, and a Strouhal number of St = 0.16, for three varying leading-edge geometries. The leading-edge shape is shown to influence the shear layer feeding the LEV, and thus to some extent the development of the LEV and associated flow topology. This effect in turn influences the arrival time of the rear (LEV) stagnation point at the trailing edge, which, once breached, constitutes a detachment of the LEV. It is found that despite minor phase changes in LEV detachment through leading-edge shape, the position of the trailing edge (chord length) should be chosen as the characteristic length scale for the vortex separation process.
      PubDate: 2014-01-09
  • Analysis of three-dimensional attributes and flow intake for an
           oscillating cantilever
    • Abstract: Abstract Macro-sized cantilevers oscillating in a fluid have been employed in applications ranging from thermal management to propulsion. The flow field generated upstream and downstream of the cantilever remains insufficiently understood. In order to properly control the resulting flow, further experimental and numerical studies are needed. From a two-dimensional perspective, comprehensive analysis has been done in other research, primarily through employing a single cantilever whose width is much larger than the vibration amplitude. However, when analyzing a region near an oscillating corner of the cantilever, where two edges of the slender cantilever meet, the flow becomes extremely three-dimensional, rendering the two-dimensional analysis tools less useful. This study seeks to further understand the highly three-dimensional nature of the flow in addition to providing further insight into optimized flow control. Two perpendicular flow planes are analyzed in order to gather the x, y and z-directional flow velocities using standard particle image velocimetry measurements. It is shown that under certain circumstances, the resulting flow is atypical of what one would expect from a simple extrapolation from previous two-dimensional flow analyses. Examples of this are a decrease in maximum vorticity, stretching of the vortex shape and movement of the vortex that is incongruent with previous two-dimensional research. For future implementation plans into actual products, geometry of surrounding walls must be considered. The data are analyzed in this light and a preliminary optimized enclosure geometry is proposed.
      PubDate: 2014-01-09
  • Convection driven by a horizontal temperature gradient in a confined
           aqueous surfactant solution: the effect of noncondensables
    • Abstract: Abstract Buoyancy–thermocapillary convection in liquid layers undergoing phase change driven by a horizontal temperature gradient in a sealed cavity in the near-absence of noncondensables is a flow relevant to evaporative cooling. Yet most of the experimental studies have instead considered convection under air at ambient pressures. Convection driven by buoyancy and Marangoni effects in a ~0.3-cm-deep layer of an aqueous surfactant solution in a closed rectangular test cell was therefore studied using particle image velocimetry. Convection under air at ambient conditions was compared with that under conditions where the gas phase was dominated by water vapor. The initial results suggest that noncondensables have a significant effect on the liquid-phase flow.
      PubDate: 2014-01-08
  • Force estimation from incompressible flow field data using a momentum
           balance approach
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigates how aerodynamic forces on a body can be evaluated using only instantaneous or averaged velocity field data through a control volume approach in an incompressible flow. The method allows for velocity field data to be missing inside the control volume, but requires that the product of the acceleration, the volume of the solid body, and the fluid density are negligible compared to the forces of interest. Validation of the method for accuracy has been conducted using three-dimensional data from a numerical simulation of unsteady flow around a static airfoil and has shown good agreement between actual and estimated force. Additionally, the method is tested using phase-averaged PIV data from flexible flapping membrane wings to calculate flapping cycle averaged forces that are compared with directly measured time-averaged forces. The numerical validation suggests that the method is accurate, while it is only able to give a rough estimate for the noisier experimental data. The lower accuracy of the forces estimated from the PIV data can be explained through experimental constraints, such as too large grid spacing in one of the three dimensions (in one of the cases), having to interpolate data on the control volume surface especially where the PIV laser light is shaded by the wing, and not covering the entire span of the wing.
      PubDate: 2014-01-07
  • A study of gas bubbles in liquid mercury in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell
    • Abstract: Abstract High-quality observations of mesoscopic gas bubbles in liquid metal are vital for a further development of pyrometallurgical gas injection reactors. However, the opacity of metals enforces the use of indirect imaging techniques with limited temporal or spatial resolution. In addition, accurate interface tracking requires tomography which further complicates the design of a high-temperature experimental setup. In this paper, an alternative approach is suggested that circumvents these two main restrictions. By injecting gas in a thin layer of liquid metal entrapped between two flat and closely spaced plates, bubbles in a Hele-Shaw flow regime are generated. The resulting quasi-2D multiphase flow phenomena can be fully captured from a single point of view and, when using a non-wetted transparent plate material, the bubbles can be observed directly. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by observations on buoyancy-driven nitrogen bubbles in liquid mercury in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell. By using a moving high-speed camera to make continuous close up recordings of individual bubbles, the position and geometry of these bubbles are quantified with a high resolution along their entire path. After a thorough evaluation of the experimental accuracy, this information is used for a detailed analysis of the bubble expansion along the path. While the observed bubble growth is mainly caused by the hydrostatic pressure gradient, a careful assessment of the volume variations for smaller bubbles shows that an accurate bubble description should account for significant dynamic pressure variations that seem to be largely regime dependent.
      PubDate: 2014-01-07
  • Instabilities and elastic recoil of the two-fluid circular hydraulic jump
    • Abstract: Abstract The two-fluid circular hydraulic jump, also called “rinsing flow,” is a common process where a jet of one liquid impinges upon a layer of a second liquid. We present an experimental analysis of rinsing flows using a high-speed camera and model fluids to decouple the effect of shear-thinning and elasticity. Varying the rheology of the coating fluid produced several types of instabilities at both the air–liquid interface and liquid–liquid interface. Layered “stepped jumps” and “crowning” on the rim of the jumps were both suppressed by fluid elasticity, while Saffman–Taylor fingering patterns showed strong dependence on both shear-thinning and normal stresses. In addition, the hydraulic jump evolution was quantitatively determined using a laser triangulation technique, and “recoil” of the jump front resulting from fluid elasticity was observed. Our work shows that the non-Newtonian two-fluid circular hydraulic jump is very complex, and the instabilities that arise also introduce additional complications when developing theoretical models.
      PubDate: 2014-01-05
  • Unsteady loading of a vertical-axis turbine in the interaction with an
           upstream deflector
    • Abstract: Abstract Torque generation and flow distribution of a lift-based vertical-axis turbine with an upstream deflecting plate are investigated in water tunnel experiments. The deployment of a deflector in front of a lift-based turbine is a promising approach to increase local flow velocity and enhance energy conversion efficiency without consideration for complicated control. For the turbine with the deflector, the phase during which the blade passes near the front end of the turbine has a major contribution to torque increase from the case without the deflector. Meanwhile, the deflector can have a negative effect in torque generation at the phase when the blade moves upstream against free stream if the turbine is placed close to the deflector in a crosswise direction. The change of nearby flow distribution by the deflector is also examined to find its correlation with torque generation. When the blade rotates through the near-wake region of the deflector, the blade can collides with the vortical structure shed from the deflector. This interaction causes significant torque fluctuation.
      PubDate: 2014-01-05
  • High Reynolds number flow over a backward-facing step: structure of the
           mean separation bubble
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present paper, the structure of the mean separation bubble downstream of the backward-facing step is studied at large Reynolds numbers. The flow over the step at these Reynolds numbers is turbulent with the presence of unsteady large-scale structures. There is however a well-defined time-averaged mean separation bubble. We study the effect of Reynolds number and expansion ratio on the structure of this mean separation bubble, the expansion ratio being the primary geometrical parameter in this case. Using PIV measurements within the separation bubble, parameters such as the reattachment length, mean velocity field, and the turbulent stresses are systematically mapped out. These measurements show that there exists a high Reynolds number separation bubble structure that is nearly independent of both Reynolds number and expansion ratio, as long as the Reynolds numbers are large (Re > 36,000 based on step height). Within this large Reynolds number separation bubble, the normalized mean velocity field and the normalized turbulent stresses are found to be similar for all expansion ratio cases studied. Using these measurements, the streamwise force balance of the mean separation bubble is studied. The analysis of the data shows that in this case, the contribution to the streamwise force from both the Reynolds normal and shear stress is significant, although the Reynolds shear stress contribution is larger. Differences in the force contributions from other geometries are highlighted.
      PubDate: 2014-01-05
  • Kriging regression of PIV data using a local error estimate
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of the method described in this work is to provide an improved reconstruction of an original flow field from experimental velocity data obtained with particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique, by incorporating the local accuracy of the PIV data. The postprocessing method we propose is Kriging regression using a local error estimate (Kriging LE). In Kriging LE, each velocity vector must be accompanied by an estimated measurement uncertainty. The performance of Kriging LE is first tested on synthetically generated PIV images of a two-dimensional flow of four counter-rotating vortices with various seeding and illumination conditions. Kriging LE is found to increase the accuracy of interpolation to a finer grid dramatically at severe reflection and low seeding conditions. We subsequently apply Kriging LE for spatial regression of stereo-PIV data to reconstruct the three-dimensional wake of a flapping-wing micro air vehicle. By qualitatively comparing the large-scale vortical structures, we show that Kriging LE performs better than cubic spline interpolation. By quantitatively comparing the interpolated vorticity to unused measurement data at intermediate planes, we show that Kriging LE outperforms conventional Kriging as well as cubic spline interpolation.
      PubDate: 2014-01-05
  • Comparison of unsteady pressure fields on turrets with different surface
           features using pressure-sensitive paint
    • Abstract: Abstract Spatially temporally resolved unsteady pressure fields on a surface of a hemisphere-on-cylinder turret with either a flat or a conformal window with realistic features such as gaps and “smile” cutouts were characterized using fast-response pressure-sensitive paint at M = 0.33 for several window viewing angles. Various statistical properties of pressure fields were computed, and geometry effects on the unsteady pressure fields were analyzed and discussed. Proper orthogonal decomposition was also used to extract dominant pressure modes and corresponding temporal coefficients and to analyze and compare instantaneous pressure structures for different turret geometric features and the window viewing angles. An unsteady separation off the turret and a recirculation region downstream of the turret were identified as dominant sources of the unsteady pressure. It was found that while all geometric features affected the unsteady pressure field, the “smiles,” positioned spanwise-symmetrically on both sides of the turret, were the leading cause of these changes, followed by the looking forward flat window. The gaps, the side- and the back-looking flat window introduced only small local changes.
      PubDate: 2014-01-05
  • Mesler entrainment in alcohols
    • Abstract: Abstract Mesler entrainment has been studied extensively in water and, more recently, in silicone oils. Studies of Mesler entrainment in liquids other than these are rare. The extant experimental results in water show significant irreproducibility both in the qualitative characteristics of Mesler entrainment and in the existence or nonexistence of Mesler entrainment when, for example, drops of the same diameter are released from the same height. In contrast, in silicone oils, Mesler entrainment is highly reproducible, essentially occurring either all of the time, or none of the time for a given set of conditions. A goal of the present work was to determine which of these two behaviors is the “standard” behavior—that is, to determine whether Mesler entrainment is typically repeatable or not. The experimental studies presented herein were conducted in three liquids that have not been the subject of detailed investigation to date: ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and methyl alcohol. All of these alcohol results showed behavior very similar to that observed in silicone oils, suggesting that Mesler entrainment is typically repeatable and that water is an atypical fluid, causing irreproducible results. Additionally, we present data obtained in silicone oils and combine that with the alcohol data in an attempt to develop a combination of dimensionless groups that predicts the boundaries within which Mesler entrainment occurs for liquids other than water.
      PubDate: 2014-01-05
  • The onset of cavitation during the collision of a sphere with a wetted
    • Abstract: Abstract We investigate the onset of cavitation during the collision of a sphere with a solid surface covered with a layer of Newtonian liquid. The conventional theory dictates cavitation to initiate during depressurization, i.e. when the sphere rebounds from the solid surface. Using synchronized dual-view high-speed imaging, we provide conclusive experimental evidence that confirms this scenario—namely—that cavitation occurs only after the sphere makes initial contact with the solid surface. Similar to previous experimental observations for spheres released above the liquid surface, bubbles are formed on the sphere surface during entry into the liquid layer. These were found to squeeze radially outwards with the liquid flow as the sphere approached the solid surface, producing an annular bubble structure unrelated to cavitation. In contrast, spheres released below the liquid surface did not exhibit these patterns.
      PubDate: 2014-01-05
  • On the appropriate filtering of PIV measurements of turbulent shear flows
    • Abstract: Abstract The three-dimensional spatial filtering and measurement noise associated with experimental planar and three-dimensional (3D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements is investigated using a combination of direct numerical simulations (DNS) and experimental databases. Spatial filtering velocity fields from a DNS of a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at resolutions typical of PIV experiments are shown to underestimate Reynolds stresses by as much as 50 %. Comparison of experimental PIV measurement of a turbulent channel flow and 3D tomographic PIV measurements of a TBL with higher-resolution simulations and hot-wire anemometry measurements show that in real experiments, measurement noise acts to offset this effect. This is shown to produce measurements that appear to provide a good estimate of the turbulent fluctuations in the flow, when in reality the flow is spatially under-resolved and partially contaminated by noise. Means of identifying this noise are demonstrated using the one-dimensional (1D) velocity power spectra and the 1D transfer function between the power spectra of the unfiltered velocity field and the power spectra calculated from the filtered experimental measurement. This 1D transfer function differs from the commonly used sinc transfer function of PIV owing to the integrated effect of filtering in multiple directions. Failure to incorporate this difference is shown to overestimate the maximum resolved wave number in the 3D spectra of the planar PIV by close to 10 %, while conversely underestimating the maximum resolved wave number in the 3D PIV by 50 %. Appropriate spatial filtering of the experimental data is shown to remove the noise-dominated small-scale fluctuations and bring the data inline with that which should be obtained for a noiseless PIV measurement at the corresponding spatial resolution.
      PubDate: 2013-12-31
  • On determining wall shear stress in spatially developing two-dimensional
           wall-bounded flows
    • Abstract: Abstract A full momentum integral-based method for determining wall shear stress is presented. The method is mathematically exact and has the advantage of having no explicit streamwise gradient terms. It is applicable for flows that change rapidly in the streamwise direction and, in particular, to flows with ill-defined outer boundary conditions or when the measurement grid does not extend over the whole boundary layer thickness. The method is applied to two different experimental plane turbulent wall jet data sets for which independent estimates of wall shear stress were known, and the different results compare favorably. Complications owing to experimental limitations and measurement error in determining wall shear stress from the proposed method are presented, and mitigating strategies are described.
      PubDate: 2013-12-31
  • A novel approach for the isolation of the sound and pseudo-sound
           contributions from near-field pressure fluctuation measurements: analysis
           of the hydroacoustic and hydrodynamic perturbation in a propeller-rudder
    • Abstract: Abstract The main scope of the present work is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the hydroacoustic and hydrodynamic perturbations in a rudder operating in the wake of a free running marine propeller. The study consisted of detailed near-field pressure fluctuation measurements which were acquired on the face and back surfaces of the rudder, at different deflection angles. To this aim, a novel wavelet-filtering procedure was applied to separate and analyze distinctly the acoustic and hydrodynamic components of the recorded near-field pressure signals. The filtering procedure undertakes the separation of intermittent pressure peaks induced by the passage of eddy structures, interpreted as pseudo-sound, from homogenous background fluctuations, interpreted as sound. The use of wavelet in the filtering procedure allows to overcome the limitations of the earlier attempts based on frequency (wave number) band-pass filtering, retrieving the overall frequency content of both the acoustic and the hydrodynamic components and returning them as independent signals in the time domain. Acoustic and hydrodynamic pressure distributions were decomposed harmonically and compared to the corresponding topologies of the vorticity field, derived from earlier LDV measurements performed by Felli and Falchi (Exp Fluids 51(5):1385–1402, 2011). The study highlighted that the acoustic perturbation is mainly correlated with the unsteady load variations of the rudder and to the shear layer fluctuations of the propeller streamtube. Conversely, the dynamics of the propeller tip and hub vortices underlies the hydrodynamic perturbation.
      PubDate: 2013-12-25
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