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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2302 journals)

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Diabetologia Notes de lecture     Hybrid Journal  
Diabetology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 5)
Dialectical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.314, h-index: 9)
Die Weltwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 15)
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 7)
Digestive Diseases and Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 89)
Directieve therapie     Hybrid Journal  
Discrete & Computational Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 40)
Discrete Event Dynamic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.42, h-index: 32)
Distributed and Parallel Databases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.766, h-index: 30)
Distributed Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 31)
DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater     Full-text available via subscription  
Documenta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 40)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 10)
Doklady Biological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Doklady Botanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 12)
Doklady Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.48, h-index: 17)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.345, h-index: 13)
Doklady Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 17)
Douleur et Analg├ęsie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.113, h-index: 6)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 8)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access  
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.481, h-index: 5)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 52)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 9)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 16)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, h-index: 7)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 29)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 21)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 9)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 27)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 26)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 43)
Economia e Politica Industriale     Hybrid Journal  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.375, h-index: 6)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.527, h-index: 44)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 9)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.557, h-index: 34)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 14)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.909, h-index: 93)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.333, h-index: 56)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.374, h-index: 15)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.776, h-index: 61)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 9)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 32)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 221, SJR: 1.785, h-index: 52)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 18)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.883, h-index: 10)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.582, h-index: 16)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 8)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.407, h-index: 15)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.678, h-index: 25)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 16)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 31)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.285, h-index: 39)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 15)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 57)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.638, h-index: 31)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 14)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.176, h-index: 7)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 30)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 32)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.632, h-index: 54)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 58)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 28)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 63)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 4)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 24)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.013, h-index: 36)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.942, h-index: 66)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 31)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 52)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.885, h-index: 46)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.4, h-index: 17)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.608, h-index: 38)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.287, h-index: 63)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.731, h-index: 89)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 62)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 6)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 3)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 16)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.206, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover   Experiments in Fluids
  [SJR: 1.596]   [H-I: 69]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-1114 - ISSN (Online) 0723-4864
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Non-stationary shock motion unsteadiness in an axisymmetric geometry with
           pressure gradient
    • Abstract: Abstract Shock wave/boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) is studied in a large area-ratio axisymmetric nozzle comprising a design exit Mach number of 5.58. Shock motion unsteadiness is captured by way of the dynamic wall pressure and is evaluated during overexpanded operations up to a nozzle pressure ratio of 65. Stationary SWBLI is first considered at a nozzle pressure ratio of 28.7 such that the internal flow structure is in a restricted shock separated state; the mean position of the annular separation shock resides at a fixed position. Conditional averages of the wall pressure fluctuations show how the motion of the incipient separation shock is out of phase with pressure fluctuations measured in the separated region downstream of the shock; pressure decreases when the shock moves downstream and vice versa. This is indicative of a long intermittent region, in terms of the boundary layer thickness, as the observed phenomena can be explained by translating the static wall pressure profile along with the shock motion. Non-stationary SWBLI is then considered by increasing the nozzle pressure ratio over time (transient start-up). Under these conditions, the shock pattern varies in strength and structure as it sweeps through the nozzle. A time-frequency analyses of the fluctuating wall pressure during the non-stationary operations, and at the same location that the stationary unsteadiness is analyzed, reveals a similar spectral footprint. However, for relatively slower start-ups, the amplitude of the unsteadiness is reduced by a factor of about seven. The findings demonstrate how the rate at which the nozzle pressure ratio increases can have a significant influence on the amplitude of the unsteady shock foot motion.
      PubDate: 2015-04-22
       
  • Two-dimensional mapping of falling water film thickness with near-infrared
           attenuation
    • Abstract: Abstract We have developed an optical technique for the two-dimensional mapping of water film thickness. The technique is based on infrared light absorption. A near-infrared camera is used to capture the radiation returning from a surface illuminated by a halogen lamp. The attenuation of the back-scattered radiation is used as a measure for the thickness of the water film covering the surface. The method was calibrated using well-defined liquid films between a glass plate and the surface. Series of instantaneous, two-dimensional thickness profiles of wavy turbulent free-falling films along a vertical wall were measured at a frame rate of 200 Hz. The evolution of complex flow patterns with three-dimensional instabilities such as long waves and capillary waves was observed under isothermal conditions. For the validation of the method, simultaneous independent measurements were taken together with an electrical high-speed liquid film sensor.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21
       
  • Application of X-ray CT investigation of CO 2 –brine flow in porous
           media
    • Abstract: Abstract A clear understanding of two-phase flows in porous media is important for investigating CO2 geological storage. In this study, we conducted an experiment of CO2/brine flow process in porous media under sequestration conditions using X-ray CT technique. The flow properties of relative permeability, porosity heterogeneity, and CO2 saturation were observed in this experiment. The porous media was packed with glass beads having a diameter of 0.2 mm. The porosity distribution along the flow direction is heterogeneous owing to the diameter and shape of glass beads along the flow direction. There is a relationship between CO2 saturation and porosity distribution, which changes with different flow rates and fractional flows. The heterogeneity of the porous media influences the distribution of CO2; moreover, gravity, fractional flows, and flow rates influence CO2 distribution and saturation. The relative permeability curve was constructed using the steady-state method. The results agreed well with the relative permeability curve simulated using pore-network model.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21
       
  • Large-eddy estimate of the turbulent dissipation rate using PIV
    • Abstract: Abstract The result of a particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement is a velocity field averaged over interrogation windows. This severely affects the measurement of small-scale turbulence quantities when the interrogation window size is much larger than the smallest length-scale in turbulence, the Kolmogorov length. In particular, a direct measurement of the dissipation rate demands the measurement of gradients of the velocity field, which are now underestimated because the small-scale motion is not resolved. A popular procedure is to relate the statistical properties of the measured, but underresolved gradients to those of the true ones, invoking a large-eddy argument (Sheng et al. in Chem Eng Sci 55(20):4423–4434, 2000). We argue that the used proportionality constant, the Smagorinsky constant, should depend on the window overlap, on the used elements of the strain tensor, and on the way in which derivatives are approximated. Using an analytic description, PIV measurements of velocity fields from a kinematic simulation and experiments in a synthetic jet-driven turbulent flow with zero mean velocity, we propose new values for this constant.
      PubDate: 2015-04-18
       
  • Experimental study of nonlinear harmonic generation by internal waves
           incident on a pycnocline
    • Abstract: Abstract Internal waves propagating in variable stratification exhibit nonlinear generation of harmonics. Here, synthetic schlieren is used to study a laboratory internal wave beam propagating from a uniformly stratified layer into a region of increased stratification (pycnocline) below a mixed layer. The results demonstrate the formation of harmonic (double-frequency) internal waves as the beam refracts into the pycnocline layer. For beam incidence angles <30° to the horizontal, harmonic internal waves are radiated back to the uniformly stratified layer. The harmonic wavenumber is approximately double the incident wavenumber, while its amplitude increases with the pycnocline buoyancy frequency gradient. Beams with larger incidence angles generate harmonics that are trapped within the pycnocline layer. In this case, the specific wavenumber of the trapped harmonic is determined by the normal modes of the stratification profile.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17
       
  • The study of turbulence in MHD flow generated by rotating and traveling
           magnetic fields
    • Abstract: Abstract We consider a problem of spectral analysis of signals from electromagnetic sensors operating in a turbulent MHD flow generated by rotating and traveling magnetic fields, which create a strong electromagnetic noise. Using a wavelet-based technique for cross-correlation signal analysis and filtration, we show that at frequencies lower than the frequency of the applied magnetic field, the spectral properties of the velocity field can be clearly seen in spite of the fact that the measured fields are much weaker than the driving rotating (or traveling) magnetic field. On the basis of the proposed method, spectra of turbulent velocity fields, measured in the experiment, were studied.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17
       
  • A low-computational-cost inverse heat transfer technique for convective
           heat transfer measurements in hypersonic flows
    • Abstract: Abstract The measurement of the convective wall heat flux in hypersonic flows may be particularly challenging in the presence of high-temperature gradients and when using high-thermal-conductivity materials. In this case, the solution of multidimensional problems is necessary, but it considerably increases the computational cost. In this paper, a low-computational-cost inverse data reduction technique is presented. It uses a recursive least-squares approach in combination with the trust-region-reflective algorithm as optimization procedure. The computational cost is reduced by performing the discrete Fourier transform on the discrete convective heat flux function and by identifying the most relevant coefficients as objects of the optimization algorithm. In the paper, the technique is validated by means of both synthetic data, built in order to reproduce physical conditions, and experimental data, carried out in the Hypersonic Test Facility Delft at Mach 7.5 on two wind tunnel models having different thermal properties.
      PubDate: 2015-04-14
       
  • High-speed observations of cryogenic single and coaxial jets under
           subcritical and transcritical conditions
    • Abstract: Abstract Cryogenic single round and coaxial jets were observed under subcritical and transcritical conditions using a high-speed camera to explore the effects of the single-phase-like and two-phase-like properties of transcritical fluids on the unsteady behavior and flow structures of the jets. Cryogenic nitrogen and gaseous nitrogen were used as injectants. Cryogenic nitrogen was clearly visualized in all cases as the dark core. In the cases of single round jets, the large-scale characteristics of the jet behavior observed, such as the width of the dark core and the length scale of wave development in the mixing layers, were similar to those observed under subcritical conditions. Furthermore, dense nitrogen in the mixing layer entrained into the ambient environment and stretched in a manner similar to that observed under subcritical conditions. However, in contrast to the droplet formation observed under subcritical conditions, the entrained dense nitrogen diffused in a manner similar to turbulent mixing in a variable-density single-phase mixing layer. This means that the microscale behaviors that occur under transcritical conditions, which are comparable to turbulent eddies, are similar to those that occur in variable-density single-phase jets. In the cases of coaxial jets, the turbulent-eddy-scale phenomena observed were also similar to those observed for variable-density single-phase jets. However, in contrast to the phenomena observed for single round jets, the larger-scale behavior of the dark core was different from that observed under subcritical conditions. Two significant features were observed only under transcritical conditions. The first feature was the formation of shear-layer instability waves near the injector exit. The second feature was the shedding of dense nitrogen lumps from the end of the dark core at nearly uniform intervals. Because similar behavior was not observed under subcritical conditions, the single-phase-like properties of transcritical fluids are considered to have induced these features. The present correlation between the dark core length and the outer-to-inner jet momentum flux ratio was found to be in good agreement with the empirical correlation for variable-density single-phase coaxial jets.
      PubDate: 2015-04-14
       
  • Picosecond ballistic imaging of diesel injection in high-temperature and
           high-pressure air
    • Abstract: Abstract The first successful demonstration of picosecond ballistic imaging using a 15-ps-pulse-duration laser in diesel sprays at temperature and pressure is reported. This technique uses an optical Kerr effect shutter constructed from a CS2 liquid cell and a 15-ps pulse at 532 nm. The optical shutter can be adjusted to produce effective imaging pulses between 7 and 16 ps. This technique is used to image the near-orifice region (first 3 mm) of diesel sprays from a high-pressure single-hole fuel injector. Ballistic imaging of dodecane and methyl oleate sprays injected into ambient air and diesel injection at preignition engine-like conditions are reported. Dodecane was injected into air heated to 600 °C and pressurized to 20 atm. The resulting images of the near-orifice region at these conditions reveal dramatic shedding of the liquid near the nozzle, an effect that has been predicted, but to our knowledge never before imaged. These shedding structures have an approximate spatial frequency of 10 mm−1 with lengths from 50 to 200 μm. Several parameters are explored including injection pressure, liquid fuel temperature, air temperature and pressure, and fuel type. Resulting trends are summarized with accompanying images.
      PubDate: 2015-04-11
       
  • A low-cost, precise piezoelectric droplet-on-demand generator
    • Abstract: Abstract We present the design of a piezoelectric droplet-on-demand generator capable of producing droplets of highly repeatable size ranging from 0.5 to 1.4 mm in diameter. The generator is low cost and simple to fabricate. We demonstrate the manner in which droplet diameter can be controlled through variation of the piezoelectric driving waveform parameters, outlet pressure, and nozzle diameter.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10
       
  • Three-dimensional flow structure along simultaneously pitching and
           rotating wings: effect of pitch rate
    • Abstract: Abstract The flow structure along a simultaneously pitching and rotating wing is investigated using quantitative flow visualization. Imaging is performed for a range of pitch rates, with emphasis on the three-dimensional structure during start-up and relaxation. Surfaces of transparent iso-Q and helicity are employed to interpret the flow physics. The onset and development of the components of the vortex system, i.e., the leading-edge, tip, and trailing-edge vortices, are strongly influenced by the value of pitch rate relative to the rotation rate. Comparisons at the same angle of attack indicate that the formation of vortical structures is delayed with increasing pitch rate. However, comparisons at the same rotation angle for different values of pitch rate reveal similar flow structures, thereby indicating predominance of rotation effects. Extreme values of pitch rate can lead to radically different sequences of development of the components of the three-dimensional vortex system. Nevertheless, consistently positive vorticity flux is maintained through these components and the coherence of the vortex system is maintained.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08
       
  • Experimental investigation on the effects of wake passing frequency on
           boundary layer transition in high-lift low-pressure turbines
    • Abstract: Abstract Detailed experimental investigation was carried out to investigate the interaction of unsteady wakes with boundary layer in a high-lift low-pressure turbine. Extensive measurements about boundary layer character were conducted using hot-film and hot-wire methods. In-depth analysis of the effect of wake passing frequency on boundary layer transition was carried out. The strength of separation control and profile loss variation at two wake passing frequencies were also studied. The results show that wake-induced transition can be detected in the separating shear layer, and complex vortex structures are induced by the interaction between the negative jet of wake and separation bubble. The proportions of laminar, separation and turbulence friction loss in the total loss vary with wake passing frequency, which leads to the change in the total boundary layer loss. In particular, as the wake passing frequency changes, the laminar and turbulent friction loss show opposite trends, and this indicates that the best frequency can be achieved by balancing these two types of losses. For a given high-lift profile, an optimum wake passing frequency that will lead to the minimum loss exists.
      PubDate: 2015-04-07
       
  • Influence of structural flexibility on the wake vortex pattern of airfoils
           undergoing harmonic pitch oscillation
    • Abstract: Abstract Reported herein is an investigation of the influence of the structural flexibility of sinusoidally pitching airfoils on the pattern of vorticity shed into the wake. For rigid airfoils, it is well known that, depending on the oscillation frequency and amplitude, this pattern takes the form of the classical or reverse von Kármán vortex street. The pattern may be characterized by the vortex circulation (Γ o ), vortex-to-vortex streamwise and cross-stream spacing (a and b, respectively), and vortex core radius (R). In the present work, these four parameters are obtained from particle image velocimetry measurements in the wake of airfoils consisting of a rigid “head” and flexible “tail” at chord Reynolds number of 2010 for different tail flexibilities. The results show that flexible airfoils exhibit the switch from classical to reverse von Kármán vortex street (i.e., change in the sign of b) at a reduced frequency of oscillation lower than their rigid counterpart. At a given oscillation frequency, the Strouhal number at which this switch occurs is smallest for a given airfoil structural flexibility; which becomes stiffer with increasing frequency. Using Strouhal number based on the actual trailing edge oscillation amplitude, reasonable scaling is found of the dependence of not only b but also Γ o , a and R on the motion and structure parameters for all airfoils investigated. These results are complemented with analyses using a vortex array model, which together with the identified scaling of the wake vortex parameters, provide basis for the computation of the net thrust acting on the airfoil.
      PubDate: 2015-04-03
       
  • Reduction of noise and bias in randomly sampled power spectra
    • Abstract: Abstract We consider the origin of noise and distortion in power spectral estimates of randomly sampled data, specifically velocity data measured with a burst-mode laser Doppler anemometer. The analysis guides us to new ways of reducing noise and removing spectral bias, e.g., distortions caused by modifications of the ideal Poisson sample rate caused by dead time effects and correlations between velocity and sample rate. The noise and dead time effects for finite records are shown to tend to previous results for infinite time records and ensemble averages. For finite records, we show that the measured sampling function can be used to correct the spectra for noise and dead time effects by a deconvolution process. We also describe a novel version of a power spectral estimator based on a fast slotted autocovariance algorithm.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Flow and heat transfer measurements in a swirl chamber with different
           outlet geometries
    • Abstract: Abstract In technical applications, an efficient cooling is necessary for high thermal load components such as turbine blades. One potential and promising technique is a swirling tube flow in comparison with an axial flow. The additional circumferential velocity and enhanced turbulent mixing increase the heat transfer. But the complex flow field and heat transfer mechanisms are still under research. Furthermore, the reliability of a swirl chamber regarding different outlet conditions is of great interest for a robust cooling design. Therefore, we investigated the influence of a straight, a tangential and a \(180^\circ\) bend outlet. To gain understanding of the flow phenomena, we measured the velocity field by means of stereo-PIV (particle image velocimetry). We experimentally studied the cooling capability measuring the heat transfer coefficients using thermochromic liquid crystals. For an accurate cooling design, we used the local adiabatic wall temperature as the correct reference temperature for calculating the heat transfer coefficients. We will show the velocity field, the pressure loss and the heat transfer results for realistic Reynolds numbers from 10,000 to 40,000 and for swirl numbers between \(2.36\) and \(5.3\) . The obtained heat transfer is more than four times higher compared to an axial tube flow. Our measurements indicate that the here investigated outlet redirection has no significant influence on the flow field and the heat transfer coefficients.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Phase-locked flow field analysis in a synthetic human larynx model
    • Abstract: Abstract The fluid flow within a human larynx plays an essential role in the fluid–structure–acoustic interaction during voice production. This study addresses the flow field downstream of aerodynamically driven, synthetic vocal folds. In order to quantitatively investigate the supraglottal formation of the flow field within one oscillation cycle of the vocal folds, a phase-locked PIV technique is introduced. The pseudo-time-resolved measurement results were averaged for each phase angle. When including a supraglottal channel, the jet was deflected from the centerline of the supraglottal channel and changed the direction of deflection in different cycles. The result is a bistable flow field. Therefore, a sorting method based on the mean cyclic supraglottal pressure difference was introduced. For both states of the flow field, a recirculation area was detected, interacting with the arising glottal jet in every oscillation cycle. This interaction could be identified as the major cause for supraglottal jet deflection, and the sense of rotation of the recirculation area defined the direction of deflection. The asymmetric structure of the flow field was caused by the geometric boundary condition, i.e., due to the present supraglottal channel. An additional key factor was found to be the contact between the two vocal folds in each oscillation cycle which interrupted the jet flow periodically. Removing the supraglottal channel resulted in a symmetric jet location. When avoiding vocal fold contact, the bistable behavior vanished and the jet was steadily deflected to one lateral side. In the present study, it cannot be confirmed that the Coanda effect is responsible for the deflection.
      PubDate: 2015-03-28
       
  • Height-resolved velocity measurement of the boundary flow during liquid
           impact on dry and wetted solid substrates
    • Abstract: Abstract The impact of a droplet onto a dry or wet surface leads to a rapid formation of a shear flow at the boundary. We present a novel method to experimentally resolve this flow in time at different heights above the solid. The radial flow field close to the substrate is reconstructed by evaluation of streak images of fluorescent tracer particles in the liquid. By using a microscope objective with a narrow depth of field, it is possible to scan through the flow in thin horizontal layers of 5 μm thickness. We focus on the flow close (≤40 μm) to the boundary during the impact of elongated drops with diameters of 0.3–0.4 mm and speeds in the range of 2–3 m s−1. The spatial resolution is obtained from several individual events of the repeatable impact process and varying the focal plane. Fluorescent streaks formed by the suspended particles are recorded with high-speed photography at up to 20,000 frames per second. The impact of water and of ethanol is investigated both on dry glass and on glass covered with a thin film of the same liquid. Results are given as spatio-temporal maps of radial flow velocity at different heights, and the maximum shear stress at the substrate is evaluated. The implications of the results are discussed with respect to cleaning applications.
      PubDate: 2015-03-27
       
  • On PIV random error minimization with optimal POD-based low-order
           reconstruction
    • Abstract: Abstract Random noise removal from particle image velocimetry (PIV) data and spectra is of paramount importance, especially for the computation of derivative quantities and spectra. Data filtering is critical, as a trade-off between filter effectiveness and spatial resolution penalty should be found. In this paper, a filtering method based on proper orthogonal decomposition and low-order reconstruction (LOR) is proposed. The existence of an optimal number of modes based on the minimization of both reconstruction error and signal withdrawal is demonstrated. A criterion to perform the choice of the optimal number of modes is proposed. The method is validated via synthetic and real experiments. As prototype problems, we consider PIV vector fields obtained from channel flow DNS data and from PIV measurement in the wake of a circular cylinder. We determine the optimal number of modes to be used for the LOR in order to minimize the statistical random error. The results highlight a significant reduction in the measurement error. Dynamic velocity range is enhanced, enabling to correctly capture spectral information of small turbulent scales down to the half of the cutoff wavelength of original data. In addition to this, the capability of detecting coherent structures is improved. The robustness of the method is proved, both for low signal-to-noise ratios and for small-sized ensembles. The proposed method can significantly improve the physical insight into the investigation of turbulent flows.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
       
  • Experimental investigation on the transition of separation/attachment in
           steady laminar juncture flows
    • Abstract: Abstract The topological structure and the “separation/attachment” transition of the outermost singular point in steady laminar juncture flows are investigated. The detailed experimentation is conducted using particle-image-velocimetry-based quantitative technique in a water channel. The experimental results reveal that the outermost attachment topology can exist in various horseshoe vortex systems that contain zero to three primary vortices. The parametric study has two major elements: the obstacle bluntness factor and the ratio of the boundary layer thickness to the obstacle width. The outermost topology in the symmetry plane transforms from attachment (half node) to separation (half saddle) as the obstacle bluntness increases or the ratio of the boundary layer thickness to the obstacle width decreases. It is also observed that the flow has a tendency to reattach to the body-fitted surface as it sweeps by the sides of an obstacle, even if the outermost singular point is a separation half saddle in the symmetry plane.
      PubDate: 2015-03-24
       
  • Investigation on liquid film of urea–water solutions with diode
           laser absorption spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Abstract Measurement of multiparameter of liquid films (e.g., film thickness and concentration) is very important to understand the film formation processes in industrial applications. Here, a novel diode laser absorption spectroscopy (DLAS) sensor was developed to simultaneously measure the liquid film thickness and concentration of urea–water solutions by forming the transmittance ratio at two wavenumber positions. The performance of the sensor employed two diode lasers (6613.25 and 7187.50 cm−1) was first validated using a calibration tool providing liquid film of urea–water solutions with known film thickness (100–1000 μm) and mass fractions (5–50 wt%), and then, the sensor was applied to study a free-falling film of urea–water solutions on a vertical transparent quartz plate. Shadowgraph images were simultaneously taken as a means to obtain falling film thickness, and it was observed that measured film thickness was in good agreement with DLAS method and shadowgraph technique, and the deviation between these two techniques was 4.1 % when the falling film was stable.
      PubDate: 2015-03-21
       
 
 
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