Abstract: Abstract
The three-dimensional flow field was experimentally characterized for a nominally two-dimensional flat-plate airfoil plunging at large amplitude and reduced frequencies, using three-dimensional reconstructions of planar PIV data at a chord-based Reynolds number of 10,000. Time-resolved, instantaneous PIV measurements reveal that secondary vorticity, of opposite sign to the primary vortex, is intermittently entrained into the leading-edge vortex (LEV) throughout the downstroke, with the rate of entrainment increasing toward the end of the stroke when the leading-edge shear layer weakens. A planar vorticity transport analysis around the LEV indicated that, during the downstroke, the surface vorticity flux due to the pressure gradient is consistently about half that due to the leading-edge shear layer for all parameter values investigated, demonstrating that production and entrainment of secondary vorticity is an important mechanism regulating LEV strength. A small but non-negligible vorticity source was also attributed to spanwise flow toward the end of the downstroke. Aggregate vortex tilting is notably more significant for higher plunge frequencies, suggesting that the vortex core is more three-dimensional. PubDate: 2015-07-26

Abstract: Abstract
An investigation
of the errors inherent in the calculation of integral boundary-layer parameters from discrete datasets has been carried out. The primary errors examined were those due to discretization of the velocity profile, distance of the first data location from the wall, and uncertainty in the floor location. A range of turbulent velocity profiles with different shape factors from analytical models and published DNS investigations has been examined. This analysis demonstrates that the spacing of the first measurement point from the floor is by far the most critical error source. Furthermore, the error is shown to be a function of boundary-layer shape factor, and therefore, a correction factor chart has been derived. Two alternative methods of estimating integral boundary-layer parameters have been examined: wall modeling and a gradient-based formulation. These have both been shown to generate smaller errors than the basic integration approach, although both are susceptible to external influences. PubDate: 2015-07-25

Abstract: Abstract
This paper presents an experimental investigation on the response of the slope seeking with extended Kalman filter (EKF) deployed in a closed-loop system for airfoil aerodynamics control. A novel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator was used to manipulate the flow around the NACA 0015 airfoil. Experiments were performed under different freestream velocities U
∞, covering the chord Reynolds number Re from 4.4 × 104 to 7.7 × 104. Firstly, the advantages of applying this DBD plasma actuator (hereafter called sawtooth plasma actuator) on the airfoil were examined in an open-loop system at Re = 7.7 × 104. The sawtooth plasma actuator led to a delay in the stall angle α
stall by 5° and an increase in the maximum lift coefficient
\(C_{{{\text{L}}_{ \text{max} } }}\)
by about 9 %. On the other hand, at the same input power, the traditional DBD plasma actuator managed a delay in α
stall by only 3° and an increase in
\(C_{{{\text{L}}_{ \text{max} } }}\)
by about 3 %. Secondly, the convergence time t
c of the lift force F
L at Re from 4.4 × 104 to 7.7 × 104 was investigated for two closed-loop systems. It has been demonstrated that the t
c was about 70 % less under the slope seeking with EKF than that under the conventional slope seeking with high-pass (HP) and low-pass (LP) filters at Re = 7.7 × 104. The reduction in t
c was also observed at a different Re. Finally, the slope seeking with EKF showed excellent robustness over a moderate Re range; that is, the voltage amplitude determined by the control algorithm promptly responded to a change in Re, much faster than that of the conventional slope seeking with HP and LP filters. PubDate: 2015-07-24

Abstract: Abstract
Vertical axis wind turbine blades undergo dynamic stall due to the large angle of attack variation they experience during a turbine rotation. The flow over a single blade was modeled using a sinusoidally pitching and surging airfoil in a non-rotating frame with a constant freestream flow at a mean chord Reynolds number of
\({10^5}\)
. Two-dimensional, time-resolved velocity fields were acquired using particle image velocimetry. Vorticity contours were used to visualize shear layer and vortex activity. A low-order model of dynamic stall was developed using dynamic mode decomposition, from which primary and secondary dynamic separation modes were identified. The interaction between these two modes was able to capture the physics of dynamic stall and as such can be extended to other turbine configurations and problems in unsteady aerodynamics. Results from the linear pitch/surge frame are extrapolated to the rotating VAWT frame to investigate the behavior of identified flow structures. PubDate: 2015-07-23

Abstract: Abstract
A three-dimensional unsteady flow separation in the straight diffuser of a model bulb turbine is investigated with planar two-component PIV measurements near the wall. The turbine is operated in two selected conditions that give rise to separation zones of different size and shape. The blockage effect induced by separation leads to a sudden drop in turbine efficiency and power extraction. The separation front fluctuates significantly both in location and in shape with no periodicity. From conditionally averaged results, it is deduced that the mean separation front is tilted azimuthally and that the mean separation skin friction line is composed of a saddle point on the diffuser side with one of its branches running along the diffuser bottom. Vortices and separation front critical points are analysed with POD-reconstructed instantaneous velocity fields. Separation surface vortices are generally bigger and stronger than turbulent vortices within or outside the separation zone, which suggests that different roll-up mechanisms are involved. The separation surface is irregular and is populated near the wall by a succession of foci and saddle points. PubDate: 2015-07-21

Abstract: Abstract
Accurate determination of gas–fluid miscibility conditions is important to optimize the displacement efficiency during CO2-enhanced oil recovery. This paper presents a new technique to investigate the phase behavior and to estimate the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) of a CO2/n-decane system using an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) scanner. CT scans of the CO2/n-decane system are taken at various pressures during the experiments. The image intensity values taken from the CT images have a linear relationship with the densities of the measured objects; therefore, we can estimate the miscible point of CO2 and n-decane because the difference between the intensity values for each phase decays to zero as the pressure increases toward the MMP. This paper provides experimental evidence for the validity of the new CT method by comparing the results with previous studies and presents an application of the method to investigate the MMP of the CO2/n-decane system in porous media. Additionally, the influence of porous media on the equilibrium state when the CO2/n-decane system is close to miscibility is discussed. PubDate: 2015-07-16

Abstract: Abstract
Optical measurements were carried out in planar two-dimensional open shallow cavities in order to determine how the flow field inside the cavity changes if the length-to-depth ratio of the cavity and the conditions of the boundary layer at the cavity leading edge are varied. The main challenge in this configuration, namely the fact that there are often no clearly identifiable wave fronts in the flow within the cavity, was overcome by applying a digital streak schlieren technique in combination with time-resolved high-speed flow visualizations. Using this approach, one can identify the propagation of waves within the cavity which allows one to determine the frequencies of flow oscillations inside the cavity entirely by optical means. The results from these measurements showed excellent agreement with independently conducted pressure measurements, simulations and analytical predictions. The applied technique also provides a measurement for the convective flow velocity within the cavity, for which different values can be found in the literature. The paper presents the results obtained for a Mach 2 supersonic flow over shallow rectangular open cavities with length-to-depth ratios of 3, 5, 6 and 8. PubDate: 2015-07-15

Abstract: Abstract
An experimental investigation based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) was conducted to provide a better understanding into the effects of jet–cylinder separation distance on the vortical structures and dynamic behaviour resulting from jet impingements upon convex cylinders. Separation distances of 1, 2 and 4 jet diameters were investigated, while cylinder–jet diameter ratio was maintained at 2 throughout. LIF and DPIV results show that jet ring-vortex initiation, wall-separated vortex initiation, vortex dipole formation and vortex separation occur further away from the impingement point as the separation distance decreases. Varying the separation distance also influences the recirculating wake region size at the cylinder lee sides, as well as producing two distinct flow modes between adjacent vortex dipoles along the cylinder straight edges. Mean and instantaneous skin friction coefficient distributions determined from DPIV results not only showcase the different effects of separation distance on the wall shear stress, but also illustrate how the flow dynamics influence the local wall shear stress levels. On the other hand, wall-separated vortex initiation, vortex dipole formation and separation events incur little distinctive changes upon the local wall shear stress distributions that may ease their unique identification. PubDate: 2015-07-15

Abstract: Abstract
The present paper investigates drag reduction on a rectangular bluff body by employing base flaps and controlling flow separation with fluidic oscillators. Wind tunnel experiments are conducted to assess the influence of various parameters. The flap length has to be sufficiently long to shift the wake structures far enough downstream away from the base plate. Any additional increase in flap length does not yield any further benefits. The flap angle has to be large enough to provide a sufficient inward deflection of the outer flow. If the angle is too large, actuation becomes inefficient due to the pressure gradient imposed by the opposite side of the base perimeter. Furthermore, the flaps at high deflection angles provide additional area for low pressure to act in the streamwise direction and therefore negate the positive effects of actuation. The required actuation intensity is best governed by the ratio between jet and freestream velocity for varying oscillator spacing. For a flap angle of 20°, the smallest net drag is obtained at a velocity ratio of 4.5. Furthermore, the optimal velocity ratio for the most efficient drag reduction changes linearly with flap angle. Smaller flap deflections require a smaller velocity ratio for optimal control at different oscillator spacing. A net drag reduction of about 13 % is measured at a flap angle of 20° when the drag is corrected by the momentum input. Even if the measured drag is conservatively corrected by the energy coefficient, a net improvement of 7 % is achieved. For the current setup, the most efficient drag reduction is still obtained at smaller flap angles with a lower momentum input. However, the presented results support the general feasibility of this drag reduction approach with significant room left for optimization. PubDate: 2015-07-15

Abstract: Abstract
We present experimental data to compare and contrast the wake characteristics of a turbine whose rotation is either driven by the oncoming flow or prescribed by a motor. Velocity measurements are collected using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry in the near-wake region of a lift-based, vertical-axis turbine. The wake of this turbine is characterized by a spanwise asymmetric velocity profile which is found to be strongly dependent on the turbine tip speed ratio (TSR), while only weakly dependent on Reynolds number (Re). For a given Re, the TSR is controlled either passively by a mechanical brake or actively by a DC motor. We find that there exists a finite region in TSR versus Re space where the wakes of the motor-driven turbine and flow-driven turbine are indistinguishable to within experimental precision. Outside of this region, the sign of the net circulation in the wake changes as TSR is increased by the motor. Shaft torque measurements show a corresponding sign change above this TSR threshold set by circulation, indicating a transition from net torque due to lift to net torque due to drag produced by the turbine blades, the latter of which can give wake measurements that are inconsistent with a flow-driven turbine. The results support the claim that the turbine kinematics and aerodynamic properties are the sole factors that govern the dynamics of its wake, irrespective of the means to move the turbine blades. This has significance for both experimental and computational studies where it may be necessary, or perhaps more economical, to prescribe the turbine kinematics in order to analyze its aerodynamic characteristics. PubDate: 2015-07-11

Abstract: Abstract
A technique for automated, quantitative, global boundary-layer transition detection using IR thermography is developed. Transition data are rigorously mapped onto model coordinates in an automated fashion on moving targets. Statistical analysis of transition data that is robust to environmental contamination is presented. PubDate: 2015-07-04

Abstract: Abstract
Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) analysis was performed on a large number of realizations of the separated flow around a finite blunt plate, which were determined by using planar time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV). Three plates with different chord-to-thickness ratios corresponding to globally different flow patterns were particularly selected for comparison: L/D = 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0. The main attention was placed on dynamic variations in the dominant events and their interactive influences on the global fluid flow in terms of the DMD analysis. Toward this end, a real-time data transfer from the high-speed camera to the arrayed disks was built to enable continuous sampling of the spatiotemporally varying flows at the frequency of 250 Hz for a long run. The spectra of the wall-normal velocity fluctuation, the energy spectra of the DMD modes, and their spatial patterns convincingly determined the energetic unsteady events, i.e., St = 0.051 (Karman vortex street), 0.109 (harmonic event of Karman vortex street) and 0.197 (leading-edge vortex) in the shortest system L/D = 3.0, St = 0.159 (Karman vortex street) and 0.242 (leading-edge vortex) in the system L/D = 6.0, and St = 0.156 (Karman vortex street) and 0.241 (leading-edge vortex) in the longest system L/D = 9.0. In the shortest system L/D = 3.0, the first DMD mode pattern demonstrated intensified entrainment of the massive fluid above and below the whole plate by the Karman vortex street. The phase-dependent variation in the low-order flow field elucidated that this motion was sustained by the consecutive mechanisms of the convective leading-edge vortices near the upper and lower trailing edges, and the large-scale vortical structures occurring immediately behind the trailing edge, whereas the leading-edge vortices were entrained and decayed into the near wake. For the system L/D = 6.0, the closely approximated energy spectra at St = 0.159 and 0.242 indicated the balanced dominance of dual unsteady events in the measurement region. The Karman vortex street was found to induce considerable localized movement of the fluid near the trailing edges of the plate. However, the leading-edge vortices near the trailing edge were found to detach away from the plate and fully decay around 0.5D behind the trailing edge, where a well-ordered origination of the downstream large-scale vortical structures (the Karman vortex street) was established and might be locally energized by the decayed leading-edge vortex. In the longest system L/D = 9.0, the phase-dependent variations in the low-order flow disclosed a rapid decay of the leading-edge vortices beyond the reattachment zone, reaching the fully diffused state near the trailing edges. Accordingly, no clear signature of the interaction between the Karman vortex street and the leading-edge vortex could be found in the dynamic process of the leading-edge vortex. PubDate: 2015-07-04

Abstract: Abstract
The formation and shedding of vortices in two vortex-dominated flows around an actuated flat plate are studied to develop a better method of identifying and tracking coherent structures in unsteady flows. The work automatically processes data from the 2D simulation of a flat plate undergoing a
\(45^{\circ }\)
pitch-up maneuver, and from experimental particle image velocimetry data in the wake of a continuously pitching trapezoidal panel. The Eulerian
\(\varGamma _1\)
,
\(\varGamma _2\)
, and Q functions, as well as the Lagrangian finite-time Lyapunov exponent are applied to identify both the centers and boundaries of the vortices. The multiple vortices forming and shedding from the plates are visualized well by these techniques. Tracking of identifiable features, such as the Lagrangian saddle points, is shown to have potential to identify the timing and location of vortex formation, shedding, and destruction more precisely than by only studying the vortex cores as identified by the Eulerian techniques. PubDate: 2015-07-03

Abstract: Abstract
This article reports on the qualification of a gust generator device in a transonic wind tunnel. A vanning apparatus has been installed in the contraction of the S3Ch transonic wind tunnel at the ONERA Meudon center in order to generate up and down air movements in the test section. The apparatus has been tested in a range of Strouhal number based on frequency and vane chord up to 0.15 and in a range of Mach number between 0.3 and 0.73. The amplitude of the gusts has been characterized by a fast-response two-hole pressure probe and phase-averaged PIV. The system delivers vertical velocity amplitude of 0.5 % of the freestream velocity at transonic speeds. For a constant vane oscillation angle, the gust strength is found to increase with the Strouhal and the Mach numbers. The gust exhibit a satisfying uniformity and a quasi-sinusoidal waveform. A simple dynamic point vortex model of the oscillating vanes and of the downstream wake has been developed in order to (1) compare the experimental results and (2) enrich the description of the flow induced by the gusts. In particular, the model is used to analyze the detrimental effect of the upper and lower walls. This simple unsteady model gives a valuable prediction of the amplitude of the gust obtained in the tunnel and the workable frequency range permitted by the present apparatus. PubDate: 2015-07-02

Abstract: Abstract
A technique of installing a tetrahedron at the upstream corner of the circular cylinder–flat plate juncture is developed to control the characteristic horseshoe vortices appearing in the natural juncture flow. The Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter are within the range of 500–2900. The flow patterns and time-averaged velocity fields in the vertical symmetry plane and a horizontal plane near the flat plate of the natural and tetrahedron-controlled juncture flows are examined by using the laser-assisted particle flow visualization method and particle image velocimetry in a towing water tank. The flow approaching the circular cylinder–flat plate juncture can induce a characteristic horseshoe vortical flow consisting of a single vortex, dual vortex, or triple vortex. These horseshoe vortices appearing in the natural case may be changed to a characteristic mode of vortical flow, reverse flow, or forward flow when a tetrahedron is installed at the upstream corner of the juncture. The appearance of the vortical flow, reverse flow, or forward flow mode depends on the geometric parameters of normalized axial length, expansion angle, and tilt angle as well as the flow parameter of the Reynolds number. The vortical flow mode appears at small axial length of tetrahedron. The forward flow mode appears at the large axial length of tetrahedron. When the forward flow mode appears, the boundary-layer upstream of the circular cylinder does not separate. Therefore, the horseshoe vortices induced in the natural juncture flow disappear. The data bank consists of the design parameters of axial length, tilt angle, and expansion angle of the tetrahedron, which is provided as a figure. PubDate: 2015-07-02

Abstract: Abstract
The relationship between the volumetric heat release rate and radiation of non-premixed hydrogen–oxygen flames at atmospheric and elevated pressure is investigated. Both the radiation of the excited hydroxyl radical (
\({\hbox {OH}^*}\)
) and the continuous blue radiation are considered. To physically interpret radiation and heat release, the phenomena are first analyzed within laminar flames following a hybrid approach: a pressurized jet flame experiment is set up to correctly measure the
\({\hbox {OH}^*}\)
and blue radiation. The heat release rate is obtained from a complementary CFD simulation. Radiation and heat release are clearly uncorrelated for changes in pressure. Spatially, radiation and heat release occur at separate locations. To further scrutinize the laminar flame structure, non-premixed counterflow flame simulations are performed. By considering statistical ensembles of flamelets, these findings are transferred onto turbulent flames. As before, no general direct proportionality between radiation and heat release rate is observed because of flame straining. A technique for correcting these effects is applied, and its potential is evaluated. The impact of self-absorption of
\({\hbox {OH}^*}\)
radiation at elevated pressures on its interpretation is discussed. PubDate: 2015-06-30

Abstract: Abstract
This paper combines experimental data with simple mathematical models to investigate the influence of spray formulation type and leaf character (wettability) on shatter, bounce and adhesion of droplets impacting with cotton, rice and wheat leaves. Impaction criteria that allow for different angles of the leaf surface and the droplet impact trajectory are presented; their predictions are based on whether combinations of droplet size and velocity lie above or below bounce and shatter boundaries. In the experimental component, real leaves are used, with all their inherent natural variability. Further, commercial agricultural spray nozzles are employed, resulting in a range of droplet characteristics. Given this natural variability, there is broad agreement between the data and predictions. As predicted, the shatter of droplets was found to increase as droplet size and velocity increased, and the surface became harder to wet. Bouncing of droplets occurred most frequently on hard-to-wet surfaces with high-surface-tension mixtures. On the other hand, a number of small droplets with low impact velocity were observed to bounce when predicted to lie well within the adhering regime. We believe this discrepancy between the predictions and experimental data could be due to air layer effects that were not taken into account in the current bounce equations. Other discrepancies between experiment and theory are thought to be due to the current assumption of a dry impact surface, whereas, in practice, the leaf surfaces became increasingly covered with fluid throughout the spray test runs. PubDate: 2015-06-30

Abstract: Abstract
A new method for measuring turbulent heat fluxes using a combination of particle image velocimetry and a nanoscale fast-response cold-wire is tested by examining a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer subject to weakly stable stratification. The method has the advantages of simple calibration and setup, as well as providing spatial correlations of velocity and temperature and their associated integral length scales. The accuracy of using Taylor’s hypothesis when employing a large field of view is investigated. Heat flux, velocity–temperature correlation coefficients and turbulent Prandtl number profiles, as well as spatial velocity and temperature correlations, are presented. PubDate: 2015-06-26

Abstract: Abstract
Recent experiments in high Reynolds number pipe flow have shown the apparent obfuscation
of the
\(k_x^{-1}\)
behaviour in spectra of streamwise velocity fluctuations (Rosenberg et al. in J Fluid Mech 731:46–63, 2013). These data are further analysed here from the perspective of the
\(\log r\)
behaviour in second-order structure functions, which have been suggested as a more robust diagnostic to assess scaling behaviour. A detailed comparison between pipe flows and boundary layers at friction Reynolds numbers of
\({{Re}}_\tau \approx\)
5000–20,000 reveals subtle differences. In particular, the
\(\log r\)
slope of the pipe flow structure function decreases with increasing wall distance, departing from the expected
\(2A_1\)
slope in a manner that is different to boundary layers. Here,
\(A_1 \approx 1.25\)
, the slope of the log law in the streamwise turbulence intensity profile at high Reynolds numbers. Nevertheless, the structure functions for both flows recover the
\(2A_1\)
slope in the log layer sufficiently close to the wall, provided the Reynolds number is also high enough to remain in the log layer. This universality is further confirmed in very high Reynolds number data from measurements in the neutrally stratified atmospheric surface layer. A simple model that accounts for the ‘crowding’ effect near the pipe axis is proposed in order to interpret the aforementioned differences. PubDate: 2015-06-25