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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1201 - 1400 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
J. of Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.921, h-index: 44)
J. of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.087, h-index: 74)
J. of Comparative Physiology B : Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 59)
J. of Compassionate Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Computational Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.291, h-index: 19)
J. of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 20)
J. of Computational Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 60)
J. of Computer and Systems Sciences Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, h-index: 13)
J. of Computer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 31)
J. of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 2)
J. of Computer-Aided Molecular Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.995, h-index: 78)
J. of Computers in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
J. of Computing in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 21)
J. of Consumer Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.704, h-index: 30)
J. of Contemporary Mathematical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
J. of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 6)
J. of Contemporary Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 23)
J. of Control Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 19)
J. of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 9)
J. of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Cross-Cultural Gerontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.631, h-index: 29)
J. of Cryptographic Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.989, h-index: 11)
J. of Cryptology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 55)
J. of Cultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 29)
J. of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.149, h-index: 8)
J. of Derivatives & Hedge Funds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.114, h-index: 5)
J. of Developmental and Physical Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 29)
J. of Digital Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.578, h-index: 35)
J. of Direct Data and Digital Marketing Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.154, h-index: 6)
J. of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 26)
J. of Dynamics and Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.418, h-index: 31)
J. of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.483, h-index: 16)
J. of Earth System Science     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 32)
J. of East Asian Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.537, h-index: 20)
J. of Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 3)
J. of Economic Growth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 3.273, h-index: 63)
J. of Economic Interaction and Coordination     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.263, h-index: 12)
J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 23)
J. of Economics and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 19)
J. of Educational Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 21)
J. of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, h-index: 45)
J. of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.577, h-index: 57)
J. of Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.609, h-index: 75)
J. of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.372, h-index: 27)
J. of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 9)
J. of Elementary Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
J. of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 37)
J. of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 11)
J. of Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 5)
J. of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 9)
J. of Environmental Studies and Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
J. of Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.609, h-index: 25)
J. of Evolution Equations     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.826, h-index: 26)
J. of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.145, h-index: 11)
J. of Evolutionary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 52)
J. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 39)
J. of Experimental Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.445, h-index: 28)
J. of Failure Analysis and Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 15)
J. of Family and Economic Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 32)
J. of Family Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.639, h-index: 56)
J. of Financial Services Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 10)
J. of Financial Services Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 36)
J. of Fixed Point Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.644, h-index: 13)
J. of Fluorescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 56)
J. of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.307, h-index: 4)
J. of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 29)
J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.495, h-index: 27)
J. of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 14)
J. of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.18, h-index: 42)
J. of Friction and Wear     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.373, h-index: 7)
J. of Fusion Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 19)
J. of Gambling Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.171, h-index: 57)
J. of Gastroenterology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 88)
J. of Gastrointestinal Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 39)
J. of Gastrointestinal Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.64, h-index: 99)
J. of General Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.804, h-index: 134)
J. of General Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.554, h-index: 22)
J. of Genetic Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.902, h-index: 39)
J. of Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 28)
J. of Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.173, h-index: 56)
J. of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 23)
J. of Geographical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 39)
J. of Geometric Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.491, h-index: 27)
J. of Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 15)
J. of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 60)
J. of Global Policy and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
J. of Grid Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.414, h-index: 37)
J. of Hand and Microsurgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 39)
J. of Hematopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 13)
J. of Heuristics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.308, h-index: 50)
J. of High Energy Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.052, h-index: 153)
J. of Homotopy and Related Structures     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, h-index: 2)
J. of Housing and the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.648, h-index: 28)
J. of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.344, h-index: 19)
J. of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 10)
J. of Immigrant and Minority Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.759, h-index: 37)
J. of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 46)
J. of Indian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.127, h-index: 12)
J. of Indian Prosthodontic Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 7)
J. of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.966, h-index: 80)
J. of Industry, Competition and Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, h-index: 15)
J. of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.673, h-index: 46)
J. of Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 55)
J. of Information Technology Teaching Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
J. of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.25, h-index: 36)
J. of Inherited Metabolic Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.389, h-index: 77)
J. of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 33)
J. of Insect Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 39)
J. of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent and Robotic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.691, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 54)
J. of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.93, h-index: 43)
J. of Intl. Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 4.208, h-index: 130)
J. of Intl. Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.549, h-index: 23)
J. of Intl. Migration and Integration / Revue de l integration et de la migration internationale     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 13)
J. of Intl. Relations and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.793, h-index: 22)
J. of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 27)
J. of Logic, Language and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
J. of Low Temperature Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 52)
J. of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 7)
J. of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.134, h-index: 37)
J. of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.252, h-index: 83)
J. of Management and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 33)
J. of Management Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 6)
J. of Marine Science and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 11)
J. of Marine Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, h-index: 19)
J. of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.228, h-index: 8)
J. of Market-Focused Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Marketing Analytics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Material Cycles and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.449, h-index: 22)
J. of Materials Engineering and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.544, h-index: 40)
J. of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.836, h-index: 123)
J. of Materials Science : Materials in Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.011, h-index: 71)
J. of Mathematical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 45)
J. of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.22, h-index: 22)
J. of Mathematical Imaging and Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.901, h-index: 53)
J. of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.414, h-index: 23)
J. of Mathematical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 23)
J. of Mathematics Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.062, h-index: 20)
J. of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Mechanical Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 26)
J. of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 18)
J. of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 18)
J. of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.717, h-index: 44)
J. of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, h-index: 28)
J. of Medical Ultrasonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
J. of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.738, h-index: 82)
J. of Micro-Bio Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.28, h-index: 3)
J. of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
J. of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.317, h-index: 16)
J. of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.952, h-index: 108)
J. of Molecular Histology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.755, h-index: 48)
J. of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.165, h-index: 113)
J. of Molecular Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 50)
J. of Molecular Neuroscience     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.988, h-index: 69)
J. of Mountain Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 15)
J. of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 55)
J. of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, h-index: 84)
J. of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.602, h-index: 28)
J. of Near-Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.689, h-index: 55)
J. of Network and Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.466, h-index: 26)
J. of Neural Transmission     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.034, h-index: 86)
J. of Neuro-Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 90)
J. of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.662, h-index: 45)
J. of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.429, h-index: 105)
J. of NeuroVirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 69)
J. of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.863, h-index: 27)
J. of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.887, h-index: 42)
J. of Nonverbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 47)
J. of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.024, h-index: 68)
J. of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.919, h-index: 60)
J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 6)
J. of Occupational Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.811, h-index: 51)
J. of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Ocean University of China (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.237, h-index: 11)
J. of Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.796, h-index: 52)
J. of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 11)
J. of Optical and Fiber Communications Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 8)
J. of Optimization Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 65)
J. of Ornithology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
J. of Orofacial Orthopedics / Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.574, h-index: 33)
J. of Orthopaedic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.708, h-index: 48)
J. of Paleolimnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.984, h-index: 64)
J. of Parasitic Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.298, h-index: 9)
J. of Pediatric Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 28)
J. of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Pharmaceutical Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 17)
J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 6)
J. of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.708, h-index: 46)
J. of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 36)
J. of Philosophical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.704, h-index: 26)
J. of Physiology and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.87, h-index: 33)

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Journal Cover Experiments in Fluids
  [SJR: 1.088]   [H-I: 82]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-1114 - ISSN (Online) 0723-4864
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • A comprehensive statistical investigation of schlieren image velocimetry
           (SIV) using high-velocity helium jet
    • Authors: Sayan Biswas; Li Qiao
      Abstract: Abstract A detailed statistical assessment of seedless velocity measurement using Schlieren Image Velocimetry (SIV) was explored using open source Robust Phase Correlation (RPC) algorithm. A well-known flow field, an axisymmetric turbulent helium jet, was analyzed near and intermediate region \((0\le x/d\le 20)\) for two different Reynolds numbers, Re d = 11,000 and Re d = 22,000 using schlieren with horizontal knife-edge, schlieren with vertical knife-edge and shadowgraph technique, and the resulted velocity fields from SIV techniques were compared to traditional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. A novel, inexpensive, easy to setup two-camera SIV technique had been demonstrated to measure high-velocity turbulent jet, with jet exit velocities 304 m/s (Mach = 0.3) and 611 m/s (Mach = 0.6), respectively. Several image restoration and enhancement techniques were tested to improve signal to noise ratio (SNR) in schlieren and shadowgraph images. Processing and post-processing parameters for SIV techniques were examined in detail. A quantitative comparison between self-seeded SIV techniques and traditional PIV had been made using correlation statistics. While the resulted flow field from schlieren with horizontal knife-edge and shadowgraph showed excellent agreement with PIV measurements, schlieren with vertical knife-edge performed poorly. The performance of spatial cross-correlations at different jet locations using SIV techniques and PIV was evaluated. Turbulence quantities like turbulence intensity, mean velocity fields, Reynolds shear stress influenced spatial correlations and correlation plane SNR heavily. Several performance metrics such as primary peak ratio (PPR), peak to correlation energy (PCE), the probability distribution of signal and noise were used to compare capability and potential of different SIV techniques.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-017-2305-2
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 3 (2017)
  • Effect of slotted exit orifice on performance of plasma synthetic jet
    • Authors: Haohua Zong; Marios Kotsonis
      Abstract: Abstract This study experimentally investigates the influence of exit orifice shape on the performance characteristics of a three-electrode plasma synthetic jet actuator. High-speed Schlieren imaging system and phase-locked two-component PIV measurements are used for flowfield characterisation in quiescent conditions. Two actuator configurations with the same exit area but different exit orifice shape (round orifice and slot orifice) are studied. Results indicate a close correspondence between the shapes of the starting vortex ring with the shapes of the respective exit orifices. For the slot orifice, the elongated starting vortex ring gradually expands during propagation, while its ends become warped. A distinct K–H instability structure is observed, inducing continuous oscillation of the high-speed jet. Compared with the jet from the round orifice, the slot jet has a higher entrainment rate of surrounding air, thus resulting in a lower propagation velocity of the jet front. The exit velocity of PSJA within one period initially shows a rapid increase, then persists at a relatively high level (100–130 m/s), and finally drops with some small-scale oscillations. The oscillation amplitude is less than 10 m/s, and the oscillation period is approximately 600 µs. Under conditions of same exit area, orifice shape has little influence on the variation of the exit velocity.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2299-1
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 3 (2017)
  • Statistical calibration via Gaussianization in hot-wire anemometry
    • Authors: Igal Gluzman; Jacob Cohen; Yaakov Oshman
      Abstract: Abstract A statistical method is introduced, that is based on Gaussianization to estimate the nonlinear calibration curve of a hot-wire probe, relating the input flow velocity to the output (measured) voltage. The method uses as input a measured sequence of voltage samples, corresponding to different unknown flow velocities in the desired operational range, and only two measured voltages along with their known (calibrated) flow velocities. The method relies on the conditions that (1) the velocity signal is Gaussian distributed (or has another known distribution), and (2) the measured signal covers the desired velocity range over which the sensor is to be calibrated. The novel calibration method is validated against standard calibration methods using data acquired by hot-wire probes in wind-tunnel experiments. In these experiments, a hot-wire probe is placed at a certain region downstream of a cube-shaped body in a freestream of air flow, properly selected, so that the central limit theorem, when applied to the random velocity increments composing the instantaneous velocity in the wake, roughly holds, and renders the measured signal nearly Gaussian distributed. The statistical distribution of the velocity field in the wake is validated by mapping the first four statistical moments of the measured signals in different regions of the wake and comparing them with corresponding moments of the Gaussian distribution. The experimental data are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the method to the distribution of the measured signal, and the method is demonstrated to possess some robustness with respect to deviations from the Gaussian distribution.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2298-2
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 3 (2017)
  • Three-dimensional microscopic light field particle image velocimetry
    • Authors: Tadd T. Truscott; Jesse Belden; Rui Ni; Jonathon Pendlebury; Bryce McEwen
      Abstract: Abstract A microscopic particle image velocimetry ( \(\mu \text {PIV}\) ) technique is developed based on light field microscopy and is applied to flow through a microchannel containing a backward-facing step. The only hardware difference from a conventional \(\mu\) PIV setup is the placement of a microlens array at the intermediate image plane of the microscope. The method combines this optical hardware alteration with post-capture computation to enable 3D reconstruction of particle fields. From these particle fields, we measure three-component velocity fields, but find that accurate velocity measurements are limited to the two in-plane components at discrete depths through the volume (i.e., 2C-3D). Results are compared with a computational fluid dynamics simulation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2297-3
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 3 (2017)
  • Spanwise boundary layer modulations using finite discrete suction for
           transition delay
    • Authors: Sohrab S. Sattarzadeh; Jens H. M. Fransson
      Abstract: Abstract Discrete suction is deployed in a flat plate boundary layer to create spanwise mean velocity gradients (SVG) with the goal of delaying the onset of laminar-to-turbulent transition. It is shown that finite boundary layer suction through a set of holes in a spanwise oriented array in the flat plate is successful in setting up steady and robust streamwise streaks in the boundary layer. Today, the SVG method for transition control is known to attenuate the growth of Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) waves and delay the transition to turbulence. In this investigation, low-amplitude forced TS waves are attenuated with the implication of extending the laminar flow by at least 120% for a discrete suction of 0.8% of the free-stream velocity. The control technique is also tested successfully for natural transition, with a resulting transition delay of 30%.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-017-2301-6
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 3 (2017)
  • Surfactant-laden drop jellyfish-breakup mode induced by the Marangoni
    • Authors: Hui Zhao; Wen-Bin Zhang; Jian-Liang Xu; Wei-Feng Li; Hai-Feng Liu
      Abstract: Abstract Drop breakup is a familiar event in both nature and technology. In this study, we find that the bag breakup mode can be replaced by a new breakup mode: jellyfish breakup, when the surfactant concentration of a surfactant-laden drop is high. This new breakup mode has a morphology resembling a jellyfish with many long tentacles. This is due to the inhomogeneous distribution of surfactant in the process of drop deformation and breakup. The thin film of liquid can remain stable as a result of the Marangoni effect. Finally, we propose that the dimensionless surfactant concentration can serve as a criterion for breakup mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2296-4
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 3 (2017)
  • Internal flow measurements of drop impacting a solid surface
    • Authors: S. Santosh Kumar; Ashish Karn; Roger E. A. Arndt; Jiarong Hong
      Abstract: Abstract Understanding the fundamental physical process involved in drop impacts is important for a variety of engineering and scientific applications. Despite exhaustive research efforts on the dynamics of drop morphology upon impact, very few studies investigate the fluid dynamics induced within a drop upon impact. This study employs planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) with fluorescent particles to quantify the internal flow field of a drop impact on a solid surface. The image distortion caused by the curved liquid–air interface at the drop boundary is corrected using a ray-tracing algorithm. PIV analysis using the corrected images has yielded interesting insights into the flow initiated within a drop upon impact. Depending on the pre-impact conditions, characterized by impact number, different vortex modes are observed in the recoil phase of the drop impact. Further, the strength of these vortices and the kinetic energy of the internal flow field have been quantified. Our studies show a consistent negative power law correlation between vortex strength, internal kinetic energy and the impact number.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2293-7
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 3 (2017)
  • Streamline segment scaling behavior in a turbulent wavy channel flow
    • Authors: A. Rubbert; F. Hennig; M. Klaas; H. Pitsch; W. Schröder; N. Peters
      Abstract: Abstract A turbulent flow in a wavy channel was investigated by tomographic particle-image velocimetry measurements and direct numerical simulations. To analyze the turbulent structures and their scaling behavior in a flow undergoing favorable and adverse pressure gradients, the streamline segmentation method proposed by Wang (J Fluid Mech 648:183–203, 2010) was employed. This method yields joint statistical information about velocity fluctuations and length scale distributions of non-overlapping structures within the flow. In particular, the joint statistical properties are notably influenced by the pressure distribution. Previous findings from flat channel flows and synthetic turbulence simulations concerning the normalized segment length distribution could be reproduced and therefore appear to be largely universal. However, the mean streamline segment length of accelerating and decelerating segments varies within one wavelength typically elongating segments of the type which corresponds to the local mean flow. Furthermore, the local pressure gradient was found to significantly impact local joint streamline segmentation statistics as a main influence on their inherent asymmetry.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2291-9
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2017)
  • Digital holographic measurement of the Lagrangian evaporation rate of
           droplets dispersing in a homogeneous isotropic turbulence
    • Authors: J. L. Marié; T. Tronchin; N. Grosjean; L. Méès; O. Can Öztürk; C. Fournier; B. Barbier; M. Lance
      Abstract: Abstract The evaporation rate of diethyl ether droplets dispersing in a homogeneous, nearly isotropic turbulence is measured by following droplets along their trajectory. Measurements are performed at ambient temperature and pressure by using in-line digital holography. The holograms of droplets are recorded with a single high-speed camera (3 kHz), and droplets trajectories are reconstructed with an “inverse problem approach” (IPA) algorithm previously used in Chareyron et al. (New J Phys 14:043039, 2012) and Marié et al. (Exp Fluid 55(4):1708, 2014. doi:10.1007/s00348-014-1708-6). The thermal/vapor concentration wakes developing around the droplets are visible behind each hologram. A standard reconstruction process is applied, showing that these wakes are aligned with the relative Lagrangian velocity seen by droplets at each instant. This relative velocity is that obtained from the dynamic equation of droplets motion and the positions and diameter of the droplets measured by holography and the IPA reconstruction. Sequences of time evolution of droplets 3D positions, diameter and 3D relative velocity are presented. In a number of cases, the evaporation rate of droplets changes along the trajectory and deviates from the value estimated with a standard film model of evaporation. This shows that turbulence may significantly influence the phase change process.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2292-8
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effect of the nature of vitiated crossflow on the flow-field of a
           transverse reacting jet
    • Authors: Pratikash P. Panda; Oluwatobi Busari; Robert P. Lucht; Walter R. Laster
      Abstract: Abstract The effect of the nature of vitiated crossflow on the structure and dynamics of non-reacting/reacting transverse jets is investigated. In this study, the vitiated crossflow is produced either by a low-swirl burner (LSB) that adds a swirling component to the crossflow or a bluff-body burner (BBB) that produces a uniform crossflow. The jet fluid is injected through a contoured injector, which provides a top-hat velocity profile. The swirling crossflow exhibits considerable swirl at the point of injection of the transverse jet. Two component high-repetition-rate PIV measurements demonstrate the influence of a vitiated crossflow generated by a low-swirl/bluff-body burner on the near-wake flow-field of the jet. Measurements at a plane below the injection location of the jet indicate that there is a continuous entrainment of PIV particles in case of swirling crossflow. The time-averaged flow-field shows that the velocity field for reacting/non-reacting jets in the LSB crossflow exhibits higher velocity gradients, in the measurement plane along jet cross section, as compared to BBB crossflow. It is found that the vorticity magnitude is lower in case of jets in the BBB crossflow and there is a delay in the formation of the wake vortex structure. The conditional turbulent statistics of the jet flow-field in the two crossflows shows that there is a higher degree of intermittency related to the wake vortex structure in case of a BBB crossflow, which results in a non-Gaussian distribution of the turbulent statistics. The wake Strouhal number calculation shows the influence of the nature of crossflow on the rate of wake vortex shedding. The wake Strouhal number for the jets in BBB crossflow is found to be lower than for the LSB crossflow. A decrease in the wake Strouhal number is observed with an increase in the nozzle separation distance. There is an increase in the dilatation rate owing to heat release which results in higher wake Strouhal number for reacting jets as compared to non-reacting jets. The POD analysis of the reacting and non-reacting jets shows the wake vortex structures to be the dominant flow structures in this study. There is a redistribution of turbulent kinetic energy from the shear layer to the coherent wake vortex structure with an increase in the nozzle separation distance. The wake structures in the near-wake region of jets in LSB crossflow are found to have a larger contribution to the kinetic energy as compared to jets in BBB crossflow.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2288-4
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2017)
  • Characteristics of a wingtip vortex from an oscillating winglet
    • Authors: T. K. Guha; R. Kumar
      Abstract: Abstract Initial perturbations in the wingtip vortices can potentially lead to instabilities that significantly reduce their lifetime in the wake of an aircraft. An active winglet capable of oscillating about its point of attachment to the main wing-section is developed using piezoelectric macro fiber composite, to actively perturb the vortex at its onset. Resonance characteristics of the actuated winglet oscillations are evaluated at different excitation levels and aerodynamic loading. Mean near-field characteristics of the vortex, developing from a stationary and an oscillating winglet, are investigated with the help of stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Results show that the amplitude of winglet oscillations increases linearly with input excitation, to a highest attainable value of nearly four times the airfoil thickness at the winglet tip. The vortex developing from a winglet is stretched along its axis, having an elliptical core with non-uniform vorticity distribution. Actuation leads to spatial oscillations of the vortex core together with a reduction in the mean peak vorticity levels. The amplitude of the actuated core oscillations remains constant in the investigated region of the wake.
      PubDate: 2016-12-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2289-3
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 1 (2016)
  • Experiments to investigate lift production mechanisms on pitching flat
    • Authors: P. R. R. J. Stevens; H. Babinsky
      Abstract: Abstract Pitching flat plates are a useful simplification of flapping wings, and their study can provide useful insights into unsteady force generation. Non-circulatory and circulatory lift producing mechanisms for low Reynolds number pitching flat plates are investigated. A series of experiments are designed to measure forces and study the unsteady flowfield development. Two pitch axis positions are investigated, namely a leading edge and a mid-chord pitch axis. A novel PIV approach using twin laser lightsheets is shown to be effective at acquiring full field of view velocity data when an opaque wing model is used. Leading-edge vortex (LEV) circulations are extracted from velocity field data, using a Lamb–Oseen vortex fitting algorithm. LEV and trailing-edge vortex positions are also extracted. It is shown that the circulation of the LEV, as determined from PIV data, approximately matches the general trend of an unmodified Wagner function for a leading edge pitch axis and a modified Wagner function for a mid-chord pitch axis. Comparison of experimentally measured lift correlates well with the prediction of a reduced-order model for a LE pitch axis.
      PubDate: 2016-12-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2290-x
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 1 (2016)
  • Experimental investigation of influence of Reynolds number on synthetic
           jet vortex rings impinging onto a solid wall
    • Authors: Yang Xu; GuoSheng He; Varun Kulkarni; JinJun Wang
      Abstract: Abstract Time-resolved particle image velocimetry was employed to study the effect of Reynolds number (Re sj) on synthetic jet vortex rings impinging onto a solid wall. Four Reynolds numbers ranging from 166 to 664 were investigated for comparison while other parameters were kept constant. It is found that the Reynolds number has a significant impact on the spatial evolution of near-wall vortical structures of the impinging synthetic jet. Velocity triple decomposition reveals that periodic Reynolds shear stresses produced by both impinging and secondary vortex rings agree well with a four-quadrant-type distribution rule, and the random velocity fluctuations are strengthened as Re sj increases. For radial wall jet, radial velocity profiles exhibit a self-similar behavior for all Re sj, and this self-similar profile gradually deviates from the laminar solution as Re sj is increased. In particular, the self-similar profile for low Re sj (166) coincides with the laminar solution indicating that periodic velocity fluctuations produced by vortex rings have little effect on the velocity profile of the laminar wall jet. This also provides evidence that the impinging synthetic jet is more effective in mixing than the continuous jet for the laminar flow. For the high Re sj, the mean skin friction coefficient has a slower decay rate after reaching peak, and the radial momentum flux has a higher value at locations far away from the impingement region, both of these can be attributed to the enhanced random fluctuations.
      PubDate: 2016-12-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2287-5
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 1 (2016)
  • Secondary flow and heat transfer coefficient distributions in the
           developing flow region of ribbed turbine blade cooling passages
    • Authors: Peter Forsyth; Matthew McGilvray; David R. H. Gillespie
      Abstract: Abstract This paper reports an experimental and numerical study of the development and coupling of aerodynamic flows and heat transfer within a model ribbed internal cooling passage to provide insight into the development of secondary flows. Static instrumentation was installed at the end of a long smooth passage and used to measure local flow features in a series of experiments where ribs were incrementally added upstream. This improves test turnaround time and allows higher-resolution heat transfer coefficient distributions to be captured, using a hybrid transient liquid crystal technique. A composite heat transfer coefficient distribution for a 12-rib-pitch passage is reported: notably the behaviour is dominated by the development of the secondary flow in the passage throughout. Both the aerodynamic and heat transfer test data were compared to numerical simulations developed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics solver. By conducting a number of simulations it was possible to interrogate the validity of the underlying assumptions of the experimental strategy; their validity is discussed. The results capture the developing size and strength of the vortical structures in secondary flow. The local flow field was shown to be strongly coupled to the enhancement of heat transfer coefficient. Comparison of the experimental and numerical data generally shows excellent agreement in the level of heat transfer coefficient predicted, though the numerical simulations fail to capture some local enhancement on both the ribbed and smooth surfaces. Where this was the case, the coupled flow and heat transfer measurements were able to identify missing velocity field characteristics.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2286-6
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 1 (2016)
  • Ultrafast imaging method to measure surface tension and viscosity of
           inkjet-printed droplets in flight
    • Authors: Hendrik J. J. Staat; Arjan van der Bos; Marc van den Berg; Hans Reinten; Herman Wijshoff; Michel Versluis; Detlef Lohse
      Abstract: Abstract In modern drop-on-demand inkjet printing, the jetted droplets contain a mixture of solvents, pigments and surfactants. In order to accurately control the droplet formation process, its in-flight dynamics, and deposition characteristics upon impact at the underlying substrate, it is key to quantify the instantaneous liquid properties of the droplets during the entire inkjet-printing process. An analysis of shape oscillation dynamics is known to give direct information of the local liquid properties of millimeter-sized droplets and bubbles. Here, we apply this technique to measure the surface tension and viscosity of micrometer-sized inkjet droplets in flight by recording the droplet shape oscillations microseconds after pinch-off from the nozzle. From the damped oscillation amplitude and frequency we deduce the viscosity and surface tension, respectively. With this ultrafast imaging method, we study the role of surfactants in freshly made inkjet droplets in flight and compare to complementary techniques for dynamic surface tension measurements.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2284-8
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 1 (2016)
  • Ultrasound Imaging Velocimetry: a review
    • Authors: Christian Poelma
      Abstract: Abstract Whole-field velocity measurement techniques based on ultrasound imaging (a.k.a. ‘ultrasound imaging velocimetry’ or ‘echo-PIV’) have received significant attention from the fluid mechanics community in the last decade, in particular because of their ability to obtain velocity fields in flows that elude characterisation by conventional optical methods. In this review, an overview is given of the history, typical components and challenges of these techniques. The basic principles of ultrasound image formation are summarised, as well as various techniques to estimate flow velocities; the emphasis is on correlation-based techniques. Examples are given for a wide range of applications, including in vivo cardiovascular flow measurements, the characterisation of sediment transport and the characterisation of complex non-Newtonian fluids. To conclude, future opportunities are identified. These encompass not just optimisation of the accuracy and dynamic range, but also extension to other application areas.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2283-9
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 1 (2016)
  • Measurement of unsteady loading and power output variability in a micro
           wind farm model in a wind tunnel
    • Authors: Juliaan Bossuyt; Michael F. Howland; Charles Meneveau; Johan Meyers
      Abstract: Abstract Unsteady loading and spatiotemporal characteristics of power output are measured in a wind tunnel experiment of a microscale wind farm model with 100 porous disk models. The model wind farm is placed in a scaled turbulent boundary layer, and six different layouts, varied from aligned to staggered, are considered. The measurements are done by making use of a specially designed small-scale porous disk model, instrumented with strain gages. The frequency response of the measurements goes up to the natural frequency of the model, which corresponds to a reduced frequency of 0.6 when normalized by the diameter and the mean hub height velocity. The equivalent range of timescales, scaled to field-scale values, is 15 s and longer. The accuracy and limitations of the acquisition technique are documented and verified with hot-wire measurements. The spatiotemporal measurement capabilities of the experimental setup are used to study the cross-correlation in the power output of various porous disk models of wind turbines. A significant correlation is confirmed between streamwise aligned models, while staggered models show an anti-correlation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2278-6
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 1 (2016)
  • Ground-to-air flow visualization using Solar Calcium-K line
           Background-Oriented Schlieren
    • Authors: Michael A. Hill; Edward A. Haering
      Abstract: Abstract The Calcium-K Eclipse Background-Oriented Schlieren experiment was performed as a proof of concept test to evaluate the effectiveness of using the solar disk as a background to perform the Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) method of flow visualization. A ground-based imaging system was equipped with a Calcium-K line optical etalon filter to enable the use of the chromosphere of the sun as the irregular background to be used for BOS. A US Air Force T-38 aircraft performed three supersonic runs which eclipsed the sun as viewed from the imaging system. The images were successfully post-processed using optical flow methods to qualitatively reveal the density gradients in the flow around the aircraft.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2285-7
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 1 (2016)
  • Validation of magnetic resonance concentration measurements with adiabatic
           wall temperature measurements
    • Authors: Emily L. Sayles; John K. Eaton
      Abstract: Abstract Adiabatic wall temperature measurements were obtained in a high subsonic Mach number airflow experiment and compared with concentration measurements near the surface from a low-speed liquid flow experiment. Excellent agreement between the temperature and concentration measurements validates the investigation of turbulent mixing phenomena in compressible gas flows through the study of incompressible liquid flows with magnetic resonance techniques.
      PubDate: 2016-11-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2270-1
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 12 (2016)
  • Spatiotemporal analysis of turbulent jets enabled by 100-kHz, 100-ms
           burst-mode particle image velocimetry
    • Authors: Joseph D. Miller; Naibo Jiang; Mikhail N. Slipchenko; Jason G. Mance; Terrence R. Meyer; Sukesh Roy; James R. Gord
      Abstract: Abstract 100-kHz particle image velocimetry (PIV) is demonstrated using a double-pulsed, burst-mode laser with a burst duration up to 100 ms. This enables up to 10,000 time-sequential vector fields for capturing a temporal dynamic range spanning over three orders of magnitude in high-speed turbulent flows. Pulse doublets with inter-pulse spacing of 2 µs and repetition rate of 100 kHz are generated using a fiber-based oscillator and amplified through an all-diode-pumped, burst-mode amplifier. A physics-based model of pulse doublet amplification in the burst-mode amplifier is developed and used to accurately predict oscillator pulse width and pulse intensity inputs required to generate equal-energy pulse doublets at 532 nm for velocity measurements. The effect of PIV particle response and high-speed-detector limitations on the spatial and temporal resolution are estimated in subsonic turbulent jets. An effective spatial resolution of 266–275 µm and temporal resolution of 10 µs are estimated from the 8 × 8 pixel correlation window and inter-doublet time spacing, respectively. This spatiotemporal resolution is sufficient for quantitative assessment of integral time and length scales in highly turbulent jets with Reynolds numbers in the range 15,000–50,000. The temporal dynamic range of the burst-mode PIV measurement is 1200, limited by the 85-ms high-energy portion of the burst and 30-kHz high-frequency noise limit.
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00348-016-2279-5
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 12 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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