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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2573 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2573 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Aerosol Science and Engineering
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2510-375X - ISSN (Online) 2510-3768
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2573 journals]
  • Influence of Atmospheric Dynamic Factors on Dust Aerosol Mobilization Over
           West Africa: Simulations from WRF-Chem
    • Abstract: Abstract Air pollution modeling has proved to be an effective tool in the description of atmospheric processes including pollutants source identification, transport, and dissipation on a regional scale where data are relatively sparse. This work employs the Weather Research Forecast with Chemistry option (WRF-Chem) coupled model to describe the dynamic atmospheric factors responsible for the dust diversion through very unusual path in the West African region on the 20th March, 2010. The simulation process was carried out between 15th and 25th March, 2010 to capture the dust activities during this unusual dust occurrence. Modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) calculated by integration of aerosol extinction coefficient (Qext) on the vertical column was compared with observations from AERONET ground sun photometers at wavelength 440 nm. The results showed very strong correlation between the observed and the modeled AOD. Root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.46, 0.35, 0.37, and 3.09 over Banizoumbou, Dakar and IER_Cinzana, and Ilorin stations respectively, was obtained. Higher RMSE over Ilorin showed a restraint in capturing the AOD over Ilorin. A significant weakening of the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) on the 19th March coupled with an abrupt wind regime change from easterly to westerly on the 20th day of the month at the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) level was seen to play an important role in the diversion of dust into the region. In addition, the development of stronger vertical wind shear within the troposphere atmospheric layer played a crucial role in the development and unusual transport of dust into the West African region during this period. This study provides concrete evidences of atmospheric processes influencing the transport of the Saharan dust, from the source region to other parts of West Africa.
      PubDate: 2019-09-17
       
  • A study of PM 2.5–10 pollution at three functional receptor sites in a
           sub-Saharan African megacity
    • Abstract: Abstract PM2.5–10 (aerodynamic diameter dae 2.5 µm ≥ x ≤ 10 µm) pollution is rapidly becoming a serious problem in many urban areas especially in the least and middle income countries where air quality guidelines as well as urban infrastructure are grossly lacking. In this regards, PM2.5–10 samples collected within a 12-month period from the industrial, low- and high- density residential areas in Lagos Nigeria were studied. The PM2.5–10 were analyzed using ion beam analyses techniques vis-á-vis particle induced X-ray emission and particle induced γ-ray emission, Hybrid Single-particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) and surface meteorological data as well as Positive matrix factorization model (PMF). The results showed that the average mass loads ranged from 150 to 606 µg m−3 (industrial) 110 to 460 µg m−3 (high density residential) and 76 to 298 µg m−3 (low density residential) and revealed gross violations of local and international guidelines. In addition, the wind roses indicated that the wind flow patterns could have significant impacts on PM2.5–10 mass loads. HYSPLIT model revealed that most high episodes were caused by pollutant accumulation (induced by low wind speed) and transport of pollutants from highly polluted regions. Data on the concentrations of 22 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Pb) were obtained and used for receptor modeling by PMF technique. PMF results indicated that soil dust, physical construction and industrial activities were the major emissions of PM2.5–10 and could lead to negative health implications on the inhabitants of Lagos.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • Characterizing Spatial Patterns of NO 2 and SO 2 in Xi’an by Passive
           Sampling
    • Abstract: Abstract Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are important air pollutants that affect air quality, human health, and climate. The concentrations of NO2 and SO2 were measured in Xi’an, China with passive samplers deployed at 70 sites in summer and winter. The average concentrations of NO2 and SO2 were 19.82 μg m−3 and 2.24 μg m−3, respectively, in summer and 21.09 μg m−3 and 7.99 μg m−3 in winter. Statistical analyses showed that the seasonal differences in SO2 were significant but those for NO2 were not. The concentrations of NO2 and SO2 in the Beilin district were higher than other districts, while those in Baqiao were relatively low. The concentrations of NO2 in commercial mixed areas were higher compared with other functional areas, and SO2 in the residential/educational areas during winter was high. Spatial distributions of NO2 and SO2 were obtained by ordinary kriging interpolation, and the results showed high summertime NO2 concentrations in the central urban and northwestern parts of the sampling grid and high wintertime NO2 in the central part of the grid. Summer SO2 concentrations were higher in the northern and lower in the southern parts of the grid, while SO2 was in winter high in the mid-west and low in the east.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • Effect of Particle Size on Collection Efficiency of ESP and RABH: A Case
           Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Electro Static Precipitator (ESP) is a conventional dust collecting equipment used in various process industries. Nowadays bag houses and Reverse Air Bag Houses (RABH) are also widely used in place of ESP. RABH is comparatively new technology which is used in cement plants and also other industrial facilities for dust collection. The dust collection efficiency of the ESP and RABH depend on many factors and particle size is one of those factors. Many researchers have done research on the collection efficiency of ESP with respect to the particle size distribution in dust-laden inlet gas, however, there is merely any study done on RABH collection efficiency with respect to the dust particle size distribution. A case study has been conducted in this research to find out the relationship between particle size distribution and collection efficiency of RABH in a cement plant. In addition to this, the collection efficiency of ESP is also studied with respect to the dust particle size distribution in inlet gas. The study has been conducted by taking the samples at inlet and outlet of ESP and RABH for calculation of efficiency and different particle size percentage at inlet side. It is found that the collection efficiency of both ESP and RABH is dependent on the size of the incoming dust load. In ESP the collection efficiency is higher when the particle size is smaller than 0.2 μm (PM0.2) and larger than 1 μm i.e., PM2.5 and PM10. The collection efficiency is lower when the particle size lies between 0.2 and 1 μm. In RABH it is observed that the collection efficiency increases with increase in the size of dust particles. Also a comparative study has been conducted to find out the better system between ESP and RABH by the help of sampling analysis (t test), field survey and performance parameter study. It is found that RABH is better than ESP in terms of collection efficiency and other performance parameters.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • A Review of Synthesis, Structure and Applications in Hopcalite Catalysts
           for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation
    • Abstract: Abstract Carbon monoxide (CO) is a poisonous atmospheric pollutant. It highly affects human beings, plants, animals and environment. Automobile exhaust is the largest source of CO emission in the environment. To control this automobile exhaust pollution, the catalytic converters are used. Many types of catalysts have been investigated for CO oxidation purposes, i.e., noble metal, base metal, rare earth, perovskite, spinel and mixed transient metal oxides. These catalysts are widely used in a catalytic converter. Among the various metal oxide catalysts, hopcalite (CuMnOx) is one of the most efficient catalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation. Hopcalite catalysts have been reported to be good from economical, thermal, activity, selectivity and availability points of view. The activity of hopcalite catalysts is strongly dependent on the surface area, crystallite size and binding energy of the catalysts. This study will provide a scientific basis for designing future application of hopcalite catalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation. This manuscript provides a summary of published information regarding pure and substituted hopcalite catalyst, synthesis methods; properties and application for CO emissions control. A number of papers associated with CO oxidation over the hopcalite catalysts have been available, but no review papers appear in the literature that is dedicated to CO oxidation. Therefore, in an attempt to fill this gap, the present review updates and evaluates the progress and future scope of hopcalite catalyst for purification of exhaust gases.
      PubDate: 2019-08-10
       
  • Correction to: Atmospheric Aerosols: Some Highlights and Highlighters,
           1950 to 2018
    • Abstract: The article “Atmospheric Aerosols: Some Highlights and Highlighters.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
       
  • Change of Ionization Mechanism in the Welding Fume Plasma from Gas Metal
           Arc Welding
    • Abstract: Abstract Ionization mechanisms in welding fumes from gas metal arc welding are studied. Welding fume is a low-temperature thermal plasma with ultra-violet radiation as external ionization source, where ionization occurs via gas particles’ collisions and photoionization. The plasma cooling causes heterogeneous ion-induced nucleation, which provides large number of nuclei. Nucleus number density is much greater than equilibrium number density of charge carriers. Electrons are captured by nuclei. As a result, the dust–ion plasma is formed, in which electron number density is much less than ion and nucleus number densities and it can be neglected. The surface atom ionization and ion recombination becomes predominant processes. Calculation of the plasma component number densities are presented as their evolution during welding fume cooling.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
       
  • Atmospheric Particulate Matter Variations and Comparison of Two
           Forecasting Models for Two Indian Megacities
    • Abstract: Abstract Ambient particulate matter levels influence air quality and are an environmental risk factor, especially in megacities. Meteorological factors modulate the ambient concentration of particulates in the atmosphere and hence, human exposure, visibility degradation, and other environmental effects. It is, therefore, crucial to forecast particulate matter levels. Various methods have been used to forecast atmospheric particulate matter level. The present study uses fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 micrometre) data from two megacities in South Asia to construct forecasting models—autoregressive (AR) and regression model and attempts to test the results. Delhi and Kolkata are the two cities for the study and data period is 2015–2017. Seasonal and diurnal trends are presented. Mean concentrations during the study period were highest in winter with daily concentrations exceeding the prescribed safe level by 3–7 times at both cities. Afternoon time was found to be the best time in a day with low particulate levels. Among meteorological parameters, temperature was found to have highest correlation (negative) with particulate matter at both the cities. Upon comparison with measured data for 15 days, it was found that AR model-estimated results do not exhibit the trend in the actual particulate levels, as is exhibited by the regression model estimations.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
       
  • Intercomparison and Validation of Satellite and Ground-Based Aerosol
           Optical Depth (AOD) Retrievals over Six AERONET Sites in West Africa
    • Abstract: Abstract The geographical and climatic conditions of West Africa make the region an essential area for the description of atmospheric aerosol optical properties across the globe. This study provides an intercomparison of aerosol optical depth (AOD440nm) retrievals from satellite-based CALIPSO, MISR, MODIS and OMI sensors against ground-based sun photometer (AERONET) measurements between 2004 and 2014 from six West African sites, which are Agoufou, Banizoumbou, Ouagadougou, Dakar, Djougou and Ilorin during the period 2004–2014. The analysis revealed that MODISSTD performed better with a high degree of correlation for the six study sites, the CALIPSO and MISR–AERONET comparisons showed strong correlations, and the MODISDB also indicated better correlations, as did the OMI–AERONET comparisons. The root mean square error, mean absolute error and root mean bias error were also computed. The CALIPSO instrument has the lowest RMSE and MAE values over Dakar, while the highest RMSE and MAE values were indicated by the CALIPSO and MODISDB sensors, respectively, over Ilorin. The MISR instrument showed good agreement over Dakar than the other instruments, while CALIPSO AOD retrievals were better than those from the other sensors in Banizoumbou and Ouagadogou. The expected error bounds computed for both MODIS retrievals showed that MODISSTD consistently outperformed MODISDB in all the study sites. High AOD values were averagely observed by the satellite sensors during the local dry months (December–February), due to high concentrations of dust aerosols. High AOD values were observed during March–May, due to the condensation of water vapor on aerosol leading to increase in size and optical depth.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Atmospheric Aerosols: Some Highlights and Highlighters, 1950 to 2018
    • Abstract: Abstract The science of atmospheric aerosols began more than a century ago; it has experienced major advancements after the mid-twentieth century with motivation from diverse public interests and concerns for environmental protection. At least six generations of mentored investigators have involvement in these advancements. Since the 1950s, important knowledge has emerged in the theory of the dynamics of suspended particles and advanced measurements. Important developments in the theory of atmospheric aerosols include: (a) nucleation and growth mechanisms, (b) formalization of particle dynamics in the Knudsen regimes, (c) characterization of the mechanisms for the particle-size distribution, (d) identification of chemical processes for atmospheric particle sources, and (e) model integration of particle physical and chemical processes with meteorological processes. Important advances in measurements have included: (a) semicontinuous determination of particle-size distributions, (b) new methods for sampling and analysis of mass concentration and composition, (c) methods for continuous characterization of aerosol chemical properties, and (d) development of direct sensing techniques using optical properties. Examples of breakthroughs in these areas are given in the text. Illustrations of achievements in each of the areas are included in the paper. The survey is completed with comments on the generational nature of investigator contributions to aerosol science.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Computational and Experimental Analysis of Ultrafine Particle Dispersion
           During Granite Polishing
    • Abstract: Abstract The granite manufacturing industry is an environment in which workers are exposed to high levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and crystalline silica dust. Overexposure to crystalline silica can cause health problems, in particular silicosis. This fatal lung disease persists worldwide despite knowledge of methods to control it. One way to partially overcome the problem of subjectivity and try to achieve objective experimental results is to run field crystalline silica dust surveys with trained human assessors (panelists). Such field inspections allow the determination of ambient air concentrations and are now seen as being a more convenient method for UFP impact assessment in the field. One drawback of field inspections is that they can get rather expensive, especially if the survey is conducted for an extended period of time involving a high number of panelists. This paper reviews the techniques that can be adopted to measure UFPs in the field and discusses how such techniques can be used as an alternative to, or in combination with, gas tracer dispersion methods for UFP impact assessment purposes, and how the results of field UFP measurements and model outputs can be related and compared to each other. Two simulation methods were used to study crystalline silica dust exposure during the granite polishing process (experimental and numerical). This study presents a method to measure UFP dispersion during granite manufacturing processes. A computational model was constructed to simulate the physical problem. The numerical study was carried out, on a simplified configuration (bench), modeling particle distribution near a rotating tool. CFD simulation results were compared to the experimental data using NaCl particles, a tracer gas (CO2), and UFP dispersion from granite polishing. The results showed good agreement between the two methods.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Measuring the Organic Carbon to Organic Matter Multiplier with
           Thermal/Optical Carbon-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer Analyses
    • Abstract: Abstract A thermal/optical carbon analyzer (TOA) was adapted to direct thermally-evolved gases to an electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), creating a TOA-QMS. While this approach produces spectra similar to those obtained by the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), and can quantify sulfate (SO42−), nitrate (NO3−), ammonium (NH4+), and organic carbon (OC) fractions from ambient particle laden quartz-fiber filters, there remains a need to further understand the composition of the organic aerosol fraction. Elemental analysis (EA) of standard organic mixtures and ambient samples demonstrates the feasibility of the TOA-QMS for measuring the ratios of oxygen-to-carbon (O/C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C), nitrogen-to-carbon (N/C), sulfur-to-carbon (S/C), and organic matter-to-organic carbon (OM/OC). For ambient samples from Central California, the TOA-QMS returned average ratios for O/C of 1.03 ± 0.27 and H/C of 1.95 ± 0.69, respectively. Higher H/C ratios were observed during clean air episodes, while lower ratios were observed during hazy conditions. A relatively constant level of aerosol oxidation was observed throughout the study. The average OM/OC multiplier was 2.55 ± 0.4, which is higher than the conventionally used values of 1.4 and 1.8, indicating higher contributions from biomass burning and aged aerosols.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
       
  • Predicting Fibrous Filter’s Efficiency by Two Methods: Artificial Neural
           Network (ANN) and Integration of Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural
           Network (GAINN)
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, we used both methods of ANN and GAINN for predicting the fibrous filter’s efficiency. In this regard, we collected the experimental penetration data for particles in the range of 10.7–191.1 nm. Experimental data were collected with different constant flow rates and from one type of N95 filtering facepiece respirator. A satisfactory number of data from experimental setup were exploited to build up a database. These methods are according to the back-propagation algorithm to map two components, namely, particle diameter and constant air flow rates into the corresponding penetration. The developed ANN and GAINN methods were capable of predicting precise values of penetration from experimental data. Also by comparing the results of these two methods, it is understandable that ANN method can predict the penetration data from examples of the experimental setup more efficiently than GAINN within an acceptable computational time.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
       
  • Aircraft Measurement of Chemical Characteristics of PM 2.5 over the
           Yangtze River Area in China
    • Abstract: Abstract To study the vertical distributions of PM2.5 mass and chemical components over the Yangtze River area, PM2.5 was sampled with filters over Changzhou, which is located in the eastern part of China, Shashi, which is located in the central part of China, and Xinjin, which is located in the western part of China, on the Yun-12 aircraft from August 21 to September 13, 2003. The samples were weighed for mass concentrations, and the chemical profiles of 8 inorganic ions (Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+), carbon fractions (organic carbon and elemental carbon) and 18 elements were analyzed in a laboratory. The mass concentrations at 400–1500 m were greater than those at 1600–3200 m, indicating the effect of ground surface sources. Similar PM2.5 compositions were found both at 400–1500 and 1600–3200 m. SO42− was the dominant ionic component, followed by NO3−, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Na+, Cl− and Mg2+. Secondary inorganic ions (SO42−, NO3− and NH4+) contributed to 80–83% of the total ionic species, indicating that the role of secondary formation plays an important role in water-soluble ions. SO42− mainly existed as (NH4)2SO4. NH4+ was unable to completely neutralize SO42− and NO3−, and the deficit was approximately 32%. More than 70% of the Ca2+ contribution was derived from anthropogenic sources, which was related to construction activities and cement manufacturing. K+ was predominantly derived from anthropogenic sources (72.2–74.0%) and crustal sources (approximately, 23.3–24.9%). The OC/EC ratios at 1600–2800 m were greater than those at 500–1200 m, which was probably due to the presence of secondary products that were produced by photochemical smog activities during the uplifting of air masses.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
       
  • Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons Depositions and Their Carcinogenic Risk
           Assessment in the Foundry Workers
    • Abstract: Abstract The study was initiated to determinants of inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) among iron foundry workers in different workplace namely, molding, melting, shaking, blasting and finishing sections. The study population included five sections of foundry workers: 22 molding, 25 melting, 20 shaking, 18 blasting and 15 finishing workers. During work shifts, personal air samples were collected from each worker’s breathing zone using a PTFE filter and cassette holder connected in series with an XAD-2 sorbent tube. The entire sample were analysed for sixteen PAHs with HPLC. The total inhalation exposure of total PAHs (ΣPAHs) concentrations was 46.64 μg/m3 ranging 0.08–478.43 μg/m3 in all the samples. The PAHs with lower molecular weight and higher molecular weight contributed 55.02% and 44.98%, respectively, to the ΣPAHs. About 16% exposure samples collected at various sections of foundry exceeded the PAHs level prescribed by NIOSH standard limit. The highest level of ΣPAHs were found in the molding (82.64 μg/m3) followed by finishing (67.86 μg/m3), blasting (34.74 μg/m3), shaking (25.04 μg/m3) and melting (23.48 μg/m3) sections, respectively. By applying risk assessment it was estimated that the total unit risk of PAHs harming the foundry workers was 9.43 × 10–4 and about 95% of total risk is contributed by benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) and dibenzo [α h]anthracene (DahA). The study indicating the inhalation risk due to these PAHs exposures are not negligible and should be taken into account for health protection of the workers to address the quantitative aspects relating lung cancer risks to PAHs compounds in foundries.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
       
  • Identification and Quantification of Bioaerosols in a Tropical Coastal
           Region: Cartagena de Indias, Colombia
    • Abstract: Abstract Bioaerosols are particles of living or dead biological material released into the atmosphere from the biosphere that play a vital role in ecosystem dynamics, and they affect agriculture, climate and human health. Scientific data about concentrations and identification of fungal spores, airborne bacteria, pollen and other primary biological particles are insufficient, especially in coastal regions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and quantify fungi and bacteria concentrations on one beach of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Over a period of 4 months, 300 fungi and bacteria samples were collected using a cascade impactor. The results show that the fungal concentration was 176 ± 44 CFU/m3, and Aspergillus sp. was the most common fungus in the air. In comparison, the bacterial concentration was 146 ± 38 CFU/m3, with a higher presence of Staphylococcus aureus. It was found that some bioaerosols were pathogenic, and others had bioremediation potential. In addition, this study addresses the relevance of meteorological factors in controlling the fungi and bacteria concentrations finding a significant linear correlation between wind speed and bioaerosol concentrations, explained by a strong land–sea breeze circulation in tropical areas.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
       
  • OM/OC Ratio of Polar and Non-Polar Organic Matter during Wintertime from
           Indo-Gangetic Plain: Implications to Regional-Scale Radiative Forcing
    • Abstract: Abstract Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) samples have been collected in two winter campaigns: I during 2nd December 2008‒27th February 2009 (n = 24) and II during 3rd December 2010‒11th February 2011 (n = 15). The PM2.5 mass varied significantly from 35 to 220 and 80 to 244 μg m−3 during I and II campaigns, respectively. Based on similar inter-annual variability (statistical two-tailed t test) of PM2.5, K+/PM2.5 (0.010), EC/PM2.5 (0.04) and OC/EC (~ 6) ratio, it has been inferred that the strength of combustion sources, viz. biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion remained more or the less constant during I and II campaigns (OC: organic carbon; EC: elemental carbon). However, significant difference in OC/PM2.5 and WSOC/OC ratios between I and II campaigns indicated a significant change in organic aerosol composition attributable to fog processing vis-à-vis fog scavenging (WSOC: water-soluble organic carbon). The OM/OC (organic mass-to-organic carbon) ratio of polar and non-polar organics averaging at 2.0 and ~ 1.2 (and the overall OM/OC ratio at 1.7) look quite similar during both the campaigns. Principal component analysis (PCA) resolved total source contribution up to 81.4% of which ~ 64% was attributed to mixed contribution from biomass burning emission and secondary transformations, 25% of the resolved source fraction to fossil fuel combustion and 11% of the resolved source fraction to the mineral dust. These results have implications to better parameterization of organic aerosols in chemical transport model and accurate estimation of their influence on regional-scale radiative forcing.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
       
  • Environmental Data Retrieval and Prediction Using the Auto-regression
           Moving Average and Polynomial Experimentation
    • Abstract: Abstract Data recovery is important in environmental modeling because of its multifaceted challenges that includes technical know-how, climate change, poor instrumentation analysis, and the integration of non-uniform systems. Aerosol optical depth data set from 2000 to 2013 was obtained from the Multi-angled Imaging Spectro-Reflectometry (MISR). The Auto-regression Moving Average (ARMA) was used to recover and predict the aerosol optical properties of 2014–2016 and 2017–2020, respectively. The third-order polymeric curve-fitting were used to synchronize the yearly average and the ARMA results. The output of the statistical experimentation showed high level of accuracy. Hence, this technique can be applied to environmental studies of air, noise, and water pollution.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
       
  • Emission Characteristics of PM 2.5 and Trace Gases from Household Wood
           Burning in Guanzhong Plain, Northwest China
    • Abstract: Abstract Considering woods used as the primary fuel in the countryside of Guanzhong Plain and its emission impacts on environment and human health. Five kinds of common wood fuels (Persimmon tree, Pear tree, Apple tree, Jujube, and Peach) were collected and burned in a laboratory combustion chamber with a common stove to identify emission characteristics of PM2.5 and trace gases (i.e., CO2, CO, NOx, and SO2). The average EFs of wood burning were estimated to be 1401 ± 71 g kg−1 for CO2, 53.48 ± 11.83 g kg−1 for CO, 1.48 ± 0.54 g kg−1 for NOx, 0.53 ± 0.19 g kg−1 for SO2, and 3.01 ± 0.72 g kg−1 for PM2.5, respectively. PM2.5 mass reconstruction for the five tree samples demonstrated excellent results, ranged from 80.7 to 98.4%. OC, EC, and water-soluble ions (sum of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42−, NO3−, and Cl−) are major constituents of PM2.5, accounting for average abundance of 29.86 ± 2.03, 15.65 ± 1.07, and 17.51 ± 6.24% of the mass, respectively. The average EFs of OC and EC in PM2.5 were 910 ± 279 mg kg−1 and 465 ± 279 mg kg−1, and EC1 was the dominant carbon fraction with average abundance of 44 ± 3% of total carbon. Sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and chloride (Cl−) were the dominant water-soluble ions, with average abundance of 4.69 ± 2.51, 3.81 ± 2.13, and 3.30 ± 2.45% of PM2.5 mass. Similarity measures (i.e., Student’s t test, coefficient of divergence) showed that the five profiles derived in this study were similar for the species measured, which indicates that those profiles could be replaced by each other for PM2.5 source apportionment. Finally, the emission of woods burning in Guanzhong Plain was estimated. The total emission in 2016 was 14,924.6 Gg for CO2, 569.9 Gg for CO, 15.8 Gg for NOx, 5.6 Gg for SO2, and 32.1 Gg for PM2.5, respectively.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
       
  • Compositional Analysis of Adsorbed Organic Aerosol on a Microresonator
           Mass Sensor
    • Abstract: Abstract Aerosol mass measurements are a key air pollution parameter that is regulated in most countries. Beyond mass measurements, the precise composition of the aerosol is essential in identifying sources and impacts on health and climate. The conventional method for simultaneously quantifying mass and composition is to collect aerosol onto filter or impactor samples followed by laboratory analysis. This approach requires long collection times—providing poor time resolution for mass measurements—and long sample preparation prior to analysis. The first limitation can be circumvented with microresonators, which are novel particulate mass sensors with high mass sensitivities and time resolutions. In addition, direct surface analysis techniques, like liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA–MS), shorten sample preparation times. This work combines, for the first time, the high time resolution mass measurements of a microresonator with the integrated compositional analysis of LESA–MS. Laboratory-produced secondary organic aerosol were collected onto a microresonator via impaction with LESA–MS being used to analyze the chemical composition afterwards. The results were compared with classic filter extraction methods and literature with the final spectra matching the expected reaction products. The combined technique demonstrates an extension to current microresonator applications and illustrates their potential for ambient aerosol studies.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
       
 
 
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