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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2350 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover AIDS and Behavior
  [SJR: 2.006]   [H-I: 71]   [13 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-3254 - ISSN (Online) 1090-7165
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • A Cross-Sectional Study of Depressive Symptoms and Risky Alcohol Use
           Behaviors Among HIV Primary Care Patients in New York City
    • Authors: Yasemin Algur; Jennifer C. Elliott; Efrat Aharonovich; Deborah S. Hasin
      Pages: 1423 - 1429
      Abstract: An association between problem drinking and depression among HIV-infected individuals has been previously demonstrated; however, which specific risky drinking behaviors are associated with higher levels of depression has not yet been investigated. Using an adult sample of HIV-infected primary care patients (78% male, 94% Black or Hispanic), we investigated whether depressive symptoms are associated with various risky drinking behaviors. Participants were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess depressive symptoms, and the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV to evaluate alcohol involvement. Participants with depressive symptoms (26%) were at higher risk for alcohol dependence [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.8; 95% CI 2.0–7.2], regular binge drinking (AOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1–3.8), and regular daytime drinking (AOR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2–3.8), in comparison with their non-depressed counterparts. Because both depression and unhealthy drinking negatively affect medication adherence and clinical outcomes, a better understanding of the association between depression and certain risky drinking behaviors among HIV-infected individuals is vital to improving their care and prognoses.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1986-0
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Gender Moderates the Association of Depressive Symptoms to Sexual Risk
           Behavior Among HIV-Positive African-American Outpatients
    • Authors: Jacklyn D. Babowitch; Peter A. Vanable; Michael P. Carey
      Pages: 1430 - 1434
      Abstract: Previous research has reported an association between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore whether gender moderates this association in a sample of HIV-positive African-Americans. Participants (N = 93) self-reported depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; CES-D), and sexual risk behavior for the past 4 months. Analyses revealed that the depressive symptoms-by-gender interaction was associated with condomless sex and substance use proximal to sex. When analyses were stratified by gender, depressive symptoms were associated with condomless sex and frequency of substance use only for women. We conclude that depressive symptoms may be a more powerful sexual risk factor among women relative to men.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1981-5
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Changes in Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Predict Sexual Risk Behaviors
           Among Young Men Living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    • Authors: Lauren M. Hill; Nisha C. Gottfredson; Lusajo J. Kajula; Brian W. Pence; Vivian F. Go; James Moody; Suzanne Maman
      Pages: 1435 - 1445
      Abstract: Young men are important targets in HIV prevention in Tanzania and throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Anxiety and depression are common among youth and may be important predictors of HIV risk behaviors; evidence of these relationships in high-risk populations is needed. Using baseline and 1 year follow-up assessments from an HIV prevention trial we assessed the association between changes in symptoms of anxiety and depression and follow-up sexual risk behaviors (condom use and sexual partner concurrency) controlling for baseline sexual risk behaviors among 1113 male members of social groups known as “camps” in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Anxiety and depression were measured using the HSCL-25 and condom use and sexual partner concurrency were assessed through self-report. In separate models, increases in anxiety and depression were associated with sexual partner concurrency and with lower levels of condom use. In a combined model, both anxiety and depression appeared to independently affect concurrency but only depression was independently associated with condom use, with the association between anxiety and condom use being likely attributable to covariance with depression symptoms. The results of this study indicate the importance of screening and providing treatment for depression and anxiety disorders in high HIV-prevalence contexts, and the need to develop effective HIV prevention interventions targeting young men living with anxiety and depression.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1991-3
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Associations Between Major Depressive Episode, Methamphetamine Use
           Disorder Severity, and Engagement in Sexual Risk-Taking Among
           Methamphetamine-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men
    • Authors: Jesse B. Fletcher; Dallas Swendeman; Cathy J. Reback
      Pages: 1461 - 1466
      Abstract: Depression and methamphetamine use have been associated with increased sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study estimated associations between current major depressive episode and/or methamphetamine use disorder and engagement in condomless anal intercourse (CAI). From March 2014 thru January 2016, 286 methamphetamine-using MSM were enrolled into a RCT to reduce methamphetamine use and sexual risk-taking. Analyses revealed that current major depressive episode was associated with a 92% increase in the rate of engagement in CAI with casual male partners (IRR 1.92; 95% CI 1.12–3.31) and a 76% increase in the rate of engagement in CAI with anonymous male partners (IRR 1.76; 95% CI 1.00–3.09). Additionally, for each unit increase in diagnostic methamphetamine use disorder severity, rates of engagement in CAI with anonymous male partners increased by 44% (IRR 1.44; 95% CI 1.11–1.87) and rates of engagement in CAI with exchange male partners increased by 140% (IRR 2.40; 95% CI 1.39–4.13). Neither diagnosis was associated with CAI with main male partners. Depression and methamphetamine use influence sexual risk-taking in unique ways, and interventions working with MSM should assess participants for both depression and methamphetamine use, and may tailor intervention content based on diagnostic outcomes.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1974-4
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Reliability, Validity, and Factor Structure of the Hopkins Symptom
           Checklist-25: Population-Based Study of Persons Living with HIV in Rural
           Uganda
    • Authors: Scholastic Ashaba; Bernard Kakuhikire; Dagmar Vořechovská; Jessica M. Perkins; Christine E. Cooper-Vince; Samuel Maling; David R. Bangsberg; Alexander C. Tsai
      Pages: 1467 - 1474
      Abstract: Depression and anxiety are highly comorbid among people living with HIV (PLHIV), but few instruments for screening or measurement have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the 25-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) in a population-based sample of PLHIV in rural Uganda. This study was nested within an ongoing population-based cohort of all residents living in Nyakabare Parish, Mbarara District, Uganda. All participants who identified as HIV-positive by self-report were included in this analysis. We performed parallel analysis on the scale items and estimated the internal consistency of the identified sub-scales using ordinal alpha. To assess construct validity we correlated the sub-scales with related constructs, including subjective well being (happiness), food insecurity, and health status. Of 1814 eligible adults in the population, 158 (8.7%) self-reported being HIV positive. The mean age was 41 years, and 68% were women. Mean HSCL-25 scores were higher among women compared with men (1.71 vs. 1.44; t = 3.6, P < 0.001). Parallel analysis revealed a three-factor structure that explained 83% of the variance: depression (7 items), anxiety (5 items), and somatic symptoms (7 items). The ordinal alpha statistics for the sub-scales ranged from 0.83 to 0.91. Depending on the sub-scale, between 27 and 41% of the sample met criteria for caseness. Strong evidence of construct validity was shown in the estimated correlations between sub-scale scores and happiness, food insecurity, and self-reported overall health. The HSCL-25 is a reliable and valid measure of mental health among PLHIV in rural Uganda. In cultural contexts where somatic complaints are commonly elicited when screening for symptoms of depression, it may be undesirable to exclude somatic items from depression symptom checklists administered to PLHIV.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1843-1
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Loneliness in Older Adults Living with HIV
    • Authors: Meredith Greene; Nancy A. Hessol; Carla Perissinotto; Roland Zepf; Amanda Hutton Parrott; Cameron Foreman; Robert Whirry; Monica Gandhi; Malcolm John
      Pages: 1475 - 1484
      Abstract: We conducted a cross-sectional study among HIV-positive adults age ≥ 50 in San Francisco to evaluate the frequency of loneliness, characteristics of those who reported loneliness, and the association of loneliness with functional impairment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Participants (N = 356) were predominately male (85%); 57% were white; median age was 56. 58% reported any loneliness symptoms with 24% reporting mild, 22% moderate and 12% severe loneliness. Lonely participants were more likely to report depression, alcohol and tobacco use, and have fewer relationships. In unadjusted models, loneliness was associated with functional impairment and poor HRQoL. In adjusted models, low income and depression remained associated with poor HRQoL, while low income, higher VACS index and depression were associated with functional impairment. A comprehensive care approach, incorporating mental health and psychosocial assessments with more traditional clinical assessments, will be needed to improve health outcomes for the aging HIV-positive population.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1985-1
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Positive and Negative Self-Conscious Emotion and Transmission Risk
           Following HIV Diagnosis
    • Authors: Abigail W. Batchelder; Adam W. Carrico; Michael Acree; Frederick M. Hecht; Judith Tedlie Moskowitz
      Pages: 1496 - 1502
      Abstract: While negative emotions are associated with risk behaviors and risk avoidance among people with HIV, emerging evidence indicates that negative self-conscious emotions, those evoked by self-reflection or self-evaluation (e.g., shame, guilt, and embarrassment), may differentially influence health-risk behaviors by producing avoidance or, conversely, pro-social behaviors. Positive emotions are associated with beneficial health behaviors, and may account for inconsistent findings related to negative self-conscious emotions. Using multinomial logistic regression, we tested whether positive emotion moderated the relationships between negative emotion and negative self-conscious emotions and level of condomless sex risk: (1) seroconcordant; (2) serodiscordant with undetectable viral load; and (3) serodiscordant with detectable viral load [potentially amplified transmission (PAT)] among people recently diagnosed with HIV (n = 276). While positive emotion did not moderate the relationship between negative emotion and condomless sex, it did moderate the relationship between negative self-conscious emotion and PAT (AOR = 0.60; 95% CI 0.41, 0.87); high negative self-conscious and high positive emotion were associated with lower PAT risk. Acknowledgment of both positive and negative self-conscious emotion may reduce transmission risk behavior among people with HIV.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1943-y
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Depressive Symptoms, Alcohol and Drug Use, and Physical and Sexual Abuse
           Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Kisumu, Kenya: The Anza Mapema Study
    • Authors: Colin P. Kunzweiler; Robert C. Bailey; Duncan O. Okall; Susan M. Graham; Supriya D. Mehta; Fredrick O. Otieno
      Pages: 1517 - 1529
      Abstract: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately burdened by depressive symptoms and psychosocial conditions including alcohol and substance abuse as well as physical and sexual abuse. We examined sociodemographic and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms at baseline among a cohort of MSM in Kisumu, Kenya. Depressive symptoms were assessed via the Personal Health Questionnaire 9 instrument and examined dichotomously. We performed multivariable modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors for the binary outcome. Among 711 participants: 11.4% reported severe depressive symptoms; 50.1% reported harmful alcohol abuse; 23.8% reported moderate substance abuse; 80.9% reported any childhood physical or sexual abuse; and 39.1% experienced recent trauma due to same-sex behaviors. In the final multivariable model, severe depressive symptoms were more common for men who were ≥ 30 years old, had completed ≤ 8 years of education, had experienced childhood physical or sexual abuse, and had recently experienced trauma due to same-sex behaviors. Our results demonstrate that comprehensive services capable of identifying and addressing depressive symptoms, alcohol and substance abuse, and physical and sexual abuse must be expanded within this sample of MSM.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1941-0
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Erratum to: Factors Associated with Mood Disorder Diagnosis Among a
           Population Based Cohort of Men and Women Living With and Without HIV in
           British Columbia Between 1998 and 2012
    • Authors: Kalysha Closson; for The Comparative Outcomes and Services utilization Trends (COAST) study; Chuck Osborne; Danielle M. Smith; Sarah Kesselring; Oghenowede Eyawo; Kiffer Card; Paul Sereda; Shahab Jabbari; Conrado Franco-Villalobos; Tareq Ahmed; Karyn Gabler; Thomas Patterson; Mark Hull; Julio S. G. Montaner; Robert S. Hogg
      Pages: 1541 - 1541
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1858-7
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Association Between Depression and Antiretroviral Therapy Use Among People
           Living with HIV: A Meta-analysis
    • Authors: Jun Tao; Sten H. Vermund; Han-Zhu Qian
      Pages: 1542 - 1550
      Abstract: Depression is common among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Studies on the relationship between depression and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are inconclusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the relationship between depression and ART use among PLHIV. Ten electronic databases, conference abstracts, and dissertations were searched. A random effects meta-analysis was performed to pool the odds ratio estimates from eligible studies. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were conducted for moderator analysis. Sensitivity analysis was performed to find influential studies. A funnel plot, the Egger test, and the trim and fill analysis were used to detect publication bias. The pooled sample size was 7375 PLHIV from nine eligible studies. The pooled prevalence of depression was 41% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29–53%). The pooled ART use rate was 52% (95% CI 37–67%). PLHIV with depression were 14% less likely (pooled odds ratio [OR] = 0.86; 95% CI 0.71–1.05) to use ART than those without depression. Subgroup analyses showed that depression was significantly associated with no ART use (pooled OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.71–0.99) among studies with a prospective study design (11 estimates from nine studies). Moderator analyses did not show any statistically significant effects. The publication bias analyses showed small study effects may not exist. Depression was associated with non-use of ART among PLHIV. Studies are needed to explore this association in other countries with varied populations, as most published studies have been conducted in the United States.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1776-8
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Physical Activity on
           Neurocognitive Functioning Among HIV-Infected Adults
    • Authors: Catherine A. Dufour; HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program Group; María J. Marquine; Pariya L. Fazeli; Anya Umlauf; Brook L. Henry; Zvinka Zlatar; Jessica L. Montoya; Ronald J. Ellis; Igor Grant; David J. Moore
      Pages: 1562 - 1572
      Abstract: Higher levels of physical activity (PA) have been linked to better neurocognitive functioning in many populations. The current study examines the longitudinal association between PA and neurocognitive functioning among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons. Community-dwelling adults (N = 291) self-reported level of PA and completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at two to four study visits (Mean follow-up time = 2.6 years). Participants were divided into three PA groups: “No PA” (no PA at any visit), “consistent PA” (PA at ≥50% of visits), and “inconsistent PA” (PA < 50% of visits). A mixed effect model, adjusting for significant covariates showed that all PA groups had statistically significant, yet modest, neurocognitive decline over time; and, the consistent PA group began with, and maintained, significantly better neurocognitive function compared to the other two PA groups. This effect was evident among both HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected persons, despite the fact that HIV-infected persons showed lower baseline neurocognitive function. PA is a modifiable lifestyle behavior that may help to protect against neurocognitive impairment regardless of HIV status, however, given the proportion of HIV-infected individuals who evidence neurocognitive difficulties, a focus on increasing PA seems warranted.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-016-1643-z
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Memory Impairment in HIV-Infected Individuals with Early and Late
           Initiation of Regular Marijuana Use
    • Authors: Linda M. Skalski; Sheri L. Towe; Kathleen J. Sikkema; Christina S. Meade
      Pages: 1596 - 1605
      Abstract: Marijuana use is disproportionately prevalent among HIV-infected individuals. The strongest neurocognitive effect of marijuana use is impairment in the domain of memory. Memory impairment is also high among HIV-infected persons. The present study examined 69 HIV-infected individuals who were stratified by age of regular marijuana initiation to investigate how marijuana use impacts neurocognitive functioning. A comprehensive battery assessed substance use and neurocognitive functioning. Findings indicated early onset marijuana users (regular use prior to age 18), compared to non-marijuana users and late onset marijuana users (regular use at age 18 or later), were over 8 times more likely to have learning impairment and nearly 4 times more likely to have memory impairment. A similar pattern of early onset marijuana users performing worse in learning emerged when examining domain deficit scores. The potential for early onset of regular marijuana use to exacerbate already high levels of memory impairment among HIV-infected persons has important clinical implications, including increased potential for medication non-adherence and difficulty with independent living.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1898-z
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Disclosure and Stigma of a Positive HIV-Serostatus: A Two-Step Cluster
           Analysis of the HIV Disclosure Scale
    • Authors: Arryn A. Guy; Kristin Niel; R. E. Franco Durán
      Pages: 1606 - 1613
      Abstract: Despite national efforts to improve the public’s education about an HIV diagnosis, stigma still plays a significant role in how persons living with HIV (PLH) decide to disclose their serostatus to friends, family, or healthcare workers. Disclosure can be related to both positive and negative psychological health outcomes, including rates of depression and perceived social support. Researchers often assess disclosure patterns in PLH due to its association with important health implications; however, to date, there are no empirically validated measures of HIV-serostatus disclosure. The HIV Disclosure Scale (HDS) was created to assess various aspects of the disclosure process and has been utilized in several studies as an adequate measurement of HIV-serostatus disclosure despite no available psychometric data. This study aims to uncover constructs measured by the HDS using exploratory two-step cluster analysis to provide an initial analysis of the psychometric properties of this scale.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1989-x
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Measurements of Sexuality-Based Stigma among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men
           Who Have Sex with Men (GBMSM) in Resource-Poor Settings: A Review
    • Authors: Ryan Freeland; Erin Rogers; Heidi van Rooyen; Lynae Darbes; Kate Saylor; Rob Stephenson
      Pages: 1614 - 1638
      Abstract: Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in resource-poor settings are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. GBMSM living in these settings may face unique barriers to HIV prevention, including legal barriers and increased sexuality-based stigma. It is therefore imperative to tailor HIV prevention and care resources to recognize the lived realities of GBMSM in these settings. Central to this is the accurate measurement of sexuality-based stigma. However, there is wide inconsistency in how sexuality-based stigma is measured among GBMSM in resource-poor settings. This paper reviews recent studies of sexuality-based stigma among GBMSM in resource-poor settings, finding great variability in measurements. The results of the review call for greater attention to the development of contextually and culturally specific measures of sexuality-based stigma for GBMSM living in resource-poor settings.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1975-3
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • HIV Status Disclosure Among Postpartum Women in Zambia with Varied
           Intimate Partner Violence Experiences
    • Authors: Karen M. Hampanda; Christine Tagliaferri Rael
      Pages: 1652 - 1661
      Abstract: HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women’s status disclosure to male sexual partners is associated with improved HIV and maternal and child health outcomes. Yet, status disclosure remains a challenge for many women living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly those who are fearful of violence. The objective of the present study is to advance the current understanding of the relationship between intimate partner violence against women and their HIV status disclosure behaviors. We specifically evaluate how the severity, frequency, and type of violence against postpartum HIV-positive women affect status disclosure within married/cohabiting couples. A cross-sectional survey was administered by trained local research assistants to 320 HIV-positive postpartum women attending a large public health center for pediatric immunizations in Lusaka, Zambia. Survey data captured women’s self-reports of various forms of intimate partner violence and whether they disclosed their HIV status to the current male partner. Multiple logistic regression models determined the odds of status disclosure by the severity, frequency, and type of violence women experienced. Our findings indicate a negative dose–response relationship between the severity and frequency of intimate partner violence and status disclosure to male partners. Physical violence has a more pronounced affect on status disclosure than sexual or emotional violence. Safe options for women living with HIV who experience intimate partner violence, particularly severe and frequent physical violence, are urgently needed. This includes HIV counselors’ ability to evaluate the pros and cons of status disclosure among women and support some women’s decisions not to disclose.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1909-0
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Sexual Stigma Patterns Among Nigerian Men Who Have Sex with Men and Their
           Link to HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevalence
    • Authors: Cristina Rodriguez-Hart; For the TRUST/RV368 Study Group; Rashelle Musci; Rebecca G. Nowak; Danielle German; Ifeanyi Orazulike; Uchenna Ononaku; Hongjie Liu; Trevor A. Crowell; Stefan Baral; Man Charurat
      Pages: 1662 - 1670
      Abstract: Sexual stigma facilitates the spread of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) but little is known about stigma affecting Nigerian men who have sex with men (MSM). We assessed patterns of sexual stigma across Nigerian MSM and their relationship to HIV and STIs. Data were collected from the TRUST/RV368 Study, a prospective cohort of 1480 Nigerian MSM enrolled from March 2013 to February 2016 using respondent driven sampling. Structural equation modeling was utilized to assess the association between stigma classes and HIV and STI prevalence, adjusting for participants’ characteristics. A dose–response association was found between stigma class and HIV prevalence (27, 40, 55%, overall χ2 p < 0.001) and STI prevalence (15, 21, 24%, overall χ2 p = 0.011). These data suggest that stigma mitigation strategies, combined with increased engagement of MSM and retention in the HIV care continuum, need to be a component of interventions focused on reducing HIV transmission risks among MSM in Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1982-4
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Patient-Initiated Repackaging of Antiretroviral Therapy, Viral Suppression
           and Drug Resistance
    • Authors: Habib O. Ramadhani; Charles Muiruri; Venance P. Maro; Balthazar Nyombi; Michael Omondi; Julian B. Mushi; Eileen S. Lirhunde; John A. Bartlett
      Pages: 1671 - 1678
      Abstract: Patient-initiated repackaging of antiretroviral therapy (ART) refers to removal of ART medications from their original manufacturer’s containers, and putting them into alternative containers. This behavior may be triggered by stigma associated with HIV infection, and may impact patient outcomes. We assessed association between patient initiated repackaging of ART and failure to achieve viral suppression (FVS) in a sample of 450 HIV-infected adults (≥8 years) on first line ART for ≥6 months. FVS was defined as a plasma HIV RNA level ≥400 copies/mL. A total of 197 (43.7%) patients reported repackaging their ART medications. One hundred ninety-one patients (42.4%) failed to suppress and FVS was associated with medication repackaging [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 2.2; 95% CI 1.4–3.3.] Adherence to ART was also associated with FVS (aOR; 0.4; 95% CI 0.2–0.6.). Benefits of retaining drugs in their original packaging along with adherence to ART should be emphasized to reduce the risk of FVS.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1721-x
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • The Associations of Resilience and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Black Gay,
           Bisexual, Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in the Deep South: The
           MARI Study
    • Authors: Obie S. McNair; June A. Gipson; Damian Denson; Darwin V. Thompson; Madeline Y. Sutton; DeMarc A. Hickson
      Pages: 1679 - 1687
      Abstract: Resilience is an understudied intrapersonal factor that may reduce HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM). Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) of sexual risk behaviors, HIV prevalence, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with resilience scores in a population-based study among 364 black MSM in the Deep South. Participants with higher resilience scores had a lower prevalence of condomless anal sex with casual sexual partners in past 12 months (PR = 0.80, p value = 0.001) and during their last sexual encounter (PR = 0.81; p value = 0.009). Resilience was inversely associated with a lower prevalence of condomless anal sex with main sexual partners, participating in a sex party/orgy and having a STI in the past 12 months. Resilience may have a protective effect on HIV among black MSM, especially in the Deep South, and should be further explored in studies with prospective designs.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1881-8
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Resilience and Physical and Mental Well-Being in Adults with and Without
           HIV
    • Authors: Jennifer A. McGowan; James Brown; Fiona C. Lampe; Marc Lipman; Colette Smith; Alison Rodger
      Pages: 1688 - 1698
      Abstract: Resilience has been related to improved physical and mental health, and is thought to improve with age. No studies have explored the relationship between resilience, ageing with HIV, and well-being. A cross sectional observational study performed on UK HIV positive (N = 195) and HIV negative adults (N = 130). Associations of both age and ‘time diagnosed with HIV’ with resilience (RS-14) were assessed, and the association of resilience with depression, anxiety symptoms (PHQ-9 and GAD-7), and problems with activities of daily living (ADLs) (Euroqol 5D-3L). In a multivariable model, HIV status overall was not related to resilience. However, longer time diagnosed with HIV was related to lower resilience, and older age showed a non-significant trend towards higher resilience. In adults with HIV, high resilience was related to a lower prevalence of depression, anxiety, and problems with ADLs. It may be necessary to consider resilience when exploring the well-being of adults ageing with HIV.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1980-6
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Using a “Positive Deviance” Framework to Discover Adaptive Risk
           Reduction Behaviors Among High-Risk HIV Negative Black Men Who Have Sex
           with Men
    • Authors: A. J. Ober; D. T. Dangerfield; S. Shoptaw; G. Ryan; B. Stucky; S. R. Friedman
      Pages: 1699 - 1712
      Abstract: Despite the high incidence of HIV among young Black MSM in the United States and engagement in high risk behaviors, many men in this group avoid infection. This suggests that some men may engage in systematic risk reduction behaviors when not always using condoms or abstaining from substances. Using a “positive deviance” framework, we conducted qualitative interviews with HIV-negative, Black MSM between 25 and 35 who reported unprotected anal sex and drug use in the past six months or current heavy drinking (N = 29) to discover behaviors that could facilitate remaining HIV-uninfected. Findings showed that MSM who remain HIV negative despite continuing to engage in high-risk behaviors may be engaging in adaptive risk reduction behaviors that, through successive decisions and advance planning along the timeline to a sexual event, could lead to increased condom use, avoidance or delay of a risky sexual event, or reduction of HIV positive partners.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1790-x
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2018)
       
 
 
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