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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2353 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover AIDS and Behavior
  [SJR: 2.006]   [H-I: 71]   [13 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-3254 - ISSN (Online) 1090-7165
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Intimate Partner Violence and HIV-Risk Behaviors: Evaluating Avoidant
           Coping as a Moderator
    • Authors: Nicole H. Weiss; Courtney Peasant; Tami P. Sullivan
      Pages: 2233 - 2242
      Abstract: Abstract Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) report higher rates of HIV-risk behaviors. However, few studies have examined factors that may influence the strength of the link between IPV and HIV-risk behaviors. The goal of the current study was to extend extant research by evaluating the potential moderating role of avoidant coping in this relation. Participants were 212 women currently experiencing IPV (M age = 36.63, 70.8 % African American) who were recruited from the community. Significant positive associations were found between physical, psychological, and sexual IPV severity and both avoidant coping and HIV-risk behaviors. Avoidant coping moderated the relations between both physical and psychological IPV severity and HIV-risk behaviors, such that physical and psychological IPV severity were significantly associated with HIV-risk behaviors when avoidant coping was high (but not low). Findings underscore avoidant coping as an important factor in identifying and subsequently treating IPV-victimized women vulnerable to HIV-risk behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-016-1588-2
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • Rates and Covariates of Recent Sexual and Physical Violence Against
           HIV-Infected Outpatient Drinkers in Western Kenya
    • Authors: Rebecca K. Papas; Benson N. Gakinya; Michael M. Mwaniki; Hana Lee; Stella W. Kiarie; Steve Martino; Michelle P. Loxley; Alfred K. Keter; Debra A. Klein; John E. Sidle; Joyce B. Baliddawa; Stephen A. Maisto
      Pages: 2243 - 2252
      Abstract: Abstract Victimization from physical and sexual violence presents global health challenges. Partner violence is higher in Kenya than Africa. Violence against drinkers and HIV-infected individuals is typically elevated, so dual vulnerabilities may further augment risk. Understanding violence risks can improve interventions. Participants were 614 HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya enrolled in a randomized trial to reduce alcohol use. At baseline, past 90-day partner physical and sexual violence were examined descriptively and in gender-stratified regression models. We hypothesized higher reported violence against women than men, and positive violence association with HIV stigma and alcohol use across gender. Women reported significantly more current sexual (26.3 vs. 5.7%) and physical (38.9 vs. 24.8%) victimization than men. Rates were generally higher than Kenyan lifetime national averages. In both regression models, HIV stigma and alcohol-related sexual expectations were significantly associated with violence while alcohol use was not. For women, higher violence risk was also conferred by childhood violence, past-year transactional sex, and younger age. HIV-infected Kenyan drinkers, particularly women, endorse high current violence due to multiple risk factors. Findings have implications for HIV interventions. Longitudinal research is needed to understand development of risk.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1684-y
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • Receipt and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence and Condomless Anal
           Intercourse Among Gay and Bisexual Men in Atlanta
    • Authors: Rob Stephenson; Catherine Finneran
      Pages: 2253 - 2260
      Abstract: Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are disproportionately high among sexual minority populations, with increasing evident that gay men experience IPV at the same rates as heterosexual women. This study examines the relationship between self-reported condomless anal intercourse (CAI) and IPV among a sample of 750 gay and bisexual men. Participants answered questions regarding recent receipt and perpetration of IPV using the IPV-GBM Scale (Cronbach Alpha 0.90). Of the sample, 46.1% reported recent receipt of any type of IPV and 33.6% reported recent perpetration of any type of IPV. Overall, 55.1% of participants reported CAI at last sex. Significant associations were determined between several forms of IPV and increased odds of reporting CAI at last sex. These findings suggest that IPV may be a risk factor for CAI among men who have sex with men, and highlight the need to understand the IPV prevention and care needs of this population.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1709-6
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • Correlates of HIV and Inconsistent Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in
    • Authors: Olena P. Iakunchykova; Viktor Burlaka
      Pages: 2306 - 2315
      Abstract: Abstract While female sex workers (FSWs) carry one of the highest risks of HIV transmission, little is known about predictors of HIV and risky behavior of FSWs in Ukraine. In this study of 4806 Ukrainian FSWs, the prevalence of HIV was 5.6 %. FSWs had higher odds to be HIV infected if they had lower income, were older, injected drugs, experienced violence, and solicited clients on highways. Inconsistent condom use with clients was reported by 34.5 % of FSWs. FSWs who solicited clients at railway stations, via media, through previous clients and other FSWs, and on highways reported lower consistency of condom use. Furthermore, inconsistent condom use was related to younger age, alcohol use, having fewer clients, not being covered with HIV prevention, and experiences of violence. The present study expands on the rather limited knowledge of correlates of the HIV and inconsistent condom use among FSWs in Ukraine.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-016-1495-6
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • Health Services Use and HIV Prevalence Among Migrant and National Female
           Sex Workers in Portugal: Are We Providing the Services Needed'
    • Authors: Sónia Dias; Ana Gama; Marta Pingarilho; Daniel Simões; Luís Mendão
      Pages: 2316 - 2321
      Abstract: This cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey conducted with 853 female sex workers (FSW) aimed to examine differences in use of HIV health services, testing and prevalence among migrant and national FSW. A quarter of undocumented FSW had never used National Health Service (NHS) and 15 % never tested for HIV, significantly more than nationals (p < 0.001 and p = 0.024, respectively). HIV infection was self-reported by 11.9 % of nationals, 1.8 % of documented and 0.8 % of undocumented migrants (p < 0.001). The HIV rapid test was reactive in 13.6 % of undocumented, 8.0 % of nationals and 2.3 % of documented. A higher proportion of migrants were unaware of their positive serostatus compared to nationals. Ever had HIV testing was less likely among undocumented, who never used the NHS and who didn’t know where to go if suspected being HIV-infected. Promoting early diagnosis with linkage to care among migrant FSW should be supported, while developing health services better tailored to their needs. Resumen Una encuesta transversal biocomportamental fue realizada con una muestra de 853 trabajadoras sexuales (TS) con el objetivo de examinar diferencias en el uso de servicios de salud del VIH, test y prevalencia entre TS migrantes y nacionales. Un cuarto de las TS indocumentadas nunca utilizaron el Servicio Nacional de Salud (SNS) y el 15 % nunca fueron testadas respecto al VIH, porcentajes significativamente superiores a las observadas para las nacionales (p < 0.001 y p = 0.024, respectivamente). La infección por VIH fue auto reportada por 11.9 % de las nacionales, 1.8 % de las migrantes documentadas y 0.8 % de las indocumentadas (p < 0.001). El test rápido del VIH fue reactivo para un 13.6 % de las indocumentadas, 8.0 % de las nacionales y 2.3 % de las documentadas. Una proporción mayor de migrantes desconocía su serostatus positivo en comparación con las nacionales. El test del VIH fue menos frecuente entre las indocumentadas, quien nunca utilizó el SNS y quien no sabía dónde recurrir si sospechaba estar infectada por el VIH. Promover un diagnóstico precoz en conexión con los cuidados en TS migrantes debe ser respaldado mientras se desarrollan servicios de salud mejor adaptados a sus necesidades.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-016-1511-x
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • Behavioral and Psychosocial Correlates of HIV Testing Among Male Clients
           of Female Sex Workers in Tijuana, Mexico
    • Authors: Paul J. Fleming; Thomas L. Patterson; Claudia V. Chavarin; Shirley J. Semple; Carlos Magis-Rodriguez; Eileen V. Pitpitan
      Pages: 2322 - 2331
      Abstract: Abstract We use data collected from a sample of 400 male clients of female sex workers (FSW) to examine their HIV testing behavior. We present frequencies of HIV testing and used bivariate and multivariable analyses to assess its socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates. We found that the majority (55 %) of male clients of FSW in Tijuana, Mexico had never had an HIV test and the prevalence of HIV testing within the past year was low (9 %). In multivariable analyses, significant correlates of having ever tested for HIV were higher age, higher HIV knowledge score, lower sexual compulsiveness score, lower misogynistic attitudes score, having a condom break during sex with a FSW, and higher frequency of sex with a FSW while she was high. Our findings represent an important starting point for developing effective interventions to address the need to promote HIV testing among this population.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-016-1531-6
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • Prevalence of HIV Infection and Risk Factors Among Female Sex Workers in a
           Southeast Province of Vietnam
    • Authors: Tri Nguyen; Donald Edwin Stewart; Chiao Tzu Patricia Lee; Thi Nhu Hang Dang
      Pages: 2332 - 2340
      Abstract: Abstract Female sex workers (FSWs) are at heightened risk of HIV infection. This research aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and relevant risk factors and related behavior among FSWs in Ba Ria – Vung Tau, a southeast province of Vietnam. 420 FSWs were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and biological samples tested for HIV. 2.6 % were found to be HIV positive. HIV infection was significantly higher in FSWs who had low income (≤AUD 200 per month), have had anal sex, have had sex with injecting drug users, and had a low level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Improved employment opportunities and income are important to reduce the pressure for young women to engage in sex work for income purposes, but in public health terms, existing HIV treatment, prevention and intervention programs needs better targeting and improvements to reduce the risk of HIV infection.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-016-1544-1
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • What Prevents Central Asian Migrant Workers from Accessing HIV
    • Authors: Alissa Davis; Assel Terlikbayeva; Dina Terloyeva; Sholpan Primbetova; Nabila El-Bassel
      Pages: 2372 - 2380
      Abstract: Abstract Several barriers prevent key populations, such as migrant workers, from accessing HIV testing. Using data from a cross-sectional study among Central Asian migrant workers (n = 623) in Kazakhstan, we examined factors associated with HIV testing. Overall, 48% of participants had ever received an HIV test. Having temporary registration (AOR 1.69; (95% CI [1.12–2.56]), having an employment contract (AOR 2.59; (95% CI [1.58–4.23]), being able to afford health care services (AOR 3.61; (95% CI [1.86–7.03]) having a medical check-up in the past 12 months (AOR 1.85; 95% CI [1.18–2.89]), and having a regular doctor (AOR 2.37; 95% CI [1.20–4.70]) were associated with having an HIV test. HIV testing uptake among migrants in Kazakhstan falls far short of UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals. Intervention strategies to increase HIV testing among this population may include initiatives that focus on improving outreach to undocumented migrants, making health care services more affordable, and linking migrants to health care.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1713-x
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • Estimating the Population Size of Female Sex Worker Population in Tehran,
           Iran: Application of Direct Capture–Recapture Method
    • Authors: Manoochehr Karami; Salman Khazaei; Jalal Poorolajal; Alireza Soltanian; Mansour Sajadipoor
      Pages: 2394 - 2400
      Abstract: Abstract There is no reliable estimate of the size of female sex workers (FSWs). This study aimed to estimate the size of FSWs in south of Tehran, Iran in 2016 using direct capture–recapture method. In the capture phase, the hangouts of FSWs were mapped as their meeting places. FSWs who agreed to participate in the study tagged with a T-shirt. The recapture phase was implemented at the same places tagging FSWs with a blue bracelet. The total estimated size of FSWs was 690 (95% CI 633, 747). About 89.43% of FSWs experienced sexual intercourse prior to age 20. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among FSWs was 4.60%. The estimated population size of FSWs was much more than our expectation. This issue must be the focus of special attention for planning prevention strategies. However, alternative estimates require to estimating the number FSWs, reliably.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1803-9
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • Partner-Level Factors Associated with Insertive and Receptive Condomless
           Anal Intercourse Among Transgender Women in Lima, Peru
    • Authors: Milan F. Satcher; Eddy R. Segura; Alfonso Silva-Santisteban; Jorge Sanchez; Javier R. Lama; Jesse L. Clark
      Pages: 2439 - 2451
      Abstract: Abstract Condomless anal intercourse among transgender women (TW) in Peru has been shown to vary by the type of partner involved (e.g. primary vs. casual vs. transactional sex partner), but no previous studies have explored variations in partner-level patterns of condom use according to type of anal intercourse. We evaluated the relationship between partnership characteristics and condom use during insertive (IAI) versus receptive anal intercourse (RAI) among TW with recent, non-female partners. Condomless IAI was more common with transactional and casual sex partners and by TW who self-reported HIV-uninfected serostatus (p < 0.05), alcohol use disorders, or substance use before sex. Condomless RAI was more common with primary partners and by TW who described their HIV serostatus as unknown (p < 0.05). Examining partner-level differences between condomless IAI and RAI reveals distinct patterns of HIV/STI risk among TW, suggesting a need for HIV prevention strategies tailored to the specific contexts of partners, practices, and networks.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-016-1503-x
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • Safer Conception for Couples Affected by HIV: Structural and Cultural
           Considerations in the Delivery of Safer Conception Care in Uganda
    • Authors: Deborah Mindry; Rhoda K. Wanyenze; Jolly Beyeza-Kashesya; Mahlet A. Woldetsadik; Sarah Finocchario-Kessler; Kathy Goggin; Glenn Wagner
      Pages: 2488 - 2496
      Abstract: Abstract In countries with high HIV prevalence and high fertility desires, the rights of HIV-affected couples to have children are a pressing issue. Conception among people living with HIV carries risks for both horizontal and vertical HIV transmission. In Uganda ~100,000 HIV-infected women become pregnant annually. Providers face a number of challenges to preventing HIV transmission, reducing unplanned pregnancies, and ensuring safer conception. We report findings from interviews with 27 HIV-affected couples (54 individuals) in Uganda. We explored key cultural and structural factors shaping couples’ childbearing decisions. Our data reveal a complex intersection of gender norms, familial expectations, relationship dynamics, and HIV stigma influencing their decisions. Participants provided insights regarding provider bias, stigma, and the gendering of reproductive healthcare. To reduce horizontal transmission HIV and family planning clinics must address men’s and women’s concerns regarding childbearing with specific attention to cultural and structural challenges.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1816-4
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • How Do We Get Partners to Test for HIV' : Predictors of Uptake of
           Partner HIV Testing Following Individual Outpatient Provider Initiated HIV
           Testing in Rural Uganda
    • Authors: Susan M. Kiene; Olumide Gbenro; Katelyn M. Sileo; Haruna Lule; Rhoda K. Wanyenze
      Pages: 2497 - 2508
      Abstract: Abstract In a sample of outpatients (152 females, 152 males) receiving individual provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) we aimed to identify factors associated with subsequent uptake of partner HIV testing. Purposively sampled outpatients receiving PITC at a Ugandan hospital completed a questionnaire immediately prior to testing for HIV, and then at 3 and 6 months post-test. By 6-month follow-up 96% of participants reported disclosing their HIV test results to their partner and 96.4% reported asking their partner to test. 38.8% of women and 78.9% of men reported that their partner tested and they knew their results. Recent (men AOR 5.84, 95.0% CI 1.90–17.99; women AOR 6.19, 95.0% CI 2.74–13.59) or any previous testing by the partner (women AOR 4.01, 95% CI 1.06–15.10) predicted uptake of partner testing by the 6-month follow-up. Among women, perceiving greater social support from their partner, which perhaps reflects better relationship quality, was predictive of their male partner testing for HIV (AOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.22–4.58). Notably intimate partner violence showed no negative association with partner testing. Our findings demonstrate that women are at a disadvantage compared to men in their ability to influence their partner to test for HIV, and that improving social support in intimate relationships should be a focus of HIV partner testing interventions. However, more research on interventions to improve partner testing is needed, particularly in identifying effective ways to support women in engaging their partners to test.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1817-3
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • Partner Support, Willingness to Sacrifice, and HIV Medication
    • Authors: Laura E. VanderDrift; Michael Ioerger; Luke D. Mitzel; Peter A. Vanable
      Pages: 2519 - 2525
      Abstract: Abstract When taken as prescribed, highly active anti-retroviral medications allow individuals with HIV to live long, healthy lives. Nevertheless, poor adherence is common. In the current study, we examined why some people fail to feel efficacious to adhere, focusing on their interpersonal relationships. Given past findings that some individuals with primary partners adhere better than those without, whereas others adhere worse, we examined whether relationship dynamics influence the association between support from a primary partner and adherence self-efficacy. Specifically, we hypothesized and found that relationship partners’ support regarding medication adherence undermines self-efficacy when the partner is perceived as unwilling to sacrifice for the relationship. We discuss the implications of these results for intervention construction and for understanding the power of the relationship context on HIV medication adherence.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1698-5
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • Is Sex with Older Male Partners Associated with Higher Sexual Risk
           Behavior Among Young Black MSM'
    • Authors: Nicholas Chamberlain; Leandro A. Mena; Angelica Geter; Richard A. Crosby
      Pages: 2526 - 2532
      Abstract: Abstract Participants at a sexual health clinic completed a survey with questions regarding sexual risk behavior and partner characteristics. Of 585 participants eligible for analysis, 124 reported generally having older male partners. These participants were significantly more likely to be HIV-infected (p < 0.001), have four or more sex partners as a “bottom” (p = 0.04), have concurrent partners (p = 0.01), and have partners suspected of having an sexually transmitted infection (p = 0.05) than participants without older partners. With analysis restricted to HIV− individuals, risk behaviors did not differ significantly between the groups. HIV− individuals with older partners may be at increased risk of HIV infection due to increased HIV prevalence among older sexual partners and not due to increased risk behaviors with these partners.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1699-4
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • HIV Prevalence and ART Use Among Men in Partnerships with 15–29 Year
           Old Women in South Africa: HIV Risk Implications for Young Women in
           Age-Disparate Partnerships
    • Authors: Meredith Evans; Brendan Maughan-Brown; Nompumelelo Zungu; Gavin George
      Pages: 2533 - 2542
      Abstract: Abstract This study assesses whether men’s ART use mitigates HIV-risk within age-disparate partnerships. Using data from the 2012 South African National HIV survey, we analyzed differences in HIV prevalence and ART use between men in age-disparate and age-similar partnerships with young women aged 15–29 using multiple logistic regression analyses. Within partnerships involving women 15–24 years old, men in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to be HIV-positive (5–9 year age-gap: aOR 2.8, 95%CI 1.4–5.2; p < 0.01; 10+ year age-gap: aOR 2.2, 95%CI 1.0–4.6; p < 0.05). Men in age-disparate partnerships who were 5–9 years older were significantly more likely to be HIV-positive and ART-naïve (aOR 2.4, 95%CI 1.2–4.8; p < 0.05), while this was not the case for men 10+ years older (aOR 1.5, 95%CI 0.7–3.6; p = 0.32). No evidence was found that 25–29 year old women were at greater HIV-risk in age-disparate partnerships. Our results indicate that young women aged 15–24 have a greater likelihood of exposure to HIV through age-disparate partnerships, but ART use among men 10+ years older could mitigate risk.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1741-6
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • In Australia, Most HIV Infections Among Gay and Bisexual Men are
           Attributable to Sex with ‘New’ Partners
    • Authors: Ian Down; Jeanne Ellard; Benjamin R. Bavinton; Graham Brown; Garrett Prestage
      Pages: 2543 - 2550
      Abstract: Abstract It has been estimated that the majority of global HIV infections among gay and bisexual men (GBM) can be attributed to sex within a committed relationship. In Australia, however, negotiated safety, whereby HIV-negative regular partners agree to discard condoms with each other but commit to consistent condom use with other partners, has been promoted as a key component of the HIV prevention response. We asked GBM recently diagnosed with HIV to describe their relationship to the person they believed to be the source of their infection (‘source person’). The majority (66.1%) ascribed their infection to a casual partner. A further 23.3% ascribed their infection to a non-committed and non-romantic partner (or ‘fuckbuddy’). Only 10.6% believed they had acquired their HIV from a ‘boyfriend’ in the context of a committed romantic relationship, and 51.7% of these occurred within the first 3 months following their first sexual contact. Most men (61.5%) believed they had acquired their HIV infection on the first occasion they had sex with the source person. In the Australian context, negotiated safety appears to have minimised infections between regular partners. However, many HIV infections between regular partners may not be in the context of a romantic committed relationship, and yet this distinction between types of regular partners has been all but ignored. Furthermore, in this sample, most infections occurred on the occasion of first meeting, suggesting that the most useful indicators of risk may be the characteristics, contexts, and lengths of sexual partnerships and how sex is negotiated, rather than how GBM categorize their partner. Findings suggest more new HIV infections occur in new partnerships, than in established relationships.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1747-0
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • Addressing the First 90: A Highly Effective Partner Notification Approach
           Reaches Previously Undiagnosed Sexual Partners in Tanzania
    • Authors: Catherine Kahabuka; Marya Plotkin; Alice Christensen; Charlene Brown; Mustafa Njozi; Renatus Kisendi; Werner Maokola; Erick Mlanga; Ruth Lemwayi; Kelly Curran; Vincent Wong
      Pages: 2551 - 2560
      Abstract: Abstract To meet UNAIDS’ 90–90–90 treatment goals, effective approaches to HIV testing services (HTSs) are urgently needed. In 2015, a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate effectiveness and feasibility of partner notification for HTS in Tanzania. Men and women newly diagnosed with HIV were enrolled as index clients, listed sexual partners, and given options to notify and link their partners to HTS. Of 653 newly diagnosed individuals, 390 index clients were enrolled, listed 438 sexual partners, of whom 249 (56.8%) were successfully referred. Of 249 partners reaching the facilities, 96% tested for HIV, 148 (61.9%) tested HIV+ (all newly diagnosed), and 104 (70.3%) of partners testing positive were enrolled into HIV care and treatment. Results showed good acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness, as evidenced by high uptake of partner notification among newly diagnosed individuals, over half of listed partners successfully referred, and a very high positivity rate among referred sexual partners.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1750-5
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 8 (2017)
  • Rectal Douching Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Paris: Implications for
           HIV/STI Risk Behaviors and Rectal Microbicide Development
    • Authors: H. Rhodes Hambrick; Su Hyun Park; William C. Goedel; Jace G. Morganstein; Noah T. Kreski; Ofole Mgbako; Dustin T. Duncan
      Abstract: Abstract Rectal douching is a common but potentially risky practice among MSM; MSM who douche may be ideal candidates for rectal microbicides as HIV prevention. Herein we explored rectal douching and its association with condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI), group sex, rates of HIV and other STIs, and likelihood to use rectal microbicide gels. We recruited a sample of 580 MSM from a geosocial-networking smartphone application in Paris, France in 2016. Regression models estimated adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for associations between rectal douche use and (1) engagement in CRAI, (2) group sex, (3) self-reported HIV and STI diagnoses, and (4) likelihood to use rectal microbicide gels for HIV prevention. 54.3% of respondents used a rectal douche or enema in the preceding 3 months. Douching was significantly associated with CRAI (aRR: 1.77), participation in group sex (aRR: 1.42), HIV infection (aRR: 3.40), STI diagnosis (aRR: 1.73), and likelihood to use rectal microbicide gels (aRR: 1.78). Rectal douching is common among MSM, particularly those who practice CRAI, and rectal microbicide gels may be an acceptable mode of HIV prevention for MSM who use rectal douches.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1873-8
  • Telephone-Delivered Mindfulness Training for People Living with HIV: A
           Qualitative 360° Inquiry
    • Authors: Rochelle K. Rosen; Larissa A. McGarrity; Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher; Carla Rich; Aadia Rana; Michael P. Carey
      Abstract: Abstract For people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA), life stress often undermines quality of life and interferes with medical care. Mindfulness training (MT) may help PLWHA to manage stress. Because standard MT protocols can be burdensome, we explored telephone delivery as a potentially more feasible approach. We used an innovative 360° qualitative inquiry to seek input regarding telephone-delivery of MT for PLWHA in advance of a planned intervention trial. We also sought input on a time- and attention-matched control. Twenty five HIV patients, providers and advocates, were recruited to five focus groups. Participants understood the construct of mindfulness and recognized its potential benefits for stress management and improving medication adherence. Patients preferred the term “mindfulness” to meditation. Telephone-delivery appealed to all patients but several challenges were raised. Topics for the control intervention included nutrition, sleep, and aging. The 360° approach allowed three groups (patients, providers, advocates) to influence intervention development.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1857-8
  • Remaining Gap in HIV Testing Uptake Among Female Sex Workers in Iran
    • Authors: Mostafa Shokoohi; Atefeh Noori; Mohammad Karamouzian; Hamid Sharifi; Razieh Khajehkazemi; Noushin Fahimfar; Samira Hosseini-Hooshyar; Parvin Afsar Kazerooni; Ali Mirzazadeh
      Abstract: Abstract We estimated the prevalence of recent HIV testing (i.e., having an HIV test during the last 12 months and knew the results) among 1295 HIV-negative Iranian female sex workers (FSW) in 2015. Overall, 70.4% (95% confidence intervals: 59.6, 79.3) of the participants reported a recent HIV testing. Concerns about their HIV status (83.2%) was reported as the most common reason for HIV testing. Incarceration history, having >5 paying partners, having >1 non-paying partner, receiving harm reduction services, utilizing healthcare services, and knowing an HIV testing site were significantly associated with recent HIV testing. In contrast, outreach participants, having one non-paying sexual partner, and self-reported inconsistent condom use reduced the likelihood of recent HIV testing. HIV testing uptake showed a ~2.5 times increase among FSW since 2010. While these findings are promising and show improvement over a short period, HIV testing programs should be expanded particularly through mobile and outreach efforts.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1844-0
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