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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Agronomy for Sustainable Development
  [SJR: 1.732]   [H-I: 59]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1774-0746 - ISSN (Online) 1773-0155
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • First formulation of a botanical active substance extracted from neem cell
           culture for controlling the armyworm
    • Authors: Carolina Zuleta-Castro; Diego Rios; Rodrigo Hoyos; Fernando Orozco-Sánchez
      Abstract: Abstract Neem (Azadirachta indica) produces several of compounds known as limonoids, which have an antifeedant effect on insects. These compounds are extremely sensitive to some environmental factors that cause their degradation. Despite this, they are widely used in many formulations of commercial bioinsecticides. We evaluated the photodegradation of the crude extract from A. indica cell culture and designed the formulation of a botanical active substance for controlling insects. The crude extract was subjected to 368 nm UV light for 24 h, and its degradation was examined. Limonoids present in the crude extract were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composition of some compounds in the extract decreased by 55% after 214 min and 83% after 1440 min. For the insect bioassay, we prepared six formulations containing ethanolic extracts from A. indica cell culture as the active ingredient. The formulation also contained a photoprotector and two stabilizers, emulsified with water, castor oil, and Tween 80. Formulations were subjected to stability tests, and the relative phase separation was assessed. To evaluate their biological activity, the antifeedant index and the affected leaf area on corn infested with Spodoptera frugiperda were determined using laboratory- and field-scale bioassays. Three formulations showed good stability, and two presented the highest antifeedant indices (98.5 and 99.7%) in laboratory-scale bioassays. They provided the greatest field-level protection (leaf areas affected were 0.6 and 1.9%, respectively). Therefore, the emulsion containing 0.76% p/p ethanolic extract, 0.72% 8-hydroxyquinoline, 1.00% anthraquinone and epichlorohydrin, 0.20% Tween 80, and 50/50 aqueous phase/oil phase was selected as the best formulation for the insect biocontroller. This thus addresses the problem of metabolite degradation in the field. To our knowledge, this is the first effective formulation of a botanical active substance for controlling insects using A. indica cell culture extract.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0448-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Harnessing the aphid life cycle to reduce insecticide reliance in apple
           and peach orchards. A review
    • Authors: Aurélie Rousselin; Daniele Bevacqua; Marie-Hélène Sauge; Françoise Lescourret; Karsten Mody; Marie-Odile Jordan
      Abstract: Abstract Apple and peach orchards are chemical-intensive systems, and aphids are one of their major pests. Aphids alter fruiting and shoot development, and they can spread viruses. Decades of insecticide use have developed aphid resistance, which calls on research to provide alternatives to chemicals for pest management. Here, we review the literature to identify, for each stage of the aphid life cycle, existing alternatives based on either top-down (i.e. aphid predation or parasitism) or bottom up (i.e. increase of host plant resistance) processes. Firstly, it was found that most studies focus on top-down processes, namely on conservation biological control aiming to preserve existing populations of natural enemies: predators, parasitoids and nematodes. This is achieved by (i) providing shelters (i.e. planting hedges, weed or flower strips) or alternative preys in periods of aphid scarcity or (ii) choosing chemicals with the lowest disruptive effects. Those methods prove more efficient when used early in the season, i.e. before the exponential increase of aphid populations. Fostering the complex of natural enemies is also preferable than just supporting one single enemy. Secondly, other techniques, like (i) releasing biological control agents (entomopathogenic fungi, nematodes) or (ii) using pheromone lures to prevent autumnal sexual reproduction, are currently adapted for their use in orchard conditions. Thirdly, bottom-up regulation has to be devised as a long-term strategy, which could start by choosing a cultivar enabling genetic avoidance or developing genetic resistance. Then, aphid development can be reduced by the control of shoot growth or nitrogen accumulation in response to pruning or moderate water and nutrient inputs. At last, autumnal return of aphids could be disrupted by techniques such as kaolin applications that impair aphid host plant location. It is concluded that these alternative methods have to be adapted to local conditions and combined in long-term strategies in order to decrease the infestation risks throughout the orchard lifespan.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0444-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Sustainable intensification in agriculture: the richer shade of green. A
    • Authors: Paul C. Struik; Thomas W. Kuyper
      Abstract: Abstract Agricultural intensification is required to feed the growing and increasingly demanding human population. Intensification is associated with increasing use of resources, applied as efficiently as possible, i.e. with a concurrent increase in both resource use and resource use efficiency. Resource use efficiency has agronomic, environmental, economic, social, trans-generational, and global dimensions. Current industrial agriculture privileges economic resource use efficiency over the other dimensions, claiming that that pathway is necessary to feed the world. Current agronomy and the concept of sustainable intensification are contested. Sustainable intensification needs to include clarity about principles and practices for priority setting, an all-inclusive and explicit cost-benefit analysis, and subsequent weighing of trade-offs, based on scientifically acceptable, shared norms, thus making agriculture “green” again. Here, we review different forms of intensification, different principles and concepts underlying them, as well as the norms and values that are needed to guide the search for effective forms of sustainable and ecological intensification. We also address innovations in research and education required to create the necessary knowledge base. We argue that sustainable intensification should be considered as a process of enquiry and analysis for navigating and sorting out the issues and concerns in agronomy. Sustainable intensification is about societal negotiation, institutional innovation, justice, and adaptive management. We also make a plea for at least two alternative framings of sustainable intensification: one referring to the need for “de-intensification” in high-input systems to become more sustainable and one referring to the need to increase inputs and thereby yields where there are currently large yield (and often also efficiency) gaps. Society needs an agriculture that demonstrates resilience under future change, an agronomy that can cope with the diversity of trade-offs across different stakeholders, and a sustainability that is perceived as a dynamic process based on agreed values and shared knowledge, insight, and wisdom.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0445-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Heat stress effects and management in wheat. A review
    • Authors: Nurunnaher Akter; M. Rafiqul Islam
      Abstract: Abstract Increasing temperature and consequent changes in climate adversely affect plant growth and development, resulting in catastrophic loss of wheat productivity. For each degree rise in temperature, wheat production is estimated to reduce by 6%. A detailed overview of morpho-physiological responses of wheat to heat stress may help formulating appropriate strategies for heat-stressed wheat yield improvement. Additionally, searching for possible management strategies may increase productivity and sustainability of growing wheat. The major findings from this review are as follows: (1) heat stress significantly reduces seed germination and seedling growth, cell turgidity, and plant water-use efficiency; (2) at a cellular level, heat stress disturbs cellular functions through generating excessive reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress; (3) the major responses of wheat to heat stress include the enhancement of leaf senescence, reduction of photosynthesis, deactivation of photosynthetic enzymes, and generation of oxidative damages to the chloroplasts; (4) heat stress also reduces grain number and size by affecting grain setting, assimilate translocation and duration and growth rate of grains; (5) effective approaches for managing heat stress in wheat include screening available germplasm under field trials and/or employing marker-assisted selection, application of exogenous protectants to seeds or plants, mapping quantitative trait locus conferring heat resistance and breeding; (6) a well-integrated genetic and agronomic management option may enhance wheat tolerance to heat. However, the success of applying various techniques of heat stress management requires greater understanding of heat tolerance features, molecular cloning, and characterization of genes. The overall success of the complex plant heat stress management depends on the concerted efforts of crop modelers, molecular biologists, and plant physiologists.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0443-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Erratum to: The accuracy of farmer-generated data in an agricultural
           citizen science methodology
    • Authors: Jonathan Steinke; Jacob van Etten; Pablo Mejía Zelan
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0446-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Cultural and territorial vitality services play a key role in livestock
           agroecological transition in France
    • Authors: Jean Beudou; Guillaume Martin; Julie Ryschawy
      Abstract: Abstract In France, researchers and public policy makers are calling for the agroecological transition of livestock. This transition is facing technical, economic, social, and cultural obstacles. Whereas technical obstacles are extensively studied, other categories remain little studied despite their potential role in agroecological transition of livestock. This article aims to analyze the livestock cultural and territorial vitality (dis)services perceived by local actors on two distinct French territories and to understand how these services could act as levers for the agroecological transition of livestock. To do so, we interviewed 45 local actors from the livestock sector and local rural development in two French territories: Aubrac (24) and Pays de Rennes (21). We conducted inductive content analyses to draw on interviewees’ perceptions and link the cultural and territorial vitality services identified to the agroecological transition of livestock. Our work revealed 20 cultural and territorial vitality services that can be organized into 11 categories (7 categories of cultural services and 4 categories of territorial vitality services). Among the 11 cultural services, cultural landscapes linked to livestock and gastronomy heritage were the most cited. Among the nine territorial vitality services, the contribution to social bonds on the territories was the most cited. Here, we showed for the first time that the prioritization of cultural and territorial vitality services were different between the territories studied. Emblematic cow breed, food know-how, and quality products were more important in Aubrac, whereas territorial vitality services such as on-farm jobs and social bonds linked to livestock were more cited in the Pays de Rennes. Such methodological approach allowed us to highlight and prioritize the different cultural and vitality services, which need to be supported by public policy and translated into action.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0436-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Yield stability and lower susceptibility to abiotic stresses
           of improved open-pollinated and hybrid maize cultivars
    • Authors: Marcos A. Lana; Frank Eulenstein; Sandro L. Schlindwein; Frieder Graef; Stefan Sieber; Henrique von Hertwig Bittencourt
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0447-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Long-term crop residue application maintains oil palm yield and temporal
           stability of production
    • Authors: Hsiao-Hang Tao; Jake L. Snaddon; Eleanor M. Slade; Jean-Pierre Caliman; Rudi H. Widodo; Suhardi; Kathrine J. Willis
      Abstract: Abstract Crop residue management is an important agricultural practice that has a high potential to improve soil health and optimize crop production. Compared to annual crops, relatively little is known about crop residue management effects on the yield and temporal stability of perennial crop production. This study focused on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), an important tropical crop that had expanded rapidly over the past decades. We aimed to understand the effects of applying a major oil palm residue, the empty fruit bunch, on crop yield and temporal stability of production. We compared 15 years of crop yield performance from a field trial in Sumatra, Indonesia. The treatments included empty fruit bunch application of three application rates (30, 60, and 90 t ha−1 year−1), and a reference treatment of chemical fertilizers with no addition of empty fruit bunch. Compared to the reference treatment, the cumulative crop yield over 15 years under low, medium, and high application rates of empty fruit bunch increased by 2.4, 5.9, and 4.8%, respectively. The annual crop yield and temporal stability in production were not significantly different between treatments. Soil organic carbon was significantly higher under medium application rate of empty fruit bunch compared to that under the chemical fertilizer treatment. Soil organic carbon and relative humidity were positively associated with annual crop yield with a time lag of 2 years. This study is the first to show that both crop yield and temporal variability of oil palm production can be maintained under crop residue application, compared to chemical fertilizer treatment. Furthermore, climatic conditions had strong effects on the temporal variability of oil palm production. These findings will inform the design of optimal empty fruit bunch application schemes that enhance sustainable intensification of oil palm cultivation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0439-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Semi-natural habitats support biological control, pollination and soil
           conservation in Europe. A review
    • Authors: John M. Holland; Jacob C. Douma; Liam Crowley; Laura James; Laura Kor; David R.W. Stevenson; Barbara M. Smith
      Abstract: Abstract Semi-natural habitats are integral to most agricultural areas and have the potential to support ecosystem services, especially biological control and pollination by supplying resources for the invertebrates providing these services and for soil conservation by preventing erosion and run-off. Some habitats are supported through agri-environment scheme funding in the European Union, but their value for ecosystem service delivery has been questioned. An improved understanding of previous research approaches and outcomes will contribute to the development of more sustainable farming systems, improve experimental designs and highlight knowledge gaps especially for funders and researchers. Here we compiled a systematic map to allow for the first time a review of the quantity of evidence collected in Europe that semi-natural habitats support biological control, pollination and soil conservation. A literature search selected 2252 publications, and, following review, 270 met the inclusion criteria and were entered into the database. Most publications were of pest control (143 publications) with less on pollination (78 publications) or soil-related aspects (31). For pest control and pollination, most publications reported a positive effect of semi-natural habitats. There were weaknesses in the evidence base though because of bias in study location and the crops, whilst metrics (e.g. yield) valued by end users were seldom measured. Hedgerows, woodland and grassland were the most heavily investigated semi-natural habitats, and the wider landscape composition was often considered. Study designs varied considerably yet only 24% included controls or involved manipulation of semi-natural habitats. Service providers were commonly measured and used as a surrogate for ecosystem service delivery. Key messages for policymakers and funders are that they should encourage research that includes more metrics required by end users, be prepared to fund longer-term studies (61% were of only 1-year duration) and investigate the role of soils within semi-natural habitats in delivering ecosystem services.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0434-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • The accuracy of farmer-generated data in an agricultural citizen science
    • Authors: Jonathan Steinke; Jacob van Etten; Pablo Mejía Zelan
      Abstract: Abstract Over the last decades, participatory approaches involving on-farm experimentation have become more prevalent in agricultural research. Nevertheless, these approaches remain difficult to scale because they usually require close attention from well-trained professionals. Novel large-N participatory trials, building on recent advances in citizen science and crowdsourcing methodologies, involve large numbers of participants and little researcher supervision. Reduced supervision may affect data quality, but the “Wisdom of Crowds” principle implies that many independent observations from a diverse group of people often lead to highly accurate results when taken together. In this study, we test whether farmer-generated data in agricultural citizen science are good enough to generate valid statements about the research topic. We experimentally assess the accuracy of farmer observations in trials of crowdsourced crop variety selection that use triadic comparisons of technologies (tricot). At five sites in Honduras, 35 farmers (women and men) participated in tricot experiments. They ranked three varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for Plant vigor, Plant architecture, Pest resistance, and Disease resistance. Furthermore, with a simulation approach using the empirical data, we did an order-of-magnitude estimation of the sample size of participants needed to produce relevant results. Reliability of farmers’ experimental observations was generally low (Kendall’s W 0.174 to 0.676). But aggregated observations contained information and had sufficient validity (Kendall’s tau coefficient 0.33 to 0.76) to identify the correct ranking orders of varieties by fitting Mallows-Bradley-Terry models to the data. Our sample size simulation shows that low reliability can be compensated by engaging higher numbers of observers to generate statistically meaningful results, demonstrating the usefulness of the Wisdom of Crowds principle in agricultural research. In this first study on data quality from a farmer citizen science methodology, we show that realistic numbers of less than 200 participants can produce meaningful results for agricultural research by tricot-style trials.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0441-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Yield stability and lower susceptibility to abiotic stresses of improved
           open-pollinated and hybrid maize cultivars
    • Authors: Marcos A. Lana; Frank Eulenstein; Sandro L. Schlindwein; Frieder Graef; Stefan Sieber; Henrique von Hertwig Bittencourt
      Abstract: Abstract Maize is one of the world’s most important cereals, cultivated in a wide range of environments. Besides the importance of maize and the gains in yield from selection schemes, commercial breeding drastically reduced the number of cultivars of this crop. Current common sense states that hybrids, when compared to open-pollinated cultivars, are a better adaptation strategy to cope with the impacts of climate change. However, the performance and resilience of cultivars with different levels of improvement are still not explored in this context. Four cultivars—a commercial hybrid, one commercially improved open-pollinated, one improved open-pollinated derived from participatory breeding, and one from a farmer’s selection—were tested using the CERES-Maize crop model. Field experiments conducted in Brazil were used for calibration and evaluation. Synthetic scenarios of climate change resulted from the application of the incremental method on historical series of observations (30 years), with temperature increments ranging from +0.5 up to +3.0 °C and precipitation changes from −30 up to +30%. Planting dates consisted in nine dates (August 1–December 1, each 15 days). Results demonstrate that the model could mimic the phenology and yield of two improved open-pollinated cultivars (MPA01 and Fortuna) and the hybrid (AS1548). One open-pollinated cultivar could not be validated due to its high phenotypic variability. Yield response surfaces showed distinct impacts among cultivars, with improved open-pollinated cultivar MPA01 having a higher yield stability when compared to the hybrid. Early planting dates produced lower yields with higher risk of crop failure for all cultivars. Late planting dates produced higher yields with higher failure risk. Considering risk and yield, the best planting window for all cultivars and scenarios is between September and October. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that improved open-pollinated cultivars are equivalent or more resilient than hybrids to yield changes under different scenarios of abiotic stresses.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0442-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Azolla planting reduces methane emission and nitrogen fertilizer
           application in double rice cropping system in southern China
    • Authors: Heshui Xu; Bo Zhu; Jingna Liu; Dengyun Li; Yadong Yang; Kai Zhang; Ying Jiang; Yuegao Hu; Zhaohai Zeng
      Abstract: Abstract Rice paddies are a major source of methane. How to reduce the methane emission in the paddy field without decreasing the yield has become a major concern of scientists, environmental groups, and agricultural policymakers worldwide. Azolla, used as a dual crop in rice cultivation, has multiple agronomic benefits. However, the effects of the dual cropping of Azolla on methane emissions of double rice cropping paddies have not yet been reported. Here, we conducted a 3-year field experiment to evaluate the impacts of rice + Azolla on methane emission and rice yield in a double rice cropping system. The results indicated that the rice + Azolla without N fertilizer and with moderate N fertilizer (200 kg N ha−1 a−1) significantly reduced methane emissions over the rice cycle by 12.3 and 25.3% compared with the conventional rice cropping with common N fertilizer (400 kg N ha−1 a−1), respectively. The reason for the trend was because the dual cropping of Azolla has significant effect on dissolved oxygen and soil redox potential, which are key factors for methane emission in this study. The rice yield under the rice + Azolla with moderate N fertilizer annually averaged 12.7 Mg ha−1, which was comparable with that of the conventional rice cropping with common N fertilizer. Moreover, the rice + Azolla with moderate N fertilizer had the lowest yield-scaled methane (25.2 kg Mg−1 grain yield). Here, we showed for the first time that Azolla planting allows sustainable rice production coupled with methane mitigation in double rice cropping systems.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0440-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Greenhouse gas abatement costs are heterogeneous between Australian grain
    • Authors: Nikki P. Dumbrell; Marit E. Kragt; Elizabeth A. Meier; Jody S. Biggs; Peter J. Thorburn
      Abstract: Abstract Globally, agriculture is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The environment (e.g., soils and climate) and management influence agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and the potential to reduce emissions. For agriculture to contribute to greenhouse gas abatement in the long term, it is important to identify low-cost mitigation actions that farmers can adopt. It is hypothesized that greenhouse gas abatement potential and the associated costs will differ substantially between environments in Australia. Seven alternative management scenarios were identified as both suitable for adoption across different grain growing environments in Australia and potentially able to provide greenhouse gas abatement. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator was used to simulate these alternative management scenarios over a 25-year period and analyze the potential for Australian grain farmers, across contrasting environments, to increase soil organic carbon stocks and/or reduce nitrous oxide emissions. This analysis was paired with a whole-farm economic analysis to determine the implications of the different greenhouse gas abatement scenarios on farm profitability. Results from case studies in Australia’s three main grain growing regions demonstrate that significant heterogeneity exists in the biophysical potential and costs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions across locations. The maximum predicted abatement potential for the case study sites varied from 0.34 to 2.03 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents per hectare per year. In most simulations, greenhouse gas abatement came at a cost to farmers ranging from 0.11 Australian dollars (AUD) to more than 300 AUD per metric ton of abated carbon dioxide equivalent. This is the first study to explore the costs of mitigation including multiple greenhouse gases and grain farming case studies across Australia. These findings can inform the future development of effective climate change mitigation policies, which frequently use national default values in their design.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0438-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • First national-wide survey of trace elements in Cuban urban agriculture
    • Authors: Mirelys Rodríguez Alfaro; Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento; Olegario Muñiz Ugarte; Alfredo Montero Álvarez; Adriana María de Aguiar Accioly; Bernardo Calero Martín; Teudys Limeres Jiménez; Milagros Ginebra Aguilar
      Abstract: Abstract Over the last three decades, urban agriculture has been improving food security in Cuba by providing fresh vegetables within and on the outskirts of cities and villages. However, organic fertilizers and substrates that are used in urban agriculture systems can be contaminated by trace elements and accordingly pose risks to human health. This study was carried out to measure the concentrations of cadmium, lead, arsenic, selenium, mercury, nickel, and chromium in composts and substrates used in Cuba’s urban agriculture, as well as in vegetables grown in this cropping system to assess risks to human health. Extraction of trace elements from samples was performed with a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acid in a microwave oven. Cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium were determined via optical emission spectrometry, and mercury, selenium, and arsenic were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled with a hydride generation system. We demonstrated that the concentrations of trace elements in organic fertilizers, with the exception of compost from municipal solid waste, were within permissible values and do not pose risks to human health. The compost produced from municipal solid waste and the substrates prepared with this material presented cadmium and lead concentrations above maximum permissible concentrations. This work represents the first national-wide survey of trace elements in Cuban urban agriculture. As a result of this investigation, the use of municipal-solid-waste compost for food production was forbidden in Cuba.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0437-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Agro-ecological functions of crop residues under conservation agriculture.
           A review
    • Authors: Lalaina Ranaivoson; Krishna Naudin; Aude Ripoche; François Affholder; Lilia Rabeharisoa; Marc Corbeels
      Abstract: Abstract Conservation agriculture, which is based on minimum tillage, permanent soil cover and crop rotations, has widely been promoted as a practice to maintain or improve soil quality and enhance crop productivity. To a large extent, the beneficial effects of conservation agriculture are expected to be provided by permanent soil cover with crop residues. Surface crop residues play an important role for crop growth through their benefits on soil-related structural components and processes in the agro-ecosystem, referred to in this study as agro-ecological functions. Through a meta-analysis of the literature, we have studied the relative effects of surface crop residue levels on the performance of a set of agro-ecological functions compared with a no-till bare soil, i.e., without surface residues. The selected agro-ecological functions were soil water evaporation control, soil water infiltration, soil water runoff control, soil loss control, soil nutrient availability, soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and gains, weed control and soil meso- and macrofauna abundance. The potential effects of crop residue cover were quantified using boundary line models. Our main findings were (1) 8 t ha−1 of residues were needed to decrease soil water evaporation by about 30% compared to no-till bare soil. (2) To achieve the maximum effect on soil water infiltration, water runoff and soil loss control, residue amounts of at least 2 t ha−1 were required. (3) The effect of increasing the amounts of surface crop residues on soil nutrient supply (N, P and K) was relatively low; the boundary line models were not significant. (4) The average annual SOC gain increased with increasing amounts of residues, with a mean of 0.38 t C ha−1 year−1 with 4 to 5 t ha−1 of residues. (5) Weed emergence and biomass can be reduced by 50% compared to a no-till bare soil with residue amounts of 1 t ha−1 or more. (6) There was a weak response in soil meso- and macrofauna abundance to increasing amounts of surface crop residues. The maximum effect corresponded to an increase of 45% compared to a no-till bare soil and was reached from 10 t ha−1 of residues. Our findings suggest that optimal amounts of surface residues in the practice of conservation agriculture will largely depend on the type of constraints to crop production which can be addressed with mulching.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0432-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Application of secondary nutrients and micronutrients increases crop
           yields in sub-Saharan Africa
    • Authors: Job Kihara; Gudeta Weldesemayat Sileshi; Generose Nziguheba; Michael Kinyua; Shamie Zingore; Rolf Sommer
      Abstract: Abstract Secondary and micronutrients are important in enhancing crop productivity; yet, they are hardly studied in sub-Sahara Africa. In this region, the main focus has been on macronutrients but there is emerging though scattered evidence of crop productivity limitations by the secondary and micronutrients. Elsewhere, widespread deficiencies of these nutrients are associated with stagnation of yields. Here, we undertake a meta-analysis using 40 articles reporting crop response to secondary and micronutrients to (1) determine the productivity increase of crops and nutrient use efficiency associated with these nutrients, and (2) provide synthesis of responses to secondary nutrients and micronutrients in sub-Sahara Africa. This study used 757 yield data rows (530 from publications and 227 from Africa Soil Information Service) from field trials carried out in SSA between 1969 and 2013 in 14 countries. Data from publications constituted response to S (49.4%), Zn (23.0%), S and micronutrient combinations (11.5%), and <10% each for Cu, Mo, Fe, and B. Data from Africa Soil Information Service were all for S and micronutrient combinations. Of the two sources, most yield data are for maize (73.6%), followed by sorghum (6.7%) and wheat (6.1%) while rice, cowpea, faba bean, tef, and soybean each accounted for less than 5%. The major points are the following: (1) application of S and micronutrients increased maize yield by 0.84 t ha−1 (i.e., 25%) over macronutrient only treatment and achieved agronomic efficiencies (kilograms of grain increase per kilogram of micronutrient added) between 38 and 432 and (2) response ratios were >1 for S and all micronutrients, i.e., the probability of response ratio exceeding 1 was 0.77 for S and 0.83 for Zn, 0.95 for Cu, and 0.92 for Fe, and indicates positive crop response for a majority of farmers. We conclude that S and micronutrients are holding back crop productivity especially on soils where response to macronutrients is low and that more research is needed to unravel conditions under which application of S and micronutrients may pose financial risks.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0431-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Farming with alternative pollinators increases yields and incomes of
           cucumber and sour cherry
    • Authors: Stefanie Christmann; Aden Aw-Hassan; Toshpulot Rajabov; Aloviddin S. Khamraev; Athanasios Tsivelikas
      Abstract: Abstract Pollinator decline is acknowledged worldwide and constitutes a major subject of environmental research. Nevertheless, farmers’ efforts to protect pollinators in agricultural lands remain very limited, in particular if no compensation scheme is applicable. Current research focuses on measuring pollinator diversity in different landscapes, but research on income gains, due to habitat enhancement and high pollinator diversity, may have greater potential to induce farmers’ field management changes. In 2012, it was suggested for the first time that farmers’ motivation would be triggered if the demonstration was made that enhancing pollinator habitats, with a novel approach of farming with alternative pollinators, can increase yield and income. In 2013–2014, therefore, a 18-month-pilot project was set on a participatory basis in Uzbekistan, to test this farming with alternative pollinators approach on field and orchard crops. The practicability and the potential of the approach were tested in collaboration with seven smallholders, two commercial farmers, and two schools. We analyzed the yield and insect diversity (pollinators, predators, and pests) of seven cucumber fields in the Parkent district and four orchards of sour cherry in the Boysun district in Uzbekistan. Here we show that the fields with enhanced habitats faced higher diversity of pollinators and predators, but less pests than control fields. Furthermore, the farming with alternative pollinators approach doubled the yield of sour cherry in 2014 and highly increased the income from cucumber in 2013. In 2014, however, a climatic disaster influenced the results on cucumber in Parkent district. Ultimately, 94% of the farmers were willing to enhance pollinator habitats after being informed of these higher-yield figures. If more projects confirm that farming with alternative pollinators creates an economically self-sustaining incentive for farmers to improve habitats, this approach could contribute considerably to global pollinator protection and food security.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0433-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Land-use change from poplar to switchgrass and giant reed increases soil
           organic carbon
    • Authors: Andrea Nocentini; Andrea Monti
      Abstract: Abstract Switchgrass and giant reed can provide a dual contribution in reducing greenhouse-gas emissions through displacing fossil fuels and derivatives and increasing soil organic carbon. However, if it is generally true that displacing fossil fuels with biomass brings favorable effects, there is not as much evidence that perennial grasses increase soil organic carbon, as it mainly depends on the land-use change. The present study investigated, for the first time, the effects on soil organic carbon of the land-use change from poplar to switchgrass and giant reed. We addressed the soil organic carbon variation over 10 years of switchgrass and giant reed succeeding a 30-year poplar. Soil samplings were performed after 3 and 10 years from establishment down to 0.6 m depth. The results show that although the ability of poplar to store large quantities of soil C is widely demonstrated, the two perennial crops allowed to further increase soil organic carbon stocks; particularly, giant reed increased soil organic carbon at a double rate than switchgrass (0.19 and 0.09 g kg−1 year−1). The variation in soil organic carbon highly affected total greenhouse gas savings as estimated by a life-cycle assessment: 11–35 and 20–42% of total savings from switchgrass and giant reed, respectively, derived from increasing soil C stocks. These results highlight the importance of understanding long-term environmental- and crop-specific land-use-change effects in life-cycle assessments instead of applying coefficients to generic crop categories (e.g., perennial tree/crop) and crop sequences, as it normally happens.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0435-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • A new analytical framework of farming system and agriculture model
           diversities. A review
    • Authors: Olivier Therond; Michel Duru; Jean Roger-Estrade; Guy Richard
      Abstract: Abstract In most current farming system classifications (e.g. “conventional” versus “organic”), each type of farming system encompasses a wide variety of farming practices and performances. Classifying farming systems using concepts such as “ecological”, “sustainable intensification” or “agro-ecology” is not satisfactory because the concepts “overlap in…definitions, principles and practices, thus creating…confusion in their meanings, interpretations and implications”. Existing classifications most often focus either on biotechnical functioning or on socio-economic contexts of farming systems. We reviewed the literature to develop an original analytical framework of the diversity of farming systems and agriculture models that deal with these limits. To describe this framework, we first present the main differences between three biotechnical types of farming systems differing in the role of ecosystem services and external inputs: chemical input-, biological input- and biodiversity-based farming systems. Second, we describe four key socio-economic contexts which determine development and functioning of these farming systems: globalised commodity-based food systems, circular economies, alternative food systems and integrated landscape approaches. Third, we present our original analytical framework of agriculture models, defined as biotechnical types of farming systems associated with one or a combination of socio-economic contexts differing in the role of relationships based on global market prices and “territorial embeddedness”. We demonstrate the potential of this framework by describing six key agriculture models and reviewing key scientific issues in agronomy associated with each one. We then analyse the added value of our analytical framework and its generic character. Lastly, we discuss transversal research issues of the agriculture models, concerning the technologies required, their function in the bioeconomy, their multi-criteria and multi-level assessments, their co-existence and the transitions between them.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0429-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Biochar research activities and their relation to development and
           environmental quality. A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Khalid Mehmood; Elizabeth Chávez Garcia; Michael Schirrmann; Brenton Ladd; Claudia Kammann; Nicole Wrage-Mönnig; Christina Siebe; Jose M. Estavillo; Teresa Fuertes-Mendizabal; Mariluz Cayuela; Gilbert Sigua; Kurt Spokas; Annette L. Cowie; Jeff Novak; James A. Ippolito; Nils Borchard
      Abstract: Abstract Biochar is the solid product that results from pyrolysis of organic materials. Its addition to highly weathered soils changes physico-chemical soil properties, improves soil functions and enhances crop yields. Highly weathered soils are typical of humid tropics where agricultural productivity is low and needs to be raised to reduce human hunger and poverty. However, impact of biochar research on scientists, politicians and end-users in poor tropical countries remains unknown; assessing needs and interests on biochar is essential to develop reliable knowledge transfer/translation mechanisms. The aim of this publication is to present results of a meta-analysis conducted to (1) survey global biochar research published between 2010 and 2014 to assess its relation to human development and environmental quality, and (2) deduce, based on the results of this analysis, priorities required to assess and promote the role of biochar in the development of adapted and sustainable agronomic methods. Our main findings reveal for the very first time that: (1) biochar research associated with less developed countries focused on biochar production technologies (26.5 ± 0.7%), then on biochars’ impact on chemical soil properties (18.7 ± 1.2%), and on plant productivity (17.1 ± 2.6%); (2) China dominated biochar research activities among the medium developed countries focusing on biochar production technologies (26.8 ± 0.5%) and on use of biochar as sorbent for organic and inorganic compounds (29.1 ± 0.4%); and (3) the majority of biochar research (69.0±2.9%) was associated with highly developed countries that are able to address a higher diversity of questions. Evidently, less developed countries are eager to improve soil fertility and agricultural productivity, which requires transfer and/or translation of biochar knowledge acquired in highly developed countries. Yet, improving local research capacities and encouraging synergies across scientific disciplines and countries are crucial to foster development of sustainable agronomy in less developed countries.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0430-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
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