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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2350 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.641, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Agronomy for Sustainable Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.864
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 12  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1774-0746 - ISSN (Online) 1773-0155
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • First cropping system model based on expert-knowledge parameterization
    • Authors: Rémy Ballot; Chantal Loyce; Marie-Hélène Jeuffroy; Aïcha Ronceux; Julie Gombert; Claire Lesur-Dumoulin; Laurence Guichard
      Abstract: Models are promising tools to support the design of cropping systems toward sustainable agriculture. Process-based deterministic models are predominantly used, whereas most of them involve a limited range of crop techniques, and are unsuited to organic agriculture. Moreover, their parameterization and local adaptation require a large amount of experimental data. We thus designed a model simulating the yields of successive crops, taking into account the effects of most crop techniques embedded in a cropping system, and suited for both conventional and organic farming. This model was designed assuming that its parameterization, mostly based on expert-knowledge elicitation, could enlarge the range of environmental conditions and crop techniques considered. The PerSyst model involves three types of parameters based on expert knowledge: (i) reference yields reached in the most common cropping system conditions, (ii) yield change due to crop sequence variation, and (iii) yield change due to variation in crop management. These parameters are stochastic to report yield variability across climatic years. The model was parameterized through an original expert elicitation method—combining individual interviews and collective validation—on three case studies, including one in organic farming. Model accuracy was assessed for two long-term experiments. Parameters such as yield change due to crop sequence and to crop management were close among case studies, highlighting possibilities to compensate for a local lack of knowledge. Moreover, simulated yields in both experiments showed great consistency with observed yields, with average relative root-mean-square error of prediction of 15% for winter wheat and faba bean for example. For the first time, thanks to expert-knowledge parametrization, we built a cropping system model, considering all techniques, which could be easily tailored to a diversity of conditions, both in conventional and organic farming. Lastly, advantages and limits of the PerSyst model to assess innovative cropping systems were discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0512-8
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Milk fatty acids estimated by mid-infrared spectroscopy and milk yield can
           predict methane emissions in dairy cows
    • Authors: Stefanie W. Engelke; Gürbüz Daş; Michael Derno; Armin Tuchscherer; Werner Berg; Björn Kuhla; Cornelia C. Metges
      Abstract: Ruminant enteric methane emission contributes to global warming. Although breeding low methane-emitting cows appears to be possible through genetic selection, doing so requires methane emission quantification by using elaborate instrumentation (respiration chambers, SF6 technique, GreenFeed) not feasible on a large scale. It has been suggested that milk fatty acids are promising markers of methane production. We hypothesized that methane emission can be predicted from the milk fatty acid concentrations determined by mid-infrared spectroscopy, and the integration of energy-corrected milk yield would improve the prediction. Therefore, we examined relationships between methane emission of cows measured in respiration chambers and milk fatty acids, predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy, to derive diet-specific and general prediction equations based on milk fatty acid concentrations alone and with the additional consideration of energy-corrected milk yield. Cows were fed diets differing in forage type and linseed supplementation to generate a large variation in both CH4 emission and milk fatty acids. Depending on the diet, equations derived from regression analysis explained 61 to 96% of variation of methane emission, implying the potential of milk fatty acid data predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy as novel proxy for direct methane emission measurements. When data from all diets were analyzed collectively, the equation with energy-corrected milk yield (CH4 (L/day) = − 1364 + 9.58 × energy-corrected milk yield + 18.5 × saturated fatty acids + 32.4 × C18:0) showed an improved coefficient of determination of cross-validation R2CV = 0.72 compared to an equation without energy-corrected milk yield (R2CV = 0.61). Equations developed for diets supplemented by linseed showed a lower R2CV as compared to diets without linseed (0.39 to 0.58 vs. 0.50 to 0.91). We demonstrate for the first time that milk fatty acid concentrations predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy together with energy-corrected milk yield can be used to estimate enteric methane emission in dairy cows.
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0502-x
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Silicon enhancement of estimated plant biomass carbon accumulation under
           abiotic and biotic stresses. A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Zichuan Li; Zhaoliang Song; Zhifeng Yan; Qian Hao; Alin Song; Linan Liu; Xiaomin Yang; Shaopan Xia; Yongchao Liang
      Abstract: Abiotic and biotic stresses are the major factors limiting plant growth worldwide. Plants exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses often cause reduction in plant biomass as well as crop yield, resulting in plant biomass carbon loss. As a beneficial and quasi-essential element, silicon accumulation in rhizosphere and plants can alleviate the unfavorable effects of the major forms of abiotic and biotic stress through several resistance mechanisms and thus increases plant biomass accumulation and crop yield. The beneficial effects of silicon on plant growth and crop yield have been widely reviewed over the last years. However, carbon accumulation of silicon-associated plant biomass under abiotic and biotic stresses has not yet been systematically addressed. This review article focuses on both the main mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic and biotic stresses and their effects on plant biomass carbon accumulation in terrestrial ecosystems. The major points are the following: (1) the recovery of plant biomass via silicon mediation usually exhibits a bell-shaped response curve to abiotic stress severity and an S-shaped response curve to biotic stress severity; (2) although carbon concentration of plant biomass decreases with silicon accumulation, more than 96% of the recovered plant biomass contributes to plant biomass carbon accumulation; (3) silicon-mediated recovery generally increases plant biomass carbon by 35% and crop yield by 24%. In conclusion, silicon can improve plant growth and enhance plant biomass carbon accumulation under abiotic and biotic stresses in terrestrial ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0496-4
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Boron nutrition of rice in different production systems. A review
    • Authors: Atique-ur-Rehman; Muhammad Farooq; Abdul Rashid; Faisal Nadeem; Sabine Stuerz; Folkard Asch; Richard W. Bell; Kadambot H. M. Siddique
      Abstract: Half of the world’s population—more than 3.5 billion people—depend on rice for more than 20% of their daily energy requirements. Rice productivity is under threat for several reasons, particularly the deficiency of micronutrients, such as boron (B). Most rice-based cropping systems, including rice–wheat, are facing B deficiency as they are often practiced on high pH and alkaline soils with low B contents, low soil organic matter, and inadequate use of B fertilizer, which restricts the availability, uptake, and deposition of B into grains. Farmers’ reluctance to fertilize rice fields with B—due to the lack of cost-effective B-enriched macronutrient fertilizers—further exacerbates B deficiency in rice-based cropping systems. Here we review that, (i) while rice can tolerate excess B, its deficiency induces nutritional disorders, limits rice productivity, impairs grain quality, and affects the long-term sustainability of rice production systems. (ii) As B dynamics in the soil varies between flooded and aerobic rice systems, different B deficiency management strategies are needed in rice-based cropping systems. (iii) Correct diagnosis of B deficiency/toxicity in rice; understanding its interaction with other nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium; and the availability and application of B fertilizers using effective methods will help to improve the sustainability and productivity of different rice production systems. (iv) Research on rice-based systems should focus on breeding approaches, including marker-assisted selection and wide hybridization (incorporation of desirable genes), and biotechnological strategies, such as next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing, and genetic transformations to develop rice genotypes with improved B contents and abilities to acquire B from the soil. (v) Different B application strategies—seed priming and foliar and/or soil application—should be included to improve the performance of rice, particularly when grown under aerobic conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0504-8
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Is big data for big farming or for everyone' Perceptions in the
           Australian grains industry
    • Authors: Aysha Fleming; Emma Jakku; Lilly Lim-Camacho; Bruce Taylor; Peter Thorburn
      Abstract: Continued population growth and land intensification put increasing pressure on agricultural production and point to a need for a ‘step change’ in agriculture to meet the demand. Advances in digital technology—often encapsulated in the term ‘big data’—are increasingly assumed to be the way this challenge will be met. For this to be achieved, it is necessary to understand the ways that farmers and other industry stakeholders perceive big data and how big data might change the industry. It is also necessary to address emerging moral and ethical questions about access, cost, scale and support, which will determine whether farms will be able to be ‘big data enabled’. We conducted a discourse analysis of 26 interviews with stakeholders in the grains industry in Australia. Two main discourses were identified: (1) big data as a technology that will significantly benefit a few larger farms or businesses—Big Data is for Big Farming—and conversely (2) big data as a way for every farmer to benefit—Big Data is for Everyone. We relate these findings and the literature on adoption of technology and social studies in agriculture to the potential of farmers to embrace big data, from basic concerns about network infrastructure through to more complex issues of data collection and storage. The study highlights that there are key questions and issues that need to be addressed in further development of digital technology and big data in agriculture, specifically around trust, equity, distribution of benefits and access. This is the first study of big data in agriculture that takes a discourse analysis approach and thus interrogates the status quo and the prevailing norms and values driving decisions with impacts on both farmers and wider society.
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0501-y
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Landscape ecology and expanding range of biocontrol agent taxa enhance
           prospects for diamondback moth management. A review
    • Authors: Geoff M. Gurr; Olivia L. Reynolds; Anne C. Johnson; Nicolas Desneux; Myron P. Zalucki; Michael J. Furlong; Zhenyu Li; Komivi S. Akutse; Junhui Chen; Xiwu Gao; Minsheng You
      Abstract: Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is a globally significant pest of Brassicaceae crops that has attracted enormous research investment. It is typical of many agricultural pests, with insecticides remaining the most common method of control, despite frequent cases of resistance in pest populations and the potential for other management options such as natural enemies to provide suppression. Here we review scope to make better use of neglected natural enemy taxa and integrate recent work on landscape ecology to identify opportunities for more effective pest suppression. Our main findings are as follows: (1) relatively neglected taxa of natural enemies, especially predators and entomopathogens, are now attracting growing levels of research interest, although parasitoids remain most frequently used and researched; (2) knowledge of the spatio-temporal dynamics of populations at the landscape scale have advanced rapidly in the last decade; (3) ecological insights open new possibilities for exploiting spatial heterogeneity at scales larger than individual fields and even farms that influence pests and their natural enemies; (4) there is evidence for landscapes that selectively favor particular guilds and this knowledge could be developed to favor targeted natural enemies over pests in focal crops; and (5) landscape-scale effects can even over-ride field-scale management practices. The significance of these advances is that future management of diamondback moth and similar pests will benefit from a move away from reliance on the use of particular species of biological control agents, especially exotic parasitoids, and strategies that depend on use of broad-spectrum insecticides. Together with this move, we call for greater use of area-wide management that exploits the potential of landscapes to promote diverse assemblages of natural enemy species.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0500-z
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Allelopathy in Poaceae species present in Brazil. A review
    • Authors: Adriana Favaretto; Simone M. Scheffer-Basso; Naylor B. Perez
      Abstract: Allelopathy is an important ecological mechanism in natural and managed ecosystems. Its study is critical to understand natural plant behaviors, to isolate allelochemicals with herbicide potential, and to use the allelopathic genes in transgenic studies. Poaceae is an ecologically dominant plant family and it is economically important worldwide because its chemical diversity represents an important source to discover new molecules. From this viewpoint, Brazil is an interesting place to study, encompassing 197 genera of the Poaceae family, many of them being dominant in various biomes and some being native to Brazil. Here, we review the literature describing allelopathic activities involving grasses of the Poaceae family. We evaluate the experimental conditions used in these studies, we identify the allelochemicals involved, and, finally, we assess the applicability of allelopathy. Our main findings are (1) among the 47 Brazilian species studied for their allelopathic effects, only Bothriochloa barbinodis, Bothriochloa laguroides, Paspalum notatum, and Paspalum urvillei are native to Brazil; (2) 51% of the reviewed studies prepared extracts from the leaves and used lettuce as the target plant; and (3) 64% of the papers identified allelochemicals, of which 67% were phenolic acids. This first bibliographical survey on allelopathy in Poaceae species present in Brazil shows that less than 3% of the Brazilian species have been studied, suggesting it is an incipient research subject. Since this plant family is a valuable source of unknown natural products, refining such studies should contribute to a better understanding of the ecosystem relationships. Identification and isolation of grass allelochemicals should promote environmentally safer compounds with bioherbicide properties, in sustainable agriculture.
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0495-5
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Organic olive farming in Andalusia, Spain. A review
    • Authors: Carmen Rocío Rodríguez Pleguezuelo; Víctor Hugo Durán Zuazo; José Ramón Francia Martínez; Francisco José Martín Peinado; Francisco Moreno Martín; Iván Francisco García Tejero
      Abstract: Olive is a key crop in the Mediterranean basin, socially, economically, and environmentally, being a major source of rural employment. Organic products such as olive oil have attracted many types of consumers in recent years. In this context, the Mediterranean basin represents 5 Mha of the 10 Mha of olive farming worldwide, with Spain being the leading producer. Also, during the recent decades, olive farmers met the challenges of sustainability by implementing principles of agroecological production. Therefore, the focal point is no longer exclusively on yields but also on the quality, health, and environmental aspects of products and systems. In this work, we review and analyse the global situation of organic farming, focusing on the development, current status, perspectives, and opportunities of organic olive farming in Andalusia (S Spain). In addition, we assess the environmental benefits and consequences of the shift from conventional to organic management of olive orchards, focusing on the improvement of soil quality and biodiversity. Also, the general factors affecting the decision making for acquiring organic olive oil are discussed. Our main findings show the following: (1) It is necessary to encourage educational and research programmes to promote the demand for these products, positively affecting consumer health, protecting the environment, and improving rural economies. (2) The future of organic agriculture will depend on its economic viability and on the determination shown by governments to protect these practices. (3) Further support for funding research is needed to continue studying the effect of olive cultivation on soil biological quality, changes in soil properties, and biodiversity. More importantly, these beneficial extra outputs produced for society must be interiorised in economic value to compensate organic oil producers. (4) Finally, a clear understanding of attitudes and preferences, as well as the motivations of consumer when making the choice for organic olive products, is essential in responding to this specific demand. However, as stated above, major institutional and educational actions are also needed in order to boost sustainable organic olive farming and thus the preference for organic olive oil.
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0498-2
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Unraveling the contribution of periurban farming systems to urban food
           security in developed countries
    • Authors: Rosalia Filippini; Sylvie Lardon; Enrico Bonari; Elisa Marraccini
      Abstract: The debates on food security in developed countries have raised questions regarding the capacity of periurban farming systems to provide food for urban dwellers. Attention thus needs to be paid to what kind of food production is performed nearby cities. This study aims at developing a methodology to characterize the food production provided by periurban farming systems in terms of quality, quantity and crop production intensity. The case study is the Pisa’s urban area (Tuscany, Italy), which is illustrative of coastal Northern Mediterranean farming systems. The methodology was based on the construction of farm typologies considering 51 on-farm surveys using multivariate statistics (principal component analysis and cluster analysis). Farms were classified into six types, considering seven on-farm indicators. Results showed that the amount of production sold in the local food system is negatively correlated to the farm’s size and the amount of on-farm food production, thus indicating for local food policies the need to support the food allocation in local markets through specific agri-urban projects. In terms of food quality, we have shown for the first time that local food labels seem to positively impact urban markets rather than organic labels. Crop production intensity indicators have heterogeneous dynamics, which do not seem to depend on the farming system, nor on the farm’s involvement in local food systems. This could be an effect of the proximity to urban areas, a specific character of periurban farming systems, that should be carefully investigated in future research. This is the first time that territorial food production is analyzed combining indicators on food quantity, quality and crop production intensity at the farm level. Our results demonstrate that the highly heterogeneous dynamics of periurban farming systems in developed countries need to be accurately analyzed to develop more efficient food policies with benefits for the urban food security.
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0499-1
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Integrating links between tree coverage and cattle welfare in
           silvopastoral systems evaluation
    • Authors: Karen F. Mancera; Heliot Zarza; Lorena López de Buen; Apolo Adolfo Carrasco García; Felipe Montiel Palacios; Francisco Galindo
      Abstract: Livestock production in Latin America is strongly associated with deforestation. Silvopastoral systems are an alternative; however, the relation between animal welfare and tree coverage has been poorly studied. We hypothesized that a connection between these features exist and that its evaluation can influence system management decisions. A general assessment of tree coverage percentage and tree distribution in ten Mexican cattle ranches was performed using satellite images. Animal welfare indicators from the Welfare Quality® dairy cattle protocol measurable in extensive conditions were also assessed. Tree coverage percentage was highly variable and formed a gradient (52.42% in Ranch J2 to 2.00% in Ranch S1). The tree coverage percentage of two ranches was deemed as silvopastoral (between 22 and 35%). Body condition was better in ranches with high tree coverage compared to those with low (P < 0.05). The percentage of wooded grassland was negatively correlated with flight distance reductions (P < 0.05). Less integument alterations were present in high tree coverage ranches compared to low (P < 0.05). Our landscape analysis showed the presence of different vegetal compositions in silvopastoral systems of the Mexican tropics. This knowledge can be applied to improve management decisions and promote the use of silvopastoral systems in the area. Additionally, this is the first study proving a relationship between landscape structure and welfare indicators, since body condition and integument alterations were positively affected. Although our results need further research, similar analyses can be implemented to improve cattle well-being in production systems associated to trees. In conclusion, landscape analysis in combination with animal welfare measurements could increase productivity by identifying important links between cattle welfare and the presence of trees, as well as help to identify areas of further research for the implementation of silvopastoral systems in Mexico.
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0497-3
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Agricultural residues are efficient abrasive tools for weed control
    • Authors: Manuel Perez-Ruiz; Rocío Brenes; Jose M. Urbano; David C. Slaughter; Frank Forcella; Antonio Rodríguez-Lizana
      Abstract: Non-chemical control of weeds is essential for organic farming and is a potential solution to address herbicide-resistant weeds, but too few non-chemical control methods exist. Consumers, farmers, and regulators want organic produce, new tools, and fewer xenobiotics. New weed management strategies focused on the integration of different tools, and strategies are needed to minimize dependence on broad-spectrum herbicides. Accordingly, we assessed abrasive grits from eight agricultural sources (almond shell, grape seed, maize cob, olive seed, poultry manure, sand, soybean meal, and walnut shell) as weed-abrading materials when delivered at high air pressures. Grit efficacies were determined in laboratory trials on weeds common to tomato, sugar beet, and olive: Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium murale L., and Centaurea cyanus L., respectively. Additionally, application rates and costs of residues were estimated. Control of two- to three-leaf stage weed seedlings ranged from 30 to 100%. In 88% of the trials, weed control exceeded 80%. Except for sand, the effectiveness of the grits was not species dependent. Significant differences in the mass flow of grits suggested that effective doses may vary up to 100% among grit materials. The residue yield ratio (percent control per gram of grit) varied among residues, ranging from 2.8 to 7.1% g−1. We demonstrate that the best combination of weed control, grit dose, and residue yield ratio was provided by maize cob and olive seed, with control rates of 93 and 90%, respectively. This pioneering study simultaneously assessed residues from both herbaceous and woody crops as well as animal wastes and indicated that a more efficient and effective use of these resources for weed control is feasible.
      PubDate: 2018-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0494-6
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Composting with additives to improve organic amendments. A review
    • Authors: Justine Barthod; Cornelia Rumpel; Marie-France Dignac
      Abstract: Composting and vermicomposting are sustainable strategies to transform organic wastes into organic amendments, valuable as potting media or soil conditioner. However, the negative aspects of these processes are emissions of greenhouse gases and odorous molecules and final product potentially containing toxic compounds. These negative aspects can be limited through the addition of organic, inorganic or biological additives to the composted or vermicomposted mixture. The aims of this review are (1) to present the main characteristics of composting and vermicomposting processes with and without additives, (2) to show the influence of additives on greenhouse gas emissions during waste degradation and (3) to report the effects of additives on the properties of the final products (heavy metal and nutrient contents), in view of their use as a soil conditioner or potting media. Finally, the feasibility and potential environmental benefits of co-composting and co-vermicomposting are discussed. Our results show that additives affect composting parameters such as temperature, pH and moisture and thus have an impact on the composting process. They may be used to reduce gas emissions and mobility of mineral ions. The various additives have contrasting effects on the quality of the final product and its impact on soil quality. The use of worms and additives seems to increase plant available nutrient contents, while decreasing N leaching, heavy metal mobility and composting time. Co-composting and co-vermicomposting strategies need to be locally optimised, involving the generated amendments in a circular economy to improve sustainability of agricultural systems.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0491-9
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Complementary practices supporting conservation agriculture in southern
           Africa. A review
    • Authors: Christian Thierfelder; Frédéric Baudron; Peter Setimela; Isaiah Nyagumbo; Walter Mupangwa; Blessing Mhlanga; Nicole Lee; Bruno Gérard
      Abstract: Conservation agriculture (CA)—the simultaneous application of minimum soil disturbance, crop residue retention, and crop diversification—is a key approach to address declining soil fertility and the adverse effects of climate change in southern Africa. Applying the three defining principles of CA alone, however, is often not enough, and complementary practices and enablers are required to make CA systems more functional for smallholder farmers in the short and longer term. Here, we review 11 complementary practices and enablers grouped under six topical areas to highlight their critical need for functional CA systems, namely: (1) appropriate nutrient management to increase productivity and biomass; (2) improved stress-tolerant varieties to overcome biotic and abiotic stresses; (3) judicious use of crop chemicals to surmount pest, diseases, and weed pressure; (4) enhanced groundcover with alternative organic resources or diversification with green manures and agroforestry; (5) increased efficiency of planting and mechanization to reduce labor, facilitate timely planting, and to provide farm power for seeding; and (6) an enabling political environment and more harmonized and innovative extension approaches to streamline and foster CA promotional efforts. We found that (1) all 11 complementary practices and enablers substantially enhance the functioning of CA systems and some (e.g., appropriate nutrient management) are critically needed to close yield gaps; (2) practices and enablers must be tailored to the local farmer contexts; and (3) CA systems should either be implemented in a sequential approach, or initially at a small scale and grow from there, in order to increase feasibility for smallholder farmers. This review provides a comprehensive overview of practices and enablers that are required to improve the productivity, profitability, and feasibility of CA systems. Addressing these in southern Africa is expected to stimulate the adoption of CA by smallholders, with positive outcomes for soil health and resilience to climate change.
      PubDate: 2018-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0492-8
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Biological protection against grape berry moths. A review
    • Authors: Denis Thiéry; Philippe Louâpre; Lucile Muneret; Adrien Rusch; Gilles Sentenac; Fanny Vogelweith; Corentin Iltis; Jérôme Moreau
      Abstract: Grape is a major crop, covering 7.5 M ha worldwide, that is currently being confronted with three main challenges: intensive pesticide use that must be reduced, invasion by new pests/diseases, and climate change. The biological control of pests and vectors would help address these challenges. Here, we review the scientific literature on the biological control of grape moths by macroorganisms (excluding nematodes). Two components, biological control with an active human role, mainly using biocontrol agents through inundation or inoculation, and conservation biological control, are considered. The major points are the following. (1) Tortricid grape moths seriously damage grapes worldwide, causing yield losses and quality reduction. The more geographically widespread species, Lobesia botrana, continues to extend its range, invading South American and, more recently, North American vineyards. (2) Parasitoids and predators (including arthropods, birds, and bats) that can control grape pests are very diverse. (3) Different methods exist to assess pest control efficiency in the field but some of them remain to be developed. (4) Environmental factors, including host plants, landscape, grass or floral covers, and organic practices, affect the natural control of grape moths. (5) Pest resistance to parasitoids strongly depends on their immune system, which is controlled by the host plant. Future climate changes may modify this tritrophic interaction and thus affect biological control strategies. We conclude that biological control has a great deal of potential in viticulture and that addressing these key factors would improve the efficiency levels of biological control strategies. This would help growers and stakeholders to significantly reduce insecticide use in vineyards.
      PubDate: 2018-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0493-7
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review
    • Authors: Elin Röös; Axel Mie; Maria Wivstad; Eva Salomon; Birgitta Johansson; Stefan Gunnarsson; Anna Wallenbeck; Ruben Hoffmann; Ulf Nilsson; Cecilia Sundberg; Christine A. Watson
      Abstract: Current organic agriculture performs well in several sustainability domains, like animal welfare, farm profitability and low pesticide use, but yields are commonly lower than in conventional farming. There is now a re-vitalized interest in increasing yields in organic agriculture to provide more organic food for a growing, more affluent population and reduce negative impacts per unit produced. However, past yield increases have been accompanied by several negative side-effects. Here, we review risks and opportunities related to a broad range of sustainability domains associated with increasing yields in organic agriculture in the Northern European context. We identify increased N input, weed, disease and pest control, improved livestock feeding, breeding for higher yields and reduced losses as the main measures for yield increases. We review the implications of their implementation for biodiversity, greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient losses, soil fertility, animal health and welfare, human nutrition and health and farm profitability. Our findings from this first-of-its-kind integrated analysis reveal which strategies for increasing yields are unlikely to produce negative side-effects and therefore should be a high priority, and which strategies need to be implemented with great attention to trade-offs. For example, increased N inputs in cropping carry many risks and few opportunities, whereas there are many risk-free opportunities for improved pest control through the management of ecosystem services. For most yield increasing strategies, both risks and opportunities arise, and the actual effect depends on management including active mitigation of side-effects. Our review shows that, to be a driving force for increased food system sustainability, organic agriculture may need to reconsider certain fundamental principles. Novel plant nutrient sources, including increased nutrient recycling in society, and in some cases mineral nitrogen fertilisers from renewable sources, and truly alternative animal production systems may need to be developed and accepted.
      PubDate: 2018-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0489-3
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Trade-offs and synergies between yield, labor, profit, and risk in
           Malawian maize-based cropping systems
    • Abstract: Land degradation, population growth, and chronic poverty in Eastern and Southern Africa challenge the sustainability of livelihoods for smallholder farmers. These farmers often manage soils depleted of nutrients, apply limited amounts of mineral fertilizer, and take decisions about their cropping systems that involve multiple trade-offs. The rotation of cereals with legumes bears agronomic and ecological merit; however, the socio-economic implications of the cereal-legume rotation require a deeper understanding. This study explores the yield, labor, profit, and risk implications of different legume and mineral fertilizer practices in maize-based cropping systems in central Malawi. Our method involves coupling crop modeling and an agricultural household survey with a socio-economic analysis. We use a process-based cropping systems model to simulate the yield effects of integrating legumes into maize monocultures and applying mineral fertilizer over multiple seasons. We combine the simulated yields with socio-economic data from an agricultural household survey to calculate indicators of cropping-system performance. Our results show that a maize-groundnut rotation increases average economic profits by 75% compared with maize monoculture that uses more mineral fertilizer than in the rotation. The maize-groundnut rotation increases the stability of profits, reduces the likelihood of negative profits, and increases risk-adjusted profits. In contrast, the maize-groundnut rotation has a 54% lower average caloric yield and uses more labor than the maize monoculture with mineral fertilization. By comparing labor requirements with labor supply at the household scale, we show for the first time that the additional labor requirements of the maize-groundnut rotation can increase the likelihood of experiencing a labor shortage, if this rotation is undertaken by farm households in central Malawi. We demonstrate that risk and labor factors can be important when examining trade-offs among alternative cropping systems.
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0506-6
       
  • Sustainable management of nitrogen nutrition in winter wheat through
           temporary intercropping with legumes
    • Abstract: Wheat-legume temporary intercropping with legume devitalization in late winter can increase the N self-sufficiency of cropping systems and improve the N nutrition of wheat as a cash crop. However, this practice has been scarcely investigated. In this study, carried out in a Mediterranean environment with cold winters, we compared 14 treatments over 3 years with different weather patterns: (A) pure stands of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown at 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 kg N ha−1; (B) pure stands of faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor), pea (Pisum sativum L.), and squarrose clover (Trifolium squarrosum L.); (C) temporary intercrops of wheat and faba bean, pea, or clover; and (D) permanent intercrops of wheat and the same legumes. In the temporary intercrops, all legumes improved the wheat N availability compared with the unfertilized control. The “N effect” of legumes for wheat was consistent across years and proportional to the competitive ability of the legumes, i.e., faba bean > pea > clover. The higher the legume competitive ability, the higher was its N accumulation before devitalization, and the higher/earlier was the N supplied to wheat. Our findings demonstrate that the date of legume devitalization represents a key factor to be managed each year in order to maximize legume N supply while preventing excessive legume competition, which could undermine wheat growth and yield. Such a modulation was not possible in permanent intercrops, where legume competition depressed wheat grain yield. The N supplied with legume devitalization increased wheat grain N accumulation during grain filling. This is the first work comparing temporary and permanent intercrops of wheat with different legumes and over different seasons. Overall, temporary intercropping appears to be a feasible and efficient tool for the sustainable management of N nutrition in winter wheat.
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0509-3
       
  • Candidate metabolites for methane mitigation in the forage legume
           biserrula
    • Abstract: The forage legume species biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus) is among a few forage species with low enteric methane emission when fermented by rumen microbes and it is unclear whether metabolites in biserrula play a role in this. The hypothesis of this study was that specific metabolites in biserrula are candidate biomarkers for and associated with low methanogenesis. We characterized the metabolomic profiles of 30 accessions of biserrula or its core collection using nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. These profiles were then analyzed for association with methanogenesis potential in the rumen. Metabolomic profile was predictive of methanogenesis. Forty-seven putative metabolites were identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry that were highly expressed (P < 0.05) in the associations with low methanogenic potential. Fragmentation analysis of a subset of these metabolites suggested saponins, with one feature tentatively identified as an ursolic or oleanolic terpene glucoside, consistent with the nuclear magnetic resonance data. Accessions with Eritrean geographic origin were metabolomic outliers. Here, we show for the first time that some metabolites contribute to the methane mitigation effects of biserrula. If in vivo results confirm this, the environmental impact of this study would be the availability of biomolecules for livestock vaccination to mitigate methane emission resulting in an economic impact of lower cost of production in countries with a price on environmental emissions.
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0510-x
       
  • Thirteen decades of antimicrobial copper compounds applied in agriculture.
           A review
    • Abstract: Since the initial use of Bordeaux mixture in 1885 for plant disease control, a large number of copper-based antimicrobial compounds (CBACs) have been developed and applied for crop protection. While these compounds have revolutionized crop protection in the twentieth century, their continuous and frequent use has also raised concerns about the long-term sustainability of copper (Cu)-based crop protection system. Here, we review CBACs used in crop protection and highlight their benefits and risks, and potential for their improvement and opportunities for further research to develop alternatives to CBACs. The major findings are (i) the relatively high toxicity to plant pathogens, low cost, low mammalian toxicity of the fixed Cu compounds, and their chemical stability and prolonged residual effects are major benefits of these compounds; (ii) phytotoxicity, development of copper-resistant strains, soil accumulation, and negative effects on soil biota as well as on food quality parameters are key disadvantages of CBACs; (iii) regulatory pressure in agriculture worldwide to limit the use of CBACs has led to several restrictions, including that imposed by the regulation 473/2002 in the European Union; and (iv) mitigation strategies to limit the negative effects of CBACs include their optimized use, soil remediation, and development and application of alternatives to CBACs for a sustainable crop protection. We conclude that recent research and policy efforts have led to the development of a number of alternatives to CBACs, which should be further intensified to ensure that growers have sufficient tools for the implementation of sustainable crop protection strategies.
      PubDate: 2018-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0503-9
       
  • Yield and fruit quality of grafted tomatoes, and their potential for soil
           fumigant use reduction. A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Grafted fresh market tomatoes are widely used in commercial production throughout Europe and Asia, and interest among commercial producers in the Americas has increased in recent years. Many field trials have found dramatic net economic return increases relative to non-grafted scion cultivars. However, optimal yields require growing conditions that satisfy the agronomic needs of both rootstock and scion cultivars. Most commercial rootstocks are resistant to multiple soilborne pathogens, allowing grafted plants to maintain high yields in pathogen-infested fields without the use of soil pesticides, including fumigants. Here we comprehensively and quantitatively review, for the first time, all available published trial data on fruit quality and yield of grafted tomatoes. Collectively, 159 publications included 202 different rootstocks, 126 geographic locations, and 1023 experimental treatments. Yield performance varies with the specific rootstock/scion combinations and with the conditions of a given production system. Among 949 heterograft treatments (rootstock/scion of different cultivars), grafted plant yields were not significantly higher in 65% of the cases, yet they averaged a 37% yield increase for all data. In addition, grafted/non-grafted yield ratios in 105 experimental treatments with rootstock ‘Maxifort’ varied dramatically by scion. However, European trials used completely different scions than US trials, so the roles of scion and geographical differences remain unclear. Concerns that grafting might contribute to inferior fruit quality (pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, lycopene, vitamin C, firmness, “taste”) seem unfounded in general, though isolated cases show dramatic differences. Grafted tomatoes show promise to reduce the usage of various soilborne pathogen treatments, with 33% of commercial tomato rootstocks either resistant or highly resistant to seven or more common soilborne pathogens. Our approach integrated trial data from around the world, though limitations in available data complicated our analysis of relationships between some experimental variables and fruit yields and quality.
      PubDate: 2018-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0507-5
       
 
 
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