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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Agronomy for Sustainable Development
  [SJR: 1.732]   [H-I: 59]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1774-0746 - ISSN (Online) 1773-0155
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Azolla planting reduces methane emission and nitrogen fertilizer
           application in double rice cropping system in southern China
    • Authors: Heshui Xu; Bo Zhu; Jingna Liu; Dengyun Li; Yadong Yang; Kai Zhang; Ying Jiang; Yuegao Hu; Zhaohai Zeng
      Abstract: Rice paddies are a major source of methane. How to reduce the methane emission in the paddy field without decreasing the yield has become a major concern of scientists, environmental groups, and agricultural policymakers worldwide. Azolla, used as a dual crop in rice cultivation, has multiple agronomic benefits. However, the effects of the dual cropping of Azolla on methane emissions of double rice cropping paddies have not yet been reported. Here, we conducted a 3-year field experiment to evaluate the impacts of rice + Azolla on methane emission and rice yield in a double rice cropping system. The results indicated that the rice + Azolla without N fertilizer and with moderate N fertilizer (200 kg N ha−1 a−1) significantly reduced methane emissions over the rice cycle by 12.3 and 25.3% compared with the conventional rice cropping with common N fertilizer (400 kg N ha−1 a−1), respectively. The reason for the trend was because the dual cropping of Azolla has significant effect on dissolved oxygen and soil redox potential, which are key factors for methane emission in this study. The rice yield under the rice + Azolla with moderate N fertilizer annually averaged 12.7 Mg ha−1, which was comparable with that of the conventional rice cropping with common N fertilizer. Moreover, the rice + Azolla with moderate N fertilizer had the lowest yield-scaled methane (25.2 kg Mg−1 grain yield). Here, we showed for the first time that Azolla planting allows sustainable rice production coupled with methane mitigation in double rice cropping systems.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0440-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Greenhouse gas abatement costs are heterogeneous between Australian grain
    • Authors: Nikki P. Dumbrell; Marit E. Kragt; Elizabeth A. Meier; Jody S. Biggs; Peter J. Thorburn
      Abstract: Globally, agriculture is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The environment (e.g., soils and climate) and management influence agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and the potential to reduce emissions. For agriculture to contribute to greenhouse gas abatement in the long term, it is important to identify low-cost mitigation actions that farmers can adopt. It is hypothesized that greenhouse gas abatement potential and the associated costs will differ substantially between environments in Australia. Seven alternative management scenarios were identified as both suitable for adoption across different grain growing environments in Australia and potentially able to provide greenhouse gas abatement. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator was used to simulate these alternative management scenarios over a 25-year period and analyze the potential for Australian grain farmers, across contrasting environments, to increase soil organic carbon stocks and/or reduce nitrous oxide emissions. This analysis was paired with a whole-farm economic analysis to determine the implications of the different greenhouse gas abatement scenarios on farm profitability. Results from case studies in Australia’s three main grain growing regions demonstrate that significant heterogeneity exists in the biophysical potential and costs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions across locations. The maximum predicted abatement potential for the case study sites varied from 0.34 to 2.03 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents per hectare per year. In most simulations, greenhouse gas abatement came at a cost to farmers ranging from 0.11 Australian dollars (AUD) to more than 300 AUD per metric ton of abated carbon dioxide equivalent. This is the first study to explore the costs of mitigation including multiple greenhouse gases and grain farming case studies across Australia. These findings can inform the future development of effective climate change mitigation policies, which frequently use national default values in their design.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0438-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • First national-wide survey of trace elements in Cuban urban agriculture
    • Authors: Mirelys Rodríguez Alfaro; Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento; Olegario Muñiz Ugarte; Alfredo Montero Álvarez; Adriana María de Aguiar Accioly; Bernardo Calero Martín; Teudys Limeres Jiménez; Milagros Ginebra Aguilar
      Abstract: Over the last three decades, urban agriculture has been improving food security in Cuba by providing fresh vegetables within and on the outskirts of cities and villages. However, organic fertilizers and substrates that are used in urban agriculture systems can be contaminated by trace elements and accordingly pose risks to human health. This study was carried out to measure the concentrations of cadmium, lead, arsenic, selenium, mercury, nickel, and chromium in composts and substrates used in Cuba’s urban agriculture, as well as in vegetables grown in this cropping system to assess risks to human health. Extraction of trace elements from samples was performed with a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acid in a microwave oven. Cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium were determined via optical emission spectrometry, and mercury, selenium, and arsenic were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled with a hydride generation system. We demonstrated that the concentrations of trace elements in organic fertilizers, with the exception of compost from municipal solid waste, were within permissible values and do not pose risks to human health. The compost produced from municipal solid waste and the substrates prepared with this material presented cadmium and lead concentrations above maximum permissible concentrations. This work represents the first national-wide survey of trace elements in Cuban urban agriculture. As a result of this investigation, the use of municipal-solid-waste compost for food production was forbidden in Cuba.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0437-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Agro-ecological functions of crop residues under conservation agriculture.
           A review
    • Authors: Lalaina Ranaivoson; Krishna Naudin; Aude Ripoche; François Affholder; Lilia Rabeharisoa; Marc Corbeels
      Abstract: Conservation agriculture, which is based on minimum tillage, permanent soil cover and crop rotations, has widely been promoted as a practice to maintain or improve soil quality and enhance crop productivity. To a large extent, the beneficial effects of conservation agriculture are expected to be provided by permanent soil cover with crop residues. Surface crop residues play an important role for crop growth through their benefits on soil-related structural components and processes in the agro-ecosystem, referred to in this study as agro-ecological functions. Through a meta-analysis of the literature, we have studied the relative effects of surface crop residue levels on the performance of a set of agro-ecological functions compared with a no-till bare soil, i.e., without surface residues. The selected agro-ecological functions were soil water evaporation control, soil water infiltration, soil water runoff control, soil loss control, soil nutrient availability, soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and gains, weed control and soil meso- and macrofauna abundance. The potential effects of crop residue cover were quantified using boundary line models. Our main findings were (1) 8 t ha−1 of residues were needed to decrease soil water evaporation by about 30% compared to no-till bare soil. (2) To achieve the maximum effect on soil water infiltration, water runoff and soil loss control, residue amounts of at least 2 t ha−1 were required. (3) The effect of increasing the amounts of surface crop residues on soil nutrient supply (N, P and K) was relatively low; the boundary line models were not significant. (4) The average annual SOC gain increased with increasing amounts of residues, with a mean of 0.38 t C ha−1 year−1 with 4 to 5 t ha−1 of residues. (5) Weed emergence and biomass can be reduced by 50% compared to a no-till bare soil with residue amounts of 1 t ha−1 or more. (6) There was a weak response in soil meso- and macrofauna abundance to increasing amounts of surface crop residues. The maximum effect corresponded to an increase of 45% compared to a no-till bare soil and was reached from 10 t ha−1 of residues. Our findings suggest that optimal amounts of surface residues in the practice of conservation agriculture will largely depend on the type of constraints to crop production which can be addressed with mulching.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0432-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Application of secondary nutrients and micronutrients increases crop
           yields in sub-Saharan Africa
    • Authors: Job Kihara; Gudeta Weldesemayat Sileshi; Generose Nziguheba; Michael Kinyua; Shamie Zingore; Rolf Sommer
      Abstract: Secondary and micronutrients are important in enhancing crop productivity; yet, they are hardly studied in sub-Sahara Africa. In this region, the main focus has been on macronutrients but there is emerging though scattered evidence of crop productivity limitations by the secondary and micronutrients. Elsewhere, widespread deficiencies of these nutrients are associated with stagnation of yields. Here, we undertake a meta-analysis using 40 articles reporting crop response to secondary and micronutrients to (1) determine the productivity increase of crops and nutrient use efficiency associated with these nutrients, and (2) provide synthesis of responses to secondary nutrients and micronutrients in sub-Sahara Africa. This study used 757 yield data rows (530 from publications and 227 from Africa Soil Information Service) from field trials carried out in SSA between 1969 and 2013 in 14 countries. Data from publications constituted response to S (49.4%), Zn (23.0%), S and micronutrient combinations (11.5%), and <10% each for Cu, Mo, Fe, and B. Data from Africa Soil Information Service were all for S and micronutrient combinations. Of the two sources, most yield data are for maize (73.6%), followed by sorghum (6.7%) and wheat (6.1%) while rice, cowpea, faba bean, tef, and soybean each accounted for less than 5%. The major points are the following: (1) application of S and micronutrients increased maize yield by 0.84 t ha−1 (i.e., 25%) over macronutrient only treatment and achieved agronomic efficiencies (kilograms of grain increase per kilogram of micronutrient added) between 38 and 432 and (2) response ratios were >1 for S and all micronutrients, i.e., the probability of response ratio exceeding 1 was 0.77 for S and 0.83 for Zn, 0.95 for Cu, and 0.92 for Fe, and indicates positive crop response for a majority of farmers. We conclude that S and micronutrients are holding back crop productivity especially on soils where response to macronutrients is low and that more research is needed to unravel conditions under which application of S and micronutrients may pose financial risks.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0431-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Farming with alternative pollinators increases yields and incomes of
           cucumber and sour cherry
    • Authors: Stefanie Christmann; Aden Aw-Hassan; Toshpulot Rajabov; Aloviddin S. Khamraev; Athanasios Tsivelikas
      Abstract: Pollinator decline is acknowledged worldwide and constitutes a major subject of environmental research. Nevertheless, farmers’ efforts to protect pollinators in agricultural lands remain very limited, in particular if no compensation scheme is applicable. Current research focuses on measuring pollinator diversity in different landscapes, but research on income gains, due to habitat enhancement and high pollinator diversity, may have greater potential to induce farmers’ field management changes. In 2012, it was suggested for the first time that farmers’ motivation would be triggered if the demonstration was made that enhancing pollinator habitats, with a novel approach of farming with alternative pollinators, can increase yield and income. In 2013–2014, therefore, a 18-month-pilot project was set on a participatory basis in Uzbekistan, to test this farming with alternative pollinators approach on field and orchard crops. The practicability and the potential of the approach were tested in collaboration with seven smallholders, two commercial farmers, and two schools. We analyzed the yield and insect diversity (pollinators, predators, and pests) of seven cucumber fields in the Parkent district and four orchards of sour cherry in the Boysun district in Uzbekistan. Here we show that the fields with enhanced habitats faced higher diversity of pollinators and predators, but less pests than control fields. Furthermore, the farming with alternative pollinators approach doubled the yield of sour cherry in 2014 and highly increased the income from cucumber in 2013. In 2014, however, a climatic disaster influenced the results on cucumber in Parkent district. Ultimately, 94% of the farmers were willing to enhance pollinator habitats after being informed of these higher-yield figures. If more projects confirm that farming with alternative pollinators creates an economically self-sustaining incentive for farmers to improve habitats, this approach could contribute considerably to global pollinator protection and food security.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0433-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • Land-use change from poplar to switchgrass and giant reed increases soil
           organic carbon
    • Authors: Andrea Nocentini; Andrea Monti
      Abstract: Switchgrass and giant reed can provide a dual contribution in reducing greenhouse-gas emissions through displacing fossil fuels and derivatives and increasing soil organic carbon. However, if it is generally true that displacing fossil fuels with biomass brings favorable effects, there is not as much evidence that perennial grasses increase soil organic carbon, as it mainly depends on the land-use change. The present study investigated, for the first time, the effects on soil organic carbon of the land-use change from poplar to switchgrass and giant reed. We addressed the soil organic carbon variation over 10 years of switchgrass and giant reed succeeding a 30-year poplar. Soil samplings were performed after 3 and 10 years from establishment down to 0.6 m depth. The results show that although the ability of poplar to store large quantities of soil C is widely demonstrated, the two perennial crops allowed to further increase soil organic carbon stocks; particularly, giant reed increased soil organic carbon at a double rate than switchgrass (0.19 and 0.09 g kg−1 year−1). The variation in soil organic carbon highly affected total greenhouse gas savings as estimated by a life-cycle assessment: 11–35 and 20–42% of total savings from switchgrass and giant reed, respectively, derived from increasing soil C stocks. These results highlight the importance of understanding long-term environmental- and crop-specific land-use-change effects in life-cycle assessments instead of applying coefficients to generic crop categories (e.g., perennial tree/crop) and crop sequences, as it normally happens.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0435-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
  • A new analytical framework of farming system and agriculture model
           diversities. A review
    • Authors: Olivier Therond; Michel Duru; Jean Roger-Estrade; Guy Richard
      Abstract: In most current farming system classifications (e.g. “conventional” versus “organic”), each type of farming system encompasses a wide variety of farming practices and performances. Classifying farming systems using concepts such as “ecological”, “sustainable intensification” or “agro-ecology” is not satisfactory because the concepts “overlap in…definitions, principles and practices, thus creating…confusion in their meanings, interpretations and implications”. Existing classifications most often focus either on biotechnical functioning or on socio-economic contexts of farming systems. We reviewed the literature to develop an original analytical framework of the diversity of farming systems and agriculture models that deal with these limits. To describe this framework, we first present the main differences between three biotechnical types of farming systems differing in the role of ecosystem services and external inputs: chemical input-, biological input- and biodiversity-based farming systems. Second, we describe four key socio-economic contexts which determine development and functioning of these farming systems: globalised commodity-based food systems, circular economies, alternative food systems and integrated landscape approaches. Third, we present our original analytical framework of agriculture models, defined as biotechnical types of farming systems associated with one or a combination of socio-economic contexts differing in the role of relationships based on global market prices and “territorial embeddedness”. We demonstrate the potential of this framework by describing six key agriculture models and reviewing key scientific issues in agronomy associated with each one. We then analyse the added value of our analytical framework and its generic character. Lastly, we discuss transversal research issues of the agriculture models, concerning the technologies required, their function in the bioeconomy, their multi-criteria and multi-level assessments, their co-existence and the transitions between them.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0429-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Biochar research activities and their relation to development and
           environmental quality. A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Khalid Mehmood; Elizabeth Chávez Garcia; Michael Schirrmann; Brenton Ladd; Claudia Kammann; Nicole Wrage-Mönnig; Christina Siebe; Jose M. Estavillo; Teresa Fuertes-Mendizabal; Mariluz Cayuela; Gilbert Sigua; Kurt Spokas; Annette L. Cowie; Jeff Novak; James A. Ippolito; Nils Borchard
      Abstract: Biochar is the solid product that results from pyrolysis of organic materials. Its addition to highly weathered soils changes physico-chemical soil properties, improves soil functions and enhances crop yields. Highly weathered soils are typical of humid tropics where agricultural productivity is low and needs to be raised to reduce human hunger and poverty. However, impact of biochar research on scientists, politicians and end-users in poor tropical countries remains unknown; assessing needs and interests on biochar is essential to develop reliable knowledge transfer/translation mechanisms. The aim of this publication is to present results of a meta-analysis conducted to (1) survey global biochar research published between 2010 and 2014 to assess its relation to human development and environmental quality, and (2) deduce, based on the results of this analysis, priorities required to assess and promote the role of biochar in the development of adapted and sustainable agronomic methods. Our main findings reveal for the very first time that: (1) biochar research associated with less developed countries focused on biochar production technologies (26.5 ± 0.7%), then on biochars’ impact on chemical soil properties (18.7 ± 1.2%), and on plant productivity (17.1 ± 2.6%); (2) China dominated biochar research activities among the medium developed countries focusing on biochar production technologies (26.8 ± 0.5%) and on use of biochar as sorbent for organic and inorganic compounds (29.1 ± 0.4%); and (3) the majority of biochar research (69.0±2.9%) was associated with highly developed countries that are able to address a higher diversity of questions. Evidently, less developed countries are eager to improve soil fertility and agricultural productivity, which requires transfer and/or translation of biochar knowledge acquired in highly developed countries. Yet, improving local research capacities and encouraging synergies across scientific disciplines and countries are crucial to foster development of sustainable agronomy in less developed countries.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0430-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Sustainable management of chickpea pod borer. A review
    • Authors: Somanagouda B. Patil; Aakash Goyal; Satish S. Chitgupekar; Shiv Kumar; Mustapha El-Bouhssini
      Abstract: The pod borer [Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is responsible for causing up to 90% damage in chickpea due to its regular occurrence from the vegetative growth to the pod formation stage. In order to manage this problem, growers are tempted to increase the amounts of pesticides, but indiscriminate or injudicious use of pesticides has resulted in residues in the food chain, pesticide resistance, and pest resurgence, in addition to causing harm to non-targeted beneficial organisms and the environment. Here, we reviewed the sustainable approaches to reduce the incidence of pod borer and achieve sustainability in chickpea production systems through the adoption of an integrated approach involving host plant resistance, good agronomic practices, and judicious use of chemical and biological methods. We found that the following major points have been reported to reduce the survival and damage of pod borer: (1) use of resistant varieties (the cheapest and the best method of pod borer management); (2) implementing a number of good agronomic practices, such as early sowing with optimum planting density and fertilizer levels, including inter/trap crops (coriander, mustard, linseed, sunflower, sorghum, and marigold) and installing animated bird perches and T-perches at 2 m distance of predatory zones; and (3) monitoring pod borer through pheromone traps (which is also necessary to understand the major factors influencing pest population and to make the pest control program more effective). Integrating all of these approaches with biological control has shown some encouraging results for sustainable pod borer management and has resulted in high chickpea yields. This review highlights examples of successful management approaches from past studies that were implemented in experimental and farmers’ fields. These approaches can be explored as reproducible practices for managing the pest in locations with similar H. armigera concerns. We conclude that an integrated approach is most effective for long-term sustainable management programs.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0428-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Converting to organic viticulture increases cropping system structure and
           management complexity
    • Authors: Anne Merot; Jacques Wery
      Abstract: Organic viticulture is an effective cultivation method that can reduce the environmental impacts of grape growing while maintaining profitability. For some vineyards, simple adjustments can suffice to make the conversion to organic farming; however, for most, major changes in system structure and management must be implemented. Here, we showed for the first time that converting to organic viticulture impacts vineyard complexity. We used six complexity indicators to assess modifications to cropping system structure and management: number of fields, number of difficult-to-manage fields, vineyard area, number of field interventions, number of technical management sequences, and number of management indicators. These six indicators were assessed through interviews carried out with winegrowers from 16 vineyards between 2008 and 2012. Changes in vineyard performances during conversion were also measured. We demonstrate that conversion to organic viticulture increased the complexity of vineyard structure and management for the 16 vineyards surveyed. While this increase allowed agronomic performances in all vineyards to be maintained, it also came with an increase in labor requirements (of up to 56%) compared to conventional agriculture. We conclude that the six indicators are appropriate for assessing changes in vineyard complexity and could be extended to all agricultural systems to better anticipate the implications of organic farming conversion for a farm’s biophysical, technical, and decisional subsystems.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0427-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Stearic sunflower oil as a sustainable and healthy alternative to palm
           oil. A review
    • Authors: Sanyal Anushree; Merrien André; Decocq Guillaume; Fine Frédéric
      Abstract: Palm oil is widely used in the food industry because of its lower cost, high oxidative stability index, long shelf-life, and a reasonable replacement of trans fats. However, increased palm oil production reduces biodiversity, damages the ecosystem, and poses health risks to humans. Unsustainable development of palm plantations has caused deforestation and loss of natural habitat, rendering many species (Sumatran orangutans, elephants, and tigers) critically endangered. Similarly, decomposition and burning of carbon-rich soil in vast and deep peatlands is increasing carbon emissions. Furthermore, excessive consumption of palmitic acid (and other saturated fats except stearic acid) increases bad cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we need healthier, stable, and solid/semi-solid oils at room temperature with longer shelf-life and without trans fats. Here, we review the advancements in the development of sunflower oil varieties containing high stearic (∼18%) and high oleic (∼70%) acids which makes them healthy and sustainable alternatives to palm oil. First, the high-stearic-high-oleic sunflower crops can have grain and oil yield as high as 4036 and 1685 kg/ha and oleic and stearic acid yield up to ∼73 and ∼21%. Second, high-stearic-high-oleic oils obtained from mutant and hybrid sunflower cultivars have higher oxidative stability index and therefore have better stability, quality, and functionality than regular sunflower oil. For example, the oxidative stability index of commercially available Nutrisun at 110 °C is six times greater than that of regular sunflower oil. Finally, recent advances have made several mutant and hybrid cultivars with high grain and oil yield and high levels of stearic and oleic acids available. Given this progress, natural healthy high-stearic-high-oleic sunflower oil can now be grown in both the hemispheres in a sustainable manner with the currently available advanced technology and without damaging the ecosystem as is currently happening with palm oil cultivation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0426-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Long-term negative phosphorus budgets in organic crop rotations deplete
           plant-available phosphorus from soil
    • Authors: Magdalena Ohm; Hans Marten Paulsen; Jan Hendrik Moos; Bettina Eichler-Löbermann
      Abstract: In organic farming, phosphorus (P) can be imported in mineral form with rock phosphate, feedstuff for livestock or suitable organic fertilizers. Many organic farmers, however, rely on biological activation of soil P reserves and tolerate P deficits, not knowing when soil reserves will be depleted. We hypothesized that under conditions of a long-term negative P budget in organic farming, the decline in readily available soil P pools would be less pronounced in dairy systems (arable land and grassland) than in stockless systems (arable land), due to higher shares of forage legumes in crop rotations, longer plant soil coverage, and manure backflow. From 2001 to 2013, we analyzed those systems on one site in North Germany. We assessed topsoil for plant-available soil P concentration [P(CAL)], mineral soil P fractions (Hedley), organic P, acid and alkaline phosphatase, and microbial activity (dehydrogenase). We measured P(CAL) each year on all fields of the crop rotations and grassland. The other soil characteristics were determined only in selected fields in 2001, 2009, and 2013. We observed that in grassland, all mineral P fractions, organic P contents, and microbial activity were considerably higher than in arable fields. On average, soil P(CAL) content decreased significantly in all systems (stockless arable −1.71, dairy arable −1.41, grassland −3.18 mg P kg−1 year−1), but the soil threshold value deemed to be sufficient for P supply (>44 mg kg−1) was preserved. The readily available inorganic P fractions (H2O-P, NaHCO3-P) were also lower in 2013 than in 2001. Our data does not support a different development in either arable system. We could show that higher shares of forage legumes and manure recycling in an organic mixed arable dairy crop rotation and grassland do not necessarily mitigate decreases of plant-available P contents in soil as compared to a stockless system.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0425-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Precision farming for increased land and labour productivity in semi-arid
           West Africa. A review
    • Authors: Jens B. Aune; Adama Coulibaly; Ken E. Giller
      Abstract: Farmers in the semi-arid regions of West Africa face challenges related to poor crop establishment, variable rainfall, low soil fertility and a shortage of labour at times of peak demand. Farmers are generally low on resources. Given these conditions, it is important to develop farming practices that make efficient use of the available resources and reduce risks. Here, we review agricultural intensification in semi-arid West Africa using the principles of precision farming to assess the possibilities they offer. The basic idea is to create a favourable micro-environment in the planting pocket and to ensure timely sowing and weeding. In the context of precision farming in the semi-arid West Africa, this means (1) large seeds are selected, primed and treated with a mix of pesticides/fungicides. Seed priming increases yields in the order of 20 to 30%, while seed treatment increases yields by 15%. (2) Mineral fertilizers are applied; at doses as low as 0.3 g of fertilizer per pocket, they have been found to increase yields by half or more. (3) Seeds and fertilizers are distributed accurately by means of a combined planter-weeder, which can be motorized. (4) Mechanized sowing and weeding enable timely farm operations and reduce the workload. (5) Water loss is prevented by using zaï and stone bunds on soils with high run-off rates. (6) Care is taken to make use of farm resources in a targeted and efficient way. This can imply adjusting micro-doses of manure and fertilizer to crops (sorghum needs less than millet) and soil types, sequenced sowing of crops according to their vulnerability to delayed sowing and applying organic input to soils. This paper is the first to review agricultural intensification in semi-arid West Africa within the context of precision farming. It shows how a low-cost package for precision farming can be developed, which can help to increase land and labour productivity, and works with all the major field crops in the region.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0424-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Wild flower resources and insect honeydew are potential food items for
           Elasmus flabellatus
    • Authors: Maria Villa; Sónia A. P. Santos; António Mexia; Albino Bento; José Alberto Pereira
      Abstract: Adult parasitoids need non-host food such as nectar or honeydew for survival and reproduction. In a conservation biological control strategy, the knowledge about non-host feeding of parasitoid species is a key factor to successfully increase their action. The nutritional behavior of Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a major parasitoid of the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), is completely unknown. Survival experiments were performed on two secondary olive pest honeydews and eight common flowering plant species in order to analyze their suitability as potential food sources for E. flabellatus females. Abdomen and gut dissections were carried out to verify the pollen consumption and the egg production. Floral architecture and insect morphology were described. Cox’s proportional hazard regression models were used to analyze the differences between parasitoid survivals. Honeydews secreted by Saissetia oleae (Olivier) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) and Euphyllura olivina (Costa) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) resulted in the best performance followed by the flowers of Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae), Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae), and the Cichorioideae Tolpis barbata (L.) and Andryala integrifolia L. Theoretical flower resources accessibility were assessed and related with the survival results. E. flabellatus females did not consume pollen and did not produce eggs, suggesting that the species is synovigenic and requires additional foods for egg production. In sustainable pest control programs, this novel knowledge is a promising opportunity for improving suitable food resources of E. flabellatus in the field.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0423-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Increasing soil carbon storage: mechanisms, effects of agricultural
           practices and proxies. A review
    • Authors: Marie-France Dignac; Delphine Derrien; Pierre Barré; Sébastien Barot; Lauric Cécillon; Claire Chenu; Tiphaine Chevallier; Grégoire T Freschet; Patricia Garnier; Bertrand Guenet; Mickaël Hedde; Katja Klumpp; Gwenaëlle Lashermes; Pierre-Alain Maron; Naoise Nunan; Catherine Roumet; Isabelle Basile-Doelsch
      Abstract: The international 4 per 1000 initiative aims at supporting states and non-governmental stakeholders in their efforts towards a better management of soil carbon (C) stocks. These stocks depend on soil C inputs and outputs. They are the result of fine spatial scale interconnected mechanisms, which stabilise/destabilise organic matter-borne C. Since 2016, the CarboSMS consortium federates French researchers working on these mechanisms and their effects on C stocks in a local and global change setting (land use, agricultural practices, climatic and soil conditions, etc.). This article is a synthesis of this consortium’s first seminar. In the first part, we present recent advances in the understanding of soil C stabilisation mechanisms comprising biotic and abiotic processes, which occur concomitantly and interact. Soil organic C stocks are altered by biotic activities of plants (the main source of C through litter and root systems), microorganisms (fungi and bacteria) and ‘ecosystem engineers’ (earthworms, termites, ants). In the meantime, abiotic processes related to the soil-physical structure, porosity and mineral fraction also modify these stocks. In the second part, we show how agricultural practices affect soil C stocks. By acting on both biotic and abiotic mechanisms, land use and management practices (choice of plant species and density, plant residue exports, amendments, fertilisation, tillage, etc.) drive soil spatiotemporal organic inputs and organic matter sensitivity to mineralisation. Interaction between the different mechanisms and their effects on C stocks are revealed by meta-analyses and long-term field studies. The third part addresses upscaling issues. This is a cause for major concern since soil organic C stabilisation mechanisms are most often studied at fine spatial scales (mm–μm) under controlled conditions, while agricultural practices are implemented at the plot scale. We discuss some proxies and models describing specific mechanisms and their action in different soil and climatic contexts and show how they should be taken into account in large scale models, to improve change predictions in soil C stocks. Finally, this literature review highlights some future research prospects geared towards preserving or even increasing C stocks, our focus being put on the mechanisms, the effects of agricultural practices on them and C stock prediction models.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0421-2
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Ecosystem services in orchards. A review
    • Authors: Constance Demestihas; Daniel Plénet; Michel Génard; Christiane Raynal; Françoise Lescourret
      Abstract: Arboriculture must maintain acceptable fruit production levels while preserving natural resources. This duality can be analyzed with the concept of ecosystem service. We reviewed the literature on orchards to explain how ecological functions modified by agricultural practices provide six ecosystem services - fruit production, climate regulation, soil nitrogen availability, water regulation, pest and disease control, and pollination - and which indicators could describe them. The major points are, first, that orchards have a high potential of multiple services. They can sequester from 2.4 to 12.5 t C/ha/year. Their perennial character and multi-strata habitat, as well as the opportunity of creating diversified hedgerows and cover crops in alleys, may contribute to a high level of biodiversity and related services. Second, every service depends on many functions. Fruit yield, which could reach up to 140 t/ha in apple orchards, is increased by light interception, carbon allocation, and nitrogen and water uptake. Third, agricultural practices in orchards have a strong impact on ecosystem functions and, consequently, on ecosystem services. Overfertilization enhances nitrogen leaching, which reduces soil nitrogen availability for the plant and deteriorates the quality of drained water. Groundcover increases humification and reduces denitrification and runoff, thus enhancing soil nitrogen availability and water regulation. It also enhances biotic interactions responsible for pest control and pollination. Pruning may increase fruit quality trough a better carbon allocation but decreases pest control by fostering the dynamics of aphids. To study multiple ecosystem services in orchards, we suggest using models capable of simulating service profiles and their variation according to management scenarios. We then refer to the available literature to show that conflicts between provisioning and regulating services can be mitigated by agricultural practices. Improved knowledge of soil processes and carbon balance as well as new models that address multiple services are necessary to foster research on ecosystem service relationships in orchards.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0422-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Designing mixtures of varieties for multifunctional agriculture with the
           help of ecology. A review
    • Authors: Sébastien Barot; Vincent Allard; Amélie Cantarel; Jérôme Enjalbert; Arnaud Gauffreteau; Isabelle Goldringer; Jean-Christophe Lata; Xavier Le Roux; Audrey Niboyet; Emanuelle Porcher
      Abstract: The study of natural ecosystems and experiments using mixtures of plant species demonstrates that both species and genetic diversity generally promote ecosystem functioning. Therefore, mixing crop varieties is a promising alternative practice to transform modern high-input agriculture that is associated with a drastic reduction of within-field crop genetic diversity and is widely recognized as unsustainable. Here, we review the effects of mixtures of varieties on ecosystem functioning, and their underlying ecological mechanisms, as studied in ecology and agronomy, and outline how this knowledge can help designing more efficient mixtures. We recommend the development of two complementary strategies to optimize variety mixtures by fostering the ecological mechanisms leading to a positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and its stability through time, i.e., sampling and complementarity effects. (1) In the “trait-blind” approach, the design of high-performance mixtures is based on estimations of the mixing abilities of varieties. While this approach is operational because it does not require detailed trait knowledge, it relies on heavy experimental designs to evaluate mixing ability. (2) The trait-based approach is particularly efficient to design mixtures of varieties to provide particular baskets of services but requires building databases of traits for crop varieties and documenting the relations between traits and services. The performance of mixtures requires eventually to be evaluated in real economic, social, and agronomic contexts. We conclude that the need of a multifunctional low-input agriculture strongly increases the attractiveness of mixtures but that new breeding approaches are required to create varieties with higher mixing abilities, to foster complementarity and selection effects through an increase in the variance of relevant traits and to explore new combinations of trait values.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0418-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Organic waste recycling in agriculture and related effects on soil water
           retention and plant available water: a review
    • Authors: Marie Eden; Horst H. Gerke; Sabine Houot
      Abstract: The decrease of organic matter content in agricultural soils is a problem of great concern to farmers around the world. Indeed, it lowers soil fertility that directly impairs agricultural crop production and affects a number of other soil properties like water retention capacity, aggregation and structure formation, soil mechanical strength or compactibility. Scarcity in plant available water poses a risk to agriculture, especially in drought-prone areas. However, the increase of organic waste recycling in agriculture may also lead to an increase in soil organic matter contents and to changes in related soil properties. Here, we review 17 long-term field experiments (≥9 years) that investigated the effects of organic amendments on organic carbon and water availability in topsoils. We paid particular attention to the effects of added organic matter on soil bulk density or porosity and consequently on plant available water. Our main findings are that (1) plant available water generally improves after organic waste addition (relative changes from −10 to +30 vol%; p = 0.052), (2) organic matter quality affects changes in organic carbon (p < 0.05), (3) it is more suitable for plant available water quantification to use volumetric rather than gravimetric water contents, (4) the value of the matric potential defining field capacity is an issue, (5) pedotransfer functions developed for American soils adequately predicted most water contents at field capacity and wilting point, and (6) prevailing climate and initial organic carbon content may affect plant available water. This review confirms that organic amendments generally induce beneficial effects on plant available water and other soil properties. It also highlights the influence of organic matter quality on soil organic carbon. Compared with a previous review, this study reinforces reported trends of increasing plant available water with organic waste additions. This may be due to a more restrictive selection of recently published data and the use of volumetric water contents. Our findings are significant for sustainable agriculture regarding the sustainable use of organic wastes and water.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0419-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Integrated management of damping-off diseases. A review
    • Authors: Jay Ram Lamichhane; Carolyne Dürr; André A. Schwanck; Marie-Hélène Robin; Jean-Pierre Sarthou; Vincent Cellier; Antoine Messéan; Jean-Noël Aubertot
      Abstract: Damping-off is a disease that leads to the decay of germinating seeds and young seedlings, which represents for farmers one of the most important yield constraints both in nurseries and fields. As for other biotic stresses, conventional fungicides are widely used to manage this disease, with two major consequences. On the one hand, fungicide overuse threatens the human health and causes ecological concerns. On the other hand, this practice has led to the emergence of pesticide-resistant microorganisms in the environment. Thus, there are increasing concerns to develop sustainable and durable damping-off management strategies that are less reliant on conventional pesticides. Achieving such a goal requires a better knowledge of pathogen biology and disease epidemiology in order to facilitate the decision-making process. It also demands using all available non-chemical tools that can be adapted to regional and specific production situations. However, this still is not the case and major knowledge gaps must be filled. Here, we review up to 300 articles of the damping-off literature in order to highlight major knowledge gaps and identify future research priorities. The major findings are (i) damping-off is an emerging disease worldwide, which affects all agricultural and forestry crops, both in nurseries and fields; (ii) over a dozen of soil-borne fungi and fungus-like organisms are a cause of damping-off but only a few of them are frequently associated with the disease; (iii) damping-off may affect from 5 to 80% of the seedlings, thereby inducing heavy economic consequences for farmers; (iv) a lot of research efforts have been made in recent years to develop biocontrol solutions for damping-off and there are interesting future perspectives; and (v) damping-off management requires an integrated pest management (IPM) approach combining both preventive and curative tactics and strategies. Given the complex nature of damping-off and the numerous factors involved in its occurrence, we recommend further research on critical niches of complexity, such as seeds, seedbed, associated microbes and their interfaces, using novel and robust experimental and modeling approaches based on five research priorities described in this paper.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0417-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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