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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Agronomy for Sustainable Development
  [SJR: 1.732]   [H-I: 59]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1774-0746 - ISSN (Online) 1773-0155
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Participatory trials of on-farm biochar production and use in Tamale,
    • Authors: Christoph Steiner; Imogen Bellwood-Howard; Volker Häring; Kwame Tonkudor; Foster Addai; Kofi Atiah; Abdul Halim Abubakari; Gordana Kranjac-Berisavljevic; Bernd Marschner; Andreas Buerkert
      Abstract: Urban agriculture is characterized by fast rotation of cropping cycles and high inputs and outputs on relatively small areas of land. Depletion of soil organic carbon and low nutrient use efficiency are severe agricultural constraints in the sandy soils of West Africa. We hypothesized that such an intensive system would provide ideal preconditions for the use of biochar, that biochar would enhance yields in urban horticulture, and that farmers would be able to produce biochar for on-farm use in Tamale, Ghana. Therefore, we studied the opportunities and challenges of biochar using a semi-participatory research approach. Working with 12 participant farmers, we defined research questions which were relevant to their livelihoods and collected qualitative and observational data, which determined the selection of variables to measure quantitatively. Different quality parameters such as leaf color and stiffness of lettuce were important to farmers and marketers when assessing the agronomic benefits of biochar. By adding biochar to their normal agricultural practice farmers were able to increase lettuce yields by 93%. This remarkable increase might be partially caused by farmers’ improved management of biochar plots: they concentrated their resources where they expected to yield the largest returns. Using a simple top-lit updraft gasifier, a special chimney for rice husk carbonization, it was relatively simple for farmers to produce biochar in the field, with an efficiency of 15–33%. These stoves’ payback times were between 1 and 2 months. Yet, rather than the efficiency of the carbonization technology, often emphasized in biochar research, the availability of feedstock and labor considerations determine the technology selected by farmers for biochar production. This is a novel approach to considering the economic realities of farmers in a semi-participatory appraisal where farmers both produce and apply biochar. This is crucial in order to understand and identify meaningful and economically viable uses of biochar.
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0486-y
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Edge-biased distributions of insects. A review
    • Authors: Hoang Danh Derrick Nguyen; Christian Nansen
      Abstract: Spatial ecology includes research into factors responsible for observed distribution patterns of organisms. Moreover, the spatial distribution of an animal at a given spatial scale and in a given landscape may provide valuable insight into its host preference, fitness, evolutionary adaptation potential, and response to resource limitations. In agro-ecology, in-depth understanding of spatial distributions of insects is of particular importance when the goals are to (1) promote establishment and persistence of certain food webs, (2) maximize performance of pollinators and natural enemies, and (3) develop precision-targeted monitoring and detection of emerging outbreaks of herbivorous pests. In this article, we review and discuss a spatial phenomenon that is widespread among insect species across agricultural systems and across spatial scales—they tend to show “edge-biased distributions” (spatial distribution patterns show distinct “edge effects”). In the conservation and biodiversity literature, this phenomenon has been studied and reviewed intensively in the context of how landscape fragmentation affects species diversity. However, possible explanations of, and also implications of, edge-biased distributions of insects in agricultural systems have not received the same attention. Our review suggests that (1) mathematical modeling approaches can partially explain edge-biased distributions and (2) abiotic factors, crop vegetation traits, and environmental parameters are factors that are likely responsible for this phenomenon. However, we argue that more research, especially experimental research, is needed to increase the current understanding of how and why edge-biased distributions of insects are so widespread. We argue that the fact that many insect pests show edge-biased distribution patterns may be used to optimize both pest monitoring practices and precision targeting of pesticide applications and releases of natural enemies.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0488-4
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers alter the soil chemistry, production and
           quality of tea. A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Chunlian Qiao; Burenbayin Xu; Yanting Han; Jing Wang; Xin Wang; Lingli Liu; Weixing Liu; Shiqiang Wan; Hai Tan; Yinzhan Liu; Xinmei Zhao
      Abstract: The intensive use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers over the last century has both increased agricultural productivity and modified biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, causing severe negative environmental impacts. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plantations usually receive high levels of synthetic fertilizers, which strongly affect plant and soil properties. However, there is no quantitative study to assess how synthetic N additions affect soil chemistry and the production and quality of tea shoots. Here, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of experimental synthetic N fertilizers. Our main findings are (1) N additions in tea plantations acidify soils (− 0.41 pH unit in average) and produce soil nutrient imbalance. Soil acidification commonly exacerbates the accumulations of toxic aluminum ions. (2) Synthetic N fertilizer additions may strongly increase tea production by almost 70% but alter tea shoot quality by increasing the concentrations of free amino acids (+ 16%), caffeine (+ 14%), and water extracts (+ 5%) while decreasing those of soluble sugars (− 8%) in the tea shoots. The responses of soil chemistry, tea production, and quality to N additions can vary among experimental conditions, tea tree species, and N fertilizer forms. Because there is statistical limitation in this meta-analysis, our findings recommend performing additional field studies to explore the potential mechanisms of nutrient cycling and ecosystem functioning under synthetic N additions. The development of a sustainable N management strategy in tea plantations is also urgently needed to enhance N use efficiency and reduce environmental risks.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0485-z
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Reconciling economic viability and socio-ecological aspirations in London
           urban microfarms
    • Authors: Marina Chang; Kevin Morel
      Abstract: Few scholars have investigated the economic viability of urban farms in industrialized countries. This study focused on urban community microfarms—small-scale organic market gardens committed to social work activities—in London. Our objective was to investigate the extent to which economic viability was (i) possible for urban microfarms in London and (ii) compatible with the other social and ecological aspirations of microfarmers. The simulation model MERLIN was adapted to London, based on 10 case studies. We analyzed the likelihood of viability—that is, the percentage of economically viable simulations (out of 1000 simulations)—of 192 different strategic scenarios of microfarms. Based on the modeling outputs, a collective workshop was organized with 11 urban farmers to discuss the possibility of reconciling socio-ecological aspirations and economic viability in an urban context. This is the first time that modeling and discussions with stakeholders are combined to explore the viability of urban agriculture. Our novel study shows that urban microfarms can be viable and that viability can be increased by focusing on short-cycle and high added-value leaf vegetables grown in high tunnels and sold at high prices to restaurants. Such strategies can lead urban farmers to make trade-offs with their socio-ecological aspirations. Costs can be decreased by taking advantage of community resources such as volunteer labor or agreements with local councils to rent land at a low rate. Social work (training, hosting community events) is a key condition to access these resources but entails more complex farm management.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0487-5
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Cactus crop as an option to reduce soil C–CO 2 emissions in soils
           with declining fertility
    • Authors: Fernando De León-González; Mariela H. Fuentes-Ponce; Angélica Bautista-Cruz; Tania Leyva-Pablo; Héctor Castillo-Juárez; Luis Manuel Rodríguez-Sánchez
      Abstract: Arable soils tend to lose total organic carbon, thus contributing to the increase of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. This process has been occurring in large areas of Mexico cultivated with maize. Perennial species such as cactus (Opuntia spp.) and agave are grown in Mexico and other parts of the world, which can contribute to the maintenance of total organic carbon in the soil (TOC). Within this context, a study was designed to compare the patterns of emissions of C–CO2 and TOC in a highland of central Mexico. The selected management systems were the following: (1) maize monoculture with conventional tillage and fertilization, (2) maize associated with Vicia faba and manure addition, (3, 4) cactus without and with composted manure mulching, (5) soil in oak-pine forest, and (6) maize fields under 4 years of soil fallow and without weed control. Measurements of CO2 flux pulses and volumetric moisture were performed every 15 days at 5 points of each plot. The soil in oak-pine forest showed stable C–CO2 emissions throughout the year, while under maize fields, emissions were unstable with several respiration peaks. The soil in cactus crop showed a very close pattern of forest soil respiration. The annual patterns of soil respiration were in agreement with the results of TOC recently reported for the same plots where soil respiration was measured. Here we show, for the first time, that TOC in cactus approached the reference line of soil under forest (6 g 100 g−1), while in maize, we found a reduction greater than 50% of this value. Cactus crop represents an option in low-input maize for C–CO2-reduced emissions in agricultural zones with declining soil fertility.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0481-3
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Mapping the supply and demand of Enset crop to improve food security in
           Southern Ethiopia
    • Authors: Mesfin Sahle; Kumelachew Yeshitela; Osamu Saito
      Abstract: Food security is a worldwide key issue in the context of climate change, requiring to plan local agriculture and make decisions. In order to proceed, it is essential to understand the value of ecosystem services provided by agricultural landscapes. Here, we quantified and mapped the supply and demand of an indigenous food, kocho (i.e., a bread made from starch derived from the Enset plant), in the Wabe River catchment of Gurage Mountains in Southern Ethiopia. To proceed, we measured the pseudostem and plant heights within 100 m2 sample plots of Enset farms. Enset home garden spatial features were extracted from satellite imagery, and a household questionnaire survey was administered along with population census data. We used suitable models to quantify the yield and demand of kocho, and the data were interpolated, analyzed, and mapped with the ArcGIS software. The results show that the average catchment-wide squeezed (moisture-removed) kocho yield is 16.2 kg/plant, which is equivalent to 417 tons/ha. The annual yield is 6500 kg/ha, and 4.5 million tons of kocho are available as standing stock. However, the spatial distribution of Enset production and its yield are not uniform in the catchment, and the largest stock is found in tepid moist and tepid humid agroecologies. The average demand of kocho per person is fulfilled by 16 Enset plants (i.e., 289 kg) with only 38% of households able to satisfy their demand from their own home garden. There is a high per capita kocho demand in warm sub-humid agroecological zones and a low demand in cool moist zones. While the supply-demand budget shows that there is a high supply of kocho in most areas, the demand is greater than the supply in 25% of the catchment. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that through quantification and mapping of the supply to demand of kocho, the Enset crop contributes to food security in the catchment and needs to improve its production as it is spatially not uniform. This study provides a data set for planners and decision-makers to enhance the production of kocho and to satisfy the current supply-demand gap.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0484-0
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Multi-household grazing management pattern maintains better soil fertility
    • Authors: Jianjun Cao; Xueyun Xu; Ravinesh C. Deo; Nicholas M. Holden; Jan F. Adamowski; Yifan Gong; Qi Feng; Shurong Yang; Mengtian Li; Junju Zhou; Jian Zhang; Minxia Liu
      Abstract: In addition to changes in land use and cover, changes in land management pattern can also have a significant effect on soil fertility. However, to date, changes in grassland grazing management pattern caused by policies have received less attention in terms of their impact on soil fertility. In this paper, we investigated the influence of two different grazing management patterns: the multi-household grazing management pattern (consisting of pastures managed by two or more households with no fences separating them) and the single-household grazing pattern (with fences between adjacent pastures managed by different households), which were implemented after the enactment of grassland contract policy, on soil fertility in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Our hypothesis was that soil fertility differed between the two grazing management patterns. We selected five study sites with both grazing management patterns in Maqu County on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and sampled 30 winter grasslands from each grazing management pattern to explore differences in soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen, and soil total phosphorus. We showed that these indicators of fertility status were significantly greater under the multi-household grazing management pattern (47 g C kg−1, 4.6 g N kg−1, and 0.77 g P kg−1) compared to the single-household grazing management pattern (43 g C kg−1, 4.3 g N kg−1, and 0.73 g P kg−1). This is the first study of the effects of grazing management pattern on soil fertility in this environment, and it indicated that the multi-household grazing management pattern could maintain better soil fertility and help to support sustainable use of these grasslands.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0482-2
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Preceding crops influence agronomic efficiency in sugar beet cultivation
    • Authors: Anna Jacobs; Heinz-Josef Koch; Bernward Märländer
      Abstract: The choice of the crop succession influences the agronomic efficiency (yield per unit agronomic input) and is relevant for the sustainable intensification of crop cultivation. However, such effects are often ignored in assessments of agronomic efficiency. The aim of the study was to propose a concept for the assessment of and to publish data on (i) the effect of the preceding crop on the amount of agronomic inputs used and the yield in sugar beet cultivation and (ii) the agronomic efficiency of the 2-year sum of preceding crop – sugar beet successions. As preceding crop (including catch crop) – sugar beet successions, we investigated (i) mustard – silage maize – sugar beet, (ii) phacelia – grain pea – mustard – sugar beet, and (iii) winter wheat – mustard – sugar beet in a field trial (Harste, Germany; 2011–2014). We found that fertilizer requirement of sugar beet was highest (108 kg nitrogen ha−1; 125 kg phosphate ha−1) when mustard – silage maize was the preceding crop and lowest (30 kg nitrogen ha−1; 96 kg phosphate ha−1) when phacelia – grain pea – mustard was the preceding crop. The efficiency of the agronomic inputs used for the cultivation of the 2-year sum of preceding crop – sugar beet successions was generally highest for the succession with silage maize with the exception of nitrogen-efficiency which was highest for the succession with grain pea. The main effect of the preceding crop on fertilizer requirement was driven by the amount of harvest residues. Results of 2-year agronomic efficiency were affected by the high energy yield of the succession with silage maize (670 GJ ha−1) and the low N-fertilization in the succession with grain pea (130 kg N ha−1). We show for the first time a methodological approach to assess preceding crop’s effects on agronomic efficiency and to illustrate results for decision making towards a sustainable intensification of crop cultivation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0469-z
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2017)
  • Crop-livestock integration determines the agroecological performance of
           mixed farming systems in Latino-Caribbean farms
    • Authors: Fabien Stark; Eliel González-García; Livia Navegantes; Taymer Miranda; René Poccard-Chapuis; Harry Archimède; Charles-Henri Moulin
      Abstract: Characterizing and understanding the complexity of numerous interactions occurring in mixed farming systems is still a methodological challenge. We hypothesize that farm functioning features in terms of crop-livestock integration practices impact the agroecological performance of the system, which will be also affected by the farm context. In order to analyze crop-livestock integration in a holistic way, a set of seventeen mixed farming systems from three contrasting socioeconomic regions of the humid tropics (Guadeloupe, Brazilian Amazonia, and Cuba) was selected in order to cover a wide range of crop-livestock integration situations. The ecological network analysis was applied to each farm in order to study the nutrient flow networks, expressed in nitrogen. The activity and flow organization of crop-livestock integration practices were characterized and the agroecological performance has been evaluated in terms of efficiency, resilience, productivity, and dependency of N flow networks. Here, we show for the first time that the range of crop-livestock integration is well characterized by the activity and organization of flows. Gradients of crop-livestock integration were well detected and described. Some agroecological performances were related to a particular socioeconomic context. Resource endowment influenced efficiency, according to the intensification level. The crop-livestock integration however contributed partially to the productivity of the system, being especially effective in promoting resilience. This study applies a suitable framework to analyze complex farming systems while linking their functioning and performance in an agroecological approach. Thus, comparison of contrasting systems was feasible here with the support of numerical and tangible figures for interpreting complex indicators (e.g., resilience), representing a useful tool for monitoring sustainability of agricultural systems in a dynamic and holistic way.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0479-x
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2017)
  • Sustainable use of termite activity in agro-ecosystems with reference to
           earthworms. A review
    • Authors: Pascal Jouquet; Ekta Chaudhary; Amritha Raja Vinoda Kumar
      Abstract: Sustainable agriculture and agro-ecology justify the need to study and understand the role played by ecological processes, and soil biodiversity in particular, in agro-ecosystem functioning. A large number of studies have focused on earthworms in temperate and humid tropical ecosystems and have demonstrated their importance for improving soil biological, physical, and chemical properties in agro-ecosystems. Their “success” is so essential that earthworms are widely considered key species and relevant indicators of soil health in temperate ecosystems. In arid and sub-arid ecosystems, the role of “soil engineer” is usually attributed to termites, and especially fungus-growing termites in Africa and Asia. However, despite this recognition, significant effort is spent eradicating them in plantations because of their pest status. In this review, we discuss the status of termites (“pests” vs. “soil engineers”) and question whether termites play similar roles to earthworms in arid- and sub-arid agroecosystems, with a focus on their influence on nutrient cycling and water dynamics. We argue that the dream of controlling natural interactions and ridding plantations of termites remains a costly legacy of the green revolution. We review the agricultural practices that have been used to reduce termite damage in plantations by restoring refuges to predators or by reorienting termite foraging activity towards organic amendments. Then, we show that the stimulation of termite activity can be used to improve key ecological functions in agro-ecosystems, such as increasing water availability to plants or producing fertility hot-spots. Finally, we suggest that more research on how termites can be used for improving ecosystem services, as is actually done with earthworms in temperate and humid tropical countries, could lead to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the impact of termites in tropical agro-ecosytems.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0483-1
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2017)
  • Ecological and economic benefits of integrating sheep into viticulture
    • Authors: Meredith T. Niles; Rachael D. Garrett; Drew Walsh
      Abstract: The integration of crop and livestock systems has been recognized for its potential to reduce the environmental impacts associated with agriculture and improve farmer livelihoods. However, to date, most research has focused on the integration of cattle into crop and pasture systems. Here, we examine the integration of sheep into vineyards and assess farmers’ perceived benefits and costs of the practice. Viticulture expansion has led to significant land use change in recent years and new environmental challenges, particularly with respect to herbicide use. Sheep integration into vineyards offers the potential to utilize the synergies of both systems to reduce external inputs, promote soil health, and increase farmer profit. Our study focuses in New Zealand, the world’s 15th largest wine producer, particularly in Marlborough, which produces 75% of the country’s wine. As a result, the case study is an excellent representation of New Zealand viticulture, while also providing unique insights into a novel practice. Using a semi-structured interview and survey, we interviewed fifteen farmers representing 5% of total New Zealand wine production to examine ecological and economic benefits of sheep integration in viticulture systems. We find that seasonal integration of sheep during vine dormancy is common, while integration during the growing season is rare. Overall, farmers perceive significantly more benefits than challenges with the integration of sheep into vineyards, particularly reduced mowing (100% of farmers) and herbicide use (66% of farmers). On average, farmers reported 1.3 fewer herbicide applications annually, saving US$56 per hectare. As well, farmers indicated they were doing 2.2 fewer mows annually saving US$64 per hectare. These results suggest that wide-scale adoption of seasonal integration of sheep and viticulture can provide large ecological benefits and higher profitability vis-à-vis conventional viticulture practices; however, further integration of the two systems may provide even greater benefits not currently realized.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0478-y
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2017)
  • Rooftop farming on urban waste provides many ecosystem services
    • Authors: Baptiste J.-P. Grard; Claire Chenu; Nastaran Manouchehri; Sabine Houot; Nathalie Frascaria-Lacoste; Christine Aubry
      Abstract: Urban farming, especially on rooftops, is a popular and growing topic in both the media and the scientific literature, providing a genuine opportunity to meet some of the challenges linked to urban development worldwide. However, relatively little attention has been paid to date to the growing medium of green roofs, i.e., Technosols. A better understanding of the influence of Technosols and the link with ecosystem services is required in order to maximize the environmental benefits of urban rooftop farming. Between March 2013 and March 2015, a pilot project called T4P (Parisian Productive rooftoP, Pilot Experiment) was conducted on the rooftop of AgroParisTech University. Urban organic waste was used, and results were compared with those obtained using a commercial potting soil, based on yield and trace metal concentrations, substrate characterization, and the amount of leaching. An assessment of the ecosystem services expected from the Technosols was undertaken in terms of the output of food (food production and quality), regulation of water runoff (quantity and quality), and the recycling of organic waste. Indicators of these ecosystem services (e.g., yield, annual loss of mass of mineral nitrogen) were identified, measured, and compared with reference cases (asphalt roof, green roof, and cropland). Measured yields were almost equivalent to those obtained from horticultural sources in the same area, and the Technosols also retained 74–84% of the incoming rainfall water. This is the first quantitative analysis of ecosystem services delivered by urban garden rooftops developed on organic wastes, and demonstrates their multifunctional character, as well as allowing the identification of trade-offs. An ecosystem services approach is proposed for the design of soil-based green infrastructure of this kind and more generally for the design of sustainable urban agriculture.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0474-2
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2017)
  • Referees
    • PubDate: 2017-12-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0480-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Psychosocial barriers and facilitators for area-wide management of fruit
           fly in southeastern Australia
    • Authors: Aditi Mankad; Barton Loechel; Penelope F. Measham
      Abstract: Social mechanisms underpinning collaborative approaches to pest management are as important as the biological control of the pest. To facilitate the success of an area-wide management approach, social factors need to be understood and addressed. This study qualitatively analyses social, psychological and institutional barriers and facilitators for the widespread adoption of area-wide management of Queensland fruit fly, and attitudes towards the use of sterile insect technology. Interviews were conducted (N = 35) with fruit growers, industry representatives, agronomists, government representatives and community leaders from across the dominant horticultural regions of southeastern Australia. Transcripts were analysed and compared based on thematic organisations. Growers and stakeholders expressed high acceptance for area-wide management of Queensland fruit fly and the use of sterile insect technology. However, participants reported limited knowledge of both area-wide management and sterile insect technology. Factors found to facilitate acceptance were perceptions of increased market access, increased social awareness, operationalising community champions and value chain actors, as well as dissemination of credible scientific evidence. Trust in those individuals advocating area-wide management and sterile insect technology, and interpersonal trust between neighbours, was also seen as an important factor affecting adoption of area-wide management and sterile insect technology. Barriers to acceptance included perceptions of costs and ongoing funding needs, lack of knowledge, apathy towards control of Queensland fruit fly, compatibility of area-wide management and sterile insect technology with current practices and a lack of social cooperation amongst growers. The data show a need to increase growers’ awareness of costs and benefits associated with Queensland fruit fly control and an understanding of the direct and indirect consequences of their own on-farm behaviours with respect to control. This study is the first to use a psychological lens to explore and distil grower and stakeholder attitudes towards a cooperative management approach for a pest of national significance. Results provide insight into beliefs that guide underlying biosecurity decision-making and can help improve uptake of other area-wide control techniques.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0477-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Reduced crop damage by self-regulation of aphids in an ecologically
           enriched, insecticide-free apple orchard
    • Authors: Fabian Cahenzli; Lukas Pfiffner; Claudia Daniel
      Abstract: Enhancing natural enemies for pest management in agriculture is an expanding approach offering new opportunities for pest control and the potential to reduce insecticide use. Numerous studies in a variety of cropping systems clearly have shown that adequate measures can benefit natural enemies. However, although carry-over effects from an increase in natural enemies and a subsequent decrease in pest populations leading to a reduction in crop damage are always assumed, they are rarely proven. We established an insecticide-free apple orchard optimized for the self-regulation of pests by supporting natural enemies with shelter, nectar, alternative prey/hosts, and pollen. For six growing seasons, we focused on the control of the major apple pest Dysaphis plantaginea. While fruit damage after the second fruit drop was not affected by aphidophagous insect guilds, it was negatively related to spider abundance in the previous autumn, when aphids immigrate back to the orchard to establish the next generation. In detail, we found that an increase in spider web area reduced the number of aphid fundatrices in spring and subsequently fruit damage. Our findings indicate the rarely proven carry-over effect of enhanced natural enemies on decreased crop damage and we show for the first time, how the rosy apple aphid can be managed without the use of insecticides.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0476-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Mapping and linking supply- and demand-side measures in climate-smart
           agriculture. A review
    • Authors: Laura Scherer; Peter H. Verburg
      Abstract: Climate change and food security are two of humanity’s greatest challenges and are highly interlinked. On the one hand, climate change puts pressure on food security. On the other hand, farming significantly contributes to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This calls for climate-smart agriculture—agriculture that helps to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Climate-smart agriculture measures are diverse and include emission reductions, sink enhancements, and fossil fuel offsets for mitigation. Adaptation measures include technological advancements, adaptive farming practices, and financial management. Here, we review the potentials and trade-offs of climate-smart agricultural measures by producers and consumers. Our two main findings are as follows: (1) The benefits of measures are often site-dependent and differ according to agricultural practices (e.g., fertilizer use), environmental conditions (e.g., carbon sequestration potential), or the production and consumption of specific products (e.g., rice and meat). (2) Climate-smart agricultural measures on the supply side are likely to be insufficient or ineffective if not accompanied by changes in consumer behavior, as climate-smart agriculture will affect the supply of agricultural commodities and require changes on the demand side in response. Such linkages between demand and supply require simultaneous policy and market incentives. It, therefore, requires interdisciplinary cooperation to meet the twin challenge of climate change and food security. The link to consumer behavior is often neglected in research but regarded as an essential component of climate-smart agriculture. We argue for not solely focusing research and implementation on one-sided measures but designing good, site-specific combinations of both demand- and supply-side measures to use the potential of agriculture more effectively to mitigate and adapt to climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0475-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Pressures on soil functions from soil management in Germany. A foresight
    • Authors: Anja-Kristina Techen; Katharina Helming
      Abstract: Global trends in demand for biomass-based food, feed, energy, and fiber call for a sustainable intensification of agricultural production. From the perspective of sustaining soil functions, this implies the integration of soil productivity with the other soil functions and services, namely carbon sequestration, water purification and retention, and nutrient and matter cycling as well as biodiversity. Soil management is the key to this integration. The proper anticipation of future opportunities and challenges for sustainable soil management requires an analysis of drivers and trends affecting soil management. Here, we review drivers and trends of soil management and their relevance for soil functions taking Germany as an example of industrialized agricultural systems with low yield gaps. We analyzed socio-economic, biophysical and technological drivers and identified two types of future management changes: (1) Quantitative changes, i.e., more or less of the same input factors, such as fertilizers, as part of a moderate intensification. (2) Qualitative changes: There, we found the strongest signals for the following practices: higher precision and lightweight machines triggered by information and communication technology (ICT) and robotics; diversification of crop rotations, including the integration of lignocellulosic crops; inoculation with biota; and new crop varieties. Positive practices may be reinforced by a behavioral trend towards sustainable soil management, driven by increasing awareness, knowledge, and consumer demand. They offer opportunities for relieving mechanical pressures from weight and contact stress, chemical pressures from pesticides and fertilizers and promoting soil biodiversity without compromising the soil’s production function. We also found threats, such as increased removal of organic residues and potentially harmful organisms. This foresight study is the first to delineate opportunities and challenges for sustainable soil management and intensification. It informs researchers who intend to improve the knowledge base for reinforcement of positive and mitigation of negative trends of soil management.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0473-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Converging and diverging principles and practices of organic agriculture
           regulations and agroecology. A review
    • Authors: Paola Migliorini; Alexander Wezel
      Abstract: There is ongoing debate among stakeholders about the future development of agricultural and food systems to meet the global challenges of food supply, biological and cultural diversity, climate change, and social justice. Among other options, agroecology and organic agriculture are discussed. Both have similar goals and use a systems approach; however, they are recognised and received differently by stakeholders. Here we review and compare principles and practices defined and described in EU organic agriculture regulations, International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movement (IFOAM) norms, and agroecology scientific literature. The main finding are as follows: (1) Regarding principles, EU organic regulations mainly focus on appropriate design and management of biological processes based on ecological systems, restriction of external inputs, and strict limitation of chemical inputs. IFOAM principles are very broad and more complete, and include a holistic and systemic vision of sustainability. Agroecology has a defined set of principles for the ecological management of agri-food systems, which also includes some socio-economic principles. (2) Many proposed cropping practices are similar for EU organic, IFOAM, and agroecology, e.g. soil tillage, soil fertility and fertilisation, crop and cultivar choice, crop rotation, as well as pest, disease and weed management. In contrast, the origin and quantity of products potentially used for soil fertilisation and pest, disease, and weed management are different. Additionally, some practices are only mentioned for one of the three sources. (3) In animal production, only a few proposed practices are similar for EU organic, IFOAM, and agroecology. These include integration of cropping and animal systems and breed choice. In contrast, practices for animal management, prevention methods in animal health, animal housing, animal welfare, animal nutrition, and veterinary management are defined or described differently. (4) Related to food systems, organic agriculture focusses on technical aspects, such as food processing, while in agroecology there is a prominent debate between a transformative and conformative agenda. Both agroecology and organic agriculture offer promising contributions for the future development of sustainable agricultural production and food systems, especially if their principles and practices converge to a transformative approach and that impedes the conventionalisation of agro-food systems.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0472-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • High productivity of dry pea genotypes resistant to crenate broomrape in
           Mediterranean environments
    • Authors: Sara Fondevilla; Fernando Flores; Amero A. Emeran; Mohamed Kharrat; Diego Rubiales
      Abstract: The cultivation of dry pea (Pisum sativum) is strongly hampered in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern farming systems by the parasitic weed Orobanche crenata. Resistant cultivars are not available to farmers, and only incomplete levels of resistance have been identified in landraces or wild relatives. Dry pea genotypes that combine the resistance of wild genotypes with good agronomic traits have been the focus of our breeding program. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the level and stability of resistance to O. crenata and the yield of these genotypes in different locations across the Mediterranean Basin and to identify the most useful environments in which to select for these traits. The responses to O. crenata and yield of pea genotypes were evaluated at five locations in Spain, Tunisia, and Egypt. Observed differences in both traits were due to the effect of genotype, environment, and environment × genotype interactions. A heritability-adjusted genotype plus genotype × environment interaction identified two mega-environments: the first, formed by the environments located in Egypt and the second, formed by the remaining environments. Breeding genotypes J26 and J26-2 showed good and stable yield and resistance responses to O. crenata in all environments. By contrast, J3 had a markedly different pattern depending on the mega-environment. It was one of the most resistant genotypes in the second mega-environment, but the most susceptible one in the Egyptian mega-environment. Both locations in Egypt were useful for selecting high yield and resistance to O. crenata, while, in the second mega-environment, Córdoba was the most useful in which to select for the traits. This study is the first to report advanced dry pea breeding genotypes that show resistance to O. crenata and high productivity in different environments. These genotypes will be highly useful in environmentally sustainable control of broomrape.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0470-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Structural characteristics determine productivity in complex cocoa
           agroforestry systems
    • Authors: Patrick Jagoret; Isabelle Michel; Hervé Todem Ngnogué; Philippe Lachenaud; Didier Snoeck; Eric Malézieux
      Abstract: In order to cope with current challenges facing world cocoa production and the obvious lack of sustainability of the intensive model proposed to farmers, more ecologically efficient cocoa cropping systems must be developed, based in particular on a higher cultivated biodiversity level. The performances of cocoa multispecies systems, which involve multiple and hard to quantify interactions, are, however, more complicated to assess than that of monospecies systems. Despite this hurdle, we carried out a study in 48 cocoa agroforests located in three zones in central Cameroon where we conducted an analysis of cocoa yield components and agroforestry system structural characteristics that are likely responsible for observed yield variations. For the first time, we adapted the regional agronomic diagnosis method to demonstrate that the basal area per cocoa tree (mean 61.6 cm2) and the unproductive adult cocoa tree rate (mean 21%) are key factors when assessing the productive performance of the surveyed systems whose average cocoa yield was 737 kg ha−1. From a methodological standpoint, the assessment approach we set up succeeded to overcome the specific obstacles linked with the features of agroforestry systems, especially their complexity (number of species and heterogeneity), by (i) determining relevant indicators and easily measurable variables, (ii) considering the associated tree communities as an environmental component, and (iii) analyzing interactions between cocoa stands and associated tree communities. From an operational standpoint, we showed that farmers can intervene on the structural characteristics of their cocoa agroforests to improve cocoa yields, in particular by eliminating unproductive cocoa trees whose basal area is less than 19 cm2 to enable the other ones to grow.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0468-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
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