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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Agronomy for Sustainable Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.864
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 13  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1774-0746 - ISSN (Online) 1773-0155
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • A ley-farming system for marginal lands based upon a self-regenerating
           perennial pasture legume
    • Authors: Tom Edwards; John Howieson; Brad Nutt; Ron Yates; Graham O’Hara; Ben-Erik Van Wyk
      Abstract: Annual-based farming systems represent some of the most highly disturbed terrestrial ecosystems on the planet. They are also highly exposed to climate variability. Many wheatbelt systems of southern Australia rotate annual crops with annual pastures, where the productivity of both is reliant upon seasonal rainfall. Perennial plants, in contrast, are less reliant upon both consistent rainfall and annual establishment, so one approach to decrease exposure to climate variability and disturbance in agriculture is to increase the proportion of the farm sown to perennial species. Perennial pasture or forage species offer immediate possibilities for transformation of agricultural ecosystems as they offer high protein feed to animals, often when green feed is most limiting, and concomitantly restore soil fertility. However, there are no perennial forage legumes adapted to acid and infertile soils in low-rainfall regions of the developed world, either in temperate or Mediterranean climates. Here, we review the recent research efforts to domesticate a perennial legume for these regions. Reasons for the lack of success are provided by a comparison of the attributes of the legumes evaluated in recent research programs and the limitations of these legumes as assessed by reviews and publications. This manuscript outlines an alternative approach to domestication of perennial forage legumes for acid soils and introduces new concepts in ley farming in an Australian context that might support the development of more sustainable agro-ecosystems. It highlights situations where very hard-seeded annual legumes have been successfully included in modern intensive cropping systems, and where perennial legumes may underpin ley-farming systems on infertile soils that normally produce low crop yields. Both innovations require the legume and their nodule bacteria to be sown only once in decades and address concerns about the sustainability of modern agro-ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2019-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-019-0558-2
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Transition to legume-based farming systems requires stable outlets,
           learning, and peer-networking
    • Authors: Marie Mawois; Andréa Vidal; Eva Revoyron; Marion Casagrande; Marie-Hélène Jeuffroy; Marianne Le Bail
      Abstract: Legume cultivation has been declining for several decades in France and in Europe as a whole. This is the result of the agri-food system lock-in around major crops, which has led to a strong simplification of cropping systems and a specialization of territories, in which legumes have been marginalized. Introducing or increasing legume production on farms has become a key issue in many European countries. Studies investigating the process of change of farmers growing legumes are missing. We analyze here the trajectories of farms cultivating legumes, with a view to understanding how and why farmers have modified their practices over the long term and to what extent this can help to support further introduction of legumes on farms. We interviewed 26 farmers growing legumes, in two French regions (Burgundy and Pays de la Loire), to understand the changes of their practices in terms of legume introduction over time. We developed a methodology to analyze farmers’ trajectories based on the identification of (1) agronomic-coherence phases during which practices are stable and (2) the process of change from one coherence phase to another. The analysis of the 26 trajectories allowed us to distinguish four transitional pathways according to the speed of change, the type of legumes cultivated, and the level of legume introduction. Here, we show for the first time that the transition to a high and sustainable level of legume introduction in farms, whether progressive or as a rupture, required the combination of three levers: (1) the stability of outlets (on-farm consumption or market opportunities), (2) knowledge and local references on the preceding crop effect of legumes, and (3) the farmer’s involvement in peer-networks. Our results constitute a fruitful pathway to encouraging changes for both individual and collective support for farmers to facilitate the introduction of legumes.
      PubDate: 2019-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-019-0559-1
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • A new framework to analyze changes in work organization for permanent
           employees on livestock farms
    • Authors: Priscila Duarte Malanski; Stéphane Ingrand; Nathalie Hostiou
      Abstract: The importance of a hired workforce for the competitiveness of livestock farms emerges in a context of a decreasing family workforce and increasing farm size. Farmers’ need for a regular workforce to perform labor-intensive tasks can conflict with the attractiveness of jobs and high rates of turnover among farm employees. Within farmers’ strategies to attract and retain employees, little attention has been given to understand the role of work changes over time during the careers of employees on farms. We thus developed a framework to understand how employees’ work organization on farms change over time since recruitment. Key concepts from human resource management and organizational change are the theoretical guidelines used to shape the framework. This conceptual base indicates what needs to be considered to understand changes in employees’ work. Empirical data were used to transform the concepts into practical variables to analyze changes in employees’ work. We interviewed 14 employees and 8 farmers (their employers) on dairy farms and collected data on work organization and changes over time, focusing on tasks performed by employees since recruitment, team composition, and farm history. The framework is composed of 8 variables that describe how work evolves according to changes in task assignments, changes in the way work is organized (versatility vs. specialization), and the level of autonomy afforded to workers. It also considers what drives these evolutions and the rhythm of evolution over time. The framework can be used by researchers to better understand trade-offs between labor management and farm changes over time. This is a new approach for analyzing work organization on livestock farms considering changes in work from the perspective of employees.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-019-0557-3
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Nutrient management of immature rubber plantations. A review
    • Authors: Sylvain Vrignon-Brenas; Frédéric Gay; Sophie Ricard; Didier Snoeck; Thibaut Perron; Louis Mareschal; Jean-Paul Laclau; Éric Gohet; Philippe Malagoli
      Abstract: The rapid expansion of rubber tree plantations in recent decades has been accompanied by dramatic negative ecological and social impacts. Rubber sector stakeholders consequently engaged in sustainable production of rubber. Despite the lack of harvest during the immature stage following planting, this period plays a key role in future yields. Management practices, particularly fertilization regimes, are used by farmers to shorten the immature period as much as possible. This entails maintaining or even improving the productivity of existing plantations to face the demand for natural rubber. This review focuses specifically on the immature period of rubber tree plantations, as it is the most critical period for nutrient management. We reviewed available knowledge on fertilization practices, soil management, and nutrient dynamics in rubber plantations with the goal of developing a nutrient balance approach for this crop. Our review revealed (1) a notable difference between fertilizer recommendations made by technical institutes and those reported in the scientific literature; (2) that even though nutrient diagnostic methods could help growers adapt the fertilization of rubber trees more than 3 years of age, further studies are needed to adapt current methods to the wide range of cultivation areas; and (3) that the nutrient budget approach may be the best way to incorporate the variety of rubber tree cultivation conditions. In conclusion, the nutrient budget method is a promising way to improve the sustainability of rubber plantations through fertilization making it possible to increase nutrient use efficiency. A comprehensive approach based on nutrient budgets requires further in-depth studies to examine nutrient dynamics in a wide range of conditions, including intercropping and logging residue management between clearcutting and replanting.
      PubDate: 2019-01-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-019-0554-6
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Socio-psychological and management drivers explain farm level wheat yield
           gaps in Australia
    • Authors: Airong Zhang; Zvi Hochman; Heidi Horan; Javier Garcia Navarro; Bianca Tara Das; François Waldner
      Abstract: Achieving sustainable global food security for a rapidly growing world population is one of the greatest challenges of our time. Producing more food efficiently by closing the yield gaps is regarded as a promising solution to address this challenge without further expanding farming land. However, there is limited understanding of the causes contributing to yield gaps. The present study aimed to comprehensively examine three dimensions of the causes for the wheat yield gaps in Australia: farm management practices, farm characteristics and grower characteristics. Computer-assisted telephone interviews of 232 wheat producers from 14 contrasting local areas were conducted. The data collected on these three dimensions were used to develop a comprehensive framework to understand causes of yield gaps. Results reveal significant differences between farms with smaller yield gaps and those with greater yield gaps in relation to farming management as well as farm and grower characteristics. Findings further underline that farms with smaller yield gaps are likely to be smaller holdings growing less wheat on more favourable soil types, are more likely to apply more N fertiliser, to have a greater crop diversity, to soil-test a greater proportion of their fields, to have fewer resistant weeds, to adopt new technologies, and are less likely to grow wheat following either cereal crops or a pasture. They are more likely to use and trust a fee-for-service agronomist, and have a university education. The dynamic relationships between grower characteristics and farm management practices in causing yield gaps are further highlighted through a path analysis. This study is the first to demonstrate that yield gaps are the result of the intertwined dynamics between biophysical factors, grower socio-psychological characteristics and farm management practices. Socio-psychological factors not only directly contribute to yield gaps, but they also influence farm management practices that in turn contribute to yield gaps. Our findings suggest that, to close wheat yield gaps, it is important to develop integrated strategies that address both socio-psychological and farm management dimensions.
      PubDate: 2019-01-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-019-0556-4
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • State of apps targeting management for sustainability of agricultural
           landscapes. A review
    • Authors: Sarah E. Eichler Inwood; Virginia H. Dale
      Abstract: The triple-bottom-line approach to sustainability in agriculture requires multi- and inter-disciplinary expertise and remains a major design and implementation challenge. Tools are needed to link extension agents, development workers, farmers, and other agriculture decision-makers to information related to practices that improve sustainability across agricultural landscapes. The digital age has brought many new cloud-based and mobile device–accessible software applications (apps) targeted at farmers and others in the agriculture sector; however, the effectiveness of these tools for advancing sustainability goals is unknown. Here, we review apps for agriculture in order to identify gaps in information provisioning and sharing for tools that connect decision-makers to knowledge in support of sustainable agricultural landscapes. The major findings are (1) Agricultural apps can be categorized as supporting regulatory compliance, equipment optimization, farming simulator games, information management, agronomic reference information, product tracking, pest identification, emissions accounting, or benchmarks for marketing claims. (2) Many apps are developed to link specific products for single solutions, such as GPS-guided crop implementation or sensors within Internet-of-things connectivity. (3) While pilots, prototypes, and case studies are available in both Apple and Android digital markets, public mobile apps to improve multidirectional agriculture knowledge exchange are limited and poorly documented. (4) There remains a need for apps emphasizing knowledge exchange and resource discovery, rather than simply information delivery, to help farmers identify evidence-based practices that improve indicators of sustainability. (5) Development of a digital decision support tool requires early and ongoing interactions with targeted end users to clarify app performance objectives and social networking preferences, ensure reliability of scientific input and business management plans, and optimize the user experience.
      PubDate: 2019-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0549-8
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Understanding the values behind farmer perceptions of trees on farms to
           increase adoption of agroforestry in Australia
    • Abstract: Agriculture faces increasing sustainability pressures. Land intensification and degradation, energy use and inputs, complex environmental management, social issues facing farming communities and climate change are just some of the headline sustainability concerns threatening the viability of farming. Simultaneously, there is a need to increase food and fibre production and resource use efficiency. For many of these sustainability issues, increasing the number of trees planted in agricultural systems, or agroforestry, can improve the productivity and sustainability of future rural agricultural landscapes. In many parts of the world, the benefits of agroforestry remain under-realised. To understand the reasons behind this, interviews were conducted with 44 predominantly mixed enterprise farmers and farm advisors in Tasmania, Australia. Discourse analysis identified three groups of values driving perceptions and behaviours relating to agroforestry, trees as an economic proposition, trees as uneconomic and trees as essential regardless of economics. Previous work has identified many complex factors contributing to the lack of tree planting on farms including failures of past reforestation schemes, lack of awareness of the benefits of trees, perceptions of market volatility and risk, or simply a lack of time and money. This is one of the first times the underlying social norms and values creating perceptions of agroforestry have been identified. These new insights allow extension programs to tailor recommendations to identified groups based on perceptions of agroforestry. Evaluating these perceptions also allows new perspectives on opportunities for agroforestry adoption to be created, both in Tasmania and more broadly.
      PubDate: 2019-01-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-019-0555-5
       
  • First use of participatory Bayesian modeling to study habitat management
           at multiple scales for biological pest control
    • Abstract: Habitat management is increasingly considered as a promising approach to favor the ecosystem service of biological control by enhancing natural enemies. However, habitat management, whether at local or landscape scale, remains very uncertain for farmers. Interactions between ecological processes and agricultural practices are indeed uncertain and site-specific, which makes implementation difficult. Thus, prospecting innovations based on habitat management may benefit from integrating local stakeholders and their knowledge. Our objective is to explore with both local and scientific stakeholders how they perceive agricultural practices, ecological processes, and services related to biological pest control and habitat management. We conducted a participatory Bayesian Network modeling approach with five stakeholders in Southwest France around apple orchard cultivation. We co-constructed such Bayesian Networks based on participants’ knowledge. We explored scenarios favoring natural enemies and habitat manipulation with each participant’s Bayesian Network. We compared how different stakeholders perceive the impact of each scenario on the biological control ecosystem service. Our results indicate that a landscape with a high proportion of semi-natural habitats does not translate into significant biological control for most participants even though some stakeholders perceive a significant impact on generalist predators’ activity within orchards. For these local stakeholders, habitat management at the orchard level such as inter-row vegetation seems currently more promising than at the landscape scale. Here, we show for the first time that the use of Bayesian modeling in a participatory manner can give precious insights into the most promising perspectives on habitat management at different scales. These different local perspectives suggest in particular that further dialogue between ecologists and local stakeholders should be sought about inter-row habitat management as the most promising practice to foster biological pest control and other ecosystem services.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0553-z
       
  • Unraveling diversity in wheat competitive ability traits can improve
           integrated weed management
    • Abstract: Weed pressure can be high in organic and low-input farming and reduce yield and produce quality. In these systems, integrated weed management includes different agronomic practices but rarely focuses on the use of more competitive cultivars, which would reduce reliance on direct weed control methods and their detrimental effects on soil and the environment. We characterized 160 common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions cultivated in Italy since the nineteenth century for four traits linked to competitive ability against weeds (above-ground biomass before stem elongation, tillering index, plant height, and flag leaf morphology) and for two production-related traits (grain yield and thousand-kernel weight). This approach aimed to identify the most suitable combinations of competitiveness and production traits, which often show trade-offs, and led to the identification of eight accessions with reduced grain yield to plant height trade-off. We genotyped the collection with SNP markers, revealing high molecular diversity and highlighting a trend of polymorphism loss passing from heritage to modern germplasm, with the presence of unique polymorphisms in both groups. These results underline the importance of studying both heritage and elite germplasm when focusing on traits that are not targeted by formal breeding, such as the competitive ability against weeds. Marker-trait associations (MTAs) with false discovery rates (FDR) < 5% were detected for all traits studied, while MTAs with FDR < 1% were detected for plant height, biomass, grain yield, and thousand-kernel weight. We identified MTAs confirming associations already reported in the literature as well as MTAs pinpointing new genomic regions that may disclose new breeding perspectives in common wheat. This study, for the first time, shows the high potential of interdisciplinary research bridging advanced genetic studies with agroecological approaches for selecting more competitive common wheat germplasm as additional tool in more sustainable integrated weed management systems.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0551-1
       
  • The physiological responses of cacao to the environment and the
           implications for climate change resilience. A review
    • Authors: Fiona Lahive; Paul Hadley; Andrew J. Daymond
      Abstract: Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is a tropical perennial crop which is of great economic importance to the confectionary industry and to the economies of many countries of the humid tropics where it is grown. Some recent studies have suggested that climate change could severely impact cacao production in West Africa. It is essential to incorporate our understanding of the physiology and genetic variation within cacao germplasm when discussing the implications of climate change on cacao productivity and developing strategies for climate resilience in cacao production. Here, we review the current research on the physiological responses of cacao to various climate factors. Our main findings are as follows: (1) water limitation causes significant yield reduction in cacao, but genotypic variation in sensitivity is evident; (2) in the field, cacao experiences higher temperatures than is often reported in the literature; (3) the complexity of the cacao/shade tree interaction can lead to contradictory results; (4) elevated CO2 may alleviate some negative effects of climate change; (5) implementation of mitigation strategies can help reduce environmental stress; and (6) significant gaps in the research need addressing to accelerate the development of climate resilience. Harnessing the significant genetic variation apparent within cacao germplasm is essential to develop modern varieties capable of high yields in non-optimal conditions. Mitigation strategies will also be essential, but to use shading to best effect shade tree selection is crucial to avoid resource competition. Cacao is often described as being sensitive to climate change, but genetic variation, adaptive responses, appropriate mitigation strategies and interactive climate effects should all be considered when predicting the future of cacao production. Incorporating these physiological responses to various environmental conditions and developing a deeper understanding of the processes underlying these responses will help to accelerate the development of a more resource use efficient tree ensuring sustainable production into the future.
      PubDate: 2018-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0552-0
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Conservation tillage and organic farming reduce soil erosion
    • Authors: Steffen Seitz; Philipp Goebes; Viviana Loaiza Puerta; Engil Isadora Pujol Pereira; Raphaël Wittwer; Johan Six; Marcel G. A. van der Heijden; Thomas Scholten
      Abstract: The impact of different arable farming practices on soil erosion is only partly resolved, and the effect of conservation tillage practices in organic agriculture on sediment loss has rarely been tested in the field. This study investigated rainfall-induced interrill sediment loss in a long-term replicated arable farming system and tillage experiment (the FAST trial) with four different cropping systems: (1) organic farming with intensive tillage, (2) organic farming with reduced tillage, (3) conventional farming with intensive tillage, and (4) conventional farming with no tillage. Measurements were carried out under simulated heavy rainfall events with runoff plots in 2014 (fallow land after winter wheat) and 2017 (during maize growth). Organic farming decreased mean sediment delivery compared to conventional farming by 30% (0.54 t ha−1 h−1). This study demonstrated that reduced tillage in organic farming decreased sediment delivery (0.73 t ha−1 h−1) compared to intensively tilled organic plots (1.87 t ha−1 h−1) by 61%. Nevertheless, the combination of conventional farming and no tillage showed the lowest sediment delivery (0.24 t ha−1 h−1), whereas intensively tilled conventional plots revealed the highest delivery (3.46 t ha−1 h−1). Erosion rates were much higher in June during maize growth (2.92 t ha−1 h−1) compared to those of fallow land after winter wheat (0.23 t ha−1 h−1). Soil surface cover and soil organic matter were the best predictors for reduced sediment delivery, and living plant cover from weeds in reduced organic treatments appeared to protect soil surfaces better than plant residues in conventional, no-tillage plots. Soil erosion rates were significantly lower when soil cover was above 30%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that both organic farming and conservation agriculture reduce soil losses and showed for the first time that reduced tillage practices are a major improvement in organic farming when it comes to soil erosion control.
      PubDate: 2018-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0545-z
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Characterizing diversity of food systems in view of sustainability
           transitions. A review
    • Authors: Daniel Gaitán-Cremaschi; Laurens Klerkx; Jessica Duncan; Jacques H. Trienekens; Carlos Huenchuleo; Santiago Dogliotti; María E. Contesse; Walter A. H. Rossing
      Abstract: Dominant food systems are configured from the productivist paradigm, which focuses on producing large amounts of inexpensive and standardized foods. Although these food systems continue being supported worldwide, they are no longer considered fit-for-purpose as they have been proven unsustainable in environmental and social terms. A large body of scientific literature argues that a transition from the dominant food systems to alternative ones built around the wider principles of sustainable production and rural development is needed. Promoting such a sustainability transition would benefit from a diagnosis of food system types to identify those systems that may harbor promising characteristics for a transition to sustainable food systems. While research on food system transitions abounds, an operational approach to characterize the diversity of food systems taking a system perspective is still lacking. In this paper we review the literature on how transitions to sustainable food systems may play out and present a framework based on the Multi-Level Perspective on Socio-Technical Transitions, which builds upon conceptual developments from social and natural science disciplines. The objectives of the framework are to (i) characterize the diversity of existing food systems at a certain geographical scale based on a set of structural characteristics and (ii) classify the food systems in terms of their support by mainstream practices, i.e., dominant food systems connected to regimes; deviate radically from them, niche food systems such as those based on grassroots innovation; or share elements of dominant and niche food systems, i.e., hybrid food systems. An example is given of application of our framework to vegetable food systems with a focus on production, distribution, and consumption of low-or-no pesticide vegetables in Chile. Drawing on this illustrative example we reflect on usefulness, shortcomings, and further development and use of the diagnostic framework.
      PubDate: 2018-12-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0550-2
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Cover crops reduce water drainage in temperate climates: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Nicolas Meyer; Jacques-Eric Bergez; Julie Constantin; Eric Justes
      Abstract: Cover crops provide many ecosystem services, such as soil protection, nitrate pollution of water mitigation, and green manure effects. However, the impact of cover crops on soil water balance is poorly studied, despite its potential impact on groundwater recharge. Some studies reported a reduction of the water drainage due to an increase of the evapotranspiration by plant cover transpiration. However, there is no real consensus on the intensity of this phenomenon, which highlights the importance to quantify the impact of cover crops on drainage compared to that of bare soil. We performed a meta-analysis of published papers presenting studies on the impact of cover crops on drainage compared to that of bare soil under temperate climates. Of the 436 papers identified, 28 of them were included in the analysis based on criteria required for performing a relevant meta-analysis. The originality of our study lies in two following results: (1) the quantification of drainage reduction with cover crops by a mean effect size of 27 mm compared to that of bare soil and (2) within the large variability of soils, climates, and cropping systems, no main determining factor was found significant to explain the variability of water drainage reduction. The cover crops provide a service of nitrate pollution mitigation, but the drainage reduction could be considered as a disservice, because they can lead to a reduction in groundwater recharge due to a higher evapotranspiration in comparison to bare soil. This highlights the need of research for optimizing trade-offs between services and disservices of cover crops for water balance.
      PubDate: 2018-12-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0546-y
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Advice and advisory roles about work on farms. A review
    • Authors: Anne-Charlotte Dockès; Sophie Chauvat; Pastora Correa; Amélie Turlot; Ruth Nettle
      Abstract: The organization of work and changes in patterns of working life is of increasing concern to farmers worldwide. This creates challenges for advisors, who do not always know (i) how to recognize farmers’ or their own needs for knowledge and new approaches to farm work organization or (ii) how to assess different methods of advice to tackle this issue. How are advisors responding to this concern and what are the implications for advisory roles and the advisory situation' In this paper, we review the situation of farm work organization changes and advisory responses. We describe a conceptual framework integrating different foundations relating to work organization on farms, the farmer-advisor relationship and methods of advice. Applying this framework to farm work organization and advisory responses in Australia, Belgium, France and Uruguay, our findings are as follows: (i) the specific characteristics of work are a source of difficulties for both farmers and advisors; (ii) for the farmers, work is a very personal subject linked to identity; (iii) for the advisors, it requires different methods of advisory practice and skills; (iv) success of advisory roles in the context of farm work requires the control of various ‘role statements’; and (v) the organizational framework in which advisors carry out their activity, as well as specific training, can make it easier to identify and organize the skills.
      PubDate: 2018-12-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0547-x
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Epidemiology and agronomic predictors of herbicide resistance in rice at a
           large scale
    • Authors: Elisa Mascanzoni; Alessia Perego; Niccolò Marchi; Laura Scarabel; Silvia Panozzo; Aldo Ferrero; Marco Acutis; Maurizio Sattin
      Abstract: Herbicide resistance is a major weed control issue that threatens the sustainability of rice cropping systems. Its epidemiology at large scale is largely unknown. Several rice weed species have evolved resistant populations in Italy, including multiple resistant ones. The study objectives were to analyze the impact in Italian rice fields of major agronomic factors on the epidemiology of herbicide resistance and to generate a large-scale resistance risk map. The Italian Herbicide Resistance Working Group database was used to generate herbicide resistance maps. The distribution of resistant weed populations resulted as not homogeneous in the area studied, with two pockets where resistance had not been detected. To verify the situation, random sampling was done in the pockets where resistance had never been reported. Based on data from 230 Italian municipalities, three different statistics, stepwise discriminant analysis, stepwise logistic regression, and neural network, were used to correlate resistance distribution in the main Italian rice growing area with seeding type, rotation rate, and soil texture. Through the integration of complaint monitoring, mapping, and neural network analyses, we prove that a high risk of resistance evolution is associated with traditional rice cropping systems with intense monoculture rates and where water-seeding is widespread. This is the first study that determines the degree of association between herbicide resistance and a few important predictors at large scale. It also demonstrates that resistance is present in areas where it had never been reported through extensive complaint monitoring. However, these resistant populations cause medium-low density infestations, likely not alarming rice farmers. This highlights the importance of integrated agronomic techniques at cropping system level to prevent the diffusion and impact of herbicide resistance or limit it to an acceptable level. The identification of concise, yet informative, agronomic predictors of herbicide resistance diffusion can significantly facilitate effective management and improve sustainability.
      PubDate: 2018-12-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0548-9
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Correction to: Landscape ecology and expanding range of biocontrol agent
           taxa enhance prospects for diamondback moth management. A review
    • Authors: Geoff M. Gurr; Olivia L. Reynolds; Anne C. Johnson; Nicolas Desneux; Myron P. Zalucki; Michael J. Furlong; Zhenyu Li; Komivi S. Akutse; Junhui Chen; Xiwu Gao; Minsheng You
      Abstract: The article “Making people buy and eat differently”: lessons from the modernization of small independent grocery stores in the early twentieth century written by Frank Cochoy, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 29 June 2017.
      PubDate: 2018-11-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0539-x
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Grapevine abiotic stress assessment and search for sustainable adaptation
           strategies in Mediterranean-like climates. A review
    • Authors: Sara Bernardo; Lia-Tânia Dinis; Nelson Machado; José Moutinho-Pereira
      Abstract: Foreseen climate change points to shifts in agricultural production patterns worldwide, which may impact ecosystems directly, as well as the economic and cultural contexts of the wine industry. Moreover, the combined effects of environmental threats (light, temperature, and water relations) at different scales are expected to impair natural grapevine mechanisms, decreasing yield and the quality of grapes. Hence, the interaction between several factors, such as climate, terroir features, grapevine stress responses, site-specific spatial-temporal variability, and the management practices applied, which represents and effective challenge for sustainable Mediterranean viticulture, allowed researchers to develop adaptive strategies to cope with environmental stresses. Here, we review the effects of abiotic stresses on Mediterranean-like climate viticulture and the impacts of summer stress on grapevine growth, yield, and quality potential, as well as the subsequent plant responses and the available adaptation strategies for winegrowers and researchers. Our main findings are as follows: (1) environmental stresses can trigger dynamic responses in grapevines, comprising photosynthesis, phenology, hormonal balance, berry composition, and the antioxidant machinery; (2) field research methodologies, laboratory techniques, and precision viticulture are essential tools to evaluate grapevine performance and the potential quality for wine production; and (3) advances in the existing adaptation strategies are vital to maintain sustainability and regional wine identity in a changing climate. Also, these topics suggest that rational and focused management of grapevines may enlighten grapevine summer stress responses and improve the resilience of agro-ecosystems under harsh conditions. Despite the challenge of developing different strategic responses, winegrowers should clearly define their objectives, so applied research can provide rational technical support for the decision making process towards sustainable viticulture.
      PubDate: 2018-11-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0544-0
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Growing degree days and cover crop type explain weed biomass in winter
           cover crops
    • Authors: Barbara Baraibar; David A. Mortensen; Mitchell C. Hunter; Mary E. Barbercheck; Jason P. Kaye; Denise M. Finney; William S. Curran; Jess Bunchek; Charles M. White
      Abstract: Cover crops are increasingly being adopted to provide multiple ecosystem services, including weed suppression. Understanding what drives weed biomass in cover crops can help growers make the appropriate management decisions to effectively limit weed pressure. In this paper, we use a unique dataset of 1764 measurements from seven cover crop research experiments in Pennsylvania (USA) to predict, for the first time, weed biomass in winter cover crops in the fall and spring. We assessed the following predictors: cover crop biomass in the fall and spring, fall and spring growing degree days between planting and cover crop termination, cover crop type (grass, brassica, legume monocultures, and mixtures), system management (organic, conventional), and tillage before cover crop seeding (no-till, tillage). We used random forests to develop the predictive models and identify the most important variables explaining weed biomass in cover crops. Growing degree days, cover crop type, and cover crop biomass were the most important predictor variables in both the fall (r2 = 0.65) and spring (r2 = 0.47). In the fall, weed biomass increased as accumulated growing degree days increased, which was mainly related to early planting dates. Fall weed biomass was greater in legume and brassica monocultures compared to grass monocultures and mixtures. Cover crop and weed biomass were positively correlated in the fall, as early planting of cover crops led to high cover crop biomass but also to high weed biomass. In contrast, high spring cover crop biomass suppressed weeds, especially as spring growing degree days increased. Grass and brassica monocultures and mixtures were more weed-suppressive than legumes. This study is the first to be able to predict weed biomass in winter cover crops using a random forest approach. Results show that weed suppression by winter cover crops can be enhanced with optimal cover crop species selection and seeding time.
      PubDate: 2018-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0543-1
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Quantifying the potential of ‘on-farm’ seed priming to increase crop
           performance in developing countries. A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Javier Carrillo-Reche; Mario Vallejo-Marín; Richard S. Quilliam
      Abstract: Low-input agriculture in marginal areas of developing countries faces considerable challenges during crop development. A key stage in crop growth is seed germination, which is often constrained by abiotic factors such as low water potential, high temperatures and soil crusting, which can result in poor establishment. This is exacerbated by low soil fertility, salinity, drought, pests and diseases, which ultimately leads to reduced yields. Over the last 20 years, the potential of ‘on-farm’ seed priming, a traditional, low-cost technique, consisting of soaking seeds in water prior to sowing, has been applied to different crops and conditions with varying degrees of success. To understand the significance of this potentially transformative agronomic strategy, we have conducted a global meta-analysis of on-farm seed priming by quantifying (i) the rate of emergence, (ii) final emergence and (iii) total yield from 44 published papers on 17 crops across 10 countries. Our results show that on-farm seed priming has a significantly positive effect on crop performance: seeds emerge 22% faster, with an increased final emergence of 11%, with total yields 21% higher than conventionally sown seeds. Furthermore, sub-group analyses demonstrated that on-farm seed priming is more advantageous under stressful abiotic conditions with case studies categorized as being either ‘nutrient deficient’, ‘salinity-stressed’ or ‘dry climates’ gaining the highest yield improvements (22–28%). On-farm seed priming can be particularly beneficial to resource-poor farmers working in low-input agricultural systems where yield potential is limited by intrinsically stressed agronomic environments. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that on-farm seed priming is perfectly adapted to local situations in developing countries. Our results provide the evidence that on-farm seed priming could be effectively adopted by resource-poor farmers as a strategy to increase food security in some of the most marginal agricultural areas.
      PubDate: 2018-11-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0536-0
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Grain legume yields are as stable as other spring crops in long-term
           experiments across northern Europe
    • Authors: Moritz Reckling; Thomas F. Döring; Göran Bergkvist; Frederick L. Stoddard; Christine A. Watson; Sylvia Seddig; Frank-M. Chmielewski; Johann Bachinger
      Abstract: Grain legumes produce high-quality protein for food and feed, and potentially contribute to sustainable cropping systems, but they are grown on only 1.5% of European arable land. Low temporal yield stability is one of the reasons held responsible for the low proportion of grain legumes, without sufficient quantitative evidence. The objective of this study was to compare the yield stability of grain legumes with other crop species in a northern European context and accounting for the effects of scale in the analysis and the data. To avoid aggregation biases in the yield data, we used data from long-term field experiments. The experiments included grain legumes (lupin, field pea, and faba bean), other broad-leaved crops, spring, and winter cereals. Experiments were conducted in the UK, Sweden, and Germany. To compare yield stability between grain legumes and other crops, we used a scale-adjusted yield stability indicator that accounts for the yield differences between crops following Taylor’s Power Law. Here, we show that temporal yield instability of grain legumes (30%) was higher than that of autumn-sown cereals (19%), but lower than that of other spring-sown broad-leaved crops (35%), and only slightly greater than spring-sown cereals (27%). With the scale-adjusted yield stability indicator, we estimated 21% higher yield stability for grain legumes compared to a standard stability measure. These novel findings demonstrate that grain legume yields are as reliable as those of other spring-sown crops in major production systems of northern Europe, which could influence the current negative perception on grain legume cultivation. Initiatives are still needed to improve the crops agronomy to provide higher and more stable yields in future.
      PubDate: 2018-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0541-3
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
       
 
 
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