Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2626 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2626 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
aBIOTECH : An Intl. J. on Plant Biotechnology and Agricultural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adversity and Resilience Science : J. of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Functional Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Agronomy for Sustainable Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.864
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 19  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1774-0746 - ISSN (Online) 1773-0155
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Tropical forage technologies can deliver multiple benefits in Sub-Saharan
           Africa. A meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Abstract Scarcity of quantity and quality feed has been a key constraint to productivity of smallholder crop-livestock systems. Tropical forages include a variety of annual and perennial grasses, herbaceous and dual-purpose legumes, and multipurpose trees and shrubs. They have been promoted in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for increasing livestock productivity and household income through higher quantity and quality of herbage, while contributing to soil improvement and higher food crop yields. For the first time, we quantitatively reviewed 72 experimental studies from across SSA to take stock of geographical distribution and forage technology focus of past research; quantify magnitudes of multidimensional impacts of forage technologies; and present variability in forage agronomy data. Improved forage technologies were classified into four groups: (i) germplasm, (ii) management, (iii) cropping system integration, and (iv) feeding regime. Mean weighted response ratios were calculated from 780 pairs of observations for 13 indicators across the five impact dimensions. Improved forage germplasm had on average 2.6 times higher herbage productivity than local controls, with strongest effect in grasses. Feeding regimes with improved leguminous forages increased milk yield by on average 39%, dry matter intake by 25%, and manure production by 24%. When forage technologies were integrated with food crops, soil loss was almost halved, soil organic carbon increased on average by 10%, and grain and stover yields by 60% and 33%, respectively. This study demonstrates the central role improved forages could play in sustainable intensification of crop-livestock systems in SSA. It highlights the need for multidisciplinary and systems-level approaches and studies to quantify synergies and tradeoffs between impact dimensions. Further research is needed to explain forage agronomic yield variability, unraveling interactions between genotype, on-farm environmental conditions, and management factors. Results from this review can inform development programs, prioritizing technologies proven successful for dissemination and indicating magnitudes of expected impacts.
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
       
  • Decision analysis of agroforestry options reveals adoption risks for
           resource-poor farmers

    • Abstract: Abstract Agroforestry interventions have the potential to benefit the livelihoods of farmers and communities worldwide. However, given the high system complexity, the long-term benefits of agroforestry are difficult to anticipate. This study aimed to integrate uncertainty into long-term performance projections for agroforestry interventions in the highlands of Northwest Vietnam. We applied decision analysis and probabilistic modeling approaches to produce economic ex-ante assessments for seven agroforestry options (intercropping of maize, forage grass, or coffee with tea, nut, fruit, and timber trees) promoted in the region. Our results indicate that farmers likely prefer annual monocultures due to the relatively early incomes and short time-lag on returns. However, the results also show that annual profits from monocrops can be expected to decrease over time, due mainly to unsustainable soil use. Agroforestry systems, on the other hand, return substantial profits in the long term, but they also incur high establishment and maintenance costs and can generate net losses in the first few years. Initial financial incentives to compensate for these losses may help in promoting agroforestry adoption in the region. Uncertainties related to farmers’ time preference, crop yields, and crop prices appeared to have the greatest influence on whether monocropping or agroforestry emerged as the preferable option. Narrowing these key knowledge gaps may offer additional clarity on farmers’ optimal course of action and provide guidance for agencies promoting agroforestry interventions in Vietnam and elsewhere. Our model produced a set of plausible ranges for net present values and highlighted critical variables, more clarity on which would support decision-making under uncertainty. Our innovative research approach proved effective in providing forecasts of uncertain outcomes and can be useful for informing similar development interventions in other contexts.
      PubDate: 2020-06-09
       
  • Technical efficacy and practicability of mass trapping for insect control
           in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Abstract Eggplant shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis, is a major pest in eggplant production in South and South-East Asia. Farmers frequently spray insecticides to control it. Integrated pest management (IPM) based on mass trapping or pheromone trapping and sanitation (removal of infested shoots and fruits) has been suggested but poorly adopted. This study tested, together with farmers, combinations of IPM components that fit their farming practices, increase income, and preserve natural enemy populations. A 2-year participatory study was negotiated with these farmers, comparing (i) an untreated control, (ii) farmers’ conventional weekly spraying, with pheromone trapping either (iii) alone, or combined with (iv) trap-based biorational spraying, or (v) bi-weekly conventional insecticide spraying. Farmers rejected testing sanitation as too labor-intensive. In both years, pheromone trapping alone or combined with biorational spraying reduced fruit infestation, increased yield and income, and preserved natural enemies, showing technical efficacy at costs comparable with farmers’ practice. Replacing biorational spraying by conventional insecticides did not provide any control beyond pheromone trapping alone but reduced natural enemies. In contrast, farmers’ practice neither reduced infestation nor increased yield but reduced populations of natural enemies. Aphid and jassid populations were reduced only by biorational and conventional spraying. As farmers were reluctant to use only pheromone trapping, the addition of biorational spraying might be suitable. Discussion with farmers allowed us to understand how practical applicability of the tested IPM depends on farmers’ knowledge levels on insect biology, farmers’ desire to still use some spraying, and labor constraints to sanitation. Although technically and economically viable, the tested IPM may prove difficult to scale out, as farmers had difficulty understanding the lifecycle of Leucinodes orbonalis and the pheromone trapping mechanisms. This study is the first to disentangle the technical efficacy of pheromone-trapping-based IPM from its practical applicability for the targeted smallholder eggplant growers.
      PubDate: 2020-06-09
       
  • Role of ley pastures in tomorrow’s cropping systems. A review

    • Abstract: Abstract Diversification of cropping systems has been proposed as a major mechanism to move towards sustainable cropping systems. To date, a diversification option that has received little attention is introduction of ley pastures into cropping systems, but the use of ley pastures is challenged by most future-oriented scenarios aiming to feed the world sustainably. In these scenarios, ruminant livestock feed only on permanent pastures, while cropping systems focus completely on production of crop-based human food. Diversification of cropping systems with ley pastures is thus compromised by knowledge gaps and future-oriented policy options. Here, we review ecosystem services provided by introducing ley pastures into cropping systems to increase sustainability of agriculture, discuss types of ley pastures and their management liable to promote these services, and raise future challenges related to introducing ley pastures into cropping systems. We conclude that (1) ley pastures provide a large set of input (soil conservation, nutrient provision and recycling, soil water retention, biological control of pests) and output (water purification, climate regulation, habitat provision for biodiversity conservation, forage production) ecosystem services of primary importance to cropping systems and society, respectively, as long as their spatial and temporal insertion within cropping systems is well-managed; otherwise, disservices may be produced. (2) To benefit from ecosystem services provided by ley pastures in cropping systems while limiting their disservices, it appears necessary to define a safe operating space for ley pastures in cropping systems. Moving towards this space requires changing plant breeding programs towards multiservice ley pastures, producing knowledge about emerging ways of introducing ley pastures into cropping systems (e.g., living mulch, green manure) and better quantifying the bundles of ecosystem services provided by ley pastures in cropping systems.
      PubDate: 2020-05-12
       
  • Diverse approaches to crop diversification in agricultural research. A
           review

    • Abstract: Abstract Agricultural intensification increased crop productivity but simplified production with lower diversity of cropping systems, higher genetic uniformity, and a higher uniformity of agricultural landscapes. Associated detrimental effects on the environment and biodiversity as well as the resilience and adaptability of cropping systems to climate change are of growing concern. Crop diversification may stabilize productivity of cropping systems and reduce negative environmental impacts and loss of biodiversity, but a shared understanding of crop diversification including approaches towards a more systematic research is lacking. Here, we review the use of ‘crop diversification’ measures in agricultural research. We (i) analyse changes in crop diversification studies over time; (ii) identify diversification practices based on empirical studies; (iii) differentiate their use by country, crop species and experimental setup and (iv) identify target parameters to assess the success of diversification. Our main findings are that (1) less than 5% of the selected studies on crop diversification refer to our search term ‘diversification’; (2) more than half of the studies focused on rice, corn or wheat; (3) 76% of the experiments were conducted in India, USA, Canada, Brazil or China; (4) almost any arable crop was tested on its suitability for diversification; (5) in 72% of the studies on crop diversification, at least one additional agronomic measure was tested and (6) only 45% of the studies analysed agronomic, economic and ecological target variables. Our findings show the high variability of approaches to crop diversification and the lack of a consistent theoretical concept. For better comparability and ability to generalise the results of the different primary studies, we suggest a novel conceptual framework. It consists of five elements, (i) definition of the problem of existing farming practices and the potential need for diversification, (ii) characterisation of the baseline system to be diversified, (iii) definition of the scale and target area, (iv) description of the experimental design and target variables and (v) definition of the expected impacts. Applying this framework will contribute to utilizing the benefits of crop diversification more efficiently.
      PubDate: 2020-04-20
       
  • Potential of microbes in the biofortification of Zn and Fe in dietary food
           grains. A review

    • Abstract: Abstract Micronutrients are essential factors for human health and integral for plant growth and development. Among the micronutrients, zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) deficiency in dietary food are associated with malnutrition symptoms (hidden hunger), which can be overcome through biofortification. Different strategies, such as traditional and molecular plant breeding or application of chemical supplements along with fertilizers, have been employed to develop biofortified crop varieties with enhanced bioavailability of micronutrients. The use of microorganisms to help the crop plant in more efficient and effective uptake and translocation of Zn and Fe is a promising option that needs to be effectively integrated into agronomic or breeding approaches. However, this is less documented and forms the subject of our review. The major findings related to the mobilization of micronutrients by microorganisms highlighted the significance of (1) acidification of rhizospheric soil and (2) stimulation of secretion of phenolics. Plant–microbe interaction studies illustrated novel inferences related to the (3) modifications in the root morphology and architecture, (4) reduction of phytic acid in food grains, and (5) upregulation of Zn/Fe transporters. For the biofortification of Zn and Fe, formulation(s) of such microbes (bacteria or fungi) can be explored as seed priming or soil dressing options. Using the modern tools of transcriptomics, metaproteomics, and genomics, the genes/proteins involved in their translocation within the plants of major crops can be identified and engineered for improving the efficacy of plant–microbe interactions. With micronutrient nutrition being of global concern, it is imperative that the synergies of scientists, policy makers, and educationists focus toward developing multipronged approaches that are environmentally sustainable, and integrating such microbial options into the mainframe of integrated farming practices in agriculture. This can lead to better quality and yields of produce, and innovative approaches in food processing can deliver cost-effective nutritious food for the undernourished populations.
      PubDate: 2020-04-20
       
  • Mixed outcomes from conservation practices on soils and Striga -affected
           yields of a low-input, rice–maize system in Madagascar

    • Abstract: Abstract On upland soils in tropical Africa, common production constraints of rice and maize on smallholder farms are poor soil fertility—resulting from soil erosion and nutrient depletion—and infestation by witchweeds (Striga spp.). In Madagascar where these crops are often grown in rotation, combining legume cover crops with no-till and crop residue mulching—labelled conservation agriculture (CA)—may address these problems. Previously, it was shown that CA practices contribute to steep reductions in Striga asiatica infection. In the current study, a 4-year field experiment was conducted to test, for the first time, the hypothesis that CA practices also contribute to crop yield and soil improvements under Striga-infested conditions. The conventional mono-crop rice–maize rotation practice, involving seasonal tillage and crop residue removal, was compared to three rice–maize rotation systems following CA practices, each with a different legume cover crop option: (1) two short-cycle annual species, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and mucuna (Mucuna pruriens); (2) a long-cycle annual, ricebean (Vigna umbellata); and (3) a perennial, stylosanthes (S. guianensis). Rice yields, as well as yield variability, generally increased by changing from the conventional to a CA practice, and maize yields were variable and low in particular under the CA practices. CA practices significantly reduced soil displacement by rainwater runoff and increased soil nitrogen and pH levels (0–20 cm depth), in particular with stylosanthes as cover crop, but did not result in a significant change in soil organic carbon concentration. Rice yields correlated negatively with Striga asiatica plant numbers in years with moderate infection levels. This is the first study that shows mixed outcomes from CA practices in tropical cereal rotation systems on degraded, Striga-infested soils, and subsequent entry points for system improvements. Suggested improvements include judicious cover crop management, complementary fertilizer applications and selection of competitive, resistant and adapted crop varieties.
      PubDate: 2020-02-18
       
  • New perennial grains in African smallholder agriculture from a farming
           systems perspective. A review

    • Abstract: Abstract Perennial grain crops are gaining increased attention from researchers as one possible solution to agriculture’s many sustainability challenges. In the Sub-Saharan African context, perennial varieties of crops such as sorghum, rice, and pigeon pea have potential to provide numerous benefits for smallholder farmers. The introduction and adoption of new crops and practices is however a complex process that needs to be approached from an interdisciplinary and participatory perspective. We here review the small but growing body of knowledge about on-farm adoption and the use of perennial grains around the world, as well as the more extensive literature of farming systems research. We conclude that a farming systems approach offers a fruitful entry point for informing the emerging research agenda around perennial grains in African smallholder agriculture. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of the potentials and challenges of perennial grains also requires cross-scalar analysis capable of looking beyond the farming system. We thus outline five key considerations for developing and studying new perennial grains in smallholder contexts, i.e., (1) smallholder farming systems are complex, diverse, and locally adapted; (2) decision-making is shaped by various resource constraints; (3) farming is often “semi-subsistence” and forms part of broader livelihood strategies, wherein risk is an important factor; (4) gender relations and roles influence many aspects of smallholder farming systems; and (5) analyses of farmers’ production systems, decision-making, and livelihood strategies must be embedded within a broader political-economic context. Based on these considerations, we suggest directions and examples of key questions for future research and derive methodological implications for how such research could be approached.
      PubDate: 2020-02-18
       
  • Intercropping of grain legumes and cereals improves the use of soil N
           resources and reduces the requirement for synthetic fertilizer N: A
           global-scale analysis

    • Abstract: Abstract Planetary boundaries for terrestrial inputs of reactive nitrogen (Nr) are transgressed and reducing the input of new Nr and its environmental impacts are major global challenges. Grain legumes fix dinitrogen (N2) in symbiosis with soil bacteria and use soil N sources, but often less efficient than cereals. Intercropping grain legumes with cereals may be a means of increasing use efficiency of soil N. Here, we estimate the global sole cropped grain legume acquisition of N from soil to approximately 14.2 Tg N year−1, which corresponds to one-third of the global synthetic fertilizer N use (109 Tg N year−1) for all crops, assuming that grain legumes recover on average 40% of the fertilizer N. Published data from grain legume-cereal intercrop experiments, employing stable 15N isotope methods, have shown that due to competitive interactions and complementary N acquisition in intercrops, the cereals recover a more than proportional share of the soil N sources. As a consequence, the intercropped legume derives more of its N from the atmosphere, compared with when it is grown as legume sole crop. We estimated that the increased N use efficiency in intercropping can reduce the requirements for fossil-based fertilizer N by about 26% on a global scale. In addition, our estimates indicate that if all current grain legume sole crops would instead be intercropped with cereals, a potential net land saving would be achieved, when also replacing part of the current cereal sole crop area with intercropping. Intercropping has additional potential advantages such as increased yield stability and yield per unit area, reduced pest problems and reduced requirements for agrochemicals, while stimulating biodiversity. It is concluded that crop diversification by intercropping has the potential to reduce global requirements for synthetic fertilizer N and consequently support the development of more sustainable cropping systems.
      PubDate: 2020-02-10
       
  • Bridging the disciplinary gap in conservation agriculture research, in
           Malawi. A review

    • Abstract: Abstract Conservation Agriculture has emerged as a popular form of climate smart agriculture aimed at enhancing climate change resilience for smallholder farmers across Africa. Despite positive biophysical results, adoption rates remain low. It has been acknowledged that improved understanding of farmer decision-making is needed due to the variation in socio-economic and agro-ecological contexts which drives the research agenda to answer the question ‘what forms of Conservation Agriculture work, where, and why'’. To fully understand this question, we need to approach the study of Conservation Agriculture within complex farming systems by collating and integrating different forms of knowledge. In this paper, we discuss (1) a comparison of disciplinary approaches to evaluating Conservation Agriculture in Malawi, (2) the identification of the knowledge gaps that persist at the intersection of these disciplines and (3) recommendations for alternative and interdisciplinary approaches in addressing these knowledge gaps. With a focus on published studies from Malawi, we show that the Conservation Agriculture literature represents two distinct approaches to addressing the question ‘what forms of Conservation Agriculture work, where, and why'’, namely agro-ecological and socio-economic and that neither of these approaches can address the full scope of this question, in particular its ‘why’ component. To overcome these challenges, there is a need for access to compatible, comprehensive data sets, methodological approaches including farmer participation and ethnography, through on-farm trial research as a middle ground between disciplinary approaches.
      PubDate: 2020-01-29
       
  • Legume-based rotations have clear economic advantages over cereal
           monocropping in dry areas

    • Abstract: Abstract Current land use trends show an increasing preference for monocropping – mostly a consequence of policies and incentives aimed at enhancing the intensification of cereals. This shift has caused some to question whether legume–cereal rotations can remain economically viable options for farmers, particularly in the dry areas. In this paper, we present the results of an endogenous switching regression model which suggests, for the first time, that legume–cereal rotations have clear economic advantages over cereal monocropping. Rotations provide higher yields, gross margins, and consumption of wheat and faba beans. Most past economic analyses on rotation used data from experimental stations or small-sized farmer surveys covering only one season and variety. This study makes an important improvement by employing two-year data from a large sample of 1230 farm households and their 2643 fields cultivated with different varieties of wheat and faba beans in the wheat-based production system of Morocco. Assuming a biennial rotation – the fastest cycle possible in a rainfed dryland system, this paper is also the first to demonstrate that joint adoption of rotations and improved faba bean varieties leads to a two-year average gross margin that is US$537/ha (48%) higher than wheat monocropping. This is the highest economic benefit of all available cropping options. A striking result of the study is that, contrary to common expectations, adopters of rotation did not use lesser amounts of nitrogen fertilizer than those monocropping wheat, thereby undermining the ecological benefits of faba bean–wheat rotations. Given that current average applications are below marginal product-maximizing levels, higher marginal yields of nitrogen fertilizers after rotation help explain farmers’ current behavior. Our results suggest that: 1) promoting improved legume varieties may enhance adoption of rotation; and 2) an economic rationale should be used as the main driver of the rotation agenda in the dry areas.
      PubDate: 2019-12-10
       
  • Cash for trash: an agro-economic value assessment of urban organic
           materials used as fertilizers in Cameroon

    • Abstract: Abstract The rapid expansion of cities in sub-Saharan Africa generates increasing volumes of diversified organic wastes that require management and a high population need for local and fresh vegetables. Linking the different sources of organic materials generated in these cities with the needs of local food producers for fertilizers prepared from recycled organic materials is challenging. This requires that producers obtain the results they expect from the organic materials they recycle. Thus, recycling these organic materials in their raw form or after composting presents an opportunity for periurban agriculture, although the great variability in the quantity and quality of these materials raises questions about the consistency between their agronomic value and their economic value. In two large cities of Cameroon (Yaoundé and Bafoussam), different types of organic materials were sampled: unprocessed livestock waste and composts from manure or municipal solid waste. From an agronomic perspective, we calculated the fertilization value based on the nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) content of the organic materials. From an economic perspective, we calculated the value based on the nutrient content of the organic materials and their substitution unit prices and recorded the current market price. This is the first time that this combined approach has been used in sub-Saharan Africa. Our results showed considerable variability and discrepancy in both the agronomic and the economic values. The market prices overvalued the urban composts by a factor of 6, while chicken feces were undervalued by a factor of 3. The unprocessed organic materials were the most interesting from an economic and agronomic perspective. Our findings suggest that (i) the composting process needs to be improved and (ii) the humus potential should be calculated to better assess the amendment value of organic materials and as a basis for adjusting their market price.
      PubDate: 2019-11-09
       
  • Forest cover enhances natural enemy diversity and biological control
           services in Brazilian sun coffee plantations

    • Abstract: Abstract Landscape structure and crop management directly affect insect communities, which can influence agriculturally relevant ecosystem services and disservices. However, little is known about the effect of landscape structure and local factors on pests, natural enemies, and biological control services in the Neotropics. We investigated how environmental conditions at local and landscape levels affect Leucoptera coffeella (insect pest), social wasps (natural enemies), and the provision of biological control services in 16 Brazilian coffee plantations under different crop management and landscape contexts. We considered microclimatic conditions, coffee plantation size, and management intensity at the local level; and forest cover, landscape diversity, and edge density at the landscape level. Pest population, wasp communities, and biocontrol services were monitored in wet and dry seasons when L. coffeella outbreaks occur. We found that the amount of forest in the surrounding landscape was more important for explaining patterns than the local environment, landscape diversity, or landscape configuration. In both seasons, L. coffeella was negatively affected by forest cover, whereas biological control and richness and abundance of social wasps increased with increasing forest cover at multiple spatial scales. Moreover, biological control was positively correlated with wasp abundance during pest outbreaks, suggesting that social wasps are important natural enemies and provide pest control services within coffee plantations. We provide the first empirical evidence that forest cover is important for the maintenance of social wasp diversity and associated pest control services in a Brazilian coffee-producing region.
      PubDate: 2019-11-06
       
  • Codesigning biodiversity-based agrosystems promotes alternatives to
           mycorrhizal inoculants

    • Abstract: Abstract Facing the challenge of the ecological transition of agriculture, biodiversity opens new avenues to enhance ecological interactions and reduce chemical input dependency. Designing biodiversity-based agrosystems requires an agroecological approach that combines key principles: exploring a wide range of concepts and solutions, adopting systemic reasoning, implementing a site-specific approach, developing an action-oriented process, and maintaining a continuous improvement dynamic. This type of approach has never been developed to harness mycorrhizal fungi, which are key components of soil biodiversity, because their beneficial action on crops depends on complex and underexploited ecological interactions. At present, mycorrhizae are mainly used through industrial inoculants that fit within the productionist paradigm. To shift toward agroecological approaches, we implemented a methodological framework conceived to better address the design of mycorrhiza-friendly cropping systems by sharing knowledge with farmers in four different study areas (Provence, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique). This framework includes participative workshops, a board game, and prospective exercises to collect farmers’ proposals and the factors that prevent from implementing mycorrhiza-friendly cropping systems. We showed that 90% of the farmers proposed alternatives to industrial inoculants, 50% of them adopted systemic reasoning by combining these alternative proposals. Most farmers understood that they were all potential “mycorrhizae producers”. We showed, for the first time through on-farm experiments that valorization of indigenous mycorrhizal fungi strains using a donor plant is an effective practice to increase root colonization before planting (up to a frequency of 95% and an intensity of 32%). Considering the increasing supply of mycorrhizal inoculants and despite the uncertainty of related knowledge, we codesigned innovative practices. Learning communities (technical advisors, high school teachers, etc.) assumed responsibility for continuous improvement in knowledge and practices. Finally, beyond the issue of mycorrhizae, we showed that an agroecological approach could bring stakeholders one step further into the design of biodiversity-based agrosystems.
      PubDate: 2019-10-24
       
  • Agroforestry delivers a win-win solution for ecosystem services in
           sub-Saharan Africa. A meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Abstract Agricultural landscapes are increasingly being managed with the aim of enhancing the provisioning of multiple ecosystem services and sustainability of production systems. However, agricultural management that maximizes provisioning ecosystem services can often reduce both regulating and maintenance services. We hypothesized that agroforestry reduces trade-offs between provisioning and regulating/maintenance services. We conducted a quantitative synthesis of studies carried out in sub-Saharan Africa focusing on crop yield (as an indicator of provisioning services), soil fertility, erosion control, and water regulation (as indicators of regulating/maintenance services). A total of 1106 observations were extracted from 126 peer-reviewed publications that fulfilled the selection criteria for meta-analysis of studies comparing agroforestry and non-agroforestry practices (hereafter control) in sub-Saharan Africa. Across ecological conditions, agroforestry significantly increased crop yield, total soil nitrogen, soil organic carbon, and available phosphorus compared to the control. Agroforestry practices also reduced runoff and soil loss and improved infiltration rates and soil moisture content. No significant differences were detected between the different ecological conditions, management regimes, and types of woody perennials for any of the ecosystem services. Main trade-offs included low available phosphorus and low soil moisture against higher crop yield. This is the first meta-analysis that shows that, on average, agroforestry systems in sub-Saharan Africa increase crop yield while maintaining delivery of regulating/maintenance ecosystem services. We also demonstrate how woody perennials have been managed in agricultural landscapes to provide multiple ecosystem services without sacrificing crop productivity. This is important in rural livelihoods where the range of ecosystem services conveys benefits in terms of food security and resilience to environmental shocks.
      PubDate: 2019-09-09
       
  • Management of pennycress as a winter annual cash cover crop. A review

    • Abstract: Abstract Agriculture in the Upper Midwest of the USA is characterized by a short growing season and unsustainable farming practices including low-diversity cropping systems and high fertilizer inputs. One method to reduce the magnitude of these problems is by integrating a winter annual into the summer-annual-dominant cropping system. For this reason, pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) has garnered interest in the agricultural community due to its winter annual growth habit and potential for industrial oil production, making it an ecologically and economically desirable crop. Despite decades of research focusing on pennycress as an agricultural weed, little is known about its best management practices as an intentionally cultivated crop. The majority of agronomic research has occurred within the past 10 years, and there are major gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed prior to the widespread integration of pennycress on the landscape. Here we review relevant agronomic research on pennycress as a winter annual crop in the areas of sowing requirements, harvest, seed oil content, seed oil quality, cropping strategies, ecosystem services, and germplasm development. The major points are as follows: (1) there is little consensus regarding basic agronomic practices (i.e., seeding rate, row spacing, nutrient requirements, and harvest strategy); (2) pennycress can be integrated into a corn (Zea mays)–soybean (Glycine max) rotation, but further research on system management is required to maximize crop productivity and oilseed yields; (3) pennycress provides essential ecosystem services to the landscape in early spring when vegetation is scarce; (4) breeding efforts are required to remove detrimental weedy characteristics, such as silicle shatter and high sinigrin content, from the germplasm. We conclude that pennycress shows great promise as an emergent crop; however, current adoption is limited by a lack of conclusive knowledge regarding management practices and future research is required over a multitude of topics.
      PubDate: 2019-09-04
       
  • Efficacy of homemade botanical insecticides based on traditional
           knowledge. A review

    • Abstract: Abstract Homemade botanical insecticides are widely used by subsistence and transitional farmers in low-income countries. Their use is often driven by the limited availability or cost of commercial pesticides. Homemade botanical insecticides are often recommended by agricultural extension services and some development organizations. However, this could be questioned because scientific evidence of their efficacy and safety may not be available or accessible. Although botanicals with insecticidal properties have been widely studied, a synthesis focusing specifically on homemade preparations used in realistic field or storage conditions is missing. In this paper, we review efficacy assessments of botanicals used to prepare homemade insecticides. This covers twelve botanicals recommended by national extension partners in 20 countries within the global agricultural Plantwise program. These are as follows: garlic (Allium sativum), neem (Azadirachta indica), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata), mother of cocoa (Gliricidia sepium), chinaberry (Melia azedarach), moringa (Moringa oleifera), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum), tephrosia (Tephrosia vogelii), tree marigold (Tithonia diversifolia), and bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina). This review shows that (1) all the selected botanicals contain active ingredients with insecticidal, antifeedant, or repellent properties, and (2) homemade insecticides based on all the selected botanicals have been used with some success to control pests or prevent damage, although efficacy was variable and often lower than the positive controls (synthetic pesticides). Factors affecting the efficacy of homemade botanical insecticide include variation in active ingredient content and concentration in plant material, as well as variation in the preparation process. In conclusion, there is some evidence that homemade botanical insecticides could contribute to reducing losses in food production. Since further research is needed to better understand their variable efficacy and potential health and environmental risks, those who promote the use of homemade botanical insecticides should also communicate those “unknowns” to the farmers who use such products.
      PubDate: 2019-06-20
       
  • Yield and labor relations of sustainable intensification options for
           smallholder farmers in sub‐Saharan Africa. A meta‐analysis

    • Abstract: Abstract Sustainable intensification of agricultural production is needed to ensure increased productivity relative to inputs. Short-term yield returns and labor input are major determinants of the fate of sustainable intensification options on smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa because labor shortage is often acute, and most farmers lack access to labor-saving technologies. We assessed the relationship between maize grain yield change and labor input from a total of 28 published papers (631 data pairs) including subsets of data pairs within specific sustainable intensification practices. Among the reviewed technologies, manually dug planting basins showed ratios between the change in yield and change in labor inputs (ΔY/ΔL) below 1, suggesting that labor demand increased more than yield. In contrast, ridging showed average ΔY/ΔL values ≥ 2. No-till showed high ΔY/ΔL (average ≥ 1.7) when combined with herbicides but average ΔY/ΔL ≤ 1 (total labor) when manually weeded. Manually weeded rotations showed average ΔY/ΔL ≥ 1 and manually weeded intercropping systems average ΔY/ΔL around 1. The relations revealed four scenarios: high yield returns but low labor demand, high yield returns and labor demand, low yield returns and labor demand, and low yield returns but high labor demand. High yield with high labor demand requires mostly investments in machinery and/or herbicides to reduce labor input. Low yield with low labor demand requires improved crop management, whereas low yield with high labor demand requires a combination of improved crop management and investments to reduce labor. This is the first comprehensive assessment showing that the sustainable intensification options being considered for smallholder farmers may increase crop yield but also labor demand. Options that include mechanization and herbicides at low cost are likely to be adopted due to their reduction effect on drudgery and total labor input.
      PubDate: 2019-05-22
       
  • Artificial selection of insects to bioconvert pre-consumer organic wastes.
           A review

    • Abstract: Abstract As the human population continues to grow, so too do the concerns regarding the sustainability of waste management from our food production systems. Faced with limited environmental resources for food production, issues related to food loss and waste are critical in mitigating challenges stemming from projected population growth and long-term food security and sustainability. The potential for using insects to consume organic waste materials and convert them into feed for animal, biofuels, and other valuable secondary products is gaining momentum as both a research discipline and as a business opportunity. Here, this ecosystem service is referred to as “insects as bioconverters of organic waste.” Scientific reviews of this topic have mainly focused on the challenges associated with development of commercial scale systems. To compliment existing reviews, we address this exciting topic from an artificial selection perspective, as we review and discuss aspects associated with targeted breeding and adaptation of both gut microbial communities and host insects themselves. We describe the “ideal insect bioconverter,” insects uniquely equipped to convert wastes into biomass and other valuable secondary products, and we present the current knowledge and existing research gaps towards the development of such organisms. We conclude that (1) targeted breeding of insects and their gut microbes can produce tailored insect lineages for bioconversion of specific waste streams; (2) research is needed to take full advantage of the existing insect diversity to identify new candidate species for bioconversion; and (3) further research into insect-gut microbial complexes will likely provide important insight into ways insects can be used as sustainable bioconverters of highly specialized waste streams.
      PubDate: 2019-05-08
       
  • Structuring Markets for Resilient Farming Systems

    • Abstract: Abstract Diversified farms have received considerable attention for their potential to contribute to environmentally sustainable, resilient, and socially just food systems. In response, some governments are building new forms of public support for social-ecological services through the creation of mediated markets, such as targeted public food procurement programs. Here, we examine the relationship between farmer participation in Brazil’s National School Feeding Program and farm diversification and household autonomy, as key indicators of farm household resilience. We hypothesized that two key features of the food procurement program—structured demand for diversified food products, and a price premium for certified organic and agroecological production—would increase farm-level agrobiodiversity and the use of agroecological practices. We designed a comparative study between family farmers who do, and do not, participate in Brazil’s National School Feeding Program in the plateau region of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. We used semi-structured surveys to collect data on farm agrobiodiversity, management practices, and farm household autonomy, and we conducted land use history assessments. Here, we suggest for the first time that the National School Feeding Program played a role in driving the following: (1) transitions on family farms from low agrobiodiversity, input-intensive farming systems to diversified farming systems (i.e., horticultural production) and (2) a significant increase in the cropped area under diversified farming systems. This transition was supported by making horticultural production an economically viable alternative to field crops typically linked to volatile, unpredictable markets. The convergence of public policies supporting mediated markets, increased farm household autonomy, and farm diversification represents an integrated mechanism with the potential to enhance food system resilience.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
 
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