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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Agronomy for Sustainable Development
  [SJR: 1.732]   [H-I: 59]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1774-0746 - ISSN (Online) 1773-0155
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Integrated management of damping-off diseases. A review
    • Authors: Jay Ram Lamichhane; Carolyne Dürr; André A. Schwanck; Marie-Hélène Robin; Jean-Pierre Sarthou; Vincent Cellier; Antoine Messéan; Jean-Noël Aubertot
      Abstract: Damping-off is a disease that leads to the decay of germinating seeds and young seedlings, which represents for farmers one of the most important yield constraints both in nurseries and fields. As for other biotic stresses, conventional fungicides are widely used to manage this disease, with two major consequences. On the one hand, fungicide overuse threatens the human health and causes ecological concerns. On the other hand, this practice has led to the emergence of pesticide-resistant microorganisms in the environment. Thus, there are increasing concerns to develop sustainable and durable damping-off management strategies that are less reliant on conventional pesticides. Achieving such a goal requires a better knowledge of pathogen biology and disease epidemiology in order to facilitate the decision-making process. It also demands using all available non-chemical tools that can be adapted to regional and specific production situations. However, this still is not the case and major knowledge gaps must be filled. Here, we review up to 300 articles of the damping-off literature in order to highlight major knowledge gaps and identify future research priorities. The major findings are (i) damping-off is an emerging disease worldwide, which affects all agricultural and forestry crops, both in nurseries and fields; (ii) over a dozen of soil-borne fungi and fungus-like organisms are a cause of damping-off but only a few of them are frequently associated with the disease; (iii) damping-off may affect from 5 to 80% of the seedlings, thereby inducing heavy economic consequences for farmers; (iv) a lot of research efforts have been made in recent years to develop biocontrol solutions for damping-off and there are interesting future perspectives; and (v) damping-off management requires an integrated pest management (IPM) approach combining both preventive and curative tactics and strategies. Given the complex nature of damping-off and the numerous factors involved in its occurrence, we recommend further research on critical niches of complexity, such as seeds, seedbed, associated microbes and their interfaces, using novel and robust experimental and modeling approaches based on five research priorities described in this paper.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0417-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • A new mechanism based on landscape diversity for funding farmer subsidies
    • Authors: Alejandro J. Rescia; Javier Sanz-Cañada; Isabel Del Bosque-González
      Abstract: Agricultural intensification and farm abandonment in Europe have induced dramatic social, economic, and ecological issues. Sustainable management may solve these issues by providing a viable economic margin and preserving biodiversity. Specifically, we propose herein monetary compensation for farmers maintaining or restoring lands as non-agricultural areas. The mechanism for funding this compensation is based upon spatial analysis of two olive-grove landscapes. These exhibited different land-use patterns, a simple landscape and a complex one presenting a 50% higher diversity index and an 80% higher complexity index. We estimated olive-oil production and profitability. Results showed that the complex landscape contains three times more protected habitats. Neither landscape was economically viable, with the simple one showing values of 43% below the threshold, and the complex one 185%. The mechanism proposed to fund farmer subsidies was developed by means of the spatial and economic data estimated. This conservation payment system considers a non-linear relationship between the subsidies paid and the preserved area of agricultural use. The farmers of the simple landscape would receive a subsidy of 299, 394, and 464 €/ha for 10, 20, and 30% of preserved area, respectively. Inversely, the farmers of the complex landscape would be granted a reduction of 38 and 80 €/ha in their monetary incentives for the loss of 10 and 20%, respectively, of natural areas. Using this funding mechanism, conservation of biodiversity in agricultural areas would no longer constitute a factor limiting profitability, but would rather complement earnings.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0414-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Using the green purchase method to help farmers escape the poverty trap in
           semiarid China
    • Authors: Shixiong Cao; Xinyi Zheng; Li Chen; Hua Ma; Jiangzhou Xia
      Abstract: People who live in ecologically fragile environments face both poverty and environmental degradation, which reinforce each other and create a “poverty trap.” Traditional ecological restoration projects focus only on ecological measures, and thus ignore the livelihoods of local residents. Those projects therefore fail to solve the poverty trap. In addition, project subsidies to residents typically end when the projects end, thus forcing residents to return to their old way of life and reversing the gains from the projects. To break this cycle, we performed a study in China’s Yanan City, in Shaanxi Province, to promote a new “green purchase” method for implementing sustainable economic activities that bring residents ongoing earnings without harming the environment. This method involves the construction of terraced fields, establishment of fruit tree orchards, implementation of grazing restrictions, and ecological migration. We found that the method was ecologically effective, as it increased Yanan’s vegetation cover by 0.89% annually since 1999, which is twice the rate for Shaanxi Province.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0420-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Shifting from N-based to P-based manure management maintains soil test
           phosphorus dynamics in a long-term corn and alfalfa rotation
    • Authors: Amir Sadeghpour; Quirine M. Ketterings; Gregory S. Godwin; Karl J. Czymmek
      Abstract: Multiyear repeated dairy manure application based on nitrogen (N) needs of corn (Zea mays L.) increases soil test phosphorus (P) concentration and risk of P runoff over time. A P removal based application of manure adds less P but could impact yield. A corn field trial was implemented in New York in 2001 and rotated into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in 2006 to examine soil test P dynamics over a corn-alfalfa rotation (2001 to 2011). Treatments were annual spring applications of N-based versus P removal based compost (74 and 46 Mg ha−1, respectively), liquid dairy manure (196 and 68 m3 ha−1, respectively), and two control treatments (0 N and 112 kg ha−1 sidedress N). No manure or compost was applied during the alfalfa years. In the five corn years, Morgan-extractable soil test P concentrations increased 4- and 2-fold for N-based and P-based manure and 6- and 4-fold for N-based and P-based compost, respectively, consistent with greater P balances possibly combined with differences in P fractions in each source. Soil test P concentrations declined in the alfalfa years but reached initial concentration only in the P-based manure system. Our findings show, for the first time in dairy forage rotations, the long-term sustainability benefits of P-based manure management and emphasize the importance of rotation fertility management rather than single-year P management. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a shift from N- to P-based manure allocation in corn years is a good approach to maintaining soil test P concentrations over the rotation while for higher application rates, a greater number of years in alfalfa than corn might be needed to prevent soil test P from building over the rotation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0416-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Local treatments and vacuum sealing as novel control strategies for stored
           seed pests in the tropics
    • Authors: Brian Lawrence; Abram J. Bicksler; Kimberly Duncan
      Abstract: Prevention of pests while maintaining viable seed during storage is often challenging for smallholder farmers in the tropics and subtropics. Investment in costly technologies or storage equipment is often unavailable or economically unreasonable, and alternative methods of seed storage can play a role in ensuring regional and global food security. This research evaluates whether or not vacuum sealing and locally available seed storage treatments are effective techniques to control cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus). This research also assesses the effects of such techniques on the viability of stored Lablab (Lablab purpureus L.) seed in the humid tropics. Tested treatments included vegetable oil, pulverized bamboo charcoal, galangal powder, powdered detergent, a bleach solution, and carbaryl. Infested seed samples stored in northern Thailand under local treatment options and vacuum sealing were evaluated between May 2011 and May 2012 for bruchid presence, seed viability, and seed vigor. After 1 year of vacuum storage, seed viability was 77.6% compared with 66.5% under non-vacuum conditions. Over that period, vacuum storage successfully prevented bruchid population growth (4.9 compared with 123.3 insects per 50 seeds under non-vacuum conditions; F = 22.59, P < 0.001). By contrast, the oil treatment greatly reduced seed viability (1.3%), although it restrained bruchid population growth (3.5 compared to 97.0 insects per 50 seeds). Other local treatments (galangal powder, carbaryl, and bamboo charcoal) limited bruchid population growth (F = 8.37, P < 0.05) compared with the control, while maintaining seed viability. Seed germination duration was not affected by vacuum sealing and seed treatments but was rather influenced by changing environmental conditions throughout the trial. These seasonal changes also influenced overall insect lifecycle and seed metabolism. These results demonstrate that vacuum sealing and several locally available treatments provide novel, low-cost, appropriate seed storage options for local seed banks and smallholder farmers in the developing world, thus avoiding the use of locally rare or expensive chemicals, low temperature, or low moisture conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0415-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Composite micronutrient nanoparticles and salts decrease drought stress in
    • Authors: Christian O. Dimkpa; Prem S. Bindraban; Job Fugice; Sampson Agyin-Birikorang; Upendra Singh; Deborah Hellums
      Abstract: Drought decreases crop productivity, with economic consequences for farmers. For soybean, drought particularly affects the reproductive phase. There is therefore a need for strategies that minimize drought effects, such as agronomic fortification with micronutrients. Here, we evaluated the mitigation of drought stress in soybean using composite formulations of three micronutrient nanoparticles, ZnO, B2O3, and CuO, and their salts: ZnSO4·7H2O, H3BO3, and CuSO4·5H2O, in a greenhouse. The micronutrients were soil or foliar applied 3 weeks after seed germination. Drought was imposed at 50% field moisture capacity. We measured parameters related to growth, yield, and nutrient uptake dynamics during 19 weeks. Results show that drought decreased soybean shoot growth by 27% and grain yield by 54%. Application of salt formulations to soil was more effective than foliar application, in mitigating drought stress. For foliar application, the effects of nanoparticles and salts were similar. On average, the formulations reduced drought effects by increasing shoot growth by 33% and grain yield by 36%. On average, the formulations increased shoot N by 28%, K by 19%, Zn by 1080%, B by 74%, and Cu by 954%. Likewise, the formulations, on average, increased grain N by 35%, K by 32%, Zn by 68%, B by 56%, and Cu by 13%. In contrast, drought did not alter shoot P, but the formulations, on average, reduced shoot P by 33%. Whereas micronutrient salts are known to reduce drought effects in plants, our findings demonstrate for the first time a novel use of micronutrient nanoparticles to boost crop performance and N and P uptake under drought stress.
      PubDate: 2017-01-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0412-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2017)
  • Using cover crops to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A review
    • Authors: Jason P. Kaye; Miguel Quemada
      Abstract: Cover crops have long been touted for their ability to reduce erosion, fix atmospheric nitrogen, reduce nitrogen leaching, and improve soil health. In recent decades, there has been resurgence in cover crop adoption that is synchronous with a heightened awareness of climate change. Climate change mitigation and adaptation may be additional, important ecosystem services provided by cover crops, but they lie outside of the traditional list of cover cropping benefits. Here, we review the potential for cover crops to mitigate climate change by tallying all of the positive and negative impacts of cover crops on the net global warming potential of agricultural fields. Then, we use lessons learned from two contrasting regions to evaluate how cover crops affect adaptive management for precipitation and temperature change. Three key outcomes from this synthesis are (1) Cover crop effects on greenhouse gas fluxes typically mitigate warming by ~100 to 150 g CO2 e/m2/year, which is higher than mitigation from transitioning to no-till. The most important terms in the budget are soil carbon sequestration and reduced fertilizer use after legume cover crops. (2) The surface albedo change due to cover cropping, calculated for the first time here using case study sites in central Spain and Pennsylvania, USA, may mitigate 12 to 46 g CO2 e/m2/year over a 100-year time horizon. And (3) Cover crop management can also enable climate change adaptation at these case study sites, especially through reduced vulnerability to erosion from extreme rain events, increased soil water management options during droughts or periods of soil saturation, and retention of nitrogen mineralized due to warming. Overall, we found very few tradeoffs between cover cropping and climate change mitigation and adaptation, suggesting that ecosystem services that are traditionally expected from cover cropping can be promoted synergistically with services related to climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0410-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2017)
  • Higher rust resistance and similar yield of oat landraces versus cultivars
           under high temperature and drought
    • Authors: Javier Sánchez-Martín; Nicolas Rispail; Fernando Flores; Amero A. Emeran; Josefina C. Sillero; Diego Rubiales; Elena Prats
      Abstract: Oat crop is not particularly well adapted to hot and dry weather, as shown by a 3-fold yield reduction in Mediterranean compared to Northern regions. As a consequence, there is a need to identify more resilient oats adapted to current Mediterranean and future climate conditions. Here, we studied the performance of oat landraces under Mediterranean conditions, including the resistance to their most devastating disease, the crown rust. One hundred forty-one genetically characterized Spanish landraces were evaluated over two crop seasons at four contrasting locations in Spain and Egypt. Genotype-environment interactions were studied using heritability-adjusted genotype plus genotype-environment biplot analyses. The impact of climate variables on agronomic traits and the adaptation of particular landraces to environmental factors were inferred from non-metric multivariate scaling and canonical correspondence analyses. Results show an average oat landrace grain yield of 1500 kg/ha, which is similar to the mean yield of commercial varieties. Nonetheless, commercial varieties had 20% higher harvest index than landraces, which is explained by the higher biomass of landraces. Moreover, oat landraces showed high levels of rust resistance with mean values of the area under the disease curve of 2.58, which is approximately 25% lower than that of commercial varieties. Furthermore, several landraces carried a broad spectrum type of resistance which is expected to be more durable and efficient against different rust isolates.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0407-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2016)
  • Soil carbon and nitrogen losses following deforestation in Ethiopia
    • Authors: Tesfay Berihu; Gebreyohannes Girmay; Mulugeta Sebhatleab; Emiru Berhane; Amanuel Zenebe; Gilbert C. Sigua
      Abstract: Ethiopia faces high risk of soil carbon depletion for nearly half of its total land mass largely due to forest clearing and continuous cultivation. Conversion of natural ecosystems to cultivated agriculture resulted in losses of between 20 and 50% of the soil C stocks in the first meter of the soil depth. Dry Afromontane forests of northern Ethiopia have faced vast exploitation, and almost all these forests have been converted to agricultural lands affecting the functionality and stability of agroecosystem. Here, we studied the effect of land use-land cover changes on soil organic C, total N, and soil C sequestration. Specifically, (a) we characterized major soils of the Desa’a Dry Afromontane forest, northern Ethiopia, and (b) we analyzed the organic C and total N contents of soils with varying land use-land cover types of the Desa’a Dry Afromontane forest. Results show that soil organic C (1.9%) and total N (0.3%) were higher for the middle landscape position than that observed for the upper and lower landscape positions. Soil organic C that ranged from 1.2 in farmland to 2.3% in dense forest also varied with land use-land cover types. Concentration of soil organic C was different among dense forest (2.3%), open forest (1.7%), grazing land (1.6%), and farmland (1.2%). Due to the effect of land use-land cover types, soil total N varied from 0.2% in the farmland to 0.3% in the dense forest. The soil organic C and total nitrogen of the top and lower layer soils were 2.0 and 1.5 and 0.2 and 0.3%, respectively. The soil organic C sequestration for dense forest was significantly higher (48.5 t ha−1) than that of grassland, open forest, and farm land. The top soil sequestered higher soil organic C (44.9 t ha−1) than the lower soil layer. Thus, the top soil layers of dense forest at the middle landscape positions stored significant amount of soil organic carbon.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0408-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2016)
  • A new method to calculate soil loss tolerance for sustainable soil
           productivity in farmland
    • Authors: Xingwu Duan; Xiaoning Shi; Yanbo Li; Li Rong; Detai Fen
      Abstract: Soil loss tolerance (T) is a widely used concept for assessing potential risks of soil erosion and is a criterion for assessing the effectiveness of soil and water conservation projects. However, current approaches for calculating T values lack a strong scientific basis, and few practicable methods are available. Many questions remain regarding which parameters, such as planning periods and offset damages, should be included in calculating T values. Here, we developed a new method to calculate soil loss tolerance as a function of the soil productivity index (SPI) for farmland. To achieve sustainable soil productivity in farmland, erosion rates leading to SPI values lower than the lower boundary of soil productivity (SPI0) are not tolerable and must be controlled by soil conservation measures. We applied this method in the Red River Basin of China based on the investigation of typical soil profiles and crop yields. Our results show that the T values in the Red River Basin ranged from 0.91 to 10.24 t ha−1 a−1. The SPI0 and the lowest limit of soil loss tolerance (T1) were 0.4 and 0.91 t ha−1 a−1, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that, when determining T values in farmland, (1) the soil formation rate and offset damage should not be core items, (2) the “planning period” concept should be replaced by “sustainability”, (3) the management objective of T should be the sustainability of the soil resource, and (4) the T values of farmland should be determined according to soil productivity. We provide a reasonable and feasible method to determine T for farmland, which will help maintain the sustainability of soil productivity.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0409-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cacao agroforestry systems have higher return on labor compared to
           full-sun monocultures
    • Authors: Laura Armengot; Pietro Barbieri; Christian Andres; Joachim Milz; Monika Schneider
      Abstract: The global demand for cacao has recently increased. To meet this demand, the cultivated area has been expanded in tropical forest areas and production has intensified by replacing traditional agroforestry systems with monocultures. This has led to a loss of biodiversity in cacao-growing areas. More sustainable production systems such as agroforestry and organic managed systems are expected to yield less cacao, but by-crops and premium prices, respectively, might economically compensate for the lower yields. Here, we compared the productivity and the return on labor, that is the return per working day, of four different cacao production systems: agroforestry and monocultures under organic and conventional management. Cacao and by-crop yields, costs, revenues, and labor were registered during the first 5 years after establishment. Results show that cacao yields were, on average, 41% higher in monocultures, but the revenues derived from agroforestry by-crops economically overcompensated for this difference. Indeed, the return on labor across the years was roughly twice as high in the agroforestry systems compared to the monocultures. We found similar cacao yields and return on labor in conventional and organically managed agroforestry systems. However, in the monocultures, cacao yields were 48% lower under organic compared with conventional farming, but the return on labor was similar, mainly due to the higher costs associated to the conventional management. Overall, our findings show that cacao agroforestry systems have higher return on labor.
      PubDate: 2016-12-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0406-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2016)
  • Farming tactics to reduce the carbon footprint of crop cultivation in
           semiarid areas. A review
    • Authors: Chang Liu; Herb Cutforth; Qiang Chai; Yantai Gan
      Abstract: The human population on the planet is estimated to reach 9 billion by 2050; this requires significant increase of food production to meet the demands. Intensified farming systems have been identified as a viable means to increase grain production. However, farming intensification requires more inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, and fuels; all these emit greenhouse gases and have environmental consequences. An overwhelming question is: can farming practices be improved which enables yield increase with no cost to the environment? Here, we present seven key farming tactics that are proven to be effective in increasing grain production while lowering carbon footprint: (1) using diversified cropping systems can reduce the system’s carbon footprint by 32 to 315 % compared with conventional monoculture systems; (2) improving N fertilizer use efficiency can lower the carbon footprints of field crops as N fertilizer applied to these crops contributed 36 to 52 % of the total emissions; (3) adopting intensified rotation with reduced summerfallow can lower the carbon footprint by as much as 150 %, compared with a system that has high frequency of summerfallow; (4) enhancing soil carbon sequestration can reduce carbon footprint, as the emissions from crop inputs can be partly offset by carbon conversion from atmospheric CO2 into plant biomass and ultimately sequestered into the soil; (5) using reduced tillage in combination with crop residue retention can increase soil organic carbon and reduce carbon footprints; (6) integrating key cropping practices can increase crop yield by 15 to 59 %, reduce emissions by 25 to 50 %, and lower the carbon footprint of cereal crops by 25 to 34 %; and (7) including N2-fixing pulses in rotations can reduce the use of inorganic fertilizer, and lower carbon footprints. With the adoption of these improved farming tactics, one can optimize the system performance while reducing the carbon footprint of crop cultivation.
      PubDate: 2016-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0404-8
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2016)
  • A resistant pepper used as a trap cover crop in vegetable production
           strongly decreases root-knot nematode infestation in soil
    • Authors: Mireille Navarrete; Caroline Djian-Caporalino; Thierrry Mateille; Alain Palloix; Anne-Marie Sage-Palloix; Amélie Lefèvre; Ariane Fazari; Nathalie Marteu; Johannes Tavoillot; Arnaud Dufils; Claudine Furnion; Laure Pares; Isabelle Forest
      Abstract: Root-knot nematodes are causing serious economic losses of vegetable production. Actual agroecological control solutions are not effective enough to control this pest or are difficult to implement in farms. There is little knowledge on the use of crops to trap nematodes in protected cultivation systems. Therefore, we tested a resistant pepper as a trap crop for root-knot nematodes over 4 years in a commercial farm and an experimental station in Southern France. The effects of pepper trap crop on plant damages and soil infestation were compared with a sorghum cover crop. We also surveyed 28 local vegetable farmers for their interest concerning the possible use of the pepper trap crop. Our results show that nematode infestation of the soil decreased by 99 and 80 % after the first and second implementation of the trap crop. The gall index measured on Swiss chard decreased from 2.5 to less than 1 after 4 years. Respectively, 21 and 36 % of farmers found the cropping system completely and partially acceptable. The most interested farmers were those having sufficient labor and available land in summer. Farmer criticisms were higher nursery costs and planting duration, versus sorghum. Overall, this is the first design of a cropping system using a resistant cultivar as a dead-end trap crop for root-knot nematodes. The process used, moving from a genetic construct to agronomic innovation through an interdisciplinary and participatory approach, holds promise for scientists seeking new integrated pest management approaches to increase the sustainability of agriculture.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0401-y
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2016)
  • Object-based early monitoring of a grass weed in a grass crop using high
           resolution UAV imagery
    • Authors: Francisca López-Granados; Jorge Torres-Sánchez; Ana-Isabel De Castro; Angélica Serrano-Pérez; Francisco-Javier Mesas-Carrascosa; José-Manuel Peña
      Abstract: Sorghum halepense (johnsongrass) is a perennial weed with a vegetative reproductive system and one of the most competitive weeds in maize showing a spatial distribution in compact patches. When maize is irrigated, successive weed emergences occur in the early phenological phases of the crop, which require several herbicide applications. Our aim was to provide an accurate tool for an early detection and mapping of johnsongrass patches and delineate the actual surface area requiring a site-specific herbicide treatment based on the weed coverage. This early detection represents a major challenge in actual field scenarios because both species are in the Poaceae family, and show analogous spectral patterns, an extraordinarily similar appearance and a parallel phenological evolution. To solve this, an automatic OBIA (object-based-image-analysis) procedure was developed to be applied on orthomosaicked images using visible (red-green-blue bands) and multispectral (red-green-blue and near infrared bands) cameras collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that flew at altitudes of 30, 60 and 100 m on two maize fields. One of our first phases was the generation of accurate orthomosaicked images of an herbaceous crop such as maize, which presented a repetitive pattern and nearly no invariant parameters to conduct the aerotriangulation. Here, we show that high-quality orthomosaicks were produced from both cameras and that they were able to be the first step for mapping the johnsongrass patches. The most accurate weed maps were obtained using the multispectral camera at an altitude of 30 m in both fields. These maps were then used to design a site-specific weed management program, and we demonstrated that potential herbicide savings ranged from 85 to 96 %. Our results showed that accurate and timely maps of johnsongrass patches in maize can be a key element in achieving site-specific and sustainable herbicide applications for reducing spraying herbicides and costs.
      PubDate: 2016-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0405-7
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2016)
  • Breeding for efficiency in the broiler chicken: A review
    • Authors: Craig W. Tallentire; Ilkka Leinonen; Ilias Kyriazakis
      Abstract: Artificial selection of broiler chickens for commercial objectives has been employed at an unprecedented magnitude over the recent decades. Consequently, the number of days, total feed and in turn energy, required to raise a broiler to slaughter weight, have decreased dramatically. Feed provision is the poultry industry’s biggest environmental hotspot; hence, understanding the interactions between the birds’ genetic change and their energy use efficiency forms the necessary starting point for quantifying and predicting and thereby mitigating the future environmental impact of the poultry sector. This review assesses the consequences of artificial selection on the following traits: digestive efficiency, body composition and utilisation of metabolisable energy for growth and metabolic activity. The main findings were (1) the digestive system has been subjected to much physical change due to selection in the recent decades, but this has not led to any apparent change in digestion efficiency. (2) Both the energy intake per day and the metabolic heat production rate have increased in the recent decades whilst (3) the efficiency of utilising energy for growth has also increased; this is due to an increased growth rate, so that broilers reach slaughter weight more quickly and therefore need to allocate less energy overall to metabolic processes, with the exception of growth. (4) There may have been a reduction in the tendency to waste feed through spillage and carry out energetically expensive behaviors. There is a discrepancy in the literature with regards to the influence of selection on body composition and its contribution to feed efficiency. In this review, two scenarios are demonstrated, whereby body composition either has or has not altered via artificial selection. Understanding the effects of artificial selection on the traits that relate to the feed efficiency of the broilers will contribute towards the reduction of the environmental impacts that arise from such systems.
      PubDate: 2016-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0398-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2016)
  • Unexpectedly, intense livestock grazing in arid rangelands strengthens the
           seedling vigor of consumed plants
    • Authors: Mariana Tadey; Cintia P. Souto
      Abstract: Grazing intensification with non-native livestock is known to degrade vegetation cover, particularly in arid environments where low resource availability strongly limits plant recovery after damage. However, it remains unclear whether the effect of grazing on consumed plants is transmitted to plant offspring. We hypothesized that grazing would reduce fruit weight, germination percentage, and seedling vigor of consumed vegetation. Therefore, we collected mature fruits from six dominant shrub species in seven independent paddocks with increasing livestock densities. Fruits were air-dried and weighed before seed sowing. After seedling emergence, we measured the percentage of germination and seedling vigor, i.e., height and number of leaves. Hierarchical models were used to account for the effects of plant species and year of collection. Results show that, in general, increasing livestock density reduced fruit weight and percentage of germination of consumed plants. However, surprisingly, increasing livestock density enhanced seedling vigor. Overall, increasing livestock density has both negative and positive effects on consumed plantsʼ offspring.
      PubDate: 2016-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0400-z
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2016)
  • Chestnut wood extract in boar diet reduces intestinal skatole production,
           a boar taint compound
    • Authors: Diana Bilić-Šobot; Galia Zamaratskaia; Martin Krøyer Rasmussen; Marjeta Čandek-Potokar; Martin Škrlep; Maja Prevolnik Povše; Dejan Škorjanc
      Abstract: Abandoning traditional practice of piglet castration will impact the pigmeat sector. As a consequence, there is a need for research aiming at reducing boar taint caused by androstenone and skatole. Skatole is metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450) in the liver. Skatole hepatic clearance is believed to be hindered by androstenone. Diet ingredients may modify skatole metabolism. Therefore, we tested the effect of hydrolysable tannins. We fed 51 young boars with 1–3 % chestnut wood extract as supplementary diet. After slaughter, the tissues were collected to assess androstenone and skatole accumulation in fat and to measure CYP450 activities, gene, and protein expression in the liver and intestine. Protein expression of two enzymes involved in androstenone metabolism, 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and sulfotransferase family 2A member 1 (SULT2A1), was assessed, and feces collected to evaluate skatole production. Results show that intestinal skatole production in boars supplemented with 3 % of chestnut wood extract was more than halved. The intestinal catalytic activities of CYP450 were tenfold lower than hepatic and were mainly unaffected by tannins. Findings indicate a potential effect of tannins on steroidogenesis, which in the absence of effect on 3β-HSD and SULT2A1 expression suggests lower synthesis of androstenone due to tannins.
      PubDate: 2016-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0399-1
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2016)
  • Weedy fallow as an alternative strategy for reducing nitrogen loss from
           annual cropping systems
    • Authors: Sam E. Wortman
      Abstract: Nitrogen loss from croplands is a major environmental problem with human health and ecosystem consequences. Cover crops are planted during the fallow period between cash crops to provide a number of ecosystem services and are a popular tool for nitrogen reduction. Unfortunately, on-farm adoption of cover crops in the USA is limited to less than 2 % of land area in most regions. Naturally occurring weeds, if left unmanaged between cash crops (i.e., “weedy fallow”), may provide similar ecosystem services (e.g., nitrogen reduction) as cover crops. To test this hypothesis, a meta-analysis of 17 studies was conducted to compare potential nitrogen loss (inorganic soil nitrogen or leachate nitrogen) from fallow annual cropping systems managed with cover crops, weeds, and bare soil. A potential nitrogen loss response ratio (e.g., leachate nitrogen from bare soil relative to weedy fallow) was determined for independent paired observations in each study, and factors influencing nitrogen loss across all studies were determined with 95 % bootstrap confidence intervals and meta-regression analysis. Results suggest that potential nitrogen loss from croplands is 60 % greater in bare soil compared to weedy fallow fields. Cover crops further reduced potential nitrogen loss by 26 % compared to weedy fallow, and the nitrogen reduction potential of cover crops (relative to weedy fallow) likely increases with greater biomass accumulation of the cover crop. While cover crops were more effective in mitigating potential nitrogen loss, weedy fallow may provide greater net benefits on a regional scale if there were fewer barriers to farmer adoption. The weedy fallow strategy for nitrogen reduction has several potential pitfalls (e.g., propagation of noxious or herbicide-resistant weedy species), but this meta-analysis demonstrates that fallow weeds provide an important ecosystem service and policy-makers should consider revising conservation incentive programs accordingly.
      PubDate: 2016-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0397-3
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2016)
  • Erratum to: Belowground nitrogen transfer from legumes to non-legumes
           under managed herbaceous cropping systems. A review
    • PubDate: 2016-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0403-9
  • Processes of adaptation in farm decision-making models. A review
    • Abstract: Agricultural production systems should evolve fast to cope with risks induced by climate change. Farmers should adapt their management strategies to stay competitive and satisfy the societal demand for sustainable food systems. It is therefore important to understand the decision-making processes used by farmers for adaptation. Processes of adaptation are in particular addressed by bio-economic and bio-decision models. Here, we review bio-economic and bio-decision models, in which strategic and tactical decisions are included in dynamic adaptive and expectation-based processes, in 40 literature articles. The major points are: adaptability, flexibility, and dynamic processes are common ways to characterize farmers’ decision-making. Adaptation is either a reactive or a proactive process depending on farmer flexibility and expectation capabilities. Various modeling methods are used to model decision stages in time and space, and some methods can be combined to represent a sequential decision-making process.
      PubDate: 2016-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0402-x
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