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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2348 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2348 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Agronomy for Sustainable Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.864
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 12  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1774-0746 - ISSN (Online) 1773-0155
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2348 journals]
  • Food systems for sustainable development: proposals for a profound
           four-part transformation
    • Authors: Patrick Caron; Gabriel Ferrero y de Loma-Osorio; David Nabarro; Etienne Hainzelin; Marion Guillou; Inger Andersen; Tom Arnold; Margarita Astralaga; Marcel Beukeboom; Sam Bickersteth; Martin Bwalya; Paula Caballero; Bruce M. Campbell; Ntiokam Divine; Shenggen Fan; Martin Frick; Anette Friis; Martin Gallagher; Jean-Pierre Halkin; Craig Hanson; Florence Lasbennes; Teresa Ribera; Johan Rockstrom; Marlen Schuepbach; Andrew Steer; Ann Tutwiler; Gerda Verburg
      Abstract: Evidence shows the importance of food systems for sustainable development: they are at the nexus that links food security, nutrition, and human health, the viability of ecosystems, climate change, and social justice. However, agricultural policies tend to focus on food supply, and sometimes, on mechanisms to address negative externalities. We propose an alternative. Our starting point is that agriculture and food systems’ policies should be aligned to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This calls for deep changes in comparison with the paradigms that prevailed when steering the agricultural change in the XXth century. We identify the comprehensive food systems transformation that is needed. It has four parts: first, food systems should enable all people to benefit from nutritious and healthy food. Second, they should reflect sustainable agricultural production and food value chains. Third, they should mitigate climate change and build resilience. Fourth, they should encourage a renaissance of rural territories. The implementation of the transformation relies on (i) suitable metrics to aid decision-making, (ii) synergy of policies through convergence of local and global priorities, and (iii) enhancement of development approaches that focus on territories. We build on the work of the “Milano Group,” an informal group of experts convened by the UN Secretary General in Milan in 2015. Backed by a literature review, what emerges is a strategic narrative linking climate, agriculture and food, and calling for a deep transformation of food systems at scale. This is critical for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement. The narrative highlights the needed consistency between global actions for sustainable development and numerous local-level innovations. It emphasizes the challenge of designing differentiated paths for food systems transformation responding to local and national expectations. Scientific and operational challenges are associated with the alignment and arbitration of local action within the context of global priorities.
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0519-1
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Emergence of social groups after a biosecurity incursion
    • Authors: Aditi Mankad; Matt Curnock
      Abstract: This paper examines the formation of social groups in the first 3 months following a significant biosecurity incursion, extending our understanding of a social system in the context of an ongoing emergency response. The broader implications of social change and coping responses post-incursion are a relevant and useful discussion worldwide. Farmers (N = 25) were recruited from three dominant banana-growing regions in North Queensland, Australia. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a semi-structured format. Key topics covered included perceptions of Panama Tropical Race 4 (TR4), on-farm biosecurity activities, social influences and comparisons, and personal stress. This qualitative approach uses well-known social psychological constructs to help understand and frame farmers’ social behaviours post-incursion. TR4 was perceived as a significant threat by participants; yet, perceptions of vulnerability to TR4 and biosecurity engagement varied. Two dominant social groupings emerged from the data. Active adopters were characterised as proactive and innovative growers, prioritising individual farm protection for the benefit of the broader industry. There was a high level of social support, trust and efficacy, facilitating an adaptive coping style. Passive adopters implemented straightforward and less costly biosecurity measures on farm but were not willing to commit to greater financial or time investments. They expressed an overall wariness towards the biosecurity management process and little trust in authorities. A small sub-group of passive adopters also displayed clear maladaptive coping characteristics (e.g. denial, helplessness) towards TR4, believing that biosecurity action at this point was futile. Proximity to TR4-affected property emerged as having an interactional effect on biosecurity uptake and risk perception. Here, we show for the first time, in situ, the complex social environment post-incursion, indicative of high stress and high uncertainty. Findings can be used on-ground to improve extension engagement and risk communication with growers post-incursion, being mindful there exists a range of coping styles and social influences.
      PubDate: 2018-07-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0520-8
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Yield gap analysis extended to marketable grain reveals the profitability
           of organic lentil-spring wheat intercrops
    • Authors: Viguier Loïc; Bedoussac Laurent; Journet Etienne-Pascal; Justes Eric
      Abstract: Lentil has been overlooked by organic farmers in Europe mainly because of low and unstable yields, notably due to lodging and bruchid beetles. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of lentil-spring wheat intercrops to lower these reducing factors and increase yield and gross margin. A 2-year field experiment was carried out in southwestern France in 2015 and 2016 under organic farming rules. Four lentil and two wheat cultivars were grown as sole crops and intercrops. The “yield gap” concept was adapted to include grain losses due to mechanical harvest and insufficient quality. Mean total intercrop grain yield before mechanical harvest was higher than mean sole crop (1.91 ± 0.47 vs. 1.57 ± 0.29 t ha−1, respectively), with a lower mean yield of lentil in intercrop than in sole crop (1.06 ± 0.28 vs. 1.61 ± 0.54 t ha−1). This led to a lower mean gross margin of intercrop than that of sole cropped lentil (1772 ± 507 vs. 2371 ± 756 € ha−1), before mechanical harvest. The percentage of bruchid-damaged grain did not differ significantly between intercrop and sole crop (41%). However, lentil lodging was lower in intercrop than in sole crop (15 vs. 40%), which strongly increased lentil mechanical harvest efficiency (75 vs. 50%). This led to a similar mechanically harvested yield of lentil in intercrop and sole crop (0.80 t ha−1). Consequently, mean marketable gross margin of intercrops was higher than that of sole cropped lentil (949 ± 404 vs. 688 ± 393 € ha−1), due to the addition of marketable wheat yield. We thus demonstrated for the first time the interest of extending the yield gap concept to consider all grain losses that influence profitability, including those linked to mechanical harvest efficiency and insufficient grain quality. Furthermore, this is a first demonstration of the higher profitability of organic lentil-wheat intercrops compared to sole crops despite the additional costs associated with grain sorting.
      PubDate: 2018-07-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0515-5
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Vine and citrus mealybug pest control based on synthetic chemicals. A
    • Authors: Ramzi Mansour; Luc P. Belzunces; Pompeo Suma; Lucia Zappalà; Gaetana Mazzeo; Kaouthar Grissa-Lebdi; Agatino Russo; Antonio Biondi
      Abstract: Synthetic chemicals are extensively used to limit the substantial crop damage induced by two closely related scale insects, the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Both organisms are economically important pests occurring in vineyards and/or in citrus orchards worldwide. Synthetic chemicals can be either incorporated in pesticides aimed at directly controlling these pests or used as semiochemicals (i.e., sex pheromones) for monitoring, mass trapping, mating disruption, and/or for kairomonal attraction to enhance parasitoid performances. Growing evidence of both an alarming bee decline and destruction of auxiliary fauna driven by pesticides have stimulated an urgent need for in-depth research clarifying the adverse side effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods. We have reviewed the current knowledge on mealybug pest control based on insecticides and semiochemicals. We highlight the following major advances: (1) How the active substances of insecticides (four organophosphates, imidacloprid, buprofezin, and spirotetramat) affect target and non-target organisms, (2) in which contexts and how a semiochemical-based strategy could be applied to deal with serious mealybug infestations, and (3) the implications of the appropriate exploitation of these synthetic chemicals for sustainable development. Using selective insecticides with novel modes of action and long-lasting efficacy in combination with eco-friendly semiochemical-based tools is a promising strategy for developing sustainable integrated pest management programs. This would help to maintain biodiversity dynamics and vital ecosystem services, thereby sustaining crop yields.
      PubDate: 2018-07-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0513-7
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • A new framework to analyse workforce contribution to Australian cotton
           farm adaptability
    • Authors: Ruth Nettle; Geoff Kuehne; Kate Lee; Dan Armstrong
      Abstract: Farmers face many challenges, including climate variability, that require continual adaptation. However, studies of farm adaptation have paid limited attention to the farm workforce, despite changes in farm workforce organisation (i.e. the number, type and forms of employment on farm) being a significant feature of agricultural change globally. To effectively support farmers’ adaptation, it is important to understand farmers’ workforce strategies (i.e. how farm workforce organisation supports the needs and priorities of the farm), how workforce choices are made and the implications for adaptation. This paper progresses a framework for analysing farm adaptability, including the farm workforce. Bringing together theories of livelihoods analysis and strategic human resource management, the farm workforce strategies of 16 case study farms in the Australian cotton production sector are analysed. Cotton production is exposed to major resource constraints, such as irrigation water. We interviewed farmers and collected data on farm business performance, workforce organisation choices, human resource management practices and employees’ experiences of work. We integrated data to characterise farm workforce decision-making and the relationship between workforce strategies and farm adaptability for each farm. A cross-case analysis explored differences between farms. A diversity of workforce strategies was found, involving combinations of workforce options, defined as ‘core’, ‘contract’ and ‘casual’ workers at different levels of skills and experience. Farm workforce strategies were found to influence and be influenced by sources of financial capital, irrigation water availability/holdings, farm remoteness, new farm infrastructure and human resource management practices. The farm workforce was a response option to provide production flexibility, yet high adaptability was associated with some negative consequences for managers and employees. We show for the first time the influence of farm workforce organisation dynamics in adaptation and negative consequences of high farm adaptability. ‘Factoring-in’ the farm workforce in sustainable development studies should therefore be a priority.
      PubDate: 2018-07-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0514-6
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • New model-based insights for strategic nitrogen recommendations adapted to
           given soil and climate
    • Authors: Morteza Mesbah; Elizabeth Pattey; Guillaume Jégo; Anne Didier; Xiaoyuan Geng; Nicolas Tremblay; Fasheng Zhang
      Abstract: Managing nitrogen (N) fertilizer applied in agricultural fields is important for increasing crop productivity while limiting the environmental contamination caused by release of reactive N, especially for crops with high N demand (e.g., corn, Zea mays L.). However, for given soil properties, the optimum amount of N applied depends on climatic conditions. The central question to N management is then what should be the recommended N rate for given soil and climate that would minimize the release of reactive N while maintaining the crop productivity. To address this central challenge of N management, we used a recently developed model-based methodology (called “Identifying NEMO”), which was proved to be effective in identifying ecophysiological optimum N rate and optimum nitrogen use efficiency (NUEopt). We performed modeling for dominant soils and various agroclimatic conditions in five regions along the Mixedwood Plains ecozone, where more than 90% of Canadian corn production takes place. Here, we analyzed for the first time the effect of soil and climate on ecophysiological optimum N rate in an ecozone where there exists a significant agroclimatic gradient. Our results indicated that there were some commonalities among all soils and regions, which we could classify them into two groups with NUEopt ranging from 10 to 17 kg dry yield kg−1 N. For cases with low NUEopt, the recommended N for an expected dry yield of 8 t ha−1 varied from 115 to 199 kg ha−1, whereas they were much lower (79–154 kg ha−1) for cases with high NUEopt. These recommendations were 20–40 kg ha−1 lower than provincial recommendations. Moreover, we found that the different behavior of the two groups was due to soil textures and soils available water holding capacity. For most locations, soils with intermediate available water holding capacity (i.e., 12–15%v) had relatively higher expected yield and lower recommended N.
      PubDate: 2018-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0505-7
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Organic substrate for transplant production in organic nurseries. A review
    • Authors: Jose Antonio Pascual; Francesco Ceglie; Yuksel Tuzel; Martin Koller; Amnon Koren; Roger Hitchings; Fabio Tittarelli
      Abstract: A transplant can be defined as a seedling or sprouted vegetative propagation material grown in a substrate or in the field, for transfer to the final cropping site. Nurseries use a range of growing media in the production of transplants, and the quality of a substrate may be defined in terms of its feasibility for the intended use and also according to the climatic condition of the production site. Peat is the worldwide standard substrate, but because of its origin and the increasing environmental and ecological concerns, new alternatives have been proposed for organic production. Here, we reviewed these new alternatives, assuming that the proposed growing media will need to respond in a proper way to specific plant requirements while also taking them into consideration to be environmental friendly, at the same time. Appropriate composting management combined with suitable feedstock material can produce substrates with adequate properties to develop transplants. Potential added-value benefits of particularized compost have been highlighted, and these include suppressiveness or capacity for plant pathogen control, biofertilization, and biostimulation. This added value is an important point in relation to the framework of organic agriculture because the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides is limited. Different permitted fertilizers are proposed by incorporating them by dress fertilization before planting or by foliar fertilization or fertigation during the seedling production phase. In this context, specific beneficial microorganism inoculation demonstrates better and quicker nutrient solubilization. Its inclusion during seedling production not only facilitates plant growth during the germination and seedling stages but also could bring efficient microorganisms or beneficial microorganisms to the field with the transplants. This review will help to bridge the gap between the producers of compost and the seedling plant producers by providing updated literature.
      PubDate: 2018-06-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0508-4
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2018)
  • Aquaculture innovation system analysis of transition to sustainable
           intensification in shrimp farming
    • Authors: Olivier M. Joffre; Laurens Klerkx; Tran N. D. Khoa
      Abstract: The shrimp sector has been one of the fastest growing agri-food systems in the last decades, but its growth has entailed negative social and environmental impacts. Sustainable intensification will require innovation in multiple elements of the shrimp production system and its value chain. We use the case of the shrimp sector in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam to explore the constraints in the transition to sustainable intensification in shrimp farming, using an analytical framework based on innovation systems thinking, i.e., an aquaculture innovation systems framework. Using this framework, we conduct a systemic diagnostic of blocking mechanisms, interrelated sets of constraints within the aquaculture sector that hinder a transition toward sustainable intensification. Our findings show that the major constraints are institutional, with limited enforcement of the regulatory framework for input quality control, disease control, and wastewater management, and a lack of coordination between government bodies to design and enforce this framework. At farm level, limited access to capital favors pond mismanagement and the use of low-quality inputs. The absence of multi-stakeholder initiatives to foster dialog between actors in the value chain constrains the response to new regulations dictated by international market demand. Because of shrimp farming’s connectivity with the wider ecosystem, sustainable intensification in shrimp farming will require collective management of water resources at the landscape level for disease and water pollution control. Ecological principles for pond management need to be promoted to farmers in order to reduce farmers’ inefficient practices and build their capacity to understand new techniques and inputs available in the Vietnamese market. Our paper demonstrates for the utility of a multi-level, multi-dimension, and multi-stakeholder aquaculture innovation systems approach to analyze and address these blocking mechanisms in the transition to sustainable intensification in shrimp farming and aquaculture more broadly.
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0511-9
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2018)
  • First cropping system model based on expert-knowledge parameterization
    • Authors: Rémy Ballot; Chantal Loyce; Marie-Hélène Jeuffroy; Aïcha Ronceux; Julie Gombert; Claire Lesur-Dumoulin; Laurence Guichard
      Abstract: Models are promising tools to support the design of cropping systems toward sustainable agriculture. Process-based deterministic models are predominantly used, whereas most of them involve a limited range of crop techniques, and are unsuited to organic agriculture. Moreover, their parameterization and local adaptation require a large amount of experimental data. We thus designed a model simulating the yields of successive crops, taking into account the effects of most crop techniques embedded in a cropping system, and suited for both conventional and organic farming. This model was designed assuming that its parameterization, mostly based on expert-knowledge elicitation, could enlarge the range of environmental conditions and crop techniques considered. The PerSyst model involves three types of parameters based on expert knowledge: (i) reference yields reached in the most common cropping system conditions, (ii) yield change due to crop sequence variation, and (iii) yield change due to variation in crop management. These parameters are stochastic to report yield variability across climatic years. The model was parameterized through an original expert elicitation method—combining individual interviews and collective validation—on three case studies, including one in organic farming. Model accuracy was assessed for two long-term experiments. Parameters such as yield change due to crop sequence and to crop management were close among case studies, highlighting possibilities to compensate for a local lack of knowledge. Moreover, simulated yields in both experiments showed great consistency with observed yields, with average relative root-mean-square error of prediction of 15% for winter wheat and faba bean for example. For the first time, thanks to expert-knowledge parametrization, we built a cropping system model, considering all techniques, which could be easily tailored to a diversity of conditions, both in conventional and organic farming. Lastly, advantages and limits of the PerSyst model to assess innovative cropping systems were discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0512-8
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2018)
  • Milk fatty acids estimated by mid-infrared spectroscopy and milk yield can
           predict methane emissions in dairy cows
    • Authors: Stefanie W. Engelke; Gürbüz Daş; Michael Derno; Armin Tuchscherer; Werner Berg; Björn Kuhla; Cornelia C. Metges
      Abstract: Ruminant enteric methane emission contributes to global warming. Although breeding low methane-emitting cows appears to be possible through genetic selection, doing so requires methane emission quantification by using elaborate instrumentation (respiration chambers, SF6 technique, GreenFeed) not feasible on a large scale. It has been suggested that milk fatty acids are promising markers of methane production. We hypothesized that methane emission can be predicted from the milk fatty acid concentrations determined by mid-infrared spectroscopy, and the integration of energy-corrected milk yield would improve the prediction. Therefore, we examined relationships between methane emission of cows measured in respiration chambers and milk fatty acids, predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy, to derive diet-specific and general prediction equations based on milk fatty acid concentrations alone and with the additional consideration of energy-corrected milk yield. Cows were fed diets differing in forage type and linseed supplementation to generate a large variation in both CH4 emission and milk fatty acids. Depending on the diet, equations derived from regression analysis explained 61 to 96% of variation of methane emission, implying the potential of milk fatty acid data predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy as novel proxy for direct methane emission measurements. When data from all diets were analyzed collectively, the equation with energy-corrected milk yield (CH4 (L/day) = − 1364 + 9.58 × energy-corrected milk yield + 18.5 × saturated fatty acids + 32.4 × C18:0) showed an improved coefficient of determination of cross-validation R2CV = 0.72 compared to an equation without energy-corrected milk yield (R2CV = 0.61). Equations developed for diets supplemented by linseed showed a lower R2CV as compared to diets without linseed (0.39 to 0.58 vs. 0.50 to 0.91). We demonstrate for the first time that milk fatty acid concentrations predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy together with energy-corrected milk yield can be used to estimate enteric methane emission in dairy cows.
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0502-x
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2018)
  • Silicon enhancement of estimated plant biomass carbon accumulation under
           abiotic and biotic stresses. A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Zichuan Li; Zhaoliang Song; Zhifeng Yan; Qian Hao; Alin Song; Linan Liu; Xiaomin Yang; Shaopan Xia; Yongchao Liang
      Abstract: Abiotic and biotic stresses are the major factors limiting plant growth worldwide. Plants exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses often cause reduction in plant biomass as well as crop yield, resulting in plant biomass carbon loss. As a beneficial and quasi-essential element, silicon accumulation in rhizosphere and plants can alleviate the unfavorable effects of the major forms of abiotic and biotic stress through several resistance mechanisms and thus increases plant biomass accumulation and crop yield. The beneficial effects of silicon on plant growth and crop yield have been widely reviewed over the last years. However, carbon accumulation of silicon-associated plant biomass under abiotic and biotic stresses has not yet been systematically addressed. This review article focuses on both the main mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic and biotic stresses and their effects on plant biomass carbon accumulation in terrestrial ecosystems. The major points are the following: (1) the recovery of plant biomass via silicon mediation usually exhibits a bell-shaped response curve to abiotic stress severity and an S-shaped response curve to biotic stress severity; (2) although carbon concentration of plant biomass decreases with silicon accumulation, more than 96% of the recovered plant biomass contributes to plant biomass carbon accumulation; (3) silicon-mediated recovery generally increases plant biomass carbon by 35% and crop yield by 24%. In conclusion, silicon can improve plant growth and enhance plant biomass carbon accumulation under abiotic and biotic stresses in terrestrial ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0496-4
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2018)
  • Boron nutrition of rice in different production systems. A review
    • Authors: Atique-ur-Rehman; Muhammad Farooq; Abdul Rashid; Faisal Nadeem; Sabine Stuerz; Folkard Asch; Richard W. Bell; Kadambot H. M. Siddique
      Abstract: Half of the world’s population—more than 3.5 billion people—depend on rice for more than 20% of their daily energy requirements. Rice productivity is under threat for several reasons, particularly the deficiency of micronutrients, such as boron (B). Most rice-based cropping systems, including rice–wheat, are facing B deficiency as they are often practiced on high pH and alkaline soils with low B contents, low soil organic matter, and inadequate use of B fertilizer, which restricts the availability, uptake, and deposition of B into grains. Farmers’ reluctance to fertilize rice fields with B—due to the lack of cost-effective B-enriched macronutrient fertilizers—further exacerbates B deficiency in rice-based cropping systems. Here we review that, (i) while rice can tolerate excess B, its deficiency induces nutritional disorders, limits rice productivity, impairs grain quality, and affects the long-term sustainability of rice production systems. (ii) As B dynamics in the soil varies between flooded and aerobic rice systems, different B deficiency management strategies are needed in rice-based cropping systems. (iii) Correct diagnosis of B deficiency/toxicity in rice; understanding its interaction with other nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium; and the availability and application of B fertilizers using effective methods will help to improve the sustainability and productivity of different rice production systems. (iv) Research on rice-based systems should focus on breeding approaches, including marker-assisted selection and wide hybridization (incorporation of desirable genes), and biotechnological strategies, such as next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing, and genetic transformations to develop rice genotypes with improved B contents and abilities to acquire B from the soil. (v) Different B application strategies—seed priming and foliar and/or soil application—should be included to improve the performance of rice, particularly when grown under aerobic conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0504-8
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2018)
  • Is big data for big farming or for everyone' Perceptions in the
           Australian grains industry
    • Authors: Aysha Fleming; Emma Jakku; Lilly Lim-Camacho; Bruce Taylor; Peter Thorburn
      Abstract: Continued population growth and land intensification put increasing pressure on agricultural production and point to a need for a ‘step change’ in agriculture to meet the demand. Advances in digital technology—often encapsulated in the term ‘big data’—are increasingly assumed to be the way this challenge will be met. For this to be achieved, it is necessary to understand the ways that farmers and other industry stakeholders perceive big data and how big data might change the industry. It is also necessary to address emerging moral and ethical questions about access, cost, scale and support, which will determine whether farms will be able to be ‘big data enabled’. We conducted a discourse analysis of 26 interviews with stakeholders in the grains industry in Australia. Two main discourses were identified: (1) big data as a technology that will significantly benefit a few larger farms or businesses—Big Data is for Big Farming—and conversely (2) big data as a way for every farmer to benefit—Big Data is for Everyone. We relate these findings and the literature on adoption of technology and social studies in agriculture to the potential of farmers to embrace big data, from basic concerns about network infrastructure through to more complex issues of data collection and storage. The study highlights that there are key questions and issues that need to be addressed in further development of digital technology and big data in agriculture, specifically around trust, equity, distribution of benefits and access. This is the first study of big data in agriculture that takes a discourse analysis approach and thus interrogates the status quo and the prevailing norms and values driving decisions with impacts on both farmers and wider society.
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0501-y
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2018)
  • Landscape ecology and expanding range of biocontrol agent taxa enhance
           prospects for diamondback moth management. A review
    • Authors: Geoff M. Gurr; Olivia L. Reynolds; Anne C. Johnson; Nicolas Desneux; Myron P. Zalucki; Michael J. Furlong; Zhenyu Li; Komivi S. Akutse; Junhui Chen; Xiwu Gao; Minsheng You
      Abstract: Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is a globally significant pest of Brassicaceae crops that has attracted enormous research investment. It is typical of many agricultural pests, with insecticides remaining the most common method of control, despite frequent cases of resistance in pest populations and the potential for other management options such as natural enemies to provide suppression. Here we review scope to make better use of neglected natural enemy taxa and integrate recent work on landscape ecology to identify opportunities for more effective pest suppression. Our main findings are as follows: (1) relatively neglected taxa of natural enemies, especially predators and entomopathogens, are now attracting growing levels of research interest, although parasitoids remain most frequently used and researched; (2) knowledge of the spatio-temporal dynamics of populations at the landscape scale have advanced rapidly in the last decade; (3) ecological insights open new possibilities for exploiting spatial heterogeneity at scales larger than individual fields and even farms that influence pests and their natural enemies; (4) there is evidence for landscapes that selectively favor particular guilds and this knowledge could be developed to favor targeted natural enemies over pests in focal crops; and (5) landscape-scale effects can even over-ride field-scale management practices. The significance of these advances is that future management of diamondback moth and similar pests will benefit from a move away from reliance on the use of particular species of biological control agents, especially exotic parasitoids, and strategies that depend on use of broad-spectrum insecticides. Together with this move, we call for greater use of area-wide management that exploits the potential of landscapes to promote diverse assemblages of natural enemy species.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0500-z
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2018)
  • Allelopathy in Poaceae species present in Brazil. A review
    • Authors: Adriana Favaretto; Simone M. Scheffer-Basso; Naylor B. Perez
      Abstract: Allelopathy is an important ecological mechanism in natural and managed ecosystems. Its study is critical to understand natural plant behaviors, to isolate allelochemicals with herbicide potential, and to use the allelopathic genes in transgenic studies. Poaceae is an ecologically dominant plant family and it is economically important worldwide because its chemical diversity represents an important source to discover new molecules. From this viewpoint, Brazil is an interesting place to study, encompassing 197 genera of the Poaceae family, many of them being dominant in various biomes and some being native to Brazil. Here, we review the literature describing allelopathic activities involving grasses of the Poaceae family. We evaluate the experimental conditions used in these studies, we identify the allelochemicals involved, and, finally, we assess the applicability of allelopathy. Our main findings are (1) among the 47 Brazilian species studied for their allelopathic effects, only Bothriochloa barbinodis, Bothriochloa laguroides, Paspalum notatum, and Paspalum urvillei are native to Brazil; (2) 51% of the reviewed studies prepared extracts from the leaves and used lettuce as the target plant; and (3) 64% of the papers identified allelochemicals, of which 67% were phenolic acids. This first bibliographical survey on allelopathy in Poaceae species present in Brazil shows that less than 3% of the Brazilian species have been studied, suggesting it is an incipient research subject. Since this plant family is a valuable source of unknown natural products, refining such studies should contribute to a better understanding of the ecosystem relationships. Identification and isolation of grass allelochemicals should promote environmentally safer compounds with bioherbicide properties, in sustainable agriculture.
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0495-5
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Trade-offs and synergies between yield, labor, profit, and risk in
           Malawian maize-based cropping systems
    • Abstract: Land degradation, population growth, and chronic poverty in Eastern and Southern Africa challenge the sustainability of livelihoods for smallholder farmers. These farmers often manage soils depleted of nutrients, apply limited amounts of mineral fertilizer, and take decisions about their cropping systems that involve multiple trade-offs. The rotation of cereals with legumes bears agronomic and ecological merit; however, the socio-economic implications of the cereal-legume rotation require a deeper understanding. This study explores the yield, labor, profit, and risk implications of different legume and mineral fertilizer practices in maize-based cropping systems in central Malawi. Our method involves coupling crop modeling and an agricultural household survey with a socio-economic analysis. We use a process-based cropping systems model to simulate the yield effects of integrating legumes into maize monocultures and applying mineral fertilizer over multiple seasons. We combine the simulated yields with socio-economic data from an agricultural household survey to calculate indicators of cropping-system performance. Our results show that a maize-groundnut rotation increases average economic profits by 75% compared with maize monoculture that uses more mineral fertilizer than in the rotation. The maize-groundnut rotation increases the stability of profits, reduces the likelihood of negative profits, and increases risk-adjusted profits. In contrast, the maize-groundnut rotation has a 54% lower average caloric yield and uses more labor than the maize monoculture with mineral fertilization. By comparing labor requirements with labor supply at the household scale, we show for the first time that the additional labor requirements of the maize-groundnut rotation can increase the likelihood of experiencing a labor shortage, if this rotation is undertaken by farm households in central Malawi. We demonstrate that risk and labor factors can be important when examining trade-offs among alternative cropping systems.
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0506-6
  • Sustainable management of nitrogen nutrition in winter wheat through
           temporary intercropping with legumes
    • Abstract: Wheat-legume temporary intercropping with legume devitalization in late winter can increase the N self-sufficiency of cropping systems and improve the N nutrition of wheat as a cash crop. However, this practice has been scarcely investigated. In this study, carried out in a Mediterranean environment with cold winters, we compared 14 treatments over 3 years with different weather patterns: (A) pure stands of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown at 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 kg N ha−1; (B) pure stands of faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor), pea (Pisum sativum L.), and squarrose clover (Trifolium squarrosum L.); (C) temporary intercrops of wheat and faba bean, pea, or clover; and (D) permanent intercrops of wheat and the same legumes. In the temporary intercrops, all legumes improved the wheat N availability compared with the unfertilized control. The “N effect” of legumes for wheat was consistent across years and proportional to the competitive ability of the legumes, i.e., faba bean > pea > clover. The higher the legume competitive ability, the higher was its N accumulation before devitalization, and the higher/earlier was the N supplied to wheat. Our findings demonstrate that the date of legume devitalization represents a key factor to be managed each year in order to maximize legume N supply while preventing excessive legume competition, which could undermine wheat growth and yield. Such a modulation was not possible in permanent intercrops, where legume competition depressed wheat grain yield. The N supplied with legume devitalization increased wheat grain N accumulation during grain filling. This is the first work comparing temporary and permanent intercrops of wheat with different legumes and over different seasons. Overall, temporary intercropping appears to be a feasible and efficient tool for the sustainable management of N nutrition in winter wheat.
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0509-3
  • Candidate metabolites for methane mitigation in the forage legume
    • Abstract: The forage legume species biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus) is among a few forage species with low enteric methane emission when fermented by rumen microbes and it is unclear whether metabolites in biserrula play a role in this. The hypothesis of this study was that specific metabolites in biserrula are candidate biomarkers for and associated with low methanogenesis. We characterized the metabolomic profiles of 30 accessions of biserrula or its core collection using nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. These profiles were then analyzed for association with methanogenesis potential in the rumen. Metabolomic profile was predictive of methanogenesis. Forty-seven putative metabolites were identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry that were highly expressed (P < 0.05) in the associations with low methanogenic potential. Fragmentation analysis of a subset of these metabolites suggested saponins, with one feature tentatively identified as an ursolic or oleanolic terpene glucoside, consistent with the nuclear magnetic resonance data. Accessions with Eritrean geographic origin were metabolomic outliers. Here, we show for the first time that some metabolites contribute to the methane mitigation effects of biserrula. If in vivo results confirm this, the environmental impact of this study would be the availability of biomolecules for livestock vaccination to mitigate methane emission resulting in an economic impact of lower cost of production in countries with a price on environmental emissions.
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0510-x
  • Thirteen decades of antimicrobial copper compounds applied in agriculture.
           A review
    • Abstract: Since the initial use of Bordeaux mixture in 1885 for plant disease control, a large number of copper-based antimicrobial compounds (CBACs) have been developed and applied for crop protection. While these compounds have revolutionized crop protection in the twentieth century, their continuous and frequent use has also raised concerns about the long-term sustainability of copper (Cu)-based crop protection system. Here, we review CBACs used in crop protection and highlight their benefits and risks, and potential for their improvement and opportunities for further research to develop alternatives to CBACs. The major findings are (i) the relatively high toxicity to plant pathogens, low cost, low mammalian toxicity of the fixed Cu compounds, and their chemical stability and prolonged residual effects are major benefits of these compounds; (ii) phytotoxicity, development of copper-resistant strains, soil accumulation, and negative effects on soil biota as well as on food quality parameters are key disadvantages of CBACs; (iii) regulatory pressure in agriculture worldwide to limit the use of CBACs has led to several restrictions, including that imposed by the regulation 473/2002 in the European Union; and (iv) mitigation strategies to limit the negative effects of CBACs include their optimized use, soil remediation, and development and application of alternatives to CBACs for a sustainable crop protection. We conclude that recent research and policy efforts have led to the development of a number of alternatives to CBACs, which should be further intensified to ensure that growers have sufficient tools for the implementation of sustainable crop protection strategies.
      PubDate: 2018-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0503-9
  • Yield and fruit quality of grafted tomatoes, and their potential for soil
           fumigant use reduction. A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Grafted fresh market tomatoes are widely used in commercial production throughout Europe and Asia, and interest among commercial producers in the Americas has increased in recent years. Many field trials have found dramatic net economic return increases relative to non-grafted scion cultivars. However, optimal yields require growing conditions that satisfy the agronomic needs of both rootstock and scion cultivars. Most commercial rootstocks are resistant to multiple soilborne pathogens, allowing grafted plants to maintain high yields in pathogen-infested fields without the use of soil pesticides, including fumigants. Here we comprehensively and quantitatively review, for the first time, all available published trial data on fruit quality and yield of grafted tomatoes. Collectively, 159 publications included 202 different rootstocks, 126 geographic locations, and 1023 experimental treatments. Yield performance varies with the specific rootstock/scion combinations and with the conditions of a given production system. Among 949 heterograft treatments (rootstock/scion of different cultivars), grafted plant yields were not significantly higher in 65% of the cases, yet they averaged a 37% yield increase for all data. In addition, grafted/non-grafted yield ratios in 105 experimental treatments with rootstock ‘Maxifort’ varied dramatically by scion. However, European trials used completely different scions than US trials, so the roles of scion and geographical differences remain unclear. Concerns that grafting might contribute to inferior fruit quality (pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, lycopene, vitamin C, firmness, “taste”) seem unfounded in general, though isolated cases show dramatic differences. Grafted tomatoes show promise to reduce the usage of various soilborne pathogen treatments, with 33% of commercial tomato rootstocks either resistant or highly resistant to seven or more common soilborne pathogens. Our approach integrated trial data from around the world, though limitations in available data complicated our analysis of relationships between some experimental variables and fruit yields and quality.
      PubDate: 2018-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0507-5
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