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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2354 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2354 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Agronomy for Sustainable Development
  [SJR: 1.732]   [H-I: 59]   [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1774-0746 - ISSN (Online) 1773-0155
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Converging and diverging principles and practices of organic agriculture
           regulations and agroecology. A review
    • Authors: Paola Migliorini; Alexander Wezel
      Abstract: There is ongoing debate among stakeholders about the future development of agricultural and food systems to meet the global challenges of food supply, biological and cultural diversity, climate change, and social justice. Among other options, agroecology and organic agriculture are discussed. Both have similar goals and use a systems approach; however, they are recognised and received differently by stakeholders. Here we review and compare principles and practices defined and described in EU organic agriculture regulations, International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movement (IFOAM) norms, and agroecology scientific literature. The main finding are as follows: (1) Regarding principles, EU organic regulations mainly focus on appropriate design and management of biological processes based on ecological systems, restriction of external inputs, and strict limitation of chemical inputs. IFOAM principles are very broad and more complete, and include a holistic and systemic vision of sustainability. Agroecology has a defined set of principles for the ecological management of agri-food systems, which also includes some socio-economic principles. (2) Many proposed cropping practices are similar for EU organic, IFOAM, and agroecology, e.g. soil tillage, soil fertility and fertilisation, crop and cultivar choice, crop rotation, as well as pest, disease and weed management. In contrast, the origin and quantity of products potentially used for soil fertilisation and pest, disease, and weed management are different. Additionally, some practices are only mentioned for one of the three sources. (3) In animal production, only a few proposed practices are similar for EU organic, IFOAM, and agroecology. These include integration of cropping and animal systems and breed choice. In contrast, practices for animal management, prevention methods in animal health, animal housing, animal welfare, animal nutrition, and veterinary management are defined or described differently. (4) Related to food systems, organic agriculture focusses on technical aspects, such as food processing, while in agroecology there is a prominent debate between a transformative and conformative agenda. Both agroecology and organic agriculture offer promising contributions for the future development of sustainable agricultural production and food systems, especially if their principles and practices converge to a transformative approach and that impedes the conventionalisation of agro-food systems.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0472-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • High productivity of dry pea genotypes resistant to crenate broomrape in
           Mediterranean environments
    • Authors: Sara Fondevilla; Fernando Flores; Amero A. Emeran; Mohamed Kharrat; Diego Rubiales
      Abstract: The cultivation of dry pea (Pisum sativum) is strongly hampered in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern farming systems by the parasitic weed Orobanche crenata. Resistant cultivars are not available to farmers, and only incomplete levels of resistance have been identified in landraces or wild relatives. Dry pea genotypes that combine the resistance of wild genotypes with good agronomic traits have been the focus of our breeding program. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the level and stability of resistance to O. crenata and the yield of these genotypes in different locations across the Mediterranean Basin and to identify the most useful environments in which to select for these traits. The responses to O. crenata and yield of pea genotypes were evaluated at five locations in Spain, Tunisia, and Egypt. Observed differences in both traits were due to the effect of genotype, environment, and environment × genotype interactions. A heritability-adjusted genotype plus genotype × environment interaction identified two mega-environments: the first, formed by the environments located in Egypt and the second, formed by the remaining environments. Breeding genotypes J26 and J26-2 showed good and stable yield and resistance responses to O. crenata in all environments. By contrast, J3 had a markedly different pattern depending on the mega-environment. It was one of the most resistant genotypes in the second mega-environment, but the most susceptible one in the Egyptian mega-environment. Both locations in Egypt were useful for selecting high yield and resistance to O. crenata, while, in the second mega-environment, Córdoba was the most useful in which to select for the traits. This study is the first to report advanced dry pea breeding genotypes that show resistance to O. crenata and high productivity in different environments. These genotypes will be highly useful in environmentally sustainable control of broomrape.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0470-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Structural characteristics determine productivity in complex cocoa
           agroforestry systems
    • Authors: Patrick Jagoret; Isabelle Michel; Hervé Todem Ngnogué; Philippe Lachenaud; Didier Snoeck; Eric Malézieux
      Abstract: In order to cope with current challenges facing world cocoa production and the obvious lack of sustainability of the intensive model proposed to farmers, more ecologically efficient cocoa cropping systems must be developed, based in particular on a higher cultivated biodiversity level. The performances of cocoa multispecies systems, which involve multiple and hard to quantify interactions, are, however, more complicated to assess than that of monospecies systems. Despite this hurdle, we carried out a study in 48 cocoa agroforests located in three zones in central Cameroon where we conducted an analysis of cocoa yield components and agroforestry system structural characteristics that are likely responsible for observed yield variations. For the first time, we adapted the regional agronomic diagnosis method to demonstrate that the basal area per cocoa tree (mean 61.6 cm2) and the unproductive adult cocoa tree rate (mean 21%) are key factors when assessing the productive performance of the surveyed systems whose average cocoa yield was 737 kg ha−1. From a methodological standpoint, the assessment approach we set up succeeded to overcome the specific obstacles linked with the features of agroforestry systems, especially their complexity (number of species and heterogeneity), by (i) determining relevant indicators and easily measurable variables, (ii) considering the associated tree communities as an environmental component, and (iii) analyzing interactions between cocoa stands and associated tree communities. From an operational standpoint, we showed that farmers can intervene on the structural characteristics of their cocoa agroforests to improve cocoa yields, in particular by eliminating unproductive cocoa trees whose basal area is less than 19 cm2 to enable the other ones to grow.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0468-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Targeted cattle grazing as an alternative to herbicides for controlling
           weeds in bird-friendly oil palm plantations
    • Authors: Kamil A. Tohiran; Frisco Nobilly; Raja Zulkifli; Thomas Maxwell; Ramle Moslim; Badrul Azhar
      Abstract: The use of agrochemicals is expected to increase with the global expansion of oil palm plantations. In line with environmentally sustainable palm oil certification, targeted grazing can minimize the dependency on herbicides for controlling weeds in plantations. Here, we show for the first time that targeted grazing would control weeds and improve biodiversity of desired animal species. We sampled birds at 45 oil palm plantations in Peninsular Malaysia that were systematically grazed, non-systematically grazed, or herbicide-controlled plantations without cattle grazing. We found that bird species richness increased with size of grazing area, but decreased with number of cattle. Bird abundance was higher in the systematic grazing system, but negatively related to number of cattle. These factors explained 18.41 and 25.34% of the observed variations in bird species richness and abundance, respectively. Our findings suggest that targeted cattle grazing can be instrumental for transforming conventional oil palm agriculture into more biodiversity-friendly agroecosystems. Targeted grazing is likely to be practical under field conditions in major palm oil producing countries. In addition, the use of targeted grazing as a biological control method for weeds would be welcomed by palm oil consumers and encouraged by sustainable palm oil certification bodies such as the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO).
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0471-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Soil solarization as a sustainable solution to control tomato Pseudomonads
           infections in greenhouses
    • Authors: Ivana Castello; Alessandro D’Emilio; Michael Raviv; Alessandro Vitale
      Abstract: The reduction or phase-out of soil fumigants according to European directives has led to a re-evaluation of sustainable heat-based techniques and exploiting solar energy, e.g., solarization that was used successfully for the eradication of fungi, weeds, and nematodes. Since the beginning of the current century, bacterial infections caused by phytopathogenic Pseudomonads have been increasingly reported as threat for many horticultural crops worldwide. Nowadays, this disease represents a limiting factor for the tomato production in the Mediterranean basin under greenhouse conditions. Therefore, we tested the effects of soil solarization in controlling natural infections caused by Pseudomonas fluorescens on tomato cultivations in Sicily (south Italy) from 2010 to 2013 under different greenhouse conditions, i.e., with lateral openings uncovered or kept closed. Four experiments were performed under both wooden-concrete and steel-made greenhouses to compare the performances of innovative and traditional films alone or combined with other control measures (only in partially opened greenhouses) against tomato bacterial infections. All solarization treatments were effective in controlling phytopathogenic pseudomonads except for one carried out in a multi-span steel greenhouse with the side openings kept raised. Tested greenhouse covering and mulching films increased soil temperature up to 9.6 °C at 15 cm and 7.7 °C at 30 cm, respectively, if compared to bare plots. Moreover, solarization treatments proved effective in controlling bacterial infections (up to about 90% reduction of disease amount) and in increasing yield up to 45% relative to the bare plots. Among tested films, EVA showed the best performances both in reducing bacterial infections and increasing tomato yield, innovative polyamide VIF and smoky gray were very promising films while green coextruded could be considered a very attractive film since it can be left on after solarization process as mulch for tomato transplanting. This study shows for the first time the feasibility and sustainability of soil solarization performed with innovative materials in managing tomato bacterial diseases in greenhouse.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0467-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Wood vinegar seed priming improves yield and suppresses weeds in dryland
           direct-seeding rice under rainfed production
    • Authors: Bubpha Simma; Anan Polthanee; A. Susana Goggi; Boonmee Siri; Arunee Promkhambut; Petrutza C. Caragea
      Abstract: A declining farm labor force and increasing water scarcity worldwide are forcing rice farmers to adopt direct-seeding rice production. Under this production system, speed of germination, field emergence, and crop yield depend prominently on rice seed vigor. We hypothesized that seed priming can enhance rice seed vigor and agronomic performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of GA3 and wood vinegar seed priming on seed vigor, seedling performance, and grain yield in farmer’s fields. The experimental design was a split-split plot with four replications and planted in Thailand between April to December 2013 and 2014. Two rice cultivars (KDML 105 and RD6) were main plots; two planting methods (broadcast and row) were sub-plots, and three seed priming treatments (GA3, wood vinegar, and untreated control) were sub-sub-plots. Seed priming enhanced speed of germination and final germination percentage under both laboratory and field condition. However, soil moisture availability during flowering and seed formation significantly affected agronomic performance. Wood vinegar-primed seeds had greater shoot growth and plant population at maturity, while GA3-primed seed had more rapid germination. Yield-related agronomic performance characteristics of tillers plant−1 and yield in ton ha−1 were significantly higher for primed seed, and weed biomass was significantly reduced in 2013. Here, we show for the first time that wood vinegar is a sustainable alternative to chemicals for seed priming. Also, when water is available during flowering and seed development, wood vinegar priming increases grain yield and reduces weed pressure.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0466-2
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • No-till permanent meadow promotes soil carbon sequestration and nitrogen
           use efficiency at the expense of productivity
    • Authors: Fabio Castelli; Enrico Ceotto; Lamberto Borrelli; Giovanni Cabassi; Anna Moschella; Dario Fornara
      Abstract: The delivery of multiple ecosystem services from intensively managed cropping systems remains challenging mainly because increases in crop yields are rarely associated with greater soil carbon (C) sequestration or efficient ecosystem nitrogen (N) cycling. The sustainability of intensive cropping systems depends on trade-offs between multiple ecosystem services but experimental evidence from long-term field studies remains limited. The common expectation is that highly productive agroecosystems will be associated with lower soil C and reduced nutrient use efficiency. Here we use data spanning 30 years of a long-term field experiment established in 1985 near Lodi in Northern Italy where four arable systems (i.e., three crop rotations and a grain maize monoculture) and a no-till permanent meadow were all compared across two levels of agronomic inputs. We asked how (i) soil C stocks, (ii) fertilizer N-use efficiency, (iii) productivity, (iv) crude protein, and (v) feed units for lactation might differ across the five traditional cropping systems. We found that soil C sequestration, N-use efficiency, and crude protein production were all significantly higher in the no-till permanent meadow, which was however associated with lower dry matter yields and reduced feed units for lactation when compared with the arable systems. These findings suggest that converting arable soil into no-till permanent meadow is a win-lose solution. The most productive annual rotation (silage maize + Italian ryegrass) offers a complementary win-lose solution whereby high yields and feed units for lactation can be obtained from a smaller cropland area. The other cropping systems are less productive and provide little (or none) soil C storage benefits. Our study is one of the first to show clear trade-offs between multiple ecosystem services and to demonstrate that high fertilization rates might be only justified when the management goal is to spare land for less intensive uses such as permanent meadow.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0462-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Enhancing planned and associated biodiversity in French farming systems
    • Authors: Marion Casagrande; Lionel Alletto; Christophe Naudin; Arthur Lenoir; Ali Siah; Florian Celette
      Abstract: In a context of global change involving uncertainty in agricultural production, agroecological systems need to reduce their dependency on inputs and increase their resilience. Biodiversity-based techniques are promising, as they provide production services based on biological processes. Tracking farmer practices is an original approach aiming at identifying and analysing alternative systems and supporting the development of these techniques. We studied, for the first time, the on-farm implementation of six biodiversity-based techniques: (i) agroecological infrastructures, (ii) cropped varietal mixtures, (iii) agroforestry, (iv) intercropping, (v) cover cropping and (vi) crop rotation diversification. We first analysed the combinations of these techniques in a large sample of 194 French farmers. A multiple correspondence analysis followed by a hierarchical cluster analysis on principal components resulted in groups of farms with different combinations of these techniques. Then, deeper interviews were conducted with 29 farmers across three regions to analyse the various methods of applying the techniques in the context of their farm and to identify the conditions for their successful implementation. Taking advantage of this large and rare sample of almost 200 interviewed farmers, we identified six different groups of farms. From farms applying mainly cover cropping to comply with European regulations to much diversified farms implying the redesign of the farming system, we support the idea that different strategies of implementation of such biodiversity-based techniques co-exist. The in-depth interviews demonstrated that the level of diversification is related to farm characteristics and four factors mainly favoured the development of such techniques on farms: (1) available labour force and (2) specialised machinery (internal factors) as well as (3) access to market opportunities and (4) the exchange of knowledge through networking (external factors). Surprisingly, the conservation agriculture farmers of our sample did not apply significantly more biodiversity-based techniques. However, our results indicated that organic farmers applied significantly more of these techniques. Our results suggest that enhancing knowledge exchange through networks would favour the broader application of such techniques. It could also be relevant to gather farmers, industries and public authorities to favour the emergence of market opportunities.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0463-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Crop rotations and crop residues are relevant parameters for agricultural
           carbon footprints
    • Authors: Gerhard Brankatschk; Matthias Finkbeiner
      Abstract: Agriculture is the key for achieving the United Nations sustainable development goals: food security and climate action. To achieve these targets “climate-smart” agricultural practices need to be developed. Life cycle assessment and product carbon footprints are well established and internationally recognized tools to assist the process of improving environmental performance. However, there is room for methodological improvement of agricultural life cycle assessments and product carbon footprints. For agronomists, it is widely known that crop rotations and crop residues do fulfill important agronomic functions, but they are not adequately represented in current life cycle assessment and product carbon footprint modeling practice. New methods tested in this study allow the inclusion of crop rotation effects and crop residues as co-products, whilst keeping at the same time the product focus. Product carbon footprints are calculated with and without consideration of these effects; results are compared. If crop rotations are considered, wheat bread, cow milk, and rapeseed biodiesel have lower product carbon footprints (− 11, − 22, and − 16%, respectively). The product carbon footprint of straw bioethanol significantly increases (+ 80%) when considering straw as an agricultural co-product instead of as waste. Ignoring crop rotation effects underestimates the annual greenhouse gas savings of EU-28 rapeseed biodiesel by 1.67 million t CO2e and 20%, respectively. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that crop rotations and straw harvest should be considered for the product carbon footprints of bread, milk, and first- and second-generation biofuels. Since crop rotations and straw harvest are performed worldwide, the findings are relevant to all regions in the world. Comparing crop rotations and identifying climate-smart agricultural practices without losing the production orientation are key challenges for environmental assessments of agriculture in order to achieve the challenging combination of the food security and climate action sustainable development goals.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0464-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Stable nutrient flows in sustainable and alternative cropping systems of
           globe artichoke
    • Authors: Paola A. Deligios; Maria Teresa Tiloca; Leonardo Sulas; Martina Buffa; Stefano Caraffini; Luca Doro; Gavino Sanna; Emanuela Spanu; Ester Spissu; Giulia R. Urracci; Luigi Ledda
      Abstract: The conventional cultivation of globe artichoke causes high nitrogen (N) balance surpluses. The planning of more sustainable open-field horticultural systems (with no synthetic fertilizer supply) can contribute to the reduction of the nutrient surplus. We hypothesized that an artichoke conventional system could be shifted to a sustainable system through mineral fertilizer supply based on expected plant nutrient uptake, return of crop residues in well-defined growth phases, use of fertility-building crops, and crop rotations. Over a 10-year field experiment, three management systems, differing in fertilizer rates, crop sequence (monoculture/rotation with cauliflower), and legume cover crop adoption and management, were compared: (i) improved conventional, (ii) alternative monoculture, and (iii) biannual rotation. We monitored soil conditions at a sampling interval of approximately 3 years. We calculated gross N, P, and K balances for each growing season, and we also monitored soil respiration over the last two growing seasons. On average, the biannual rotation resulted in a well-balanced N budget (72 kg ha−1 N surplus) compared with improved conventional (160 kg N ha−1 N surplus) and alternative monoculture (− 34 kg ha−1 deficit) systems. By contrast, compared with the improved conventional system (133 and 116 kg ha−1 for P and K budgets, respectively), alternative monoculture and biannual rotation systems had negative budgets for P (− 9 kg ha−1 for both alternative systems) and K (− 58 and − 51 kg ha−1 for alternative monoculture and biannual rotation systems, respectively) in nine of ten growing seasons. Our results show for the first time that long-term biannual rotation with cauliflower coupled with cover crop use can optimize nutrient fluxes of conventionally grown globe artichoke. Overall, the study proposes a re-design of artichoke cropping systems, provides novel information useful for growers, and verifies that introducing a legume species cover crop is also the most promising approach to foster long-term sustainability.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0465-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Protected cultivation of vegetable crops in sub-Saharan Africa: limits and
           prospects for smallholders. A review
    • Authors: Thibault Nordey; Claudine Basset-Mens; Hubert De Bon; Thibaud Martin; Emilie Déletré; Serge Simon; Laurent Parrot; Hugo Despretz; Joël Huat; Yannick Biard; Thomas Dubois; Eric Malézieux
      Abstract: Vegetable production in sub-Saharan Africa faces numerous agronomic constraints that will have to be overcome to feed the increasing population and to fight malnutrition. Technology transfer and the adoption of low-tech protected cultivation techniques affordable for smallholders are believed to be able to meet this challenge. Protected cultivation techniques are a set of agricultural practices aimed at artificializing the crop environment through the use of soil covers and/or plant covers to control pests and climatic conditions. Although protected cultivation techniques may increase the yield and quality of vegetable crops and extend their production periods worldwide, the transfer of these techniques in sub-Saharan Africa raises questions about their agronomical performances, their profitability but also their environmental impacts. Are low-tech protected cultivation techniques adapted to the sustainable production of vegetables by smallholders in sub-Saharan Africa' To answer this question, we present an overview of the agronomic, economic, and environmental performances of low-tech protected cultivation techniques in sub-Saharan Africa as reported in the literature. The major conclusions that can be drawn from the review are (1) low-tech protected cultivation techniques are not suitable in all climatic conditions in sub-Saharan Africa and need to be combined with other methods to ensure adequate pest control, (2) the profitability of protected cultivation techniques relies on the capacity to offset increased production costs by higher yields and higher selling prices to be obtained with off-season and/or higher quality products, (3) breaking with existing cropping systems, the lack of technical support and skills, and the limited access to investment funding are major obstacles to the adoption of protected cultivation techniques by smallholders (4) life cycle assessments conducted in northern countries suggested that more efficient use of agricultural inputs would offset the negative impacts of protected cultivation techniques if they are properly managed, but further studies are required to be sure these results can be extrapolated to sub-Saharan Africa context.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0460-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Conservation agriculture improves yield and reduces weeding activity in
           sandy soils of Cambodia
    • Authors: Don A. Edralin; Gilbert C. Sigua; Manuel R. Reyes; Michael J. Mulvaney; Susan S. Andrews
      Abstract: The years of intensive tillage in Cambodia have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources that could threaten its future of agricultural production and sustainability. Conventional tillage could cause rapid loss of soil organic matter, leading to a high potential for soil degradation and decline of environmental quality. Hence, a better and comprehensive process-based understanding of differential effects of tillage systems and crop management on crop yield is critically needed. A study was conducted in 10 farmer’s fields to evaluate the effect of conservation agriculture and conventional tillage on yield of selected crops and weeding activity in two villages of Siem Reap, Cambodia. The experiment was laid out following a 2 × 2 factorial treatment combination in randomized complete block design. Each treatment was replicated five times. Each farmer’s field was divided into four plots and was randomly assigned with production management and irrigation treatments, respectively. We demonstrated that our results supported the overall premises of conservation agriculture. Average yields of selected crops were significantly (≤ 0.001) improved in plots with conservation agriculture (17.1 ± 6.3 to 89.3 ± 40.2 Mg ha−1) compared with conventional tillage (18.8 ± 6.4 to 63.8 ± 27.7 Mg ha−1). Our results showed that manual weeding in all cropping seasons was significantly reduced by about 35% in conservation agriculture (169 ± 23 to 125 ± 18 man-day ha−1), which can be attributed to existing cover crops and surface mulch. Overall, our results suggest that in smallholder commercial household farms, adoption of conservation agriculture had a profitable production management system, which could save natural resources, improve yield, and reduce labor. We proved for the first time that in Cambodian smallholder commercial household farms, adoption of conservation agriculture saves natural resources, improves yield, and reduces labor. Additional studies are encouraged to further test the conservation agriculture system for a longer period of time, with repeated cropping sequences.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0461-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Proper selection of substrates and crops enhances the sustainability of
           Paris rooftop garden
    • Authors: Erica Dorr; Esther Sanyé-Mengual; Benoît Gabrielle; Baptiste J-P Grard; Christine Aubry
      Abstract: Rooftop gardens are a promising way to supplement the growing demand for local food production, and are especially relevant in large cities with acute space constraints. However, they face the challenge of achieving viable food productivity while minimizing their impacts on the environment, two priorities that often oppose one another. Also, the actual impacts of management practices, which are deemed environmentally friendly in principle, are rarely quantified. Therefore, evaluations that encompass all components of urban gardens and a comprehensive range of environmental issues are necessary to reveal potential trade-offs and provide guidance in the design of these systems. In this study, we evaluated the environmental and economic impacts of rooftop gardening practices, focusing on crop and substrate selection, which are key parameters in system design but whose consequences have seldom been evaluated so far. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) were used to analyze a case study in the center of Paris (France). The production systems considered involved crop rotations of tomato and lettuce each grown in three different substrate types: compost and wood chips; compost, wood chips, and earthworms; and conventional potting soil. Despite the large environmental burdens of compost production, systems with compost performed better environmentally and economically than the system involving potting soil, specifically having 17–47% less greenhouse gas emissions per kg of product. Across systems, length of cultivation and yield appeared to be the most influential determinants of the environmental impacts. Within the compost systems, the most impactful component was the material used for garden infrastructure, and substrate production for the potting soil systems. This is the first study that considers compost as a substrate, weighs its benefits and impacts, incorporates it into a complete garden, and compares it to potting soil. Our results demonstrate that careful system design could significantly abate environmental impacts. They provide critically needed information to people implementing urban rooftop agriculture and considering the trade-offs involved in each decision.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0459-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to: Retrospective Open Access Articles
    • PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0451-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Diverse concepts of breeding for nitrogen use efficiency. A review
    • Authors: Edith T. Lammerts van Bueren; Paul C. Struik
      Abstract: Cropping systems require careful nitrogen (N) management to increase the sustainability of agricultural production. One important route towards enhanced sustainability is to increase nitrogen use efficiency. Improving nitrogen use efficiency encompasses increasing N uptake, N utilization efficiency, and N harvest index, each involving many crop physiological mechanisms and agronomic traits. Here, we review recent developments in cultural practices, cultivar choice, and breeding regarding nitrogen use efficiency. We add a comparative analysis of our own research on designing breeding strategies for nitrogen use efficiency in leafy and non-leafy vegetables, literature on breeding for nitrogen use efficiency in other vegetables (cabbage, cauliflower), and literature on breeding for nitrogen use efficiency in grain crops. We highlight traits that are generic across species, demonstrate how traits contributing to nitrogen use efficiency differ among crops, and show how cultural practice affects the relevance of these traits. Our review indicates that crops harvested in their early or late vegetative phase or reproductive phase differ in traits relevant to improve nitrogen use efficiency. Head-forming crops (lettuce, cabbage) depend on the prolonged photosynthesis of outer leaves to provide the carbon sources for continued N supply and growth of the photosynthetically less active, younger inner leaves. Grain crops largely depend on prolonged N availability for uptake and on availability of N in stover for remobilization to the grains. Improving root performance is relevant for all crop types, but especially short-cycle vegetable crops benefit from early below-ground vigor. We conclude that there is sufficient genetic variation available among modern cultivars to further improve nitrogen use efficiency but that it requires integration of agronomy, crop physiology, and efficient selection strategies to make rapid progress in breeding. We also conclude that discriminative traits related to nitrogen use efficiency better express themselves under low input than under high input. However, testing under both low and high input can yield cultivars that are adapted to low-input conditions but also respond to high-input conditions. The benefits of increased nitrogen use efficiency through breeding are potentially large but realizing these benefits is challenged by the huge genotype-by-environment interaction and the complex behavior of nitrogen in the cropping system.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0457-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Biochar improves the fertility of a Mediterranean vineyard without toxic
           impact on the microbial community
    • Authors: Anita Maienza; Silvia Baronti; Alessandra Cincinelli; Tania Martellini; Antonio Grisolia; Franco Miglietta; Giancarlo Renella; Silvia Rita Stazi; Francesco Primo Vaccari; Lorenzo Genesio
      Abstract: Incorporation of biochar into agricultural soils has been repeatedly proposed as an effective strategy to mitigate climate change with beneficial effects on soil properties and crop production. Results from previous field experiments showed that, when applied to vineyards, biochar amendment increased yield without a negative impact on grape quality, decreasing water stress during droughts and improving soil physical and chemical properties. Despite those positive impacts, the long-term effects of biochar treatment on soil fertility and ecological toxicity have seldom been studied at a real farm scale. We investigated the effects of biochar amendment on vineyard soil subjected to a single and a repeated biochar application focusing on total heavy metal concentration and availability, concentration and persistence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), soil toxicity, and soil microbial community structure over a 5-year period. Our results showed that a longer term biochar application in a vineyard has no impact on soil microorganisms and does not retain toxic compounds (PAH and heavy metals). For the first time in biochar research, we investigate the biochar effect on a perennial crop and correlate the PAH retention with soil microbiota. Our research demonstrates that biochar application in a Mediterranean vineyard does not have a negative impact on soil ecology, reinforcing the perception that biochar is a sustainable option at farm scale, meeting the needs of agronomy and climate change mitigation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0458-2
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Weed control under conservation agriculture in dryland smallholder farming
           systems of southern Africa. A review
    • Authors: Nicole Lee; Christian Thierfelder
      Abstract: Human-induced soil degradation has led to declining yields and soil fertility in many parts of the world. Conservation agriculture has been proposed as a strategy to ensure more sustainable land use. While conservation agriculture, based on minimum soil disturbance, crop residue retention, and diversification may improve a range of soil characteristics and can be a potential cropping system for improving farmer resilience to climate change, increased weed pressure is often an impediment to its widespread adoption in southern Africa. Weed control under conservation agriculture in other countries has been linked to increased herbicide use, but concerns about herbicide resistance, access to chemicals, and environmental impacts highlight the need for alternative weed control strategies accessible for smallholders. Farmers in semi-arid regions contend with the additional challenge of low biomass production, which may limit the weed-suppressing benefits of permanent soil cover. This paper reviews the regional applicability of various mechanical (manual weeding, weeding using animal traction, weed seed harvest), thermal (soil solarization, weed steaming, flaming), chemical (herbicides, seed coating), and cultural (crop competition, crop residue retention, intercropping, crop rotation) weed control strategies. For each strategy, benefits and challenges were assessed and contextualized with the circumstances of rainfed smallholder farmers in southern Africa. We found that (1) no single solution can solve all weed control challenges under current conservation agriculture systems; (2) success of weed control strategies is largely contingent upon site-specific conditions, including soil type, dominant weed species, and socioeconomic factors; and (3) practices new to southern Africa, such as weed steaming, merit localized research. Previous reviews have addressed various weed control strategies, but a comprehensive review of strategies available to smallholder farmers in semi-arid southern Africa is lacking. Finding a suitable combination of weed control strategies is critical for encouraging smallholder farmers to adopt and maintain conservation agriculture practices.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0453-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Weedy rice in sustainable rice production. A review
    • Authors: Sadia Nadir; Hai-Bo Xiong; Qian Zhu; Xiao-Ling Zhang; Hong-Yun Xu; Juan Li; Wenhua Dongchen; Doku Henry; Xiao-Qiong Guo; Sehroon Khan; Hak-Soo Suh; Dong Sun Lee; Li-Juan Chen
      Abstract: Weedy rice refers to the unwanted plants of the genus Oryza that have some undesirable agronomic traits and pose a major threat to sustainable rice production worldwide. Widespread adoption of direct seeded rice and hybridization or gene flow between cultivated rice and their wild relatives has resulted in the creation and dissemination of weedy rice. Currently, weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) has become one of the most common weeds infesting rice fields worldwide. In this paper, we review the biology, physiology, evolution, and genetic features of weedy rice. We also discuss the major obstacles in weedy rice management, including high diversity of weedy rice, ecological impacts of gene flow on weedy rice, changing climate, and weedy rice management. We then present a framework for the sustainable management and utilization of weedy rice. Our main emphasis is to explore the reservoir of natural variations in weedy germplasm and to utilize them for crop improvement. This review outlines some of the latest biotechnological tools to dissect the genetic backgrounds of several favorable traits of weedy rice that may prove beneficial for breeding and evolutionary studies on cultivated rice. We suggest that by merging the disciplines of genomics, breeding, and weed management, we can achieve the goal of sustainable rice production.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0456-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Lower average yields but similar yield variability in organic versus
           conventional horticulture. A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Claire Lesur-Dumoulin; Eric Malézieux; Tamara Ben-Ari; Christian Langlais; David Makowski
      Abstract: Organic agriculture prohibits the use of almost all synthetic inputs and it is expected to have lower impacts on natural resources than conventional agriculture. However, previous meta-analyses have shown that yields in organic systems are in average 8 to 25% lower compared with conventional systems. Here, we focus on horticulture (fruits and vegetables) and we refine our knowledge by characterising the distributions of organic and conventional yields both in terms of average yield loss and in terms of variability across experiments and across years. We built a new dataset including 636 ratios of organic versus conventional yields covering 37 horticultural species and 17 countries and estimated (i) mean yield ratios, (ii) yield ratio probability distribution across experiments and (iii) interannual yield variances in organic and conventional systems. Our results show that yields in organic horticulture are indeed on average 10 to 32% lower than those in conventional horticulture but they exhibit large variation across experiments. An analysis of yield ratio probability distribution shows that yield loss in organic horticulture has about 10% chances to exceed 50% compared to conventional systems. The analysis gives also around 20% chances to get higher yields in organic horticulture compared to conventional systems. None of the tested covariates (e.g. crop type, climate zone) was able to explain a significant part of the yield ratio variability. We find no evidence of a larger interannual variability (i.e. lower yield stability) in organic versus conventional horticulture. Longer-term trials could nonetheless help substantiate this result. Our results support also the needs to conduct new experiments in countries from the Southern Hemisphere and to collect standard data on crop management and environmental characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-09-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0455-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Linking the knowledge and reasoning of dissenting actors fosters a
           bottom-up design of agroecological viticulture
    • Authors: Anne Moneyron; LMC; Jean François Lallemand; Carine Schmitt; Mireille Perrin; Isabelle Soustre-Gacougnolle; Jean Eugène Masson; Westhalten group
      Abstract: Wine growing has a high economic value globally, and vineyards, with their centenarian grape varieties, are an integral part of our societies. Yet with the use of spraying to control pathogens and weeds, mainstream viticulture has become a big pesticide consumer. Criticism of this conventional type of viticulture and its environmental/health impacts is increasing strongly throughout society. Until now, mainstream ‘top-down’ scientific-technical developments have focused on breeding for new varieties and on designing new agronomic models. In parallel, organic and biodynamic practices have been developing alternatives. Either way, changes do not develop on the expected time scale. We posit that the diversity of actors concerned, from winegrowers to technical advisers, consumer associations, conservationists, elected representatives, citizens, and scientists, all contribute to the perpetuation of a constrained situation, through their differences in perspectives and practices, positions, knowledge, and reasoning. To untangle this situation, we brought together these dissenting actors. With a view to resolving the epistemological challenges, we then characterized four types of knowledge, along with the reasoning in play, and designed a tetrahedral model to legitimize and inter-relate them. This tetrahedron supported co-construction of a collective epistemology after a paradigm shift, in which the dissensus became a resource on numerous occasions. We then highlighted masked double-bind situations and went further, developing a seven-step Argonaut to conduct the project. New practices were designed, to do away with herbicides and develop ecological grassing. They were implemented on a large scale in vineyards, within a short time frame, while enhancing the value of a neighbouring nature reserve. Projects currently underway in Switzerland, Germany, and France suggest that differences in knowledge are enriching, and yet that the reasoning at play fit with our tetrahedron model. We thus show that dissenting actors can dissolve agronomic/economic/ecological dilemmas, while acting under uncertainty, and foster agroecology development.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0449-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
       
 
 
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