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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Agronomy for Sustainable Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.864
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 12  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1774-0746 - ISSN (Online) 1773-0155
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Epidemiology and agronomic predictors of herbicide resistance in rice at a
           large scale
    • Authors: Elisa Mascanzoni; Alessia Perego; Niccolò Marchi; Laura Scarabel; Silvia Panozzo; Aldo Ferrero; Marco Acutis; Maurizio Sattin
      Abstract: Herbicide resistance is a major weed control issue that threatens the sustainability of rice cropping systems. Its epidemiology at large scale is largely unknown. Several rice weed species have evolved resistant populations in Italy, including multiple resistant ones. The study objectives were to analyze the impact in Italian rice fields of major agronomic factors on the epidemiology of herbicide resistance and to generate a large-scale resistance risk map. The Italian Herbicide Resistance Working Group database was used to generate herbicide resistance maps. The distribution of resistant weed populations resulted as not homogeneous in the area studied, with two pockets where resistance had not been detected. To verify the situation, random sampling was done in the pockets where resistance had never been reported. Based on data from 230 Italian municipalities, three different statistics, stepwise discriminant analysis, stepwise logistic regression, and neural network, were used to correlate resistance distribution in the main Italian rice growing area with seeding type, rotation rate, and soil texture. Through the integration of complaint monitoring, mapping, and neural network analyses, we prove that a high risk of resistance evolution is associated with traditional rice cropping systems with intense monoculture rates and where water-seeding is widespread. This is the first study that determines the degree of association between herbicide resistance and a few important predictors at large scale. It also demonstrates that resistance is present in areas where it had never been reported through extensive complaint monitoring. However, these resistant populations cause medium-low density infestations, likely not alarming rice farmers. This highlights the importance of integrated agronomic techniques at cropping system level to prevent the diffusion and impact of herbicide resistance or limit it to an acceptable level. The identification of concise, yet informative, agronomic predictors of herbicide resistance diffusion can significantly facilitate effective management and improve sustainability.
      PubDate: 2018-12-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0548-9
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
  • Correction to: Landscape ecology and expanding range of biocontrol agent
           taxa enhance prospects for diamondback moth management. A review
    • Authors: Geoff M. Gurr; Olivia L. Reynolds; Anne C. Johnson; Nicolas Desneux; Myron P. Zalucki; Michael J. Furlong; Zhenyu Li; Komivi S. Akutse; Junhui Chen; Xiwu Gao; Minsheng You
      Abstract: The article “Making people buy and eat differently”: lessons from the modernization of small independent grocery stores in the early twentieth century written by Frank Cochoy, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 29 June 2017.
      PubDate: 2018-11-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0539-x
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
  • Grapevine abiotic stress assessment and search for sustainable adaptation
           strategies in Mediterranean-like climates. A review
    • Authors: Sara Bernardo; Lia-Tânia Dinis; Nelson Machado; José Moutinho-Pereira
      Abstract: Foreseen climate change points to shifts in agricultural production patterns worldwide, which may impact ecosystems directly, as well as the economic and cultural contexts of the wine industry. Moreover, the combined effects of environmental threats (light, temperature, and water relations) at different scales are expected to impair natural grapevine mechanisms, decreasing yield and the quality of grapes. Hence, the interaction between several factors, such as climate, terroir features, grapevine stress responses, site-specific spatial-temporal variability, and the management practices applied, which represents and effective challenge for sustainable Mediterranean viticulture, allowed researchers to develop adaptive strategies to cope with environmental stresses. Here, we review the effects of abiotic stresses on Mediterranean-like climate viticulture and the impacts of summer stress on grapevine growth, yield, and quality potential, as well as the subsequent plant responses and the available adaptation strategies for winegrowers and researchers. Our main findings are as follows: (1) environmental stresses can trigger dynamic responses in grapevines, comprising photosynthesis, phenology, hormonal balance, berry composition, and the antioxidant machinery; (2) field research methodologies, laboratory techniques, and precision viticulture are essential tools to evaluate grapevine performance and the potential quality for wine production; and (3) advances in the existing adaptation strategies are vital to maintain sustainability and regional wine identity in a changing climate. Also, these topics suggest that rational and focused management of grapevines may enlighten grapevine summer stress responses and improve the resilience of agro-ecosystems under harsh conditions. Despite the challenge of developing different strategic responses, winegrowers should clearly define their objectives, so applied research can provide rational technical support for the decision making process towards sustainable viticulture.
      PubDate: 2018-11-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0544-0
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
  • Growing degree days and cover crop type explain weed biomass in winter
           cover crops
    • Authors: Barbara Baraibar; David A. Mortensen; Mitchell C. Hunter; Mary E. Barbercheck; Jason P. Kaye; Denise M. Finney; William S. Curran; Jess Bunchek; Charles M. White
      Abstract: Cover crops are increasingly being adopted to provide multiple ecosystem services, including weed suppression. Understanding what drives weed biomass in cover crops can help growers make the appropriate management decisions to effectively limit weed pressure. In this paper, we use a unique dataset of 1764 measurements from seven cover crop research experiments in Pennsylvania (USA) to predict, for the first time, weed biomass in winter cover crops in the fall and spring. We assessed the following predictors: cover crop biomass in the fall and spring, fall and spring growing degree days between planting and cover crop termination, cover crop type (grass, brassica, legume monocultures, and mixtures), system management (organic, conventional), and tillage before cover crop seeding (no-till, tillage). We used random forests to develop the predictive models and identify the most important variables explaining weed biomass in cover crops. Growing degree days, cover crop type, and cover crop biomass were the most important predictor variables in both the fall (r2 = 0.65) and spring (r2 = 0.47). In the fall, weed biomass increased as accumulated growing degree days increased, which was mainly related to early planting dates. Fall weed biomass was greater in legume and brassica monocultures compared to grass monocultures and mixtures. Cover crop and weed biomass were positively correlated in the fall, as early planting of cover crops led to high cover crop biomass but also to high weed biomass. In contrast, high spring cover crop biomass suppressed weeds, especially as spring growing degree days increased. Grass and brassica monocultures and mixtures were more weed-suppressive than legumes. This study is the first to be able to predict weed biomass in winter cover crops using a random forest approach. Results show that weed suppression by winter cover crops can be enhanced with optimal cover crop species selection and seeding time.
      PubDate: 2018-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0543-1
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
  • Quantifying the potential of ‘on-farm’ seed priming to increase crop
           performance in developing countries. A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Javier Carrillo-Reche; Mario Vallejo-Marín; Richard S. Quilliam
      Abstract: Low-input agriculture in marginal areas of developing countries faces considerable challenges during crop development. A key stage in crop growth is seed germination, which is often constrained by abiotic factors such as low water potential, high temperatures and soil crusting, which can result in poor establishment. This is exacerbated by low soil fertility, salinity, drought, pests and diseases, which ultimately leads to reduced yields. Over the last 20 years, the potential of ‘on-farm’ seed priming, a traditional, low-cost technique, consisting of soaking seeds in water prior to sowing, has been applied to different crops and conditions with varying degrees of success. To understand the significance of this potentially transformative agronomic strategy, we have conducted a global meta-analysis of on-farm seed priming by quantifying (i) the rate of emergence, (ii) final emergence and (iii) total yield from 44 published papers on 17 crops across 10 countries. Our results show that on-farm seed priming has a significantly positive effect on crop performance: seeds emerge 22% faster, with an increased final emergence of 11%, with total yields 21% higher than conventionally sown seeds. Furthermore, sub-group analyses demonstrated that on-farm seed priming is more advantageous under stressful abiotic conditions with case studies categorized as being either ‘nutrient deficient’, ‘salinity-stressed’ or ‘dry climates’ gaining the highest yield improvements (22–28%). On-farm seed priming can be particularly beneficial to resource-poor farmers working in low-input agricultural systems where yield potential is limited by intrinsically stressed agronomic environments. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that on-farm seed priming is perfectly adapted to local situations in developing countries. Our results provide the evidence that on-farm seed priming could be effectively adopted by resource-poor farmers as a strategy to increase food security in some of the most marginal agricultural areas.
      PubDate: 2018-11-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0536-0
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
  • Grain legume yields are as stable as other spring crops in long-term
           experiments across northern Europe
    • Authors: Moritz Reckling; Thomas F. Döring; Göran Bergkvist; Frederick L. Stoddard; Christine A. Watson; Sylvia Seddig; Frank-M. Chmielewski; Johann Bachinger
      Abstract: Grain legumes produce high-quality protein for food and feed, and potentially contribute to sustainable cropping systems, but they are grown on only 1.5% of European arable land. Low temporal yield stability is one of the reasons held responsible for the low proportion of grain legumes, without sufficient quantitative evidence. The objective of this study was to compare the yield stability of grain legumes with other crop species in a northern European context and accounting for the effects of scale in the analysis and the data. To avoid aggregation biases in the yield data, we used data from long-term field experiments. The experiments included grain legumes (lupin, field pea, and faba bean), other broad-leaved crops, spring, and winter cereals. Experiments were conducted in the UK, Sweden, and Germany. To compare yield stability between grain legumes and other crops, we used a scale-adjusted yield stability indicator that accounts for the yield differences between crops following Taylor’s Power Law. Here, we show that temporal yield instability of grain legumes (30%) was higher than that of autumn-sown cereals (19%), but lower than that of other spring-sown broad-leaved crops (35%), and only slightly greater than spring-sown cereals (27%). With the scale-adjusted yield stability indicator, we estimated 21% higher yield stability for grain legumes compared to a standard stability measure. These novel findings demonstrate that grain legume yields are as reliable as those of other spring-sown crops in major production systems of northern Europe, which could influence the current negative perception on grain legume cultivation. Initiatives are still needed to improve the crops agronomy to provide higher and more stable yields in future.
      PubDate: 2018-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0541-3
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
  • Perception by farmers of the determinants of irrigated rice yield in Mali
    • Authors: Bandiougou Diawara; Mohamed Dicko; Yacouba Coulibaly; Mamadou Kabirou N’Diaye; Jean-Yves Jamin; Jean-Christophe Poussin
      Abstract: Recommendations for crop management are based on agronomic diagnoses of yield determinants at plot scale usually without the farmers being involved in the evaluation process. Farmers may consequently not apply the recommendations that do not account for their own perception of yield determination. We assumed that (i) farmers have their own perceptions of yield determination; (ii) it is possible to access these perceptions through individual discussions with farmers; (iii) subsequent group discussions allow knowledge to be exchanged between farmers and a common viewpoint to be reached; (iv) agronomists can use this common viewpoint as a basis for building improved solutions in collaboration with the farmers. In this study, we used participatory methods to identify and discuss the visual references the farmers consider the crop growth as indicators to forecast the yield of their plot and the drivers they think affect these indicators. The study was conducted in two sites in the Office du Niger irrigated rice scheme in Mali and comprised three steps: (i) individual discussions with rice producers about their perception of how yield is determined, (ii) group discussions to share their individual perceptions and reach a common viewpoint, (iii) analysis of these perceptions. Seven production indicators and 29 factors that may affect these indicators were identified. The three mains indicators used by farmers were tiller abundance, hill density, and grain weight per panicle. Crop practices and constraints may prevent farmers from achieving high yields, such as a delay in the supply of fertilizers or in crop establishment. They had a complex perception of yield determination that was often close to agronomic knowledge. Here we demonstrate for the first time that farmers in the Office du Niger scheme have technical knowledge to which extension services could refer to provide relevant advice and tools for managing their constraints and improving yield.
      PubDate: 2018-10-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0542-2
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
  • Gobi agriculture: an innovative farming system that increases energy and
           water use efficiencies. A review
    • Authors: Jianming Xie; Jihua Yu; Baihong Chen; Zhi Feng; Jian Lyu; Linli Hu; Yantai Gan; Kadambot H. M. Siddique
      Abstract: In populated regions/countries with fast economic development, such as Africa, China, and India, arable land is rapidly shrinking due to urban construction and other industrial uses for the land. This creates unprecedented challenges to produce enough food to satisfy the increased food demands. Can the millions of desert-like, non-arable hectares be developed for food production' Can the abundantly available solar energy be used for crop production in controlled environments, such as solar-based greenhouses' Here, we review an innovative cultivation system, namely “Gobi agriculture.” We find that the innovative Gobi agriculture system has six unique characteristics: (i) it uses desert-like land resources with solar energy as the only energy source to produce fresh fruit and vegetables year-round, unlike conventional greenhouse production where the energy need is satisfied via burning fossil fuels or electrical consumption; (ii) clusters of individual cultivation units are made using locally available materials such as clay soil for the north walls of the facilities; (iii) land productivity (fresh produce per unit land per year) is 10–27 times higher and crop water use efficiency 20–35 times greater than traditional open-field, irrigated cultivation systems; (iv) crop nutrients are provided mainly via locally-made organic substrates, which reduce synthetic inorganic fertilizer use in crop production; (v) products have a lower environmental footprint than open-field cultivation due to solar energy as the only energy source and high crop yields per unit of input; and (vi) it creates rural employment, which improves the stability of rural communities. While this system has been described as a “Gobi-land miracle” for socioeconomic development, many challenges need to be addressed, such as water constraints, product safety, and ecological implications. We suggest that relevant policies are developed to ensure that the system boosts food production and enhances rural socioeconomics while protecting the fragile ecological environment.
      PubDate: 2018-10-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0540-4
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
  • Integrated assessment of four strategies for solving water imbalance in an
           agricultural landscape
    • Authors: Sandrine Allain; Gregory Obiang Ndong; Romain Lardy; Delphine Leenhardt
      Abstract: Water imbalances are an environmental, social, and economic problem in many agricultural watersheds, including those in temperate climates. Structural changes are recommended because crisis management, through water restrictions, is not sustainable. However, the content of these changes is debated, especially because their impacts concern different sectors and stakeholders and are uncertain. MAELIA is an integrated assessment and modeling platform, which combines a multi-agent model with a geographic information system; it represents fine-scale interactions among water, water management, and agricultural systems, accounting for daily irrigation decisions on each field and effects of the corresponding water withdrawals on water flows. In this article, for the first time, we investigated the effectiveness of some of the most popular strategies aimed at solving water imbalances considering environmental, water management, and agricultural indicators calculated with MAELIA. The alternatives we assessed were (i) reducing the irrigated area, (ii) assisting irrigation with decision-support tools, (iii) implementing crop rotations, and (iv) merging water storage into large reservoirs. Simulations were run for the 2001–2013 period on a case-study area, the downstream Aveyron watershed. We show that, in this area, the decision-support tool and crop-rotation alternatives drastically decreased irrigation withdrawals and required fewer restrictions and flow-support releases. However, those two alternatives had different impacts on the environment and farming systems: decision-support tools cost almost nothing for farming systems and improved environmental indicators slightly, while crop rotations had greater potential for long-term environmental preservation but degraded local and farm economies in the current context. The uniqueness of this study comes from using a fine-scale mechanistic model to assess, in an integrated way, the impacts of politically debated water management strategies that were previously only assessed in terms of potential withdrawal reduction.
      PubDate: 2018-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0529-z
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
  • Analyzing work organization on livestock farm by the Work Assessment
    • Authors: Sylvie Cournut; Sophie Chauvat; Pastora Correa; Joel Carneiro Dos Santos Filho; Francisco Diéguez; Nathalie Hostiou; Duy Khanh Pham; Gérard Servière; Mohammed Taher Sraïri; Amélie Turlot; Benoît Dedieu
      Abstract: All over the world, farmers have to face up to increasing uncertainties (market and climate). They have to adapt their activity to the new contexts and challenges of livestock farming (producing more and better, and satisfying the expectations of society, consumers, and of downstream operators), while at the same time responding to their own expectations in terms of income, quality of life, and working conditions. In order to understand these changes and consider the future, work organization must be taken into account. The Work Assessment Method, developed by French livestock researchers, provides a framework able to capture work organization, taking into account the specifics of the livestock activity. Based on a comparative analysis of nine case studies that used the Work Assessment Method from six contrasted countries, this review (1) gives generic ideas on work organization indicators and their variation; (2) identifies four generic patterns of work organization which are not linked to the local context but marked by the workforce composition; (3) demonstrates that the relevance of the Work Assessment Method to tackle work issues, and its capacities to be adapted to a variety of livestock farming contexts throughout the world, is linked to the properties of its framework, which was developed by combining different disciplinary approaches; (4) highlights the principal limits of the method: lack of coordination with other dimensions of work (labor productivity; sense of the job), and limited characterization of the work organization flexibility; and (5) proposes some possibilities of change to better respond to the diversity of work situations and questions about work, and take better into account the evolutions of livestock farming systems.
      PubDate: 2018-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0534-2
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
  • Designing a future food vision for the Nordics through a participatory
           modeling approach
    • Authors: Johan O. Karlsson; Georg Carlsson; Mikaela Lindberg; Tove Sjunnestrand; Elin Röös
      Abstract: The development of future food systems will depend on normative decisions taken at different levels by policymakers and stakeholders. Scenario modeling is an adequate tool for assessing the implications of such decisions, but for an enlightened debate, it is important to make explicit and transparent how such value-based decisions affect modeling results. In a participatory approach working with five NGOs, we developed a future food vision for the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) through an iterative process of defining the scenario, modeling, and revising the scenario, until a final future food vision was reached. The impacts on food production, land use, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the resulting diets in the food vision, were modeled using a mass flow model of the food system. The food vision formulated was an organic farming system where food is produced locally and livestock production is limited to “leftover streams,” i.e., by-products from food production and forage from pastures and perennial grass/clover mixtures, thus limiting food-feed competition. Consumption of meat, especially non-ruminant meat, was substantially reduced compared with current consumption in the Nordic countries (− 81%). An estimated population of 37 million people could be supplied with the scenario diet, which uses 0.21 ha of arable land and causes greenhouse gas emissions of 0.48 tCO2e per diet and year. The novelty of this paper includes advancing modeling of sustainable food systems by using an iterative process for designing future food visions based on stakeholder values, which enables results from multidisciplinary modeling (including agronomy, environmental system analysis, animal and human nutrition) to be fed back into the decision-making process, providing an empirical basis for normative decisions and a science-based future vision of sustainable food systems.
      PubDate: 2018-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0528-0
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
  • Enhancing agroecosystem productivity with woody perennials in semi-arid
           West Africa. A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Georges F. Félix; Johannes M. S. Scholberg; Cathy Clermont-Dauphin; Laurent Cournac; Pablo Tittonell
      Abstract: Soil degradation in semi-arid West Africa can be reversed through an intensified application of organic matter, especially on coarse soils. Woody perennials have been promoted in the region to secure organic matter sources and improve soil productive capacity, yet the mechanisms by which perennials provide benefits to soils and crops remain poorly understood, and no effective, generalizable agronomic recommendations exist. Here, we reviewed the effects of trees and shrubs on soil properties and on crop yields in semi-arid West Africa (< 1000 mm year−1). Specific objectives of this meta-analysis were to (i) describe and (ii) quantify the effects of the presence of woody perennials and of ramial wood amendments on crop productivity and soil characteristics, and (iii) identify general recommendations on the integration of perennials with crops. An iterative keyword search was conducted to gather relevant literature. The search string consisted of four parts: source, practice, responses, and countries of interest. In total, 26 references on agroforestry parklands and 21 on woody amendments were included in the meta-database (314 entries, 155 for parklands, and 159 for ramial wood). We show that (1) the presence of shrubs and trees on agricultural fields had an overall positive but variable effect on soil total C (i.e. + 20 to 75%); (2) millet and sorghum yields were often higher in the presence of shrubs (− 25 to + 120%); (3) more variability was observed in the presence of trees (− 100 to + 200%); and (4) the use of shrub- and tree-based ramial wood resulted in equal or higher cereal yields as compared to the control (− 30 to + 100%). Upscaling the use of biodiversity-driven processes in farming systems of West Africa may provide benefits to overall ecosystems, but species’ choice and trade-offs perceived at the farm level, including labour management and low ramial wood availability, should be addressed through future research.
      PubDate: 2018-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0533-3
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
  • Intercrops improve the drought resistance of young rubber trees
    • Authors: Cathy Clermont-Dauphin; Chaiyanam Dissataporn; Nopmanee Suvannang; Pirach Pongwichian; Jean-luc Maeght; Claude Hammecker; Christophe Jourdan
      Abstract: The expansion of rubber cultivation into drought prone areas calls for innovative management to increase the drought resistance of the trees. The competition for water exerted by an intercrop in the upper soil layers will likely stimulate the growth of young rubber tree roots into deeper soil layers where water availability is more stable. This study examined the effects of a legume (Pueraria phaseoloides) and a grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) intercrop, on the fine root traits of young rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) established along a toposequence covering a range of soil depths in northeast Thailand. Two plots with and without the intercrops were set up in a 3-year-old rubber plantation. Tree girth, mortality rate, nutrient content in the leaves, predawn leaf water potential, and soil water content profiles were monitored over four successive years. Fine root length density, specific root length, fine root biomass, and fine root diameter of the rubber trees were measured in the fourth year. In shallow soils, the trees with the legume intercrop had a higher growth rate, a higher leaf nutrient content, and a higher fine root length density in the deepest soil layers than the controls, supporting the hypothesis of an adaptive root response, increasing drought resistance. However, the trees with the grass intercrop did not show this effect. In deep soils, specific root length was highest without the intercrops, and the soil water profile and predawn leaf water potential suggested that trees with intercrops benefited from increased water extraction below 110 cm depth. We showed, for the first time, that rubber tree root traits can be manipulated through intercropping to improve drought resistance. However, our results suggest intercropping might not reduce risks of tree mortality caused by drought in the shallowest soils of the subhumid area of northeast Thailand.
      PubDate: 2018-10-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0537-z
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
  • The within-field and between-field dispersal of weedy rice by combine
    • Authors: Pinglei Gao; Zheng Zhang; Guojun Sun; Haiyan Yu; Sheng Qiang
      Abstract: Weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) severely decreases the grain yield and profitability of rice is one of the most significant problems in the majority of rice fields worldwide. Few reports focus on the dispersal of weedy rice, especially how it rapidly spreads to large areas and long distances. Here, we quantify for the first time the within- and between-field dispersal of weedy rice associated with combine harvesting operations. We randomly sampled 31 combine harvesters to determine where and how much weedy rice seeds remained on the machines at three locations in Jiangsu Province, China. Based on the sampling results, the field area over which weedy rice seeds were retained on the combine harvester during harvesting was estimated to assess the within-field dispersibility of weedy rice seeds remaining in the harvesters. A tracking experiment was also carried out by tracing the distribution of weedy rice seeds along harvest trails, to estimate the dispersal of weedy rice seeds within the field being harvested. Weedy rice seeds remained in the harvest pocket, on the pedrail, and the metal plate of the combine harvester. On average, more than 5000 weedy rice seeds which were 22.80% of remaining grains could potentially be transported into adjacent fields by the combine after each rice field infested with weedy rice had been harvested. Of the statistical models compared, a double exponential model simulating the variation in seed retention predicted that weedy rice seeds remaining on the metal plate could be dispersed over 6473.91 m2 or 3236.96 m into the next field during the harvesting operation. Within the field, the number of fallen weedy rice seeds and their dispersal distance were positively correlated to weedy rice panicle density with the combine dispersing most of seeds away from their mother plant thus creating new weed patches. Therefore, fields that were severely infested with weedy rice should be harvested cautiously and separately and seed remaining in a harvester should be avoided to prevent intra- and inter-field, and even cross-regional dispersal of weedy rice.
      PubDate: 2018-10-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0518-2
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 6 (2018)
  • Socio-technical lock-in hinders crop diversification in France
    • Authors: Jean-Marc Meynard; François Charrier; M’hand Fares; Marianne Le Bail; Marie-Benoît Magrini; Aude Charlier; Antoine Messéan
      Abstract: Crop diversification is considered as a major lever to increase the sustainability of arable farming systems, allowing reduced inputs (irrigation water, pesticides, fertilizers), increasing the heterogeneity of habitat mosaics, or reducing yield gap associated with too frequent returns of the same species. To free up paths of collective action, this article highlights obstacles to crop diversification, existing at various levels of the value chains. We used a threefold approach: (i) a cross-cutting analysis of impediments to the development of 11 diversifying crops (5 species of grain legumes, alfalfa, flax, hemp, linseed, mustard, sorghum), based on published documents and on 30 interviews of stakeholders in French value chains; (ii) a detailed study (55 semi-structured surveys, including 39 farmers) of three value chains: pea and linseed for animal feed, hemp for insulation and biomaterials; and (iii) a bibliometric analysis of the technical journals and websites (180 articles) to characterize the nature of information diffused to farmers. We highlight that the development of minor crops is hindered by a socio-technical lock-in in favor of the dominant species (wheat, rapeseed, maize, etc.). We show for the first time that this lock-in is characterized by strongly interconnected impediments, occurring at every link of the value chains, such as lack of availability of improved varieties and methods of plant protection, scarcity of quantified references on crop successions, complexity of the knowledge to be acquired by farmers, logistical constraints to harvest collection, and difficulties of coordination within the emerging value chains. On the basis of this lock-in analysis, that could concern other European countries, the article proposes levers aimed at encouraging actors to incorporate a greater diversity of crops into their productive systems: adaptation of standards and labelling, better coordination between stakeholders to fairly share added value within value chains, and combination of genetic, agronomic, technological, and organizational innovations.
      PubDate: 2018-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0535-1
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2018)
  • Social network to inform and prevent the spread of cocoa swollen shoot
           virus disease in Ghana
    • Authors: Christian Andres; Raphael Hoerler; Robert Home; Jonas Joerin; Henry K. Dzahini-Obiatey; George A. Ameyaw; Owusu Domfeh; Wilma J. Blaser; Andreas Gattinger; Samuel K. Offei; Johan Six
      Abstract: The cocoa swollen shoot virus disease is a major factor limiting cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) productivity for West African farmers. The only treatment against this disease is to cut infected trees and replant with disease-free planting material. Research has recommended the prevention measures: (i) cordon sanitaire (leaving 10-m-wide cocoa-free zone around cocoa), (ii) barrier cropping, (iii) using partly tolerant hybrids, and (iv) removing specific alternative host tree species. Here, we evaluate the current adoption of these measures and identify their adoption constraints. We conducted a quantitative survey with 396 farmers in the Eastern and Western Regions of Ghana, held six focus group discussions and hosted a multi-stakeholder validation workshop with 31 key actors in the cocoa value chain. Our results indicate that the adoption of prevention measure against the disease remains limited. Farmers with a more extensive social network (number of family members/close friends who already adopted a particular measure), a larger farm size, more secure land tenure rights, and more knowledge about the measures were more likely to adopt them, especially barrier cropping, hybrid seedlings, and removing alternative host trees. Lack of knowledge about the measures was the single biggest barrier for their adoption, with 51% of the participating farmers not even being aware of any prevention measures. Here, we show for the first time that the social network is the main information source for farmers, which agrees with the finding that the flow of information between farmers and other stakeholders is a critical factor affecting knowledge spread and consequently adoption. Our results provide crucial insights for the elaboration of an implementation action plan to boost the dissemination of feasible prevention measures against the cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Ghana in order to efficiently cover farmers’ needs for information (technical advice) and inputs (access to hybrid seedlings).
      PubDate: 2018-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0538-y
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2018)
  • Agronomic efficiency of selected phosphorus fertilisers derived from
           secondary raw materials for European agriculture. A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Dries Huygens; Hans G. M. Saveyn
      Abstract: Phosphorus (P) is a macronutrient essential for all living organisms. Food production has become highly dependent on mineral P-fertilisers derived from phosphate rock, a non-renewable and finite resource. Based on supply risk and economic importance for the European Union, phosphate rock and elemental P have been identified as critical raw materials. Moreover, P dissipation can lead to adverse impacts on the aquatic environment. The production and use of P-fertilisers derived from secondary raw materials could possibly contribute to a more sustainable agriculture in line with a circular economy. Biogenic and industrial resources and waste streams can be converted into value added materials, such as precipitated phosphate salts, thermal oxidation materials and derivates, and pyrolysis and gasification materials. A condition is, however, that the P must be recovered in a plant-available form and that the recovered P-fertiliser supports plant growth and nutrient uptake in European agroecosystems. Here, we review the agronomic efficiency of selected P-fertilisers derived from secondary raw materials by comparing plant responses relative to those after mined and synthetic P-fertiliser application in settings relevant for European agriculture, using meta-analyses. The major points are the following: (1) precipitated phosphate salts show similar agronomic efficiency to mined and synthetic P-fertilisers, with results that are consistent and generalisable across soil and crop types relevant for European agriculture; (2) thermal oxidation materials and derivates can deliver an effective alternative for mined and synthetic P-fertilisers, but the relative agronomic efficiency is dependent on the feedstock applied, possible post-combustion manufacturing processes, and the length of the plant growing season; (3) the agronomic efficiency of pyrolysis and gasification materials remains indeterminate due to a lack of available data for European settings. It is concluded that the agronomic efficiency of selected P-fertilisers derived from secondary raw materials supports their use in conventional and organic European agricultural sectors.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0527-1
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2018)
  • Willingness to pay for smartphone apps facilitating sustainable crop
    • Authors: Vanessa Bonke; Wilm Fecke; Marius Michels; Oliver Musshoff
      Abstract: By providing additional information and simulating results, decision support tools are one of the methods to enhance a farmer’s decision-making process in order to achieve more sustainable practices. With the latest developments in smartphone technology, new possibilities to integrate decision support tools into the daily work process have been emerging and smartphone apps related to crop protection have been developed. However, little is known about the utilization of smartphones by farmers in general, and specifically with regard to crop protection. In order to gather first insights into the factors that could affect the decision of farmers to integrate smartphones and crop protection-related apps in particular, into their work process, we conducted an online survey with 174 technologically experienced German farmers in 2017. We gained insights about the current use of smartphones from the surveyed German farmers, explored which topics farmers perceive as useful in the form of an app for crop protection, and which factors influence the willingness to pay for these apps. Our results show that 93% of the respondents use smartphones for agricultural purposes. Weather forecasts, tools to identify pests, diseases and weeds, as well as related forecasts are perceived as useful by the majority of respondents. Eighty-two percent of the respondents are generally willing to pay for crop protection apps. Using a probit model, we found that the farmer’s age, farm size, knowledge about specific crop protection apps, potential for cost reduction, and potential to reduce negative environmental effects have an influence on the general willingness to pay. Overall, this is the first study to explore factors influencing the willingness to pay for crop protection apps and assess which types of apps are perceived as useful by technologically experienced German farmers.
      PubDate: 2018-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0532-4
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2018)
  • Diversity of experimentation by farmers engaged in agroecology
    • Authors: Maxime Catalogna; Muriel Dubois; Mireille Navarrete
      Abstract: Agroecology questions the production of generic knowledge. Rather than searching for the best practices for large-scale transfer, it would be more efficient to help farmers find their own solutions. A promising activity for farmers is experimentation because it answers their needs and helps them learn. However, how agroecological practices are tested by farmers in their own experiments is still poorly known. In this study, we examined the short-term experimental activity, i.e., experiments carried out at a yearly scale in pre-defined fields. Seventeen farmers in south eastern France were surveyed. The farmers practiced conventional or organic farming and cultivated either arable or market garden crops. Experiments on agroecological practices were characterized, located along a timeline, and discussed with them. To conduct the interviews with the farmers, each experiment was described in three stages: (1) designing the experiment, (2) managing it in real time, and (3) evaluating the results of the experiment. The data collected in the interviews were first analyzed to build a descriptive framework of farmers’ experiments, after which hierarchical cluster analysis was used to analyze the diversity of the farmers’ experiments. Here, we propose for the first time a generic framework to describe farmers’ experiments at a short time scale based on the consistency between the Design, Management, and Evaluation stages. We used the framework to characterize the diversity of farmers’ experiments and identified four clusters. The originality of this work is both building a descriptive framework resulting from in-depth analyses of farmers’ discourse and using statistical tools to identify and interpret the groups of experiments. Our results provide a better understanding of farmers’ experiments and suggest tools and methods to help them experiment, a major challenge in the promotion of a large-scale agroecological transition.
      PubDate: 2018-09-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0526-2
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2018)
  • Drought and temperature limit tropical and temperate maize hybrids
           differently in a subtropical region
    • Authors: Lucia Casali; Gerardo Rubio; Juan M. Herrera
      Abstract: Although the semiarid and subhumid Chaco regions in northern Argentina have been traditionally considered marginal and unsuitable for cultivating grain maize for human and livestock nutrition, this crop is increasingly being adopted by local farmers. The low maize yields observed in the area suggest that climatic constraints limit productivity, while changes in genotypes and management may be useful to mitigate the effect of these constraints. We analyzed data from 792 farm paddocks with multivariate mixed models to identify and quantify the main environmental and management constraints to maize’s yield. In addition, we used the crop model CERES-Maize to assess the potential of a temperate maize hybrid to overcome water constraints. Results from the mixed models identified the amount of rainfall during February as a primary determinant of maize yield and showed that tropical hybrids tended to withstand higher temperatures and heat stress better, while temperate hybrids performed better under conditions of water scarcity. CERES-Maize simulations suggested that temperate maize hybrids have the potential to increase grain yields from 18 to 21 kg ha−1 (14.5% moisture content) for every millimeter of rain during February. This report is the first to identify alternative roles of temperate and tropical maize hybrids for counteracting climatic risks in the studied subtropical regions. These findings will provide plant breeders urgently needed information to breed better adapted maize genotypes for the semiarid and subhumid Chaco.
      PubDate: 2018-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0516-4
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2018)
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