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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2329 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Agronomy for Sustainable Development
  [SJR: 1.732]   [H-I: 59]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1774-0746 - ISSN (Online) 1773-0155
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Converting to organic viticulture increases cropping system structure and
           management complexity
    • Authors: Anne Merot; Jacques Wery
      Abstract: Organic viticulture is an effective cultivation method that can reduce the environmental impacts of grape growing while maintaining profitability. For some vineyards, simple adjustments can suffice to make the conversion to organic farming; however, for most, major changes in system structure and management must be implemented. Here, we showed for the first time that converting to organic viticulture impacts vineyard complexity. We used six complexity indicators to assess modifications to cropping system structure and management: number of fields, number of difficult-to-manage fields, vineyard area, number of field interventions, number of technical management sequences, and number of management indicators. These six indicators were assessed through interviews carried out with winegrowers from 16 vineyards between 2008 and 2012. Changes in vineyard performances during conversion were also measured. We demonstrate that conversion to organic viticulture increased the complexity of vineyard structure and management for the 16 vineyards surveyed. While this increase allowed agronomic performances in all vineyards to be maintained, it also came with an increase in labor requirements (of up to 56%) compared to conventional agriculture. We conclude that the six indicators are appropriate for assessing changes in vineyard complexity and could be extended to all agricultural systems to better anticipate the implications of organic farming conversion for a farm’s biophysical, technical, and decisional subsystems.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0427-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Stearic sunflower oil as a sustainable and healthy alternative to palm
           oil. A review
    • Authors: Sanyal Anushree; Merrien André; Decocq Guillaume; Fine Frédéric
      Abstract: Palm oil is widely used in the food industry because of its lower cost, high oxidative stability index, long shelf-life, and a reasonable replacement of trans fats. However, increased palm oil production reduces biodiversity, damages the ecosystem, and poses health risks to humans. Unsustainable development of palm plantations has caused deforestation and loss of natural habitat, rendering many species (Sumatran orangutans, elephants, and tigers) critically endangered. Similarly, decomposition and burning of carbon-rich soil in vast and deep peatlands is increasing carbon emissions. Furthermore, excessive consumption of palmitic acid (and other saturated fats except stearic acid) increases bad cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we need healthier, stable, and solid/semi-solid oils at room temperature with longer shelf-life and without trans fats. Here, we review the advancements in the development of sunflower oil varieties containing high stearic (∼18%) and high oleic (∼70%) acids which makes them healthy and sustainable alternatives to palm oil. First, the high-stearic-high-oleic sunflower crops can have grain and oil yield as high as 4036 and 1685 kg/ha and oleic and stearic acid yield up to ∼73 and ∼21%. Second, high-stearic-high-oleic oils obtained from mutant and hybrid sunflower cultivars have higher oxidative stability index and therefore have better stability, quality, and functionality than regular sunflower oil. For example, the oxidative stability index of commercially available Nutrisun at 110 °C is six times greater than that of regular sunflower oil. Finally, recent advances have made several mutant and hybrid cultivars with high grain and oil yield and high levels of stearic and oleic acids available. Given this progress, natural healthy high-stearic-high-oleic sunflower oil can now be grown in both the hemispheres in a sustainable manner with the currently available advanced technology and without damaging the ecosystem as is currently happening with palm oil cultivation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0426-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Long-term negative phosphorus budgets in organic crop rotations deplete
           plant-available phosphorus from soil
    • Authors: Magdalena Ohm; Hans Marten Paulsen; Jan Hendrik Moos; Bettina Eichler-Löbermann
      Abstract: In organic farming, phosphorus (P) can be imported in mineral form with rock phosphate, feedstuff for livestock or suitable organic fertilizers. Many organic farmers, however, rely on biological activation of soil P reserves and tolerate P deficits, not knowing when soil reserves will be depleted. We hypothesized that under conditions of a long-term negative P budget in organic farming, the decline in readily available soil P pools would be less pronounced in dairy systems (arable land and grassland) than in stockless systems (arable land), due to higher shares of forage legumes in crop rotations, longer plant soil coverage, and manure backflow. From 2001 to 2013, we analyzed those systems on one site in North Germany. We assessed topsoil for plant-available soil P concentration [P(CAL)], mineral soil P fractions (Hedley), organic P, acid and alkaline phosphatase, and microbial activity (dehydrogenase). We measured P(CAL) each year on all fields of the crop rotations and grassland. The other soil characteristics were determined only in selected fields in 2001, 2009, and 2013. We observed that in grassland, all mineral P fractions, organic P contents, and microbial activity were considerably higher than in arable fields. On average, soil P(CAL) content decreased significantly in all systems (stockless arable −1.71, dairy arable −1.41, grassland −3.18 mg P kg−1 year−1), but the soil threshold value deemed to be sufficient for P supply (>44 mg kg−1) was preserved. The readily available inorganic P fractions (H2O-P, NaHCO3-P) were also lower in 2013 than in 2001. Our data does not support a different development in either arable system. We could show that higher shares of forage legumes and manure recycling in an organic mixed arable dairy crop rotation and grassland do not necessarily mitigate decreases of plant-available P contents in soil as compared to a stockless system.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0425-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Precision farming for increased land and labour productivity in semi-arid
           West Africa. A review
    • Authors: Jens B. Aune; Adama Coulibaly; Ken E. Giller
      Abstract: Farmers in the semi-arid regions of West Africa face challenges related to poor crop establishment, variable rainfall, low soil fertility and a shortage of labour at times of peak demand. Farmers are generally low on resources. Given these conditions, it is important to develop farming practices that make efficient use of the available resources and reduce risks. Here, we review agricultural intensification in semi-arid West Africa using the principles of precision farming to assess the possibilities they offer. The basic idea is to create a favourable micro-environment in the planting pocket and to ensure timely sowing and weeding. In the context of precision farming in the semi-arid West Africa, this means (1) large seeds are selected, primed and treated with a mix of pesticides/fungicides. Seed priming increases yields in the order of 20 to 30%, while seed treatment increases yields by 15%. (2) Mineral fertilizers are applied; at doses as low as 0.3 g of fertilizer per pocket, they have been found to increase yields by half or more. (3) Seeds and fertilizers are distributed accurately by means of a combined planter-weeder, which can be motorized. (4) Mechanized sowing and weeding enable timely farm operations and reduce the workload. (5) Water loss is prevented by using zaï and stone bunds on soils with high run-off rates. (6) Care is taken to make use of farm resources in a targeted and efficient way. This can imply adjusting micro-doses of manure and fertilizer to crops (sorghum needs less than millet) and soil types, sequenced sowing of crops according to their vulnerability to delayed sowing and applying organic input to soils. This paper is the first to review agricultural intensification in semi-arid West Africa within the context of precision farming. It shows how a low-cost package for precision farming can be developed, which can help to increase land and labour productivity, and works with all the major field crops in the region.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0424-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Wild flower resources and insect honeydew are potential food items for
           Elasmus flabellatus
    • Authors: Maria Villa; Sónia A. P. Santos; António Mexia; Albino Bento; José Alberto Pereira
      Abstract: Adult parasitoids need non-host food such as nectar or honeydew for survival and reproduction. In a conservation biological control strategy, the knowledge about non-host feeding of parasitoid species is a key factor to successfully increase their action. The nutritional behavior of Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a major parasitoid of the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), is completely unknown. Survival experiments were performed on two secondary olive pest honeydews and eight common flowering plant species in order to analyze their suitability as potential food sources for E. flabellatus females. Abdomen and gut dissections were carried out to verify the pollen consumption and the egg production. Floral architecture and insect morphology were described. Cox’s proportional hazard regression models were used to analyze the differences between parasitoid survivals. Honeydews secreted by Saissetia oleae (Olivier) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) and Euphyllura olivina (Costa) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) resulted in the best performance followed by the flowers of Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae), Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae), and the Cichorioideae Tolpis barbata (L.) and Andryala integrifolia L. Theoretical flower resources accessibility were assessed and related with the survival results. E. flabellatus females did not consume pollen and did not produce eggs, suggesting that the species is synovigenic and requires additional foods for egg production. In sustainable pest control programs, this novel knowledge is a promising opportunity for improving suitable food resources of E. flabellatus in the field.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0423-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Increasing soil carbon storage: mechanisms, effects of agricultural
           practices and proxies. A review
    • Authors: Marie-France Dignac; Delphine Derrien; Pierre Barré; Sébastien Barot; Lauric Cécillon; Claire Chenu; Tiphaine Chevallier; Grégoire T Freschet; Patricia Garnier; Bertrand Guenet; Mickaël Hedde; Katja Klumpp; Gwenaëlle Lashermes; Pierre-Alain Maron; Naoise Nunan; Catherine Roumet; Isabelle Basile-Doelsch
      Abstract: The international 4 per 1000 initiative aims at supporting states and non-governmental stakeholders in their efforts towards a better management of soil carbon (C) stocks. These stocks depend on soil C inputs and outputs. They are the result of fine spatial scale interconnected mechanisms, which stabilise/destabilise organic matter-borne C. Since 2016, the CarboSMS consortium federates French researchers working on these mechanisms and their effects on C stocks in a local and global change setting (land use, agricultural practices, climatic and soil conditions, etc.). This article is a synthesis of this consortium’s first seminar. In the first part, we present recent advances in the understanding of soil C stabilisation mechanisms comprising biotic and abiotic processes, which occur concomitantly and interact. Soil organic C stocks are altered by biotic activities of plants (the main source of C through litter and root systems), microorganisms (fungi and bacteria) and ‘ecosystem engineers’ (earthworms, termites, ants). In the meantime, abiotic processes related to the soil-physical structure, porosity and mineral fraction also modify these stocks. In the second part, we show how agricultural practices affect soil C stocks. By acting on both biotic and abiotic mechanisms, land use and management practices (choice of plant species and density, plant residue exports, amendments, fertilisation, tillage, etc.) drive soil spatiotemporal organic inputs and organic matter sensitivity to mineralisation. Interaction between the different mechanisms and their effects on C stocks are revealed by meta-analyses and long-term field studies. The third part addresses upscaling issues. This is a cause for major concern since soil organic C stabilisation mechanisms are most often studied at fine spatial scales (mm–μm) under controlled conditions, while agricultural practices are implemented at the plot scale. We discuss some proxies and models describing specific mechanisms and their action in different soil and climatic contexts and show how they should be taken into account in large scale models, to improve change predictions in soil C stocks. Finally, this literature review highlights some future research prospects geared towards preserving or even increasing C stocks, our focus being put on the mechanisms, the effects of agricultural practices on them and C stock prediction models.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0421-2
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Ecosystem services in orchards. A review
    • Authors: Constance Demestihas; Daniel Plénet; Michel Génard; Christiane Raynal; Françoise Lescourret
      Abstract: Arboriculture must maintain acceptable fruit production levels while preserving natural resources. This duality can be analyzed with the concept of ecosystem service. We reviewed the literature on orchards to explain how ecological functions modified by agricultural practices provide six ecosystem services - fruit production, climate regulation, soil nitrogen availability, water regulation, pest and disease control, and pollination - and which indicators could describe them. The major points are, first, that orchards have a high potential of multiple services. They can sequester from 2.4 to 12.5 t C/ha/year. Their perennial character and multi-strata habitat, as well as the opportunity of creating diversified hedgerows and cover crops in alleys, may contribute to a high level of biodiversity and related services. Second, every service depends on many functions. Fruit yield, which could reach up to 140 t/ha in apple orchards, is increased by light interception, carbon allocation, and nitrogen and water uptake. Third, agricultural practices in orchards have a strong impact on ecosystem functions and, consequently, on ecosystem services. Overfertilization enhances nitrogen leaching, which reduces soil nitrogen availability for the plant and deteriorates the quality of drained water. Groundcover increases humification and reduces denitrification and runoff, thus enhancing soil nitrogen availability and water regulation. It also enhances biotic interactions responsible for pest control and pollination. Pruning may increase fruit quality trough a better carbon allocation but decreases pest control by fostering the dynamics of aphids. To study multiple ecosystem services in orchards, we suggest using models capable of simulating service profiles and their variation according to management scenarios. We then refer to the available literature to show that conflicts between provisioning and regulating services can be mitigated by agricultural practices. Improved knowledge of soil processes and carbon balance as well as new models that address multiple services are necessary to foster research on ecosystem service relationships in orchards.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0422-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Designing mixtures of varieties for multifunctional agriculture with the
           help of ecology. A review
    • Authors: Sébastien Barot; Vincent Allard; Amélie Cantarel; Jérôme Enjalbert; Arnaud Gauffreteau; Isabelle Goldringer; Jean-Christophe Lata; Xavier Le Roux; Audrey Niboyet; Emanuelle Porcher
      Abstract: The study of natural ecosystems and experiments using mixtures of plant species demonstrates that both species and genetic diversity generally promote ecosystem functioning. Therefore, mixing crop varieties is a promising alternative practice to transform modern high-input agriculture that is associated with a drastic reduction of within-field crop genetic diversity and is widely recognized as unsustainable. Here, we review the effects of mixtures of varieties on ecosystem functioning, and their underlying ecological mechanisms, as studied in ecology and agronomy, and outline how this knowledge can help designing more efficient mixtures. We recommend the development of two complementary strategies to optimize variety mixtures by fostering the ecological mechanisms leading to a positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and its stability through time, i.e., sampling and complementarity effects. (1) In the “trait-blind” approach, the design of high-performance mixtures is based on estimations of the mixing abilities of varieties. While this approach is operational because it does not require detailed trait knowledge, it relies on heavy experimental designs to evaluate mixing ability. (2) The trait-based approach is particularly efficient to design mixtures of varieties to provide particular baskets of services but requires building databases of traits for crop varieties and documenting the relations between traits and services. The performance of mixtures requires eventually to be evaluated in real economic, social, and agronomic contexts. We conclude that the need of a multifunctional low-input agriculture strongly increases the attractiveness of mixtures but that new breeding approaches are required to create varieties with higher mixing abilities, to foster complementarity and selection effects through an increase in the variance of relevant traits and to explore new combinations of trait values.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0418-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Organic waste recycling in agriculture and related effects on soil water
           retention and plant available water: a review
    • Authors: Marie Eden; Horst H. Gerke; Sabine Houot
      Abstract: The decrease of organic matter content in agricultural soils is a problem of great concern to farmers around the world. Indeed, it lowers soil fertility that directly impairs agricultural crop production and affects a number of other soil properties like water retention capacity, aggregation and structure formation, soil mechanical strength or compactibility. Scarcity in plant available water poses a risk to agriculture, especially in drought-prone areas. However, the increase of organic waste recycling in agriculture may also lead to an increase in soil organic matter contents and to changes in related soil properties. Here, we review 17 long-term field experiments (≥9 years) that investigated the effects of organic amendments on organic carbon and water availability in topsoils. We paid particular attention to the effects of added organic matter on soil bulk density or porosity and consequently on plant available water. Our main findings are that (1) plant available water generally improves after organic waste addition (relative changes from −10 to +30 vol%; p = 0.052), (2) organic matter quality affects changes in organic carbon (p < 0.05), (3) it is more suitable for plant available water quantification to use volumetric rather than gravimetric water contents, (4) the value of the matric potential defining field capacity is an issue, (5) pedotransfer functions developed for American soils adequately predicted most water contents at field capacity and wilting point, and (6) prevailing climate and initial organic carbon content may affect plant available water. This review confirms that organic amendments generally induce beneficial effects on plant available water and other soil properties. It also highlights the influence of organic matter quality on soil organic carbon. Compared with a previous review, this study reinforces reported trends of increasing plant available water with organic waste additions. This may be due to a more restrictive selection of recently published data and the use of volumetric water contents. Our findings are significant for sustainable agriculture regarding the sustainable use of organic wastes and water.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0419-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Integrated management of damping-off diseases. A review
    • Authors: Jay Ram Lamichhane; Carolyne Dürr; André A. Schwanck; Marie-Hélène Robin; Jean-Pierre Sarthou; Vincent Cellier; Antoine Messéan; Jean-Noël Aubertot
      Abstract: Damping-off is a disease that leads to the decay of germinating seeds and young seedlings, which represents for farmers one of the most important yield constraints both in nurseries and fields. As for other biotic stresses, conventional fungicides are widely used to manage this disease, with two major consequences. On the one hand, fungicide overuse threatens the human health and causes ecological concerns. On the other hand, this practice has led to the emergence of pesticide-resistant microorganisms in the environment. Thus, there are increasing concerns to develop sustainable and durable damping-off management strategies that are less reliant on conventional pesticides. Achieving such a goal requires a better knowledge of pathogen biology and disease epidemiology in order to facilitate the decision-making process. It also demands using all available non-chemical tools that can be adapted to regional and specific production situations. However, this still is not the case and major knowledge gaps must be filled. Here, we review up to 300 articles of the damping-off literature in order to highlight major knowledge gaps and identify future research priorities. The major findings are (i) damping-off is an emerging disease worldwide, which affects all agricultural and forestry crops, both in nurseries and fields; (ii) over a dozen of soil-borne fungi and fungus-like organisms are a cause of damping-off but only a few of them are frequently associated with the disease; (iii) damping-off may affect from 5 to 80% of the seedlings, thereby inducing heavy economic consequences for farmers; (iv) a lot of research efforts have been made in recent years to develop biocontrol solutions for damping-off and there are interesting future perspectives; and (v) damping-off management requires an integrated pest management (IPM) approach combining both preventive and curative tactics and strategies. Given the complex nature of damping-off and the numerous factors involved in its occurrence, we recommend further research on critical niches of complexity, such as seeds, seedbed, associated microbes and their interfaces, using novel and robust experimental and modeling approaches based on five research priorities described in this paper.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0417-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • A new mechanism based on landscape diversity for funding farmer subsidies
    • Authors: Alejandro J. Rescia; Javier Sanz-Cañada; Isabel Del Bosque-González
      Abstract: Agricultural intensification and farm abandonment in Europe have induced dramatic social, economic, and ecological issues. Sustainable management may solve these issues by providing a viable economic margin and preserving biodiversity. Specifically, we propose herein monetary compensation for farmers maintaining or restoring lands as non-agricultural areas. The mechanism for funding this compensation is based upon spatial analysis of two olive-grove landscapes. These exhibited different land-use patterns, a simple landscape and a complex one presenting a 50% higher diversity index and an 80% higher complexity index. We estimated olive-oil production and profitability. Results showed that the complex landscape contains three times more protected habitats. Neither landscape was economically viable, with the simple one showing values of 43% below the threshold, and the complex one 185%. The mechanism proposed to fund farmer subsidies was developed by means of the spatial and economic data estimated. This conservation payment system considers a non-linear relationship between the subsidies paid and the preserved area of agricultural use. The farmers of the simple landscape would receive a subsidy of 299, 394, and 464 €/ha for 10, 20, and 30% of preserved area, respectively. Inversely, the farmers of the complex landscape would be granted a reduction of 38 and 80 €/ha in their monetary incentives for the loss of 10 and 20%, respectively, of natural areas. Using this funding mechanism, conservation of biodiversity in agricultural areas would no longer constitute a factor limiting profitability, but would rather complement earnings.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0414-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Using the green purchase method to help farmers escape the poverty trap in
           semiarid China
    • Authors: Shixiong Cao; Xinyi Zheng; Li Chen; Hua Ma; Jiangzhou Xia
      Abstract: People who live in ecologically fragile environments face both poverty and environmental degradation, which reinforce each other and create a “poverty trap.” Traditional ecological restoration projects focus only on ecological measures, and thus ignore the livelihoods of local residents. Those projects therefore fail to solve the poverty trap. In addition, project subsidies to residents typically end when the projects end, thus forcing residents to return to their old way of life and reversing the gains from the projects. To break this cycle, we performed a study in China’s Yanan City, in Shaanxi Province, to promote a new “green purchase” method for implementing sustainable economic activities that bring residents ongoing earnings without harming the environment. This method involves the construction of terraced fields, establishment of fruit tree orchards, implementation of grazing restrictions, and ecological migration. We found that the method was ecologically effective, as it increased Yanan’s vegetation cover by 0.89% annually since 1999, which is twice the rate for Shaanxi Province.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0420-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Shifting from N-based to P-based manure management maintains soil test
           phosphorus dynamics in a long-term corn and alfalfa rotation
    • Authors: Amir Sadeghpour; Quirine M. Ketterings; Gregory S. Godwin; Karl J. Czymmek
      Abstract: Multiyear repeated dairy manure application based on nitrogen (N) needs of corn (Zea mays L.) increases soil test phosphorus (P) concentration and risk of P runoff over time. A P removal based application of manure adds less P but could impact yield. A corn field trial was implemented in New York in 2001 and rotated into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in 2006 to examine soil test P dynamics over a corn-alfalfa rotation (2001 to 2011). Treatments were annual spring applications of N-based versus P removal based compost (74 and 46 Mg ha−1, respectively), liquid dairy manure (196 and 68 m3 ha−1, respectively), and two control treatments (0 N and 112 kg ha−1 sidedress N). No manure or compost was applied during the alfalfa years. In the five corn years, Morgan-extractable soil test P concentrations increased 4- and 2-fold for N-based and P-based manure and 6- and 4-fold for N-based and P-based compost, respectively, consistent with greater P balances possibly combined with differences in P fractions in each source. Soil test P concentrations declined in the alfalfa years but reached initial concentration only in the P-based manure system. Our findings show, for the first time in dairy forage rotations, the long-term sustainability benefits of P-based manure management and emphasize the importance of rotation fertility management rather than single-year P management. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a shift from N- to P-based manure allocation in corn years is a good approach to maintaining soil test P concentrations over the rotation while for higher application rates, a greater number of years in alfalfa than corn might be needed to prevent soil test P from building over the rotation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0416-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Local treatments and vacuum sealing as novel control strategies for stored
           seed pests in the tropics
    • Authors: Brian Lawrence; Abram J. Bicksler; Kimberly Duncan
      Abstract: Prevention of pests while maintaining viable seed during storage is often challenging for smallholder farmers in the tropics and subtropics. Investment in costly technologies or storage equipment is often unavailable or economically unreasonable, and alternative methods of seed storage can play a role in ensuring regional and global food security. This research evaluates whether or not vacuum sealing and locally available seed storage treatments are effective techniques to control cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus). This research also assesses the effects of such techniques on the viability of stored Lablab (Lablab purpureus L.) seed in the humid tropics. Tested treatments included vegetable oil, pulverized bamboo charcoal, galangal powder, powdered detergent, a bleach solution, and carbaryl. Infested seed samples stored in northern Thailand under local treatment options and vacuum sealing were evaluated between May 2011 and May 2012 for bruchid presence, seed viability, and seed vigor. After 1 year of vacuum storage, seed viability was 77.6% compared with 66.5% under non-vacuum conditions. Over that period, vacuum storage successfully prevented bruchid population growth (4.9 compared with 123.3 insects per 50 seeds under non-vacuum conditions; F = 22.59, P < 0.001). By contrast, the oil treatment greatly reduced seed viability (1.3%), although it restrained bruchid population growth (3.5 compared to 97.0 insects per 50 seeds). Other local treatments (galangal powder, carbaryl, and bamboo charcoal) limited bruchid population growth (F = 8.37, P < 0.05) compared with the control, while maintaining seed viability. Seed germination duration was not affected by vacuum sealing and seed treatments but was rather influenced by changing environmental conditions throughout the trial. These seasonal changes also influenced overall insect lifecycle and seed metabolism. These results demonstrate that vacuum sealing and several locally available treatments provide novel, low-cost, appropriate seed storage options for local seed banks and smallholder farmers in the developing world, thus avoiding the use of locally rare or expensive chemicals, low temperature, or low moisture conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0415-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2017)
  • Composite micronutrient nanoparticles and salts decrease drought stress in
    • Authors: Christian O. Dimkpa; Prem S. Bindraban; Job Fugice; Sampson Agyin-Birikorang; Upendra Singh; Deborah Hellums
      Abstract: Drought decreases crop productivity, with economic consequences for farmers. For soybean, drought particularly affects the reproductive phase. There is therefore a need for strategies that minimize drought effects, such as agronomic fortification with micronutrients. Here, we evaluated the mitigation of drought stress in soybean using composite formulations of three micronutrient nanoparticles, ZnO, B2O3, and CuO, and their salts: ZnSO4·7H2O, H3BO3, and CuSO4·5H2O, in a greenhouse. The micronutrients were soil or foliar applied 3 weeks after seed germination. Drought was imposed at 50% field moisture capacity. We measured parameters related to growth, yield, and nutrient uptake dynamics during 19 weeks. Results show that drought decreased soybean shoot growth by 27% and grain yield by 54%. Application of salt formulations to soil was more effective than foliar application, in mitigating drought stress. For foliar application, the effects of nanoparticles and salts were similar. On average, the formulations reduced drought effects by increasing shoot growth by 33% and grain yield by 36%. On average, the formulations increased shoot N by 28%, K by 19%, Zn by 1080%, B by 74%, and Cu by 954%. Likewise, the formulations, on average, increased grain N by 35%, K by 32%, Zn by 68%, B by 56%, and Cu by 13%. In contrast, drought did not alter shoot P, but the formulations, on average, reduced shoot P by 33%. Whereas micronutrient salts are known to reduce drought effects in plants, our findings demonstrate for the first time a novel use of micronutrient nanoparticles to boost crop performance and N and P uptake under drought stress.
      PubDate: 2017-01-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0412-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2017)
  • Using cover crops to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A review
    • Authors: Jason P. Kaye; Miguel Quemada
      Abstract: Cover crops have long been touted for their ability to reduce erosion, fix atmospheric nitrogen, reduce nitrogen leaching, and improve soil health. In recent decades, there has been resurgence in cover crop adoption that is synchronous with a heightened awareness of climate change. Climate change mitigation and adaptation may be additional, important ecosystem services provided by cover crops, but they lie outside of the traditional list of cover cropping benefits. Here, we review the potential for cover crops to mitigate climate change by tallying all of the positive and negative impacts of cover crops on the net global warming potential of agricultural fields. Then, we use lessons learned from two contrasting regions to evaluate how cover crops affect adaptive management for precipitation and temperature change. Three key outcomes from this synthesis are (1) Cover crop effects on greenhouse gas fluxes typically mitigate warming by ~100 to 150 g CO2 e/m2/year, which is higher than mitigation from transitioning to no-till. The most important terms in the budget are soil carbon sequestration and reduced fertilizer use after legume cover crops. (2) The surface albedo change due to cover cropping, calculated for the first time here using case study sites in central Spain and Pennsylvania, USA, may mitigate 12 to 46 g CO2 e/m2/year over a 100-year time horizon. And (3) Cover crop management can also enable climate change adaptation at these case study sites, especially through reduced vulnerability to erosion from extreme rain events, increased soil water management options during droughts or periods of soil saturation, and retention of nitrogen mineralized due to warming. Overall, we found very few tradeoffs between cover cropping and climate change mitigation and adaptation, suggesting that ecosystem services that are traditionally expected from cover cropping can be promoted synergistically with services related to climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0410-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2017)
  • Higher rust resistance and similar yield of oat landraces versus cultivars
           under high temperature and drought
    • Authors: Javier Sánchez-Martín; Nicolas Rispail; Fernando Flores; Amero A. Emeran; Josefina C. Sillero; Diego Rubiales; Elena Prats
      Abstract: Oat crop is not particularly well adapted to hot and dry weather, as shown by a 3-fold yield reduction in Mediterranean compared to Northern regions. As a consequence, there is a need to identify more resilient oats adapted to current Mediterranean and future climate conditions. Here, we studied the performance of oat landraces under Mediterranean conditions, including the resistance to their most devastating disease, the crown rust. One hundred forty-one genetically characterized Spanish landraces were evaluated over two crop seasons at four contrasting locations in Spain and Egypt. Genotype-environment interactions were studied using heritability-adjusted genotype plus genotype-environment biplot analyses. The impact of climate variables on agronomic traits and the adaptation of particular landraces to environmental factors were inferred from non-metric multivariate scaling and canonical correspondence analyses. Results show an average oat landrace grain yield of 1500 kg/ha, which is similar to the mean yield of commercial varieties. Nonetheless, commercial varieties had 20% higher harvest index than landraces, which is explained by the higher biomass of landraces. Moreover, oat landraces showed high levels of rust resistance with mean values of the area under the disease curve of 2.58, which is approximately 25% lower than that of commercial varieties. Furthermore, several landraces carried a broad spectrum type of resistance which is expected to be more durable and efficient against different rust isolates.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0407-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2016)
  • Soil carbon and nitrogen losses following deforestation in Ethiopia
    • Authors: Tesfay Berihu; Gebreyohannes Girmay; Mulugeta Sebhatleab; Emiru Berhane; Amanuel Zenebe; Gilbert C. Sigua
      Abstract: Ethiopia faces high risk of soil carbon depletion for nearly half of its total land mass largely due to forest clearing and continuous cultivation. Conversion of natural ecosystems to cultivated agriculture resulted in losses of between 20 and 50% of the soil C stocks in the first meter of the soil depth. Dry Afromontane forests of northern Ethiopia have faced vast exploitation, and almost all these forests have been converted to agricultural lands affecting the functionality and stability of agroecosystem. Here, we studied the effect of land use-land cover changes on soil organic C, total N, and soil C sequestration. Specifically, (a) we characterized major soils of the Desa’a Dry Afromontane forest, northern Ethiopia, and (b) we analyzed the organic C and total N contents of soils with varying land use-land cover types of the Desa’a Dry Afromontane forest. Results show that soil organic C (1.9%) and total N (0.3%) were higher for the middle landscape position than that observed for the upper and lower landscape positions. Soil organic C that ranged from 1.2 in farmland to 2.3% in dense forest also varied with land use-land cover types. Concentration of soil organic C was different among dense forest (2.3%), open forest (1.7%), grazing land (1.6%), and farmland (1.2%). Due to the effect of land use-land cover types, soil total N varied from 0.2% in the farmland to 0.3% in the dense forest. The soil organic C and total nitrogen of the top and lower layer soils were 2.0 and 1.5 and 0.2 and 0.3%, respectively. The soil organic C sequestration for dense forest was significantly higher (48.5 t ha−1) than that of grassland, open forest, and farm land. The top soil sequestered higher soil organic C (44.9 t ha−1) than the lower soil layer. Thus, the top soil layers of dense forest at the middle landscape positions stored significant amount of soil organic carbon.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0408-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2016)
  • A new method to calculate soil loss tolerance for sustainable soil
           productivity in farmland
    • Authors: Xingwu Duan; Xiaoning Shi; Yanbo Li; Li Rong; Detai Fen
      Abstract: Soil loss tolerance (T) is a widely used concept for assessing potential risks of soil erosion and is a criterion for assessing the effectiveness of soil and water conservation projects. However, current approaches for calculating T values lack a strong scientific basis, and few practicable methods are available. Many questions remain regarding which parameters, such as planning periods and offset damages, should be included in calculating T values. Here, we developed a new method to calculate soil loss tolerance as a function of the soil productivity index (SPI) for farmland. To achieve sustainable soil productivity in farmland, erosion rates leading to SPI values lower than the lower boundary of soil productivity (SPI0) are not tolerable and must be controlled by soil conservation measures. We applied this method in the Red River Basin of China based on the investigation of typical soil profiles and crop yields. Our results show that the T values in the Red River Basin ranged from 0.91 to 10.24 t ha−1 a−1. The SPI0 and the lowest limit of soil loss tolerance (T1) were 0.4 and 0.91 t ha−1 a−1, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that, when determining T values in farmland, (1) the soil formation rate and offset damage should not be core items, (2) the “planning period” concept should be replaced by “sustainability”, (3) the management objective of T should be the sustainability of the soil resource, and (4) the T values of farmland should be determined according to soil productivity. We provide a reasonable and feasible method to determine T for farmland, which will help maintain the sustainability of soil productivity.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0409-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cacao agroforestry systems have higher return on labor compared to
           full-sun monocultures
    • Authors: Laura Armengot; Pietro Barbieri; Christian Andres; Joachim Milz; Monika Schneider
      Abstract: The global demand for cacao has recently increased. To meet this demand, the cultivated area has been expanded in tropical forest areas and production has intensified by replacing traditional agroforestry systems with monocultures. This has led to a loss of biodiversity in cacao-growing areas. More sustainable production systems such as agroforestry and organic managed systems are expected to yield less cacao, but by-crops and premium prices, respectively, might economically compensate for the lower yields. Here, we compared the productivity and the return on labor, that is the return per working day, of four different cacao production systems: agroforestry and monocultures under organic and conventional management. Cacao and by-crop yields, costs, revenues, and labor were registered during the first 5 years after establishment. Results show that cacao yields were, on average, 41% higher in monocultures, but the revenues derived from agroforestry by-crops economically overcompensated for this difference. Indeed, the return on labor across the years was roughly twice as high in the agroforestry systems compared to the monocultures. We found similar cacao yields and return on labor in conventional and organically managed agroforestry systems. However, in the monocultures, cacao yields were 48% lower under organic compared with conventional farming, but the return on labor was similar, mainly due to the higher costs associated to the conventional management. Overall, our findings show that cacao agroforestry systems have higher return on labor.
      PubDate: 2016-12-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13593-016-0406-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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