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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1201 - 1400 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
J. of Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 75)
J. of Clinical Monitoring and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 37)
J. of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 34)
J. of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.416, h-index: 31)
J. of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.188, h-index: 8)
J. of Coastal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.474, h-index: 25)
J. of Coatings Technology and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.425, h-index: 25)
J. of Combinatorial Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.093, h-index: 34)
J. of Communications Technology and Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 16)
J. of Community Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 14)
J. of Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.921, h-index: 44)
J. of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.087, h-index: 74)
J. of Comparative Physiology B : Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 59)
J. of Compassionate Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computational Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.291, h-index: 19)
J. of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 20)
J. of Computational Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 60)
J. of Computer and Systems Sciences Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, h-index: 13)
J. of Computer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 31)
J. of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 2)
J. of Computer-Aided Molecular Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.995, h-index: 78)
J. of Computers in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
J. of Computing in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 21)
J. of Consumer Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, h-index: 30)
J. of Contemporary Mathematical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
J. of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 6)
J. of Contemporary Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 23)
J. of Control Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 19)
J. of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 9)
J. of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Cross-Cultural Gerontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.631, h-index: 29)
J. of Cryptographic Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.989, h-index: 11)
J. of Cryptology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 55)
J. of Cultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 29)
J. of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.149, h-index: 8)
J. of Derivatives & Hedge Funds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.114, h-index: 5)
J. of Developmental and Physical Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 29)
J. of Digital Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.578, h-index: 35)
J. of Direct Data and Digital Marketing Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.154, h-index: 6)
J. of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 26)
J. of Dynamics and Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.418, h-index: 31)
J. of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.483, h-index: 16)
J. of Earth System Science     Open Access   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 32)
J. of East Asian Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.537, h-index: 20)
J. of Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 3)
J. of Ecology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Economic Growth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 3.273, h-index: 63)
J. of Economic Interaction and Coordination     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.263, h-index: 12)
J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 23)
J. of Economics and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 19)
J. of Educational Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 21)
J. of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, h-index: 45)
J. of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.577, h-index: 57)
J. of Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.609, h-index: 75)
J. of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.372, h-index: 27)
J. of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 9)
J. of Elementary Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
J. of Elliptic and Parabolic Equations     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 37)
J. of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 11)
J. of Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 5)
J. of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 9)
J. of Environmental Studies and Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
J. of Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.609, h-index: 25)
J. of Evolution Equations     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.826, h-index: 26)
J. of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.145, h-index: 11)
J. of Evolutionary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 52)
J. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 39)
J. of Experimental Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.445, h-index: 28)
J. of Failure Analysis and Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 15)
J. of Family and Economic Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 32)
J. of Family Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.639, h-index: 56)
J. of Financial Services Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 10)
J. of Financial Services Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 36)
J. of Fixed Point Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.644, h-index: 13)
J. of Fluorescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 56)
J. of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.307, h-index: 4)
J. of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 29)
J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.495, h-index: 27)
J. of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 14)
J. of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.18, h-index: 42)
J. of Friction and Wear     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.373, h-index: 7)
J. of Fusion Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 19)
J. of Gambling Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.171, h-index: 57)
J. of Gastroenterology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 88)
J. of Gastrointestinal Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 39)
J. of Gastrointestinal Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.64, h-index: 99)
J. of General Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.804, h-index: 134)
J. of General Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.554, h-index: 22)
J. of Genetic Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.902, h-index: 39)
J. of Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 28)
J. of Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.173, h-index: 56)
J. of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 23)
J. of Geographical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 39)
J. of Geometric Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.491, h-index: 27)
J. of Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 15)
J. of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 60)
J. of Global Policy and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
J. of Grid Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.414, h-index: 37)
J. of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 39)
J. of Hematopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 13)
J. of Heuristics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.308, h-index: 50)
J. of High Energy Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.052, h-index: 153)
J. of Homotopy and Related Structures     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, h-index: 2)
J. of Housing and the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.648, h-index: 28)
J. of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.344, h-index: 19)
J. of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 10)
J. of Immigrant and Minority Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.759, h-index: 37)
J. of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 46)
J. of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Indian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.127, h-index: 12)
J. of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.966, h-index: 80)
J. of Industry, Competition and Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, h-index: 15)
J. of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.673, h-index: 46)
J. of Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 55)
J. of Information Technology Teaching Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
J. of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.25, h-index: 36)
J. of Inherited Metabolic Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.389, h-index: 77)
J. of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 33)
J. of Insect Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 39)
J. of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent and Robotic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.691, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 54)
J. of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.93, h-index: 43)
J. of Intl. Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.208, h-index: 130)
J. of Intl. Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.549, h-index: 23)
J. of Intl. Migration and Integration / Revue de l integration et de la migration internationale     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 13)
J. of Intl. Relations and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.793, h-index: 22)
J. of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 27)
J. of Logic, Language and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
J. of Low Temperature Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 52)
J. of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 7)
J. of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.134, h-index: 37)
J. of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.252, h-index: 83)
J. of Management and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 33)
J. of Management Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 6)
J. of Marine Science and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 11)
J. of Marine Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, h-index: 19)
J. of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.228, h-index: 8)
J. of Market-Focused Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Marketing Analytics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Material Cycles and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.449, h-index: 22)
J. of Materials Engineering and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.544, h-index: 40)
J. of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.836, h-index: 123)
J. of Materials Science : Materials in Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.011, h-index: 71)
J. of Mathematical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 45)
J. of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.22, h-index: 22)
J. of Mathematical Imaging and Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.901, h-index: 53)
J. of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.414, h-index: 23)
J. of Mathematical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 23)
J. of Mathematics Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.062, h-index: 20)
J. of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Mechanical Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 26)
J. of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 18)
J. of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 18)
J. of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.717, h-index: 44)
J. of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.874, h-index: 28)
J. of Medical Ultrasonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
J. of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.738, h-index: 82)
J. of Micro-Bio Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.28, h-index: 3)
J. of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
J. of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.317, h-index: 16)
J. of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.952, h-index: 108)
J. of Molecular Histology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.755, h-index: 48)
J. of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.165, h-index: 113)
J. of Molecular Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 50)
J. of Molecular Neuroscience     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.988, h-index: 69)
J. of Mountain Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 15)
J. of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 55)
J. of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, h-index: 84)
J. of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.602, h-index: 28)
J. of Near-Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.689, h-index: 55)
J. of Network and Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.466, h-index: 26)
J. of Neural Transmission     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.034, h-index: 86)
J. of Neuro-Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 90)
J. of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.662, h-index: 45)
J. of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.429, h-index: 105)
J. of NeuroVirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 69)
J. of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.863, h-index: 27)
J. of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.887, h-index: 42)
J. of Nonverbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 47)
J. of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.024, h-index: 68)
J. of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.919, h-index: 60)
J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 6)
J. of Occupational Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.811, h-index: 51)
J. of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Ocean University of China (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.237, h-index: 11)
J. of Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.796, h-index: 52)
J. of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 11)
J. of Optical and Fiber Communications Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 8)
J. of Optimization Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 65)
J. of Ornithology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
J. of Orofacial Orthopedics / Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.574, h-index: 33)
J. of Orthopaedic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.708, h-index: 48)

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Journal Cover European Journal of Plastic Surgery
  [SJR: 0.203]   [H-I: 16]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1435-0130 - ISSN (Online) 0930-343X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Characterization of the foreign body response to common surgical
           biomaterials in a murine model
    • Authors: Mohamed Ibrahim; Jennifer Bond; Manuel A. Medina; Lei Chen; Carlos Quiles; George Kokosis; Latif Bashirov; Bruce Klitzman; Howard Levinson
      Pages: 383 - 392
      Abstract: Background Implanted biomaterials are subject to a significant reaction from the host, known as the foreign body response (FBR). We quantified the FBR to five materials following subcutaneous implantation in mice. Methods Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and silicone sheets are considered highly biocompatible biomaterials and were cut into 8-mm-diameter disks. Expanded PTFE (ePTFE) and polypropylene are also widely used biocompatible biomaterials and were cut into 2 cm-long cylinders. Cotton was selected as a negative control material that would invoke an intense FBR, was cut into disks, and implanted. The implants were inserted subcutaneously into female C57BL/6 mice. On post-implantation days 14, 30, 60, 90, and 180, implants were retrieved. Cellularity was assessed with DAPI stain, collagen with Masson’s trichrome stain, mast cells with toluidine blue, macrophages with F4/80 immunohistochemical stain, and capsular thickness and foreign body giant cells with hematoxylin and eosin. Results DAPI revealed a significantly increased cellularity in both PVA and silicone, and ePTFE had the lowest cell density. Silicone showed the lowest cellularity at day 14 and day 90, whereas ePTFE showed the lowest cellularity at days 30, 60, and 180. Masson’s trichrome staining demonstrated no apparent difference in collagen. Toluidine blue showed no differences in mast cells. There were, however, fewer macrophages associated with ePTFE. On day 14, PVA had highest number of macrophages, whereas polypropylene had the highest number at all time points after d14. Giant cells increased earlier and gradually decreased later. On day 90, PVA exhibited a significantly increased number of giant cells compared to polypropylene and silicone. Silicone consistently formed the thinnest capsule throughout all time points. On day 14, cotton had formed the thickest capsule. On day 30, polypropylene gas formed the thickest capsule, and on days 60, 90, and 180, PVA had formed the thickest capsule. Conclusions These data reveal differences in capsule thickness and cellular response in an implant-related manor, indicating that fibrotic reactions to biomaterials are implant-specific and should be carefully considered when performing studies on fibrosis when biomaterials are being used. Level of Evidence: Not ratable
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1308-9
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of transverse upper labial crease
    • Authors: Gertrude M. Beer; Mirjana Manestar
      Pages: 401 - 406
      Abstract: Background The presence or hyperactivity of the depressor septi nasi muscle has been proposed to cause a visible crease in the upper labial region that is esthetically disturbing to patients. The objective of this paper was to determine how often an upper labial crease is evident in women and to find a straightforward treatment. Muscular creases can be ameliorated with botulinum toxin. However, weakening the depressor septi nasi muscles with botulinum toxin did not eradicate existing upper labial creases at rest or during facial animation. Therefore, we proposed that a complex interplay exists between the upper labial muscles, and we sought to determine which of these muscles are responsible for the existence of the upper labial crease. Methods A total of 100 consecutive female volunteers who visited a plastic surgery clinic were prospectively examined. The presence and localization of the upper labial crease were assessed at rest and during animation prompted with the “smile test” and during snuffling. Additionally, the appearance and symmetry of the upper labial crease were assessed and correlated with the type of smile to identify the dominant muscles involved. Results In total, 38% of women older than 40 years presented with an upper labial crease at rest, and 70% presented with a crease during animation. Only one third of the women were aware that they had such a crease when they smiled. When the crease was present, it was bilateral in 98% of the women. When it was asymmetrical, which was the case for 10% of women, the fold was longer, shorter, or less visible on one half of the upper lip. The localization was highly variable and ranged from the base of the columella to the caudal third of the upper lip. When an upper labial crease was present at rest and/or during facial animation, it was associated with a type B smile, i.e., the “canine” smile, due a dominant levator labii superioris muscle. Conclusions This study showed that upper labial creases are present more often than women are aware of them. The injection of botulinum toxin into the levator labii superioris muscles can eradicate an upper labial crease. Level of Evidence: Level IV, risk / prognostic study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1293-z
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • A new treatment for reliable functional and esthetic outcome after local
           facial flap reconstruction: a transparent polycarbonate facial mask with
           silicone sheeting
    • Authors: Sander B. Kant; Patrick I. Ferdinandus; Eric Van den Kerckhove; Carlo Colla; René R. W. J. Van der Hulst; Andrzej A. Piatkowski de Grzymala; Stefania M. H. Tuinder
      Pages: 407 - 416
      Abstract: Background Facial flap surgery predominantly leads to good functional results. However, in some cases, it can cause unsatisfactory esthetic results. They include persistent erythema, pincushioning, and development of hypertrophic scars. Conservative, reliable treatment for facial flaps is lacking. Pressure and silicone therapy have proven to result in significant improvement in scar erythema, pliability, and thickness in postburn hypertrophic scars. By combining these therapies in a facial mask, the esthetic outcome of facial flaps could be improved. In this retrospective study, the efficacy of a unique transparent face mask containing silicone sheets on the esthetic outcome of postsurgical facial flaps is assessed. Methods Twenty-one patients were assigned to facial pressure mask therapy after they underwent facial flap surgery between July 2012 and September 2015. Patients were treated for a mean duration of 46 weeks. The effects of pressure mask therapy were examined by means of the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS). Results All POSAS components showed a reduction between start and end of therapy, while itchiness, pigmentation, pliability, thickness, and relief of the flap improved significantly (P < 0.05). Mean total and patient score showed significant reduction between start and end of therapy. Conclusions This study shows that a facial pressure mask layered with silicone results in noticeable flap improvement with a long-lasting result. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1306-y
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Alar cartilage—an alternative for spreader graft in primary
           rhinoplasty
    • Authors: Carlos Oscar Uebel; Renato Matta
      Pages: 417 - 426
      Abstract: Background Alar cartilage can be very useful for tip and dorsum grafts. Depending on its size and thickness, it can be an important alternative for spreader grafts to improve endonasal functional deficiencies, correct deviated noses, and prevent inverted “V” deformities. Caucasian patients with bulbous tips are the most common candidates to achieve such benefits. It is easy to obtain and to frame into a desired graft. Methods The authors describe a surgical technique using the alar cartilages as spreader grafts. All Caucasian patients with bulbous tips who underwent primary rhinoplasty were included. All patients have been evaluated after 3 to 4 months and after 1 and 2 years by aesthetical and functional criteria. Results Thirty-four patients (28 female and 6 male) underwent this procedure between 2001 and 2015: 94% reported a better airflow, 91% reported very good aesthetic results and were very satisfied 2 years postoperatively, and 12% had nasal deviations that were corrected with a one side double-layered spreader grafts. Two patients presented supra-tip deformities and one patient had a columella scar that was revised surgically. No cases of inverted “V” deformity were reported 2 years postoperatively. Conclusions Patients with functional satisfaction and with a straight and smooth dorsum seem to be the most important benefits that were achieved with this technique using alar cartilage spreader grafts, an alternative that can be offered to improve airflow and to prevent deviated and inverted “V” deformities. Level of Evidence: IV, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1336-5
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of discriminative sensibility recovery in patients with
           buccinator myomucosal flap oral cavity reconstructions
    • Authors: Luigi Angelo Vaira; Olindo Massarelli; Roberta Gobbi; Damiano Soma; Giovanni Dell’aversana Orabona; Pasquale Piombino; Giacomo De Riu
      Pages: 427 - 434
      Abstract: Background Sensitive restoration is the primary aim of oral reconstructive surgery. Discriminative sensibility is an important index of innervation density of a tissue. Instruments normally used to assess this type of skin sensibility are bulky and difficult to introduce in the oral cavity, even in healthy patients with a normal mouth opening. This study was intended to evaluate the recovery of static and dynamic two-point discrimination sensitivity of the reconstructed areas of the oral cavity. Methods Surgical staples, calibrated in predetermined width (from 1 to 30 mm) and introduced in the oral cavity with a Mayo needle holder, were used to evaluate two-point discrimination recovery in 57 patients who underwent reconstructive surgery with buccinator myomucosal flaps. Tests were conducted both on the reconstructive flap and on the non-operated contralateral side. The latter also included the non-operated cheek. Results All of the considered flaps showed a recovery of tactile sensitivity. The overall average discriminative threshold value assessed on this sample was 9.11 ± 2.46 mm for the static and 6.56 ± 2.46 mm for the dynamic. Conclusions The use of surgical staples allows easy assessment of tactile sensitivity in all oral cavity areas, even in operated patients who often present lockjaw or microstomia. In our series, buccinator myomucosal flaps demonstrate a much greater recovery of the sensation compared to results found in the literature on fasciocutaneous free flaps, even those reinnervated. Level of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1277-z
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Nipple reconstruction with complementary triangular flaps
    • Authors: Bocchiotti Maria Alessandra; Baglioni Elisabetta Adelaide; Frenello Ambra; Rivarossa Filippo; Bellezza Eleonora; Bruschi Stefano
      Pages: 435 - 440
      Abstract: Background Nipple reconstruction is a surgical procedure often performed after total breast reconstruction. The main limitation of all techniques is premature or excessive flattening of the reconstructed nipple. Over the past few years, we have modified the CV flap technique in order to increase the reconstructed nipple size and reduce premature flattening. Methods The modified technique proposes the addition of lateral and medial flaps which are drawn as two right triangles disposed symmetrically in a mirror-like fashion along the longitudinal axis. The symmetry between the two triangles allows the use of all the available height during creation of the new nipple. Once raised, flaps are rearranged into the shape of a nipple, trimmed only if necessary, and sutured. Diameter and projection of the reconstructed nipple were measured at 1 and 2 years and compared to immediate postoperative standard measures. Results Twenty-two patients underwent nipple reconstruction with this technique. Patients were followed up for 2 years. No complications were reported. Immediate postoperative standard measures of the reconstructed nipple were on average 1.3 cm in projection and 1.3 cm in diameter. After 1-year follow-up, the average projection was 0.61 cm ± 0.14 cm and the diameter was 1.13 ± 0.18 cm. After the 2-year follow-up, the average projection was 0.53 ± 0.16 and the diameter was 1.12 ± 0.18. Conclusions The modified nipple reconstruction technique herein presented is easy to perform and provides long-lasting results with a low risk of postoperative complications. Further studies to compare this technique with the traditional CV flap are warranted. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1276-0
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Computed tomography angiography (CTA) assisted preoperative planning and
           volume calculation of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP)
           flap for breast reconstruction
    • Authors: Galia Ronen; Arye Blachar; Aryeh Abelow; Eyal Gur; Yoav Barnea
      Pages: 441 - 446
      Abstract: Background The use of the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap has gained popularity as a technique for autologous breast reconstruction. This surgery entails finely dissecting the perforators of the deep inferior epigastric artery passing through the rectus abdominis muscle, while deciding which of the perforators will best supply the flap. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) has emerged as the imaging modality of choice for preoperative evaluation. This study evaluates the accuracy of CTA in identifying perforator anatomy and flap volume calculation, as well as its impact on the patient’s outcome. Methods A prospective study was conducted. Thirty-two consecutive patients that underwent CT angiography prior to unilateral DIEP flap reconstruction surgery were included in the study. The control group was composed of 32 patients, who were operated on by the same surgical team, using the same surgical technique, prior to the initiation of the CTA study. The imaging provided by CTA was correlated with actual intra-operative findings. Operative time, the duration of hospital stay, and postoperative complications were assessed. The volume of the flap as calculated by CT was compared to the flap’s actual weight after harvest. Results CTA identified 285 perforators; of these, 278 were found intra-operatively. There was no statistically significant difference between the data provided by the CT and intra-operative findings. The use of CTA was associated with decreased operating time (unilateral, 424 versus 546 min, p < 0.0001) and significantly decreased hospitalization (unilateral, 7.6 versus 11.6 days, p = 0.0002). There was good correlation between the volume of the flap as calculated by CT and the flap’s measured weight after harvest (1117 cm3 versus 1181 g, r = 0.774). Conclusions CTA is an accurate tool in planning and calculating flap volume of DIEP flap and is associated with improved outcomes. Level of Evidence: Level III, diagnostic study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1295-x
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Lipofilling effects after breast cancer surgery in post-radiation
           patients: an analysis of results and algorithm proposal
    • Authors: Manuel Debald; Thomas Pech; Christina Kaiser; Mignon-Denise Keyver-Paik; Gisela Walgenbach-Bruenagel; Joerg C. Kalff; Walther Kuhn; Klaus J. Walgenbach
      Pages: 447 - 454
      Abstract: Background Lipofilling or autologous fat transfer is an established technique in plastic surgery. Herein, we describe the lipofilling effects after implant-based breast reconstruction in post-radiation patients and propose an algorithm for indication of lipofilling. Methods Forty patients with a history of breast cancer were included in this retrospective analysis. Patients had undergone either breast conserving therapy or mastectomy. Twenty-six patients underwent additional radiation therapy. Patients were assessed using a post-radiation skin scoring classification. Results In total, 68 lipofilling procedures were analyzed. Scar release, skin softening, improved quality of life, and improvement of post-radiation findings are results of lipofilling with a closed filtration system. In all patients with post-surgical radiation, an improvement of tissue quality was observed. Staging revealed that lipofilling improved mean post-radiation skin scores of 2.40 ± 0.89 to 1.21 ± 0.76 (p ≤ 0.000). There was no recurrence of breast cancer in our study patients. Conclusions This study introduces an algorithm using lipofilling in reconstructive breast surgery and especially in post-radiation patients with low risks as well as very high acceptance in patients with various indications for this procedure. A regenerative aspect was also detectable in patients following radiation therapy and reconstruction. Lipofilling is a safe and effective procedure with a low incidence of minor complications. It is therefore a feasible method to resolve volume deficiencies and asymmetric results after oncologic breast surgery. Nevertheless, a prospective study has now been initiated focusing on the oncologic safety of lipofilling including ultrasound and radiological examinations to validate the findings of this initial study. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1311-1
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Hand rejuvenation with fat grafting: A 12-year single-surgeon experience
    • Authors: Fabio Fantozzi
      Pages: 457 - 464
      Abstract: Background Fat grafting has been successfully used for reconstructive and esthetic surgery of the breast, face, and other body parts. In this article, we present our protocol for hand fat grafting and over a decade of clinical experience. Methods Fat tissue is obtained from the flanks, peri-umbilical region, or internal side of the thigh or knee. No centrifuge machine is used to prevent fat damage. After decantation, fat is injected into the dorsum of the hand using a cannula from the wrist and not from the fingers. Fat is distributed gently above the dorsal deep fascia to avoid perforation of the vessels. Results The proposed technique was applied to 65 patients. The amount of fat injected ranged from 10 to 30 cm3. No allergic reactions were noticed. Each patient’s progress was followed-up for a minimum of 12 months. Over this period, contour changes and the effects of the procedure(s) on the skin were analyzed. Fifty-six patients (84%) were satisfied with the results during the observation period, 7 patients (12%) were somewhat satisfied and needed one more fat grafting procedure to achieve complete satisfaction, and 2 patients (4%) were dissatisfied with the results. Three cases of temporary swelling of the hands resolved naturally. No long-term complications were seen. Conclusions This study covers over a decade of practical experience in applying fat grafts to hands. The procedure is effective in reshaping and rejuvenating the hand as it shows long-lasting results after 1-year follow-up.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1337-4
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Scarring of the C8-T1 roots with partial avulsion in situ in total
           obstetric brachial plexus palsy
    • Authors: Mohammad M. Al-Qattan; Amel A. F. El-Sayed
      Pages: 465 - 470
      Abstract: Background Primary exploration of the brachial plexus in infants with obstetric palsy may reveal scarring of the lower roots with evidence of partial avulsion-in-situ. As we have been treating this lesion by neurolysis only, we aimed to investigate the recovery of hand function following such approach. Methods A series of 14 cases of total obstetric palsy with with evidence of partial avulsion-in-situ of the lower roots were included. All lesions were treated by neurolysis only (with no neurotization of the lower roots). Management of the injured upper roots was done by neurotization. Recovery was assessed as per our motor grading system. Results After a minimum follow-up of 4 years, hand functional recovery was considered good in 7 patients and excellent in the remaining 7 patients. Conclusions We highlight the scarring of lower roots with evidence of partial avulsion-in situ in obstetric palsy. We also document that neurolysis is an acceptable approach to such lesions. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1281-3
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to: Scarring of the C8-T1 roots with partial avulsion in situ in
           total obstetric brachial plexus palsy
    • Authors: Mohammad M. Al-Qattan; Amel A. F. El-Sayed
      Pages: 471 - 471
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1331-x
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • The tubed pedicle flap centennial: its concept, origin, rise and fall
    • Authors: Klaas W. Marck; Roman Palyvoda; Andrew Bamji; Jan J. van Wingerden
      Pages: 473 - 478
      Abstract: Abstract Part of the conceptual thinking that characterizes reconstructive surgery is to consider the way tissue is transferred: locally pedicled, pedicled from a distance, or free. In 1917, now 100 years ago, the concept of the distant tubed pedicle skin flap was published. The tubed flap has raised a debate about priority in the past. This historical review elucidates this debate and identifies Filatov from Odessa, Ukraine, as the originator of the procedure. Ganzer in Germany published a little later, independently from Filatov, about tubing, while Gillies in England, not knowing the work of either, started to use pedicled flaps at the end of 1917, which primeur was contested by his colleague Aymard. Tubing a pedicle was the final refinement of the distantly pedicled flap. The high volume of facial wounds during the First World War gave army surgeons like Ganzer and Gillies the opportunity to gain experience with all kinds of tubed pedicled flaps. This resulted in a real impetus of reconstructive surgery in the interbellum. This made the tubed pedicle flap the main reconstructive method for large skin defects until the 1970s of the last century, when pedicled myocutaneous flaps and free flap surgery were introduced. There is still a modest place for tubed pedicled flaps in reconstructive surgery. Tubed groin flaps are still useful to cover hand defects and tubed deltopectoral flaps are still used for facial reconstruction in hospitals in less-privileged countries where free flap surgery is not feasible. Level of Evidence: Not ratable.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1289-8
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • De-epithelialized dorsal digital turnover flap for coverage of volar
           digital lesions: a modified technique
    • Authors: Jefferson Braga Silva; Renato Matta Ramos; Pedro Salomão Piccinini
      Pages: 479 - 482
      Abstract: Abstract Volar digital injuries represent a challenge to hand surgeons. Anatomical studies demonstrate the existence of dorsal digital branches of the ulnar and radial arteries at predictable and regular distances from the PIP joint, bilaterally. Moreover, as there are also small veins that accompany the arterial branches, we designed a novel de-epithelialized dorsal finger turnover flap, which can be performed on the ulnar and radial sides of fingers where it is important to maintain the paratenon to support the dorsal skin flap. A 21-year-old female presented with traumatic injury to the middle phalanx of the third finger associated with loss of substance and damage to the flexor tendons in zone II. The dorsal part of the finger was used to provide coverage for a volar injury. There was no scar retraction or functional limitation of the reconstructed finger. This novel, de-epithelialized dorsal finger turnover flap can be safely used for coverage of volar finger lesions, due to a reliable and well-described arterial supply, with no skin necrosis of the donor site, post-surgical infection, or scarring complications. Level of Evidence: Level V, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1280-4
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Narrow neovaginal width in a transgender patient due to short interramic
           distance
    • Authors: My Andréasson; Konstantinos Georgas; James Bellringer; Gennaro Selvaggi
      Pages: 487 - 488
      Abstract: Abstract Vaginoplasty is one of the core procedures for transgender patients. A neovaginal cavity is created between the prostate and rectum. The width of the introitus is determined by the distance between the inferior pubic rami. A 32-year-old transgender patient underwent vaginoplasty. Surgery was uneventful. When starting the dilation regimen, insertion of the usual stent was impossible since the neovagina had restricted width. A CT scan of the pelvis showed that the interramic distance, at 3.0 cm below the lower border of bony structure of the symphysis pubis, was only 3.2 cm. If a transgender patient presents with short stature, a short interramic distance may be expected. Preoperative radiological imaging should be considered. Surgeons should be equipped with adequate-size stents for postoperative dilation regimen. Level of Evidence: Level V, risk / prognostic study
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1296-9
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Nipple shields and antibiotic prophylaxis in skin and nipple sparing risk
           reducing mastectomies—a multi-centre study
    • Authors: James Wokes; K. Allison; N. Collis
      Abstract: Background Florid and sub-clinical infection in implant-based breast reconstruction can cause significant problems. There are a wide and varied range of methods utilised in an attempt to reduce infection. Nipple shields are well known to reduce the spread of infection during surgery as are prophylactic antibiotics. Methods Twenty patients, in two centres, had microbiological swabs taken from the nipple-areolar complex after preparation with povidone-iodine and post-operatively from the underside of nipple shields. These swabs were cultured in the local microbiology laboratory. Results No swabs after preparation grew organisms. Five (12.5%) swabs taken post-operatively were positive. Of these, three grew coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and two grew mixed skin commensals. All were sensitive to Flucloxacillin. Conclusions Nipple shields are essential to reduce the risk of infection. Povidone-iodine is satisfactory for preparation in our cohort. Prophylactic antibiotics are indicated on induction. Level of Evidence: Level III, risk/prognostic study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1367-y
       
  • Comment on: The over-Wise mammoplasty: a modified Wise pattern for large
           superficial breast tumors
    • Authors: Fernando Hernanz; Lucía Paz; Mónica González-Noriega; Sara Marcos
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1368-x
       
  • Expanded version pedicled free-style perforator flaps in clinical
           practice: a need for a more comprehensive classification system
    • Authors: Ruben Y. Kannan; J. Hardwicke
      Abstract: Background The evolution of the angiosome concept into the perforasome theory as we increasingly move towards the distal end of the microvascular tree for reconstructive options has allowed us to design ad hoc perforator flaps. Methods In a retrospective sample of more than 60 pedicled perforator flaps over a 36-month period, a variety of defects in all regions of the body were reconstructed. Pre-operative planning was based on either Doppler vascular studies or CT angiography. Results The overall complete flap survival rate was 89%, with a tip necrosis rate of 8.1% and a partial flap necrosis rate of 3.3%. The risk factors identified were smoking, nicotine patches, vasopressor use and pro-thrombotic states. Conclusions It is feasible to perform the many variations of perforator flaps provided; the microsurgical anatomy of the area is well defined, aided by imaging studies as necessary. Risk stratification also needs to be taken into account when planning these flaps. Based on our results and observations, an alternative pedicled perforator flap classification is put forward. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1365-0
       
  • Late breast implant infections: a delayed MRSA infection from hematogenous
           spread in an intravenous drug user
    • Authors: Nneamaka Agochukwu; Ashley Boustany; Brian Rinker
      Abstract: Abstract Infection following breast augmentation is a rare event, with an incidence of 0–4% in most studies. We present the case of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bilateral breast implant infection in a 42-year-old female, 19 years after submuscular saline breast augmentation. Her history was significant for intravenous drug abuse and concomitant osteomyelitis of the sternum and manubrium. She underwent washout and debridement, with explantation of the breast implants, and long-term intravenous vancomycin. This represents the longest reported occurrence of late infection in breast augmentation and the only report of a breast implant infection due to hematogenous spread/seeding from intravenous drug abuse. Level of Evidence: Level V, risk study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1362-3
       
  • Assessment of facial harmony among Caucasian Spaniards 18 to 60 years of
           age and its relationship with the golden ratio
    • Authors: José Francisco Ballester Ferrandis; Francisco Martínez Soriano; Maria Isabel Ribera Vega; Juan José Font Ferrandis
      Abstract: Background Throughout history, the perception and definition of beauty and attractiveness have changed and have been influenced by cultural norms. This article analyzes the concept of “facial normality” (faces that are considered normal by 90% of respondents and, therefore, do not require esthetic surgery) among Spaniards of Caucasian ancestry. We also sought to determine the relationship between faces that are considered “normal” and the golden ratio. Methods We surveyed 54 respondents (equal numbers of women and men) between the ages of 18 and 60. The surveys followed the visual analog scale (VAS) protocol, and 13,514 responses were obtained. The respondents were asked to evaluate up to nine photographed faces according to their degree of attractiveness. Results According to the data obtained, “facial normality” or facial beauty can be defined by the following characteristics: (a) the sizes of the three facial segments (equal in proportion), (b) the width of the nose (narrow in women and average in men), and (c) the profile (straight or slightly retracted in women and straight or slightly prominent in men). In addition, five specific facial proportions were directly related to the golden ratio. Thus, the concept of “normal” can be applied to 90% of faces whose proportions fall within distinct ranges that encompass the value of the golden ratio. Conclusions We conclude that a standard perception of “facial normality” and facial beauty does exist. We also observed a general correlation between specific facial proportions and the golden ratio. Level of Evidence: Not ratable.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1348-1
       
  • Erratum to: Lipofilling effects after breast cancer surgery in
           post-radiation patients: an analysis of results and algorithm proposal
    • Authors: Manuel Debald; Thomas Pech; Christina Kaiser; Mignon-Denise Keyver-Paik; Gisela Walgenbach-Bruenagel; Joerg C. Kalff; Walther Kuhn; Klaus J. Walgenbach
      PubDate: 2017-08-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1351-6
       
 
 
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