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Showing 1201 - 1400 of 2345 Journals sorted alphabetically
J. of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.188, h-index: 8)
J. of Coastal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.474, h-index: 25)
J. of Coatings Technology and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.425, h-index: 25)
J. of Combinatorial Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.093, h-index: 34)
J. of Communications Technology and Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 16)
J. of Community Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 14)
J. of Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.921, h-index: 44)
J. of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.087, h-index: 74)
J. of Comparative Physiology B : Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 59)
J. of Compassionate Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Computational Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.291, h-index: 19)
J. of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 20)
J. of Computational Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 60)
J. of Computer and Systems Sciences Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, h-index: 13)
J. of Computer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 31)
J. of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 2)
J. of Computer-Aided Molecular Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.995, h-index: 78)
J. of Computers in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
J. of Computing in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 21)
J. of Consumer Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, h-index: 30)
J. of Contemporary Mathematical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
J. of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 6)
J. of Contemporary Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 23)
J. of Control Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 19)
J. of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 9)
J. of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Cross-Cultural Gerontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.631, h-index: 29)
J. of Cryptographic Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.989, h-index: 11)
J. of Cryptology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 55)
J. of Cultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 29)
J. of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.149, h-index: 8)
J. of Derivatives & Hedge Funds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.114, h-index: 5)
J. of Developmental and Physical Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 29)
J. of Digital Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.578, h-index: 35)
J. of Direct Data and Digital Marketing Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.154, h-index: 6)
J. of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 26)
J. of Dynamics and Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.418, h-index: 31)
J. of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.483, h-index: 16)
J. of Earth System Science     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 32)
J. of East Asian Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.537, h-index: 20)
J. of Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 3)
J. of Economic Growth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 3.273, h-index: 63)
J. of Economic Interaction and Coordination     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.263, h-index: 12)
J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 23)
J. of Economics and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 19)
J. of Educational Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 21)
J. of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, h-index: 45)
J. of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.577, h-index: 57)
J. of Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.609, h-index: 75)
J. of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.372, h-index: 27)
J. of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 9)
J. of Elementary Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
J. of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 37)
J. of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 11)
J. of Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 5)
J. of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 9)
J. of Environmental Studies and Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
J. of Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.609, h-index: 25)
J. of Evolution Equations     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.826, h-index: 26)
J. of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.145, h-index: 11)
J. of Evolutionary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 52)
J. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 39)
J. of Experimental Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.445, h-index: 28)
J. of Failure Analysis and Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 15)
J. of Family and Economic Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 32)
J. of Family Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.639, h-index: 56)
J. of Financial Services Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 10)
J. of Financial Services Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 36)
J. of Fixed Point Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.644, h-index: 13)
J. of Fluorescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 56)
J. of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.307, h-index: 4)
J. of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 29)
J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.495, h-index: 27)
J. of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 14)
J. of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.18, h-index: 42)
J. of Friction and Wear     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.373, h-index: 7)
J. of Fusion Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 19)
J. of Gambling Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.171, h-index: 57)
J. of Gastroenterology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 88)
J. of Gastrointestinal Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 39)
J. of Gastrointestinal Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.64, h-index: 99)
J. of General Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.804, h-index: 134)
J. of General Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.554, h-index: 22)
J. of Genetic Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.902, h-index: 39)
J. of Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 28)
J. of Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.173, h-index: 56)
J. of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 23)
J. of Geographical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 39)
J. of Geometric Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.491, h-index: 27)
J. of Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 15)
J. of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 60)
J. of Global Policy and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
J. of Grid Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.414, h-index: 37)
J. of Hand and Microsurgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 39)
J. of Hematopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 13)
J. of Heuristics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.308, h-index: 50)
J. of High Energy Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.052, h-index: 153)
J. of Homotopy and Related Structures     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, h-index: 2)
J. of Housing and the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.648, h-index: 28)
J. of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.344, h-index: 19)
J. of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 10)
J. of Immigrant and Minority Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.759, h-index: 37)
J. of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 46)
J. of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Indian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.127, h-index: 12)
J. of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.966, h-index: 80)
J. of Industry, Competition and Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, h-index: 15)
J. of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.673, h-index: 46)
J. of Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 55)
J. of Information Technology Teaching Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
J. of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.25, h-index: 36)
J. of Inherited Metabolic Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.389, h-index: 77)
J. of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 33)
J. of Insect Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 39)
J. of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent and Robotic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.691, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 54)
J. of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.93, h-index: 43)
J. of Intl. Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 4.208, h-index: 130)
J. of Intl. Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.549, h-index: 23)
J. of Intl. Migration and Integration / Revue de l integration et de la migration internationale     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 13)
J. of Intl. Relations and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.793, h-index: 22)
J. of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 27)
J. of Logic, Language and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
J. of Low Temperature Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 52)
J. of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 7)
J. of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.134, h-index: 37)
J. of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.252, h-index: 83)
J. of Management and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 33)
J. of Management Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 6)
J. of Marine Science and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 11)
J. of Marine Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, h-index: 19)
J. of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.228, h-index: 8)
J. of Market-Focused Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Marketing Analytics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Material Cycles and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.449, h-index: 22)
J. of Materials Engineering and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.544, h-index: 40)
J. of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.836, h-index: 123)
J. of Materials Science : Materials in Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.011, h-index: 71)
J. of Mathematical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 45)
J. of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.22, h-index: 22)
J. of Mathematical Imaging and Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.901, h-index: 53)
J. of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.414, h-index: 23)
J. of Mathematical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 23)
J. of Mathematics Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.062, h-index: 20)
J. of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Mechanical Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 26)
J. of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 18)
J. of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 18)
J. of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.717, h-index: 44)
J. of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, h-index: 28)
J. of Medical Ultrasonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
J. of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.738, h-index: 82)
J. of Micro-Bio Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.28, h-index: 3)
J. of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
J. of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.317, h-index: 16)
J. of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.952, h-index: 108)
J. of Molecular Histology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.755, h-index: 48)
J. of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.165, h-index: 113)
J. of Molecular Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 50)
J. of Molecular Neuroscience     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.988, h-index: 69)
J. of Mountain Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 15)
J. of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 55)
J. of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, h-index: 84)
J. of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.602, h-index: 28)
J. of Near-Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.689, h-index: 55)
J. of Network and Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.466, h-index: 26)
J. of Neural Transmission     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.034, h-index: 86)
J. of Neuro-Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 90)
J. of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.662, h-index: 45)
J. of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.429, h-index: 105)
J. of NeuroVirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 69)
J. of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.863, h-index: 27)
J. of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.887, h-index: 42)
J. of Nonverbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 47)
J. of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.024, h-index: 68)
J. of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.919, h-index: 60)
J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 6)
J. of Occupational Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.811, h-index: 51)
J. of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Ocean University of China (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.237, h-index: 11)
J. of Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.796, h-index: 52)
J. of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 11)
J. of Optical and Fiber Communications Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 8)
J. of Optimization Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 65)
J. of Ornithology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
J. of Orofacial Orthopedics / Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.574, h-index: 33)
J. of Orthopaedic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.708, h-index: 48)
J. of Paleolimnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.984, h-index: 64)
J. of Parasitic Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.298, h-index: 9)
J. of Pediatric Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 28)
J. of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences     Open Access  

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Journal Cover European Journal of Plastic Surgery
  [SJR: 0.203]   [H-I: 16]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1435-0130 - ISSN (Online) 0930-343X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Effects of montelukast on tendon healing in a murine model
    • Authors: Kaan Gideroğlu; Hüsamettin Çakıcı; Onur Hapa; Kutay E. Özturan; Ergun Bozdağ; Fahri Yılmaz; İbrahim Sağlam
      Pages: 171 - 176
      Abstract: Background Tendon injury induces a local inflammatory response characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of montelukast sodium on the healing of tendons through histological and biomechanical evaluations. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to an experimental group that received montelukast sodium (n = 24) and a control group (n = 24) that did not. Tendon injury was created in the Achilles tendon. The experimental group was injected intraperitoneally (IP) with 1 ml of 1 mg/kg montelukast sodium solution once a day prior to the surgery and during the experimental research. The control group was injected with saline solution. Two weeks later, eight rats in each group underwent a histological evaluation. In the fourth week, eight rats underwent a histological evaluation and the other eight rats went through a biomechanical evaluation. Results Based on the histological evaluation in the second week, it was observed that the severity of the inflammation was less in the experimental group that received montelukast sodium (p < 0.05). In terms of the formation of collagen, no significant difference was observed between the groups in the second and fourth weeks. Tendon breaking loads were 33.2 ± 10.95 and 38.8 ± 10.90 N for the montelukast group and the control group, respectively. However, the difference between the groups was found to be statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Conclusions There was no negative effect on the healing of tendons due to injection of montelukast sodium. In addition, observing less inflammation in the experimental group in the earlier phase suggests that montelukast sodium may help in preventing tendon adhesion after reconstructive treatment. Level of Evidence: Not ratable.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1283-1
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • The V-shaped mini flap method for microform cleft lip repair
    • Authors: Naoshige Iida; Ayako Watanabe
      Pages: 183 - 186
      Abstract: Background We have devised a new operative technique for microform cleft lip repair via the use of a V-shaped flap method. From 2006 to 2015, nine patients with unilateral cleft lip diagnosed as mini-microform cleft lip or microform cleft lip by the classification of Yuzuriha and Mulliken, were recorded. Methods With our procedure, a V-shaped mini flap with the vermillion border serving as the vertex is inserted into the incised area along the vermillion border on the affected side, thereby allowing reliable correction of the vermillion border notch. When this procedure is applied to cases of microform cleft lip, the white lip’s linear mark is resected totally, followed by overlap suturing of the orbicularis oris muscle from the incised area to correct philtrum ridge deviation and nasal alar base lateral deviation. In cases of mini-microform cleft lip, the extent of resection of the skin and mucosa is reduced to the minimum necessary level to reduce the scar size as far as possible. Results This procedure was used for the treatment of microform cleft lip in six cases and mini-microform cleft lip in three cases. The mean age at operation was 13.3 months (range 6–45 months). There were no postoperative complications; moreover, no patient required additional surgery. Conclusions Regarding postoperative clinical findings, the scar was not evident because it was identical to the philtrum ridge. Furthermore, the cupid’s bow was symmetrical, and constriction at the vermillion’s free margin had been corrected. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-016-1262-y
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Current practises in primary breast augmentation: a continental European
           vs UK primary survey
    • Authors: Ishan Radotra; Obi Onyekwelu; Kanellos Gesakis; Jeyaram Srinivasan
      Pages: 213 - 222
      Abstract: Background Breast augmentation has gained widespread popularity since its inception. During recent decades, several techniques have developed. Debates concerning the superiority of a particular technique for achievement of optimal results exist. In this primary survey, we evaluate a selection of UK and European Aesthetic surgeons for their preferred techniques and practises of breast augmentation and the influence of patient choice on their favoured surgical approach. Methods A 10-item questionnaire was sent to 715 European Aesthetic Surgeons by e-mail with a cover letter including the link using SurveyMonkey©. Contact details were obtained from respective national registries. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 20. Results One hundred aesthetic surgeons from Europe including Greece, Italy, UK, Switzerland, Denmark, Malta and Ireland made up the respondents. Of the 27 surgeons practicing in the UK, the majority (96.4 %) use the inframammary approach, with a single respondent from UK indicating preference for the periareolar incision. However, of the 68 surgeons outside the UK, including Ireland and Continental Europe, a significant proportion (28.4 %) utilise the periareolar incision. Majority of the UK surgeons (56 %) place the breast implant in the subglandular plane whilst in Continental Europe, the preference in 50 % of the responders is for the dual plane pocket (p = 0.016). Most patients (54.3 %) express a preference for a certain incision with surgeons tending to comply with patients’ wishes. When they do not, it is mostly due to unrealistic patient expectations (in 63.3 % of cases). The duration of oral antibiotics varies from 2 days (5.2 % of responders) to 1 week (25.9 % of responders). Conclusions UK aesthetic surgeons prefer the inframammary incision and subglandular plane compared with alternative approaches undertaken by other Continental European counterparts. There remains an unestablished common approach for primary breast augmentation. In the current climate of division with UK leaving Europe, there remains a need for multiple Aesthetic Surgery Societies to collaborate, in order to produce robust multicentred data. Level of Evidence: Not ratable.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-016-1253-z
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Quality of life improves early after gender reassignment surgery in
           transgender women
    • Authors: Ebba K. Lindqvist; Hannes Sigurjonsson; Caroline Möllermark; Johan Rinder; Filip Farnebo; T. Kalle Lundgren
      Pages: 223 - 226
      Abstract: Background Few studies have examined the long-term quality of life (QoL) of individuals with gender dysphoria, or how it is affected by treatment. Our aim was to examine the QoL of transgender women undergoing gender reassignment surgery (GRS). Methods We performed a prospective cohort study on 190 patients undergoing male-to-female GRS at Karolinska University Hospital between 2003 and 2015. We used the Swedish version of the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), which measures QoL across eight domains. The questionnaire was distributed to patients pre-operatively, as well as 1, 3, and 5 years post-operatively. The results were compared between the different measure points, as well as between the study group and the general population. Results On most dimensions of the SF-36 questionnaire, transgender women reported a lower QoL than the general population. The scores of SF-36 showed a non-significant trend to be lower 5 years post-GRS compared to pre-operatively, a decline consistent with that of the general population. Self-perceived health compared to 1 year previously rose in the first post-operative year, after which it declined. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest prospective study to follow a group of transgender patients with regards to QoL over continuous temporal measure points. Our results show that transgender women generally have a lower QoL compared to the general population. GRS leads to an improvement in general well-being as a trend but over the long-term, QoL decreases slightly in line with that of the comparison group. Level of evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-016-1252-0
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Quality of life improves early after gender reassignment
           surgery in transgender women
    • Authors: Ebba K. Lindqvist; Hannes Sigurjonsson; Caroline Möllermark; Johan Rinder; Filip Farnebo; T. Kalle Lundgren
      Pages: 227 - 227
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-016-1259-6
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Lunate implant arthroplasty: analysis of physical function and patient
    • Authors: Noortje J. Visser; Robert S. de Wijn; Thybout M. Moojen; Reinier Feitz
      Pages: 229 - 234
      Abstract: Background Avascular necrosis of the lunate has been the topic of debate for the last century. A relatively new treatment for a symptomatic patient with a Lichtman stage IIIB or stage IV is lunate pyrocarbon implant arthroplasty. The purpose of this study is to document the clinical outcomes and evaluate the results of this new modality. Methods A retrospective cohort study of patients with a symptomatic Kienböck’s disease stage IIIB treated by lunate pyrocarbon implant arthroplasty stabilized with a tendon graft. Presurgical and postsurgical assessment was performed including a questionnaire, X-ray, goniometric measurements, and grip strength. Results Between 2010 and 2013, 16 patients with a mean follow-up of 24 months were treated. Average VAS score improved from 5 to 2.6 and average PRHWE score from 58 to 24. The average flexion extension arc and wrist deviation arc were decreased 26 and 14 degrees. The average grip strength increased from 23 to 29. Most patients were very satisfied about the operation; 14 out of 16 would undergo the same procedure again, given the same circumstances. Conclusions Both the subjective and objective results are comparable to previous reported data of conventional treatments, and it may therefore be a suitable alternative to proximal row carpectomy (PRC). The implant lifespan is not known, but it could postpone the need for salvage procedures in young patients. Further research is needed to provide long-term outcomes and help guide future treatment of patients with Kienböck’s disease. Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-016-1248-9
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Upper-third ear reduction with a posterior approach
    • Authors: Carlos Cuesta-Romero; José María García-Sánchez
      Pages: 245 - 248
      Abstract: Anomalies in the complex topography of the pinna are often associated with disproportionate distances between the dimensions of its thirds, even with respect to the middle third of the face, forming macrotias that must be identified. If such correction is not carried out properly, the original deformation may even worsen in the postoperative period. For the reconstruction of auricular defects, different techniques have been described, involving excisions of the skin and cartilage with advancements, in order to regain a proportionate morphology. In the present work, we report a specific technique for the reduction of the upper third with a posterior approach, based on resection of the scapha and remodeling of the posterior skin surplus, associated with combined techniques of otoplasty to prevent the stigmata from previous surgery. Level of Evidence: Level V, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-016-1264-9
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Umbilical reconstruction with the bow tie flap
    • Authors: Gisella Nele; Annalena Di Martino; Mariagrazia Moio; Fabrizio Schönauer
      Pages: 249 - 254
      Abstract: The umbilicus can be absent in congenital malformations that are associated to umbilical agenesia such as bladder exstrophy, gastroschisis or omphalocele or it can be excised during surgical procedures such as umbilical herniorrhaphy, abdominoplasty and laparotomy. We report a new technique for umbilical reconstruction, using a “bow tie”-shaped flap, partially made of scar tissue. We treated three female patients with absent umbilicus as a consequence of congenital malformations or previous surgical treatments. This method provided a good conical shape to the neoumbilicus with adequate depth and a wide external ring. Follow-up at 2 years showed that a satisfactory shape was maintained. Previously described techniques for neoumbilicoplasty were unsatisfying or seemed too complex in our hands. The reported technique is easy and simple, with good, stable and natural aesthetic results, and it can be effectively used for umbilical reconstruction in all primary or secondary cases of umbilical absence. Level of evidence: Level V, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-016-1218-2
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Long term follow-up on prepectoral ADM-assisted breast reconstruction:
           evidences after 4 years
    • Authors: Giorgio Berna; Simon J. Cawthorn
      Pages: 255 - 258
      Abstract: Prepectoral implant-based breast reconstruction is on the rise because of the advantages related to preservation of the pectoralis major muscle. Indeed, this reconstructive procedure improves the aesthetic outcomes and the postoperative recovery time, avoiding the risk of breast animation and deformity. On the other hand, the subcutaneous implant positioning has higher risk of capsular contracture and for this reason, the subpectoral breast reconstruction has been preferred for many years; but the introduction of a pre-shaped acellular dermal matrix (ADM) which allows a complete implant coverage led to the onset of the new prepectoral technique, solving the problem of a stiff periprosthetic capsule formation. In fact, the use of ADMs in breast reconstruction has been shown to decrease the capsular contracture formation. Nevertheless, no long-term outcomes have been reported with the use of a pre-shaped ADM for prepectoral breast reconstruction. The authors present the first ten patients who had a prepectoral ADM-assisted breast reconstruction showing no evidences of capsular contracture after a median follow-up of 4 years. Level of Evidence: Level V, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1285-z
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Pragmatic clinical trials: translating research into practice
    • Authors: Krishna S. Vyas; Sibi Rajendran; Samir Mardini
      Pages: 263 - 264
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-016-1258-7
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Influence of surgical wrist denervation on proprioceptive changes: A
           systematic review
    • Authors: Babak Janghorban Esfahani; Simon Paul; Tobias M. Kraus; Panagiotis Theodorou; Christian P. Pathak; Ali Saalabian; Cedric E. Boesch
      Abstract: The denervation of the wrist is a known method to treat the painful wrist. Pain relief and therefore functional improvement is the main goal to be achieved, but very little is known about other effects such the influence on proprioception. There are references that indicate an effect on reflex arcs after a certain stimulus on the wrist, and thus, changes in proprioception may come along with a surgical denervation. This systematic review was conducted to investigate if there is evidence that assesses the influence of surgical wrist denervation on proprioceptive changes and the methods that were used. Very few articles describe an effect of denervation on the proprioception of the wrist. Reliable tests to measure proprioception are rare. Such tests exist but still they comprise bias and lack of minimation of other influences such as optic input. Subject of further investigation should be proprioception itself and methods to test this quality objectively. Level II, risk/prognostic study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1333-8
  • Microsurgical reconstruction of pharyngoesophageal defects—case series
           and critical review of the literature
    • Authors: Sara Cunha; Horácio Zenha; Diana Santos; Carolina Andresen; Tiago Guedes; Susana Graça; Carlos Soares; Antónia Póvoas; Jorge Maciel; Horácio Costa
      Abstract: Background The reconstructive goals after laryngopharyngoesophagectomy are the reestablishment of the digestive conduit, achievement of adequate swallowing, and voice restoration. The pharyngoesophageal segment is typically reconstructed with a jejunal or a fasciocutaneous free flap. The gastro-omental free flap offers unique advantages in high-risk surgical fields. The best reconstructive option is still a matter of controversy. A retrospective study was conducted to assess the morbidity and functional results of microsurgical pharyngoesophageal reconstructions performed at our institution in the last 16 years and compare them with the literature. Methods A retrospective review was conducted on patients who underwent pharyngoesophageal microsurgical reconstruction between 1999 and 2016 at a single institution. The perioperative morbidity, mortality, and functional outcomes were evaluated and compared with similar published case series. Results A total of 14 free flap reconstructions were performed, after pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy or pharyngoesophageal radionecrosis. Patients received jejunal, radial forearm, gastro-omental, or anterolateral thigh flaps. There was one flap failure and one perioperative death. The rates of stricture and fistula were 8.3 and 16.7%, respectively. Oral diet was achieved in all patients and 71% have been considered to have an intelligible speech. At 1-year post-op, 71.4% of the patients were alive and the 3-year survival rate was 35.7%. Conclusions The reconstruction of the pharyngoesophageal segment requires safe, reliable, and functional single-stage solutions. Fasciocutaneous flaps seem to provide better functional results and allow a shorter hospital stay, while enteric flaps appear to be more reliable in adverse surgical fields. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1335-6
  • Becker nevus syndrome and ipsilateral breast hypoplasia: a systematic
           literature review
    • Authors: Martina E. Schneider; Elmar Fritsche; Urs Hug; Pietro Giovanoli
      Abstract: Although the Becker nevus syndrome (BNS) is primarily defined as a Becker nevus (BN) in association with ipsilateral breast hypoplasia or musculoskeletal malformation, there are case reports about various associated malformations. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the common manifestations of the BNS. We conducted a systematic literature research about BNS and reviewed all available literature. In order to get an overview of the clinical manifestation, we analyzed all case reports by descriptive statistics. The most common manifestation of a BNS is breast hypoplasia, followed by musculoskeletal malformation and scoliosis. The regional correspondance between the skin manifestation and the malformation was strong for breast hypoplasia, musculoskeletal malformation, maxillofacial dysplasia, and lipodystrophy. Not all of the reported malformations are likely to be a manifestation of the BNS. By far, the most commonly described malformation is ipsilateral breast hypoplasia. Therefore, we would like to enhance the awareness of this syndrome among plastic surgeons. Level of Evidence: Not ratable.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1327-6
  • Non-surgical wound closure—a simple inexpensive technique
    • Authors: G. S. Kalra; Manohar K. Malviya; Ghisulal M. Choudhary; Vipin K. Barala
      Abstract: Background Primary suture closure of wounds is often the optimal solution for soft tissue defect closure because of its simplicity and satisfactory outcome, yet it may be impeded by high -tension closure. The customary application of skin grafts, flaps, free tissue transfer, or tissue expansion is often associated with relatively more complex surgical reconstructive procedures, significant morbidity and extended hospitalization and prolonged recovery period. Methods We retrospectively investigated all patients who underwent wound closure using a mechanical wound closure device between 2014 and 2016 in a tertiary hospital center. The device consisted of stainless steel hooks, sutured over the opposite wound edges, and rubber bands for generating tension which is gradually increased. Approximated wound margins were sutured or allowed to heal by secondary intention. Results The mechanical device was applied in 50 patients. There were 38 males and 12 females. Wound size ranged from 3 to 25 cm. In most of the patients there was a satisfactory wound margin approximation. However, in 6 patients skin hook cut through from wound margins occurred due to excessive rubber band tension. In 5 patients, it was decided to also apply negative-pressure wound therapy along with the device. After application of the wound closure device, a residual raw area remained in other 4 patients in whom a split thickness graft was applied. During follow-up, hypertrophic scar and wound dehiscence were found in 5 patients. Conclusions The mechanical wound closure device herein presented is a simple and inexpensive technique that allows a significant reduction in surgical costs and surgery-related morbidity. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1321-z
  • Erratum to: an unusual pre-ligamentous thenar motor branch of the median
    • Authors: Mohammad M. Al-Qattan; Khalid Al-Zahrani
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1334-7
  • The cadaveric feasibility study of using filler augmentation at the lower
           nose for the reinforcement of the external nasal valve
    • Authors: Tanvaa Tansatit; Prawit Apinuntrum; Thavorn Phetudom
      Abstract: Background Filler injections have been used in rhinoplasty to correct minor nose deformities and to augment the nasal dorsum. At the lower nose, the procedures are used to increase nasal tip projection and improve the bulbous nasal tip but they have never been used in the correction of the lateral crus weakness and collapsed external nasal valves. Methods The study was conducted with 14 human cadavers that underwent lower nose injection rhinoplasty using the columellar and alar injections as tripod augmentation. The nasal alae were tunneled and retrogradely injected by a needle. The compared parameters measured to evaluate the improvement before and after the treatment were basilar nasal width, interalar width, columella-nasal tip height, columellar-labial angle, and the length and width of the nostrils. Measurements were taken with a digital caliper. All measurements were matched and compared for statistical analysis. Results There were seven male and seven female Thai cadavers. Most of the values of the parameters were increased, but the basilar nasal width and interalar width were not changed. The columellar-labial angle, columella-nasal tip height, and nostril’s length showed statistically significant differences (P < .05), leading to positive changes in the nostril cross-sectional area, the nasal tip projection and the external nasal valve. Conclusions Injection rhinoplasty of the lower nose as tripod augmentation of the external nasal valve increases the nasal tip projection and the nostril cross-sectional area thus improving the functional and esthetic appearance.Level of Evidence: Not ratable.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1326-7
  • Subcutaneous lipomas: A minimally invasive method for resection of
           subcutaneous lipomas preserving retaining ligaments
    • Authors: Akio Sakamoto; Takeshi Okamoto; Shuichi Matsuda
      Abstract: Background Lipomas are common benign tumors usually located in the subcutaneous tissues. Resection of lipomas frequently requires incisions equal to the diameter of the tumor. The “squeeze technique” with a small incision is well-described, but is frequently not successful, particularly for lipomas in the shoulder region. We report a method for resection of subcutaneous lipomas that preserves retaining ligaments. Methods Lipomas are characterized by high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images on magnetic resonance imaging. Retaining ligaments demonstrate low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images with fat-suppression. Through a 1 in. incision, lipomas were detached from the retaining ligaments bluntly with a finger. Tumors were then extracted either in a piecemeal fashion or with the “squeeze technique.” Complete lipoma resection was visually confirmed through the incisions. For the current report, we analyzed 18 large lipomas resected by this method, with “large” defined as equal to or greater than 5 cm in diameter. Results The 18 patients included four males and 14 females with a mean age of 53.4 (26–72). The mean lipoma size was 6.6 cm [5–12]. Locations included the shoulder in nine cases (50%), the upper arm in five cases (28%), the back in two cases (11%), and the thigh in two cases (11%). Retaining ligaments were identified by MRI in all cases. Lipomas were located between retaining ligaments at the periphery of the tumor. All three lipomas larger than 10 cm were located in the shoulder. There was no difference in the technical difficulty of resection of these compared with lipomas less than 10 cm in diameter. There were no cases of chronic pain or residual hypoesthesia at the incision sites. Conclusions The method is an easy and minimally invasive way to achieve complete resection, even for large lipomas, regardless of anatomical location. The method may contribute to reduction of side effects including residual hypoesthesia and chronic pain at the incision site, due to the small incision and preservation of retaining ligaments, which may contain cutaneous nerves. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1328-5
  • A new treatment of hypertrophic and keloid scars with combined
           triamcinolone and verapamil: a retrospective study
    • Authors: S. B. Kant; E. van den Kerckhove; C. Colla; S. Tuinder; R.R.W.J. van der Hulst; A.A. Piatkowski de Grzymala
      Abstract: Background Since the management of keloid and hypertrophic scars still remains a difficult clinical problem, there is need for adequate, effective therapy. In this study, we explored for the first time the efficacy and the potential synergetic effect of combined triamcinolone and verapamil for the treatment of hypertrophic and keloid scars. The objective was to assess the efficacy of combined intralesional triamcinolone and verapamil therapy for hypertrophic and keloid scars. Methods Fifty-eight patients with hypertrophic scars (n = 31) and keloid scars (n = 27) were included. A specific injection therapy scheme was applied. Five follow-up moments were chosen, with a maximum follow-up of nearly 2 years. The effects of combination therapy on scar pliability, thickness, relief, vascularization, surface area, pain, and pruritus were examined by means of the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS). Results Our results reveal a fast and abiding improvement of both keloid and hypertrophic scars after treatment with the combination therapy. All POSAS components showed a reduction in scar score, while scar relief, pain, itchiness, and surface area improved significantly (P < 0.05) in keloids. Significant improvement in hypertrophic scars was found in scar pigmentation, vascularization, pliability, thickness, pain, and surface area. Overall POSAS scores revealed statistically significant decreases between baseline and 3–4 months, 4–6 months, and >12 months after start of therapy in both keloids and hypertrophic scars. Conclusions This study reveals that combined therapy of triamcinolone and verapamil results in overall significant scar improvement with a long-term stable result. Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1322-y
  • Reconstruction of the composite defect after extended abdominoperineal
           resection (eAPR): a clinical experience from Italy
    • Authors: Marco Fraccalvieri; Umberto Morozzo; S. Sandrucci; Marco Salomone; Ezio Falletto; Massimiliano Mistrangelo; Erind Ruka; Stefano Bruschi
      Abstract: Background Abdominalperineal resection (APR) represents the gold standard for lower third of rectum and anal cancer; after this wide excision, it results a large non-collapsible dead space that tends to collect fluid, increasing the risk of infection and wound dehiscence. Moreover, APR is associated to neoadjuvant/adjuvant radiation therapy with further risk of local complications. In this background, flap reconstruction after APR o eAPR represents the best strategy for minimizing tension in skin closure, providing healthy well vascularized and restoring a good functional local anatomy. Methods A retrospective study was performed at the Department of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery at the University Hospital Città della Salute e della Scienza of Turin from March 2013 to November 2016: 11 patients were included in the study: 5 men and 6 women aged 53 to 76 years (mean ± SD age: 66 ± 7 years). All of them received eAPR (extended-APR). Seven patients required a total dose of 20Gy as neoadjuvant radiotherapy treatment and 6 patients needed adjunctive chemotherapy treatment. Skin defects size ranged from 56 to 180 cm2 (mean 114 ± 38 cm2). Skin defect less than 5 cm of maximum width was not included in the study because no major reconstructions were needed. Surgical reconstruction was planned depending on sacrectomy eventually associated to eAPR and defect size too. Planned follow-up was carried out at 1, 3, and 6 months recording clinical data, local and systemic complications, and pain evaluation at sitting position and during normal walking activity. Results Wound healing was achieved in all patients within a period of 21 days. Only one patient showed partial flap necrosis and required wound surgical revision with simple skin closure. Another one patient suffered from mild venous congestion and partial flap necrosis was observed: a period of 2 weeks of negative pressure wound therapy and dressing led to complete healing of the defect (both these patients received 20Gy neoadjuvant radiotherapy). Esthetic pleasant results, high patient satisfaction, and no significant motor impairment were recorded among all patients, excepting for just one patient who reports mild walking impairment and pain at sitting position, after the 6th month follow-up. None of the patient referred significant life quality impairment and all of them expressed general high satisfaction concerning reconstructive expectations. Conclusions Many flaps can be harvested to fill and close the large defect after eAPR, with respectively advantages and disadvantages, but we found the use composite gluteal flap technique suitable for most of the patients undergoing eAPR, with good functional results and low rates of morbidity and complications. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1325-8
  • The extended medial plantar artery (EMPA) free flap for plantar foot
    • Authors: Tomas Kempný; Martin Knoz; Bretislav Lipový
      Abstract: The medial plantar artery (MPA) flap was first introduced by Mir y Mir in 1954 and used to reconstruct a heel defect. The sole of the foot is designed to bear body weight and absorb the shocks of a bipedal gait. The properties of the plantar skin and deeper tissues are therefore highly specialised, and if normal function is to be restored, it is essential to replace “like with like” which is a fundamental principle of reconstructive surgery. The aim of this article is to introduce the concept of an extended medial plantar artery (EMPA) free flap for plantar foot defects. The advantage of the extended version of the MPA flap in the presented cases is the harvest of a larger bulk of tissue and thus the possibility of covering larger defects in the weight-bearing area of the foot. Level of Evidence: Level V, therapeutic study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00238-017-1324-9
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