Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2626 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2626 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
aBIOTECH : An Intl. J. on Plant Biotechnology and Agricultural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adversity and Resilience Science : J. of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Functional Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Agroforestry Systems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.663
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 20  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0167-4366 - ISSN (Online) 1572-9680
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Exploring farmer perceptions of agroforestry via multi-objective
           optimisation: a test application in Eastern Panama

    • Abstract: Understanding farmers’ perceptions of and preferences towards agroforestry is essential to identify systems with the greatest likelihood of adoption to inform successful rural development projects. In this study we offer a novel approach for evaluating agroforestry systems from the farmer perspective. The approach couples rapid rural appraisal and normative optimisation techniques to determine favourable land-use compositions for meeting various socio-economic and ecological goals, based on farmers’ empirical knowledge and preferences. We test our approach among smallholder farmers in Eastern Panama, obtaining data from household interviews and using hierarchical cluster analysis to identify farm groups with similar land-use and income characteristics. We found that moderate differences in farmers’ perceptions between these groups altered the type and share of agroforestry included in the optimised land-use portfolios that balance the achievement of 10 pre-selected socio-economic and ecological objectives. Such differences provide valuable information about potential acceptability of agroforestry within each group. For example, we found that farmers who derive most of their farm income from crops may be more willing to adopt silvopasture, whereas farmers who are more economically dependent on cattle may benefit from diversifying their land-use with alley cropping. We discuss the potential of this modelling approach for participatory land-use planning, especially when dealing with small sample sizes and uncertainty in datasets.
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
       
  • Acrocomia aculeata fruits from three regions in Costa Rica: an assessment
           of biometric parameters, oil content and oil fatty acid composition to
           evaluate industrial potential

    • Abstract: Due to increased global demand for vegetable oils, diversification of the supply chain with sustainable sources is necessary. Acrocomia aculeata has recently gained attention as a multi-purpose, sustainable crop for oil production. However, the information necessary for effective selection of promising varieties for agricultural production is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess variability in fruit morphology and oil composition of individual Acrocomia aculeata plants growing wild in different climatic regions of Costa Rica. Fruits at the same ripening stage were collected at three locations, and biometric features, oil content, fatty acid composition of oils from kernels and pulp, as well as fiber composition of husks were determined. Biometric parameters showed high variability among the regions assessed. Moreover, oil content and relative proportions of unsaturated fatty acids were higher at the most tropical location, whereas lauric acid content was lowest under these conditions, indicating a potential environmental effect on oil composition. Pulp oil content correlated positively with annual precipitation and relative humidity, but no clear relation to temperature was observed. The oil chemical composition was similar to that reported for Elaeis guineensis, suggesting that Acrocomia aculeata from Costa Rica may be a suitable alternative for industrial applications currently based on African palm oil. Analysis of husks as a coproduct revealed the possibility of obtaining materials with high lignin and low water and ash contents that could be used as a solid bioenergy source. In conclusion, Acrocomia aculeata oil is a promising alternative for industrial applications currently based on African palm oil and byproducts of its oil production could find additional use as a renewable energy source.
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
       
  • Exploring transformational outcomes from donor investments in agroforestry
           research for development

    • Abstract: While many agroforestry research projects contribute to improving food security, livelihoods and management of natural resources, few have had a significant role in achieving transformational development outcomes. Evaluating the achievements and impacts of multiple research for development (R4D) projects improves understanding of how and why different development interventions work or don’t work. This paper evaluates the relative success of 15 completed agroforestry R4D projects, funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, and analyses key success factors and other aspects that have contributed to differential project success. The evaluation found that six projects had achieved both high achievement of planned activities and had high impacts. The two key success factors considered by project scientists to have the greatest influence on project success were “good leadership and project management” and “collaborative scoping and design”, but the factor “links to impact pathways and user benefits” was also found to be a determinant of high achievement-high impact projects. The paper examines aspects of three most successful agroforestry projects, implemented in Eastern Africa, Vietnam and Papua New Guinea, that have enabled these projects to contribute to transformational development outcomes. These aspects included the development of simple farmer-friendly, locally-appropriate agroforestry technologies, the existence of supportive government policies and programs including effective mechanisms for dissemination of germplasm and tree-growing knowledge to farmers, the engagement of non-government organisations and private sector entities, and the willingness of the donor to invest in value-added product development, effective value-chains and market research.
      PubDate: 2020-06-21
       
  • The importance of non-forest tree stand features for protection of the
           Syrian Woodpecker Dendrocopos syriacus in agricultural landscape: a case
           study from South-Eastern Poland

    • Abstract: Non-forest tree stands are important habitats for many species of birds in the agricultural landscape. They are also the main habitat of the Syrian Woodpecker Dendrocopos syriacus, whose numbers have been decreasing in recent years in some parts of Europe. Recognition of the habitat requirements of this species may help better planning of its protection in the context of the treed agricultural landscapes. During this study, the habitat preferences of the Syrian Woodpecker were determined in the agricultural landscape of South-Eastern Poland. A set of 12 habitat parameters of tree stands located in the breeding territories of the Syrian Woodpecker (n = 122) and in randomly chosen control areas (n = 122) located outside the range of the breeding territories of this species were characterized. The number and species diversity of trees was significantly higher in stands located in Syrian Woodpecker territories than in the random control areas. Stands occupied by breeding pairs also had trees of worse health condition and a larger proportion of fruit trees. The model best explaining the probability of the occurrence of the species indicates that the Syrian Woodpecker requires mainly the presence of tree stands with a greater species diversity of trees, as well as tree stands in worse health condition. When planning the protection of this species’ habitats in the agricultural landscape, the characteristics of non-forest tree stands noted above should be taken into account.
      PubDate: 2020-05-13
       
  • Towards bamboo agroforestry development in Ghana: evaluation of crop
           performance, soil properties and economic benefit

    • Abstract: In the quest to promote bamboo agroforestry in the dry semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana, we evaluated changes in soil properties, crop productivity and the economic potential of a bamboo-based intercropping system. The intercropping system was established from 3-months old sympodial bamboo (Bambusa balcooa) seedlings planted at a 5 m × 5 m spacing and intercropped with maize, cassava or cowpea. Separate monocropping fields for maize, cassava, cowpea and bamboo were set up adjacent to the intercropped field. In both the intercropping and monocropping fields, plots were with fertilizer treatments and without. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with four replicates and studied over three years. Economic analysis was conducted using the financial benefit–cost ratio method. The results showed that regardless of fertilizer treatments, bamboo agroforestry and monocropped fields had comparable effects on soil properties and crop productivity within two years of establishment. In the third year, however, bamboo agroforestry had significantly (p < 0.05) higher soil moisture, pH and crop productivity levels. An intercropping advantage over monocropping was evident for all crops with respective partial land equivalent ratios for fertilized and non-fertilized intercropped systems as follows: cowpea (1.37 and 1.54), maize (1.38 and 1.36), and cassava (1.12 and 1.19). The economic evaluation also indicated marginal profitability of bamboo intercropping over monocropping systems. From the results obtained, there are clear indications that where bamboo is a prioritized woody perennial, integrated systems with crops may be encouraged.
      PubDate: 2020-05-06
       
  • Over-yielding in temperate silvopastures: a meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Over-yielding in an intercropping system occurs when the productivity of the intercrop exceeds the overall productivity of the systems managed in segregation. The objective of this systematic review was to calculate the over-yielding of silvopastures compared to open pastures and forests, timber plantations, or orchards managed separately. A literature search was completed for comparisons of the productivity of these practices in temperate regions. Data collected from these studies included mean yields of timber or non-timber forest products, forages, and livestock, as well as the characteristics of the study site. Silvopasture practices improve the productivity of land typically managed separately for pasture or trees by 42–55%, depending on whether the productivity of the pastures is measured by livestock or forage output, respectively. In most cases, over-yielding occurred despite a reduction in individual forage, livestock, or tree productivity in the silvopastures. Calculating confidence intervals around these means was not feasible because standard errors were largely not reported or available. Some assumptions were made about the actual productivity of timber or non-timber forest products. This work illustrates the significant level of over-yielding that may be achieved by integrating trees, forages, and livestock into a single production system.
      PubDate: 2020-04-27
       
  • Biomass production and nutrient content of three agroforestry tree species
           growing on an acid Anthropic Ferralsol under recurrent harvesting at
           different cutting heights

    • Abstract: Agroforestry systems may alleviate challenges relating to soil degradation and low livestock production for smallholder farmers. Species-adjusted management regimes will determine how agroforestry fits in farming systems. Long-term productivity of biomass in agroforestry systems managed for fodder production requires tree species that coppice after repeated cutting. This study evaluated the effect of different cutting heights (0.3 and 1.0 m) and repeated harvests (1–5) on biomass production and chemical composition of the leguminous trees Acacia angustissima, Leucaena pallida and Mimosa scabrella in a field study on an Anthropic Ferralsol in Southern Rwanda. Shoot biomass production was highest at 0.3 m cutting height for A. angustissima and L. pallida, but M. scabrella could not survive that cutting height. Shoot biomass was highest for A. angustissima and lowest for M. scabrella, which did not adapt to repeated harvests. Leaf:stem ratio was not affected by cutting height. Cutting height did not affect crude protein (CP), but neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total polyphenol (TP) concentrations were higher at 1.0 m cutting height than at 0.3 m. Crude protein was highest in A. angustissima and lowest in M. scabrella, while NDF and ADF were highest in M. scabrella. Although all species provided high feed quality in terms of high CP content at both cutting heights, low cutting height (0.3 m) is recommended for A. angustissima and L. pallida for higher overall quality and biomass production.
      PubDate: 2020-01-29
       
  • Carbon and nitrogen accumulation within four black walnut alley cropping
           sites across Missouri and Arkansas, USA

    • Abstract: Agroforestry systems that integrate useful long-lived trees have been recognized for their potential in mitigating the accumulation of atmospheric fossil fuel-derived carbon (C). Black walnut (Juglans nigra) is frequently planted and cultivated in North America for its valuable lumber and edible nuts, and is highly amenable to the integration of understory crops or livestock in agroforestry systems. However, little is known about C content in black walnut trees, including the amounts of C assimilated into lignocellulosic tissues within different tree compartments. Therefore, allometric equations for above- and below-ground compartments of 10-year-old black walnut trees across diverse locations were developed. Ten grafted black walnut trees from each of four sites across the midwestern USA were destructively harvested for above- and below-ground biomass, and dry biomass weight (DWw), C (Cw) and nitrogen (N; Nw) stocks were quantified. Soils surrounding the harvested trees were sampled and analyzed for soil organic C (SOC) and total N (TN). Total DWw ranged from 27 to 54 kg tree−1, with woody tissues containing an average of 467 g kg−1 C and 3.5 g kg−1 N. Woody tissues differed in Cw and Nw across location, and above-ground sections contained more C and less N compared with most root tissues. The slopes of the allometric equations did not differ significantly among locations, while intercepts did, indicating that trees only differed in initial size across locations. SOC and TN did not vary in distance from the trees, likely because the trees were not yet old enough to have impacted the surrounding soils. Our results establish a foundation for quantifying C and N stocks in newly established black walnut alley cropping systems across diverse environments.
      PubDate: 2020-01-24
       
  • Economic evaluation of the honey yield from four forest tree species and
           the future prospect of the forest beekeeping in Sudan

    • Abstract: The present study is an investigation into beekeeping activity values as land use types practiced in Sudanese forests. The main objectives of the study are to estimate honey yield produced per unit area from four tree species, namely: Acacia seyal, A. nilotica, Ziziphus spina-Christi and Eucalyptus spp. Furthermore, the study aims at estimating its economic value and financial return (US$/hectare) using Return On Investment (ROI) as a decision criterion. In addition, the study aims at identifying the obstacles and constraints which this activity faces. The data were collected through interviews with 96 beekeepers in six selected production areas and a survey of market-related data. A structured questionnaire was used, and a descriptive and comparative analysis carried out. The results indicated that the average annual yield of honey/bee hives is 13 kg, ranging between 10 and 16 kg, and A. seyal showed the highest productivity. Furthermore, the results showed that 15 bee colonies/hectare is more suitable with a return rate of 780 US$/hectare annual income. This result indicates that the productivity of honey yield from forest trees has a considerable economic value and financial return. Thus, these results could be a great incentive to encourage local communities to integrate forest management.
      PubDate: 2020-01-02
       
  • Browse potential of bristly locust, smooth sumac, and sericea lespedeza
           for small ruminants

    • Abstract: Temperate grass and legume yield and quality are markedly reduced during hot, dry summer months in the southern USA; therefore, browse species could add feed options for small ruminants during this season. Our objective was to compare total biomass yield and forage nutritive value of two browse species, leguminous bristly locust (Robinia hispida) and smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), as well as a leguminous shrub known as sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneate), during summer months (June, July, August and September). Plants were sampled monthly during growing-seasons in 2012 and 2013 to determine biomass yield (foliar, shoot, and total above ground) and foliar nutritive value [crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and condensed tannins (CT)]. There was a species × harvest time interaction for foliar biomass yield (P = 0.0125). This interaction was likely due to low yield in June for bristly locust compared with sericea lespedeza and smooth sumac, but in all other months (July, August, and September) yields were similar for each species. Bristly locust had the highest CP (16.9%), followed by sericea lespedeza (14.8%), and smooth sumac (12.3%). Acid detergent fiber and ADL were similar between bristly locust (ADF 38.5%; ADL 24.1%) and sericea lespedeza (ADF 38.4%; ADL 23.1%), but was lower for smooth sumac (ADF 22.1%, ADL 6.3%; P < 0.05). Condensed tannins, an anti-nutritive yet anti-parasitic phenolic compounds, were highest in smooth sumac, intermediate in bristly locust, and lowest in sericea lespedeza. Plant foliar percentage (ratio of foliar to shoot mass), was highest in smooth sumac (55.1%), followed by sericea lespedeza (47.7%), and bristly locust (42.6%). Overall, smooth sumac had the highest foliar biomass and lowest ADF and ADL; however, this species had the lowest CP and highest CT. Consequently, average foliar biomass yield of all three browse species in our study far exceeded forage yield from dominant forage species [tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) and bermudagrass (Cyanodon dactylon)] in this region and may provide high-yielding, low input, anti-parasitic fodder for small ruminants during this period in the Southeastern U.S.
      PubDate: 2019-12-27
       
  • The utility of farmer ranking of tree attributes for selecting companion
           trees in coffee production systems

    • Abstract: There is increasing interest in the potential of agroforestry to improve the productivity and sustainability of coffee production, but designing management options is knowledge intensive. Tree-crop interactions and the biophysical and socio-economic factors influencing farmers’ decision-making about companion trees are complex and context-specific but fine scale data relating to them are rarely available. A novel method was used to analyse trees ranked by farmers for a range of attributes and evaluate the consistency of farmers’ knowledge underpinning decisions about tree management in coffee production systems in Rwanda. Farmers’ knowledge about tree planting was changing, in line with new shade management recommendations being promoted alongside a limited number of tree species, often freely distributed through eco-certification initiatives. Farmers had detailed knowledge about soil and water conservation processes associated with trees, but they traded these off against perceived competition for light, water and nutrients with coffee. The competitiveness of trees with coffee was influenced by combinations of attributes related to: crown architecture, foliage properties and growth patterns; as well as how trees responded to management, and, their utility. Farmers consistently ranked 20 tree species for 12 attributes (five related to ecology, four to management and three to utility). Given the paucity of data on tree attributes for many species, systematically acquired and consistent local knowledge complements global scientific information and can be useful in bridging knowledge gaps relating to the integration of tree diversity in coffee production systems, which is an increasingly important strategy for smallholder farmers adapting to climate change.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Apricot-based agroforestry system in Southern Xinjiang Province of China:
           influence on yield and quality of intercropping wheat

    • Abstract: Agroforestry is a common traditional practice in China, especially in Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China. However, the productivity of many agroforestry systems has been lower than expected in recent years. We chose an apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)/wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) intercropping system to investigate the influence of apricot tree shade intensity on the grain yield and quality of intercropping wheat in Southern Xinjiang Province. We found that the mean daily light intensity in the east-row, inter-row, and west-row positions (apricot trees were planted in north–south orientation) in the intercropping systems decreased by 61.5%, 42.2%, and 63.6%, respectively, compared to the monoculture wheat. Correspondingly, the mean daily photosynthesis rate decreased by 52.0%, 28.4%, and 38.8%, respectively. The total florets, fertile florets, total spikelets, fertile spikelets, and grain yield and its components (including spike number, grains per spike, and thousand grain weight), and the total N and P contents of intercropping wheat in apricot-based intercropping systems were all significantly decreased compared to monoculture wheat. However, the protein content and wet gluten content of intercropped wheat were significantly increased compared to monoculture wheat. We did not find significant differences in any parameters among east-row, inter-row, and west-row positions in intercropping systems.
      PubDate: 2019-06-17
       
  • Regenerated trees in farmers’ fields increase soil carbon across the
           Sahel

    • Abstract: In the current debate on the role of increase soil carbon in addressing both climate change and food security, there is consensus that farmed lands have the higher potential provided the best management practices are implemented. In the Sahel where farms usually have few sparse old trees with declining soil fertility, there is an ongoing re-greening process with increases in tree cover for which there is still a dearth of quantified information on its impacts on soil properties. This research aimed at filling that gap. We sampled soil using a concentric zone design around individual trees of dominant species and at different soil depths (0–10, 10–30, 30–50 and 50–70 cm) in four Sahelian countries: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal. The results showed increase total carbon content of the top 0–10 cm soil, generally with high sand content (> 70%), ranged from 0.16 to 0.44% (mean 0.23%). Under trees it was a factor 1.04–1.47 higher than away from trees. Different tree species thrived in different ecological niches and had different impacts on soil properties, highlighting the need for site and species matching in restoration activities. These results suggest that increase vegetation cover in the Sahel is associated with an increase in soil total carbon and this trend is more pronounced on sandy soils.
      PubDate: 2019-05-25
       
  • Food production and gender relations in multifunctional landscapes: a
           literature review

    • Abstract: High expectations are put to multifunctional land use systems that they can provide solutions to the increasing global demand for land and food. In this literature review, we ask whether multifunctional landscapes hold specific opportunities for women in enhancing food production and security in a context of gender inequality guided by a framework of access to productive resources and commercialisation. We review 104 scientific articles dealing with food production and security in a range of multifunctional land use systems across Africa, Asia and Latin America, including agroforestry, homegardens, livestock systems and urban agriculture. We find that the specific role of a landscape’s multifunctionality for women’s opportunities to enhance food security, is rarely explicitly examined in scientific literature. Our review shows that in a multifunctional setting, the products controlled by women are often secondary and far from markets, and therefore they risk being ignored in decision-making or by policy makers. Further, efforts to increase the value of traditionally “female products” risk having adverse effects on women’s empowerment, in cases where powerful actors take over all or parts of the value chain, or appropriate the benefits. To remove these barriers traditional gender roles have to change. However, the instability of gender relations can also work in women’s favour in a multifunctional landscape where several products and production systems exist, providing opportunities to claim new roles or resources, especially in the context of changing external circumstances, such as urbanization, a shift from pastoralism to sedentary livelihoods, or an expansion of the monetary economy.
      PubDate: 2019-05-03
       
  • Effects of defoliation by the edible caterpillar “chitoumou” ( Cirina
           butyrospermi ) on harvests of shea ( Vitellaria paradoxa ) and growth of
           maize ( Zea mays )

    • Abstract: Edible insects are found in agricultural systems worldwide, and are an important source of food and income. However, many edible insects are also pests of important food crops, which raises the question of how far their presence might be costly to farmers in terms of reduced crop yields. In this study we aimed to understand the impact of defoliation of shea trees by edible caterpillars on yields of shea and maize in a mixed agroforestry system in Burkina Faso, West Africa. We collected field data in two consecutive years. Our results suggest that tree defoliation by caterpillars has no effect on shea fruit yields, and that defoliation may have a positive effect on maize productivity. We conclude that this appears to be an example of an agricultural system in which nutritionally and economically important plants and insects are both harvested by humans without risking yield reductions of harvested plants.
      PubDate: 2019-04-03
       
  • Contribution of agroforestry to climate change mitigation and livelihoods
           in Western Kenya

    • Abstract: We test the hypothesis that agroforestry improves livelihoods and mitigates climate change in smallholder farming systems simultaneously. Data were collected using household surveys and standard biomass assessment approaches using locally relevant allometric equations. Summary statistics and regression analyses reveal linkages between on-farm carbon stocks and farm- and household characteristics. With an average of 4.07 ± 0.68 Mg C ha−1 and Shannon diversity index of 3.06, farm carbon stocks were significantly associated with farm size (r = 0.453, p < 0.05), tree density (r = − 0.58, p = 0.05) and the average size of trees on farm (r = − 0.42, p = 0.05), but not by Shannon diversity index (r = 0.36, p = 0.080), species richness (r = − 0.044, p = 0.833) or the number of land use categories (r = − 0.192, p = 0.356). Timber was considered the most important use of on-farm trees before firewood and construction material. The results suggest that gaining self-sufficiency in firewood is the most important benefit with on-farm carbon accumulation. The focus on exotic species for timber production presents a considerable trade-off between livelihood options and environmental goals. Heterogeneity in local environmental conditions over very short distances, less than 12 km, significantly determine livelihood strategies and on-farm carbon stocks. These results ostensibly contradict that carbon storage in smallholder farms is determined by diversity of tree species, suggest that livelihood strategy can equally drive carbon storage and demonstrate the diversity of livelihood and environmental benefits derived from trees on farms.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
       
  • Carbon revenue in the profitability of agroforestry relative to
           monocultures

    • Abstract: The impact of carbon revenue on the profitability of agroforestry systems in comparison to monocultures is unexplored in regard to Sub-Saharan Africa. This study creates a multivariate model to evaluate the impact of carbon revenue on the profitability of agroforestry relative to the dominant monocultures in Ethiopia by using stylized plots. Yields and carbon stock changes of eight agroforestry systems were modeled based on data from agroforestry plots in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley. According to our model, agroforestry was, on average, four times more profitable than the main monoculture systems (wheat, barley, maize, teff, sorghum, sugarcane and lentil) even when carbon revenues were excluded, primarily due to the higher prices of fruit produce. Carbon revenues were estimated using a plausible carbon price ranging from US$8/tCO2e to $40/tCO2e and carbon sequestration rates of 0.59 to 17.2 Mg C ha−1 year−1. The possibility of receiving carbon revenue increased the profitability of agroforestry by 0.5% when using the lowest utilized carbon price and carbon sequestration rate, by 20% when using the carbon price of $20 and the average carbon sequestration rate, and by 70% when using the highest price and highest sequestration rate of carbon. On average, carbon revenue increased the profitability of agroforestry by 150% in comparison to monoculture farming. We conclude that carbon income may have significant potential to motivate smallholders to convert to agroforestry when there is a proper management system, a sufficiently high carbon price and effective institutional support to mitigate the transition and transaction costs.
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
       
  • Long-term yields of oilseed rape and winter wheat in a short rotation
           alley cropping agroforestry system

    • Abstract: Alley cropping agroforestry systems (ACS) are ascribed to have manifold positive ecological effects; nevertheless their application is still limited due to uncertain productivity of the agricultural crop, especially in the tree-crop competition zone. Therefore, this study investigated the variability of oilseed rape and winter wheat yield, respectively, at different distances from the tree strip edge in 2016 and 2017 in an ACS established in 2008 in northern Germany. The ACS consisted of strips of fast-growing poplars alternating with narrow (48 m) and wide (96 m) crop alleys, each with a crop rotation including winter oilseed rape and winter wheat. Each tree strip contained 6 rows of poplars with a density of 10,000 trees per ha. Moreover, multi-year (2009–2016) crop yield data of oilseed rape and winter wheat in the narrow and wide crop alleys were compared with those of a corresponding non-agroforestry control field. In general, crop yields observed in 2016 and 2017 in the narrow crop alleys at 1 m from the tree strip edges were on average 77% (oilseed rape) and 55% (winter wheat) lower than in the middle of the crop alley. One reason for low yield close to the tree strips might be the leaf litter coverage of the seedlings in autumn. Leaf litter deposition was highest at 1 m on the windward and the leeward side of the tree strips in 2015 and on the leeward side in 2016, respectively. However, the average long-term crop yields of the narrow crop alley, the wide crop alley and the control field did not differ substantially among each other. Although oilseed rape and winter wheat yields were lower close to the tree strips, this yield reduction did not negatively influence the average long-term crop yields of the ACS.
      PubDate: 2018-08-29
       
  • GIS approach to estimate windbreak crop yield effects in
           Kansas–Nebraska

    • Abstract: Windbreaks were originally promoted across the U.S. Great Plains to reduce wind erosion. A review paper published nearly 30 years ago showed yield increases for a variety of crops associated with windbreaks. However, with the widespread use of no-till cropping systems and advanced crop genetics, the question is “Do windbreaks still provide a yield benefit'” This study compared data from protected and unprotected fields over multiple years across Kansas and Nebraska looking at relative soybean (Glycine max L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield differences. Farmer’s pre-existing georeferenced data, generated by automated combine yield monitors, were analyzed with ArcGIS 10.3.1 to visualize windbreak interaction with crop yield. Statistics were conducted to determine if the yield in protected areas of the field was significantly different from the yield in unprotected areas. Also, yield loss was estimated from the windbreak footprint to assess if yield increases were enough to compensate for the area taken out of crop production. Results showed: soybeans (57 crop/years) presented the most positive response to windbreak effect with significant yield increases 46% of the time, with a 16% (283 kg ha−1) average yield increase. Wheat (44 crop/years) yield increases were significant 30% of the time, with a 10% (319 kg ha−1) average yield increase. Narrow windbreaks (1–2 tree rows, average width of 13 m) and those on the north edge of fields resulted in yield increases that compensated for the footprint of the windbreak more often (71%) than wider windbreaks on the south edges of fields (38%).
      PubDate: 2018-07-25
       
  • Species association in Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge communities and
           selection for agroforestry establishment

    • Abstract: We embraced the “learning from nature and back to nature” paradigm to develop viable agroforestry scenarios through studying species association in 12 wild yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium: a Chinese endemic oil woody plants) communities. We identified 18 species combinations for their suitability as agroforestry mixes where positive associations were detected and thus economic benefits are anticipated. In each wild yellowhorn community, we use nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination to assess community structure and composition, and the climatic variables that most likely influenced existing species distributions. Next, pairwise and multiple species associations were evaluated using several multiple species association indices (e.g., χ2, Jaccard, Ochiai, Dice). Generally, all species association indices were in agreement and were helpful in identifying several high valued medicinal species that showed positive and significant associations with yellowhorn. Finally, we proposed several agroforestry species mixes suitable for yellowhorn.
      PubDate: 2018-06-26
       
 
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