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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Agroforestry Systems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.663
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 20  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-9680 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4366
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • What is the future for agroforestry in Italy'
    • Authors: Pierluigi Paris; Francesca Camilli; Adolfo Rosati; Alberto Mantino; Giustino Mezzalira; Cristina Dalla Valle; Antonello Franca; Giovanna Seddaiu; Andrea Pisanelli; Marco Lauteri; Antonio Brunori; Giovanni Antonio Re; Federico Sanna; Giorgio Ragaglini; Marcello Mele; Viviana Ferrario; Paul J. Burgess
      Abstract: The successful promotion of agroforestry in Italy depends on both a recognition of tradition and the opportunities for innovation. In Italy, agroforestry has traditionally been a key component of landscape management. Complex systems, based on the integration among crops–livestock–fruit/forest trees, provided a wide variety of products (e.g. food, feed, fibers, fuelwood and timber) and other ecosystem services (e.g. soil erosion control and biodiversity preservation). Silvopastoral systems have been used for centuries and are still managed in marginal areas. The integration of fruits trees (in primis olive trees) with crops and grazing was widely practiced and is still profitable. Coltura promiscua was historically developed integrating fruit and forest trees and particularly multifunctional trees (e.g. Juglans regia L. and Prunus avium L.) to support vines and intercrops. Building on recent research, projects have also focused on innovation in agroforestry. The adoption of shade tolerant forage species and crops has been studied in silvopastoral and olive systems. Silvopastoral systems can significantly offset the greenhouse gas emissions produced by livestock and shield grazing animals from “heat waves”. Integration of fast growing timber trees (like Populus) in arable systems can help reverse the decline in plantation forestry in Italy. Finally, the constraints imposed by the EU agricultural policy, especially the prevalent provisions for monocrops severely limiting the introduction of innovative agroforestry approaches, are discussed. New political measures and certification actions are strongly required.
      PubDate: 2019-01-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-019-00346-y
  • Designing multifunctional woody polycultures according to landowner
           preferences in Central Illinois
    • Authors: Erik Christian Stanek; Sarah Taylor Lovell; Ann Reisner
      Abstract: Multifunctional woody polycultures (MWPs) are an alternative agricultural practice gaining interest in the U.S. Corn Belt as an option for combining agricultural production and conservation goals. MWPs integrate fruit, nut, timber, and/or bioenergy crops adjacent to annual crops. Previous studies revealed that landowners lack adequate information to make informed decisions regarding the adoption of MWPs. Following up on that work, this study engaged with 15 rural landowners in the Upper Sangamon River Watershed of Central Illinois to identify their design preferences, their information needs, and the adoption potential for MWPs. Landowner-specific designs were constructed based on three predefined alternative scenarios distinguished by their focus on: (1) production, (2) conservation, or (3) cultural functions. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with landowners before and after the design process. Results from quantitative analysis and qualitative interpretation showed landowners preferred designs that integrated high levels of edible nuts and berries in an efficient, machine-harvestable arrangement. Nut-producing species, notably northern-adapted varieties of pecan (Carya illinoinensis), were the most preferred. The most influential motivators for the design and adoption of MWPs were utilizing high-value edible crops, improving pollinator and wildlife habitat, and increasing productivity of marginal land. While important, landowners felt these motivators still did not overcome limitations in the practical application of MWPs due to a lack of harvest machinery, of post-harvest processing facilities, and of accessible markets. The study findings demonstrate that a lack of reliable economic, marketing, and management information severely constrains the adoption potential of MWPs despite landowner interest in using MWPs on marginal lands.
      PubDate: 2019-01-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-019-00350-2
  • Natural attributes of Chilean honeys modified by the presence of
           neonicotinoids residues
    • Authors: Enrique Mejias; Carlos Gómez; Tatiana Garrido; Paulina Godoy; Miguel Gómez; Gloria Montenegro
      Abstract: Honeys in Chile are produced from native and endemic plant species that, due to phenolic compounds, present beneficial biological attributes. However, certain undesirable pollutants can exist in honeys from beehives located near agricultural crops or commercial industries. Neonicotinoids are a widely used pesticide group in farming, despite acute, negative effects to bee health. Indeed, neonicotinoids are associated with colony collapse disorder, one of the main causes for increased death rates in bee populations. Declining bee health in Chile may consequently be related to neonicotinoids exposure. To assess this threat, honey samples collected from different regions in Chile were analyzed to quantify phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, and the presence of four neonicotinoids (i.e., thiamethoxam, thiacloprid, acetamiprid, and imidacloprid). Pesticide-free honey samples were also fortified with three concentrations of the four neonicotinoids to evaluate changes in the chemical properties of honey. Total phenol contents decreased and antioxidant activity increased in relation to the assessed fortification concentrations. Since the agricultural use of neonicotinoids has been related to those negatives damages for bee health, in Chile, beehives should be strategically located to prevent the contamination of honeys with neonicotinoid pesticides.
      PubDate: 2019-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-019-00345-z
  • Structure and above ground biomass along an elevation small-scale
           gradient: case study in an Evergreen Andean Amazon forest, Ecuador
    • Authors: Bolier Torres; Liette Vasseur; Rolando López; Pablo Lozano; Yudel García; Yasiel Arteaga; Carlos Bravo; Cecilio Barba; Antón García
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine how tree diversity, richness, and structural characteristics as well as above-ground biomass varies along a small-scale elevation gradient from 601 to 1000 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.) in an Evergreen Andean Amazon forest and their implications in terms of carbon storage. Trees with diameter at breast height greater than 10 cm were surveyed in 20 permanent 0.1 ha plots, five at each elevation site. We determined species richness, density, basal area, aerial biomass and calculated a biomass importance value (BIV). The 1378 trees surveyed were mainly contained in the families Moraceae (17 species) Fabaceae (16) and Meliaceae (10). Species richness significantly increased (P < 0.007) along the small-scale elevation gradient and was greatest in the range of 901–1000 m.a.s.l. Aerial biomass varied between 246.8 and 320.9 Mega grams per hectare (Mg ha−1) and did not differ along the gradient (P > 0.579). At the highest tree density, the highest BIV of Iriartea deltoidea was found at 601–900 m.a.s.l. The disproportionate contribution of a few species, some being the least abundant but with high AGB in our surveys (e.g., Sterculia sp., Nectandra sp., Ficus sp., and Inga sp.) to carbon stocks is important to consider in furture research on carbon sequestration. As the production of above-ground biomass was concentrated in a few species, some uncommon, decision making in reforestation programs and how species should be selected may have implications when measuring and promoting carbon storage.
      PubDate: 2019-01-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-00342-8
  • Potential of wild annual legumes for mountain pasture restoration at two
           silvopastoral sites in southern Spain: promising species and
           soil-improvement techniques
    • Authors: M. E. Ramos-Font; M. J. Tognetti-Barbieri; J. L. González-Rebollar; A. B. Robles-Cruz
      Abstract: This study evaluates the potential for pasture improvement and restoration at two silvopastoral sites. We used a total of 16 wild legume species under different management systems (rhizobial inoculation, mycorrhizal inoculation, sheep penning, and sheep penning with mycorrhizal inoculation), at two mountain sites in Sierra Nevada Natural Park (Granada, southern Spain). The first site, Soportújar, had higher soil fertility and rainfall than the second, Lanjarón. Forage yields in Soportújar ranged from 265 to 8970 kg DM ha−1, Vicia amphicarpa, Vicia monantha, Vicia disperma and Lathyrus clymenum being the most productive species. Mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in higher forage yields for Lens nigricans, V. disperma and Vicia lutea. Seed yields were low, ranging from 5.9 to 1234 kg ha−1. Forage yields in Lanjarón were lower, ranging from 46 to 1415 kg DM ha−1; and the most productive species were V. monantha, V. disperma, Lathyrus cicera and Medicago rigidula. Sheep penning alone and together with mycorrhizal treatment resulted in greater forage yields for most of the species studied, although differences were only significant for V. disperma, V. monantha and Lathyrus sphaericus. Seed yields ranged from 0.4 to 60 kg ha−1. In conclusion, we recommend V. monantha, V. disperma and L. cicera followed by V. amphicarpa and L. clymenum (in wetter more fertile sites) and M. rigidula (in drier sites), as they seem to be the best adapted to the pedoclimatic conditions of Sierra Nevada Natural Park. Increasing nutrients in the soil (by sheep penning) and promoting nutrient assimilation (by mycorrhizal inoculation) may be effective strategies for increasing pasture biomass in silvopastoral sites.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0340-5
  • Relationships between climate at origin and seedling traits in eight
           Panafrican provenances of Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn. under imposed
           drought stress
    • Authors: J. Bayala; Z. Sanon; P. Bazié; J. Sanou; O. Roupsard; C. Jourdan; A. Ræbild; B. Kelly; J. B. L. Okullo; M. Thiam; J. Yidana
      Pages: 1455 - 1467
      Abstract: The morphological responses of seedlings of eight African provenances of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea tree or Karité) to imposed draught stress were compared under nursery experimental conditions. The potted seedlings were subjected to three different watering regimes (87 days after sowing): no water stress (100% of the field capacity, C), moderate water stress (75% of C) and severe water stress (50% of C). Before the application of the stress, we observed genotypical differences in the morphological variables at the scale of leaves and of above-ground parts. The six-month water stress affected aerial growth: all provenances responded to drought by down-regulating growth (in height and in diameter), leaf number and area. Katawki provenance of Uganda performed relatively poorly, possibly of it being a nilotica subspecies, contrary to the others (paradoxa subspecies). There was a lack of correlation between climate of seeds origin, seed characteristics, seeds germination and survival rate of seedlings. The study confirmed the importance of leaf area in the vigor of the initial growth in this species. Thus, Tamale and Karaba provenances performed better than other West African provenances due to their larger leaf area, which was found to be a determining factor of relative growth in height at the seedling stage.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0091-8
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 6 (2018)
  • A 6-year longitudinal study on agrobiodiversity change in homegardens in
           Tabasco, México
    • Authors: A. A. Serrano-Ysunza; H. van der Wal; J. A. Gallardo-Cruz; D. E. Ramos-Muñoz; R. A. Vaca
      Pages: 1485 - 1494
      Abstract: Societal processes of rural change and globalization may change homegardens and their contribution to the conservation of agrobiodiversity, particularly of species occurring naturally in regional vegetation. The best way to determine if this occurs is through longitudinal studies. We conducted such a study, inventorying tree species in a sample of 38 homegardens in 2009, 2012 and 2015. The homegardens were located in the subregions of mountain slopes, fluvial plains and coastal plains in the tropical lowlands of Tabasco, Mexico. We analysed changes in species richness by geographic origin, species richness and species composition in each inventory. We identified 169 tree species in the three inventories, of which 74.6% were native or neotropical and 25.4% introduced. Of the 140 species recorded in 2009, 88% remained in 2015, whereas 12% had been replaced and nine additional species had arrived. Mean species richness increased between 2009 and 2015 (P = 0.03) and between 2012 and 2015 (P = 0.001). Increases resulted from increased mean neotropical (P = 0.01) and introduced (P = 0.01) species richness, and constant native species richness. Differences in species composition between the three subregions in 2009 persisted in 2012 and 2015 (P < 0.001 in all years). These results show how the highly dynamic character of homegardens combines with the renewal and persistence of their agrobiodiversity, and underpins the continued relevance of homegarden for agrobiodiversity conservation and livelihoods in tropical lowlands amidst rural change and globalization.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0094-5
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 6 (2018)
  • Agroforestry systems reduce invasive species richness and diversity in the
           surroundings of protected areas
    • Authors: Anaïs de Almeida Campos Cordeiro; Sara Deambrozi Coelho; Nina Celli Ramos; João Augusto Alves Meira-Neto
      Pages: 1495 - 1505
      Abstract: The Serra do Brigadeiro State Park (PESB) is one of the largest fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, and it is relevant for native species conservation. However, monocultures settled around the Park resulted in extensive open areas that facilitate the establishment of alien species on the PESB perimeter, which may threaten native species conservation therein, since biological invasion is the second main cause of global biodiversity loss. In this region, there are also farmers planting agroforestry systems (AFS), characterized by tree-based intercropping, which are structurally more similar to the Atlantic Rainforest reminiscent fragments present in the region and may limit local occurrence of potentially invasive exotic weeds for several reasons, such as the high levels of shade provided by trees, the groundcover that result from loss of tree leaves and the increased competition for belowground resources. This study aimed to test whether AFS limit exotic species establishment when compared to monoculture systems. Accordingly, three coffee monocultures and three agroforestry coffee plantations around the PESB were studied. In each of the six study areas, 30 plots of 1 m2 were established between the lines of coffee plantation, where all species present were surveyed. In both treatments, rarefaction curves were constructed to evaluate native and exotic richness, and diversity of these two categories was estimated through Simpson index inverse (1/D). All 13 sampled exotic species were present in monocultures, but only three of them occurred in AFS. Besides, alien diversity in monocultures ( \(1/D\)  = 2.173 ± 0.011) was significantly higher than in AFS ( \(1/D\)  = 1.031 ± 0.001). Such changes in alien plant community between land-use show that AFSs limit invasive species establishment. Therefore, when planted around protected areas, AFS may contribute to the control of biological invasions and to biodiversity conservation.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0095-4
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 6 (2018)
  • Habitat fragmentation and structure and composition of tree populations in
           a agroforestry landscape (southern Québec, Canada)
    • Authors: Diane Saint-Laurent; Jean-Sébastien Berthelot; Vernhar Gervais-Beaulac
      Pages: 1517 - 1534
      Abstract: A number of forests in agroforestry environments are at risk due to urban development or agricultural expansion. These forests often consist of patches of wooded areas scattered in the agricultural and urban grid, and often constitute green corridors that enable a flow between animal and plant species (migration corridors). This study evaluates the composition and structure of riparian forests in agroforestry areas that are subject to various natural and anthropogenic disturbances. This study aims to understand the dynamics of these riparian forest populations and evaluate the effects of the disturbances on the tree stands (e.g. floods, partial cutting), while taking into account their development over space and time based on a diachronic assessment from 1945 to 2010. Although these woodlands are subject to various disturbances, a fairly large diversity of tree species can be noted, and the regeneration of the saplings and small trees follows a normal growth curve (asymmetric) with a high contingency of young tree population comparable to a typical reverse-J distribution. However, lower densities are observed for riparian stands subject to frequent flooding, which could over time compromise recruitment and forest regeneration for some tree species (e.g. woody plants with weak adaptive strategies). The multivariate analyses (Redundancy Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis) conducted over all the soil, environmental and forest data reveal that some variables are more strongly related to the composition of the forest populations, including pH, ground litter and soil drainage. However, these variables must still be considered as being part of a set of interacting soil conditions. Lastly, the future of these woodlands may appear uncertain because there are no government policies or measures to ensure their protection and preservation.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0099-0
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 6 (2018)
  • Structure of pollarded oak forest in relation to aspect in Northern
           Zagros, Iran
    • Authors: L. Ghahramany; H. Ghazanfari; P. Fatehi; A. Valipour
      Pages: 1567 - 1577
      Abstract: We analyzed the structure of pollarded oak forest and biometric indices of pollarded oak species in relation to aspect in northern Zagros forests, western Iran. A number of 319 circular plots (0.1 ha) were established using a systematic random method over the study area. In each plot, for all trees (diameter at breast height ≥5 cm) diameter was measured and tree species was recorded. Total height, trunk height, and major and minor diameter axis of the crown of two trees in each plot (nearest tree to the center of the plot and the largest tree in term of diameter) were measured. As the dispersion of slope and altitude classes in the study area were identical, the effect of these factors was assumed to be constant. To evaluate the effect of aspect on biometric indices of oak trees a comparison was used for each oak species separately. The results indicated that the forest species composition differed statistically significant in main aspects except for easterly and westerly aspects (P < 0.01). The diameter of similar oak trees was significantly different except for Lebanon oak in northerly and southerly and Gall oak in easterly and westerly aspects (P < 0.01), but there was no significant difference between the total height and crown area of similar oak species in different aspects. Differences in diameter, height, and crown area distributions showed a significant difference in main aspects. The basal area and tree density in northerly and southerly aspects were significantly different (P < 0.05).
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0102-9
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 6 (2018)
  • Smallholder reforestation and livelihoods in the humid tropics: a
           systematic mapping study
    • Authors: Liz Ota; John Herbohn; Steve Harrison; Nestor Gregorio; Vera Lex Engel
      Pages: 1597 - 1609
      Abstract: Systematic mapping studies provide a snapshot of the literature based on systematic literature searches. In this systematic mapping study, the original research that links reforestation and livelihoods in the tropics was mapped and analysed to identify the trends, biases and gaps in the literature. In total, 339 papers from 92 journals were identified. Agroforestry Systems was the journal in which articles were most frequently published, and Cameroon and Indonesia the most frequently studied countries. The greatest number of authors came from the USA, and authors were most commonly affiliated with ICRAF. A limited collaboration between research groups in the tropical regions was identified. Anthropology and Social Sciences were the most frequent areas of research, especially in Africa. Latin America had more technical studies and more publications discussing payment for environmental services than the other regions. Based on the temporal analysis of the main terms in abstracts of the publications included, it was found that agriculture-related terms and terms related to the human component in the landscape were consistently prevalent in the literature relating reforestation and livelihoods throughout time. Agroforestry systems were especially important in small-scale reforestation and livelihoods. Trends, biases and gaps were discussed. Broader cooperation between tropical regions and between clusters of authors would be beneficial for research and practice.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0107-4
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 6 (2018)
  • Local tree knowledge can fast-track agroforestry recommendations for
           coffee smallholders along a climate gradient in Mount Elgon, Uganda
    • Authors: Gil Gram; Philippe Vaast; Just van der Wolf; Laurence Jassogne
      Pages: 1625 - 1638
      Abstract: Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) is economically important for many smallholder farmers in the Mount Elgon region of East Uganda, but its production is increasingly threatened by climate change. However, ecosystem services (ES) provided by companion trees in coffee agroforestry systems (AFS) can help farmers adapt to climate change. The objectives of this research were to develop agroforestry species recommendations and tailor these to the farmers’ needs and local context, taking into consideration gender. Local knowledge of agroforestry species and ES preferences was collected through farmer interviews and rankings. Using the Bradley-Terry approach, analysis was done along an altitudinal gradient in order to study different climate change scenarios for coffee suitability. Farmers had different needs in terms of ES and tree species at different altitudes, e.g. at low altitude they need a relatively larger set of ES to sustain their coffee production and livelihood. Local knowledge is found to be gender blind as no differences were observed in the rankings of species and ES by men and women. Ranking species by ES and ranking ES by preference is a useful method to help scientists and extension agents to use local knowledge for the development of recommendations on companion trees in AFS for smallholder farmers.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0111-8
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 6 (2018)
  • Potential of the APSIM model to simulate impacts of shading on maize
    • Authors: Aynalem Dilla; Philip J. Smethurst; Karen Barry; David Parsons; Mekuria Denboba
      Pages: 1699 - 1709
      Abstract: A number of agroforestry models have been developed to simulate growth outcomes based on the interactions between components of agroforestry systems. A major component of this interaction is the impact of shade from trees on crop growth and yield. Capability in the agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM) model to simulate the impacts of shading on crop performance could be particularly useful, as the model is already widely used to simulate agricultural crop production. To quantify and simulate the impacts of shading on maize performance without trees, a field experiment was conducted at Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre, Ethiopia. The treatments contained three levels of shading intensity that reduced incident radiation by 0 (control), 50 and 75% using shade cloth. Data from a similar field experiment at Machakos Research Station, Kenya, with 0, 25 and 50% shading were also used for simulation. APSIM adequately simulated maize grain yield (r2 = 0.97) and total above-ground biomass (r2 = 0.95) in the control and in the 50% treatments at Melkassa, and likewise in the control (r2 = 0.99), 25% (r2 = 0.90) and 50% (r2 = 0.98) treatments at Machakos. Similarly, APSIM effectively predicted Leaf Area Index attained at the flowering (r2 = 0.90) and maturity (r2 = 0.94) stages. However, APSIM under-estimated maize biomass and yield at 75% shading. In conclusion, the model can be reliably employed to simulate maize productivity in agroforestry systems with up to 50% shading, but caution is required at higher levels of shading.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0119-0
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 6 (2018)
  • Synthetic seed production by encapsulating nodal segment of Capparis
           decidua (Forsk.), in vitro regrowth of plantlets and their physio
           biochemical studies
    • Authors: Iram Siddique; Najat Abdullah Wahab Bukhari
      Pages: 1711 - 1719
      Abstract: Synthetic seed technology is an emerging and broadly used technique in the field of plant biotechnology to conserve economically important plants. In the present study, nodal segments of Capparis decidua were entrapped in calcium alginate gel matrix to produce firm and uniform synthetic seeds. 3% sodium alginate and 75 mM calcium chloride were found best for encapsulation. Among all the concentrations and combinations of thidiazuron (TDZ) either singly or with indole -3- acetic acid (IAA) augmented in Murashige and Skoog medium used, TDZ (5.0 µM) + IAA (0.5 µM) was found most effective in conversion of synthetic seeds into plantlets as 79% plantlets were developed on this combination with 13.2 ± 0.87 shoots and 5.5 ± 0.40 cm shoot length after 8 weeks of culture. Further, synthetic seeds stored at low temperature (4 °C) can retain their viability up to 4 weeks and showed maximum conversion rate (93%) into plantlets, when placed back to regeneration medium. Root formation was also occurred in the same regeneration medium and roots were healthy. Plantlets were successfully hardened in culture room in plastic cups filled with sterile vermiculite and after 4 weeks, they were transferred to greenhouse where they exhibited normal growth with 80% survival. Growth parameters were evaluated in micropropagated plants and compared with the seedlings of same age. Effect of different days of acclimatization were also recorded on various physio-biochemical activities and showed a positive response that can be interpreted as better protection mechanism of micropropagated plants against the stress possibly generated due to reactive oxygen species when transferred to ex vitro environment.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0120-7
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effects of seed viability and pre-treatments on seed germination of two
           indigenous species— Strychnos cocculoides Baker and Guibourtia
           coleosperma (Benth.) Leonard in Namibia
    • Authors: Hleni T. N. Heita; Hannel Ham; Sylvanus Mensah
      Abstract: Strychnos cocculoides Baker (Monkey orange) and Guibourtia coleosperma (Benth.) Leonard (False mopane) are two socio-economically important indigenous species for rural communities in the northern regions of Namibia. The exploitation of these indigenous species is causing rapid declines in the goods and services produced. In addition, nursery experiments to assist the germination of these indigenous woodland trees are limited. This study aimed at investigating the effects of six pre-treatments [control, cold water (15 °C), warm water (50 °C), hot water (90 °C), scarification and chemical with 32% HCl] on the seed germination of both species. Prior to the pre-treatments, sample seeds were tested for viability using the tetrazolium and rag doll tests. This was conducted to determine whether the seeds used in this study were viable and had a germination potential. For both species, over 80% seeds were viable with the tetrazolium test. Germination results indicated a significant difference between the six pre-treatments, which was more pronounced for S. cocculoides than for G. coleosperma. For S. cocculoides seeds, warm water (80%), cold water (70%) and control (untreated seeds) (63%) yielded greater percentages of germination than hot water (40%), scarification (3%) and HCI-chemical (0%) after 7 weeks of germination. For G. coleosperma seeds, warm water (83%), cold water (80%), control (80%) and hot water (70%) produced the highest percentage of germination, compared to chemical (67%) and scarification (67%) pre-treatments. The control, cold and warm water pre-treatments showed germination of S. cocculoides seeds within 3 weeks of sowing, while for other treatments, seeds only germinated 4 weeks after sowing. Guibourtia coleosperma untreated and warm water-treated seeds germinated earlier (week 2) compared to the other pre-treatments, for which germination only occurred during week 3. Therefore, the study recommends warm water as an ideal pre-treatment to promote germination in S. cocculoides and G. coleosperma species. Potential future studies could investigate effect of different temperatures and photoperiods on the germination percentage of the two species.
      PubDate: 2018-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0333-4
  • Pollarding wide-spaced poplar trees on pastoral hillslopes alters root
    • Authors: Ian McIvor; Grant Douglas; Carlo van den Dijssel; Duncan Hedderley; Shona Brock
      Abstract: Pollarding is a management tool for controlling height of poplars in pastoral hill country. This tool has potential to enhance understorey pasture growth without severely compromising erosion control functions. However, if pollarding reduces the rate and extent of root development then pollarding could reduce tree effectiveness in soil conservation. We hypothesised that (1) pollarding will reduce the mass, length and extension of the root system and (2) that pollarding at the younger age of 8 years will be more detrimental to the root system than pollarding at 12 years (when the root system is more developed). Three treatments, unpollarded (UP), pollarded at ages 8 years (P08), and 12 years (P12) were imposed on wide-spaced Populus × euramericana ‘Veronese’ trees growing on a pastoral hillslope. Tree root systems were excavated at 8 (2 trees), 12 (4 trees) and 16 (4 trees) years and root length (RL), root mass (RM) and root spread of coarse roots determined. A model was developed to predict the effect of pollarding of Populus × euramericana ‘Veronese’ on coarse root production. Pollarding at ~ 20 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) when the trees were aged 8 years reduced DBH growth in the following 4 years by 24%, RL by 60% and RM by 66%. Trees in the PO8 treatment had significantly less RL and RM below 0.5 m depth within 2 m of the trunk than trees in the UP12 and P12 treatments. At 16 years, P08 trees had reached a comparable DBH with P12 trees, and while RM was 28% less for P08 trees, RL was 13% greater and specific RL was 58% greater. Trees pollarded either at DBH ~ 20 cm (8 years) or at a DBH of ~ 28 cm (12 years) did not differ significantly in RL or RM at age 16 years. At 4 years, and 8 years, following pollarding, RL and RM for the pollarded trees were 35% and 53% less respectively, and 32% and 68% respectively, than RL and RM modelled for UP trees of the same DBH. The model suggests pollarding trees may promote RL at the expense of RM thereby enhancing soil-root contact.
      PubDate: 2018-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0341-4
  • Biochar enhancement of facilitation effects in agroforestry: early growth
           and physiological responses in a maize-leucaena model system
    • Authors: S. C. Thomas; M. A. Halim; N. V. Gale; L. Sujeeun
      Abstract: Biochar, or pyrolyzed organic matter intended for use as a soil amendment, has a variety of properties of interest from the perspective of agroforestry, in particular its potential to increase soil C sequestration and enhance yields by increased retention of soil mineral nutrients. Nitrogen-fixing legumes commonly show large growth responses to biochar, and we hypothesized that combinations of legumes and non-legumes would show increased enhancement of yields in mixture due to enhanced facilitation related to increased nutrient retention. This hypothesis was tested in a glasshouse pot trial involving the leguminous tree leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), and maize (Zea mays) grown for 120 days in mixture and monoculture in both an unamended soil and soil amended with a slow-pyrolysis coconut husk biochar at 10 t/ha. Responses were quantified in terms of biomass production and partitioning, leaf-level gas-exchange, leaf chlorophyll content, and (for leucaena) root nodule formation. Consistent with predictions, leucaena showed more pronounced growth and physiological responses to biochar than did maize. The system also showed increased total biomass yields relative to monocultures in the two-species mixtures with biochar (relative yield in mixture [RYM] = 1.69; 95% CI 1.41–1.81), but not in the control treatment (RYM = 1.25; 95% CI 0.93–1.76), and positive effects of biochar on yield were generally greater for both species when grown in mixture. Growth responses to biochar were most pronounced for stem and root biomass, and growth responses were consistent with changes in leaf-level photosynthesis and chlorophyll content. In addition, biochar had large effects on biomass partitioning, enhancing stem allocation in both species. Our results suggest that biochar additions may augment facilitative interactions in agroforestry and intercropped systems on acidic, nutrient-deficient soils by enhancing system nutrient retention.
      PubDate: 2018-12-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0336-1
  • Comparison between spatial and non-spatial regression models for
           investigating tree–soil relationships in a polycyclic tree plantation of
           Northern Italy and implications for management
    • Authors: Chiara Ferré; Annamaria Castrignanò; Roberto Comolli
      Abstract: Although there is greater awareness of spatial variability of factors affecting plant growth, regression methods with residuals independently and identically distributed, are still used. Thus, we compared spatial and non-spatial regression models in evaluating the relationships between tree growth of different species and clones and environmental factors in a polycyclic tree plantation of Italy (about 20-ha size). Soil samples were collected at 106 georeferenced locations and analyzed for the main soil parameters; trunk diameter was measured for 2513 trees and used as a proxy of plant growth; geostatistical procedures were applied to soil data so as to map soil characteristics. Poplar and alder cover indices and altitude as a proxy of groundwater depth were estimated at each tree location. The study provides evidence that considering spatial correlation can: (i) reduce the possibility of falsely declaring significant effects (Type I errors), and (ii) perform more precise predictions. Overall the model choice influenced the identification of significant regressors and the trunk diameter predictions, leading to implications on management decisions, quantitative estimation of wood productions and species comparisons. The spatial model showed which specific factors had a significant impact on plant growth and for which of them spatial variability might be worth investigating: the impact of soil texture on tree growth was evident, with difference among the investigated species and clones; soil organic carbon content affected poplar tree growth but not that of the valuable species; alder cover promotes development of trees; unlike the poplar trees, the trunk growth of the valuable species was limited by carbonate content.
      PubDate: 2018-12-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0334-3
  • Antimicrobial and antihelminthic impacts of black cumin, pawpaw and
           mustard seeds in livestock production and health
    • Authors: Moyosore J. Adegbeye; Mona M. M. Y. Elghandour; Tolulope O. Faniyi; Nallely Rivero Perez; Alberto Barbabosa-Pilego; Adrian Zaragoza-Bastida; Abdelfattah Z. M. Salem
      Abstract: The resistance of microbial strain to the use of medically important antibiotics, high cost of production, and the resistance of ecto and endoparasite to anthelminthic and acaricidal is a cause for concern. There has been intensified effort in search for alternatives to synthetic drugs. Such alternative must be able to kill, reduce, or inhibit pathogenic microbial population while improving the commensal microbes’. Black cumin (Nigella sativa Linn.), pawpaw (Carica papaya Linn.) and mustard (Brassica nigra Linn.) seeds fit into those categories. The antimicrobial functions of black seeds, is preventing the formation of biofilm among microbial strain. The glucosinolate compound in it could be degraded in 48 h by incubating it with fungi (Aspergillus sp. NR-4201) strain. Similarly, Enterobacter cloacae is capable of degrading benzyl isothiocyanate content of mustard. The 15% inclusion of mustard oil in vitro was capable of reducing methane formation. Sinapine a derivative of mustard is cable of enhancing the growth of some microbes except Escherichia coli and thus a potential probiotics. Pawpaw seed is very potent in their control of wide range of ecto and endo parasites. However, seeds of black cumin, pawpaw and mustard might be incorporated into livestock nutrition.
      PubDate: 2018-12-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0337-0
  • Dynamics of forage mass, air temperature and animal performance in a
           silvopastoral system of Uruguay
    • Authors: Jean K. Fedrigo; R. Santa Cruz; V. Benítez; V. Courdin; G. Ferreira; J. P. Posse; C. Viñoles
      Abstract: This work studies the effects of forestation on forage mass and its chemical composition, as well as mean air temperature and their impact on beef cattle performance and grazing behaviour when compared to a natural grassland system. The systems comprised 100% natural grassland from the Campos biome (NG) and forested land (FL) 60% 6 y.o. Pinus taeda (500 trees per hectare) and 40% of natural grassland. We found that the crude protein composition of the pasture growing under the trees was higher, while mean air temperature was lower during the hot season. This changed the grazing pattern of the cattle, and was associated with higher average daily gain of the animals grazing in FL. We conclude that the introduction of trees in natural grasslands changed the environmental conditions, providing a better thermic and nutritive situation for growing grazing cattle that ultimately results in an increase in their productivity.
      PubDate: 2018-12-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0335-2
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