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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Agroforestry Systems
  [SJR: 0.64]   [H-I: 56]   [19 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-9680 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4366
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Simulating effects of precipitation and initial planting density on
           population size of Mongolian pine in the Horqin Sandy Land, China
    • Authors: Yi Tang; Xu Li
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Sand dunes in China are widely re-vegetated with Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica). However, the effects of precipitation and planting density on population dynamics of this tree species are not well known. We established a system dynamics (SD) model for Mongolian pine to explore the effects of precipitation and initial planting density on population dynamics. This study applied the SD model in simulating the dynamics of a plant population with random environmental factors. The results in this study revealed that the SD model performed well in reflecting the dynamics of Mongolian pine population in the Horqin Sandy Land (ARE < 0.13, MARE = 0.048). Population size fluctuated in the range of 1150–1350 individuals ha−1 under mean annual precipitation of 500 mm and planting density of 10,000 individuals ha−1, suggesting that this range was the fittest density of Mongolian pine population at that precipitation level. Population size varied with precipitation, indicating that water supply played an important role in determining the dynamics of Mongolian pine population. Initial plantation density did not influence population size in scenarios with high precipitation but it influenced population size under low precipitation. This suggested that initial plantation density was more important under low than under high water supply used to support the development of Mongolian pine population. These results are important for formulating guiding principles for the management of Mongolian pine populations in the Horqin Sandy Land.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-0004-2
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1 (2018)
  • Microbial communities and residues in robinia- and poplar-based
           alley-cropping systems under organic and integrated management
    • Authors: Hanyin Sun; Philipp Koal; Georg Gerl; Reiner Schroll; Andreas Gattinger; Rainer Georg Joergensen; Jean Charles Munch
      Pages: 35 - 46
      Abstract: Organic farming and agroforestry are considered as sustainable alternative agricultural practices for intensive agriculture. In a long-term field trial in Scheyern Germany, we evaluated the effects of 21-year organic farming and 4-year agroforestry (robinia and poplar) on microbial community and microbial residues. Microbial biomass and microbial community were determined by fumigation–extraction method and the analysis of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), respectively. Microbial residues were evaluated by the measurement of amino sugars. The results showed that organic farming had significantly positive effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) but that it tended to decrease microbial biomass C (MBC), PLFA functional guilds, muramic acid (MurN), and glucosamine (GlcN). Robinia system, however, significantly increased SOC and had the potential to enhance MBC, PLFA functional guilds especially Gram (+), but it tended to decrease MurN and GlcN, in comparison with poplar system. The hedgerow tree did not show significantly positive effect on SOC and microbial properties except the abundance of fungi and Gram (+) bacterial, after 4-year establishment period. The principal component analysis of the PLFA profile showed that in comparison with other investigated treatments, robinia system under organic farming had significantly a different microbial community structure. It also indicated tree species-specific effect on microbial community in the organic farming was stronger than that in the integrated farming. In summary, the short-term introduction of trees into an existing agricultural system will not substantially change the microbial biomass, but it has certain influence on the abundance of specific microbial groups in the hedgerow. Although organic farming did not show positive effect on overall microbial indices, we still see positive effect on SOC after 21-year organic farming and its additive effect with robinia on SOC in current study. We expect that alley-cropping agroforestry system that combines organic farming and robinia hedgerow has a great potential for sequestering SOC and developing sustainable agroecosystems with time.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-0009-x
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1 (2018)
  • Phyto-chemical properties of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng: an
           underutilised wild edible fruit from Cachar Hills, Assam
    • Authors: Pranjal Sarmah; Snehashish Dutta; Aniruddha Sarma
      Pages: 85 - 89
      Abstract: Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng., belonging to family cucurbitaceae, is a large climber generally found under wild growing condition in the Cachar hills region of Assam, India. The fruits of this tuberous plant are supposed to possess high nutritional and medicinal properties and have been widely used in many traditional medicine practices. The present study was carried out to scientifically validate the presence of nutritional property and antioxidant activity of Momordica cochinchinensis found in this part of India. The experimental result reveals that the fruits have a high nutraceutical property and a considerable amount of antioxidative activity as the IC50 value was found to be 294.13 ± 0.46 μg/ml.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-0016-y
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1 (2018)
  • Abundance and diversity of flower visitors on wild and cultivated cacao (
           Theobroma cacao L.) in Bolivia
    • Authors: Claudia Chumacero de Schawe; Michael Kessler; Isabell Hensen; Teja Tscharntke
      Pages: 117 - 125
      Abstract: Despite the economic importance of Theobroma cacao, surprisingly little is known about its pollination ecology. Ceratopogonid midges are considered to be the main pollinators, but the limited available evidence on the sexual reproduction is based almost exclusively on cultivated cacao and knowledge is nonexistent for wild populations. We documented flower visitors in wild and cultivated plants by applying glue on 2237 flowers of wild and cultivated cacao trees in Bolivia to trap floral visitors. We caught 631 insects belonging to seven orders, corresponding to a mean capture rate of 0.3 insects per flower. The most abundant and diverse insect order on both cacao types was Hymenoptera, represented mainly by small parasitoids. Hymenoptera were more abundant on wild cacao, whereas species richness was higher on cultivated cacao. The abundance and species richness of Diptera were not significantly different between wild and cultivated cacao. However, species composition and proportion of Diptera species differed between both wild and cultivated cacao. Ceratopogonidae were only represented by 13 individuals belonging to seven species. Cacao pollen was carried by only a single specimen of Encyrtidae. We were thus unable to identify actual pollinators. We found significant differences among the visitor assemblages between wild and cultivated cacao, which suggest that midges alone were probably too rare to act as main or even sole pollinators of cacao in our study region. Potential additional pollinators would be small Diptera (e.g., Chloropidae and Phoridae) and Hymenoptera (e.g., Eulophidae and Platygastridae).
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-0019-8
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1 (2018)
  • Smallholders’ avocado production systems and tree productivity in the
           southern highlands of Ethiopia
    • Authors: Birhanu Biazin; Amare Haileslassie; Tadiwos Zewdie; Yoseph Mekasha; Berhanu Gebremedhin; Anteneh Fekadu; Tesfaye Shewage
      Pages: 127 - 137
      Abstract: Ethiopia is one of the top five avocado producers in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite increasing recognition for its nutritional value and economic importance, information on smallholder avocado production systems across agro-climatic zones and determinants for tree productivity are literally lacking. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine the determinants for avocado tree holdings by smallholder farmers and investigate the effect of avocado production systems and management conditions on fruit yield by individual avocado trees in Southern Ethiopia. Data required for the study was collected through a combination of focus group discussions, household survey and field tree inventories. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, analyses of variance and linear regression methods using statistical software for social sciences (SPSS version 20). In the study region, avocado is mainly grown as an integral component of the coffee- and enset-based agroforestry systems. The number of avocado trees owned by smallholder producers was related to district, sex of household head, age of household head, educational status, land holding size, pest and disease damage and access to extension services. Productivity of avocado was significantly (p < 0.05) different between production systems. The highest avocado fruit yield was observed from trees grown in the coffee and enset-based agroforestry systems. However, the smallholder producers complain that the yields of coffee and enset grown under avocado trees could be very low. The total height of avocado trees was significantly (p < 0.05) different across the different production systems. The mean heights of matured (21–25 years old) avocado trees were 17.57 ± 0.86 m (±SE; N = 20) under coffee-based agroforestry system and 14.93 ± 1.24 m when grown as individual trees around homes. Proper extension support is needed to disseminate improved production techniques: encompassing proper tree spacing, tree training, pruning, soil amendments, growing optimum number of trees for successful pollination and improved harvesting.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-0020-2
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1 (2018)
  • The contribution of NTFP-gathering to rural people’s livelihoods around
           two timber concessions in Gabon
    • Authors: Donald Midoko Iponga; Christian Mikolo-Yobo; Guillaume Lescuyer; Fidèle Mba Assoumou; Patrice Levang; Julius Chupezi Tieguhong; Alfred Ngoye
      Pages: 157 - 168
      Abstract: NTFPs are often presented as a major contributor to livelihoods, as sources of food and cash, particularly for rural communities. There are few data available in Gabon to confirm this common assertion. This study was conducted on 127 households in 14 villages around two timber concessions in the south-eastern and south-western regions of Gabon for a period of one year. Conventional socio‐economic survey tools such as focus group discussions, census and semi-structured interviews with households were used for gathering the data. Results reveal that rural people depend on various sources of food and income for their livelihoods, but overall, the current contribution of NTFPs obtained from plant sources is insignificant compared to those from other activities. Odika (Irvingia gabonensis), ‘atanga sauvage’ (Dacryodes buettneri), fungus (Termitomyces spp.) and Gabon nut (Coula edulis) represent the main forest products commonly harvested by rural people. They are used primarily for subsistence, but the surplus is sold. The results of this study suggest that: (1) the main components of decree No. 137/PR/MEFP of February 4, 2009, that prohibits the logging of five multiple-use tree species over a period of 25 years in order to safeguard the sources of NTFPs, should be reviewed; and (2) state authorities and partners should promote projects aimed at increasing public awareness of the NTFP sector. These projects should include a census of NTFPs (for food, for medicine and for services), characterize their uses and identify the markets of target products as well as the development potential of NTFPs. Such projects could help Gabon and other Congo Basin countries to fix norms/standards for sustainable natural resource management and for enhancing the contribution of NTFPs to the national economy. This will be particularly relevant in the wake of dwindling oil revenues and the need to diversify and promote other revenue sources in the country.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-0022-0
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1 (2018)
  • Erratum to: The contribution of NTFP-gathering to rural people’s
           livelihoods around two timber concessions in Gabon
    • Authors: Donald Midoko Iponga; Christian Mikolo-Yobo; Guillaume Lescuyer; Fidèle Mba Assoumou; Patrice Levang; Julius Chupezi Tieguhong; Alfred Ngoye
      Pages: 169 - 169
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0073-x
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1 (2018)
  • Economic assessment of agri-horticulture production systems on reclaimed
           ravine lands in Western India
    • Authors: V. C. Pande; R. S. Kurothe; Gopal Kumar; H. B. Singh; S. P. Tiwari
      Pages: 195 - 211
      Abstract: This study examines economic sustainability of agri-horticultural systems on reclaimed ravine lands in western India. Ravine lands are marked by their susceptibility to soil erosion along the course of river systems. Introduction of tree component with traditional crops on such marginal lands is beneficial not only in terms of short-term profitability but also resource conservation. Moringa oleifera (drumstick)- and Emblica officinalis (aonla)-based agri-horticulture trees with Phaseolus radiatus and Foeniculum vulgare crops have been examined as case studies based on data from a research farm adjacent to a major ravine system in western India. Drumstick, as green pod and also in dried powder form, is traditionally used as vegetable in Indian diet. Aonla is used in various forms as food as well as for medicinal purpose. This is marketed in different forms such as pickle, candy and dried powder. Enterprise budgeting analysis revealed that the net present values from M. oleifera + P. radiatus followed by F. vulgare and E. officinalis + P. radiatus followed by F. vulgare were 386 and 1190 USD ha−1, respectively, at 2012–13 local prices over a production cycle of 15 years. Saving in soil nutrients and soil carbon build-up worth 12–240 and 665 USD ha−1 was observed. Further, the land expectation value of E. officinalis-based agri-horticulture production system (1564 USD ha−1) revealed higher land value as compared to tobacco monocropping system (1039 USD ha−1). While the financial viability of these cropping systems proved their worth on the marginal lands of ravines in Gujarat, market and yield risks in crop component, examined through sensitivity analysis, need to be taken into consideration before recommending the agri-horticultural system to farmers. Nevertheless, in view of the declining profitability of the tobacco crop, largely grown on reclaimed ravine lands, an alternative production system, particularly aonla-based agri-horticulture system would help farmers explore alternative production system suiting to their resource endowments.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-0025-x
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1 (2018)
  • Aboveground biomass allometric equations and carbon content of the shea
           butter tree ( Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn., Sapotaceae) components in
           Sudanian savannas (West Africa)
    • Authors: Kangbéni Dimobe; Dethardt Goetze; Amadé Ouédraogo; Sylvanus Mensah; Koffi Akpagana; Stefan Porembski; Adjima Thiombiano
      Abstract: Vitellaria paradoxa is one of the most economically important trees in West Africa. Although being a key component of most sub-Sahara agroforestry systems, little information and argument exist regarding its biomass and carbon potential. Here, we developed biomass equations for V. paradoxa tree components in Sudanian savannas. A destructive sampling approach was applied, which was based on measuring stem, branch and foliage biomass of thirty individual trees selected from a wide spectrum of diameter at breast height (dbh) and tree height (h). Basal diameter (d20), dbh, h and crown diameter (cd) were measured and used as predictors in biomass equations. Carbon content was estimated using the ash method. Variance explained in biomass allometric equations ranged from 81 to 98%, and was lower for foliage than for branch and stem biomass models, suggesting that leaf allometries are less responsive to tree size than branch and stem allometries. Stem biomass was best predicted by d20, branch biomass by dbh, and leaf biomass by crown diameter. For aboveground biomass, adding height to dbh as compound variable (dbh2 × h) did not make any significant change, as compared with model based on dbh alone. However, adding crown diameter to dbh and height reduced the error by 15% and improved model fits. Carbon contents in V. paradoxa foliage, branch and stem were 55.29, 55.37 and 55.82%, respectively, and higher than reference value suggested by the IPCC. Established allometric equations can be used to accurately predict aboveground biomass of the species in the Sudanian savannas of West Africa.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0213-y
  • Effects of grazed stubble height and timing of grazing on resprouting of
           clipped oak seedlings
    • Authors: Yihao Zhang; Jia Li; Dongyuan Zhang; Zhenyu Wang; Xianfeng Yi
      Abstract: Although a number of studies have investigated the effects of grazing frequency and intensity on seedling resprouting, the influence of grazed stubble height and timing of grazing on oak seedlings is little known. In the present study, we aimed to explore the effects of grazed stubble height and timing of grazing on the seedling resprouting of twelve oak species. By imitating herbivory grazing, we artificially clipped the shoots to different stubble heights and at different development stages of seedlings to see the resprouting capability of 12 oak species. Our study showed that both grazed stubble height and timing of grazing posed significant influences on resprouting of clipped oak seedlings. Our results indicate that the attached cotyledons play an important role in supporting resprouting of the clipped oak seedlings. Moreover, oaks bearing larger acorns show higher ability to counter herbivory grazing than those producing smaller ones. Higher stubbles grazed by herbivores exert less negative impacts on resprouting of oak seedlings than lower stubbles. Earlier grazing is less harmful to damaged oak seedlings compared with later grazing by herbivory animals.
      PubDate: 2018-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0206-x
  • Understanding agroforestry practices in Europe through landscape features
           policy promotion
    • Authors: J. J. Santiago-Freijanes; A. Rigueiro-Rodríguez; J. A. Aldrey; G. Moreno; M. den Herder; Paul Burgess; M. R. Mosquera-Losada
      Abstract: Agroforestry understood as the combination of a woody component (forest tree, shrub, fruit tree) with an agricultural use of the understory is not clearly identified as such by the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Despite the protection and promotion of the woody component in different parts of the CAP political text, the identification of agroforestry is not clear, although it can be recognised in the description of some landscape features, such as isolated trees and different types of hedgerows. Moreover, it is important to identify the extent of such woody components promoted by the CAP in agricultural lands to validate the impact of current and future measures. This paper aims at the characterisation of the current extent of landscape features all over Europe by analysing the Rural Development Program (RDP) measures within the CAP 2007–2013 and 2014–2020 that promote said features in Europe to increase the ecosystem service delivery. Isolated trees and hedgerows are protected unsatisfactorily through the Cross-compliance and Greening of CAP Pillar I. In contrast, Agri-environment measures associated to Pillar II are used in most European countries to protect both isolated trees and hedgerows and to promote them as boundary elements. The promotion of hedgerows and isolated trees mainly related to silvoarable and silvopastoral agroforestry practices is aimed at the promotion of the ecosystem services (such as water protection and biodiversity) and improvement in resilience (such as adaptation to climate change) they provide; therefore, the agroforestry environment benefits are indeed recognised. Landscape features comprising woody perennials should be associated with agroforestry when present in arable and permanent grasslands.
      PubDate: 2018-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0212-z
  • Exploring the potential of edible forest gardens: experiences from a
           participatory action research project in Sweden
    • Authors: Johanna Björklund; Karin Eksvärd; Christina Schaffer
      Abstract: To meet the environmental challenges that are presently confronting society, the narrow focus on agricultural production needs to be altered to one that places equal value on the generation of crucial ecosystem services. Current research shows that perennial intercropping systems such as agroforestry may be a feasible alternative. Based on studies during the establishment of edible forest gardens in 12 participating farms in Sweden, this paper explores the potential of utilizing multi-strata designs for food production in temperate, high-income countries. Design and species composition of such gardens, types of food they provide, and how they would best fit into the present landscape are discussed. Factors for success and major problems related to the establishment are shared. Potential benefits were found to be closely related to a thorough analysis of the social and ecological contexts before establishment. Characteristics of the site and goals of the garden need to guide species and design choices. If forest garden approaches to food production should contribute to more than local self-sufficiency, the gardens need to increase in scale. Marginal lands and transitions areas between different land uses may be appropriate. Large knowledge gaps concerning potential production, social and economic benefits, and agronomic issues were identified.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0208-8
  • Soil microbial processes in a pine silvopastoral system in NW Patagonia
    • Authors: Marina Gonzalez-Polo; Héctor A. Bahamonde; Pablo L. Peri; María Julia Mazzarino; Clara Fariña; Gonzalo Caballé
      Abstract: The conversion of native vegetation to tree plantation (afforestation) implies a drastic change in life forms and as a consequence, changes in the microenvironmental conditions, and the quantity and quality of organic matter entering the soil. This could affect soil microbial communities and the processes catalyzed by them. In Patagonia, afforestation with exotic, fast-growing tree species was a common practice but the consequences on the ecosystem remain poorly quantified. The objective was to study the effects of pine afforestation on litter decomposition, soil organic matter, soil microbial activity and associated biogeochemical functions in a semiarid area of NW Patagonia. We hypothesized that afforestation would decrease litter decomposition rate and soil biological activity including net N mineralization, due to changes of environmental conditions and organic matter quality. We measured in situ and potential soil net N mineralization, soil microbial biomass-C, soil enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and leucin-aminopeptidase) and litter decomposition rate. We also characterized soil pH, electrical conductivity, extractable P and total C and N. Pine plantations clearly affected decomposition rates of native grass vegetation, which was 10% lower under pine canopy cover, and decreased soil microbial biomass. Acid phosphatase activity and leucin-aminopeptidase activities were also marginally reduced. On the other hand, we did not find any significant effects of pines on soil chemical properties and N transformations after 13 years of plantation. Because effects depend strongly on time, the decrease of soil microbial biomass, acid phosphatase activity and grass decomposition rate (and the trend to lower enzyme activities related to P and N) under pine cover could be an evidence of possible changes on the long-term.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0210-1
  • Yield, quality and genetic diversity of hybrid hazelnut selections in the
           Upper Midwest of the USA
    • Authors: Lois C. Braun; Michael C. Demchik; Jason A. Fischbach; Keith Turnquist; Anthony Kern
      Abstract: The majority of hazelnut plantings in the Upper Midwest of the United States are planted with seedlings from crosses between American hazelnuts (Corylus americana) and European hazelnuts (C. avellana) that were initially made in the 1930’s. To evaluate the potential of this material to support a commercial industry, we have populated replicated field trials at five locations with clonal material of high performing accessions selected from these plantings. The hybrid plants in these trials were found to have high levels of genetic diversity when assessed at 10 microsatellite loci. Principal component analysis shows these Midwestern hybrids group genetically with American hazelnuts from the Upper Midwest region, but separately from European hazelnuts and hybrid hazelnuts developed elsewhere. We conclude that this pool of hybrids has sufficient genetic diversity for a breeding program to support a regional hazelnut industry. The average yield of the eight highest yielding of these genotypes, at ages six to 8 years, was 180 g m−2 of canopy area at the most productive site, which in a production system with 50% of the land covered by the crop canopy would translate to 895 kg of kernel ha−1. This compares favorably with expected yields of similarly aged European tree hazelnuts in Oregon. Though smaller than nuts from European cultivars, kernel quality of the top eight selections was deemed to be adequate for the processed nut market.
      PubDate: 2018-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0209-7
  • Embryogenesis followed by enhanced micro-multiplication and
           eco-restoration of Calamus thwaitesii Becc.: an economic non-wood forest
           produce for strengthening agroforestry system
    • Authors: Achuthan Sudarsanan Hemanthakumar; Thankappan Suvarna Preetha; Padmesh Pandaram Pillai; Sooriamuthu Seeni
      Abstract: The present study is focussed on development of a high-frequency micro-multiplication system in Calamus thwaitesii, through somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 31.68 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The semi-friable calli when cultured in the same medium augmented with 2.22 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1.07 µM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) induced ~ 12 discrete globular embryoids in 6 weeks. The isolated embryoids in hormone-free media yielded 65% plantlets. Furthermore, embryoids and axenic shoots exhibited maximum shoot induction in medium supplemented with 0.45 µM Thidiazuron (TDZ). The shoot initials after subculture in media supplemented with 1.78 µM BAP and 0.45 µM TDZ produced shoot proliferation followed by elongation in basal medium. The elongated shoots produced roots in media supplemented with 16.11 µM NAA. With this established protocol, ~ 5940 rooted plantlets could be harvested after 40 weeks from a single embryoid. Genetic stability analysis of the plantlets using inter simple sequence repeat markers recorded only 0.05% genetic polymorphism. The plantlets were hardened in a mist house for 8 weeks, and then to 50% shade house for another 16 weeks, and the well-established 6-month-old nursery plants, reintroduced to selected forest segments, exhibited 86% field establishment even after 3 years of observation. Thus, the mass multiplication system developed could be a breakthrough for large-scale multiplication of C. thwaitesii to ensure continuous supply of quality planting material to the cottage industry through the development of agroforestry systems. Furthermore, the in vitro culture system developed here can be replicated for research activities related to the long-term–short-term conservation, micro-multiplication and sustainable utilization of rare, endangered, endemic, monopodial/single stemmed rattan palms.
      PubDate: 2018-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0207-9
  • Establishment success of seven hardwoods in a tree-based intercropping
           system in southern Quebec, Canada
    • Authors: David Rivest; Alain Cogliastro
      Abstract: In temperate tree-based intercropping (TBI) systems, good survival and early growth of selected tree species without wood defects is critical, when taking into account both economic considerations and rapidly accruing environmental benefits that are provided by the trees. The establishment success of different tree species that have contrasting growth strategies in Northeastern American TBI systems have not been assessed in a well-documented manner, which is an important influential barrier limiting their adoption by farmers. We analyzed establishment success after five growing seasons of six hardwood species and four hybrid poplar clones in a 50 stems ha−1, tree-based intercropping system. The hardwood species being evaluated were Carya ovata, Juglans nigra, Quercus bicolor, Quercus macrocarpa, Quercus rubra, and Acer saccharum. The hybrid poplar clones being evaluated were four clones of Populus deltoides × P. nigra × P. maximowiczii. We also compared 3-year-old bareroot (165 cm in height) with tree shelter versus 6-year-old root-balled transplants (370 cm in height) without tree shelter for two hardwood species (Quercus rubra and Acer saccharum). Mean survival rate of the six hardwood species originating from 3-year-old transplants was 70% after 5 years. Acer saccharum (33%) and Carya ovata (57%) had the lowest survival rates. Tree height of Quercus bicolor and Quercus macrocarpa was taller than that of Carya ovata, Juglans nigra and Quercus rubra. Tree height of Acer saccharum was intermediate among species. Mean survival rate of hybrid poplar after five growing seasons was 82% and did not differ among the clones. Growth of DN 4813 was lower than that of DN×M 915508, DN 3570 and DN 3585. Tree external defects (forks, frost cracks, trunk inclinations, trunk wind bends, and physical injuries) were observed in 63% of the hardwoods and 55% of the hybrid poplars. Red oak and sugar maple originating from 6-year-old transplants had survival rates of 100%. Over 5 years, height increment of 6-year-old transplants was higher than that of 3-year-old transplants. The 6-year-old transplants of Quercus rubra and Acer saccharum were the most cost-effective stock type. We conclude that tree survival, tree growth and tree external defects in establishment phase of TBI systems may vary considerably across hardwood species, hybrid poplar clones and planting stock type.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0211-0
  • Impacts of land use types on spatial patterns and neighbourhood distance
           of the agroforestry palm Borassus aethiopum Mart. in two climatic regions
           in Benin, West Africa
    • Authors: Valère Kolawolé Salako; Christel Kénou; Kasso Dainou; Achille Ephrem Assogbadjo; Romain Glèlè Kakaï
      Abstract: Spatial pattern (SP) and neighbourhood distance (ND) of trees are crucial for pollination services, in particular for dioecious species. However, land use types through human disturbances may affect the natural SP and ND and possibly have a negative effect on pollination services. Though several studies have focused on the effect of land use types on SP of trees, few have reported on ND. In this study, we compared SP and ND of the dioecious Borassus aethiopum Mart. between two land use types (protected areas vs farmlands) in two contrasting climatic regions (semi-arid vs sub-humid) in Benin. Trees were mapped in twelve plots from six populations. Pair-correlation function was used to generate univariate and bivariate SP and ND. Next, ANOVA was used to compare ND. While supporting the overall trend towards a less aggregated pattern along plant life-cycle, the study showed that the SP of B. aethiopum was altered from aggregated and spatial association in protected areas toward random and independence patterns in farmlands with increased ND among individuals, particularly between adult males and females. In addition, differences in ND between land use types varied across climatic regions, the differences being higher in the drier semi-arid region, thus suggesting more intense human activities in this region and climatic region-specific management. Management actions should mainly aim at reducing or not further increasing ND, particularly between female and male adult populations in farmlands in the semi-arid region through planting new individuals of B. aethiopum trees or limiting their removal but at the same time account for other tree species to maximise diversity of farmlands’ functions and services. Further studies should examine whether the observed increased ND due to human-disturbances in farmlands is detrimental for the species pollination services, fruit production and whether it affects the species spatio-temporal population genetic structuring.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0205-y
  • Correction to: Carbon dynamics in cocoa agroforestry systems in Central
           Cameroon: afforestation of savannah as a sequestration opportunity
    • Authors: Annemarijn Nijmeijer; Pierre-Éric Lauri; Jean-Michel Harmand; Stéphane Saj
      Abstract: The published on-line ms “Carbon dynamics of cocoa agroforestry systems in Central Cameroon: afforestation of savannah as a sequestration opportunity.” ( unfortunately bears some unit errors on soil organic C contents.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0204-z
  • Effects of grazing exclusion and environmental conditions on the soil seed
           bank of a Mediterranean grazed oak wood pasture
    • Authors: Antonello Franca; Giovanni Antonio Re; Federico Sanna
      Abstract: Large seed banks in the soils of Mediterranean wood pastures can allow the composition of the understorey vegetation to adapt to changing conditions such as under-grazing, grazing exclusion and climate change. This three year study investigated the effect of grazing exclusion on the transient and persistent seed banks of 23 areas of a Mediterranean wood pasture of Quercus suber L., Q. ilex L. and Q. pubescens Willd. A canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the effect of topo-climatic (elevation, aspect, slope, rainfall, temperature, tree coverage), soil (pH, soil texture, and soil nitrogen, phosphorus, lime and organic carbon content) and biodiversity (Shannon index, species richness index, and Pastoral Value) variables on the soil seed bank under grazed and ungrazed conditions. The size of the persistent seed bank increased with rainfall, grazing, and the available phosphorus content of the soil. Specific site by site grazing regimes could increase the abundance of legumes in the soil seed bank and the species richness and diversity of the understorey vegetation. These results can help guide the conservation management of this silvopastoral area.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0203-0
  • Growth performance of six multipurpose tree species based on the carbon
           assimilation capacity: a functional approach
    • Authors: Neha Tolia; A. S. Devakumar; M. S. Sheshshayee; Sumanth Kambalimath
      Abstract: This study is an attempt to evaluate six tree species with potential for growth and water use efficiency under 50% moisture stress, based on the carbon assimilation capacity in order to identify species to be grown in low moisture conditions. Plants were maintained at field capacity (control) and at 50% less than the field capacity (stress) in lysimeters for 90 days by weighing them and replenishing with the water lost. Eucalyptus comaldulensis and Melia dubia recorded 259 and 204 and 243 and 151 g plant−1 of biomass under control and moisture stress conditions respectively while Simaruba glauca and Callophylum inophyllum recorded 61–53 and 37–23 g plant−1. Photosynthetic rates of these species were in the range of 25.43–22.78 and 9.10–8.03 μmol m−2s−1 under control and stress conditions respectively, which corroborated with biomass production. Both diffusive and carboxylation processes of photosynthesis were higher in species with higher biomass. Photosynthetic rates assessed using leaf model and cumulative models go with each other. Species with higher photosynthetic rates tended to sustain under stress by reducing photosynthetic surface area and maintain the growth rates suggesting that growth performance under moisture stress depends on carbon assimilation capabilities. This was also evident in species with low photosynthetic rates which recorded lower growth rates. Species with lower carbon assimilation showed higher water use efficiency, while it was the opposite in species with higher carbon assimilation. Isohydric behavior of stomata help plants to maintain longer stomatal conductance and hence the photosynthetic rates, but lower water use efficiency. Such a strategy helps plants in sustaining growth under intermittent moisture stress. Thus slow growing species with higher water use efficiency and lower moisture consumption are useful in establishing tree cover in marginal lands with low moisture.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0198-6
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