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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Agroforestry Systems
  [SJR: 0.64]   [H-I: 56]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-9680 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4366
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Risks and coping strategies of production and marketing of cocoa in Ondo
           State, Nigeria
    • Authors: Folaranmi D. Babalola; Opeyemi E. Ayinde; Paxie W. Chirwa; Djiby R. Thiam
      Pages: 211 - 220
      Abstract: In recent time, yields from cocoa producing states have been decreasing while farmers are faced with a number of challenges that predispose them to risks and uncertainties. The study therefore assessed the major production and marketing risks in Ondo State, Nigeria. The socio-economic characteristics of the cocoa farmers were analysed using descriptive analysis while Kruskal–Wallis ranking analysis was used to assess the farmer’s perception on sources of risks. Ranking on top of the ten identified cocoa production risks was pest and diseases attack while undue exploitation by exporters ranked on top of marketing risks. The major coping strategies adopted by the farmers of the cocoa include diversification of production system by growing substitute crops (47.5 %), and involvement in non-farm business to generate additional income (35.0 %). In other to reduce risks faced by the farmers, government should put in place a marketing scheme aimed at assisting cocoa farmers through price regulation and monitoring. Cocoa farmers also needed to be introduced to the current technologies of production with the provision of necessary incentives such as improved varieties of cocoa seedling, as well as provision of fertiliser and approved pesticides, financial assistance, and simple processing technologies that produce standard cocoa beans.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9905-3
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 2 (2017)
  • Analysis of variables influencing tree cork caliper in two consecutive
           cork extractions using cork growth index modelling
    • Authors: Joana Amaral Paulo; Helena Pereira; Margarida Tomé
      Pages: 221 - 237
      Abstract: The influence of tree and stand variables, debarking intensity, and precipitation on the caliper of cork produced by a tree and on the evolution of cork caliper between consecutive cork extractions was researched. A total of 370 cork samples were collected in 23 permanent plots distributed across the cork production area in Portugal, covering a period from 1984 to 2010. Cork growth was evaluated using the cork growth index (cgi), defined as the radial width of the first eight complete years of cork growth after stripping. The differences in mean cgi at plot level between two consecutive cork growth periods (cgp) were assessed using nonparametric tests. A mixed model approach was used due to the nested structure of the data for modelling cgi value at tree level. The cgi of two consecutive cork extractions is linearly related at tree level. At plot level, the mean value of cgi decreased in 5 out of the 23 plots and increased in 2 plots for α = 0.05. The number of debarked branches and the variation of precipitation between two cgp were the variables that explained the largest part of the cgi evolution. However, significance of plot random parameters indicates that other variables are involved in the tree cgi evolution, pointing out to the need of further research. Tree size and precipitation during the cgp are related to the individual tree cgi. The effect of increasing stand density and debarking intensity on cork growth was not clear. Long term research based on permanent plot measurements and research trials is needed to clarify the impact of tree competition and debarking intensity.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9922-2
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 2 (2017)
  • Carbon stocks and biomass production of three different agroforestry
           systems in the temperate desert region of northwestern China
    • Authors: T. T. Xie; P. X. Su; L. Z. An; R. Shi; Z. J. Zhou
      Pages: 239 - 247
      Abstract: Carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry systems has attracted worldwide attention following the recognition of agroforestry as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy. However, little is known about carbon stocks in poplar–maize intercropping systems in arid regions of China. This study was conducted in the temperate desert region of northwestern China, a region with large area of poplar–maize intercropping systems. The objective of this study was to assess biomass production and carbon stock under three poplar–maize intercropping systems (configuration A, 177 trees ha−1; configuration B, 231 trees ha−1; and configuration C, 269 trees ha−1). We observed a significant difference in the carbon stock of poplar trees between the three configurations, with the highest value of 36.46 t ha−1 in configuration C. The highest carbon stock of maize was achieved in configuration B, which was significantly higher than configuration A. The grain yield was highest in configuration A, but there was no significant difference from the other two configurations. In the soil system (0–100 cm depth), the total carbon stock was highest in configuration C (77.37 t ha−1). The results of this study suggest that configuration C is the optimum agroforestry system in terms of both economic benefits and carbon sequestration.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9923-1
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 2 (2017)
  • Growth and yield responses of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) to inorganic
           and organic fertilizers in southern Malawi
    • Authors: Simon A. Mng’omba; Festus K. Akinnifesi; Amber Kerr; K. Salipira; Alice Muchugi
      Pages: 249 - 258
      Abstract: Fertilizer trees, the nitrogen-fixing legumes, such as gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) and tephrosia (Tephrosia spp.) have been used to improve soil fertility for higher crop yields in nitrogen deficient soils. Many studies have focused on how these fertilizer trees improve maize yield, but there has been a dearth of information on the effect of fertilizer tree species on cotton growth and yield. A study was undertaken for two cropping seasons (2012/13 and 2013/14) with the objective of assessing IRM 81 cotton growth and yield responses to tephrosia and/or gliricidia biomass with or without inorganic fertilizer application. Boll opening significantly varied (P < 0.0001) with treatments and early boll opening was observed in plots where only inorganic fertilizer was applied. Higher lint yield (mean of 1397 kg/ha) was obtained in the second cropping season than in the first cropping season (480 kg/ha) and the application of gliricidia biomass with fertilizer gave the highest lint yield (2121 kg/ha). The lowest lint and seed yields were obtained from plots where tephrosia biomass only was applied. It is concluded that the use of gliricidia biomass with inorganic fertilizer improved cotton yields. The high amount of gliricidia biomass (due to prolific coppicing) applied contributed to higher cotton lint yields with reduced rates of inorganic fertilizer application, making gliricidia-cotton intercropping a cost-effective option to smallholder farmers.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9924-0
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 2 (2017)
  • Growth, flowering and fruiting of stecklings, grafts and seedlings of
           Allanblackia floribunda Oliver (Clusiaceae)
    • Authors: Alain Tsobeng; Ebenezer Asaah; Zacharie Tchoundjeu; Patrick Van Damme; Daniel Ofori; Ramni Jamnadass
      Pages: 259 - 270
      Abstract: A study was carried out to assess the growth, flowering and fruiting of stecklings (rooted cuttings), grafts and seedlings of Allanblackia floribunda in Cameroun. Thirty-one individuals of each plantlet type were planted in May 2006. Height, collar and crown diameters were recorded in September and October, while flowering and fruiting were recorded each month from January to December. In 2014, the trees with the greatest height were those from seeds (6.98 ± 0.25 m), followed by those from grafts (1.65 ± 0.23 m) and cuttings (1.09 ± 0.21 m). Grafts started flowering and fruiting 3 years after planting, while seedlings started flowering and fruiting after four and 6 years, respectively. Stecklings still had not flowered 8 years after planting. Fruit weight and length from seed-origin trees are about seven times higher than grafts. Correlations between height and crown diameter were significant and positive irrespective of the nature of the planting material. In conclusion, grafts fruited earlier, while seedlings grew faster and had greater yields than grafts and stecklings of A. floribunda.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9925-z
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 2 (2017)
  • Understanding patterns of tree adoption on farms in semi-arid and
           sub-humid Ethiopia
    • Authors: Miyuki Iiyama; Abayneh Derero; Kaleb Kelemu; Catherine Muthuri; Ruth Kinuthia; Ermias Ayenkulu; Evelyn Kiptot; Kiros Hadgu; Jeremias Mowo; Fergus L. Sinclair
      Pages: 271 - 293
      Abstract: Trees on farms are a widespread feature of landscapes across a large part of Ethiopia with an important role in enhancing the resilience of smallholder livelihoods through the provision of ecosystem services. Despite their importance, little is known about what trees are planted or retained from natural regeneration by different types of farmers that results in the pattern of tree cover found in the region. We address this knowledge gap through analysis of household survey data from semi-arid and sub humid areas of Oromia regional state. A set of composite variables that represent distinctive patterns of tree cover on farms were derived from principal component analysis and Pearson correlation analysis. This revealed two major tree adoption strategies: farmer managed natural regeneration (FMNR) of trees to meet subsistence needs as well as contributing to other ecosystem services; and, high value agroforestry (HVAF) involving planted trees used largely to produce fruits, timber and fodder. Regression analysis further identified fine-scale variation in ecological and socio-economic factors that affect which of these two broad strategies are adopted by farmers. Favorable climatic conditions coupled with institutional arrangements to control free grazing were pre-conditions for HVAF, whereas poor biophysical potential and sloping land provided a positive incentive for farmers to adopt FMNR. Farmers with preferences for tree species with multiple utilities and locational flexibility favored FMNR while adoption of HVAF was more asset-driven. Our findings reveal that farmers integrate many native and exotic tree species on their farms to meet their variable farm conditions, needs and asset profiles in stark contrast to most tree promotion efforts that focus on a few, usually exotic, tree species. We recommend that future agroforestry promotion should embrace a diversity of tree species appropriate to matching the fine scale variation in ecological conditions and farmer circumstances encountered in the field.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9926-y
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 2 (2017)
  • Management of carob tree orchards in Mediterranean ecosystems: strategies
           for a carbon economy implementation
    • Authors: Pedro José Correia; José Filipe Guerreiro; Maribela Pestana; Maria Amélia Martins-Loução
      Pages: 295 - 306
      Abstract: This paper offers a different framework for managing Mediterranean drought carob-tree orchard ecosystems. Two dry-farming systems were compared during two consecutive years: pure productive orchards and mixed orchards in a total of 360 mature trees distributed by 18 plots with areas of 0.55 and 0.30 ha per plot, respectively. Carob, fig, almond and olive trees compose mixed orchards. Trees of the mixed orchards were more productive than those of pure orchards. The main problem of both systems was the large variability and the low fruit production due to non-bearing trees, inducing unfavorable economic returns. Yield varied between 7.7 and 28.5 kg tree−1 respectively in pure and mixed orchards. In this paper we propose to use carbon sequestration calculations as an added benefit to farmers. A carbon stocking model estimation was established, based on trunk diameters of different trees. We depicted two management scenarios based on fruits production and carbon sequestration incomes: a low value scenario, using mean fruit production, and a high valuable scenario based on the hypothesis that all trees reached its potential maximum. Since under dry-farming systems fruit production irregularity is still a pendent problem, mixed orchards may offer a potential higher revenue, while maintaining higher crop diversification and whole biodiversity. C sequestration benefit, as here we purpose, may represent 125–300 % of income, respectively under low or high valuable scenario. Thus, CO2 equivalent is a novel ecological economic incentive that may potentiate a new income for farmers while assuring carob ecosystem services.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9929-8
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 2 (2017)
  • Poplar growth and wood production on a grassland irrigated for decades
           with potato starch wastewater
    • Authors: Gabriela Lorenc-Plucińska; Marta Walentynowicz; Andrzej Lewandowski
      Pages: 307 - 324
      Abstract: Irrigation of grasslands with potato starch wastewater causes changes in soil quality parameters, often resulting in decreased crop yields and sometimes causing animal diseases. Reduced agricultural income leads to designation of such grasslands for afforestation aimed at production of bioenergy crops and improvement of soil quality. In this study, Populus alba L. and seven different poplar clones were planted in 2009 on the grassland irrigated in 1973–2008 with potato starch wastewater and in non-irrigated, experimental forest. The survival, growth and wood production potential of planted poplars after 2–3 growing seasons were analyzed. Morphophysiological parameters of leaves, nutrients in leaves and fine roots, sugars in fine roots, leaf rust resistance, frost hardiness and their effects on growth were also determined. Stem diameter and stem volume index of poplars growing on the grassland were higher than in the experimental forest. Only Populus deltoides Bartr. × P. maximowiczii Henry clone ‘Eridano’ (in short ERI) had a survival rate of 100 % and the highest values of stem diameter (77 mm) and stem volume index (0.034 m3) in comparison with other poplars in both sites after 3 growing seasons. Clone ERI was also characterized by a high leaf rust resistance and frost hardiness. The results suggest that clone ERI is suitable as a bioenergy crop on grasslands irrigated with potato starch wastewater. Afforestation of the grassland improved the fertility of the soil by increasing concentrations of soil organic matter and availability of mineral nutrients (N, P, K, S and Fe).
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9930-2
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 2 (2017)
  • Diagnosing agrosilvopastoral practices using Bayesian networks
    • Authors: David N. Barton; Youssouf Cisse; Bocary Kaya; Ibrahima N’Diaye; Harouna Yossi; Abdoulaye Diarra; Souleymane Keita; Amadou Dembele; Daouda Maiga; Graciela M. Rusch; Anders L. Madsen
      Pages: 325 - 334
      Abstract: This article discusses the potential of BNs to complement the analytical toolkit of agricultural extension. Statistical modelling of the adoption of agricultural practices has tended to use categorical (logit/probit) regression models focusing on a single technology or practice, explained by a number of household and farm characteristics. Here, a Bayesian network (BN) is used to model household-level data on adoption of agrosilvopastoral practices in Tiby, Mali. We discuss the advantages of BNs in modelling more complex data structures, including (i) multiple practices implemented jointly on farms, (ii) correlation between probabilities of implementation of those practices and (iii) correlation between household and farm characteristics. This paper demonstrates the use of BNs for ‘deductive’ reasoning regarding adoption of practices, answering questions regarding the probability of implementation of combinations of practices, conditional on household characteristics. As such, BNs is a complementary modelling approach to logistic regression analysis, which facilitates exploring causal structures in the data before deciding on a reduced form regression model. More uniquely, BNs can be used ‘inductively’ to answer questions regarding the likelihood of certain household characteristics conditional on certain practices being adopted.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9931-1
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 2 (2017)
  • First report of identification and molecular characterization of Tuber
           aestivum in Iran
    • Authors: Samad Jamali
      Pages: 335 - 343
      Abstract: During June 2013 to March 2014, several visits were made to the truffle-bearing areas of Kermanshah province, Iran. In this study, two specimens associated with roots of oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) were identified as Tuber aestivum Vittad based on morphological and cytological characteristics. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified by PCR using primer pair ITS1/ITS4 and the sequences were analyzed. Phylogenetic trees constructed based on ITS sequences revealed that all Iranian specimens were in the same branch in a clade with T. aestivum reported from others. All T. aestivum sequences, including Iranian specimen, showed an average of 97 % similarity (ranged from 96 to 100 %). The results of physico-chemical analyses on soil samples collected from oak forest indicated that T. aestivum was prevalent in the sandy soil with rather low phosphorus concentration, low in organic matter, and high CaCo3. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. aestivum and its host plant from Iran.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9932-0
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 2 (2017)
  • Farmers’ perceptions of climate change impacts on ecosystem services
           delivery of parklands in southern Mali
    • Authors: Kapoury Sanogo; Joachim Binam; Jules Bayala; Grace B. Villamor; Antoine Kalinganire; Soro Dodiomon
      Pages: 345 - 361
      Abstract: Agroforestry parklands in the Sahel provide a number of ecosystem services that help farmers cope better with climate change effects and thus reducing their vulnerability. However, parklands are threatened due to the decline in densities of species that are sensitive to drought and that might compromise the delivery of the above mentioned ecosystem services to farmers. Therefore, data were collected by interviewing 400 smallholder farmers to elucidate farmers’ perceptions of climate change in southern Mali and potential consequences on the delivery of ecosystem services from the parklands. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logit model were used to analyse the data collected and identify the indictors as well as the determinants of farmers’ perception of climate change. The findings revealed increases in the frequency of strong wind, dust, drought, high temperatures and number of hot days as the main climate change-related indicators. Furthermore, an early cessation of the rainy season, frequent drought and wind were found to be the factors impeding a better delivery of the ecosystem services from the parklands. Early cessation of rains and frequent drought might affect the water availability which in turn affects the flowering and fruiting phases of the trees. The occurrence of strong wind causes the shedding of the flowers thus reducing the fruit production. Age, educational level, farm size and gender are key factors influencing farmer’s perception of climate change. The strategies adopted by these farmers to cope with climate shocks include use of improved drought-tolerant crop varieties, diversification of crops, off-farm activities and seasonal migration. Based on these findings, we therefore suggest the development of conducive environment that can help create agricultural related off-farm income earning activities that could protect active households from the impacts of climate change and variability.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9933-z
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 2 (2017)
  • Periodicity of different phenophases in selected trees from Himalayan
           Terai of India
    • Authors: Omesh Bajpai; Jitendra Pandey; L. B. Chaudhary
      Pages: 363 - 374
      Abstract: The temporal phenology of leaf bud bursting, leaf initiation, leaf maturation, leaf fall, flower initiation, fruit initiation and fruit fall was recorded for eight tree species (Ficus hispida, F. squamosa, Mallotus nudiflorus, M. philippensis, Shorea robusta, Schleichera oleosa, Pongamia pinnata and Terminalia arjuna) in the tropical moist deciduous forest of Himalayan Terai region from November 2009 to October 2012. The study revealed that a short low temperature dry period, sufficient winter rain and temperature rise are the triggering factors for summer leaf flushing and, the increased soil water availability for second leaf flushing in rains. Initiation of flowering with leaf emergence in the dry period supports higher rate of fruit setting due to maximum availability and activities of pollinators. The dispersal and post dispersal success of fruits increased by their ripening before and/or in the rainy season. In T. arjuna, no correlation has been found between the fruiting and rains. M. nudiflorus and M. philippensis initiate leaves and flowers with the first significant increase in temperature and photoperiod and are thus suggested as the potential tree species for climate change studies in tropics.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9936-9
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 2 (2017)
  • Factors influencing smallholder commercial tree planting in Isabel
           Province, the Solomon Islands
    • Authors: Stephanie Versteeg; Christian Pilegaard Hansen; Mariève Pouliot
      Pages: 375 - 392
      Abstract: Small-scale forestry systems provide subsistence products and income generation for smallholders, and a range of environmental services. However, smallholders often face constraints to the adoption of small-scale forestry. In the Solomon Islands, family-based plantations of commercial timber species, in particular teak, have been promoted over the last 10 years. After initially high uptake, rates of new plantings have slowed, and management of existing plantations is perceived to limit timber quality. This study assesses the factors that influence household adoption of small-scale forestry through a case study of Isabel Province, the Solomon Islands. These factors were investigated in five tree-planting villages using a mixed methods approach, in which a household survey of tree planters and non-tree planters was complemented with qualitative methods. Descriptive statistics, probit and multiple regression models, and qualitative analysis were used to generate results. The study finds that a market for existing planted timber resources, improved extension services and, in the longer-term, more livelihood-appropriate small-scale (agro)forestry systems are critical to facilitate the ongoing adoption and maintenance of small-scale plantations in Isabel Province of the Solomon Islands.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9940-0
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 2 (2017)
  • What is good about Sri Lankan homegardens with regards to food security? A
           synthesis of the current scientific knowledge of a multifunctional
           land-use system
    • Authors: E. Mattsson; M. Ostwald; S. P. Nissanka
      Abstract: Recently, there has been growing interest in agroforestry systems due to their great potential to mitigate threats to household food and nutrition security from soaring food prices but also as carbon sinks. In Sri Lanka, smallholder farms such as homegardens constitute a majority of Sri Lanka’s total annual crop and timber production. Despite Sri Lankan homegardens being considered desirable and sustainable land-use systems, their role in food and nutrition security is not yet entirely understood. By synthesising scientific articles and grey literature we sought the link between food security and homegardens by quantifying their products or services and ascertaining whether food security characteristics are assessed as direct or indirect impacts. The results show that 27% of 92 identified articles directly quantified aspects that are relevant to food security. Another 51% of the articles quantified indirect aspects that have relevance for food security, including climate, soil, ecosystem services, structural and floristic diversity and economic aspects. Twenty-two percent of the articles were categorised as being qualitative or conceptual and contained no direct assessments or quantification of food security. The presence of significant merits from homegardens includes providing food security throughout the year at low-cost while sustaining numerous ecosystem services. This benefits particularly the poor farmers. However, many studies are descriptive and only provide location-specific information on single research focuses such as plant species, yield and management. There are few comparisons with crop land, forests or other production systems, and there is even less empirical evidence and quantification of the food security and other benefits. Seven areas where more scientific focus would be beneficial are identified. Homegardens are strong in national policies and to reach a greater level of efficiency within these activities our findings suggest more emphasis on a higher degree of inclusiveness of relevant stakeholders and long-term engagements with context specific guidance.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0093-6
  • Diverse strategies for integration of forestry and livestock production
    • Authors: Adriana Bussoni; Jorge Alvarez; Frederick Cubbage; Gustavo Ferreira; Valentin Picasso
      Abstract: Global changes in land use and increased forestry plantations have reduced the livestock area in Uruguay, and silvopastoral systems have recently emerged. This paper aimed to quantify these new systems, and to identify the diversity of patterns of integration of forestry and livestock production. Based on detailed data from the 2011 Uruguay Census of Agriculture a multi dimensional scaling analysis was performed on land tenure, land use, livestock management, and socio-economic continuous and categorical variables, followed by a cluster analysis, which resulted in seven groups. The first four groups were primarily livestock farmers, with forests providing services to livestock farming, and timber production coming second in economic importance. These groups differ mainly in cattle orientation, land ownership and farm size. The other three groups were primarily foresters, with livestock grazing in their lands. These groups differ in the legal organization (individual foresters vs corporations), farm size, and integration with livestock. The identification of these contrasting strategies for integration can inform future research and policies for the sustainability of silvopastoral systems in the region.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0092-7
  • Relationships between climate at origin and seedling traits in eight
           Panafrican provenances of Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn. under imposed
           drought stress
    • Authors: J. Bayala; Z. Sanon; P. Bazié; J. Sanou; O. Roupsard; C. Jourdan; A. Ræbild; B. Kelly; J. B. L. Okullo; M. Thiam; J. Yidana
      Abstract: The morphological responses of seedlings of eight African provenances of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea tree or Karité) to imposed draught stress were compared under nursery experimental conditions. The potted seedlings were subjected to three different watering regimes (87 days after sowing): no water stress (100% of the field capacity, C), moderate water stress (75% of C) and severe water stress (50% of C). Before the application of the stress, we observed genotypical differences in the morphological variables at the scale of leaves and of above-ground parts. The six-month water stress affected aerial growth: all provenances responded to drought by down-regulating growth (in height and in diameter), leaf number and area. Katawki provenance of Uganda performed relatively poorly, possibly of it being a nilotica subspecies, contrary to the others (paradoxa subspecies). There was a lack of correlation between climate of seeds origin, seed characteristics, seeds germination and survival rate of seedlings. The study confirmed the importance of leaf area in the vigor of the initial growth in this species. Thus, Tamale and Karaba provenances performed better than other West African provenances due to their larger leaf area, which was found to be a determining factor of relative growth in height at the seedling stage.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0091-8
  • High yielding and trait specific genotypes and genetic associations among
           yield and yield contributing traits in Jatropha curcas L.
    • Authors: George Francis; John Oliver; Sujatha Mulpuri
      Abstract: Jatropha curcas L., an important oilseed crop of the family Euphorbiaceae is valued for its oil as a fuel oil and biodiesel/aviation fuel feedstock. The adaptability and robustness of the plant makes it eminently suitable for integrating into small farm agroforestry systems and as an intercrop, especially in marginal and drought-stressed areas. Profitable cultivation of the crop is hampered by the lack of cultivars with stable and high yield. Variance components, heritabilities and genetic associations of yield and its determinants were estimated in 57 accessions from nine countries. The accessions exhibited significant variation and the coefficient of variation showed higher PCV than GCV for all the traits. Broad sense heritability and genetic advance were high for seed yield and height from base to branching and low for kernel oil content. Pearson correlation coefficients showed positive significant correlation of fruit shape and number of female flowers per inflorescence with seed yield. Cluster analysis based on 20 mixed traits grouped the accessions into five clusters with all the non-toxic accessions forming a separate cluster while the toxic accessions were grouped in four clusters. Seed yield recorded over 5 years indicated a significant yield increase by the 5th year and the high yielding toxic accessions, JP47 and JP40 gave average seed yields (g plant−1) of 2574 and 1613 and maximum yields (g plant−1) of 2943 and 1940, respectively. This is a significant step towards identification of trait specific genotypes with high seed yield, high test weight, pistillate nature, dual purpose edible types, which could be successfully utilized for genetic improvement of the crop through selection and hybrid breeding.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0089-2
  • Ectomycorrhizal trees intermingled within Cupressus lusitanica plantations
           sustain the diversity and availability of edible mushrooms
    • Authors: Mariano Torres-Gómez; Roberto Garibay-Orijel; Alejandro Casas; Diego R. Pérez-Salicrup
      Abstract: Edible mushrooms are important resources with higher economic value than other non-timber forest products (NTFPs). In this study, we assessed quantitatively how the permanence of native ectomycorrhizal trees within Cupressus lusitanica plantations affects the availability of edible wild mushrooms. We conducted our study in an area composed of native ectomycorrhizal oak-pine forest and no ectomycorrhizal plantations of C. lusitanica. Availability of saprobic and ectomycorrhizal edible mushrooms was evaluated as a multifactorial variable including density, fresh biomass weight, potential monetary value, species richness, dominance and temporal availability of edible wild mushrooms. These variables were compared between plantations and native oak-pine forest through statistical and multi-criteria analyses. No significant differences in temperature and relative humidity at the ground level or in the physical and chemical properties of the soil between the two forest types were detected. We found greater biomass and temporal availability of edible wild mushrooms in the oak-pine forest. Nonetheless, in plantations we found 62.5% of ectomycorrhizal fungi including one species not found in the oak-pine forest (Strobilomyces floccopus), which indicates that native trees in the plantations maintain high diversity of wild mushrooms as well as the availability of some culinary important edible mushrooms.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0081-x
  • Relationships between agroforestry and community development according to
    • Authors: John F. Munsell; Benjamin J. Addlestone; Catherine J. Bukowski; Louis Nkembi; Neba Kingsly; Elizabeth A. Moore
      Abstract: Post-adoption studies are relatively uncommon in the agroforestry literature. Thus little is known about progress and permanence following adoption. To better understand the relationship between agroforestry implementation and community development, seventy-seven practitioners in Cameroon with three or more years of experience were surveyed about the relationships between agroforestry and community development. Hypotheses were that they have observed differences in the association between agroforestry and community capitals. They were also surveyed about their satisfaction with agroforestry. Hypotheses were that satisfaction is high and negatively skewed when compared to community capitals measurements. Game play was used to collect responses. Friedman’s two-way non-parametric statistic was used to test for inter-item differences within the community capitals and satisfaction response sets. Shapiro–Wilk statistic was used to test for normality in both response sets and a bootstrap procedure and t-tests were used to test for differences in data skewness and kurtosis. Natural capital scored highest but did not differ significantly from built, human, and social capitals. Financial capital was significantly lower than natural capital, but not built, human, or social capitals. Political and cultural capitals were significantly lower compared to all others. Satisfaction was significantly higher when compared to community capitals, but the data were also negatively skewed suggesting capitals are a more representative and useful metric for researchers and technical assistance professionals focused on long-term practitioner support.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0084-7
  • Adaptation factors and futures of agroforestry systems in Nepal
    • Authors: Edwin Cedamon; Ian Nuberg; Bishnu H. Pandit; Krishna K. Shrestha
      Abstract: Farmers in Nepal mid-hills have practiced agroforestry for generations as main source or supplement of timber, firewood and fodder from government forests. The nature and extent of agroforestry practice is being challenged by rapid social and economic change particularly in the recent rise of labour out-migration and remittance income. Understanding is required of the critical factors that influence farmers in the way they adapt agroforestry to their circumstances. This paper analyses the relationship of households’ livelihood resources and agroforestry practice to identify trajectories of agroforestry adaptation to improve livelihood outcomes. Using data from a survey of 668 households, it was found that landholding, livestock holding and geographic location of farmers are key drivers for agroforestry adaptation. A multinomial logistic regression model showed that in addition to these variables, household income, household-remittance situation (whether the household is receiving remittance or not) and caste influence adaptation of agroforestry practice. The analysis indicates that resource-poor households are more likely to adapt to terraced-based agroforestry while resource-rich households adapt to woodlot agroforestry. Appropriate agroforestry interventions are: (1) develop simple silvicultural regimes to improve the quality and productivity of naturally-regenerating timber on under-utilised land; (2) develop a suite of tree and groundcover species that can be readily integrated within existing terrace-riser agroforestry practices; (3) acknowledge the different livelihood capitals of resource-poor and resource-rich groups and promote terrace-riser and woodlot agroforestry systems respectively to these groups; and (4) develop high-value fodder production systems on terrace-riser agroforestry, and also for non-arable land. The analysis generates important insights for improving agroforestry policies and practices in Nepal and in many developing countries.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0090-9
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