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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Agroforestry Systems
  [SJR: 0.64]   [H-I: 56]   [19 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-9680 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4366
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Lessons for research, capacity development and policy in agroforestry for
    • Authors: D. Callo-Concha; M. Denich; M. M. Ul Hassan; F. Place; D. A. Wardell
      Pages: 795 - 798
      Abstract: Abstract Since its foundation in the 1970’s, agroforestry science has evolved from setting its concepts, research approaches and flagship technologies towards its increasing contribution to ecologically sound land use, food security and income generation in the global North and South. The Third World Congress on Agroforestry held in Delhi in April 2014 continued contributed to this evolution by focusing, beyond the scientific realm, on the implementation of findings by convening ad-hoc stakeholders and subjects. Accordingly, some of the congress sessions dealt with key aspects of how agroforestry can foster and contribute to development. The special issue “Lessons for research, capacity development and policy in agroforestry for development” compiles approaches, experiences and overall lessons from (i) research, (ii) capacity development, and (iii) policy-making, capable to promote and generate developmental change through agroforestry. This introductory paper outlines the rationale for the three areas and the contributing articles.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0085-6
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 5 (2017)
  • Can farmer-to-farmer communication boost the dissemination of agroforestry
           innovations' A case study from Sulawesi, Indonesia
    • Authors: Endri Martini; James M. Roshetko; Enggar Paramita
      Pages: 811 - 824
      Abstract: Abstract Research agencies generate a vast number of agroforestry innovations, many of which have significant potential to increase productivity and to improve livelihoods. However, the dissemination of information related to these innovations and their adoption rate remains low throughout Indonesia, particularly in areas with a low level of infrastructure development, such as in Sulawesi, Indonesia. In areas such as these, interpersonal communication between farmers (farmer-to-farmer interpersonal communication) is a significant means by which farmers obtain information related to agroforestry innovations that they may utilize to improve the productivity of their plots. Given the significance of this channel of communication, further investigation is merited to assess how it might be leveraged to improve the dissemination of information related to agroforestry innovations and how it can complement the use of other communication channels. Thus, this study was conducted to identify how farmer-to-farmer interpersonal communication is used and the extent to which it is a preferred means by which information related to agroforestry innovations is disseminated in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews involving 144 farmers (40 % female) from 12 villages in the provinces of South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Results show distinct differences in terms of farmers’ preferences for the various types of disseminators of information related to agroforestry innovations between provinces and genders. It was found that farmers play a significant role as reliable disseminators of information related to agroforestry innovations to a greater extent in areas where farmer’s access to government extension agents is limited and where language barriers act as a constraint to the dissemination of information by these agents. Farmer-to-farmer communication is not the only communication channel for the dissemination of the information, but it is preferred by farmers who only speak local languages. Thus, to enhance the dissemination rate of agroforestry innovations, farmer-to-farmer communication channels should be utilized to complement the use of other channels. In areas where farmer-to-farmer communication channels are preferred, deliberate measures to improve expert farmers’ and opinion leaders’ access to information related to agricultural and agroforestry innovations will facilitate the effective dissemination of this information amongst a greater number of farmers.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-0011-3
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 5 (2017)
  • Two decades of agroforestry training, education and research at
           Université Laval, Quebec, Canada
    • Authors: D. P. Khasa; A. Olivier; A. R. Atangana; J. Bonneville
      Pages: 825 - 833
      Abstract: Abstract Following recommendations from studies on land-use issues in the tropics that were carried out by professors of the faculty of agriculture and food sciences, and of the faculty of forestry, geography and geomatics, Université Laval, Canada, a Master’s program in agroforestry was created in 1993 and implemented in 1996. This program of 45 credits leading to a Master’s degree in agroforestry offers two training types: Master of Science (M.Sc.) with thesis and M.Sc. with essay. The M.Sc. with thesis encompasses 21 course-based credits including 6 compulsory credits of internship where the student learns the biophysical, socioeconomic and cultural environments of agroforestry, and 24 research-based credits. The M.Sc. with essay consists of 33 course-based credits including the same 6 compulsory credits of internship, and 12 essay-based credits. Two professors are directly involved in this program, and 35 theses and 19 M.Sc. essays were completed during the period extending from 1996 to February 2014. Fourteen essays and 18 theses investigated biophysical aspects of agroforestry, whereas 5 essays and 17 theses focused on socioeconomic aspects, respectively. Of the 54 thesis and essays that were completed, 61.11 % focused on tropical countries, and 38.89 % on temperate countries. The program also published over 55 peer-reviewed articles, two book chapters and one textbook. The program is expanding in tropical French speaking countries through international projects on training in management of natural resources, and with the use of digital learning tools to reach out more students on-line.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-015-9871-1
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 5 (2017)
  • Developing farmer and community capacity in Agroforestry: is the
    • Authors: Rowan Reid
      Pages: 847 - 865
      Abstract: Abstract The Australian Master TreeGrower (MTG) program was launched in 1996 as an agroforestry extension initiative of The University of Melbourne. The program included a short course for landholders that provided knowledge and practical skills but also had a strong focus on developing the information and peer networks that would provide them, and their community, with on-going support as they implement their agroforestry activities. Since 2010 the MTG has been delivered by The Australian Agroforestry Foundation, a not-for-profit organisation, and integrated with the Peer Group Mentoring (PGM) concept developed by a regional farmer group in Australia. The PGM trains, then pays, past Master TreeGrowers to support other landholders as they design and develop their own agroforestry projects. More than 100 MTG courses have been run across Australia involving over 2000 landholders and more than fifty partner organisations. Independent evaluation shows that participants enthusiastically support the program, increase the area of tree cover on their land, adopt more intensive or purposeful management practices, are more inclined to want to grow trees for a mix of both public and private good outcomes, and, actively encourage others in their community to do the same. This paper reviews the development and delivery of the MTG and PGM in Australia and explores whether the models are transferable to developing countries. To date four MTG courses have been conducted in Africa (Uganda (2) and Niger (2)), seven in Indonesia and one in Timor-Leste. Whilst the structure of the international MTG courses was different to that commonly adopted in Australia the content was similar in that they included: information to support the development and implementation of agroforestry designs that reflect their particular interests and aspirations; a review of market opportunities for agroforestry products and services, training in tree and forest measurement, education in tree growth and silviculture; and, encouragement, guidance and support to encourage landholders to share their experience with others in their community. The response suggests that the MTG, originally developed for Australian farmers, may represent a very different model of agroforestry extension to what is commonly offered to farmers in developing countries, and that it may be worth developing in regions where farmers believe they have relatively secure land tenure and are able to make long-term land management decisions regarding tree establishment and management.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-0039-4
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 5 (2017)
  • Regulation, formalization, and smallholder timber production in northern
           Central Java, Indonesia
    • Authors: James Thomas Erbaugh; Dodik Ridho Nurrochmat; Herry Purnomo
      Pages: 867 - 880
      Abstract: Abstract Forest Law Enforcement, Governance, and Trade agreements between the EU and countries that grow tropical timber aim to complement, alter, or generate new regulatory mechanisms that ensure the legality of timber products. These regulatory changes affect pre-existing policies and practices within timber production networks. The Indonesian-EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement was signed in 2013, and legality verification is scheduled to become mandatory for all smallholders by the end of 2017. Using grower surveys conducted in the Jepara regency of Central Java (n = 204), we generate information on who Jepara smallholders are, what timber species they are growing, and how programs that provide free and discounted seedlings contribute to STP. We use these data to understand how STP operates and how Sistem Verifikasi Legalitas Kayu (SVLK), the Indonesian method for timber legality verification, will affect STP networks and producers. We find that resource provision and oversight of source documentation increase formalization within STP. Our discussion details four policy-relevant insights for promoting STP amid continued formalization.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-0037-6
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 5 (2017)
  • Competitive interaction in a jujube tree/wheat agroforestry system in
           northwest China’s Xinjiang Province
    • Authors: W. Zhang; B. J. Wang; Y. W. Gan; Z. P. Duan; X. D. Hao; W. L. Xu; X. Lv; L. H. Li
      Pages: 881 - 893
      Abstract: Abstract The jujube tree (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.)/wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) agroforestry system is frequently used in China’s Xinjiang Province. The system improves land-use efficiency and increases economic returns. A field experiment was conducted at the Hetian oasis in southern Xinjiang Province to investigate the relationship between root distribution and interspecific interaction between the two intercropped species. The study included seven treatments: sole-cropped 5, 7, or 9-year-old jujube trees (treatments 1–3); 5, 7, or 9-year-old jujube trees intercropped with wheat (treatments 4–6); and sole-cropped wheat (treatment 7). To determine vertical root distribution, soil cores were collected in 20-cm increments from the 0 to 100-cm soil depth. The cores were collected at horizontal distances of 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 cm from the jujube rows. The results showed that the land equivalent ratios were >1 for the three jujube/wheat intercropping systems. This indicated that these systems were advantageous compared with sole cropping. Tree height, breast height diameter, and mean crown radius were less in the intercropped treatments than in the corresponding sole-cropped treatments. Intercropping reduced the root length densities (RLDs) and root diameters (RDs) of both jujube and wheat at all soil depths. The RLD and RD of 9-year-old jujube trees were greater than those of the 5- and 7-year-old trees, which indicated that the root systems of the 9-year-old trees were more developed. Wheat root growth was inhibited more by older jujube trees than by younger ones. In conclusion, jujube tree/wheat intercropping can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the mechanisms involved in the belowground interspecific interactions are still unknown. Additional research is needed to provide optimal management strategies and technologies for jujube/wheat intercropping.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9962-7
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 5 (2017)
  • Impact of ponderosa pine afforestations on soil organic matter (SOM) in
           semiarid steppes of western Patagonia, Argentina
    • Authors: Carlos G. Buduba; Guillermo E. Defossé; Jorge A. Irisarri
      Pages: 895 - 900
      Abstract: Abstract The western steppe of Patagonia, Argentina, is being afforested with conifers since long ago. However, the effects of this land-use change on some soil parameters are still unknown. We determined soil organic matter (SOM) and root abundance at different soil depths, in 29 paired steppe-ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) stands planted at different times and densities between the 36°43′ and 44°8′S, and the 71°29′ and 70°35′W, in Patagonia, Argentina. SOM was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in steppe than in afforestations at upper soil horizons (0–30 cm soil depth), and similar at deeper depths. Soil OM was also higher in steppe as compared to sparse/young afforestation stands. Denser/older stands showed equal or slightly higher SOM values as compared to steppe. While root abundance was higher (p < 0.05) in afforestations than in steppe at all but in the superficial soil horizon, it has not yet significantly contributed to SOM formation. This study contributes to the understanding of how ponderosa pine afforestations, planted on a steppe of Patagonia, affect SOM, adding useful information for other areas of the world in which afforestations replace native vegetation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9963-6
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 5 (2017)
  • Cinderella agroforestry systems
    • Authors: P. K. Ramachandran Nair; Syam Viswanath; P. A. Lubina
      Pages: 901 - 917
      Abstract: Abstract The underlying principles and traditional knowledge concerning indigenous agroforestry systems (AFS) around the world have been used successfully in the design of improved systems; but lately there has been a slow-down in that effort. Recognizing that Cinderella, by analogy, refers to an individual whose attributes were unrecognized or one who unexpectedly achieved success after a period of obscurity and neglect, we propose Cinderella agroforestry systems for such underexploited and “forgotten” AFS. In order to highlight their unrecognized potentials, a few such systems that are location-specific and little-known outside their areas of existence were selected from around the world. Each selected system is unique in terms of its production, environmental, and sociocultural attributes; but none had been described in quantitative terms of ecology and production. A qualitative SWOT (strengths–weaknesses–opportunities–threats) analysis of the systems showed several commonalities among them. While sustainability, multi-functionality, and high sociocultural values are common strengths, low levels of production and lack of research- and technology inputs to improve the system are the major weaknesses. The opportunities emanating from strengths and weaknesses are also common to all the systems; and “threats” to these systems arise mostly from ramifications of government policies. Given the acknowledged role of AFS in climate-smart agriculture and the current global momentum for working with communities to better manage landscapes, learning from success stories of the Cinderella AFS could suggest models for sustainable development, and efforts in that direction should also be incorporated into global agroforestry research agendas.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9966-3
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 5 (2017)
  • Determinants of agroforestry technology adoption among arable crop farmers
           in Ondo state, Nigeria: an empirical investigation
    • Authors: P. T. Owombo; F. O. Idumah
      Pages: 919 - 926
      Abstract: Abstract In addressing the problem of land degradation as well as enhancing sustainable food production, agroforestry was advocated among the arable crop farmers in the area. The study was thus conducted to investigate the determinants as well as the constraints of agroforestry technology adoption in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data collected from a multi-stage sampling procedure were analysed with the aid of descriptive statistics and double hurdle model. Findings revealed that the mean age, farming experience, level of education, and plot age were 58.6 ± 13.3, 31.9 ± 13.8, 7 ± 6.3, and 30.3 ± 10.5, respectively. While the number of adult male and extension contact increased the intensity of agroforestry adoption, value of livestock reduced the technology adoption. This implies that varying factors affect farmers’ decision to adopt and intensity of use. The major constraint of agroforestry practice in the area is insecure land tenure. Policy thrust that would enhance farmers’ access to extension service and redistribute land should be put in place.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9967-2
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 5 (2017)
  • Comparison of leaf stomatal conductance models for typical desert riparian
           phreatophytes in northwestern China
    • Authors: Guanlong Gao; Xiaoyou Zhang; Tengfei Yu
      Pages: 927 - 939
      Abstract: Abstract Stomatal regulation plays a vital role related to plant functioning, especially with a limited water supply. Estimating the leaf stomatal conductance (g s) is pivotal for further estimation of transpiration as well as energy and mass balances between air and plant in arid regions. Based on successive measurements of leaf gas exchange of two typical desert riparian phreatophytes, Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb., and Populus euphratica Oliv., we estimated g s using the empirical, optimal, and mechanistic models. Measurements were conducted on T. ramosissima during the growing seasons in 2011 and 2012 and P. euphratica in 2013 and 2014. Estimated values were compared with those measured by the portable open-path gas exchange measurement system. Results indicated that Ye’s mechanistic model always performed best among all the g s models tested here with R 2 values of 0.878 and 0.723 for T. ramosissima in 2011 and 2012, and 0.625 and 0.867 for P. euphratica in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Meanwhile, Medlyn’s optimal model exhibited the least reliable performance with R 2 at values of 0.514 and 0.398 for T. ramosissima in 2011 and 2012, and 0.385 and 0.101 for P. euphratica in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Empirical models may not be suitable for application in novel situations because they have been developed from experimental observations rather than from any mechanistic understanding or theory of stomatal behavior. Consequently, the application of Ye’s mechanistic model will be of great significance for the modeling and up-scaling of g s in extremely arid regions in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9968-1
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 5 (2017)
  • Fine roots branch orders of Abies faxoniana respond differentially to
           warming in a subalpine coniferous forest ecosystem
    • Authors: Xiaozhen Pu; Chunying Yin; Qunying Xiao; Mingfeng Qiao; Qing Liu
      Pages: 955 - 966
      Abstract: Abstract Root is an important plant organ and has high heterogeneity. Global warming could change root and affect belowground ecological processes. There is little information on how fine roots branch orders responds to global change. This study examined the growth, morphological and physiological responses of fine roots of a subalpine coniferous species to warming. We investigated biomass, average diameter, specific root length (SRL), triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reducing capacity, carbon (C), total non-structural carbon (TNC) and fractions of the primal five branch order roots of Abies faxoniana in April, August, October and December. The decrease in total fine roots biomass after a growing season was significantly greater under warming treatment compared to control, suggesting that warming could accelerate the carbon input from root to soil, but the increment depended on tree species. Warming did not affect average diameter and SRL. Responses of biomass, TTC reducing capacity, C, TNC and fractions to warming significantly differed with root order and month. Significant warming effects were only observed in C and starch concentration of the first order and also TNC and soluble sugar concentration of the first three orders. The results indicated that the lower order roots (the first three orders) were more sensitive to warming, probably because they had more frequent, intense interactions with soil and low defense capability. Thus, global warming may dramatically alter root functions such as nutrients and water uptake as well as the cycle of C and nutrients at the whole subalpine coniferous forest ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9970-7
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 5 (2017)
  • Evaluation of plantation and early development of five alternatives to
    • Authors: S. Varela; G. Caballé; J. Diez; M. Godoy; P. Willems
      Pages: 981 - 991
      Abstract: Abstract Previous studies of afforestation in Patagonia indicate that 30–50 % tree cover produces positive effects on the pasture. This coverage level is achieved by applying pruning and strong thinning to reduce the volume of timber production per area unit. From an economic standpoint, in order to not reduce the income level of the system, it is necessary to find tree species that could replace ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and maximize income per volume unit of wood. We evaluated the feasibility of implementation of five broadleaved tree species (native and exotic) with higher intrinsic wood quality than ponderosa pine. We tested the influence of tree cover generated by a framework of silvopastoral plantation on the increase in survival, regrowth and absolute increase in height, and compared ecophysiological variables (net photosynthetic activity, stomatal conductance, intrinsic water use efficiency) of different species to the status of a traditional plantation without tree cover. Additionally values of air temperature and relative humidity were registered under both cover conditions. Preliminary results support the conclusion that three of these five species could be considered as alternatives to ponderosa pine species for establishing silvopastoral systems with higher timber value. Our Based on the results, the use of tree cover generated under the current plantations of P. ponderosa could increase the success of the establishment of these species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9972-5
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 5 (2017)
  • Farmers’ reasoning behind the uptake of agroforestry practices: evidence
           from multiple case-studies across Europe
    • Authors: M. Rois-Díaz; N. Lovric; M. Lovric; N. Ferreiro-Domínguez; M. R. Mosquera-Losada; M. den Herder; A. Graves; J. H. N. Palma; J. A. Paulo; A. Pisanelli; J. Smith; G. Moreno; S. García; A. Varga; A. Pantera; J. Mirck; P. Burgess
      Abstract: Abstract Potential benefits and costs of agroforestry practices have been analysed by experts, but few studies have captured farmers’ perspectives on why agroforestry might be adopted on a European scale. This study provides answers to this question, through an analysis of 183 farmer interviews in 14 case study systems in eight European countries. The study systems included high natural and cultural value agroforestry systems, silvoarable systems, high value tree systems, and silvopasture systems, as well as systems where no agroforestry practices were occurring. A mixed method approach combining quantitative and qualitative approaches was taken throughout the interviews. Narrative thematic data analysis was performed. Data collection proceeded until no new themes emerged. Within a given case study, i.e. the different systems in different European regions, this sampling was performed both for farmers who practice agroforestry and farmers who did not. Results point to a great diversity of agroforestry practices, although many of the farmers are not aware of the term or concept of agroforestry, despite implementing the practice in their own farms. While only a few farmers mentioned eligibility for direct payments in the CAP as the main reason to remove trees from their land, to avoid the reduction of the funded area, the tradition in the family or the region, learning from others, and increasing the diversification of products play the most important role in adopting or not agroforestry systems.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0139-9
  • Influence of provenance and shade on biomass production and triterpenoid
           accumulation in Cyclocarya paliurus
    • Authors: Bo Deng; Shengzuo Fang; Xulan Shang; Xiangxiang Fu; Yan Li
      Abstract: Abstract Cyclocarya paliurus is a well-known multiple function tree species and has been used for ingredients in functional foods and drug formulations in China. A split-plot randomized design was used to grow three provenances at three different shade levels and effects of provenance and shading on growth and triterpenoid accumulation were assessed. Shading caused significant variation in photosynthetic photon flux density, air temperature and relative humidity, and moreover influenced total triterpenoid content in leaves. However, contents of cyclocaric acid B, cyclocarioside I, and arjunolic acid in the leaves were mainly affected by provenance. A significant seasonal variation of triterpenoid contents was observed in the leaves and the highest content appeared in September. Two-way analysis of variance revealed a significant provenance effect, shading effect and integrated effect between provenance and shading on biomass production. The highest accumulation of total triterpenoid and cyclocarioside I per plant was achieved in Muchuan provenance without shading, while the biggest accumulations of cyclocaric acid B and arjunolic acid were observed in Muchuan provenance with one-layer shading net. The data obtained suggest a complex relationship between environment, genotype and triterpenoid production but highlight that selecting suitable provenance of C. paliurus and optimizing cultivation system would be crucial for a high triterpenoid production.
      PubDate: 2017-10-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0138-x
  • The role of fertile anthropogenic soils in the conservation of native and
           exotic agrobiodiversity in Amazonian homegardens
    • Authors: Nathalia B. de Souza; André Braga Junqueira; Paul C. Struik; Tjeerdjan Stomph; Charles R. Clement
      Abstract: Abstract Amazonian dark earths (ADE) are anthropogenic soils mostly created between 500 and 2500 years ago by pre-Columbian populations. ADE are currently used by local people for different agricultural and agroforestry systems. Because of their high fertility they may play an important role in the conservation of non-native agrobiodiversity. This study aimed to investigate the variation in richness and abundance of exotic and native species in homegardens along the ADE-background soil continuum. We conducted floristic inventories in 70 homegardens located in 7 riverside communities along the lower and middle Madeira River, Central Amazonia. Each species sampled was classified according to its origin: native Amazonian, American (from outside Amazonia) and non-American, and each individual was classified according to its form of establishment: cultivated or spontaneous. The floristic diversity was significantly related to soil fertility, texture and homegarden size. We found a positive relationship between soil fertility and richness of species and landraces. Homegardens on more fertile soils tended to have a higher richness and abundance of cultivated non-American species, as well as a higher richness and abundance of spontaneously established American species. Homegardens at the fertile end of the fertility gradient provided conditions for the establishment and growth of many species, especially exotic species, that are generally more nutrient-demanding than Amazonian species. Our results show that homegarden agroecosystems on ADE favour experimentation with the introduction of a wide range of species from various regions of the globe.
      PubDate: 2017-10-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0137-y
  • Root biomass variation of cocoa and implications for carbon stocks in
           agroforestry systems
    • Authors: Kira A. Borden; Luke C. N. Anglaaere; Stephen Adu-Bredu; Marney E. Isaac
      Abstract: Abstract Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) root systems are typically assumed to contribute a small portion of carbon (C) to total C stocks in cocoa agroecosystems. Yet there are almost no direct measurements of cocoa coarse root biomass to support this assumption, presumably due to the difficulty of measuring coarse roots in situ and the risk to farmers’ livelihoods. Instead, root biomass is commonly estimated using allometry based on forest data, which might not be accurate for perennial crops given their range of management conditions. In this study, we bridge conventional methods of quantifying coarse root biomass with non-destructive application of ground penetrating radar to estimate cocoa belowground biomass (BGB) and C stocks in an agroforestry system in Ghana. BGB was measured for cocoa grown with shade trees (Entandrophragma angolense or Terminalia ivorensis) and in monoculture. BGB estimates showed good accuracy, with a relative root mean square error of 7% from excavated plants. It was estimated that 15-year-old cocoa hold approximately 6.0 kg C plant−1 in coarse root biomass and have a root to shoot ratio of approximately 0.23. However, the results indicate that proportionally more biomass was allocated to roots for cocoa grown in mixture with shade trees. Plot scale estimates show that cocoa roots contributed 5.4–6.4 Mg C ha−1, representing 8–16% of C stocks in all live tree biomass (cocoa + shade trees), depending on shade tree management. Our findings illustrate a promising approach for non-destructive BGB inventories of perennial crops. It is highlighted that although commonly used pan-tropical allometric equations may broadly function in estimating BGB for cocoa, this approach assumes proportional allocation between aboveground biomass and BGB, which may translate into inaccuracies in C stock inventories across diverse cocoa agroecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0122-5
  • Spatial similarities between European agroforestry systems and ecosystem
           services at the landscape scale
    • Authors: Sonja Kay; Josep Crous-Duran; Nuria Ferreiro-Domínguez; Silvestre García de Jalón; Anil Graves; Gerardo Moreno; María Rosa Mosquera-Losada; João H. N. Palma; José V. Roces-Díaz; Jose Javier Santiago-Freijanes; Erich Szerencsits; Robert Weibel; Felix Herzog
      Abstract: Abstract Agroforestry systems are known to provide ecosystem services which differ in quantity and quality from conventional agricultural practices and could enhance rural landscapes. In this study we compared ecosystem services provision of agroforestry and non-agroforestry landscapes in case study regions from three European biogeographical regions: Mediterranean (montado and dehesa), Continental (orchards and wooded pasture) and Atlantic agroforestry systems (chestnut soutos and hedgerows systems). Seven ecosystem service indicators (two provisioning and five regulating services) were mapped, modelled and assessed. Clear variations in amount and provision of ecosystem services were found between different types of agroforestry systems. Nonetheless regulating ecosystems services were improved in all agroforestry landscapes, with reduced nitrate losses, higher carbon sequestration, reduced soil losses, higher functional biodiversity focussed on pollination and greater habitat diversity reflected in a high proportion of semi-natural habitats. The results for provisioning services were inconsistent. While the annual biomass yield and the groundwater recharge rate tended to be higher in agricultural landscapes without agroforestry systems, the total biomass stock was reduced. These broad relationships were observed within and across the case study regions regardless of the agroforestry type or biogeographical region. Overall our study underlines the positive influence of agroforestry systems on the supply of regulating services and their role to enhance landscape structure.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0132-3
  • Morphological and physiological responses of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. to
           different pruning dates
    • Authors: Eloísa Ortega-Vargas; Juan Andrés Burgueño-Ferreira; Catarino Ávila-Reséndiz; William Bruce Campbell; Jesús Jarillo-Rodríguez; Silvia López-Ortiz
      Abstract: Abstract Pruning is an important management practice for regulating tree structure and physiology, and the timing of pruning can enhance forage production during dry periods of the year. Experimental pruning was performed on Guazuma ulmifolia trees to explain the morphological and physiological changes that occur when they are subjected to programmed defoliation to promote regrowth during the dry season. Three prunings (P-1, P-2 and P-3) were conducted from August to October (rainy season), and four foliage harvesting dates (H-a, H-b, H-c and H-d) occurred from February to April (dry season) over 2 years of evaluation. The trees developed similar numbers of branches from pruning and harvesting (P > 0.05). Differing predefined pruning height resulted in greater tree height in P-3. Trees in P-1 developed shorter (P < 0.005) and vigorous branches, in contrast, those in P-3 had longer and less vigorous branches with long internodes. Nonetheless, trees in P-3 added less height from regrowth (P < 0.001) to the total tree height. The first pruning (P-1) induced greater foliage density (P < 0.010) and more senescent leaves (P < 0.001), but this greater senescence was further affected by later leaf harvests (P = 0.001). Trees in P-3 showed greater photosynthetic efficiency (P < 0.001) because they retained lower leaf area and more green foliage during the dry season. The timing of pruning modified the morphology and physiology of G. ulmifolia, but leaf senescence was more affected by harvest date during the dry season. This process can be accelerated or slowed, depending on the pattern of rainfall which varies from year to year.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0136-z
  • Modelling and valuing the environmental impacts of arable, forestry and
           agroforestry systems: a case study
    • Authors: Silvestre García de Jalón; Anil Graves; Joao H. N. Palma; Adrian Williams; Matt Upson; Paul J. Burgess
      Abstract: Abstract The use of land for intensive arable production in Europe is associated with a range of externalities that typically impose costs on third parties. The introduction of trees in arable systems can potentially be used to reduce these costs. This paper assesses the profitability and environmental externalities of a silvoarable agroforestry system, and compares this with the profitability and environmental externalities from an arable system and a forestry system. A silvoarable experimental plot of poplar trees planted in 1992 in Bedfordshire, Eastern England, was used as a case study. The Yield-SAFE model was used to simulate the growth and yields of the silvoarable, arable, and forestry land uses along with the associated environmental externalities, including carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen and phosphorus surplus, and soil erosion losses by water. The Farm-SAFE model was then used to quantify the monetary value of these effects. The study assesses both the financial profitability from a farmer perspective and the economic benefit from a societal perspective. The arable option was the most financially profitable system followed by the silvoarable system and forestry. However, when the environmental externalities were included, silvoarable agroforestry provided the greatest benefit. This suggests that the appropriate integration of trees in arable land can provide greater well-being benefits to society overall, than arable farming without trees, or forestry systems on their own.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0128-z
  • Above- and belowground carbon stocks of two organic, agroforestry-based
           oil palm production systems in eastern Amazonia
    • Authors: Helen Monique Nascimento Ramos; Steel Silva Vasconcelos; Osvaldo Ryohei Kato; Débora Cristina Castellani
      Abstract: Abstract Ecosystem-level assessments of carbon (C) stocks of agroforestry systems are scarce. We quantified the ecosystem-level C stocks of one agroforestry-based oil palm production system (AFSP) and one agroforestry-based oil palm and cacao production system (AFSP+C) in eastern Amazonia. We quantified the stocks of C in four pools: aboveground live biomass, litter, roots, and soil. We evaluated the distribution of litter, roots, and soil C stocks in the oil palm management zones and in the area planted with cacao and other agroforestry species. The ecosystem-C stock was higher in AFSP+C (116.7 ± 1.5 Mg C ha−1) than in AFSP (99.1 ± 3.1 Mg C ha−1). The total litter-C stock was higher in AFSP+C (3.27 ± 0.01 Mg C ha−1) than in AFSP (2.26 ± 0.06 Mg C ha−1). Total root and soil C stocks (0–30 cm) did not differ between agroforestry systems. Ecosystem-C stocks varied between agroforestry systems due to differences in both aboveground and belowground stocks. In general, the belowground-C stocks varied spatially in response to the management in the oil palm and non-oil palm strips; these results have important implications for the monitoring of ecosystem-level C dynamics and the refinement of soil management.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0131-4
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