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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Agroforestry Systems
  [SJR: 0.64]   [H-I: 56]   [20 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-9680 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4366
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Tannins and mimosine in Leucaena genotypes and their relations to Leucaena
           resistance against Leucaena Psyllid and Onion thrips
    • Authors: Ahmed M. M. Ahmed; Francisco J. Solorio Sánchez; Luis Ramírez y Avilés; Rasha Ezzat Elsaid Mahdy; J. B. Castillo Camaal
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: The study was conducted throughout two seasons (2013 and 2014) at Xmatkuil farm at Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, to determine the relationships and the interactions between chemical compositions of condensed tannins and mimosine and their effects on the susceptibility of four Leucaena genotypes: Cunningham and K636 (L. leucocephala), and Nativa and KX2 (L. leucocephala × L. pallida) to the infestation of the most destructive insect pests; Leucaena Psyllids, Heteropsylla cubana Crawford, 1914 (Homoptera: Psyllidae), and Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, 1889 (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Mimosine showed insignificant effect on the population of both pests. However, tannins exhibited a significant effect for Psyllid population on Nativa and K636, and highly significant effect on thrips for the same respective genotypes. The insignificant relationships of tannin effect were found for Cunningham and KX2 to the population fluctuations of Psyllid and Thrips.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9907-1
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Individual leaf area estimations of a dioecious tropical tree species
           Carpotroche brasiliensis (Raddi) A. Gray, Achariaceae
    • Authors: Ediófila Brito-Rocha; Letícia dos Anjos; Ana Cristina Schilling; Ândrea Carla Dalmolin; Marcelo S. Mielke
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Carpotroche brasiliensis is a dioecious tree species native of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. Due to medical and industrial use of the oil extracted from its seeds, C. brasiliensis has a great potential for cultivation as non-timber forest product in agroforestry systems. This study was conducted with the objective to analyze the leaf dimensions of male and female adult trees and seedlings of C. brasiliensis. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) leaf dimensions do not differ between male and female adult genotypes; and (b) it is possible to develop single regression models for predicting leaf area (LA) from dimensional variables encompassing male and female adult genotypes and seedlings. LA, leaf length (L) and maximum leaf width (W) were measured in leaves collected from seven male and seven female adult genotypes and three seedling lots. The feasibility of using a single model for leaves of males and females, and seedlings and adults, was tested by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The prediction errors (PE) for each of the regression models were calculated from the cross-validation method. The average values of L, W and LA were, respectively, 136, 142 and 457 % higher in adults than in seedlings, and the average values of leaf shapes (L:W) of seedlings were intermediate between the average values of L:W of adult males and females. The average values of L did not differ between adult males and females, but significant differences were observed between males and females for W, LA and L:W (both p < 0.01, nested ANOVA). The mean L:W values of adult males and females, and seedlings, indicate that leaf shape should be used as a criterion for sex differentiation in this species. It was not possible to develop single models encompassing adult males and females, and seedlings; but high accurate predictive models of LA from L × W measurements were developed for adult males (R2 = 0.98, PE = 0.69, n = 350), adult females (R2 = 0.98, PE = 0.01, n = 350), and seedlings (R2 = 0.99, PE = 6.80, n = 150).
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9927-x
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Revisiting Bora fallow agroforestry in the Peruvian Amazon: Enriching
           ethnobotanical appraisals of non-timber products through household income
           quantification
    • Authors: Jamie N. Cotta
      Pages: 17 - 36
      Abstract: Indigenous fallow agroforestry systems play an important role in Amazonian livelihoods by providing food security, cash income, and overall risk mitigation. However, the substantial contribution of fruits, construction materials, handicraft inputs, and myriad other fallow products are not only ignored in many national statistics, they have received little attention from policy makers to date. This study estimates the economic importance and perceived household utility of species in managed indigenous (Bora) fallows using a combination of income data for all harvested products, fallow inventory observations, and free list data. The research represents an important follow-up to Denevan and Padoch’s approximately thirty-year old qualitative description of Bora fallow management in the same area. Results highlight the importance of agroforestry environments (primarily fallows) for providing well over 100 non-timber resources for easily accessed medicines, essential vitamins and nutrients, and cash-generating products such as handicraft materials. Crop staples and promoted native forest species each contribute 14 % of household income and other miscellaneous crops contribute an additional 6 %, for a total income share of 34 %. Chambira (Astrocaryum chambira) handicrafts alone contribute 16 % of household cash income (9 % of total income) in surveyed villages. When considering cash and subsistence importance, plant products harvested from agroforestry environments contribute more than double the income of those from unmanaged forests. Agroforestry can also safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services while promoting climate change resilience. Study results will enhance research and development initiatives which typically focus on forests or agriculture, but less often on intermediate, managed environments in Amazonian forests.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9892-4
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Inhibition of forage seed germination by leaf litter extracts of overstory
           hardwoods used in silvopastoral systems
    • Authors: Jonathan J. Halvorson; David P. Belesky; Mark S. West
      Pages: 69 - 83
      Abstract: Silvopastoral management strategies seek to expand spatial and temporal boundaries of forage production and promote ecosystem integrity through a combination of tree thinning and understory pastures. We determined the effects of water extracts of leaf litter from three species of overstory hardwood trees, yellow poplar, red maple, and white oak, on germination of common forage species: alfalfa, red and white clover, crabgrass, orchardgrass, and tall fescue without and with endophytes to increase understanding about potential interactions between silvopastures and overstory deciduous trees. Litter extracts reduced germination in red and white clover in a concentration dependent manner with greatest effects observed for poplar > maple > oak extracts. These reductions were linearly related to increasing osmolality and electrical conductivity of the leaf extracts. Modified Gompertz growth curve models, fit to data, further indicated treatment with litter extracts, especially poplar, delayed and slowed germination. Similarly, cumulative germination of a variety of grasses was inhibited by filtered 6 % (w/v) litter extracts with the effects of poplar > maple > oak. However, germination of all forages resumed after rinsing extract-treated seeds with water indicating inhibition could be due, in part, to osmotic effects of extracts or water-soluble allelopathic compounds. Final germination varied with forage species and extract type, but in most instances, did not reach the level of the control further suggesting specific ion toxicities as well. Management practices that account for the interactions between trees and forages are needed to ensure successful establishment and persistence of mixed species swards in silvopastoral systems.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9908-0
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Effects of Acacia seyal and biochar on soil properties and sorghum yield
           in agroforestry systems in South Sudan
    • Authors: Biar Deng; Priit Tammeorg; Olavi Luukkanen; Juha Helenius; Mike Starr
      Pages: 137 - 148
      Abstract: We studied the effects of Acacia seyal Del. intercropping and biochar soil amendment on soil physico-chemical properties and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) yields in a two-year field experiment conducted on a silt loam site near Renk in South Sudan. A split-plot design with three replications was used. The main factor was tree-cropping system (dense acacia + sorghum, scattered acacia + sorghum, and sole sorghum) and biochar (0 and 10 Mg ha−1) was the subplot factor. The two acacia systems had lower soil pH, N and higher C/N ratios compared to the sole sorghum system. Biochar significantly increased soil C, exchangeable K+ contents, field capacity and available water content, but reduced soil exchangeable Ca2+ and effective CEC, and had no effect on soil pH. Acacia intercropping significantly reduced sorghum grain yields while biochar had no significant effect on sorghum yields. The land equivalent ratio (LER) for sorghum yield was 0.3 for both acacia systems in 2011, with or without biochar, but increased in 2012 to 0.6 for the scattered acacia system when combined with biochar. The reduction in sorghum yields by the A. seyal trees was probably due to a combination of competition for water and nutrients and shading. The lack of a yield response to biochar maybe due to insufficient time or too low a dosage. Further research is needed to test for the effects of tree intercropping and biochar and their interactions on soil properties and crop yields in drylands.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9914-2
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Remote estimation of shelterbelt width from SPOT5 imagery
    • Authors: R. X. Deng; Y. Li; X. L. Xu; W. J. Wang; Y. C. Wei.
      Pages: 161 - 172
      Abstract: Width is one of the key parameters of a shelterbelt. Traditional methods to acquire this width are mainly based on field measurement, which is impractical for monitoring shelterbelts at regional scale. There are many studies analyzing linear objects, but they are not directly applicable to width detection of such objects. In this paper, we analyzed relationships among vegetation fractions retrieved from SPOT5 remote sensing imagery with 10 m × 10 m spatial resolution, shelterbelt area, and shelterbelt width in one pixel. Based on this analysis, we developed a method for recognizing shelterbelt width from a remote sensing image of central western Jilin Province, China. The result was validated by field measurement data and measurement from an aerial image of 0.5 m × 0.5 m spatial resolution. Mean absolute error was 2.40 and 2.73 m respectively, suggesting that the proposed method is feasible and its accuracy is acceptable. The study provides a valuable method for monitoring shelterbelt width across large spatial scales and an accurate input parameter for the recognition of shelterbelt porosity from remote sensing data in future research.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9915-1
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Finding alternatives to swidden agriculture: does agroforestry improve
           livelihood options and reduce pressure on existing forest?
    • Authors: Syed Ajijur Rahman; Jette Bredahl Jacobsen; John Robert Healey; James M. Roshetko; Terry Sunderland
      Pages: 185 - 199
      Abstract: Swidden cultivation can contribute to deforestation and land degradation, which can subsequently result in a number of serious environmental problems. This paper examines the economic and social potential of agroforestry systems and the barriers to their widespread adoption, as a land use alternative to swidden cultivation, which may potentially help protect local forest. The Gunung Salak valley in West Java, Indonesia is presented as a case study. Based on farmers’ and experts’ assessment, costs and benefits have been estimated, which show that the two investigated agroforestry systems have higher net present value and benefit-cost ratio (B/C) than the two swidden cultivation systems. Tree ownership also creates more permanent rights to farmland and is prestigious in the community. Agroforestry products (fruit, vegetables etc.) have high monetary value and help strengthen social cohesion when shared with neighbors. However, farmers are reluctant to implement agroforestry. Stated reasons are related to both culture and capacity. Farmers practicing agroforestry are less involved in forest clearing and forest products collection than swidden farmers indicating that it may contribute positively to conservation of local forests. Increasing the adoption of agroforestry farming in the study area will require support to overcome capacity constraints.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9912-4
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Predatory beetles in cacao agroforestry systems in Brazilian Atlantic
           forest: a test of the natural enemy hypothesis
    • Authors: Samuel M. A. Novais; Luiz E. Macedo-Reis; Frederico S. Neves
      Pages: 201 - 209
      Abstract: The natural enemy hypothesis predicts a positive correlation between plant species diversity and natural enemy control. This study aimed to evaluate the role of traditional cacao agroforests, known as “cabrucas,” on the conservation of the predatory beetle community compared to that of monodominant rubber agroforests. Predatory beetles were sampled in three habitats in Southeastern Bahia, Brazil: cabrucas and rubber agroforests and native Atlantic forests. In each habitat, 18 10 m2 plots were established, in which canopy cover was measured and beetles were sampled with a modified Malaise/window trap. Land use intensification did not affect the composition of predatory beetles, with the presence of widely distributed species that are also capable of colonizing simpler environments such as the rubber agroforest. Canopy cover had a positive effect on generalist predator diversity and we observed a reduction in the abundance and species richness of generalist predators with increasing habitat homogenization. Despite the simplified structure of the habitat, the remaining tree diversity and canopy cover in cabrucas supported a community of generalist predators similar to the one found in the native forest. Species diversity of bark beetle predators was higher in cabrucas, which may be due to the high diversity of bark beetles and the favorable abiotic conditions, whereas the low abundance of prey in the native forest and severe abiotic conditions in the rubber agroforest probably determined the lower diversity of generalist predators in these habitats. Cabrucas play an important role in the conservation, supporting a community of predatory beetles more similar to the one found in native forest and that is more effective at controlling populations of herbivores than in homogeneous rubber agroforests.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9917-z
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Lessons for research, capacity development and policy in agroforestry for
           development
    • Authors: D. Callo-Concha; M. Denich; M. M. Ul Hassan; F. Place; D. A. Wardell
      Abstract: Since its foundation in the 1970’s, agroforestry science has evolved from setting its concepts, research approaches and flagship technologies towards its increasing contribution to ecologically sound land use, food security and income generation in the global North and South. The Third World Congress on Agroforestry held in Delhi in April 2014 continued contributed to this evolution by focusing, beyond the scientific realm, on the implementation of findings by convening ad-hoc stakeholders and subjects. Accordingly, some of the congress sessions dealt with key aspects of how agroforestry can foster and contribute to development. The special issue “Lessons for research, capacity development and policy in agroforestry for development” compiles approaches, experiences and overall lessons from (i) research, (ii) capacity development, and (iii) policy-making, capable to promote and generate developmental change through agroforestry. This introductory paper outlines the rationale for the three areas and the contributing articles.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0085-6
       
  • Constraints for future cocoa production in Ghana
    • Authors: John Edem Kongor; Hans De Steur; Davy Van de Walle; Xavier Gellynck; Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa; Pascal Boeckx; Koen Dewettinck
      Abstract: To address the growing global demand for cocoa, sustainable intensification of its production in West Africa is considered crucial. This paper analyzes the determinants of cocoa productivity and profitability by smallholder farmers in Ghana to provide insights into challenges for future cocoa farming, which will guide the formulation and prioritization of tailored policies to address them. A four-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 731 cocoa farmers from various districts in all six cocoa growing regions in Ghana. Selected farmers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results show that cocoa productivity and profitability was very low with an average of 234 kg ha−1 and Gh¢ 568 (ca. US$ 150) per ha, respectively. Farm management practices, namely control of capsid and black pod disease, fertilizer application and pruning, significantly (p < 0.05) influenced cocoa productivity. Capsid control and fertilizer application showed the highest impact on productivity. Farm size, however, had a negative impact, which implies that increase in farm size results in decreased smallholder cocoa productivity. Farmers should be encouraged to sustainably intensify farm management through controlling black pod disease and capsids, regular pruning and efficient application of fertilizer rather than focusing on excessive land expansion, which eventually hampers productivity and biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0082-9
       
  • Erratum to: The contribution of NTFP-gathering to rural people’s
           livelihoods around two timber concessions in Gabon
    • Authors: Donald Midoko Iponga; Christian Mikolo-Yobo; Guillaume Lescuyer; Fidèle Mba Assoumou; Patrice Levang; Julius Chupezi Tieguhong; Alfred Ngoye
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0073-x
       
  • A reliable and non-destructive method for estimating forage shrub cover
           and biomass in arid environments using digital vegetation charting
           technique
    • Authors: Mounir Louhaichi; Sawsan Hassan; Kathryn Clifton; Douglas E. Johnson
      Abstract: Despite the importance of fodder shrubs to small ruminant diets and production in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, they are often not considered when quantifying grazing land potential. This oversight is mainly due to the time consuming and costly traditional techniques used to estimate shrub biomass. The shrub fodder component should be measured to avoid underestimation of the carrying capacity of rangelands. In this study, we present a fast, reliable and non-destructive method to estimate canopy vegetation cover to obtain aboveground shrub biomass. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in northwest Syria, where seedlings of seven shrub species were monitored for one year: Atriplex leucoclada (Moq.) Boiss., A. halimus L., A. lentiformis (Torr.) S. Watson, A. canescens (Pursh) Nutt., A. nummularia Lindl., Salsola vermiculata L. and Haloxylon aphyllum (C.A. Meyer) Bunge. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design with five replications. We explored the effectiveness of digital vegetation charting technique (DVCT) for estimating shrub canopy cover. Aboveground shrub biomass was clipped to estimate the dry matter (DM) weight per species and to determine its relationship to canopy cover. In this study, an estimate of greenness (percent green vegetation cover) was extracted by way of greenness algorithms. Simple linear regressions between vegetation cover and biomass for 210 plots were performed. The cover of the seven species differed (P < 0.01): A. leucoclada had the highest vegetation cover (56%) and H. aphyllum the lowest (7%). Vegetation cover and DM biomass were positively correlated (P < 0.01) with R-squared ranging from 0.66 (H. aphyllum) to 0.84 (S. vermiculata). Our method provided reasonable estimations of canopy coverage which could predict aboveground phytomass. We conclude that DVCT offers a rapid, reliable and consistent measurement of shrub cover and biomass provided that shrubs have open architecture. This study shows the potential of digital cameras and image processing to determine cover/biomass in a non-destructive, timely and cost efficient way.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0079-4
       
  • Soil carbon stocks in planted woodlots and Ngitili systems in Shinyanga,
           Tanzania
    • Authors: A. K. Osei; A. A. Kimaro; D. Peak; A. W. Gillespie; K. C. J. Van Rees
      Abstract: Our understanding of the processes influencing the storage and dynamics of carbon (C) in soils under semi-arid agroforestry systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is limited. This study evaluated soil C pools in woodlot species of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Melia azedarach (L.), and Gmelina arborea Roxb.; and in farmland and Ngitili, a traditional silvopastoral system in northwestern Tanzania. Soil organic carbon (SOC) was analyzed in the whole soil to 1 m depth and to 0.4 m in macroaggregates (2000–250 μm), microaggregates (250–53 μm), and silt and clay-sized aggregates (<53 μm) to provide information of C dynamics and stabilization in various land uses. Synchrotron-based C K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was also used to study the influence of these land use systems on the soil organic matter (SOM) chemistry to understand the mechanisms of soil C changes. Whole soil C stocks in woodlots (43–67 Mg C ha−1) were similar to those in the reserved Ngitili systems (50–59 Mg C ha−1), indicating the ability of the planted woodlots on degraded lands to restore SOC levels similar to the natural woodlands. SOC in the woodlots were found to be associated more with the micro and silt-and clay-sized aggregates than with macroaggregates, reflecting higher stability of SOC in the woodlot systems. The continuous addition of litter in the woodlots preserved recalcitrant aromatic C compounds in the silt and clay-sized aggregates as revealed by the XANES C K-edge spectra. Therefore establishment of woodlots in semi-arid regions in Tanzania appear to make significant contributions to the long-term SOC stabilization in soil fractions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-0028-7
       
  • Santalum molecular biology: molecular markers for genetic diversity,
           phylogenetics and taxonomy, and genetic transformation
    • Authors: Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva; Mafatlal M. Kher; Deepak Soner; M. Nataraj; Judit Dobránszki; Melissa A. Millar
      Abstract: Species of the Santalum genus are well known for their fragrant hardwood, which has great value in medicinal, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Sandalwood oil is derived from the heartwood of Santalum sp. and contains α-, β- and epi-β-santalols, which are responsible for its pleasant fragrance. Oil content can vary from species to species. Pressure on natural populations due to habitat loss, legal and illegal harvesting and disease is increasing. This paper highlights the development of molecular markers for the refinement of phylogenetic studies, identification of various Santalum and adulterant species, assessment of genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, clonality and management units within species, and for marker-assisted breeding. The identification of quantitative trait loci for sandal spike disease and for other traits such as specific rare secondary metabolites in the essential oil and related to its fragrance, would also benefit from molecular advances. RNA sequence analyses have already identified changes in gene expression and metabolic pathways in developing Santalum album L. haustoria.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0075-8
       
  • Home garden agrobiodiversity in cultural landscapes in the tropical
           lowlands of Tabasco, México
    • Authors: Alejandro Alcudia-Aguilar; Hans van der Wal; Juan Suárez-Sánchez; Pablo Martínez-Zurimendi; María Mercedes Castillo-Uzcanga
      Abstract: We studied whether agrobiodiversity in home gardens reflects the cultural landscapes that embed them. We compared floristic composition, biomass and cover of trees in home gardens between the cultural landscapes on mountain slopes (MSL), small hills (SHL), and floodplains (FPL) in a segment of the Grijalva–Usumacinta watershed in the tropical lowlands of Tabasco, Mexico. We characterized the cultural landscapes based on information obtained through questionnaires, identified species and measured tree height and diameter at breast height in random samples of home gardens from two localities in each case. The cultural landscapes showed distinct land use combinations: MSL comprised subsistence agriculture, pasturelands and forests; SHL pasturelands, some secondary vegetation and industrial agriculture fields; and FPL mainly industrial agriculture fields and pasturelands. Total species richness was greater in MSL than in SHL and FPL. Mean species richness was greater in MSL and SHL (22.4 and 15.8 respectively) than in FPL (7.2), as was the mean number of individuals per home garden (98.2, 94.1 and 20.4. Dominant species in home gardens in FPL and SHL included particular secondary species for each landscape, whereas single or double occurrences of mature forest species were distinctive of home gardens in MSL. Mean biomass was greater in MSL than in SHL and FPL (37.1, 28.2 and 23.7 Mg C ha−1), as was tree cover (1.06, 0.95 and 0.76 m2/m2). We conclude that agrobiodiversity varies considerably among cultural landscapes and recommend the design of specific policies to enhance its conservation in each of them.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0078-5
       
  • Nitrogen dynamics in soil solution under different land uses: Atlantic
           forest and cacao–cabruca system
    • Authors: Jéssica Carneiro de Souza; Marilane Andrade Pereira; Eline Nayara Dantas da Costa; Daniela Mariano Lopes da Silva
      Abstract: In the southern region of Bahia, a large portion of the Atlantic Forest was occupied by the cacao–cabruca system, which is implemented after the complete removal of the understory vegetation without altering the canopy. The objective of this study was to determine the nitrogen concentration in the soil solution in two micro-basins; one with the cacao–cabruca system and one in the Atlantic forest in the southern region of the state of Bahia. Samples were collected weekly during two periods, from September to December 2012 and from April to June 2013, using sample extractors installed in the micro-basins at 15, 45 and 90 cm. The inorganic forms in the soil solutions were analyzed through ion chromatography, total nitrogen was analyzed using spectrophotometry and mineralization and nitrification rates were analyzed using the laboratory incubation method. Among the nitrogen forms analyzed in the cacao–cabruca soil solution, the dissolved organic nitrogen prevailed among the rain classes in the three depths. In the forest, nitrate predominated at 15 cm, while the organic nitrogen prevailed in the other depths. The highest mineralization and nitrification rates were recorded in the forest. Of the inorganic nitrogen forms analyzed in the soil, ammonium concentrations showed higher rates than nitrate in both areas. Low inorganic nitrogen concentrations in the cabruca soil solution are associated with low mineralization and nitrification rates. Thus we can conclude that even if some studies point towards the environmental efficiency of this system, there are differences in the N forms in the forest and cacao–cabruca areas.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0077-6
       
  • Transformation of degraded farmlands to agroforestry in Zongi Village,
           Ethiopia
    • Authors: Stella Nwawulu Chiemela; Florent Noulekoun; Amanuel Zenebe; Nigussie Abadi; Emiru Birhane
      Abstract: The interaction of human land use, steep slopes and erosion has been a serious threat to Ethiopia’s ecosystems. Community’s initiated land rehabilitation programmes such as tree regeneration on farm lands, hill-side planting and exclosures have been established to rejuvenate debilitated lands. To characterize, map out and monitor such transformations, this study was carried out in Zongi, Tigray Region of northern Ethiopia. The study used an integration of remote sensing data, field observations and information from key informants and randomly selected respondents to analyse the land-use/land cover (LULC) changes from 1984 to 2013. Conventional method of supervised image classification was used for landsat image of 2013 while hybrid method of unsupervised and supervised classification was employed for landsat images of 1984 and 1999. The results revealed significant modifications and conversion of LULC types over the multi-dates. Analysis of the 29-year change matrix revealed that 78.5% of the land underwent significant changes in LULC. The major changes to agroforestry land use(LU)types between 1984 and 2013 were conversion of intensively cultivated land to moderately cultivated land (32.1%) and sparsely cultivated land (11.8%). The drivers of changes were linked to the introduction of land rehabilitation initiatives, government consensus (via agricultural extension) with the community, which were complemented by growing awareness of landowners. This study corroborates the necessity of community involvement and participation to improve their land use systems for environmental sustainability and sustainable livelihood.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0076-7
       
  • Chemical characterisation of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves and the apparent
           digestibility of MO leaf meal-based diets offered to three chicken strains
           
    • Authors: N. A. Sebola; V. Mlambo; H. K. Mokoboki
      Abstract: The utility of Moringa oleifera leaves as a nutraceutical component of chicken diets depends on the leaves’ chemical composition and in vivo digestibility, parameters that are largely unknown. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical composition of M. oleifera leaves at different stages of maturity as well as the apparent digestibility of M. oleifera leaf meal (MOLM)-based diets when offered to three chicken strains. Tender and mature leaves were separately harvested from 12 individual trees and stored separately for processing and chemical analyses. The leaves were air-dried in a well-ventilated laboratory to constant weight and milled to pass through a 1 mm sieve before being analysed for proximate and mineral components. A mixture of tender and mature leaves was also collected from all the trees and bulked before being similarly processed to produce a bulk leaf meal. The bulk leaf meal was used to dilute a commercial broiler finisher diet at 0 (MOLM0), 25 (MOLM25), 50 (MOLM50), and 100 (MOLM100) g/kg DM, producing four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets whose digestibility was evaluated in 90-day old Potchefstroom koekoek (PK), Ovambo (OV) and Black Australop (BA) chickens. Crude protein content was significantly higher in tender (324.63 g/kg DM) than in mature (285.2 g/kg DM) leaves. Tender leaves had higher concentrations of Ca (19.15 g/kg) and P (4.15 g/kg). However, Fe content for mature leaves (150.5 dpm) was higher compared to tender leaves (110.5 dpm). The level of phenolics was higher in mature leaves. In BA chickens, the control diet (MOLM0) had highest crude protein digestibility (87.0%) followed by MOLM100 (85.4%). In OV and PK strains, diets with higher levels of MOLM had higher crude protein digestibility. It can be concluded that the inclusion of MOLM in chicken diets did not negatively affect nutrient digestibility in OV and PK chickens, thus there is potential to utilize this feed resource for improved productivity in these extensively-reared chickens.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0074-9
       
  • The economic potential of Gevuina avellana in New Zealand planted
           forests
    • Authors: Lania Holt; Glen Murphy
      Abstract: Gevuina avellana (gevuina) is a South American tree that produces edible nuts. This study conceptualizes the transformation of a planted radiata forest into an agroforestry system that integrates radiata and gevuina trees to produce timber and Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs). This study assesses the economic potential of growing gevuina nuts in a New Zealand planted forest case study. Findings suggest that planted forests offer the potential for commercial scale using land use opportunities created around road infrastructure, and in pocket areas connected by roads. The economic returns determined in this study were significant, even in small areas. The key to realising this potential will be in the identification and use of the production strategies to handle the complex system.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0072-y
       
  • Photosynthetic characteristics and simulation of annual leaf carbon gains
           of hybrid poplar ( Populus nigra L. × P. maximowiczii Henry) and black
           locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in a temperate agroforestry system
    • Authors: Manfred Küppers; Dieter Schmitt; Susanne Liner; Christian Böhm; Michael Kanzler; Maik Veste
      Abstract: A leaf net photosynthesis model is presented driven by light and modulated by temperature and air humidity. From this the seasonal variation of CO2 uptake and release could be modelled to estimate the annual carbon fluxes of sun and shade leaves. In fully expanded leaves light is the major factor determining daily carbon balances, and highest observed daily carbon gains in sun leaves amounted to 748.9 mmol CO2 m−2 day−1 in poplar and to 536.3 mmol CO2 m−2 day−1 in black locust, while the annual carbon gains amounted to 46,824 mol CO2 m−2 in black locust and 66,803 mol CO2 m−2 in hybrid poplar. Results obtained via gas exchange measurements and from the leaf model clearly indicate a potentially better growth performance of the poplar compared to black locust on the investigated site. The presented photosynthesis model provides a good and realistic estimation for seasonal carbon balances on the leaf level for both species.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0071-z
       
 
 
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