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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2353 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Agroforestry Systems
  [SJR: 0.64]   [H-I: 56]   [20 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-9680 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4366
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Competition effects of grazing-modified herbaceous vegetation on growth,
           survival and water relations of lenga ( Nothofagus pumilio ) seedlings in
           a temperate forest of Patagonia, Argentina
    • Authors: Claudia P. Quinteros; José O. Bava; Pablo M. López Bernal; Miriam E. Gobbi; Guillermo E. Defossé
      Pages: 597 - 611
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, we determined the competition effects of herbaceous vegetation on survival, growth, and plant water relations of planted lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) seedlings under field and nursery conditions in western Patagonia, Argentina. In the field, thirty (1.5 × 1.5 m) plots were randomly set in a grazing-free exclosure built in a typical grazing-degraded lenga canopy gap mainly colonized by non-native herbs and grasses (empastado). Herbaceous aerial and root biomass was removed in half of the plots (non-competition treatment, NCT), while the others (competition treatment, CT), remained undisturbed. Four similarly-sized lenga seedlings were planted per plot. In the nursery, 120 lenga seedlings were planted in individual pots containing soil of the field study site, and set to a factorial experiment including two competition levels (CT and NCT) and two watering regimes: normal (simulating average rains during the growing season, 500 mm, NW), and high (equivalent to 1000 mm, HW). During three growing seasons, we determined seedling survival, growth, and plant and soil water status of both experiments. Higher survival and growth, and better plant water status values were obtained in NCT as compared to CT in both experiments. In the nursery, HW did not improve survival and growth as compared to NW. In restoration trials implying grazing-degraded areas, increases in lenga seedling survival and growth could be achieved by reducing nearby competition of grasses and herbs, while extra watering appears unnecessary. However, limitations in the experimental design (pseudo-replication), limits generalization of results to other forest ecosystems with similar structural and functional characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9983-2
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Seed yield and quality enhancement of pollarded subabul ( Leucaena
           leucocephala) by nutrient supplementation
    • Authors: D. Vijay; S. K. Gupta; S. M. Mishra
      Pages: 613 - 621
      Abstract: Abstract Agroforestry species Leucaena leucocephala (subabul), a multipurpose leguminous tree, is one of the most suitable species for silvipasture system. Its seeds, a good protein source to livestock, also have lot of industrial application. Subabul responds well to pollarding, a practice that helps growth of understory crops but reduces seed yield of main tree species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nutrient application on fruit and seed characters, seed yield, germination and vigour of pollarded subabul trees. The study was conducted on three important salvodar type subabul varieties (K8, K636 and S24) with different fruit and seed characters. Three nutrient mixtures (SSP @ 150 kg/ha + ZnSO4 @ 20 kg/ha; CuSO4 @ 0.25 % + Borax @ 0.15 % + KNO3 @ 1 % in 500 l spray volume per ha and KNO3 @ 4 kg/ha) were applied before anthesis. The nutrient treatments have enhanced fruit length and weight without affecting the fruit width. Similarly, seed characters responded positively to nutrient applications resulting in enhanced mean yield across varieties and years. The seed viability measured as germination percentage varied among varieties with maximum viability in small-seeded K 636. The application of nutrients enhanced the germination and vigour in all three varieties irrespective of the seed size. Among the nutrient mixtures, potassium nitrate @ 4 kg/ha has better effect on seed yield and its attributing characters as well as on seed quality across the varieties over the years.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9984-1
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cattle utilization of coniferous cut blocks under open range grazing and
           associated impact on tree seedlings
    • Authors: Jillian Kaufmann; Edward W. Bork; Mike J. Alexander; Peter V. Blenis
      Pages: 623 - 635
      Abstract: Abstract Open range grazing by cattle is common on heterogeneous montane landscapes in western Canada. These areas are often jointly managed for forestry, leading to concerns over forest re-establishment following clear cut harvest and cattle impacts on tree regeneration. A network of 154 field plots were used to examine cattle utilization across five coniferous cut blocks within three large pastures of SW Alberta over a 2 year period. Specific objectives were to: (1) quantify cattle presence across cut blocks under free-choice conditions; (2) identify the environmental factors responsible for observed patterns of cattle presence, including topography, distance to water, forage characteristics and slash properties; and (3) document cattle impact on conifer seedlings. Averaged over 2 years, evidence of cattle was found in 46 % of plots, primarily as herbage removal. Cattle presence across logged areas was associated with plots at lower elevations and closer to water, and to a lesser extent, those areas with greater forage biomass but lower quality. Forest surveys done 3 years after harvest indicated most tree regeneration consisted of planted lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Loudon) and naturally regenerating Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). While regeneration among plots remained below the provincial requirement of 80 % stocking, ranging from 68 to 77 % among cut blocks, this deficit was not attributed to cattle impact, as only two tree seedlings surveyed had evidence of livestock-induced damage. Finally, cattle visitation to plots was lower with taller slash in select pastures, suggesting slash may deter cattle use of some cut blocks. Overall, the results of this study support the notion that forest management and cattle grazing are compatible uses on Montane landscapes managed for multiple purposes.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9991-2
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • In vitro clonal propagation and evaluation of genetic fidelity using RAPD
           and ISSR marker in micropropagated plants of Cassia alata L.: a potential
           medicinal plant
    • Authors: Md. Rafique Ahmed; Mohammad Anis; Abdulrahman A. Alatar; Mohammad Faisal
      Pages: 637 - 647
      Abstract: Abstract Present study reports successful in vitro clonal propagation of a potential medicinal plant, Cassia alata using mature nodal explants. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.5, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 μM) of 6-benzyladenine (BA), kinetin and 2-isopentenyl adenine (2-iP) singly as well as in combination with different auxins, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 μM) were used. MS medium enriched with 7.5 μM BA and 0.5 μM NAA yielded the highest regeneration frequency (92 %) with maximum multiple shoots (12.3 ± 0.6) and shoot length (4.7 ± 0.1 cm) after 12 weeks of culture. Shoots were rooted best on full MS containing 0.5 μM IBA. Ex vitro rooting of in vitro derived microshoots was also achieved in 150 μM IBA treatment for 20 min followed by transfer to thermocol cups containing sterile Soilrite™. About 85 % plantlets survived acclimatization procedure to the field. The genetic fidelity of in vitro regenerated plants was analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Of the 20 RAPD primers, 18 primers produced clear, reproducible and scorable bands while out of 13 ISSR primers screened, only ten generated well-defined and scorable bands in all the tested plants. A total of 69 and 71 bands were scored with an average of 3.8 and 7.1 bands per primer for RAPD and ISSR primers respectively. All banding profiles from micropropagated plants were monomorphic and similar to of the mother plant, thus confirming the true-to-type nature of the in vitro-raised clones.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9992-1
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Firewood extraction and use in rural Vietnam: a household model for three
           communes in Ha Tinh Province
    • Authors: Lien Tran Thi Kim; J. Doland Nichols; Kathryn Brown
      Pages: 649 - 661
      Abstract: Abstract Rural households in Vietnam depend on firewood as a main energy source, although collection and use patterns are not well understood. Households in three communes in Cam Xuyen District, Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam, were surveyed to identify patterns of firewood extraction and use, preferred species and sources. Data was collected in meetings with commune leaders, households and key-informant interviews, using open and close-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Volumetric measurements of firewood use over 24 h were taken for a sample of households. All surveyed households depend on firewood as the primary fuel source for cooking and boiling water with highest mean volumes used for this purpose in middle-income households. Firewood is used as a free resource which brings important economic returns to the communes, both as a saleable item and for income generating activities such as cooking pig feed and making wine. Thirty-nine plant species were used as firewood and cutting living branches and whole trees was preferred. The most frequently extracted species are Cratoxylum formosum (Jacq.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Dyer, Castanopsis kawakamii Hayata, Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don, Melia azedarach L., and Casuarina equisetifolia L. Higher income households have more private land to source firewood from, while poor and middle income households are heavily dependent on public lands and the nearby Kego Nature Reserve. Although the reserve is a protected area, the forest is viewed as an open access resource from which households in the three studied communes extract an estimated 7200 tonnes annually.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9993-0
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Optimal management of Cistus ladanifer shrublands for biomass and Boletus
           edulis mushroom production
    • Authors: María Hernández-Rodríguez; Pablo Martín-Pinto; Juan Andrés Oria-de-Rueda; Luis Diaz-Balteiro
      Pages: 663 - 676
      Abstract: Abstract Shrubland management has not traditionally been considered in forest planning. However, some of these forest systems can provide economic benefits due to both the use of biomass and the high production of marketable edible fungi associated with the shrub species. This is the case for Cistus ladanifer, a species widely distributed in the Mediterranean region, which produces high yields of the greatly appreciated mushroom Boletus edulis. The main objective of this study is to estimate the optimal cycle that should be adopted for the management of Mediterranean shrublands dominated by C. ladanifer in considering two outputs: C. ladanifer biomass and B. edulis production, and choosing the alternative with the highest associated monetary returns. Two different scenarios have been developed: a static scenario in which the optimal rotation of C. ladanifer shrubland considering five prescriptions including different management operations has been calculated; and a dynamic analysis, in which different management operations could be practiced over the next 25 years. Both scenarios consider biomass and mushroom picking as outputs. The results of these analyses show that the most appropriate management option is to perform a total clearing close to the end of that time interval. The results could be used to justify sound management practices in these forest systems where fungal harvesting focused on B. edulis could provide significant incomes.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9994-z
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Plant diversity and determinant factors across smallholder agricultural
           management units in Central Ethiopia
    • Authors: Getahun Haile; Mulugeta Lemenih; Feyera Senbeta; Fisseha Itanna
      Pages: 677 - 695
      Abstract: Abstract Forests in the highlands of Ethiopia have declined considerably, and the supply of forest-based ecosystem services is eroding. Managing agricultural landscapes as well as enhancing plant biodiversity in agro-ecosystems is and will continue to be one possible strategy to preserve biodiversity, ensure an ecosystem service supply and sustain agricultural productivity. This study investigated the current status and prospects of plant diversity and its determinants in an agricultural landscape dominated by smallholder farmers in Southern Ethiopia. Specifically, the study investigated effects of land use, altitudinal gradient, wealth status and household attributes on plant diversity in agricultural landscapes. A complete count, Y-frame transect sampling method and household interviews were used for the study involving 39 households and 115 sample plots. A total of 166 plant species belonging to 134 genera and 56 families were recorded in all land use types. Of these, 101 were woody plant species (51 trees and 50 shrubs), while 65 were cultivated herbs and grasses. Land use, altitude and household wealth status significantly influenced tree and shrub species richness. Among land uses, home gardens hosted the highest number of tree and shrub species. Upper altitudes and rich households also had the highest tree and shrub species richness compared to others. Plant diversity indices (Shannon, Simpson and Margalef) were affected by altitude, wealth status and land use types. Household location, wealth status, the household attributes of landholding and family size had strong and positive influences on the tree species diversity and woody stem density of households, while educational background and off-farm income were negatively related with household-owned tree stem density. Species preference ranking, seedling demand and importance value index computations indicated the dominance of exotic tree species, which may suggest their economic importance over indigenous tree species. In the long term, this might lead to dominance of exotic tree species in the landscapes, which could cause a potential future threat to the remnant indigenous plant diversity that is currently finding refuge in the agricultural landscapes.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-0038-5
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Multitier agroforestry system for integrated resource conservation on
           uplands of Eastern Ghats region in India
    • Authors: Praveen Jakhar; Anchal Dass; Partha Pratim Adhikary; S. Sudhishri; B. S. Naik; H. C. Hombegowda; M. Madhu; N. K. Lenka; P. R. Chaudhary; R. K. Panda
      Pages: 697 - 712
      Abstract: Abstract Soil and water conservation along with crop productivity improvement is indispensable for sustainable development of rainfed areas. Integration of suitable fruit trees within the cropping system can reduce risk allied with rainfed farming. The system of raising multi-height plant species with agricultural crops known as multitier agroforestry system was assessed (2007–2010) for resource conservation and production potential in rainfed conditions of Eastern Ghats region in India. Thirty experimental plots, each of 18 × 12 m dimension with 2 % slope having different multitier agroforestry treatments were assessed for soil erosion, nutrient loss and crop yield. Results revealed that multitier plantation of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) with Gliricidia sepium hedgerow and ginger (Zingiber officinale): pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) (8:2) intercropping enumerated minimum mean runoff (8.26 %) and soil loss (3.45 Mg ha−1). This treatment saved 74 % more soil organic carbon, 64 % more phosphorus and 66 % more potassium, respectively than broadcasted finger millet cultivation (traditional farmers’ practice). An increase of 24–27 % drumstick fruit yield was observed in Gliricidia hedgerow based multitier agroforestry systems over non-Gliricidia systems. The findings will contribute as a technical reference for the promotion of hedgerow based multitier agroforestry for resource conservation and fertility restoration of sloping lands.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9976-1
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Enhancing forage production through a silvi-pastoral system in an arid
           environment
    • Authors: M. Patidar; B. K. Mathur
      Pages: 713 - 727
      Abstract: Abstract A study was undertaken at Jodhpur during the years 2001–2011 to assess the production potential of Cenchrus ciliaris L., Lasiurus sindicus Henr. and Vigna unguiculata L. (cowpea) sown in strips with Colophospermum mopane Kirk ex Benth. and Hardwickia binata Roxb. tree stands without and with fertilizer application. Results indicated that the plant growth and survival percentage of C. mopane was higher than that of H. binata. Growth of C. mopane plants was affected by different cropping systems and fertilizer treatments during the initial phase but later on the effect was not significant. Green and dry forage yields were influenced by the cropping systems, i.e., 2.09 t ha−1 with L. sindicus followed by 1.9 t ha−1 dry forage yield in a sole strip of C. ciliaris, which was significantly higher than the strip cropping of cowpea with respective grasses. However, the sustainable yield index was higher with C. ciliaris (0.52) followed by L. sindicus (0.38). The average data revealed that the protein yield was higher in L. sindicus + cowpea and C. ciliaris + cowpea inter-cropping as compared to the respective sole strip of Cenchrus ciliaris and L. sindicus. Application of 40 kg N ha−1 increased dry fodder yields by 15 % over the control, and crude protein also increased by 22.37 %. Water use efficiency of grasses increased with nitrogen application. Maximum water use efficiency (9.8 kg dry matter ha−1 mm−1) was recorded in L. sindicus with 40 kg N ha−1 mm−1 application followed by C. ciliaris (8.8 kg dry matter ha−1 mm−1). The system productivity varied with different tree species and inter-cropping. Among tree species, the system productivity was higher with H. binata than with C. mopane. Leaves of H. binata were more palatable and preferred by goats than C. mopane. For obtaining higher productivity of quality fodder, inter-cropping of grasses with legumes in association with H. binata appears to be a highly suitable proposition for a silvi-pastoral system in an arid environment.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-0033-x
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Soil and understory plant dynamics during conversion of forest to
           silvopasture, open pasture, and woodlot
    • Authors: Joseph Orefice; Richard G. Smith; John Carroll; Heidi Asbjornsen; Daniel Kelting
      Pages: 729 - 739
      Abstract: Abstract Little is known regarding the impact of converting northern hardwood forests to pasture or silvopasture. Our objective was to investigate how understory plant communities and soil physical and chemical properties respond during the first 2 years following conversion of northern hardwood forest to pasture. To accomplish this, we established three forest conversion treatments (silvopasture, open pasture, and woodlot) in a 50 year old northern hardwood forest in New York. The silvopasture and open pasture treatments were seeded with forages and then grazed with cattle after the initial timber harvest. Understory plant inventories and soil sampling were conducted pre-treatment and 2 years after treatment establishment. Understory non-woody plant species richness increased in all treatments during the two year period (F = 73.633, P < 0.001), while species richness of understory woody plants remained similar to pretreatment levels (F = 2.648, P = 0.150). Species most negatively affected by forest conversion included Arisaema triphyllum, Mitchella repens, and Thalictrum pubescens. Species that were only observed after the treatments were established included Danthonia spicata, Agrostis spp., Ranunculus spp., Digitaria spp., Rumex acetosella, and Hieracium spp. One species, Vaccinium angustifolium, was negatively affected by the silvopasture and open pasture treatments, but not the woodlot treatment. Soil bulk density was higher in both the open and silvopasture treatments compared to pretreatment levels, but the woodlot treatment soil bulk density remained statistically similar to pre-treatment levels. Percent total nitrogen, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, and phosphorus increased in silvopastures, open pastures, and woodlot treatment groups compared to pre-treatment levels. Future research should investigate the implications of these changes in ecosystem structure and composition.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-0040-y
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Does diameter increment of Lebanon oak trees ( Quercus libani Oliv.)
           affected by pollarding in Northern Zagros, Iran'
    • Authors: Loghman Ghahramany; Zahed Shakeri; Elahe Ghalavand; Hedayat Ghazanfari
      Pages: 741 - 748
      Abstract: Abstract Lebanon oak is one of the important oak species in the Northern Zagros forests, west of Iran, which exposed to severe pollarding in traditional silvopastoral management. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pollarding on diameter increment of Lebanon oak trees. Therefore, a less-disturbed stand (0.7 ha) and a pollarded stand (1 ha) with similar physiographical conditions were selected. Full Callipering was performed in both stands and tree species; collar diameter and crown diameter for all trees (collar diameter ≥5 cm) were recorded. Moreover, total and trunk heights were measured in Lebanon oak trees as well. To evaluate the diameter increment of Lebanon oak trees, 20 and 15 tree samples were taken in the less-disturbed and pollarded stands, respectively. A pair of increment cores per sample tree was taken 100 cm above ground level, using increment borer. In the cores, annual radial increment was measured and the annual diameter increment was calculated by doubling that value. The diameter increment distribution of Lebanon oak trees in identical age classes was determined and used for comparison. The results indicated that the difference of the mean diameter increment of Lebanon oak in the same diameter classes was significant (P < 0.05) between two stands. The mean diameter increment in age classes of 57–81 years (P < 0.01) was significantly different (P < 0.01) between the two studied stands; however, in the age classes of 1–55 years, there was no significant difference (P = 0.559).
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9944-9
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of eleven Mexican cultivars of prickly pear cactus trees for
           possibly utilization as animal fed: in vitro gas production
    • Authors: Paulina Vazquez-Mendoza; Luis A. Miranda-Romero; Gilberto Aranda-Osorio; Juan A. Burgueño-Ferreira; Abdelfattah Z. M. Salem
      Pages: 749 - 756
      Abstract: Abstract In production systems of prickly pear fruit and prickly pear cactus, significant amounts of pruned material, which could be used as an ingredient in animal feeding, is generated. The aim of this study was to measure the nutrient content, fermentation kinetics and in vitro digestibility of eleven cultivars of cladodes of prickly pear cactus. The fermentation was measured indirectly using the gas production technique, where 500 mg of DM substrate (prickly pear cactus cultivars) were placed in amber glass flasks of 125 mL with 90 mL of ruminal inoculum under a continuous flow of CO2. Flasks were hermetically wrapped up with a rubber stopper and a metal ring, and were placed in a water bath at 39 °C. The fermentation gas pressure was measured using a monometer at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 32, 38, 50 and 72 h incubation. Results show that the chemical composition ranged between (g kg−1 DM): 64 and 160 g kg−1 dry matter (DM), 137–293 g kg−1 DM ash, 52–101 g kg−1 DM crude protein, 3–22 g kg−1 DM ether extract, 251–393 neutral detergent fiber and 132–192 acid detergent fiber. The gas volume was different (p < 0.05) among cultivars, with the Red Vigor cultivar having the largest volume at 378 mL g−1 DM. The highest volume of gas was produced during the first 24 h in on average 67 % of the total produced. The in vitro DM digestibility displayed values of up to 82 % in the Roja Pelota cultivar. It can be concluded that the cladodes of prickly pear cactus from different cultivars can be used in animal feed for its good rumen fermentation characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9947-6
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Soil erosion control and carbon sequestration in shifting cultivated
           degraded highlands of eastern India: performance of two contour hedgerow
           systems
    • Authors: Partha Pratim Adhikary; H. C. Hombegowda; D. Barman; P. Jakhar; M. Madhu
      Pages: 757 - 771
      Abstract: Abstract Two contour hedgerow (Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala) systems with and without miniature trenches were evaluated as conservation measures in the shifting cultivated degraded Eastern Ghats Highlands of Odisha, India. Staggered planting of hedgerows at 0.5 × 0.5 m spacing in two parallel lines with miniature trenches (0.3 m width and 0.3 m depth) in between two lines were laid out across 5 and 10 % slopes. The treatment Gliricidia + miniature trench (G+MT) reduced runoff by 23.3–32.5 %, soil loss by 49.5–52.7 %, loss of soil organic carbon (SOC), N, P, and K by 44.1–47.6, 61.5–62.2, 54.8–58.1, and 53.1–56.3 %, respectively, over no conservation treatment (control), whereas the same for the treatment Leucaena + miniature trench (L+MT) was 18.6–18.9, 42.4–43.7, 30.9–40.2, 41.9–56.3, 47.3–47.9, and 38.5–47.8 %, respectively, over control. Within 0–20 cm soil profile, G+MT sequestered 1.62 Mg ha−1 year−1 SOC, of which 0.93 Mg ha−1 year−1 was sequestered due to soil reclamation and 0.69 Mg ha−1 year−1 was retained due to the barrier effect, whereas L+MT sequestered 1.21 Mg ha−1 year−1 SOC. The trench treatments with Gliricidia and Leucaena hedgerows were 3.8–4.7 and 3.7–5.3 % more efficient to stock SOC within 40 cm soil profile than no trench treatment. The decrease of SOC stock by 40–102 kg ha−1 year−1 in the control plots from the initial level indicated the ongoing erosion process in unprotected lands. The findings will help to promote hedgerow based agroforestry for resource conservation and improved SOC sequestration in sloping lands.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9958-3
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • The chemical composition and in vitro digestibility evaluation of almond
           tree ( Prunus dulcis D. A. Webb syn. Prunus amygdalus ; var. Shokoufeh)
           leaves versus hulls and green versus dry leaves as feed for ruminants
    • Authors: Mostafa Yousef Elahi; Hassan Kargar; Mohammad Salehi Dindarlou; Ahmed E. Kholif; Mona M. Y. Elghandour; Saul Rojas-Hernández; Nicholas E. Odongo; Abdelfattah Z. M. Salem
      Pages: 773 - 780
      Abstract: Abstract The current study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of almond tree (Prunus dulcis D. A. Webb syn. Prunus amygdalus; var. Shokoufeh) leaves versus hulls, and green versus dry leaves as feed for ruminants. The fresh green almond hulls (GAH) and leaves (GAL) were harvested and spread under a shade to dry. Dry almond leaves (DAL) were collected from under the trees where as dry almond hulls (DAH) were collected 4 weeks after harvesting the fresh samples. The chemical composition of substrates was determined using standard approaches and the metabolisable energy (ME), in vitro dry matter (DMD) and in vitro organic matter (OMD) digestibility were measured using the in vitro gas production (GP) technique. The GAL contained 81 g crude protein (CP) kg−1 DM while DAH contained 103 g CP kg−1 DM. The CP was higher (P = 0.0003) in dry (leaves and hulls) than in green (leaves and hulls) samples. The ash content ranged from 99.2 to 181.5 g kg−1 DM in DAH and DAL, respectively, (P = 0.0041). The ether extract content ranged from 27 for DAH to 65 g kg−1 for DAL (P = 0.0018). The acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre content ranged from 185 to 304 and 444 to 620 g kg−1 DM (P = 0.04), for GAL and DAH, respectively. The DAH had the highest (P = 0.0001) GP24 and GP96. The DAH had the highest (P = 0.0001) potential GP (i.e., b), while the GP rate was highest for GAL and GAH (P = 0.034), ME was highest for DAH (P = 0.0001), and in vitro OMD was highest for DAH (P = 0.0001). The highest DMD (P = 0.0001) values were obtained with DAH followed by GAL, DAL and GAH, respectively. It can be concluded that almond hulls and leaves have a good nutritional potential to cover the maintenance nutrient requirements of small ruminants. Almond hulls and leaves can also be used as supplement to low quality mature pasture and/or crop residues. However, more studies are warranted to better characterize these feeds in in vivo animal feeding trials.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9964-5
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Characterization and selection of exploitable genetic diversity in soursop
           ( Annona muricata Linn.) accessions based on phenotypic attributes and
           RAPD markers
    • Authors: Ebiamadon Andi Brisibe; Nneka Constance Ogbonna; Peter Nkachukwu Chukwurah
      Pages: 781 - 793
      Abstract: Abstract Annona muricata is a tropical evergreen fruit tree species with great potential for food, industrial and medicinal uses, especially in the treatment of cancer. The crop, however, remains an underutilized tree species in most parts of the world due primarily to lack of commercial varieties, efficient conservation strategies and genetic characterization of the available germplasm. This study was, therefore, undertaken to characterize key phenotypic attributes and genetic diversity data from 42 representative accessions of the crop as a precursor to enhancing a systematic varietal improvement and selection programme that would support conservation. Phenotypic attributes based on stem, leaf, flower and fruit characteristics were evaluated in situ to complement molecular tools and data obtained demonstrated that differences amongst the accessions were highly significant (p < 0.001) for number of flowers and fruits, with 71.38 % of the total variability being accounted for by 3 principal components. Conversely, molecular characterization studies using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers produced a total of 65 reproducible bands. Of these, 59 amplified bands (90.77 %) were polymorphic while the remaining 6 were monomorphic loci. Analysis of the data generated from the phenotypic attributes and molecular markers revealed a high degree of divergence with 3 and 4 clusters, respectively, which exhibited continuous variation that was highly distinguishable. The genetic diversity identified here could offer yet-unknown traits of high value that would optimize varietal improvement and use of genetic resources amongst A. muricata accessions with great potential as raw material for the food and pharmaceutical industries.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9965-4
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Smallholder reforestation and livelihoods in the humid tropics: a
           systematic mapping study
    • Authors: Liz Ota; John Herbohn; Steve Harrison; Nestor Gregorio; Vera Lex Engel
      Abstract: Systematic mapping studies provide a snapshot of the literature based on systematic literature searches. In this systematic mapping study, the original research that links reforestation and livelihoods in the tropics was mapped and analysed to identify the trends, biases and gaps in the literature. In total, 339 papers from 92 journals were identified. Agroforestry Systems was the journal in which articles were most frequently published, and Cameroon and Indonesia the most frequently studied countries. The greatest number of authors came from the USA, and authors were most commonly affiliated with ICRAF. A limited collaboration between research groups in the tropical regions was identified. Anthropology and Social Sciences were the most frequent areas of research, especially in Africa. Latin America had more technical studies and more publications discussing payment for environmental services than the other regions. Based on the temporal analysis of the main terms in abstracts of the publications included, it was found that agriculture-related terms and terms related to the human component in the landscape were consistently prevalent in the literature relating reforestation and livelihoods throughout time. Agroforestry systems were especially important in small-scale reforestation and livelihoods. Trends, biases and gaps were discussed. Broader cooperation between tropical regions and between clusters of authors would be beneficial for research and practice.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0107-4
       
  • Local tree knowledge can fast-track agroforestry recommendations for
           coffee smallholders along a climate gradient in Mount Elgon, Uganda
    • Authors: Gil Gram; Philippe Vaast; Just van der Wolf; Laurence Jassogne
      Abstract: Abstract Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) is economically important for many smallholder farmers in the Mount Elgon region of East Uganda, but its production is increasingly threatened by climate change. However, ecosystem services (ES) provided by companion trees in coffee agroforestry systems (AFS) can help farmers adapt to climate change. The objectives of this research were to develop agroforestry species recommendations and tailor these to the farmers’ needs and local context, taking into consideration gender. Local knowledge of agroforestry species and ES preferences was collected through farmer interviews and rankings. Using the Bradley-Terry approach, analysis was done along an altitudinal gradient in order to study different climate change scenarios for coffee suitability. Farmers had different needs in terms of ES and tree species at different altitudes, e.g. at low altitude they need a relatively larger set of ES to sustain their coffee production and livelihood. Local knowledge is found to be gender blind as no differences were observed in the rankings of species and ES by men and women. Ranking species by ES and ranking ES by preference is a useful method to help scientists and extension agents to use local knowledge for the development of recommendations on companion trees in AFS for smallholder farmers.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0111-8
       
  • Spatio-temporal dynamics of gross rainfall partitioning and nutrient
           fluxes in shaded-cocoa ( Theobroma cocoa ) systems in a tropical
           semi-deciduous forest
    • Authors: Evans K. Dawoe; Victor R. Barnes; Samuel K. Oppong
      Abstract: Abstract Land-use change from forest to cocoa agroforestry and other tree-based farming systems alters the structure of forest stands and influences the magnitude of canopy water fluxes and subsequent bio-element inputs to the forest floor. The partitioning of incident rainfall (IR) into throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and canopy interception loss (ILC) and their associated nutrient element concentrations and fluxes was examined along a replicated chrono-sequence: forest, 3, 15 and 30-year-old smallholder shaded-cocoa systems in Ashanti Region, Ghana. Mean annual precipitation during the 2-year observational period (2007 and 2008) was 1376.2 ± 93.8 mm. TF contributed between 76.5–90.4%, and SF between 1.4–1.7% of the annual IR to the forest floor. There were significant differences in IR, TF and SF chemistry. While TF and SF were enriched in phosphorus (1.33–5.67-fold), potassium (1.1–5.69 fold), calcium (1.35–2.65 fold) and magnesium (1.4–2.68 fold) relative to IR, total N (NH4 ++NO3 −) declined (0.5–0.91) of IR values in TF and SF in forest and shaded cocoa systems. Incident rainfall was significantly more acidic than TF and SF in both forest and shaded-cocoa systems. Mean annual total N, P, K, Ca and Mg inputs to the forest floor through IR were 5.7, 0.14, 13.6, 9.43 and 5.6 kg ha−1year−1 respectively. Though an important source of available nutrients for plant growth, incident rainfall provides only a small percentage of the annual nutrient requirements. With declining soil fertility and pervasive low cocoa yields, possible effects of the reported nutrient fluxes on nutrient budgets in cocoa systems merit further investigation. Against the background of increased TF and decreased ILC following forest conversion to shaded-cocoa, it is also recommended that more studies be carried out on rainfall partitioning and its impact on ground water recharge as a way of establishing its influence on the availability of moisture for agriculture in these systems.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0108-3
       
  • Home garden system dynamics in Southern Ethiopia
    • Authors: Beyene Teklu Mellisse; Gerrie W. J. van de Ven; Ken E. Giller; Katrien Descheemaeker
      Abstract: Abstract Home gardens in southern Ethiopia are regarded as efficient farming systems, allowing interactions and synergies between crop, tree and livestock components. However, these age-old traditional home gardens are evolving rapidly in response to changes in both the socio-economic and biophysical environment. Altered cropping patterns, farm size and component interactions may affect the systems’ sustainability. Home gardens exhibit a huge diversity in farms and farming systems, which needs to be understood in order to design interventions for improvement. Dynamics of home gardens were studied over two-decades (1991–2013) based on a survey of 240 farm households and focus group discussions. Farms were grouped into five types: Khat-based, Enset-cereal-vegetable, Enset-based, Enset-coffee and Enset-livestock. Farm trajectories revealed a shift from food-oriented Enset-based and Enset-livestock systems to (1) cash crop oriented khat-based systems, and (2) combined food and cash crop oriented Enset-cereal-vegetable systems. In densely populated, market proximate areas a major trend was expansion of khat, from 6 to 35% of the area share per farm, while the combined area share of enset and coffee decreased from 45 to 25%. Concurrently, the cattle herd size fell from 5.8 TLU to 3.9 TLU per household. In medium populated, less accessible areas the trend was consolidation of combined production of food and cash crops. Enset and coffee together maintained a share of over 45%. Easy transport and marketing of the perishable cash-generating khat compared with traditional crops favoured its cultivation among smallholders located close to markets. The insights in home garden change in response to increasing population pressure, decreasing farm size and market development may help to design interventions to increase system sustainability.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0106-5
       
  • Individual tree aboveground biomass for Castanopsis indica in the
           mid-hills of Nepal
    • Authors: Dan B. Shrestha; Ram P. Sharma; Shes K. Bhandari
      Abstract: Abstract Quantitative information of tree biomass is useful for management planning and monitoring of the changes in carbon stock in both forest and agroforestry systems. An estimate of carbon stored in these systems can be useful for developing climate change mitigation strategies. A precise estimate of forest biomass is also important for other issues ranging from industrial forestry practices to scientific purposes. The individual tree-based biomass models serve as fundamental tools for precise estimates of carbon stock of species of interest in forest and agroforestry systems. We developed individual tree aboveground biomass models for Castanopsis indica using thirty-six destructively sampled tree data covering a wide range of tree size, site quality, growth stage, stand density, and topographic characteristics. We used diameter at breast height (DBH) as a main predictor and height-to-DBH ratio (a measure of tree slenderness) and wood density (a measure of stiffness and cohesiveness of wood fibres) as covariate predictors in modelling. We, hereafter, termed the biomass models with former two predictors as first category models (density independent models) and the models with all three predictors as second category models (density dependent models). Among various functions evaluated, a simple power function of the form \(y_{i} = b_{1} x_{i}^{{b_{2} }}\) , in each category, showed the best fits to our data. This formulation, in each category, described most of the biomass variations ( \(R_{adj}^{2}\)  > 0.98 and RMSE < 72.2) with no significant trend in the residuals. Since both density dependent and density independent models exhibit almost similar fit statistics and graphical features, one of them can be applied for desired accuracy, depending on the access of the input information required by the model. Our biomass models are site-specific, and their applications should therefore be limited to the growth stage, stand density, site quality, stand condition, and species distribution similar to those that formed the basis of this study. Further research is recommended to validate and verify our model using a larger dataset with a wider range of values for site quality, climatic and topographic characteristics, stand density, growth stage, and species distribution across Nepal.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0109-2
       
 
 
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