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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2573 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2573 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Agroforestry Systems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.663
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 20  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0167-4366 - ISSN (Online) 1572-9680
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2573 journals]
  • The utility of farmer ranking of tree attributes for selecting companion
           trees in coffee production systems

    • Abstract: Abstract There is increasing interest in the potential of agroforestry to improve the productivity and sustainability of coffee production, but designing management options is knowledge intensive. Tree-crop interactions and the biophysical and socio-economic factors influencing farmers’ decision-making about companion trees are complex and context-specific but fine scale data relating to them are rarely available. A novel method was used to analyse trees ranked by farmers for a range of attributes and evaluate the consistency of farmers’ knowledge underpinning decisions about tree management in coffee production systems in Rwanda. Farmers’ knowledge about tree planting was changing, in line with new shade management recommendations being promoted alongside a limited number of tree species, often freely distributed through eco-certification initiatives. Farmers had detailed knowledge about soil and water conservation processes associated with trees, but they traded these off against perceived competition for light, water and nutrients with coffee. The competitiveness of trees with coffee was influenced by combinations of attributes related to: crown architecture, foliage properties and growth patterns; as well as how trees responded to management, and, their utility. Farmers consistently ranked 20 tree species for 12 attributes (five related to ecology, four to management and three to utility). Given the paucity of data on tree attributes for many species, systematically acquired and consistent local knowledge complements global scientific information and can be useful in bridging knowledge gaps relating to the integration of tree diversity in coffee production systems, which is an increasingly important strategy for smallholder farmers adapting to climate change.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • Apricot-based agroforestry system in Southern Xinjiang Province of China:
           influence on yield and quality of intercropping wheat

    • Abstract: Abstract Agroforestry is a common traditional practice in China, especially in Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China. However, the productivity of many agroforestry systems has been lower than expected in recent years. We chose an apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)/wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) intercropping system to investigate the influence of apricot tree shade intensity on the grain yield and quality of intercropping wheat in Southern Xinjiang Province. We found that the mean daily light intensity in the east-row, inter-row, and west-row positions (apricot trees were planted in north–south orientation) in the intercropping systems decreased by 61.5%, 42.2%, and 63.6%, respectively, compared to the monoculture wheat. Correspondingly, the mean daily photosynthesis rate decreased by 52.0%, 28.4%, and 38.8%, respectively. The total florets, fertile florets, total spikelets, fertile spikelets, and grain yield and its components (including spike number, grains per spike, and thousand grain weight), and the total N and P contents of intercropping wheat in apricot-based intercropping systems were all significantly decreased compared to monoculture wheat. However, the protein content and wet gluten content of intercropped wheat were significantly increased compared to monoculture wheat. We did not find significant differences in any parameters among east-row, inter-row, and west-row positions in intercropping systems.
      PubDate: 2019-06-17
  • Correction to: Advances in European agroforestry: results from the
           AGFORWARD project

    • Abstract: In the original publication of the article, the copyright line was incorrect in Springer link. The correct copyright line should read as “The Author(s) 2018”. The original article has been corrected.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Exploring the potential of edible forest gardens: experiences from a
           participatory action research project in Sweden

    • Abstract: Abstract To meet the environmental challenges that are presently confronting society, the narrow focus on agricultural production needs to be altered to one that places equal value on the generation of crucial ecosystem services. Current research shows that perennial intercropping systems such as agroforestry may be a feasible alternative. Based on studies during the establishment of edible forest gardens in 12 participating farms in Sweden, this paper explores the potential of utilizing multi-strata designs for food production in temperate, high-income countries. Design and species composition of such gardens, types of food they provide, and how they would best fit into the present landscape are discussed. Factors for success and major problems related to the establishment are shared. Potential benefits were found to be closely related to a thorough analysis of the social and ecological contexts before establishment. Characteristics of the site and goals of the garden need to guide species and design choices. If forest garden approaches to food production should contribute to more than local self-sufficiency, the gardens need to increase in scale. Marginal lands and transitions areas between different land uses may be appropriate. Large knowledge gaps concerning potential production, social and economic benefits, and agronomic issues were identified.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Regenerated trees in farmers’ fields increase soil carbon across the

    • Abstract: Abstract In the current debate on the role of increase soil carbon in addressing both climate change and food security, there is consensus that farmed lands have the higher potential provided the best management practices are implemented. In the Sahel where farms usually have few sparse old trees with declining soil fertility, there is an ongoing re-greening process with increases in tree cover for which there is still a dearth of quantified information on its impacts on soil properties. This research aimed at filling that gap. We sampled soil using a concentric zone design around individual trees of dominant species and at different soil depths (0–10, 10–30, 30–50 and 50–70 cm) in four Sahelian countries: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal. The results showed increase total carbon content of the top 0–10 cm soil, generally with high sand content (> 70%), ranged from 0.16 to 0.44% (mean 0.23%). Under trees it was a factor 1.04–1.47 higher than away from trees. Different tree species thrived in different ecological niches and had different impacts on soil properties, highlighting the need for site and species matching in restoration activities. These results suggest that increase vegetation cover in the Sahel is associated with an increase in soil total carbon and this trend is more pronounced on sandy soils.
      PubDate: 2019-05-25
  • Food production and gender relations in multifunctional landscapes: a
           literature review

    • Abstract: Abstract High expectations are put to multifunctional land use systems that they can provide solutions to the increasing global demand for land and food. In this literature review, we ask whether multifunctional landscapes hold specific opportunities for women in enhancing food production and security in a context of gender inequality guided by a framework of access to productive resources and commercialisation. We review 104 scientific articles dealing with food production and security in a range of multifunctional land use systems across Africa, Asia and Latin America, including agroforestry, homegardens, livestock systems and urban agriculture. We find that the specific role of a landscape’s multifunctionality for women’s opportunities to enhance food security, is rarely explicitly examined in scientific literature. Our review shows that in a multifunctional setting, the products controlled by women are often secondary and far from markets, and therefore they risk being ignored in decision-making or by policy makers. Further, efforts to increase the value of traditionally “female products” risk having adverse effects on women’s empowerment, in cases where powerful actors take over all or parts of the value chain, or appropriate the benefits. To remove these barriers traditional gender roles have to change. However, the instability of gender relations can also work in women’s favour in a multifunctional landscape where several products and production systems exist, providing opportunities to claim new roles or resources, especially in the context of changing external circumstances, such as urbanization, a shift from pastoralism to sedentary livelihoods, or an expansion of the monetary economy.
      PubDate: 2019-05-03
  • Effects of defoliation by the edible caterpillar “chitoumou” ( Cirina
           butyrospermi ) on harvests of shea ( Vitellaria paradoxa ) and growth of
           maize ( Zea mays )

    • Abstract: Abstract Edible insects are found in agricultural systems worldwide, and are an important source of food and income. However, many edible insects are also pests of important food crops, which raises the question of how far their presence might be costly to farmers in terms of reduced crop yields. In this study we aimed to understand the impact of defoliation of shea trees by edible caterpillars on yields of shea and maize in a mixed agroforestry system in Burkina Faso, West Africa. We collected field data in two consecutive years. Our results suggest that tree defoliation by caterpillars has no effect on shea fruit yields, and that defoliation may have a positive effect on maize productivity. We conclude that this appears to be an example of an agricultural system in which nutritionally and economically important plants and insects are both harvested by humans without risking yield reductions of harvested plants.
      PubDate: 2019-04-03
  • The economic potential of fruit trees as shade in blue mountain coffee
           agroecosystems of the Yallahs River watershed, Jamaica W.I.

    • Abstract: Abstract Studies in coffee agroecosystems often focus on the conservation and environmental benefits of this managed novel habitat, but rarely examine the socioeconomic benefit of the shade tree products themselves to coffee farmers. An examination of Blue Mountain coffee farmers along an elevation gradient within the Yallahs River watershed saw several tree species emerge as important within the agroecosystems, accounting for approximately 10% of gross farm incomes. Of the 24 tropical, subtropical or temperate fruit trees reported by farmers, eight species (Mangifera indica, Blighia sapida, two Musa sp.—bananas and plantains, Syzygium samarangense, Persea Americana, and two Citrus sp.—oranges and grapefruits), contributing US$100 or greater, accounted for more than 90% of reported fruit incomes. Our results reveal that farmers, on average, could make an additional US$443.23 and US$1485.28 per ha. per year from fruit trees used as shade on high and low elevation coffee farms, respectively. With better marketing of fruit tree products and improved conditions of existing road networks to provide access to markets, shade coffee farms could significantly improve coffee farmer livelihoods and forest-like cover within the severely degraded agricultural areas within the Yallahs River watershed.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Integrating local knowledge with tree diversity analyses to optimize
           on-farm tree species composition for ecosystem service delivery in coffee
           agroforestry systems of Uganda

    • Abstract: Abstract Coffee agroforestry systems deliver ecosystem services (ES) critical for rural livelihoods like food but also disservices that constrain livelihoods like fostering coffee-pests. Since such ES are tree-based, maximizing ES and limiting constraints requires knowledge on optimizing on-farm tree composition especially trees adapted to local conditions. The study was in three sites along a rainfall gradient in Central Uganda where we: assessed tree diversity in coffee agroforestry; ranked tree suitability for providing ES according to farmers’ knowledge; and then proposed an approach for optimizing on-farm tree composition for delivery of ES. We collected data on tree diversity and, farmers’ knowledge of tree species and the ES they provide. Farmers ranked ES in order of importance to their livelihoods (‘Needs rank’) and ranked trees according to suitability for providing ES. Using Bradley Terry modeling, we grouped trees into ‘ES groups’ according to suitability for providing different ES and ranked ‘ES groups’ according to tree diversity (‘Diversity rank’). Tree-suitability for providing ES and importance of ES to farmers varied with rainfall regime but tree diversity did not match farmers’ needs for ES. We propose the FaD–FaN (matching farm tree diversity to farmers’ needs) approach for optimizing tree species composition with respect to tree-suitability for farmers’ priority ES. Farmers locally prioritize ES needed and identify trees that best serve such ES. The approach then focuses on modifying on-farm tree diversity to match/suit farmers’ priority ES. The FaD–FaN approach caters for varying socio-ecological conditions; it’s adaptable for other coffee and cocoa-growing areas worldwide.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Shade trees decrease pest abundances on brassica crops in Kenya

    • Abstract: Abstract Agroforestry practices may mitigate the current loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services due to deforestation and agricultural intensification. To examine the effects of agroforestry on the ecosystem service of pest regulation, we assessed pest abundances and biological control potential in shaded and open kale (Brassica oleracea L. acephala) fields in Western Kenya. Specifically, we compared the abundance of pest aphids and caterpillars, ground-dwelling ants, spiders and predatory beetles, and examined aphid parasitism rates, predation rates on diamondback moth eggs, attack rates on surrogate caterpillars and bird predation on aphids. Shade trees effectively reduced abundances of aphids, caterpillars and increased abundances of spiders and predatory beetles, but neither affected ant abundances, or predation and parasitism rates. Our results suggest that presence of shade trees can decrease pest abundances, but that this is not only due to improved biological control by natural enemies but also due to microclimatic conditions affecting pest performance and bottom-up processes such as changes in plant quality and soil conditions. We encourage studies exploring simultaneously how top-down and bottom-up processes affect pest regulation in agroforestry settings.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Soil carbon stock in olive groves agroforestry systems under different
           management and soil characteristics

    • Abstract: Abstract The atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased to unprecedented levels during last decades, raising concerns about their effect on climate change. Agriculture and land use change play an important role in atmospheric CO2 emission and fixation, especially by affecting the soil carbon (C) storage. In this context, agroforestry systems (AFSs) could play an important role contributing to climate change mitigation. Given the importance of olive cultivation in the Mediterranean region, it is important to investigate soil C stock in olive groves, and to assess which agronomic practices could improve the soil C stock in these systems. For this reason, a study was conducted in different olive groves, including conventional and organic management, and a typical silvopastoral AFS. Furthermore, an abandoned olive grove and nearby forest were examined as a comparison. Soil samples were collected in each farm and analysed for C content and physico-chemical characteristics. This study indicates that, irrespective of the management, olive groves in the Umbria region of Italy are characterised by a high level of soil C stock if compared to those growing in other areas and to forest ecosystems, indicating that the practices adopted in the area are not negatively affecting soil C storage. A slightly lower soil C stock was measured in the silvopastoral AFS in comparison to the other farms, while high soil C stock was associated with the use of pomace, suggesting that this practice can be used to further increase soil C stock in olive orchards.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
  • Contribution of agroforestry to climate change mitigation and livelihoods
           in Western Kenya

    • Abstract: Abstract We test the hypothesis that agroforestry improves livelihoods and mitigates climate change in smallholder farming systems simultaneously. Data were collected using household surveys and standard biomass assessment approaches using locally relevant allometric equations. Summary statistics and regression analyses reveal linkages between on-farm carbon stocks and farm- and household characteristics. With an average of 4.07 ± 0.68 Mg C ha−1 and Shannon diversity index of 3.06, farm carbon stocks were significantly associated with farm size (r = 0.453, p < 0.05), tree density (r = − 0.58, p = 0.05) and the average size of trees on farm (r = − 0.42, p = 0.05), but not by Shannon diversity index (r = 0.36, p = 0.080), species richness (r = − 0.044, p = 0.833) or the number of land use categories (r = − 0.192, p = 0.356). Timber was considered the most important use of on-farm trees before firewood and construction material. The results suggest that gaining self-sufficiency in firewood is the most important benefit with on-farm carbon accumulation. The focus on exotic species for timber production presents a considerable trade-off between livelihood options and environmental goals. Heterogeneity in local environmental conditions over very short distances, less than 12 km, significantly determine livelihood strategies and on-farm carbon stocks. These results ostensibly contradict that carbon storage in smallholder farms is determined by diversity of tree species, suggest that livelihood strategy can equally drive carbon storage and demonstrate the diversity of livelihood and environmental benefits derived from trees on farms.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
  • Carbon revenue in the profitability of agroforestry relative to

    • Abstract: Abstract The impact of carbon revenue on the profitability of agroforestry systems in comparison to monocultures is unexplored in regard to Sub-Saharan Africa. This study creates a multivariate model to evaluate the impact of carbon revenue on the profitability of agroforestry relative to the dominant monocultures in Ethiopia by using stylized plots. Yields and carbon stock changes of eight agroforestry systems were modeled based on data from agroforestry plots in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley. According to our model, agroforestry was, on average, four times more profitable than the main monoculture systems (wheat, barley, maize, teff, sorghum, sugarcane and lentil) even when carbon revenues were excluded, primarily due to the higher prices of fruit produce. Carbon revenues were estimated using a plausible carbon price ranging from US$8/tCO2e to $40/tCO2e and carbon sequestration rates of 0.59 to 17.2 Mg C ha−1 year−1. The possibility of receiving carbon revenue increased the profitability of agroforestry by 0.5% when using the lowest utilized carbon price and carbon sequestration rate, by 20% when using the carbon price of $20 and the average carbon sequestration rate, and by 70% when using the highest price and highest sequestration rate of carbon. On average, carbon revenue increased the profitability of agroforestry by 150% in comparison to monoculture farming. We conclude that carbon income may have significant potential to motivate smallholders to convert to agroforestry when there is a proper management system, a sufficiently high carbon price and effective institutional support to mitigate the transition and transaction costs.
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
  • Local tree knowledge can fast-track agroforestry recommendations for
           coffee smallholders along a climate gradient in Mount Elgon, Uganda

    • Abstract: Abstract Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) is economically important for many smallholder farmers in the Mount Elgon region of East Uganda, but its production is increasingly threatened by climate change. However, ecosystem services (ES) provided by companion trees in coffee agroforestry systems (AFS) can help farmers adapt to climate change. The objectives of this research were to develop agroforestry species recommendations and tailor these to the farmers’ needs and local context, taking into consideration gender. Local knowledge of agroforestry species and ES preferences was collected through farmer interviews and rankings. Using the Bradley-Terry approach, analysis was done along an altitudinal gradient in order to study different climate change scenarios for coffee suitability. Farmers had different needs in terms of ES and tree species at different altitudes, e.g. at low altitude they need a relatively larger set of ES to sustain their coffee production and livelihood. Local knowledge is found to be gender blind as no differences were observed in the rankings of species and ES by men and women. Ranking species by ES and ranking ES by preference is a useful method to help scientists and extension agents to use local knowledge for the development of recommendations on companion trees in AFS for smallholder farmers.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Home garden system dynamics in Southern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Abstract Home gardens in southern Ethiopia are regarded as efficient farming systems, allowing interactions and synergies between crop, tree and livestock components. However, these age-old traditional home gardens are evolving rapidly in response to changes in both the socio-economic and biophysical environment. Altered cropping patterns, farm size and component interactions may affect the systems’ sustainability. Home gardens exhibit a huge diversity in farms and farming systems, which needs to be understood in order to design interventions for improvement. Dynamics of home gardens were studied over two-decades (1991–2013) based on a survey of 240 farm households and focus group discussions. Farms were grouped into five types: Khat-based, Enset-cereal-vegetable, Enset-based, Enset-coffee and Enset-livestock. Farm trajectories revealed a shift from food-oriented Enset-based and Enset-livestock systems to (1) cash crop oriented khat-based systems, and (2) combined food and cash crop oriented Enset-cereal-vegetable systems. In densely populated, market proximate areas a major trend was expansion of khat, from 6 to 35% of the area share per farm, while the combined area share of enset and coffee decreased from 45 to 25%. Concurrently, the cattle herd size fell from 5.8 TLU to 3.9 TLU per household. In medium populated, less accessible areas the trend was consolidation of combined production of food and cash crops. Enset and coffee together maintained a share of over 45%. Easy transport and marketing of the perishable cash-generating khat compared with traditional crops favoured its cultivation among smallholders located close to markets. The insights in home garden change in response to increasing population pressure, decreasing farm size and market development may help to design interventions to increase system sustainability.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Livelihood implications of in situ-on farm conservation strategies of
           fruit species in Uzbekistan

    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of a set of interventions related to on-farm/in situ conservation and use of fruit species (cultivated and wild) on farmers’ livelihoods and species diversity in Central Asia. Specifically, a difference-in-differences propensity score matching is used to evaluate the outcome of a development research program in Uzbekistan between 2005 and 2010. Species crop diversity maintained by farmers before and after the project increased as a result of the interventions, showing the efficacy of the interventions promoted by the projects in terms of conservation. Furthermore, innovations provided by the program increased both household propensity of marketing and self-consumption of target fruit. However, the program’s interventions did not seem to impact significantly any of the indicators related to household livelihoods. The short time elapsed between the end of the project and the impact assessment may be too brief to capture any observable impact on livelihoods.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
  • A reliable and non-destructive method for estimating forage shrub cover
           and biomass in arid environments using digital vegetation charting

    • Abstract: Abstract Despite the importance of fodder shrubs to small ruminant diets and production in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, they are often not considered when quantifying grazing land potential. This oversight is mainly due to the time consuming and costly traditional techniques used to estimate shrub biomass. The shrub fodder component should be measured to avoid underestimation of the carrying capacity of rangelands. In this study, we present a fast, reliable and non-destructive method to estimate canopy vegetation cover to obtain aboveground shrub biomass. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in northwest Syria, where seedlings of seven shrub species were monitored for one year: Atriplex leucoclada (Moq.) Boiss., A. halimus L., A. lentiformis (Torr.) S. Watson, A. canescens (Pursh) Nutt., A. nummularia Lindl., Salsola vermiculata L. and Haloxylon aphyllum (C.A. Meyer) Bunge. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design with five replications. We explored the effectiveness of digital vegetation charting technique (DVCT) for estimating shrub canopy cover. Aboveground shrub biomass was clipped to estimate the dry matter (DM) weight per species and to determine its relationship to canopy cover. In this study, an estimate of greenness (percent green vegetation cover) was extracted by way of greenness algorithms. Simple linear regressions between vegetation cover and biomass for 210 plots were performed. The cover of the seven species differed (P < 0.01): A. leucoclada had the highest vegetation cover (56%) and H. aphyllum the lowest (7%). Vegetation cover and DM biomass were positively correlated (P < 0.01) with R-squared ranging from 0.66 (H. aphyllum) to 0.84 (S. vermiculata). Our method provided reasonable estimations of canopy coverage which could predict aboveground phytomass. We conclude that DVCT offers a rapid, reliable and consistent measurement of shrub cover and biomass provided that shrubs have open architecture. This study shows the potential of digital cameras and image processing to determine cover/biomass in a non-destructive, timely and cost efficient way.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
  • Long-term yields of oilseed rape and winter wheat in a short rotation
           alley cropping agroforestry system

    • Abstract: Abstract Alley cropping agroforestry systems (ACS) are ascribed to have manifold positive ecological effects; nevertheless their application is still limited due to uncertain productivity of the agricultural crop, especially in the tree-crop competition zone. Therefore, this study investigated the variability of oilseed rape and winter wheat yield, respectively, at different distances from the tree strip edge in 2016 and 2017 in an ACS established in 2008 in northern Germany. The ACS consisted of strips of fast-growing poplars alternating with narrow (48 m) and wide (96 m) crop alleys, each with a crop rotation including winter oilseed rape and winter wheat. Each tree strip contained 6 rows of poplars with a density of 10,000 trees per ha. Moreover, multi-year (2009–2016) crop yield data of oilseed rape and winter wheat in the narrow and wide crop alleys were compared with those of a corresponding non-agroforestry control field. In general, crop yields observed in 2016 and 2017 in the narrow crop alleys at 1 m from the tree strip edges were on average 77% (oilseed rape) and 55% (winter wheat) lower than in the middle of the crop alley. One reason for low yield close to the tree strips might be the leaf litter coverage of the seedlings in autumn. Leaf litter deposition was highest at 1 m on the windward and the leeward side of the tree strips in 2015 and on the leeward side in 2016, respectively. However, the average long-term crop yields of the narrow crop alley, the wide crop alley and the control field did not differ substantially among each other. Although oilseed rape and winter wheat yields were lower close to the tree strips, this yield reduction did not negatively influence the average long-term crop yields of the ACS.
      PubDate: 2018-08-29
  • GIS approach to estimate windbreak crop yield effects in

    • Abstract: Abstract Windbreaks were originally promoted across the U.S. Great Plains to reduce wind erosion. A review paper published nearly 30 years ago showed yield increases for a variety of crops associated with windbreaks. However, with the widespread use of no-till cropping systems and advanced crop genetics, the question is “Do windbreaks still provide a yield benefit'” This study compared data from protected and unprotected fields over multiple years across Kansas and Nebraska looking at relative soybean (Glycine max L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield differences. Farmer’s pre-existing georeferenced data, generated by automated combine yield monitors, were analyzed with ArcGIS 10.3.1 to visualize windbreak interaction with crop yield. Statistics were conducted to determine if the yield in protected areas of the field was significantly different from the yield in unprotected areas. Also, yield loss was estimated from the windbreak footprint to assess if yield increases were enough to compensate for the area taken out of crop production. Results showed: soybeans (57 crop/years) presented the most positive response to windbreak effect with significant yield increases 46% of the time, with a 16% (283 kg ha−1) average yield increase. Wheat (44 crop/years) yield increases were significant 30% of the time, with a 10% (319 kg ha−1) average yield increase. Narrow windbreaks (1–2 tree rows, average width of 13 m) and those on the north edge of fields resulted in yield increases that compensated for the footprint of the windbreak more often (71%) than wider windbreaks on the south edges of fields (38%).
      PubDate: 2018-07-25
  • Species association in Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge communities and
           selection for agroforestry establishment

    • Abstract: Abstract We embraced the “learning from nature and back to nature” paradigm to develop viable agroforestry scenarios through studying species association in 12 wild yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium: a Chinese endemic oil woody plants) communities. We identified 18 species combinations for their suitability as agroforestry mixes where positive associations were detected and thus economic benefits are anticipated. In each wild yellowhorn community, we use nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination to assess community structure and composition, and the climatic variables that most likely influenced existing species distributions. Next, pairwise and multiple species associations were evaluated using several multiple species association indices (e.g., χ2, Jaccard, Ochiai, Dice). Generally, all species association indices were in agreement and were helpful in identifying several high valued medicinal species that showed positive and significant associations with yellowhorn. Finally, we proposed several agroforestry species mixes suitable for yellowhorn.
      PubDate: 2018-06-26
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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