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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Agroforestry Systems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.663
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 20  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-9680 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4366
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Correction to: Advances in European agroforestry: results from the
           AGFORWARD project
    • Abstract: In the original publication of the article, the copyright line was incorrect in Springer link. The correct copyright line should read as “The Author(s) 2018”. The original article has been corrected.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Correction to: Carbon dynamics in cocoa agroforestry systems in Central
           Cameroon: afforestation of savannah as a sequestration opportunity
    • Abstract: The published on-line ms “Carbon dynamics of cocoa agroforestry systems in Central Cameroon: afforestation of savannah as a sequestration opportunity.”
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Correction to: Agroforestry for soil health
    • Abstract: In the below citation author last name was misspelled.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Embryogenesis followed by enhanced micro-multiplication and
           eco-restoration of Calamus thwaitesii Becc.: an economic non-wood forest
           produce for strengthening agroforestry system
    • Abstract: The present study is focussed on development of a high-frequency micro-multiplication system in Calamus thwaitesii, through somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 31.68 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The semi-friable calli when cultured in the same medium augmented with 2.22 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1.07 µM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) induced ~ 12 discrete globular embryoids in 6 weeks. The isolated embryoids in hormone-free media yielded 65% plantlets. Furthermore, embryoids and axenic shoots exhibited maximum shoot induction in medium supplemented with 0.45 µM Thidiazuron (TDZ). The shoot initials after subculture in media supplemented with 1.78 µM BAP and 0.45 µM TDZ produced shoot proliferation followed by elongation in basal medium. The elongated shoots produced roots in media supplemented with 16.11 µM NAA. With this established protocol, ~ 5940 rooted plantlets could be harvested after 40 weeks from a single embryoid. Genetic stability analysis of the plantlets using inter simple sequence repeat markers recorded only 0.05% genetic polymorphism. The plantlets were hardened in a mist house for 8 weeks, and then to 50% shade house for another 16 weeks, and the well-established 6-month-old nursery plants, reintroduced to selected forest segments, exhibited 86% field establishment even after 3 years of observation. Thus, the mass multiplication system developed could be a breakthrough for large-scale multiplication of C. thwaitesii to ensure continuous supply of quality planting material to the cottage industry through the development of agroforestry systems. Furthermore, the in vitro culture system developed here can be replicated for research activities related to the long-term–short-term conservation, micro-multiplication and sustainable utilization of rare, endangered, endemic, monopodial/single stemmed rattan palms.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Woody species diversity and carbon stock under different land use types at
           Gergera watershed in eastern Tigray, Ethiopia
    • Abstract: Woody diversity and carbon stock estimation of land use types have critical role for the successful implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. This study investigated relationships between woody species diversity and carbon stock in different land use types. Three land use types (area exclosure, homestead agroforestry and woodlot) were selected in the Gergera watershed, Tigray, Ethiopia. A total of 45 sample plots were established using stratified random sampling, 15 plots in each land use types. Vegetation parameters such as diameter at breast height, diameter at stump height, tree height and species type were recorded. Woody species diversity and carbon stocks significantly varied among the land use types. Woody species diversity, species richness and species density were significantly higher in exclosure compared to the other land use types. Mean above-ground woody species carbon stock in woodlot (8.79 ± 7.72) was significantly higher than both in exclosure (2.29 ± 2.73) (p = 0.002) and homestead agroforestry (4.17 ± 4.18) (p = 0.022) and similarly had higher below ground woody species carbon stock than the other two systems. However, there were no significant difference among exclosure and homestead agroforestry in total carbon stock. There were a significant relationship between woody species diversity and carbon stock (R2 = − 0.349, p = 0.019) in each land use types. Land-use change can lead to changes in species diversity and significantly contribute to carbon sequestration. Although, more carbon stock was found in woodlot dominated by Eucalyptus, this would result in water competition and other fast growing trees may be preferable.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Wild bee abundance in temperate agroforestry landscapes: Assessing effects
    • Abstract: Agroforestry has the potential to provide multiple products and services from agricultural land, including bioenergy feedstock and habitat for wild bees. Our goal is to assess how variation in alley crop composition, landscape configuration, and total agroforestry area affects wild bee habitat in Illinois. First, different agroforestry crops may provide different floral and nesting resources for bees. Second, policy and economic factors may affect the total area and configuration of land devoted to agroforestry within a landscape. Third, farmers’ operational preferences will affect area and configuration; they may be more willing to convert entire fields to agroforestry than to convert small patches within fields. We use the Lonsdorf model, a spatially explicit assessment of bee abundance, to model how wild bee habitat in hypothetical alternatives to an Illinois landscape is affected by alley crop composition (willow and row crops or willow and prairie), landscape configuration (alley cropping in subfield patches or in entire fields), and total alley crop area (12, 24, or 29% of the agricultural land). Our results indicate that the alley crop composition and area are important influences on the modeled nesting bee abundance index at the scale of both the landscape and the field. Although the configuration of agroforestry plantings significantly predicts bee abundance at the field scale, it is not an important factor when assessing bee abundance at the level of the landscape.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Estimation of cultivable areas for Irvingia gabonensis and I. wombolu
           (Irvingiaceae) in Dahomey-Gap (West Africa)
    • Abstract: Cultivation of priority plant species ensures their sustainable management. African bush mango trees (Irvingia gabonensis and I. wombolu) are the most exploited Irvingiaceae species. Experts disagree on the status of these very similar taxa, as taste remains the only character by which they can be distinguished in the field. We combined occurrences and environment data in ecological niche models to assess suitable areas for the two species. Irvingia gabonensis presented a wider occurrence area due to cultivation across contrasting ecological areas. Irvingia wombolu does not appear to be cultivated and only occurred in southwestern Togo. These differences in range is likely determined by phenological limitations of I. wombolu, reinforced by differences in local management systems, thus confirming the failure of market development to impact useful plant species’ conservation significantly. Highly suitable areas for I. wombolu were in the Volta Forest, where I. gabonensis saw low suitability, while out of this inverse situation was observed, as regard environmental suitability. These differences are significant, implying different ecological adaptation. However, anthropogenic influences, related to domestication history, are also important. Therefore, updated genetic investigations and field trials in contrasting ecological areas are required for understanding the origin of differences between these two forms.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Aboveground biomass allometric equations and carbon content of the shea
           butter tree ( Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn., Sapotaceae) components in
           Sudanian savannas (West Africa)
    • Abstract: Vitellaria paradoxa is one of the most economically important trees in West Africa. Although being a key component of most sub-Sahara agroforestry systems, little information and argument exist regarding its biomass and carbon potential. Here, we developed biomass equations for V. paradoxa tree components in Sudanian savannas. A destructive sampling approach was applied, which was based on measuring stem, branch and foliage biomass of thirty individual trees selected from a wide spectrum of diameter at breast height (dbh) and tree height (h). Basal diameter (d20), dbh, h and crown diameter (cd) were measured and used as predictors in biomass equations. Carbon content was estimated using the ash method. Variance explained in biomass allometric equations ranged from 81 to 98%, and was lower for foliage than for branch and stem biomass models, suggesting that leaf allometries are less responsive to tree size than branch and stem allometries. Stem biomass was best predicted by d20, branch biomass by dbh, and leaf biomass by crown diameter. For aboveground biomass, adding height to dbh as compound variable (dbh2 × h) did not make any significant change, as compared with model based on dbh alone. However, adding crown diameter to dbh and height reduced the error by 15% and improved model fits. Carbon contents in V. paradoxa foliage, branch and stem were 55.29, 55.37 and 55.82%, respectively, and higher than reference value suggested by the IPCC. Established allometric equations can be used to accurately predict aboveground biomass of the species in the Sudanian savannas of West Africa.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Integrating agroforestry intercropping systems in contrasted agricultural
           landscapes: a SWOT-AHP analysis of stakeholders’ perceptions
    • Abstract: Agroforestry intercropping systems have been developed as an alternative to conventional monocropping systems to address environmental, social and economic issues in a wide array of agricultural contexts. As research on the biological properties of these systems tends to demonstrate their potential, fostering their integration in agricultural landscapes requires an in-depth understanding of local stakeholders’ perceptions. Our study used the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats approach in combination with the analytical hierarchy process (SWOT-AHP) to investigate the factors influencing local stakeholders’ decision to integrate agroforestry intercropping systems in two Regional County Municipalities and their perception of the relative suitability of three agroforestry intercropping system designs (crop-oriented, tree-oriented and landscape aesthetic-oriented). We conducted focus groups with farmers, farm and forestry advisors, urban planners and local authorities in a very intensive and a very extensive agricultural landscape in Quebec (Canada) and compared the results between stakeholders within and across the areas. Our results show that social factors seem to have more impact than biophysical factors on the decision to integrate agroforestry intercropping systems in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes. The relative value given to the decision factors varies greatly across stakeholders’ categories and areas. Agroforestry intercropping systems designed to meet crop production needs or landscape aesthetic purposes are perceived as more suitable in both agricultural contexts than the tree-oriented design. Our results highlight crucial issues for agroforestry intercropping system deployment and the development of relevant agroforestry system designs through collective decision-making processes.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Establishment success of seven hardwoods in a tree-based intercropping
           system in southern Quebec, Canada
    • Abstract: In temperate tree-based intercropping (TBI) systems, good survival and early growth of selected tree species without wood defects is critical, when taking into account both economic considerations and rapidly accruing environmental benefits that are provided by the trees. The establishment success of different tree species that have contrasting growth strategies in Northeastern American TBI systems have not been assessed in a well-documented manner, which is an important influential barrier limiting their adoption by farmers. We analyzed establishment success after five growing seasons of six hardwood species and four hybrid poplar clones in a 50 stems ha−1, tree-based intercropping system. The hardwood species being evaluated were Carya ovata, Juglans nigra, Quercus bicolor, Quercus macrocarpa, Quercus rubra, and Acer saccharum. The hybrid poplar clones being evaluated were four clones of Populus deltoides × P. nigra × P. maximowiczii. We also compared 3-year-old bareroot (165 cm in height) with tree shelter versus 6-year-old root-balled transplants (370 cm in height) without tree shelter for two hardwood species (Quercus rubra and Acer saccharum). Mean survival rate of the six hardwood species originating from 3-year-old transplants was 70% after 5 years. Acer saccharum (33%) and Carya ovata (57%) had the lowest survival rates. Tree height of Quercus bicolor and Quercus macrocarpa was taller than that of Carya ovata, Juglans nigra and Quercus rubra. Tree height of Acer saccharum was intermediate among species. Mean survival rate of hybrid poplar after five growing seasons was 82% and did not differ among the clones. Growth of DN 4813 was lower than that of DN×M 915508, DN 3570 and DN 3585. Tree external defects (forks, frost cracks, trunk inclinations, trunk wind bends, and physical injuries) were observed in 63% of the hardwoods and 55% of the hybrid poplars. Red oak and sugar maple originating from 6-year-old transplants had survival rates of 100%. Over 5 years, height increment of 6-year-old transplants was higher than that of 3-year-old transplants. The 6-year-old transplants of Quercus rubra and Acer saccharum were the most cost-effective stock type. We conclude that tree survival, tree growth and tree external defects in establishment phase of TBI systems may vary considerably across hardwood species, hybrid poplar clones and planting stock type.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Growth, yield and vitamin C content of radish ( Raphanus sativus L.) as
           affected by green biomass of Parkia biglobosa and Tithonia diversifolia
    • Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the effect of green biomass of Parkia biglobosa and Tithonia diversifolia on growth, yield and vitamin C content of radish (Raphnus sativus L.). The potential of T. diversifolia as green manure has been discovered by a number of researchers while there is paucity of information and research work on the potentials of P. biglobosa in supplying crop nutrients despite the numerous nutrient compositions contained in the leaves. Both P. biglobosa and T. diversifolia are capable of providing adequate biomass for crop growth and sustainability. The contribution of 10 tonnes ha−1 tithonia to the growth and yield of radish was comparable to that of NPK while the potentials of parkia at all rates was not fully expressed in the growth and yield due to its slow mineralisation. Combination of varying levels of P. biglobosa and T. diversifolia also contributed to the growth and yield of radish though the effects were not significant. It can therefore be concluded that the use of T. diversifolia at 10 tonnes ha−1 as organic manure is sufficient for the cultivation of radish as it performed similar to application of 200 kg ha−1 NPK fertilizer and based on the fact that it is readily available and eco-friendly compared to NPK that is costly and may have adverse effect on the environment.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Tree species diversity and spatial distribution patterns on agricultural
           landscapes in sub-humid Oromia, Ethiopia
    • Abstract: Trees are important components of agricultural landscapes in different parts of Ethiopia, and information on their type, diversity and distribution in sub-humid agroecologies is essential for designing interventions. A study was conducted to evaluate tree diversity and their spatial patterns in agricultural landscapes under different land use categories in four selected sub-humid sites in Western Oromia, Ethiopia. Tree inventory was conducted on 100 homesteads (19 ha), 18 crop lands (35 ha) and 11 grazing lands (5.5 ha) belonging to 100 randomly selected households. A total of 82 tree species were identified: 67 in the homesteads, 52 in the crop lands and 29 in the grazing lands. The density of trees varied from 68 trees per ha in crop lands to 801 trees per ha in homesteads. Diversity indices revealed that homestead was the most diverse with Shannon index of 2.42, and Simpson index of 0.84. The density of trees among the tree communities in the four sites varied from 133 in Bako Tibe to 476 in Jima Arjo, but not any one of the sites had more diverse tree community as revealed by the Rènyi diversity profiles analysis. The three dominant tree species in the agricultural landscapes were Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Vernonia amygdalina and Cordia africana. Pearson correlation analysis showed that high tree species density, richness and diversity had high association with homesteads than with crop lands and grazing lands. It also revealed significant positive correlations between land size and evenness, and latitude and evenness whereas there were significant negative correlations between family size and Shannon diversity index, and land size and tree density. The majority (81.6%) of the trees were established through plantation and only 18.4% were regenerated naturally. The proportion of planted trees varied from 68% in Gobu Seyo to 94.1% in Guto Gida. The study showed that agricultural landscapes harbour high diversity of tree species with a spatial pattern, and increasing the tree cover with focus in the crop lands is essential for improved resilience of the agricultural systems and for circa-situm conservation of biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Spatial pattern of windbreak effects on maize growth evaluated by an
           unmanned aerial vehicle in Hokkaido, northern Japan
    • Abstract: Effects of tree windbreaks on crop production vary from field to field. However, considerable labor is required to evaluate the effects of windbreaks by conducting yield surveys in multiple fields. The present study aimed to clarify whether the spatial pattern of windbreak effects on maize growth can be evaluated using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in a field with a windbreak in Hokkaido, northern Japan. We mapped normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) distribution in the field using a UAV and conducted micrometeorological observation and survey of growth and yield. We found that the windbreak positively affected maize growth by increasing soil temperature at 3–5 H (H = windbreak height) and negatively by shading at approximately 1 H. NDVI estimated using the UAV was high in June and low in September, suggesting that the growth rate of maize at 3–5 H was higher than that at 6–12 H. NDVI was significantly correlated to dry matter content of maize, although the area shaded by the windbreak during observation could not be used for analysis. These results indicate that a UAV was successful to grasp spatial pattern of windbreak effects on maize growth. This study shows the potential of a UAV to be useful for saving time and money when we evaluate the effects of windbreaks on crop growth.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Effects of shrub crop interplanting on apple pest ecology in a temperate
           agroforestry system
    • Abstract: Pest control by wild arthropods is an important ecosystem service in fruit crops, especially due to markets that value minimal pesticide use. Techniques to augment on-farm habitat for wild arthropods have focused on flowering ground cover planted within orchards and hedgerows on field borders. However, natural enemies found in groundcover often do not favor tree canopy habitat. Conversely, while hedgerows can effectively provide natural enemies that prefer woody microhabitats, their impact diminishes away from field edges. Shrub crops interplanted within orchards could resolve both problems, providing woody habitat for natural enemies directly adjacent to target crop trees. In a multi-layer agroforestry system in Illinois, we vacuum sampled arthropod communities across layers and recorded vegetation characteristics and pest damage on apples. Using generalized linear models, information theoretic model selection, and non-metric multidimensional scaling, we evaluated the effects of three shrub treatments (raspberries, hazelnuts, and both species) on pest and natural enemy guilds in apple trees and shrubs, and on the frequency of pest damage on apples. Shrub composition was an important predictor of arthropod communities on shrubs. However, shrub treatment had only minor impacts on arthropods in apple canopies, indicating the habitats are less similar than anticipated. While two arthropod guilds in apple canopies were linked to pest damage frequency, neither was sensitive to changes in the shrub layer. Results suggest that shrub crop interplanting does not inherently resolve the ecological complexities that impede existing approaches in conservation biological control.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Emission factors estimated from enteric methane of dairy cattle in Andean
           zone using the IPCC Tier-2 methodology
    • Abstract: Enteric CH4 emissions from ruminant livestock represent a loss of dietary energy and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, actually, that is depending on feeding level and diet composition. We calculated emission factors of methane depending to enteric fermentation of Holstein cattle in Andean zone of Colombia, based on methodology IPCC Tier 2. This study involved animal performance, management practices for improved livestock productivity, higher digestibility of pasture and forage from silvopastoral system of the association Pennisetum clandestinum/Trifolium repens on paddocks bounded by live fences of Acacia decurrens. For that, some model parameters and Tier-2 model equations were applied: body weight, mature weight, daily gain, weight loss, milk production, milk fat content, pregnancy rates and quality of feed to calculate gross energy GE. All these variations were used to investigate the effects on predicted CH4, emission in terms of the changes in the CH4 emission factor (MEF) in kg of CH4 per head dairy cattle−1 year−1. CH4 conversion factor (MCF) as a percentage of gross energy intake with feed, resulting in emission factor of 52 kg CH4 head−1 year−1 in SPS, 28 and 45% lower than in improved pasture of Lolium multiflorum and degraded pasture of Pennisetum clandestinum in rotation with potatoes, resulting in emission factors of 72 and 93 kg CH4 head−1 year−1 respectively. These emission factors were compared with the emission factors of Tier-1 and Tier-2 methodology used value Ym default of IPCC from national inventories. Through this research these emission factors can be applied for regional and national inventories in Andean areas of Colombia with these features.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Biophysical interactions in perennial biomass alley cropping systems
    • Abstract: Understanding the nature and degree of competition between trees and co-planted crops in agroforestry systems can inform management decisions, future species selection, and system design. We measured variation in herbaceous biomass yield, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), soil water potential, and residual soil NO3 in alley cropping systems consisting of prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata) or an 11-species native grass-forb-legume polyculture planted between rows of shrub willow (Salix purpurea L. ‘Fish Creek’) at two Minnesota sites. At Empire, biomass yield increased with distance from the tree row for both alley crops, as did PAR and NO3 availability. At Granada, no spatial pattern in crop yield was evident, despite reduced PAR and NO3 availability adjacent to tree rows. At both sites, patterns in soil water potential suggested that trees competed with crops for soil water within 2.4 m of tree rows, but had a facilitative effect on crop water use at 4.8 m. Alleys had differing cardinal orientations at the two sites, and light availability was lower in a north–south alley (Empire) than in west–east and northwest-southeast orientations (Granada). At Empire, mixed effects analysis indicated that competition for light and soil water were responsible for reductions in crop yield. For every 100 μmol m−2 s−1 increase in PAR, model estimated herbaceous crop yield increased by 623 kg DM ha−1. For every 20 kPa increase in average daily water potential, crop yield increased by 1038 kg DM ha−1. The relative impact of competition on biomass yield was similar for both crops, though prairie cordgrass had higher average yields at Empire. Similar alley systems should avoid north–south alley orientations to minimize competition for light.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Exploring the potential of edible forest gardens: experiences from a
           participatory action research project in Sweden
    • Abstract: To meet the environmental challenges that are presently confronting society, the narrow focus on agricultural production needs to be altered to one that places equal value on the generation of crucial ecosystem services. Current research shows that perennial intercropping systems such as agroforestry may be a feasible alternative. Based on studies during the establishment of edible forest gardens in 12 participating farms in Sweden, this paper explores the potential of utilizing multi-strata designs for food production in temperate, high-income countries. Design and species composition of such gardens, types of food they provide, and how they would best fit into the present landscape are discussed. Factors for success and major problems related to the establishment are shared. Potential benefits were found to be closely related to a thorough analysis of the social and ecological contexts before establishment. Characteristics of the site and goals of the garden need to guide species and design choices. If forest garden approaches to food production should contribute to more than local self-sufficiency, the gardens need to increase in scale. Marginal lands and transitions areas between different land uses may be appropriate. Large knowledge gaps concerning potential production, social and economic benefits, and agronomic issues were identified.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Agroecological farm analysis based on the 3D sustainability model approach
    • Abstract: The sustainability analysis of an agroecosystem is complex, given the multiple dimensions proposed by both the sustainable development and agroecology thematics. In this context, the 3D sustainability model proposed by Mauerhofer (2008) was chosen as the basis for this research, mainly because it includes the three dimensions—environmental, social and economic—but also because they are presented at another discussion level, in a cone. This cone represents a hierarchy, where its walls correspond to the carrying capacity and its base corresponds to capitals. Likewise, this model, besides organizing the dimensions in a hierarchical way, makes an in-depth analysis by presenting the relationships among capacities and capitals. Given agriculture’s importance to the survival of humankind and all social and environmental impacts related to this segment, the present research was developed towards an operational proposal of a specific 3D model for the analysis of agroecological farms located near or inside conservation units, since the original model has a global scale. In addition, this model could be applied in any agroecological farm of the world near or inside protected areas taking into consideration each particular context and making the necessary adaptation.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Evaluation of wood properties of four ages of Cedrela odorata trees
           growing in agroforestry systems with Theobroma cacao in Costa Rica
    • Abstract: The present work studies the morphological, physical, mechanical and chemical properties, decay resistance, preservation and workability of Cedrela odorata wood from trees growing in agroforestry systems with Theobroma cacao at four ages (4-, 5-, 6- and 7-years-old) in Costa Rica. It was found that the morphological properties (heartwood, pith and bark), together with the physical properties (specific gravity, green density, shrinkage and green moisture content) presented few differences at the four ages. The wood from 4-years-old trees was the only exception, showing less resistance in compression, flexion and lateral hardness. The content of lignin, carbon, and extractives in hot water were not affected among the different ages, contrary to the rest of chemical properties. In relation to decay resistance in accelerated tests with the fungus Trametes versicolor, the wood is classified as highly resistant, while with the fungus Lencites acuta it is classified as moderately resistant. As concerns properties related to industrialization, it was found that the wood can be preserved through vacuum-pressure methods obtaining similar results as those from other plantation timbers. As for workability tests, the wood from the 4-years-old trees show acceptable to very poor performance, differing from trees from the other ages.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Gliricidia sepium and fertilization affect growth, nutrient status, and
           incidence of Hypsipyla grandella in a Cedrela odorata plantation
    • Abstract: Gliricidia sepium has the ability to recruit and release nutrients, increasing primary productivity of forest sites. There are no reports documenting intercroping of G. sepium and Cedrela odorata and few studies examining nutrient supply as strategies to decrease incidence of Hypsipyla grandella in C. odorata plantations. In this study, intercroping of G. sepium and C. odorata and fertilization with N and P was tested in order to examine the effects of such factors on growth, nutrient status, and incidence of H. grandella on C. odorata trees. Twelve treatments fourfold replicated and derived from a 3 × 2 × 2 set of factors were randomly established within the experimental site. During 12 months, growth and pest-incidence variables were measured quarterly and monthly, respectively. K and Mg were the most deficient nutrients in the experimental site. Interplanting three G. sepium trees per plot increased K and Mg availability, thus improving C. odorata nutrient status and minimizing incidence of the pest during the first year. N supply did not improve C. odorata growth nor did it affect the incidence of H. grandella. P promoted tree height.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
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