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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2345 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2345 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)

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Journal Cover Agroforestry Systems
  [SJR: 0.64]   [H-I: 56]   [19 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-9680 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4366
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Effect of forest shelter-belt as a regional climate improver along the old
           course of the Yellow River, China
    • Authors: Jia-Yao Zhuang; Jin-Chi Zhang; Yangrong Yang; Bo Zhang; Juanjuan Li
      Pages: 393 - 401
      Abstract: Up to now very few case studies have provided evidence of the effect of large regional increases in forest area on improving regional climate. This article is perhaps the first description of a unique positive case study of the increasing protection provided by reforestation in controlling a formerly disastrous climate, where gale days have decreased by 80 % per year, and maximum wind speeds of gales have decreased on average from 26 to 11 m/s, while overall average annual wind speed has decreased by 90 % near the ground surface when forest coverage has increased from 3 % in 1950s to 36.9 % in 2010s within 60 years, changing the long-term trend of sandstorms and desertification into a wetter climate where disastrous droughts are now rare despite a global megatrend of decreasing forest area and climate warming. The local climate has been improved by reducing the extreme highs in temperature, reducing the power and frequency of gales, and increasing the number of foggy days. Thus, we propose in arid and semi-arid regions, billions of trees may have a direct effect on improving regional climate, which is worth attention to more than just because of its function as a carbon sink.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9928-9
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Differences in transpiration between a forest and an agroforestry tree
           species in the Sudanian belt
    • Authors: Kohomlan G. Beranger Awessou; Christophe Peugeot; Alain Rocheteau; Luc Seguis; Frédéric C. Do; Sylvie Galle; Marie Bellanger; Euloge Agbossou; Josiane Seghieri
      Pages: 403 - 413
      Abstract: Average population growth in the African Sudanian belt is 3 % per year. This leads to a significant increase in cultivated areas at the expense of fallows and forests. For centuries, rural populations have been practicing agroforestry dominated by Vitellaria paradoxa parklands. We wanted to know whether agroforestry can improve local rainfall recycling as well as forest. We compared transpiration and its seasonal variations between Vitellaria paradoxa, the dominant species in fallows, and Isoberlinia doka, the dominant species in dry forests in the Sudanian belt. The fallow and dry forest we studied are located in northwestern Benin, where average annual rainfall is 1200 mm. Sap flow density (SFD) was measured by transient thermal dissipation, from which tree transpiration was deduced. Transpiration of five trees per species was estimated by taking into account the radial profile of SFD. The effect of the species and of the season on transpiration was tested with a generalized linear mixed model. Over the three-year study period, daily transpiration of the agroforestry trees, V. paradoxa (diameters 8–38 cm) ranged between 4.4 and 26.8 L day−1 while that of the forest trees, I. doka, (diameters 20–38 cm) ranged from 9.8 to 92.6 L day−1. Daily transpiration of V. paradoxa was significantly lower (15 %) in the dry season than in the rainy season, whereas daily transpiration by I. doka was significantly higher (13 %) in the dry season than in the rainy season. Our results indicate that the woody cover of agroforestry systems is less efficient in recycling local rainfall than forest cover, not only due to lower tree density but also to species composition.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9937-8
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Development of natural waxes dispensers for pheromones and use in mating
           disruption of the ambrosia beetle Megaplatypus mutatus in poplar ( Populus
           spp) plantations
    • Authors: Esteban Ceriani-Nakamurakare; Mariel Slodowicz; Cecilia Carmaran; Paola Gonzalez-Audino
      Pages: 415 - 421
      Abstract: Megaplatypus mutatus (= Platypus mutatus) (Chapuis) is an ambrosia beetle native to South America that attacks live trees, mining deeply into the xylem through large tunnels. This activity weakens the structural integrity of the tree, causing severe stem-breakage and mortality. Attacks are initiated by pioneer males that select a host tree and build short nuptial galleries, to which they attract females using a sexual pheromone. Previously, we showed the potential for the strategy of pheromone-mediated mating disruption of M. mutatus in commercial poplar and hazelnut plantations in South America and Europe using polyethylene reservoir dispensers for pheromones. In the present work we replaced the polymeric reservoir dispensers by monolithic dispensers made by dispersion of the pheromone in natural waxes and the addition of kaolin and we found that: prior to pheromone deployment, the mean number of galleries per tree did not differ significantly between the control and treated plots and the same was observed after the mating disruption treatment for the control plot but not for treated plots, where the mean number of galleries were reduced. These findings confirm that mating disruption is a viable tool for management of M. mutatus in poplar plantations. Using natural wax dispensers has obvious advantages from an environmental point of view.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9938-7
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • P transformations in cacao agroforests soils in the Atlantic forest region
           of Bahia, Brazil
    • Authors: S. Aleixo; A. C. Gama-Rodrigues; M. G. Costa; M. V. S. Sales; E. F. Gama-Rodrigues; J. R. B. Marques
      Pages: 423 - 437
      Abstract: Little is known about the phosphorus (P) fractions and P lability of agroforest soils in tropical regions, particularly those of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforests. We hypothesized that the effect of P fertilization on the distribution of P fractions in the soil based on the source-sink relationship differs for different cacao agroforestry systems. The cacao agroforestry systems studied were the following: open cacao-cabruca, closed cacao-cabruca, cacao + erythrina, mixed cacao + rubber tree, and cacao + rubber tree intercropping. A natural forest and an unfertilized pasture were used as reference systems. The P fractions were determined using the Hedley sequential extraction method, and the P transformation processes were evaluated via structural equation modeling. The impact of low P fertilizer input on the P fractions varied according to the specific environmental conditions of each cacao production system. Consequently, there was high dissimilarity among all of the cacao sites. In all of the cacao agroforestry systems, there was an increase in inorganic P (Pi), especially the labile fraction (resin-Pi and NaHCO3-Pi), but organic P (Po) increased only in the cacao + erythrina system and in the rubber tree planting row of the cacao + rubber tree intercropping system. As a result, the fitted structural models indicated that the inter-relationships of the geochemical processes were more important for determining the P availability than the biological processes. However, the Po concentrations and relative proportion were high in all of the cacao agroforestry systems, thereby revealing the high potential of supplying P to plants via the mineralization process in the eventual removal of mineral fertilization.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9939-6
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Soil microarthropods as indicators of soil quality of tropical home
           gardens in a village in Kerala, India
    • Authors: G. Lakshmi; Ammini Joseph
      Pages: 439 - 450
      Abstract: The cosmopolitan distribution of soil microarthropods and their various degrees of adaptation make them suitable tools for assessing soil ecosystem health. In this study, the microarthropod abundance of 25 home gardens in Kerala state located in South West coast of India was studied during summer and north east monsoon season of 2014. The soil microarthropods were categorized into six groups: collembola, coleoptera, hymenoptera, araeneae, acari and diplopoda. Their numbers varied from 0 to 28 per 1000 cm3 and were more abundant in the rainy season than in summer. The occurrence of these microarthropods was positively correlated to soil moisture and organic carbon and had negative correlation to soil temperature and soil pH. The presence of eu-edaphic and epi-edaphic microarthropod fauna was used to derive the soil quality index of each home garden and soil quality classes were defined. Out of the 25 home gardens, two were of good quality, 21 were of medium quality and two were of poor quality. The study supports the scope of applying the indicator value of soil microarthropods in future studies related to soil quality, management and conservation of tropical home garden ecosystems, which are facing threats of removal of canopy and unscientific land management practices.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9941-z
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Structure and composition of cocoa agroforests in the humid forest zone of
           Southern Cameroon
    • Authors: Denis J. Sonwa; Stephan F. Weise; Bernard A. Nkongmeneck; Maturin Tchatat; Marc J. J. Janssens
      Pages: 451 - 470
      Abstract: The distribution and composition of the tree component inside cocoa agroforests plays an important role in the economic and ecological services offered by these plantations. The presence of these plant components appears to be influenced by several factors controlling the introduction and management of associated plants inside cocoa agroforests. To date, few studies have tried to evaluate the horizontal and vertical distribution of plants inside cocoa plantations in Cameroon. This study determines the structure of cocoa plantations in Southern Cameroon. Field data were collected in 60 cocoa plantations belonging to 12 villages located along a contiguous gradient of market access, population density and resource use intensity in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon. This study area comprises (i) the sub-region of Yaoundé, (ii) the sub-region of Mbalmayo, and (iii) the sub-region of Ebolowa. Market access, population density and resource use intensity all decreased from the first to the third sub-region. For cocoa and associated plants, we quantified (1) the density (2) the individual number, the species composition and the group uses of plants (edible, timber, medicinal, etc…) distribution across strata, and (3) the basal area in the 60 cocoa plantations located in the three main sub-regions. Results are presented for each sub-region and the whole study area. The paper develops cocoa agroforest typologies and discusses possible implications of cocoa agroforest structure diversity in the achievement of economic and ecological services.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9942-y
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Direct shoot bud regeneration from shoot tip explants of Enicostema
           axillare : an important medicinal plant
    • Authors: P. Sasidharan; A. Jayachitra
      Pages: 471 - 477
      Abstract: An efficient protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Enicostema axillare using shoot tip explants. The shoot tip explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various combinations of (BAP, KIN) and (NAA/IAA & IBA) in different concentrations between 0.5 and 2.0 mg/l for multiple shoot bud induction. The highest percent of (98.51 %) was observed at 1.0 mg/l BAP in combination with 0.2 mg/l KIN while maximum number of shoot buds (8.41 shoots/explant) was noticed on MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l BAP and 0.2 mg/l KIN combination. The highest frequency (90.82 %) of multiple shoot bud regeneration was observed at 1.0 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l IBA with 15.12 ± 2.12 shoots/explants. The regenerated multiple shoots were transferred to half-strength MS medium augmented with different concentration of 0.5–2.5 mg/l IBA for rooting. Among the different concentrations of IBA tested, maximum percentage of rooting (100 %) was observed in MS medium augmented with 1.5 mg/l IBA. The rooted plantlets were successfully transferred into plastic cups containing soil and sand in the ratio of 1:1. Subsequently established in the field conditions with 90 % of survival rate. The protocol developed can be utilized for both large scale plant production and conservation of germplasm of this species. The described method can be successfully employed for large-scale multiplication and in vitro conservation as well as production of secondary metabolites of E. axillare.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9943-x
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Factors influencing biomass and carbon storage potential of different land
           use systems along an elevational gradient in temperate northwestern
           Himalaya
    • Authors: Bhalendra Singh Rajput; D. R. Bhardwaj; Nazir A. Pala
      Pages: 479 - 486
      Abstract: We observed the influence of five different altitudes and prevailing agro ecosystems on biomass and carbon sequestration potential in Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study area had five prevailing land uses viz., agriculture, agro-horticulture, horticulture, silvi-pasture, and forest at four elevations representing about 1 °C temperature change. The results showed that maximum total biomass of 404.35 Mg C ha−1 was accumulated by forest landuse and followed a decreasing trend in the order as forest > silvi-pasture > agro-horticulture > horticulture > agriculture. Similar trends were also seen with respect to biomass carbon (C) density and C-sequestration potential of different land uses. Biomass and carbon density potential enhanced with the increase in the altitudinal ranges from 1100–1400 to 2000–2300 m a.s.l. But, the rate of C-sequestration potential enhanced from 1100 to 2000 m and declined at 2000–2300 m a.s.l. Maximum carbon density (393.29 Mg C ha−1) of both plant as well as soil was displayed by the forest-based land use systems situated at an altitudinal gradient of 2000–2300 m a.s.l. The rate of C-sequestration was maximum (2.17 Mg ha−1) in the agro-horticulture at 2000–2300 m a.s.l. This study brings out the potential of different land use systems influenced by varying factors on their C-sequestration potential in western Himalayan elevation gradient, thereby providing useful information for effective management in a climate change mitigation and carbon budget.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9948-5
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Influence of alley copping system on AM fungi, microbial biomass C and
           yield of finger millet, peanut and pigeon pea
    • Authors: A. N. Balakrishna; R. Lakshmipathy; D. J. Bagyaraj; R. Ashwin
      Pages: 487 - 493
      Abstract: An experiment was carried out to study the effect of spacing of tree species on native AM fungi and microbial biomass C in the soil in an alley cropping system. The treatments comprised of 3 spacings (4, 8 and 12 m) as main plots, two perennial leguminous plant species (Gliricidia—Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena—Leucaena leucocephala) as subplots and three field crops (finger millet—Eleusine coracana, peanut—Arachis hypogea and pigeonpea—Cajanus cajan) as sub–sub plot treatments laid out in a split–split plot design with four replications. Growing finger millet, pigeonpea and peanut in between Leucaena supported mycorrhizal parameters like spore numbers and infective propagules of AM fungi in the rhizospheric soil compared to those grown in between Gliricidia. The microbial biomass C in soil was more in all the three alleyed crops grown in between Gliricidia. Spacing of 12 m between trees supported all the microbial parameters studied (except mycorrhizal spore numbers) and also the yield of finger millet, pigeonpea and peanut. Growing finger millet as an alley crop in between Gliricidia spaced 12 m apart considerably improved the yield of finger millet.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9949-4
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Gastrointestinal nematode infection in beef cattle raised in silvopastoral
           and conventional systems in São Paulo state, Brazil
    • Authors: M. C. S. Oliveira; M. L. F. Nicodemo; J. R. M. Pezzopane; M. R. Gusmão; A. C. S. Chagas; R. Giglioti; T. B. Bilhassi; C. H. Santana; T. C. Gonçalves; M. D. Rabelo; T. A. Néo
      Pages: 495 - 507
      Abstract: The use of silvopastoral systems (SPS) can be a good alternative to reduce the environmental impacts of livestock breeding in Brazil. Despite the advantages offered by public policies, many producers hesitate to use this system. One of the reasons is the lack of information on health and productivity of cattle raised under these conditions. The experiment reported here was designed to compare the behavior of infection by gastrointestinal nematodes and weight gain of beef cattle raised in a SPS and a conventional pasture system. We monitored the number of eggs per gram of feces, the prevalent nematode genus, data on climate, forage availability, weight gain and packed cell volume (PCV) of the animals bred in the two systems. The infection by nematodes was significantly higher in the cattle raised in the SPS (p < 0.05). The coprocultures revealed the presence of nematodes of the genera Haemonchus, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum and Trichostrongylus, in both systems, but the mean infestation rates of Haemonchus and Cooperia were higher in the SPS (p < 0.05). The average of PCV values did not differ between the cattle in the two systems. The individual weight gain and stocking rate in the period did not vary between the systems (p > 0.05). Despite the higher prevalence of nematodes in the SPS, no negative impact was detected on the animals’ weight gain and health. The results of this experiment indicate that under the conditions studied, there is no need to alter the parasite management to assure good productive performance of cattle.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9950-y
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • ISSR and SSR markers reveal sex-specific DNA sequences in three Calamus
           species from India
    • Authors: Prabalee Sarmah; Vishwa J. Barua; Jyotismrita Nath; R. N. Sarma; Binoy Kurian; A. S. Hemanthkumar; K. K. Sabu
      Pages: 509 - 513
      Abstract: Calamus species yields the raw materials for the cane industry. However, the extraction of the cane from the forests is being carried out indiscriminately without considering the sustenance of the species. Plants of both sexes should co-exist for reproductive success. The sex of Calamus plants can be identified only after flowering and hence proper planning of managed forestry practices cannot be accomplished. A study was carried out in this background and male specific ISSR markers for C. tenuis and C. flagellum and SSR markers for C. thwaitesii were identified. The diagnostic potential of these markers can be exploited to sex the Calamus species at the seedling stage for proper breeding and agroforestry management.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9952-9
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Possibilities of diverse rubber based agroforestry systems for
           smallholdings in India
    • Authors: M. D. Jessy; Phebe Joseph; Sherin George
      Pages: 515 - 526
      Abstract: Rubber growers in South East Asian countries are facing acute crisis due to the price volatility, sharp increase in cost of cultivation, increasing drought and declining soil fertility. With an objective to generate additional income and improve small-holder welfare by integrating diverse crops in rubber ecosystem, three experiments were conducted in Rubber Research Institute of India during 2001–2014 period. In one experiment, coffee, vanilla on Glyricidia standards, Garcinia and nutmeg were cultivated along with rubber without altering the planting design and density of rubber trees. Growth of rubber was significantly higher under mixed planting and yield was not influenced. Soil moisture status during summer and microbial population were higher in mixed planting system and soil nutrient status was maintained. Yield of all the intercrops was good during initial years. As the shade from rubber canopy intensified, Garcinia perished but vanilla and coffee continued to yield reasonably well. In another experiment, nine shade tolerant medicinal plants were evaluated in mature rubber plantation. All the medicinal plants established well and produced reasonable biomass, but the performance of Strobilanthes cuspida and Alpinia calcarata were comparatively better. In another study, it was observed that short duration vegetables like amaranthus and salad cucumber can be cultivated during the annual leaf shedding period in mature rubber plantations to meet part of the household requirement. The results showed that diverse crops can be integrated with rubber without any adverse effect on growth and yield of rubber. Crop diversification generated additional income, mitigated drought and sustained soil fertility.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9953-8
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Spatio-temporal dynamic of suitable areas for species conservation in West
           Africa: eight economically important wild palms under present and future
           climates
    • Authors: Rodrigue Idohou; Achille Ephrem Assogbadjo; Romain Glèlè Kakaï; A. Townsend Peterson
      Pages: 527 - 540
      Abstract: Sustainable conservation of tropical resources required understanding of their distribution for effective assessment and definition of conservation priorities. In tropical areas, wild palms are highly valued keystone resources with growing demand for both subsistence uses and commercial trade. Here we focused on eight such species (Borassus aethiopum Mart., Eremospatha macrocarpa (G.Mann & H.Wendl.) H.Wendl., Hyphaene thebaica Mart., Laccosperma opacum (G.Mann & H.Wendl.) Drude, Phoenix reclinata Jacq., Raphia hookeri G.Mann & H.Wendl., Raphia sudanica A. Chev., and Raphia vinifera P.Beauv.). This study tested (i) how those palms distributions may be affected under future climate scenarios, and (ii) if species are effectively conserved currently and under future forecasts for their native distributional areas. Finally, we defined spatial priorities for the species’ conservation. Available bioclimatic and soil data layers were used for the modelling with maximum entropy approaches, and resulting maps were overlaid on the existing protected areas network. Results showed that much of the distribution of the species will remain largely stable, albeit with some expansion and retraction in some species; relationships with protected areas networks suggest that protected portions of species distributions will also remain stable. The areas identified as highest conservation priority differ between models even though the highest-priority areas holding most palm species are located along the coast (from Guinea to Nigeria). Further development of these analyses could aid in forming a more complete picture of the distributions and populations of the species, which in turn could aid in developing effective conservation strategies for this botanically important family.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9955-6
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Relationship between fallow period, forest vegetation and weeds in swidden
           agriculture in northern Laos
    • Authors: Chika Kameda; Eiji Nawata
      Pages: 553 - 564
      Abstract: Weed suppression is an important reason for fallowing in swidden systems. Recently, in Laos, an increase in weeds and resulting increase in labor input has become a problem; however, causal factors influencing weed growth and weeding labor other than fallow period have yet to be fully examined. Therefore, an experimental research on swidden weeds, combining a forest survey and interviews with local farmers, was conducted in a mountain village in northern Laos where swidden agriculture is practiced as a major means of livelihood. Weed amount, weed composition and time required for weeding were found to be more influenced by fallow vegetation than fallow period. Bushy vegetation in a short fallow field was shown to lead to abundance of herbaceous weeds, resulting in higher labor input. There was a possibility that increases in some bamboo species were a cause of recent weed increases. Based on the results, we suggest that maintaining a minimum fallow period of forest fallowing, with fallow management to suppress bamboo and promote tree growth may be effective in reducing labor input in swidden agriculture.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9959-2
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Impact of bark and foliage harvesting on fruit production of the
           multipurpose tree Afzelia africana in Burkina Faso (West Africa)
    • Authors: Blandine Marie Ivette Nacoulma; Anne Mette Lykke; Salifou Traoré; Brice Sinsin; Adjima Thiombiano
      Pages: 565 - 576
      Abstract: In sub-Saharan Africa, extraction for daily livelihood needs often results in uncontrolled exploitation of bark and leaves of valuable medicinal and fodder trees. However, overharvesting of bark and foliage can reduce fruit production and threaten reproduction. This study evaluates the impact of combined bark and foliage harvesting on the performance of fruit production of Afzelia africana in Burkina Faso. We compared fruit and seed production at different harvesting intensities. Data on fruit yields were collected by stratified random sampling of 91 trees with no, low, severe, and very severe harvesting intensities. The fruit production varied with harvesting intensity, tree size and number of branches. Fruit and seed quantity and quality decreased with increasing harvesting intensity. However, no significant difference was detected between trees without and trees under low harvesting. Trees of all size classes under very severe harvesting intensity had no fruits. Under low harvesting impact, large trees had twice as many fruits as the control, whereas fruits were reduced by half to 95 % for the small trees. High harvesting intensity is an unsustainable practice that should be completely prohibited in order to ensure longterm persistence of Afzelia africana. Low harvesting intensity should be allowed, but only on large reproductive individuals.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9960-9
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Rubber intercropping: a viable concept for the 21st century?
    • Authors: Gerhard Langenberger; Georg Cadisch; Konrad Martin; Shi Min; Hermann Waibel
      Pages: 577 - 596
      Abstract: The last decades brought along a tremendous expansion of rubber plantations as well as respective socio-economic transformations. This paper reviews the historical development of rubber cultivation with special reference to intercropping and illustrates the major development steps. The agronomic challenges of intercropping are analyzed and a management classification scheme is suggested. Though the topic of labor always accompanied rubber management, it is nowadays of even higher relevance due to alternative income options, be it due to competing crops such as oil palm, or be it off-farm income opportunities. This development challenges labor intensive permanent intercropping systems. It can thus be concluded that the permanent integration of additional plants needs either to be highly profitable or at least be labor extensive to be adopted on a considerable scale. Given the large area of rubber plantations the latter seems to be more realistic. In this context timber trees might offer promising options if tree selection is properly adapted to site and plantation conditions. Nevertheless, without external interventions, such as land-use planning and implementation, or incentives, the development will be difficult to control.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9961-8
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Impact of managed woodland grazing on forage quantity, quality and
           livestock performance: the potential for silvopasture in Central
           Minnesota, USA
    • Abstract: Over 177,000 ha of woodlands in Minnesota, USA are grazed. In general, these woodlands are not managed specifically for timber or cattle benefits. This lack of management often leads to decreased timber value and reduced forage yields. Silvopasture is a potential alternative to overcome this lack of land management on Minnesota woodlots. However, very limited information are available about silvopasture use in Minnesota. This three-year study evaluated the potential for silvopasture in Minnesota by comparing the production of unmanaged woodland grazing, silvopastoral, and open pasture systems. Three farmers from Central Minnesota collaborated in this study to assess these grazing systems. Silvopasture paddocks were established when thinning and seeding were performed on woodland areas. We assessed forage production, forage quality, and livestock performance. Forage production was generally greater in silvopastoral systems compared with unmanaged woodland grazing systems, while forage quality was lower in open pasture systems, at least during the first year. Livestock performance was similar between the grazing systems. Results indicate that silvopasture has potential in Minnesota, but more research is required to develop specific management guidelines as well as to monitor silvopasture production systems for longer periods of time.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
       
  • Genetic diversity of American hazelnut in the Upper Midwest, USA
    • Authors: Michael Demchik; Anthony Kern; Lois Braun; Jason Fischbach; Keith Turnquist
      Abstract: World hazelnut production is based on European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) and is limited by the narrow climatic requirements of this species. The cold hardiness and disease resistance of the American hazelnut (Corylus americana) offer opportunities to expand production to new areas including the Upper Midwest (USA). The American hazelnut is a phenotypically diverse species. This study used ten microsatellite marker loci to investigate genetic diversity in 1140 individuals sampled from 25 populations across Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota and North Dakota. Overall, the marker loci were highly polymorphic (Ho = 0.69, He = 0.78, PIC = 0.84) with 7–13 alleles per locus. There was very high genetic diversity within populations (90% of the total) and some tendency toward population differentiation. Mantel’s test showed that genetic distance among the populations was not correlated with geographic distance. We conclude that selection of individuals for use in breeding should be based primarily on phenotype (productivity, nut size, percent kernel, ease of harvest), with care to include representatives of genetically differentiated populations.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0097-2
       
  • Leaf litter and its nutrient contribution in the cacao agroforestry system
    • Authors: Julián Pérez-Flores; Alejandra Arias Pérez; Yesenia Primo Suárez; Vinicio Calderón Bolaina; Asunción López Quiroga
      Abstract: Cacao agroforestry systems (cacao-AFS) produce abundant litter. After decomposing, litter releases nutrients into the soil. The aim of this research was to estimate litter production and its nutrient content in 35- and 55-year-old cacao-AFS. The research was conducted in three cacao-AFS of each age, in Cardenas, Tabasco, México. Four traps per cacao-AFS were used to collect litter. Litter was collected every 15 days for one year. It was then fractioned into cacao leaves, shade tree leaves, petioles, branches and stems, and cacao flowers and fruits. To determine nutrient content of litter, samples were composited by age of cacao-AFS and by season of the year. Then chemical analysis was done in triplicate. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, orthogonal contrasts, and Student t and Duncan tests. Cacao-AFS produce litter all year. Thirty-five-year-old cacao-AFS produced more litter than 55-year-old cacao-AFS (2042 vs 1570 kg DM ha−1 year−1). Except for the shade tree leaf fraction (559.5 vs 642 kg DM ha−1), 35-year-old cacao-AFS were superior to 55-year-old cacao-AFS in all the other litter fractions. Cacao leaf fraction was the main source of litter in cacao-AFS of both ages. Neither age of cacao-AFS nor the season of the year affected N, K, Zn or S content in litter. Orthogonal contrasts indicated statistical differences between ages of cacao-AFS for P, Ca, and Fe content in litter. Both N–P–K–Ca–Mg contents in litter of 35-year-old cacao-AFS (1.2–0.4–1.2–1.7–0.4%) and in litter of 55-year-old cacao-AFS (1.1–0.6–1.2–1.4–0.4%) are enough to recover the nutrients extracted by the cacao crop.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0096-3
       
  • A 6-year longitudinal study on agrobiodiversity change in homegardens in
           Tabasco, México
    • Authors: A. A. Serrano-Ysunza; H. van der Wal; J. A. Gallardo-Cruz; D. E. Ramos-Muñoz; R. A. Vaca
      Abstract: Societal processes of rural change and globalization may change homegardens and their contribution to the conservation of agrobiodiversity, particularly of species occurring naturally in regional vegetation. The best way to determine if this occurs is through longitudinal studies. We conducted such a study, inventorying tree species in a sample of 38 homegardens in 2009, 2012 and 2015. The homegardens were located in the subregions of mountain slopes, fluvial plains and coastal plains in the tropical lowlands of Tabasco, Mexico. We analysed changes in species richness by geographic origin, species richness and species composition in each inventory. We identified 169 tree species in the three inventories, of which 74.6% were native or neotropical and 25.4% introduced. Of the 140 species recorded in 2009, 88% remained in 2015, whereas 12% had been replaced and nine additional species had arrived. Mean species richness increased between 2009 and 2015 (P = 0.03) and between 2012 and 2015 (P = 0.001). Increases resulted from increased mean neotropical (P = 0.01) and introduced (P = 0.01) species richness, and constant native species richness. Differences in species composition between the three subregions in 2009 persisted in 2012 and 2015 (P < 0.001 in all years). These results show how the highly dynamic character of homegardens combines with the renewal and persistence of their agrobiodiversity, and underpins the continued relevance of homegarden for agrobiodiversity conservation and livelihoods in tropical lowlands amidst rural change and globalization.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0094-5
       
 
 
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