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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2348 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2348 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Agroforestry Systems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.663
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 20  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-9680 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4366
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2348 journals]
  • Farmers’ reasoning behind the uptake of agroforestry practices: evidence
           from multiple case-studies across Europe
    • Authors: M. Rois-Díaz; N. Lovric; M. Lovric; N. Ferreiro-Domínguez; M. R. Mosquera-Losada; M. den Herder; A. Graves; J. H. N. Palma; J. A. Paulo; A. Pisanelli; J. Smith; G. Moreno; S. García; A. Varga; A. Pantera; J. Mirck; P. Burgess
      Pages: 811 - 828
      Abstract: Potential benefits and costs of agroforestry practices have been analysed by experts, but few studies have captured farmers’ perspectives on why agroforestry might be adopted on a European scale. This study provides answers to this question, through an analysis of 183 farmer interviews in 14 case study systems in eight European countries. The study systems included high natural and cultural value agroforestry systems, silvoarable systems, high value tree systems, and silvopasture systems, as well as systems where no agroforestry practices were occurring. A mixed method approach combining quantitative and qualitative approaches was taken throughout the interviews. Narrative thematic data analysis was performed. Data collection proceeded until no new themes emerged. Within a given case study, i.e. the different systems in different European regions, this sampling was performed both for farmers who practice agroforestry and farmers who did not. Results point to a great diversity of agroforestry practices, although many of the farmers are not aware of the term or concept of agroforestry, despite implementing the practice in their own farms. While only a few farmers mentioned eligibility for direct payments in the CAP as the main reason to remove trees from their land, to avoid the reduction of the funded area, the tradition in the family or the region, learning from others, and increasing the diversification of products play the most important role in adopting or not agroforestry systems.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0139-9
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • How local stakeholders perceive agroforestry systems: an Italian
    • Authors: Francesca Camilli; Andrea Pisanelli; Giovanna Seddaiu; Antonello Franca; Valerio Bondesan; Adolfo Rosati; Gerardo Marcos Moreno; Anastasia Pantera; John E. Hermansen; Paul J. Burgess
      Pages: 849 - 862
      Abstract: This paper reports the results of a study conducted in Italy, within the AGFORWARD (2014–2017) project, aimed at promoting innovative agroforestry practices in Europe. Agroforestry offers a means for maintaining food production whilst addressing some of the negative environmental effects of intensive agriculture. This study aims to elicit the positive and negative points of view and perceptions of local stakeholders in Italy in relation to three types of agroforestry systems. The Participatory Research and Network Development was implemented in three workshops conducted in Sardinia, Umbria, and Veneto regions, and applied adopting a common methodological protocol. Qualitative data were obtained using open discussions with stakeholders on key issues, challenges and innovations. Quantitative data were obtained from stakeholders completing questionnaires during the workshops. A statistical analysis was applied to elicit the differences in stakeholders’ positive and negative perceptions in relation to production, management, environment and socio-economy aspects. Although the participants in the study came from different geographical and socioeconomic contexts with varied educational and cultural backgrounds, the different professional groups (farmers, policy-makers and researchers) and the three workshops generally shared similar perceptions of the benefits and constraints. The effects of agroforestry on production and the environment were generally perceived as positive, whilst those related to management were generally negative. The process of bringing the groups together seemed to be an effective means for identifying the key research gaps that need to be addressed in order to promote the uptake and maintenance of agroforestry.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0127-0
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • Driving forces for agroforestry uptake in Mediterranean Europe:
           application of the analytic network process
    • Authors: Marko Lovrić; Mercedes Rois-Díaz; Michael den Herder; Andrea Pisanelli; Nataša Lovrić; Paul J. Burgess
      Pages: 863 - 876
      Abstract: The factors that determine the implementation of four alternative agroforestry practices or no agroforestry on a theoretical 200 ha farm in Mediterranean Europe were examined using an analytic network process (ANP) model. The four agroforestry practices considered were implementation of a form of (i) high natural and cultural value agroforestry, (ii) agroforestry with high value trees, and agroforestry for (iii) arable and (iv) livestock systems. The ANP model was developed in a participatory manner through a systematic series of quantitative questionnaires and workshops with agroforestry researchers. In general, all the Mediterranean agroforestry systems were associated with high benefits and opportunities, but also with high costs and high risks. The greatest benefits were attributed to high natural and cultural value agroforestry systems, which greatly contributed to the highest priority of this system. Overall ranking of priorities for the agroforestry management alternatives show robustness in the sensitivity analysis. The “no agroforestry” land use became the preferred option when costs were given a weighting of 0.50 or greater.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0202-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • Agroforestry systems of high nature and cultural value in Europe:
           provision of commercial goods and other ecosystem services
    • Authors: G. Moreno; S. Aviron; S. Berg; J. Crous-Duran; A. Franca; S. García de Jalón; T. Hartel; J. Mirck; A. Pantera; J. H. N. Palma; J. A. Paulo; G. A. Re; F. Sanna; C. Thenail; A. Varga; V. Viaud; P. J. Burgess
      Pages: 877 - 891
      Abstract: Land use systems that integrate woody vegetation with livestock and/or crops and are recognised for their biodiversity and cultural importance can be termed high nature and cultural value (HNCV) agroforestry. In this review, based on the literature and stakeholder knowledge, we describe the structure, components and management practices of ten contrasting HNCV agroforestry systems distributed across five European bioclimatic regions. We also compile and categorize the ecosystem services provided by these agroforestry systems, following the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services. HNCV agroforestry in Europe generally enhances biodiversity and regulating ecosystem services relative to conventional agriculture and forestry. These systems can reduce fire risk, compared to conventional forestry, and can increase carbon sequestration, moderate the microclimate, and reduce soil erosion and nutrient leaching compared to conventional agriculture. However, some of the evidence is location specific and a better geographical coverage is needed to generalize patterns at broader scales. Although some traditional practices and products have been abandoned, many of the studied systems continue to provide multiple woody and non-woody plant products and high-quality food from livestock and game. Some of the cultural value of these systems can also be captured through tourism and local events. However there remains a continual challenge for farmers, landowners and society to fully translate the positive social and environmental impacts of HNCV agroforestry into market prices for the products and services.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0126-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • Mediterranean cork oak wooded grasslands: synergies and trade-offs between
           plant diversity, pasture production and soil carbon
    • Authors: Giovanna Seddaiu; Simonetta Bagella; Antonio Pulina; Chiara Cappai; Lorenzo Salis; Ivo Rossetti; Roberto Lai; Pier Paolo Roggero
      Pages: 893 - 908
      Abstract: Mediterranean wooded grasslands that emerge from silvopastoral activities are multifunctional systems that result in high biodiversity and offer ecosystem services such as forage production and soil carbon sequestration. During 3 years, ten grazed wooded grassland fields were studied in the Berchidda–Monti long-term observatory, located in NE Sardinia, Italy, with the aim of exploring the synergies and trade-offs between biodiversity and selected ecosystem services. Positions below and outside the canopy of three cork oak trees in each field were randomly selected to compare seasonal pasture production, pasture utilization rate by animals, botanical composition, biodiversity indicators (Shannon index and plant species richness) and soil organic carbon. In autumn, dry matter production of pasture was similar in the two positions; in two winters out of three it was greater below the trees than outside, and in spring it was greater outside than below the trees. While plant species richness and Shannon index were not significantly influenced by the position, the overall wooded grassland plant species richness was 31% higher than that outside of the tree crown. The soil organic carbon content in the 0–40-cm soil layer was also higher below the trees. Our findings highlight that if the main purpose of the wooded grasslands is to provide forage for grazing animals rather than conserving and/or enhancing plant diversity and soil fertility, the presence of trees constrains the overall forage productivity, although the greater forage availability in winter under the trees can contribute to improve the seasonal distribution of forage production.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0225-7
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • Valonia oak agroforestry systems in Greece: an overview
    • Authors: Anastasia Pantera; Andreas Papadopoulos; Vasilios P. Papanastasis
      Pages: 921 - 931
      Abstract: Valonia oak agroforestry systems of Greece are Mediterranean systems of high natural and cultural value with distinct economic, environmental, social and historical characteristics. These systems can be silvopastoral or agrosilvopastoral, and have been used since ancient times for grazing, and acorn and wood harvesting. Acorn cup collection for use in tanning, which has been undertaken since at least the fifteenth century, was an important economic activity from the nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century contributing to the local economy and development. This overview describes the historical importance of valonia oak in Greece, and the present extent, structure, ecology, products and services of valonia oak agroforestry. The sustainability of such systems is being promoted through the sale of traditional and new products, eco- and agri-tourism, and engagement with local stakeholders.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0220-z
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • Agroforestry for high value tree systems in Europe
    • Authors: A. Pantera; P. J. Burgess; R. Mosquera Losada; G. Moreno; M. L. López-Díaz; N. Corroyer; J. McAdam; A. Rosati; A. M. Papadopoulos; A. Graves; A. Rigueiro Rodríguez; N. Ferreiro-Domínguez; J. L. Fernández Lorenzo; M. P. González-Hernández; V. P. Papanastasis; K. Mantzanas; P. Van Lerberghe; N. Malignier
      Pages: 945 - 959
      Abstract: Most farm-based agroforestry projects focus on the integration of trees on arable or livestock enterprises. This paper focuses on the integration of understorey crops and/or livestock within high value tree systems (e.g., apple orchards, olive groves, chestnut woodlands, and walnut plantations), and describes the components, structure, ecosystem services and economic value of ten case studies of this type of agroforestry across Europe. Although their ecological and socio-economic contexts vary, the systems share some common characteristics. The primary objective of the farmer is likely to remain the value of tree products like apples, olives, oranges, or nuts, or particularly high value timber. However there can still be production, environmental or economic benefits of integrating agricultural crops such as chickpeas and barley, or grazing an understorey grass crop with livestock. Three of the systems focused on the grazing of apple orchards with sheep in the UK and France. The introduction of sheep to apple orchards can minimise the need for mowing and provide an additional source of revenue. Throughout the Mediterranean, there is a need to improve the financial viability of olive groves. The case studies illustrate the possibility of intercropping traditional olive stands with chickpea in Greece, or the intercropping of wild asparagus in high density olive groves in Italy. Another system studied in Greece involves orange trees intercropped with chickpeas. Stands of chestnut trees in North-west Spain can provide feed for pigs when the fruit falls in November, and provide an excellent habitat for the commercial production of edible mushrooms. In Spain, in the production of high quality walnut trees using rotations of up to 50–60 years, there are options to establish a legume-based mixed pasture understorey and to introduce sheep to provide financial and environmental benefits.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0181-7
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • Nitrogen distribution as affected by stocking density in a combined
           production system of energy crops and free-range pigs
    • Authors: Uffe Jørgensen; Janni Thuesen; Jørgen Eriksen; Klaus Horsted; John E. Hermansen; Kristian Kristensen; Anne Grete Kongsted
      Pages: 987 - 999
      Abstract: Free-range pig production is typically associated with high risks of nitrogen (N) leaching due to the pigs excretory behaviour creating nitrogen ‘hotspots’ and rooting behaviour destroying the grass sward. This challenge is reinforced at high animal densities causing high nitrogen deposition. A combined production of pigs and perennial energy crops was hypothesized to benefit the environment because crops like miscanthus (Miscanthus), willow (Salix) and poplar (Populus) may persist despite pig rooting, take up nutrients and thereby minimise N-losses. Thus, the aim was to assess the risk of nitrate leaching by investigating the distribution of soil mineral N as influenced by stocking density in a system with zones of perennial energy crops and grass. For each of two seasons 36 growing pigs with an initial mean live weight of 55 kg (spring) and 48 kg (autumn), respectively, were separated into 6 paddocks of two stocking densities (117 and 367 m2 pig−1), respectively. Soil mineral N was measured in 0–25 and 25–75 cm depth at three occasions. N balances showed that N inputs exceeded N outputs by 626 and 185 kg N ha−1 for high and low stocking density. The pigs caused an uneven distribution of mineral N across the paddocks with highest contents in zones with willow & poplar. Stocking density had a significant effect on soil mineral N. Immediately after the second batch of pigs, average mineral N in the 0–75 cm soil layer was on average 227 and 83 kg N ha−1 at high and low stocking density, respectively. During winter period with no pigs, soil mineral N content in the 0–75 cm soil layer was reduced by almost 100 kg N ha−1 in paddocks with high stocking density against only 4 kg in paddocks with low stocking density. It is concluded that risk of elevated nitrate leaching compared to other cropping systems was low at the low stocking density, which therefore represents a promising pathway for a combined production of energy crops and free-range pigs.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0200-3
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • Presence of avian influenza risk birds in and around poultry free-range
           areas in relation to range vegetation and openness of surrounding
    • Authors: Monique Bestman; William de Jong; Jan-Paul Wagenaar; Thari Weerts
      Pages: 1001 - 1008
      Abstract: Free-range areas contribute to the welfare of poultry. Chickens are most likely to use these areas if there is sufficient cover by trees. However, wild birds in free-range areas may infect the chickens with avian influenza (AI). This study aimed to investigate the relation between the presence of AI risk birds and woody vegetation within the range areas as well as in the landscape surrounding the range areas. During two seasons all wild birds were counted in the free-range areas of 11 poultry farms and their immediate surroundings. More high-risk birds were observed in free-range areas with less than 5% woody cover, compared to free-range areas with more woody cover. Furthermore, more high-risk birds were observed in the surroundings of free-range areas in open landscapes, compared to half-open landscapes. As for low-risk birds, no relation was found between woody cover or openness of the landscape and the presence of these birds in free-range areas or surroundings. However, interpretation of the results was hampered by the incomplete factorial design, which did not allow to differentiate between the effect of woody cover within the range area and openness of the surrounding landscape. The results of this pilot study need to be confirmed with further experimental research on the relation between the presence of AI risk birds and woody vegetation in and around poultry free-range areas.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0117-2
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • A comparison of the performance of three sward mixtures sown under trees
           in a silvopoultry system in the UK
    • Authors: Sally Westaway; Charlotte Kling; Jo Smith
      Pages: 1009 - 1018
      Abstract: Establishment of trees in the range as part of a silvopoultry system is considered to improve poultry welfare as well as provide wider environmental benefits. However one issue with these systems is a lack of understorey vegetation. This paper outlines the results of a trial on an organic poultry unit in southern England. The trial aimed to identify an understorey sward mixture able to establish and persist in a commercial poultry unit. Three sward mixtures (a standard grass and legume mix, a grass only mix, and a diverse sward mix) were sown in replicated 15 year old mixed broadleaf plots and compared with a natural regeneration control. Chickens were excluded for the first 3 months to allow sward establishment and then introduced for a 6 week period at two densities. Growth and establishment of the sward mixes along with the presence and abundance of unsown plants and unpalatable weeds was assessed. All mixtures established well under trees and didn’t show significant differences in cover after 6 weeks. Sward cover increased after 4 weeks suggesting minimum establishment period and higher weed suppression potential after this. Sowing any of the sward mixtures reduced the abundance of unpalatable weeds compared to the control. The commercially available standard sward mixture performed well compared to the other mixes, showing significantly higher biomass production by week six. Following the introduction of chickens, the sward mixtures survived only in the block with lower chicken pressure, measured by distance from house. Results from this trial demonstrate that establishing a sward under trees is possible but that the challenge is to maintain the sward in the presence of chickens. Excluding chickens initially to aid establishment and then optimising chicken pressure appears to be the key to maintaining a sward.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0142-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • Influence of latitude on the light availability for intercrops in an
           agroforestry alley-cropping system
    • Authors: Christian Dupraz; Céline Blitz-Frayret; Isabelle Lecomte; Quentin Molto; Francesco Reyes; Marie Gosme
      Pages: 1019 - 1033
      Abstract: Light competition by trees is often regarded as a major limiting factor for crops in alley-cropping agroforestry. Northern latitude farmers are usually reluctant to adopt agroforestry as they fear that light competition will be fiercer in their conditions. We questioned the light availability for crops in alley-cropping at different latitudes from the tropic circle to the polar circle with a process-based 3D model of alley-cropping agroforestry. Two tree densities and two tree line orientations were considered. The effect of the latitude was evaluated with same-sized trees. The relative irradiance of the crops was computed for the whole year or at specific times of the year when crops need more light. The heterogeneity of crop irradiance across the alley was also computed. Surprisingly, crop relative irradiance of summer crops at high latitudes is high, at odds with farmers’ fears. Best designs were highlighted for improving the crop irradiance: North–South tree lines are recommended at high latitudes and East–West tree lines at low latitudes. At medium latitudes, North–South tree lines should be preferred to achieve an homogeneous irradiance of the crop in the alley. If we assume that trees at northern latitudes grow slower when compared to southern latitudes, then alley-cropping agroforestry is highly advisable even at high latitudes with summer crops.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0214-x
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • Land use change and soil carbon pools: evidence from a long-term
           silvopastoral experiment
    • Authors: Dario A. Fornara; Rodrigo Olave; Paul Burgess; Aude Delmer; Matthew Upson; Jim McAdam
      Pages: 1035 - 1046
      Abstract: Multi-functional silvopastoral systems provide a wide range of services to human society including the regulation of nutrients and water in soils and the sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Although silvopastoral systems significantly contribute to enhance aboveground carbon (C) sequestration (e.g. C accumulation in woody plant biomass), their long-term effects on soil C pools are less clear. In this study we performed soil physical fractionation analyses to quantify the C pool of different aggregate fractions across three land use types including (1) silvopastoral system with ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior L.), (2) planted woodland with ash trees, and (3) permanent grassland, which were established in 1989 at Loughgall, Northern Ireland, UK. Our results show that 26 years after the conversion of permanent grassland to either silvopastoral or woodland systems, soil C (and N) stocks (0–20 cm depth) did not significantly change between the three land use types. We found, however, that permanent grassland soils were associated with significantly higher C pools (g C kg−1 soil; P < 0.03) of the large macro-aggregate fraction (> 2 mm) whereas soil C pools of the micro-aggregate (53–250 μm) and silt and clay (< 53 μm) fractions were significantly higher in the silvopastoral and woodland systems (P < 0.05). A key finding of this study is that while tree planting on permanent grassland may not contribute to greater soil C stocks it may, in the long-term, increase the C pool of more stable (recalcitrant) soil micro-aggregate and silt and clay fractions, which could be more resilient to environmental change.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0124-3
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • Integrating belowground carbon dynamics into Yield-SAFE, a parameter
           sparse agroforestry model
    • Authors: J. H. N. Palma; J. Crous-Duran; A. R. Graves; S. Garcia de Jalon; M. Upson; T. S. Oliveira; J. A. Paulo; N. Ferreiro-Domínguez; G. Moreno; P. J. Burgess
      Pages: 1047 - 1057
      Abstract: Agroforestry combines perennial woody elements (e.g. trees) with an agricultural understory (e.g. wheat, pasture) which can also potentially be used by a livestock component. In recent decades, modern agroforestry systems have been proposed at European level as land use alternatives for conventional agricultural systems. The potential range of benefits that modern agroforestry systems can provide includes farm product diversification (food and timber), soil and biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration, both in woody biomass and the soil. Whilst typically these include benefits such as food and timber provision, potentially, there are benefits in the form of carbon sequestration, both in woody biomass and in the soil. Quantifying the effect of agroforestry systems on soil carbon is important because it is one means by which atmospheric carbon can be sequestered in order to reduce global warming. However, experimental systems that can combine the different alternative features of agroforestry systems are difficult to implement and long-term. For this reason, models are needed to explore these alternatives, in order to determine what benefits different combinations of trees and understory might provide in agroforestry systems. This paper describes the integration of the widely used soil carbon model RothC, a model simulating soil organic carbon turnover, into Yield-SAFE, a parameter sparse model to estimate aboveground biomass in agroforestry systems. The improvement of the Yield-SAFE model focused on the estimation of input plant material into soil (i.e. leaf fall and root mortality) while maintaining the original aspiration for a simple conceptualization of agroforestry modeling, but allowing to feed inputs to a soil carbon module based on RothC. Validation simulations show that the combined model gives predictions consistent with observed data for both SOC dynamics and tree leaf fall. Two case study systems are examined: a cork oak system in South Portugal and a poplar system in the UK, in current and future climate.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0123-4
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • Modelling and valuing the environmental impacts of arable, forestry and
           agroforestry systems: a case study
    • Authors: Silvestre García de Jalón; Anil Graves; Joao H. N. Palma; Adrian Williams; Matt Upson; Paul J. Burgess
      Pages: 1059 - 1073
      Abstract: The use of land for intensive arable production in Europe is associated with a range of externalities that typically impose costs on third parties. The introduction of trees in arable systems can potentially be used to reduce these costs. This paper assesses the profitability and environmental externalities of a silvoarable agroforestry system, and compares this with the profitability and environmental externalities from an arable system and a forestry system. A silvoarable experimental plot of poplar trees planted in 1992 in Bedfordshire, Eastern England, was used as a case study. The Yield-SAFE model was used to simulate the growth and yields of the silvoarable, arable, and forestry land uses along with the associated environmental externalities, including carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen and phosphorus surplus, and soil erosion losses by water. The Farm-SAFE model was then used to quantify the monetary value of these effects. The study assesses both the financial profitability from a farmer perspective and the economic benefit from a societal perspective. The arable option was the most financially profitable system followed by the silvoarable system and forestry. However, when the environmental externalities were included, silvoarable agroforestry provided the greatest benefit. This suggests that the appropriate integration of trees in arable land can provide greater well-being benefits to society overall, than arable farming without trees, or forestry systems on their own.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-017-0128-z
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • Understanding agroforestry practices in Europe through landscape features
           policy promotion
    • Authors: J. J. Santiago-Freijanes; A. Rigueiro-Rodríguez; J. A. Aldrey; G. Moreno; M. den Herder; Paul Burgess; M. R. Mosquera-Losada
      Pages: 1105 - 1115
      Abstract: Agroforestry understood as the combination of a woody component (forest tree, shrub, fruit tree) with an agricultural use of the understory is not clearly identified as such by the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Despite the protection and promotion of the woody component in different parts of the CAP political text, the identification of agroforestry is not clear, although it can be recognised in the description of some landscape features, such as isolated trees and different types of hedgerows. Moreover, it is important to identify the extent of such woody components promoted by the CAP in agricultural lands to validate the impact of current and future measures. This paper aims at the characterisation of the current extent of landscape features all over Europe by analysing the Rural Development Program (RDP) measures within the CAP 2007–2013 and 2014–2020 that promote said features in Europe to increase the ecosystem service delivery. Isolated trees and hedgerows are protected unsatisfactorily through the Cross-compliance and Greening of CAP Pillar I. In contrast, Agri-environment measures associated to Pillar II are used in most European countries to protect both isolated trees and hedgerows and to promote them as boundary elements. The promotion of hedgerows and isolated trees mainly related to silvoarable and silvopastoral agroforestry practices is aimed at the promotion of the ecosystem services (such as water protection and biodiversity) and improvement in resilience (such as adaptation to climate change) they provide; therefore, the agroforestry environment benefits are indeed recognised. Landscape features comprising woody perennials should be associated with agroforestry when present in arable and permanent grasslands.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0212-z
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2018)
  • Agroforestry education for high school agriculture science: an evaluation
           of novel content adoption following educator professional development
    • Authors: Hannah Hemmelgarn; Michael Gold; Anna Ball; Hank Stelzer
      Abstract: High school agriculture science programs are recognized as meaningful arenas to reach young agriculture professionals as they gain a foundational understanding of their field. Agroforestry content is largely lacking in high school agriculture science classrooms, despite its relevance to modern advancements in agricultural sustainability for economic, environmental, and social resilience. Due to the contextual nature of content adoption by agricultural educators, the curriculum implementation process for novel content is dependent on an understanding of teacher learning, teacher self-efficacy, professional development, and curriculum modification. This collective case study of agroforestry professional development for and content adoption among participating Missouri high school agricultural educators provides insight into the potential for the integration of agroforestry content in high school agriculture programs using a mixed methods approach. While substantial growth in expected classroom hours dedicated to agroforestry resulted from these professional development events, identified complexities of the teacher and student learning context necessitate alternative approaches to engage teachers and students in previously unfamiliar agroforestry content. The importance of teacher-learning support networks and experiential learning in curriculum and professional development emerged as major themes for effective agroforestry content implementation.
      PubDate: 2018-08-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0278-7
  • Intensification of Ethiopian coffee agroforestry drives impoverishment of
           the Arabica coffee flower visiting bee and fly communities
    • Authors: L. Geeraert; R. Aerts; K. Jordaens; I. Dox; S. Wellens; M. Couri; G. Berecha; O. Honnay
      Abstract: Intensively managed shade coffee plantations are expanding in SW Ethiopia, at the cost of the more natural coffee agroforestry systems. Here, we investigated consequences for the potential pollinator community of Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in its natural range. We surveyed coffee flower visitors at six different sites in the Jimma region in SW Ethiopia, and compared species richness and abundance between semi-natural coffee forests and shaded coffee plantations. Overall, we found six bee (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) and twenty fly species (Diptera: Brachycera) visiting C. arabica flowers. Species richness and overall abundance of flower visitors was significantly higher in the semi-natural forests compared to the plantations. A significantly higher abundance of non-Apis bees and hoverflies (Syrphidae) visiting C. arabica flowers was observed in the semi-natural forest plots, but numbers for other Diptera and honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) did not differ significantly between the agroforestry systems. Our results show an impoverishment of the coffee flower visiting insect community in response to agricultural intensification. This suggests a functional shift of the coffee pollinator community and, hence, may influence the stability of the provided pollination ecosystem services and coffee yield in the long term. We did, however, not quantify pollination services in this study.
      PubDate: 2018-08-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0280-0
  • Reducing soil compaction after thinning work in agroforestry plantations
    • Authors: Raffaele Spinelli; Natascia Magagnotti; Eugenio Cavallo; Giorgio Capello; Marcella Biddoccu
      Abstract: Afforestation of marginal farmland with fast-growing tree species is a cost-effective way to produce wood fiber for industrial and energy use. The final harvest is often performed with terrain chipping, in order achieve high productivity and minimum-cost supply. Several machine manufacturers have developed new chipper models, specifically designed for this practice in agroforestry plantations. Soil impacts, particularly soil compaction, represent a concern in such practice. This study evaluated the impact of terrain chipping work on soil compaction in agroforestry plantations. This study tested two different options for the chipper, and namely: a new all-road chipper specifically designed for agroforestry plantations (evaluated under two tire-pressure configurations) and capable of both cross-country and road traffic, and a high-mobility chipper truck. In contrast, one option was tested for the chip shuttle, which consisted in a farm tractor equipped with a two-axle trailer. The four treatments were tested on three different sites, representing the most common soil conditions encountered in the new agroforestry plantations. Soil texture ranged from loam to sandy loam. The occurrence of soil compaction in the upper 30 cm of the soil was evaluated with two different methods: bulk density determination and penetration resistance sampling. Measurements were conducted in the machine tracks after a single pass. The two methods seemed to give contradictory results, especially in two of the three test sites. In general bulk density seemed more sensitive to changes than penetration resistance after a single passage. Bulk density measurements showed that the all-road chipper at low tire pressure and the chipper truck caused soil compaction at almost all sites. In contrast, the all-road chipper at standard tire pressure and the chip shuttle were much gentler on the soil. The limited increments found in this study are likely dependant on a relatively high soil density before traffic. The higher impact of the all-road chipper after reducing tire pressure is contrary to expectations, probably due to the use of relatively stiff tires that may deny the benefits of deflation. This study indicates that wellorganized terrain chipping may not cause such high soil compaction levels as to jeopardize tree root development and growth, despite the heavy weight of the equipment used for this task. In that regard, the specially-designed all-road chipper performs better than the chipper truck.
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0279-6
  • Bird species richness in artificial plantations and natural forests in a
           North African agroforestry system: assessment and implications
    • Authors: S. Hanane; S. I. Cherkaoui; N. Magri; M. Yassin
      Abstract: Watershed tree plantations in Morocco are expanding under the National Watershed Management Plan and thus their value for native fauna and agroforestry system dynamics requires investigation. Using generalized linear mixed models, we assessed the relative value of artificial habitats—olive and eucalypt plantations—over four seasonal periods, by comparing their avifauna richness to those of natural habitats—Thuya forests. Bird species richness depended on both habitat type and season. Our results showed that natural Thuya forests supported higher bird diversity than both olive and eucalypt plantations. Moreover, bird diversity was higher in eucalyptus plantations compared to olive plantations during the winter period, while the opposite trend was observed in autumn. A principal component analysis also revealed a significant positive effect of shrub layer complexity (PC1) in all seasons, habitat artificiality (PC3) in spring, breeding season, and autumn, and tree size (PC2) during winter and autumn. Overall, our findings stress that, in our study area, artificial plantations do not have the same ecological value as the original habitat. We therefore advise restoring native forests rather than reforesting eucalypt species. Research programs should continue in order to assess the impact of conservation actions on biodiversity and determine how this agroforestry system would change under the increasingly detrimental effects of drought.
      PubDate: 2018-08-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0281-z
  • Agroforestry systems improve soil physical quality in northwestern
           Colombian Amazon
    • Authors: Maurício Roberto Cherubin; Juan Pablo Chavarro-Bermeo; Adriana Marcela Silva-Olaya
      Abstract: Land use change is a global threat to soil quality and related ecosystem services. In Colombian Amazon, forest-cleared lands are predominantly covered by low-input and degraded pastures; but gradually, agroforestry systems (AFS) have been introduced as a sustainable alternative for soil reclamation and increasing land productivity. Although soil physical quality changes can be monitored by multiple indicators, the Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) method has emerged as a straightforward, reliable and low-cost tool for assessing and monitoring the impacts of land uses and management agricultural practices on soil quality in different parts of the world. However, the VESS has never been tested in AFS and in Colombian soils. Thus, we conducted a pioneering assessment of soil physical quality in six typical land uses (i.e., forest, pasture and four AFS) using the VESS method in northwestern Colombian Amazon. The VESS assessment takes account characteristics of soil aggregate and biological activity (roots and macrofauna) to assign scores ranging from Sq 1 (good) to Sq 5 (poor physical quality). Moreover, quantitative soil indicators (i.e., bulk density, soil resistance to penetration, soil moisture and soil organic C) were evaluated to correlate with VESS scores. Soil physical changes induced by land use change were efficiently detected by VESS scores. The VESS scores were significantly correlated with key indicators of soil quality. Conversion from Amazon forest to low-input pasture intensively degraded soil physical quality (overall Sq 1.3 vs Sq 4.0). Nevertheless, the adoption of AFS improves soil physical quality (overall Sq 3.2, 2.8, 2.4 and 2.2) in areas previously occupied with pasture, indicating greater potential of soil reclamation under more diversified systems. This study shows that adopting AFS can be a strategy for recovering soil quality and reincorporating degraded lands into productive and sustainable production systems in Amazon regions, and the VESS method can be an useful tool to monitoring soil physical changes in these areas.
      PubDate: 2018-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-018-0282-y
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