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Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 46)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 8)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 5)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 28)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 17)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 7)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.289, h-index: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.651, h-index: 22)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.698, h-index: 38)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 40)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.857, h-index: 31)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.793, h-index: 83)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.041, h-index: 53)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 15)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.519, h-index: 14)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.781, h-index: 52)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 8)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 27)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 188, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 45)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 17)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.542, h-index: 7)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 14)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 5)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 11)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 22)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 12)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.5, h-index: 29)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.319, h-index: 33)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 13)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 55)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 27)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 10)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 26)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 26)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 46)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 53)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 22)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.601, h-index: 55)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 3)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 23)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 32)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 14)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 60)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.413, h-index: 27)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 46)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 14)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 34)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 58)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 85)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 57)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.161, h-index: 4)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 14)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.173, h-index: 8)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.268, h-index: 9)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.111, h-index: 61)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 8)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 20)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.204, h-index: 6)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 57)
Eurasian Soil Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 10)
EURO J. of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EURO J. on Computational Optimization     Hybrid Journal  
EURO J. on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal  
Europaisches J. fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal  
European Actuarial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 37)
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 12)
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 62)
European Biophysics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 53)
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 51)
European Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 49)
European J. for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European J. for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 2)
European J. of Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 17)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.044, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 69)
European J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European J. of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 25)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.946, h-index: 60)
European J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 25)

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Journal Cover European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
   [10 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1619-7089 - ISSN (Online) 1619-7070
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 1.724]   [H-I: 80]
  • Athanasios D. Gouliamos, John A. Andreou and Paris A. Kosmidis (Eds):
           Imaging in Clinical Oncology
    • PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • 177 Lu-EDTMP for palliation of pain from bone metastases in patients with
           prostate and breast cancer: a phase II study
    • Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 177Lu-EDTMP for pain palliation in patients with bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate and breast cancer. The secondary objective was to compare low-dose and high-dose 177Lu-EDTMP in bone pain palliation. Methods Included in the study were 44 patients with documented breast carcinoma (12 patients; age 47 ± 13 years) or castration-resistant prostate carcinoma (32 patients; age 66 ± 9 years) and skeletal metastases. Patients were randomized into two equal groups treated with 177Lu-EDTMP intravenously at a dose of 1,295 MBq (group A) or 2,590 MBq (group B). Pain palliation was evaluated using a visual analogue score (VAS), analgesic score (AS) and Karnofsky performance score (KPS) up to 16 weeks. Toxicity was assessed in terms of haematological and renal parameters. Results The overall response rate (in all 44 patients) was 86 %. Complete, partial and minimal responses were seen in 6 patients (13 %), 21 patients (48 %) and 11 patients (25 %), respectively. A favourable response was seen in 27 patients (84 %) with prostate cancer and in 11 patients (92 %) with breast cancer. There was a progressive decrease in the VAS from baseline up to 4 weeks (p < 0.05). Also, AS decreased significantly from 1.8 ± 0.7 to 1.2 ± 0.9 (p < 0.0001). There was an improvement in quality of life of the patients as reflected by an increase in mean KPS from 56 ± 5 to 75 ± 7 (p < 0.0001). The overall response rate in group A was 77 % compared to 95 % in group B (p = 0.188). There was a significant decrease in VAS and AS accompanied by an increase in KPS in both groups. Nonserious haematological toxicity (grade I/II) was observed in 15 patients (34 %) and serious toxicity (grade III/IV) occurred in 10 patients (23 %). There was no statistically significant difference in haematological toxicity between the groups. Conclusion 177Lu-EDTMP was found to be a safe and effective radiopharmaceutical for bone pain palliation in patients with metastatic prostate and breast carcinoma. There were no differences in efficacy or toxicity between patients receiving low-dose and high-dose 177Lu-EDTMP.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • The difference between medicine and magic is that magicians know what they
           are doing
    • PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Incidental colonic focal FDG uptake on PET/CT: can the maximum
           standardized uptake value (SUV max ) guide us in the timing of
    • Abstract: Purpose In patients undergoing 18F-FDG PET/CT, incidental colonic focal lesions can be indicative of inflammatory, premalignant or malignant lesions. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of these lesions, representing the FDG uptake intensity, might be helpful in differentiating malignant from benign lesions, and thereby be helpful in determining the urgency of colonoscopy. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence and underlying pathology of incidental PET-positive colonic lesions in a large cohort of patients, and to determine the usefulness of the SUVmax in differentiating benign from malignant pathology. Methods The electronic records of all patients who underwent FDG PET/CT from January 2010 to March 2013 in our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The main indications for PET/CT were: characterization of an indeterminate mass on radiological imaging, suspicion or staging of malignancy, and suspicion of inflammation. In patients with incidental focal FDG uptake in the large bowel, data regarding subsequent colonoscopy were retrieved, if performed within 120 days. The final diagnosis was defined using colonoscopy findings, combined with additional histopathological assessment of the lesion, if applicable. Results Of 7,318 patients analysed, 359 (5 %) had 404 foci of unexpected colonic FDG uptake. In 242 of these 404 lesions (60 %), colonoscopy follow-up data were available. Final diagnoses were: adenocarcinoma in 25 (10 %), adenoma in 90 (37 %), and benign in 127 (53 %). The median [IQR] SUVmax was significantly higher in adenocarcinoma (16.6 [12 – 20.8]) than in benign lesions (8.2 [5.9 – 10.1]; p < 0.0001), non-advanced adenoma (8.3 [6.1 – 10.5]; p < 0.0001) and advanced adenoma (9.7 [7.2 – 12.6]; p < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve of SUVmax for malignant versus nonmalignant lesions had an area under the curve of 0.868 (SD ± 0.038), the optimal cut-off value being 11.4 (sensitivity 80 %, specificity 82 %, positive predictive value 34 %, negative predictive value 98 %). Conclusion In these patients with incidental colonic focal activity undergoing PET/CT (the largest series published to date), malignancies had significantly higher SUVmax values than all other types of lesions. However, SUVmax could not distinguish between benign lesions and adenomas. In conclusion, all incidental findings in the colon should be further evaluated and lesions with SUVmax ≥11.4 should be evaluated without delay.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Liver SUV versus stage in Hodgkin’s lymphoma: the total amount of
           uptake may play a role in the inverse relationship
    • PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Diagnostic performance of FDG PET/CT to detect subclinical HNSCC
           recurrence 6 months after the end of treatment
    • Abstract: Purpose Posttreatment follow-up for the recurrence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a diagnostic challenge. Tissue distortion from radiation and surgery can obscure early detection of recurrence by conventional follow-up approaches such as physical examination or conventional imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT is widely validated for the diagnosis of suspected recurrence. Moreover, we have shown in a previous prospective study the high effectiveness of FDG PET/CT in the assessment of subclinical recurrence 12 months after treatment. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an earlier FDG PET/CT, at 6 months after the end of treatment. Methods All patients treated for histologically proven HNSCC from April 2009 to May 2012 at the University Hospital of Brest who did not show any findings suggestive of recurrence at 6 months of their usual follow-up underwent an FDG PET/CT examination. FDG PET/CT findings were correlated with histopathology or imaging follow-up. Results The study included 116 patients. FDG PET/CT examinations were performed within a mean period ± SD of 5.6 ± 1.8 months after treatment. FDG PET/CT examinations exhibited abnormal FDG uptake in 34 patients and found no suspected recurrence in 82 cases. Of these 82 FDG PET/CT considered as negative, only 1 had a recurrence. Among the 34 positive FDG PET/CT, 22 relapsed whereas 12 did not show evidence of recurrence. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET/CT in this study for the diagnosis of occult HNSCC recurrence were 96 (22/23) and 87 % (81/93), respectively. The positive predictive value was 65 % (22/34). The negative predictive value was 99 % (81/82). The overall accuracy was 89 % (103/116). Of the 116 patients, FDG PET/CT highlighted 22 (19 %) subclinical recurrences. Conclusion Our study showed the high effectiveness of FDG PET/CT in the assessment of subclinical HNSCC recurrence 6 months after completion of treatment. These results confirmed that FDG PET/CT is more accurate than conventional follow-up physical examination alone in the assessment of recurrence after previous curative treatment for HNSCC, as we previously demonstrated in patients clinically asymptomatic at 12 months.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Accuracy of F-DOPA PET and perfusion-MRI for differentiating radionecrotic
           from progressive brain metastases after radiosurgery
    • Abstract: Purpose We assessed the performance of 6-[18F]-fluoro-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (F-DOPA) PET for differentiating radionecrosis (RN) from tumour progression (PD) in a population of patients with brain metastases, treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. The accuracy of F-DOPA PET was compared with that of perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (perfusion-MR). Methods In 42 patients with a total of 50 brain metastases from various primaries F-DOPA PET/CT was performed because of suspected radiological progression at the site of previously irradiated brain metastasis. Several semiquantitative PET parameters were recorded, and their diagnostic accuracy was compared by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The diagnosis was established by either surgery or follow-up. A comparison was made between F-DOPA PET and perfusion-MR sequences acquired no more than 3 weeks apart. Results Definitive outcome was available in 46 of the 50 lesions (20 PD, 26 RN). Of the 46 lesions, 11 were surgically excised while in the remaining 35 lesions the diagnosis was established by radiological and clinical criteria. The best diagnostic performance was obtained using the semiquantitative PET parameter maximum lesion to maximum background uptake ratio (SUVLmax/Bkgrmax). With a cut-off value of 1.59, a sensitivity of 90 % and a specificity of 92.3 % were achieved in differentiating RN from PD lesions (accuracy 91.3 %). Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) derived from perfusion-MR was available for comparison in 37 of the 46 metastases. Overall accuracy of rCBV was lower than that of all semiquantitative PET parameters under study. The best differentiating rCBV cut-off value was 2.14; this yielded a sensitivity of 86.7 % and a specificity of 68.2 % (accuracy 75.6 %). Conclusion F-DOPA PET is a highly accurate tool for differentiating RN from PD brain metastases after stereotactic radiosurgery. In this specific setting, F-DOPA PET seems to perform better than perfusion-MR.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Ethnic comparison of pharmacokinetics of 18 F-florbetaben, a PET tracer
           for beta-amyloid imaging, in healthy Caucasian and Japanese subjects
    • Abstract: Purpose 18F-Florbetaben is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer indicated for imaging cerebral beta-amyloid deposition in adult patients with cognitive impairment who are being evaluated for Alzheimer’s disease and other causes of cognitive decline. The present study examined ethnic comparability of the plasma pharmacokinetics, which is the input to the brain, between Caucasian and Japanese subjects. Methods Two identical phase I trials were performed in 18 German and 18 Japanese healthy volunteers to evaluate the plasma pharmacokinetics of a single dose of 300 MBq 18F-florbetaben, either of low (≤5 μg, LD) or high (50–55 μg, HD) mass dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated based on the total 18F radioactivity measurements in plasma followed by metabolite analysis using radio-HPLC. Results The pharmacokinetics of 18F-florbetaben was characterized by a rapid elimination from plasma. The dose-normalized areas under the curve of 18F-florbetaben in plasma as an indicator of the input to the brain were comparable between Germans (LD: 0.38 min/l, HD: 0.55 min/l) and Japanese (LD: 0.35 min/l, HD: 0.45 min/l) suggesting ethnic similarity, and the mass dose effect was minimal. A polar metabolite fraction was the main radiolabelled degradation product in plasma and was also similar between the doses and the ethnic groups. Conclusion Absence of a difference in the pharmacokinetics of 18F-florbetaben in Germans and Japanese has warranted further global development of the PET imaging agent.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy in small cell carcinoma: from
           bench to bedside
    • Abstract: Purpose Small cell cancers (SmCC), whether pulmonary (SCLC) or extrapulmonary, have a poor prognosis unless localised at diagnosis. Given a proportion of these cancers express somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2), we aimed to investigate the efficacy of targeted peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT). Methods In this preclinical study, we used a SCLC xenograft mouse model with high expression of SSTR2 to investigate the effect of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with chemotherapy compared to either alone. We subsequently explored the clinical utility in a patient with SmCC with high SSTR expression treated with PRCRT. Results Robust expression of SSTR2 in NCI-H69 SCLC xenografts was documented by 68Ga-DOTA-octreotate (GaTate) (tumour to background uptake ratio = 35). The combination of PRRT using 177Lu-DOTA-octreotate (LuTate) with carboplatin/etoposide (C/E) chemotherapy was more effective than either LuTate or C/E alone for regression of the NCI-H69 model (p value < 0.05). PRCRT was associated with significantly prolonged survival versus PRRT (p value = 0.0001) or chemotherapy alone (p value = 0.0058). In the subsequent case study, a patient with relapsed SmCC with high SSTR2 expression on GaTate PET underwent PRCRT with radiosensitising etoposide with evidence of a complete metabolic response for 4 months. Conclusion Given the limited treatment options in this setting, PRCRT is a promising therapeutic option for SSTR2-expressing SmCC.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT provides accurate tumour extent in patients with
           extraadrenal paraganglioma compared to 123 I-MIBG SPECT/CT
    • Abstract: Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of 123I-MIBG SPECT/CT with that of 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT for staging extraadrenal paragangliomas (PGL) using both functional and anatomical images (i.e. combined cross-sectional imaging) as the reference standards. Methods The study included three men and seven women (age range 26 to 73 years) with anatomical and/or histologically proven disease. Three patients had either metastatic head and neck PGL (HNPGL) or multifocal extraadrenal PGL, and seven patients had nonmetastatic extraadrenal disease. Comparative evaluation included morphological imaging with CT, functional imaging with 68Ga-DOTATOC PET, and 123I-MIBG imaging. The imaging results were analysed on a per-patient and on a per-lesion basis. Results On a per-patient basis, the detection rate of 68Ga-DOTATOC PET was 100 %, whereas that of planar 123I-MIBG imaging was 10.0 % and with SPECT/CT 20.0 % for both nonmetastatic and metastatic/multifocal extraadrenal PGL. On a per-lesion basis, the overall sensitivity of 68Ga-DOTATOC PET was 100 % (McNemar p < 0.5), that of planar 123I-MIBG imaging was 3.4 % (McNemar p < 0.001) and that of SPECT/CT was 6.9 % (McNemar p < 0.001). Both 68Ga-DOTATOC PET and anatomical imaging identified 27 lesions. Planar 123I-MIBG imaging identified only one lesion, and SPECT/CT two lesions. Two additional lesions were detected by 68Ga-DOTATOC PET but not by either 123I-MIBG or CT imaging. Conclusion Our analysis in this patient cohort indicated that 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT is superior to 123I-MIBG SPECT/CT, particularly in head and neck and bone lesions, and provides valuable information for staging extraadrenal PGL, particularly in patients with surgically inoperable tumours or multifocal/malignant disease.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Diagnostic accuracy of whole-body PET/MRI and whole-body PET/CT for TNM
           staging in oncology
    • Abstract: Purpose In various tumours PET/CT with [18F]FDG is widely accepted as the diagnostic standard of care. The purpose of this study was to compare a dedicated [18F]FDG PET/MRI protocol with [18F]FDG PET/CT for TNM staging in a cohort of oncological patients. Methods A dedicated [18F]FDG PET/MRI protocol was performed in 73 consecutive patients (mean age of 59 years, range 21 – 85 years) with different histologically confirmed solid primary malignant tumours after a routine clinical FDG PET/CT scan (60 min after injection of 295 ± 45 MBq [18F]FDG). TNM staging according to the 7th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual was performed by two readers in separate sessions for PET/CT and PET/MRI images. Assessment of the primary tumour and nodal and distant metastases with FDG PET/CT and FDG PET/MRI was based on qualitative and quantitative analyses. Histopathology, and radiological and clinical follow-up served as the standards of reference. A McNemar test was performed to evaluate the differences in diagnostic performance between the imaging procedures. Results From FDG PET/CT and FDG PET/MRI T stage was correctly determined in 22 (82 %) and 20 (74 %) of 27 patients, N stage in 55 (82 %) and 56 (84 %) of 67 patients, and M stage in 32 (76 %) and 35 (83 %) of 42 patients, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy for lymph node metastases were 65 %, 94 %, 79 %, 89 % and 87 % for PET/CT, and 63 %, 94 %, 80 %, 87 % and 85 % for PET/MRI. The respective values for the detection of distant metastases were 50 %, 82 %, 40 %, 88 % and 76 % for PET/CT, and 50 %, 91 %, 57 %, 89 % and 83 % for PET/MRI. Differences between the two imaging modalities were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion According to our results, FDG PET/CT and FDG PET/MRI are of equal diagnostic accuracy for TNM staging in patients with solid tumours.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Cristina Nanni, Stefano Fanti and Lucia Zanoni (eds): Radiology for PET/CT
    • PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Reply to comments by Laffon et al.: Liver SUV versus stage in
           Hodgkin’s lymphoma: the total amount of uptake may play a role in
           the inverse relationship
    • PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • In vivo visualization of prostate-specific membrane antigen in
    • PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Non-small-cell lung cancer resectability: diagnostic value of PET/MR
    • Abstract: Purpose To assess the diagnostic performance of PET/MR in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods Fifty consecutive consenting patients who underwent routine 18F-FDG PET/CT for potentially radically treatable lung cancer following a staging CT scan were recruited for PET/MR imaging on the same day. Two experienced readers, unaware of the results with the other modalities, interpreted the PET/MR images independently. Discordances were resolved in consensus. PET/MR TNM staging was compared to surgical staging from thoracotomy as the reference standard in 33 patients. In the remaining 17 nonsurgical patients, TNM was determined based on histology from biopsy, imaging results (CT and PET/CT) and follow-up. ROC curve analysis was used to assess accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the PET/MR in assessing the surgical resectability of primary tumour. The kappa statistic was used to assess interobserver agreement in the PET/MR TNM staging. Two different readers, without knowledge of the PET/MR findings, subsequently separately reviewed the PET/CT images for TNM staging. The generalized kappa statistic was used to determine intermodality agreement between PET/CT and PET/MR for TNM staging. Results ROC curve analysis showed that PET/MR had a specificity of 92.3 % and a sensitivity of 97.3 % in the determination of resectability with an AUC of 0.95. Interobserver agreement in PET/MR reading ranged from substantial to perfect between the two readers (Cohen’s kappa 0.646 – 1) for T stage, N stage and M stage. Intermodality agreement between PET/CT and PET/MR ranged from substantial to almost perfect for T stage, N stage and M stage (Cohen’s kappa 0.627 – 0.823). Conclusion In lung cancer patients PET/MR appears to be a robust technique for preoperative staging.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • 68 Ga-DOTA 0 -Tyr 3 -octreotide positron emission tomography in
           nasopharyngeal carcinoma
    • Abstract: Purpose PET/CT with 68Ga-labelled [DOTA0,Tyr3]-octreotide (68Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT) is a routinely used imaging modality for neuroendocrine tumours expressing somatostatin receptors (SSTR). Recent studies have shown SSTR expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, albeit lower than in highly differentiated neuroendocrine tumours. We sought to determine whether nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a rare subtype of head and neck cancer, shows increased 68Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake indicating expression of SSTR. Methods Five patients with untreated, histologically proven EBV-positive NPC were referred for 68Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT. Tracer uptake in tumour lesions was assessed visually and semiquantitatively measuring maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and tumour to background ratios. Results Increased tumour-specific uptake was detected in all five patients with a median SUVmax of 10.6 (range 3.6 – 17.1) in the primary tumour and 13.2 (range 6.1 – 14.5) in cervical lymph node metastases. Conclusion 68Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT demonstrated tracer uptake in EBV-positive NPC comparable to that in highly differentiated neuroendocrine tumours. This observation is consistent with increased SSTR expression in EBV-positive NPC and may open new diagnostic and therapeutic windows in NPC.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Test–retest reliability of 11 C-ORM-13070 in PET imaging of α
           2C -adrenoceptors in vivo in the human brain
    • Abstract: Purpose α2C-Adrenoceptors share inhibitory presynaptic functions with the more abundant α2A-adrenoceptor subtype, but they also have widespread postsynaptic modulatory functions in the brain. Research on the noradrenergic system of the human brain has been hampered by the lack of suitable PET tracers targeted to the α2-adrenoceptor subtypes. Methods PET imaging with the specific α2C-adrenoceptor antagonist tracer [11C]ORM-13070 was performed twice in six healthy male subjects to investigate the test–retest reliability of tracer binding. Results The bound/free ratio of tracer uptake relative to nonspecific uptake into the cerebellum during the time interval of 5 – 30 min was most prominent in the dorsal striatum: 0.77 in the putamen and 0.58 in the caudate nucleus. Absolute test–retest variability in bound/free ratios of tracer ranged from 4.3 % in the putamen to 29 % in the hippocampus. Variability was also <10 % in the caudate nucleus and thalamus. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) ranged from 0.50 in the hippocampus to 0.89 in the thalamus (ICC >0.70 was also reached in the caudate nucleus, putamen, lateral frontal cortex and parietal cortex). The pattern of [11C]ORM-13070 binding, as determined by PET, was in good agreement with receptor density results previously derived from post-mortem autoradiography. PET data analysis results obtained with a compartmental model fit, the simplified reference tissue model and a graphical reference tissue analysis method were convergent with the tissue ratio method. Conclusion The results of this study support the use of [11C]ORM-13070 PET in the quantitative assessment of α2C-adrenoceptors in the human brain in vivo. Reliable assessment of specific tracer binding in the dorsal striatum is possible with the help of reference tissue ratios.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Machine learning models for the differential diagnosis of vascular
           parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease using [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT
    • Abstract: Purpose The study’s objective was to develop diagnostic predictive models using data from two commonly used [123I]FP-CIT SPECT assessment methods: region-of-interest (ROI) analysis and whole-brain voxel-based analysis. Methods We included retrospectively 80 patients with vascular parkinsonism (VP) and 164 patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) who underwent [123I]FP-CIT SPECT. Nuclear-medicine specialists evaluated the scans and calculated bilateral caudate and putamen [123I]FP-CIT uptake and asymmetry indices using BRASS software. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to compare the radioligand uptake between the two diseases at the voxel level. Quantitative data from these two methods, together with potential confounding factors for dopamine transporter availability (sex, age, disease duration and severity), were used to build predictive models following a tenfold cross-validation scheme. The performance of logistic regression (LR), linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms for ROI data, and their penalized versions for SPM data (penalized LR, penalized discriminant analysis and SVM), were assessed. Results Significant differences were found in the ROI analysis after covariate correction between VP and PD patients in [123I]FP-CIT uptake in the more affected side of the putamen and the ipsilateral caudate. Age, disease duration and severity were also found to be informative in feeding the statistical model. SPM localized significant reductions in [123I]FP-CIT uptake in PD with respect to VP in two specular clusters comprising areas corresponding to the left and right striatum. The diagnostic predictive accuracy of the LR model using ROI data was 90.3 % and of the SVM model using SPM data was 90.4 %. Conclusion The predictive models built with ROI data and SPM data from [123I]FP-CIT SPECT provide great discrimination accuracy between VP and PD. External validation of these methods is necessary to confirm their applicability across centres.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • [ 18 F]FDG PET/MRI vs. PET/CT for whole-body staging in patients with
           recurrent malignancies of the female pelvis: initial results
    • Abstract: Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic potential of PET/MRI with [18F]FDG in recurrent ovarian and cervical cancer in comparison to PET/CT. Methods A group of 19 patients with suspected recurrence of pelvic malignancies (ovarian cancer, 11 patients; cervical cancer, 8 patients) scheduled for an [18F]FDG PET/CT were subsequently enrolled for a PET/MRI. The scan protocol comprised: (1) a T1-W axial VIBE after contrast agent adminstration, (2) an axial T2-W HASTE, (3) a coronal TIRM, (4) an axial DWI, and dedicated MR sequences of the female pelvis including (5) a T1-W VIBE before contrast agent adminstration, (6) a sagittal T2-W TSE, and (7) a sagittal T1-W dynamic VIBE. The datasets (PET/CT, PET/MRI) were rated separately by two readers regarding lesion count, lesion localization, lesion conspicuity (four-point scale), lesion characterization (benign/malignant/indeterminate) and diagnostic confidence (three-point scale). All available data (histology, prior examinations, PET/CT, PET/MRI, follow-up examinations) served as standard of reference. Median values were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results Metastatic lesions were present in 16 of the 19 patients. A total of 78 lesions (malignant, 58; benign, 20) were described. Both PET/CT and PET/MRI allowed correct identification of all malignant lesions and provided equivalent conspicuity (3.86 ± 0.35 for PET/CT, 3.91 ± 0.28 for PET/MRI; p > 0.05). Diagnostic confidence was significantly higher for PET/MRI in malignant (p < 0.01) and benign lesions (p < 0.05). Conclusion Both PET/CT and PET/MRI offer an equivalently high diagnostic value for recurrent pelvic malignancies. PET/MRI offers higher diagnostic confidence in the discrimination of benign and malignant lesions. Considering the reduced radiation dose and superior lesion discrimination, PET/MRI may serve as a powerful alternative to PET/CT in the future.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Reduced retention of Pittsburgh compound B in white matter lesions
    • Abstract: Purpose One of the interesting features of the amyloid tracer Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) is that it generates a signal in the white matter (WM) in both healthy subjects and cognitively impaired individuals. This characteristic gave rise to the possibility that PiB could be used to trace WM pathology. In a group of cognitively healthy elderly we examined PiB retention in normal-appearing WM (NAWM) and WM lesions (WML), one of the most common brain pathologies in aging. Methods We segmented WML and NAWM on fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images of 73 subjects (age 61.9 ± 10.0, 71 % women). PiB PET images were corrected for partial volume effects and coregistered to FLAIR images and WM masks. WML and NAWM PiB signals were then extracted. Results PiB retention in WML was lower than in NAWM (p < 0.001, 14.6 % reduction). This was true both for periventricular WML (p < 0.001, 17.8 % reduction) and deep WML (p = 0.001, 7.5 % reduction). Conclusion PiB binding in WM is influenced by the presence of WML, which lower the signal. Our findings add to the growing evidence that PiB can depict WM pathology and should prompt further investigations into PiB binding targets in WM.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
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