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Diabetologia Notes de lecture     Hybrid Journal  
Diabetology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 5)
Dialectical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.314, h-index: 9)
Die Weltwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 15)
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 7)
Digestive Diseases and Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 89)
Directieve therapie     Hybrid Journal  
Discrete & Computational Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 40)
Discrete Event Dynamic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.42, h-index: 32)
Distributed and Parallel Databases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.766, h-index: 30)
Distributed Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 31)
DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater     Full-text available via subscription  
Documenta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 40)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 10)
Doklady Biological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Doklady Botanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 12)
Doklady Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 17)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.345, h-index: 13)
Doklady Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 17)
Douleur et Analg├ęsie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.113, h-index: 6)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 8)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.481, h-index: 5)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 101, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 52)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 9)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 16)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, h-index: 7)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 29)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 21)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 9)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 27)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 26)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 43)
Economia e Politica Industriale     Hybrid Journal  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.375, h-index: 6)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.527, h-index: 44)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.264, h-index: 9)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.557, h-index: 34)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 14)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.909, h-index: 93)
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Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.374, h-index: 15)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.776, h-index: 61)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 9)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 32)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 76, SJR: 1.785, h-index: 52)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 18)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.883, h-index: 10)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.582, h-index: 16)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 8)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.407, h-index: 15)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.678, h-index: 25)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 16)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 31)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.285, h-index: 39)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 15)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 57)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.638, h-index: 31)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 14)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.176, h-index: 7)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 30)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 32)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.632, h-index: 54)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 58)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 28)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 63)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 4)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 24)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.013, h-index: 36)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.942, h-index: 66)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 31)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 52)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.885, h-index: 46)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.608, h-index: 38)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.287, h-index: 63)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.731, h-index: 89)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 62)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 6)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 3)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 16)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.206, h-index: 9)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)

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Journal Cover European Food Research and Technology
  [SJR: 0.803]   [H-I: 56]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2281 journals]
  • Bioactive components of pomegranate fruit and their transformation by
           fermentation processes
    • Abstract: Abstract Pomegranate fruits have attracted huge interest among scientists worldwide, thanks to both their chemical composition and sensory value. Diverse varieties, ranging from sweet to sour, may be used in the formulation of products with specific quality and organoleptic attributes. In relation to fresh fruit, products obtained from pomegranate fruits have very attractive sensory attributes, highly desirable for consumers. The aim of this study was to present the chemical composition and the botanical characteristics of pomegranate, as well as the effect of various technological operations and storage conditions of products on the stability of bioactive compounds contained in pomegranate fruits. The process most extensively described and presented by many researchers is fermentation using lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi. The applicability of fermentation, based on several products such as wine, probiotic beverages, yoghurts and extracts, was shown to yield health-promoting properties, as it was repeatedly documented by many scientists specialized in different fields of science.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Binary ethanol–water solvents affect phenolic profile and
           antioxidant capacity of flaxseed extracts
    • Abstract: Abstract Flaxseed extracts are in focus because of their potential application as a food ingredient. Ethanol–water mixtures are recommended for preparation of plant extracts due to their acceptability for human consumption. However, there is a lack of comprehensive studies concerning solvent effect on phenolic profile (phenolic composition and content) and its impact on flaxseed extract antioxidant capacity. This study investigated the effect of ethanol concentration in ethanol–water extraction solvent on the changes in phenolic profile (HPLC analysis after alkaline or alkaline-acid hydrolysis) and the antioxidant activity (DPPH· and ORAC_FL assays) of flaxseed extracts; various ethanol concentrations were investigated to prepare a suitable extract that could be safely introduced into food. The results showed relationships between the tested factors, i.e. the ethanol concentration and the phenolic content or the antioxidant capacity of flaxseed extracts. The content of phenolic compounds in extracts, including secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, phenolic acids and their glucosides, decreased with increasing concentration of the ethanol from 60 to 90 % in extraction solvent (total phenolics after alkaline hydrolysis were 106.5 and 7.7 mg g−1, respectively). On the contrary, the content of phenolic acid esters was the highest in the 90 % ethanol flaxseed extract. Changes in the phenolic profile with ethanol increase in extraction solvent impacted negatively the radical scavenging activity of the extracts. This study indicates that the mixture of ethanol and water in proportion of 60:40 (v/v) is the most suitable to obtain flaxseed extract with the high content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • The evolution of quality characteristics of mango piece after
           pasteurization and during shelf life in a mango juice drink
    • Abstract: Abstract Mango is a commercially important and popular tropical fruit. While there is a growing commercial interest to incorporate fruit pieces in juices and soft drinks, such implementation for mango pieces is impaired by the sensitivity of the pieces texture during beverage processing (i.e., thermal treatment) and shelf life. In this work, we have evaluated the evolution of texture, color and composition of mango pieces from two non-fully ripe ripening stages in a mango juice drink after pasteurization (77 °C for 15 min) and shelf life (8 weeks at 21 °C). Our results indicated that the firmness of the pieces from the earlier ripening stage was significantly improved by pasteurization and preserved during storage. On the other hand, no improvement in texture was observed for the riper pieces most likely due to a more degraded cell wall structure at the later ripening stage preventing the beneficial firmness increase occurring due to starch gelatinization. Those results, combined with the observed migration of sugars and acids between the pieces and the juice, suggest that the utilization of non-fully ripe mango pieces could present a promising opportunity for the addition of mango bits to fruit beverages.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of Pleurotus ostreatus and
           Pleurotus eryngii enriched with selenium and zinc
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the antioxidant properties, phenolic and flavonoid contents and composition and content of ascorbic acid in Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus eryngii enriched simultaneously with selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). Non-enriched mushrooms contained Se and Zn at the level as in the most popular mushrooms. The total phenolic content (TPC) for non-enriched P. ostreatus and P. eryngii was 9.64 ± 0.33 and 7.91 ± 1.02 mg/g of extract, the total flavonoid content was 2.11 ± 0.19 and 1.26 ± 0.17 mg/g of extract, and ascorbic acid content ranged from 10.28 ± 0.39 to 16.64 ± 0.47 mg/100 g DW, respectively. Methanolic extracts contained 4-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic, t-cinnamic and vanillic acids and naringenin. In methanolic extract of P. eryngii, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid was also quantified. The correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activity in mushroom was confirmed. Additionally, the correlations between Zn and Se concentration in fruiting bodies and EC50 value and phenolic compounds were confirmed. Our results with simultaneous supplementation with Zn and Se provide the opportunity to increase the content of the elements in fruiting bodies and to improve antioxidant properties and antioxidant contents in enriched mushrooms. Additionally, the obtained results demonstrated that simultaneous enrichment with micronutrients with a contrary effect on antioxidant properties can activate synthesis of phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid. The investigation is the first study evaluating the effect of addition of two elements to the substrate at the same time on antioxidant properties of mushrooms.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Contribution of phenolic acids isolated from green and roasted boiled-type
           coffee brews to total coffee antioxidant capacity
    • Abstract: Abstract The antioxidant capacity (AC) of boiled-type coffee brews (CB) and phenolic acids (PA) isolated from them, obtained from the caffeinated and decaffeinated beans of different geographical origins and species and with different roasting degrees, was examined. The AC of PA and CB samples was tested in five antioxidant assays: a total antioxidants reducing capacity assay using a Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (FCR), a ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, a DPPH· radical-scavenging activity (DPPH) assay, a metal chelating activity (MCA) assay and a total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) assay. In most samples, the total amount of phenolic acids, determined by HPLC, decreased with the increasing degree of roasting the coffee beans, leading to reduced AC. All used methods showed that CB exhibits higher AC compared with the PA samples. Phenolic acids isolated from CB samples have the main contribution (on average over 95 and 84 % in green and roasted coffee extracts, respectively) in AC of the CB samples in FCR, FRAP and TRAP assays, whereas in DPPH and MCA tests, the phenolic acid contribution in AC of CB samples was below 50 % (on average over 36 and 45 % in green and roasted coffee extracts, respectively). Significant differences between the AC values determined for CB and PA samples were noticed only for the MCA and DPPH methods which reflect the different molecular mechanisms underlying each of the assays. Additionally, the statistical methods, including principal component analysis, applied to results of antioxidant capacity obtained with different analytical techniques confirmed their feasibility to distinguish between coffee brews with different degrees of roasting, regardless of coffee origin.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Influence of high-pressure processing on the physicochemical and the
           emulsifying properties of sarcoplasmic proteins from hake ( Merluccius
           merluccius )
    • Abstract: Abstract The sarcoplasmic proteins from hake (Merluccius merluccius) were subjected to high-pressure treatments (200, 400 and 600 MPa for 6 min at 20 °C). The physicochemical changes and the emulsifying capacity of sarcoplasmic proteins were evaluated. High-pressure processing increased the surface hydrophobicity and the reactive sulfhydryl group content of sarcoplasmic proteins above 200 MPa. Likewise, conformational changes were induced on the secondary structure of sarcoplasmic proteins at 400 MPa. High-pressure denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins promoted their aggregation. The electrophoretic patterns showed that some sarcoplasmic proteins (78, 73, 63, 58, 37, 32 and 22 kDa) were the most pressure labile. However, the carbonyl content of sarcoplasmic proteins was not affected by high-pressure treatments. The pressure-induced denaturation affected the emulsifying properties of sarcoplasmic proteins, which was dependent on pressure. In contrast to high-pressure levels (400 and 600 MPa), sarcoplasmic proteins treated at 200 MPa produced emulsions with enhanced stability, greater consistency index, and shear-thinning behavior. These results suggested that high-pressure denaturation can affect the functional properties of sarcoplasmic proteins.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Identification of antioxidant peptides from protein hydrolysates of
           scallop ( Patinopecten yessoensis ) female gonads
    • Abstract: Abstract Scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) female gonad hydrolysates (SFGHs) were obtained by using neutrase. The resulting hydrolysates possessed DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion-chelating ability, and reducing power with IC50 or AC0.5 values of 9.44, 0.94, and 5.88 mg/mL, respectively. SFGHs contained nearly 80 % of fractions with molecular weight around 250–5000 Da, and antioxidant-related amino acid residues in SFGHs reached to more than 30 %. Six fractions were separated from SFGHs on a Sephadex G-25 column, and one of the fractions with the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was further analyzed by ESI-MS/MS, and a tetrapeptide His-Met-Ser-Tyr (536 Da) and a pentapeptide Pro-Glu-Ala-Ser-Tyr (565 Da) were identified. Both peptides showed hydroxyl radical scavenging activities with IC50 values of 3.6 and 16.8 mM, respectively, by electron spin resonance method. These results imply that peptides derived from scallop female gonads are potent antioxidants and may be utilized as functional ingredients in food systems.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Metabolomic and chemometric study of Achras sapota L. fruit extracts for
           identification of metabolites contributing to the inhibition of
           α-amylase and α-glucosidase
    • Abstract: Abstract Achras sapota L. fruit extracts have previously been reported to have activities against the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The present work was aimed to identify the inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase using metabolomics and chemometric approaches. Metabolite profile of Achras sapota fruit extracts at different stages of post-harvest ripening was analyzed using GC–MS-based metabolomics approach. The extracts were also assayed for their properties to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. The fruit extracts just after harvesting showed maximum activities against the enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The activities declined with post-harvest ripening. It was observed from the chemometric analysis that gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, benzene-1,2,4-triol, and d-malic acid are responsible for high α-amylase inhibitory activity. Gallic acid and chlorogenic acid are positively correlated with high α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Inhibition of the two enzymes by gallic acid, benzene-1,2,4-triol, chlorogenic acid, and α-amylase by d-malic acid supported the findings. The present experiment reports the importance of both primary and secondary metabolites for the bioactivity of plant extracts.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Isolation and characterization of an antibacterial peptide from protein
           hydrolysates of Spirulina platensis
    • Abstract: Abstract An antibacterial peptide SP-1 has been isolated from the alkaline protease and papain hydrolysate of Spirulina platensis through a series of chromatographic methods including Sephadex G-25 chromatography, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and Superdex 75 10/300 GL chromatography. Its amino acid sequence was determined via liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). SP-1 contained 18 amino acid residues (KLVDASHRLATGDVAVRA) with the molecular mass of 1878.97 Da. The minimum inhibitory concentration of SP-1 was 8 mg/mL for Escherichia coli and 16 mg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus. The hemolysis result showed that the peptide was non-toxic. Based on all these features, the Spirulina peptides can be considered to be potential promising antimicrobial agents. SP-1 is the first antibacterial peptide derived from S. platensis protein hydrolysates.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Effects of the treatment with oak chips on color-related phenolics,
           volatile composition, and sensory profile of red wines: the case of
           Aglianico and Montepulciano
    • Abstract: Abstract The effects of the treatment of two important Italian wines, Aglianico and Montepulciano, with French oak chips were analyzed. The study was focused on the changes of color-related compounds such as anthocyanins and tannins, and of volatile and sensory profiles. An overall characterization of the wines was also performed. With reference to the phenolic profile, the behaviors of the two wines were different due to their different initial phenolic composition. The oak-chip treatments favored the polymerization of anthocyanins and tannins, whose concentrations in the oak-treated Aglianico samples were lower than in the controls (anthocyanins, −84 %; tannins, −71 %), while in the oak-treated Montepulciano wine the decrease concerned only anthocyanins (−57 %). The concentrations of polymeric phenols increased with aging in all the samples and, after 12 months, were higher in oak-treated wines than in the controls (+43 % in Aglianico, +39 % in Montepulciano). After 12 months of aging, the volatile profile of Aglianico oak-treated wines highlighted the highest acid (+68 %), terpene (+371 %), and lactone (+60 %) concentrations, while the oak-treated Montepulciano wine showed higher acid (+15 %), alcohol (+5 %), and lactone (+50 %) concentrations than the control wine. The sensory profile of the treated wines was characterized by high scores assigned to astringency and appearance of the typical oak aromas (woody, vanilla, and spicy notes) and the attenuation of floral and fruity attributes. These changes were responsible for the increase in intensity of the tannic character in Aglianico wine and the improvement of the Montepulciano wine aroma with respect to the corresponding untreated wines.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Characterization of grape marcs from native and foreign white varieties
           grown in northwestern Spain by their polyphenolic composition and
           antioxidant activity
    • Abstract: Abstract Northwestern Spain wine production is mainly focused on high-quality white wines, generating substantial quantities of grape marc as a by-product that can be exploited as a source of bioactive polyphenols. An optimized PLE method was applied to the extraction of polyphenols from marc of white grape varieties. The study of the polyphenolic composition of the extracts in addition to the determination of their antioxidant capacity was used to characterize the marcs obtained from autochthonous white grape varieties (Albariño, Caiño blanco, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontes, and Treixadura) cultivated in five protected areas of production (Denomination of Origin, DO). Also, the marcs obtained in the winemaking of non-native varieties grown experimentally in the region (Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Riesling, and Sauvignon blanc) were included in the characterization study and compared with the native ones. Three vintage years (2010–2012) were considered to account for climate variability. Significant differences in the phenolic composition and the antioxidant capacity of grape marcs obtained from the white varieties were found, which could be helpful for a selective exploitation of winemaking by-products.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Effects of process parameters on 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester formation
           during steam distillation of olive oil and olive pomace oil
    • Abstract: Abstract Steam distillation was applied to lampante olive oil and olive pomace oil in a laboratory-scale steam distillation equipment, and effects of process parameters (temperature, pressure and stripping steam) were determined and modeled on bound 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester formation. Levels of process parameters were optimized to minimize bound 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester formation using response surface methodology. According to the results of the study, olive pomace oil has a significant content (4.1 mg/kg) of bound 3-MCPD prior to steam distillation. Results showed that temperature of the steam distillation was highly effective on bound 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester formation. Interaction between stripping steam rate and temperature was statistically significant for glycidyl ester formation. Effects of process parameters were visualized by using perturbation plots. Perturbation plots showed that stripping steam rate was possibly effective not only on glycidyl ester formation, but also on bound 3-MCPD formation in the case of steam distillation carried out at wide-ranged process conditions. According to the optimization results, optimum steam distillation temperature is 230 °C, water flow rate is 1.2 ml/min, and pressure is 4 mbar for olive oil, and temperature is 230 °C, water flow rate is 1 ml/min, and pressure is 2 mbar for olive pomace oil to minimize the bound 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester formation.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Investigating anthocyanin contents and in vitro tumor suppression
           properties of blueberry extracts prepared by various processes
    • Abstract: Abstract Blueberries are best known for their high content of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds which provide health benefits. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of microwave, pressurized solvent, and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction techniques on the anthocyanin content of the water extracts obtained from dry whole blueberries. Effect of the blueberry extracts on selected cancer cell lines was also investigated. Neat and ethanol entrained SC-CO2 extracts did not contain detectable amount of anthocyanin. Microwave power did not have a significant effect on anthocyanin recovery. The blueberry juice (BJ) prepared by homogenization of fresh berries followed by microfiltration had the highest anthocyanin content among the extracts examined in this study. However, the blueberry water extracts prepared using other extraction techniques had a higher total phenolic content than the BJ. The effect of the blueberry extracts on the cancer cell lines was dose-dependent and varied with the cell type and the composition of the extract. BJ had a similar IC50 to the commercial cancer treatment drug doxorubicin for the cancer cell line MCF7. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the effect of blueberry extract composition on the viability of different cancer lines.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Consumption of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural-rich dried fruits is associated
           with reduction in urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine:
           a randomized clinical trial
    • Abstract: Abstract 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural is widely presented in foods and produced through the degradation of hexoses and the Maillard reaction. This study aimed to investigate any association between 5-HMF content of consumed dried fruits and urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). The study consisted of 75 healthy volunteers. After an overnight fasting, two urine samples were collected before and 5 h after consumption of date, apricot, currant, plum and fruit bread, 100 g each. Twenty-five samples from frequently consumed types of dried fruits were analyzed for 5-HMF with HPLC. Urinary 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoic acid (HMFA) and 8-OHdG were determined using HPLC and ELISA, respectively. The amount of 5-HMF in the tested samples varied from 314.8 ± 166.1 to 2496.3 ± 2301.2 mg/kg. The lowest and highest levels of 8-OHdG were 10.1 ± 1.5 µg/g creatinine for plum and 24.7 ± 6.6 µg/g creatinine for date. At the two time points, mean HMFA levels varied from 630.6 ± 114.5 to 2116.8 ± 600.3 and 286.7 ± 24.8 to 582.0 ± 119.2 (µg/g creatinine), respectively. There was a significant difference in HMFA amounts of the samples before and after consumption of apricot and plum (P < 0.05). Overall, an inverse association was observed between 5-HMF contents of consumed dried fruits and changes of 8-OHdG (r = −0.41, P < 0.01). Also, there was a straight relationship between changes of HMFA and changes of 8-OHdG for all the fruits tested (r > 0.66, P < 0.01). It is concluded that consumption of 5-HMF-rich dried fruits is associated with a significant reduction in urinary excretion of 8-OHdG.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Purification and characterization of a thermostable endo-beta-1,4
           mannanase from Weissella viridescens LB37 and its application in fruit
           juice clarification
    • Abstract: Abstract The isolation and characterization study of lactic acid bacteria was performed with a sample of fermented sausage, which was collected from a local market in Erzurum. As a result of sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA, this bacterium is found to be similar to Weissella viridescens (GenBank No: KM365459) at a ratio of 99 %. β-Mannanase was purified 188.07 times from W. viridescens by using ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and then employing gel filtration chromatography techniques. The purified enzyme has shown only a protein band at a level of 36.25 kDa with SDS-PAGE. The mannanase obtained after these purification steps has shown maximum activity at pH 5 and 40 °C, and the enzyme was determined to be quite stable within the range of pH 2–11 when temperature is higher than 50 °C. The activator or inhibitor effects of ions such as Cu2+, Fe2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ on activity of mannanase were also researched, and all metal ions except Ca2+ significantly affected enzyme activity in a positive direction. V max and K m values of mannanase for locust bean gum were 82.5 mg mannan/mL and 0.0178 mM. In addition, considering the biotechnological aspect, clarification of fruit juice was investigated. The purified enzyme was determined to be the most effective enzyme that can be used in clarifying the kiwi juice with a ratio of 117.21 %.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Headspace fingerprinting and sensory evaluation to discriminate between
           traditional and alternative pasteurization of watermelon juice
    • Abstract: Abstract The watermelon juice was processed by thermal and large-scale alternative pasteurization technologies, pulsed electric fields (PEF) and high pressure processing (HPP). The watermelon juice was compared and evaluated immediately after the treatment as well as a function of shelf-life. As a basis for the comparison, microbial inactivation was chosen. The watermelon juice quality evaluation was performed by a multivariate quality comparison (headspace fingerprinting), studying volatile fractions of the juice. Control and pasteurized juice was evaluated in terms of sensory at the beginning and the end of the shelf-life. Most of the selected markers in control juice were lower in concentration compared to processed classes. Majority of the compounds detected in higher concentration after processing were C6–C9 carbonyls. Their formation is linked to oxidation of fatty acids. Few degradation products of lycopene have been observed in PEF and HPP class. Compounds selected in higher concentration in thermal class were products linked to the Maillard reaction and Strecker degradation products. All compounds detected in lower concentration in thermal class at day-12 compared to PEF and HPP were linked to lycopene degradation. According to the sensory evaluation, a clear differentiation of control from processed samples as well as among processed samples only after the treatment and at the end of the shelf-life was possible.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Phenolic composition of BRS Violeta red wines produced from alternative
           winemaking techniques: relationship with antioxidant capacity and sensory
    • Abstract: Abstract The detailed phenolic composition, sensory profile and antioxidant capacity of red wines produced from the BRS Violeta grape cultivar have been studied. The alternative winemaking procedures of grape pre-drying and submerged cap have been assessed against the traditional treatment. Malvidin was the principal anthocyanidin of BRS Violeta wines, followed by delphinidin and petunidin. It was possible to detect 17 different types of pyranoanthocyanins derived from the five anthocyanidins in their non-acylated, acylated and coumaroylated forms, being vitisin A-types and hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanins the main forms detected. Pre-dried wine presented low concentrations of anthocyanins, suggesting that they were partially degraded by the thermal treatment as a result of cleavage of covalent bounds and/or by deglycosylation of the anthocyanin 3-glucosides. Submerged cap wine presented lower anthocyanin concentration due to the limited mechanical effect caused by the constant contact between pomace and must during maceration. The 3-glucoside of the myricetin was the principal flavonol, and large amounts of coumaric and caffeic acids were observed due to the high degree of hydrolysis of their precursors, named coutaric and caftaric acids. Both alternative winemaking procedures presented no differences in the flavan-3-ol concentrations, and the antioxidant capacity of the wines did not significantly differ. The lack of differences in the main sensory descriptive attributes showed that the alternative procedures have great potential to be applied as an alternative to the traditional treatment.
      PubDate: 2016-04-25
  • Characterisation of the key aroma compounds in commercial native
           cold-pressed rapeseed oil by means of the Sensomics approach
    • Abstract: Abstract A systematic approach for the characterisation of the most important aroma-active compounds in a commercial native cold-pressed rapeseed oil on the basis of the Molecular Sensory Science Concept, consisting of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), identification experiments by gas chromatography–olfactometry and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), and recombination experiments, was performed. Forty-nine aroma-active compounds, isolated by thin layer distillation, were identified with a flavour dilution factor ≥8 during AEDA and headspace AEDA, 23 thereof reported in native cold-pressed rapeseed oil for the first time. Twenty-three odorants were quantitated via SIDA revealing for 11 compounds concentrations above their respective odour thresholds. Thereby, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, dimethyl trisulphide, dimethyl sulphide, butanoic acid, and octanal showed the highest OAVs (ratio of concentration divided by respective odour threshold). For data validation, a reconstitution model was prepared by mixing the odorants in their natural occurring concentrations in an odourless oily matrix showing an aroma profile very similar to the profile of the original rapeseed oil, confirming that all key aroma compounds were identified and quantitated successfully.
      PubDate: 2016-04-23
  • Interaction between gluten proteins and their mixtures with
           water-extractable arabinoxylan of wheat by rheological, molecular
           anisotropy and CP/MAS 13 C NMR measurements
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, water-extractable arabinoxylan, WEAX, of wheat was isolated and mixed with gluten to observe small and large strain behavior and microscopic structure of the mixtures. The results showed that WEAX improves the viscoelasticity of gluten and makes the microscopic structure of gluten less compact. Free sulfhydryl, fluorescence anisotropy and CP/MAS 13C NMR measurements were used to gain a better understanding of the interactions between WEAX and gluten proteins of wheat. It was demonstrated that when gluten was mixed with WEAX, the free –SH of gluten proteins cross-linked to each other or to WEAX. The cross-linking happened mainly to LMW-GS. It was shown from the fluorescence anisotropy that the conformation of glutenin was more greatly influenced by WEAX than gliadin because of the difference in their molecular conformation. In addition, it was found in this study that tyrosine groups of glutenin also played an important role in the interactions between WEAX and gluten.
      PubDate: 2016-04-22
  • Establishment of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) detection
           method for genetically modified maize MON88017
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, we developed a visual and rapid assay for the detection of MON88017 maize using the LAMP method. The LAMP method was specific for MON88017 event and takes only 40 min and the LAMP assay sensitivity is about 40 copies, which is the same level as that of conventional PCR method. LAMP amplicons can directly be detected by naked-eye inspection after adding SYBR Green I. In summary, the LAMP method is visual, faster, and more sensitive and does not need special equipment compared to the traditional PCR technique, which makes it a very higher efficiency approach for field tests and fast screening of GMO crops, especially for on-site, large-scale testing purposes in the field.
      PubDate: 2016-04-22
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