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Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 15)
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 7)
Digestive Diseases and Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 89)
Directieve therapie     Hybrid Journal  
Discrete & Computational Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 40)
Discrete Event Dynamic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.42, h-index: 32)
Distributed and Parallel Databases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.766, h-index: 30)
Distributed Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 31)
DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater     Full-text available via subscription  
Documenta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 40)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 10)
Doklady Biological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Doklady Botanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 12)
Doklady Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.48, h-index: 17)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.345, h-index: 13)
Doklady Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 17)
Douleur et Analg├ęsie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.113, h-index: 6)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 8)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access  
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.481, h-index: 5)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 52)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 9)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 16)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, h-index: 7)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 29)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 21)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 9)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 27)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 26)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 43)
Economia e Politica Industriale     Hybrid Journal  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.375, h-index: 6)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.527, h-index: 44)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 9)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.557, h-index: 34)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 14)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.909, h-index: 93)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.333, h-index: 56)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.374, h-index: 15)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.776, h-index: 61)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 9)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 32)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 80, SJR: 1.785, h-index: 52)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 18)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.883, h-index: 10)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.582, h-index: 16)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 8)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.407, h-index: 15)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.678, h-index: 25)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 16)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 31)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.285, h-index: 39)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 15)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 57)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.638, h-index: 31)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 14)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.176, h-index: 7)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 30)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 32)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.632, h-index: 54)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 58)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 28)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 63)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 4)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 24)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.013, h-index: 36)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.942, h-index: 66)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 31)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 52)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.885, h-index: 46)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.608, h-index: 38)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.287, h-index: 63)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.731, h-index: 89)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 62)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 6)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 3)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 16)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.206, h-index: 9)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 67)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 10)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.484, h-index: 23)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.163, h-index: 6)

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Journal Cover   European Food Research and Technology
  [SJR: 0.803]   [H-I: 56]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2281 journals]
  • Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, energy content and
           gastrointestinal stability of Croatian wild edible plants
    • Abstract: Abstract Spectrophotometric and chromatographic analysis of phenolics in water and ethanolic extracts of wild asparagus, butcher’s broom and black bryony from Croatia was conducted. Their antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assay) and energy content were determined. The gastrointestinal stability of detected phenolics was determined using a two-phase in vitro digestion method with human enzymes. The highest phenolics yield, radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential were recorded in 40 % ethanolic extract of black bryony, with glycosylated forms of kaempferol as dominant components. Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were dominant phenolics in all wild asparagus extracts, and salicylic acid was predominant in butcher’s broom 40 % ethanolic extract. Phenolic acids of the three species were not stable during gastric and duodenal phases of simulated digestion. Two main black bryony kaempferol glycosides were best preserved after digestion (50 % of each). Black bryony contains more energy than wild asparagus and butcher’s broom. Accordingly, we propose black bryony as a valuable source of antioxidant kaempferol glycosides with relevant gastrointestinal stability and higher energy content than so far more conventional vegetable wild asparagus.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • A theoretical study of the antioxidant properties of phenolic acid amides
           investigated through the radical-scavenging and metal chelation mechanisms
    • Abstract: Abstract Phenolic amides have been investigated extensively as efficient antioxidant compounds by means of experimental techniques. However, their mode of action has not been determined through the use of theoretical approaches. In this study, theoretical studies on the conformational and antioxidant properties of phenolic acid amides were performed to investigate factors that contribute to their conformational preferences and to elucidate their antioxidant properties and mechanisms. The antioxidant activity of selected phenolic acid amides has been considered through the ability of the compounds to scavenge free radical species and chelate metal ions. The antiradical mechanisms were investigated using the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) method, and the metal chelation mechanism was investigated using the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) method. The results show that the preferred conformers for the neutral and anionic conformers are stabilised by the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds (IHBs). The neutral and cationic radical species are stabilised by both IHBs and the spin density delocalisation of the unpaired electron. The preferred Cu complex is one in which the Cu ion interacts simultaneously with the carbonyl group and the benzene ring of the aromatic amine moiety. An estimated metal ion affinity is influenced by the nature of the ligand and the media. In comparison with the isolated Cu(II) ion, the charge on the coordinated metal ion decreases from 2 to ~1 suggesting that the Cu ion is reduced on interaction with the ligand molecule undergoes oxidation.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Manufacture of dry-cured ham: A review. Part 2. Drying kinetics, modeling
           and equipment
    • Abstract: Abstract Dehydration in foodstuff manufacture is a process when a product loses the weight by reduction in water content. Regarding the production of dry-cured ham, dehydration mainly takes place during the drying stage. However, during the salting and the resting steps, water content of the hams also reduces by 3–4 %, which should be taken into account in order to adjust the necessary rate of the further drying. In addition, such parameters as pH of the raw material and salt content of being dried hams also influence the drying rate and the quality of the final product. The present paper is devoted to highlighting processes and parameters influencing the dehydration of dry-cured ham during the manufacture. Industrial drying systems used for the manufacture of dry-cured ham are described for the comparison of construction and energy consumption. Mathematical models mostly used to predict the drying behavior of dry-cured ham are described.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Effect of tef [ Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] grain flour addition on
           viscoelastic properties and stickiness of wheat dough matrices and bread
           loaf volume
    • Abstract: Abstract Currently, consumers’ preference toward baked goods with additional (functional and nutritional) value is increasing, leading food industries to look at natural nutrient-dense alternatives like tef grain. Impact of tef grain flour incorporation (three Ethiopian varieties: DZ-01-99, DZ-Cr-37 and DZ-Cr-387 at 10, 20, 30 and 40 % levels) on dough viscoelastic profiles and stickiness of wheat-based dough matrices were investigated. Oscillatory and creep–recovery tests together with dough stickiness were performed. Incorporation of tef flours affected the structure of the dough matrices visibly by reducing viscoelastic moduli, and the maximum stress doughs can tolerate before its structure is broken and increased dough instantaneous and retarded elastic compliances. Effect of dose was not always significant in the parameters measured. Tef grain flour incorporation up to 30 % level led to breads with higher loaf volume than the control associated with optimal consistency and higher deformability of doughs. Higher tef doses increased dough stickiness. This will affect dough handling and shaping/flattening to get continuous strands or thin sheets. On average, the DZ-Cr-37-supplemented doughs exhibited higher elastic and viscous moduli, lower compliances and higher steady-state viscosity and led to significantly lower loaf bread volumes. Hence, based on dough viscoelastic and stickiness properties, incorporation of DZ-01-99 and DZ-Cr-387 into wheat flour-based formulations could be more preferable.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Authentication of closely related scombrid, catfish and tilapia species by
           PCR-based analysis and isoelectric focusing of parvalbumin
    • Abstract: Abstract In recent decades, the authentication of fishery products has relied mainly on DNA analysis of mitochondrial genes; however, these methods cannot distinguish hybrids from their respective maternal species. As an alternative for wild or farmed hybrid fish authentication, we developed assays based on the amplification of a parvalbumin intron by exon-primed intron-crossing PCR. Parvalbumins, the major class of fish allergens, are encoded by nuclear genes and are present in high concentrations in the light muscle of many fish species. Amplicons of analysed fish species were characterized by sequencing (tunas), single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) (scombrid, catfish, tilapia, and snapper species) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) (catfish) analyses. The SSCP method differentiated catfish, tilapia, snapper and scombrid species except tunas. Tunas of the genus Thunnus had an unexpected low variability of intron sequences, which prevented their differentiation by sequencing or SSCP. For study of hybrid catfish, RFLP analysis with Ban I endonuclease was used to construct specific DNA fragment profiles. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) of sarcoplasmic proteins was a rapid screening method to identify catfish, tilapia and snapper species because of their specific protein patterns. The heat-stable, anodic protein bands of these patterns presumably belong to parvalbumins, the major class of fish allergens. PCR and IEF techniques for analysing parvalbumins can be used as routine methods to control the labelling of fish products with the exception of tuna products.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Enhancement of rice vinegar production by modified semi-continuous culture
           based on analysis of enzymatic kinetic
    • Abstract: Abstract Product inhibition is the main problem of high-strength rice vinegar fermentation by Acetobacter pasteurianus. An optimized semi-continuous operation mode was proposed with a modified starting-up protocol which can improve the average acetification rate 35 % higher than original one. First, we revealed PQQ-ALDH is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for ethanol oxidation route, whose apparent K m of PQQ-ADH and PQQ-ALDH is 1.89 and 7.80 mM, respectively. Further work elucidated that PQQ-ALDH follows ordered Bi–Bi mechanism which indicated that Co Q can improve the reaction. Among five Co Q precursors, supplementation of 20 mM isopentenyl alcohol got the best result, which improved strain acid resistance ability that accelerates biomass accumulation. A two-stage starting-up protocol was developed, which reduced the duration of the starting-up process from 45 to 34 h. An optimized semi-continuous operation mode was proposed whose whole operation time reduced from 116 to 98 h and average acetification rate has been raised to 1.77 g/Lh, while the original is 1.31 g/Lh. The average activity of ALDH is 43 % higher than original process, while ADH is 19 %, which shows a good correlation with acetification rate.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Assessment of the contributions of anthocyanins to the total antioxidant
           capacities of plant foods
    • Abstract: Abstract Anthocyanins widely distributed in plant foods have antioxidant activity and several health-beneficial effects. Anthocyanin contents and their contribution to total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of various plant foods (Angeleno plum, red plum, sour cherry, red grape, beetroot, and red cabbage) were analyzed in this study by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometric methods such as pH differential, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The individual anthocyanin constituents of plant extracts were identified and quantified by HPLC on a C18 column using gradient elution of mobile phase comprising MeOH–0.2 % o-phosphoric acid and photodiode array detection. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) coefficients of the studied standards by the CUPRAC assay were found in the order: cyanidin > kuromanin > keracyanin > delphinidin > pelargonidin > peonidin > malvidin > peonidin-3-glucoside in accordance with the theoretical expectations of established structure–antioxidant activity relationships. The theoretical TAC values calculated by the HPLC–CUPRAC and HPLC–ABTS methods were very close to the spectrophotometric values (95–103 %) for synthetic mixtures. These combined HPLC–spectrophotometric methods using TEAC coefficients of anthocyanins determined by CUPRAC and ABTS methods become possible to evaluate the anthocyanins contribution to TAC values of foods as well as individual anthocyanins in a single chromatographic run.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Effects of water-soluble oligosaccharides extracted from lotus ( Nelumbo
    • Abstract: Abstract Many microorganisms including some probiotic species in human gastrointestinal tract are sensitive to gastric acid secretions. The use of simulated gastrointestinal environments is a suitable approach to study the effects of a single factor on the stability of probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this study, the growth effects of lotus seed oligosaccharides and purified lotus seed oligosaccharides on Bifidobacterium adolescentis were assessed in a simulated gastrointestinal tract environment. Compared to glucose (Glc), xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS), and fructooligosaccharides (FOS), lotus seed oligosaccharides (LOS), and purified lotus seed oligosaccharides (P-LOS) are more effective on promoting the growth of B. adolescentis. The final bacterial mass was higher in LOS and P-LOS than in Glc. The viability of B. adolescentis incubated at pH 1.5, 2.0, or 3.0 was improved by LOS and P-LOS. Additionally, LOS and P-LOS increased the viability of B. adolescentis in bile salts up to 10 g/L and in digestive juices. The results revealed that LOS is an effective growth-accelerating factor of B. adolescentis, which improves the viability of B. adolescentis in gastrointestinal conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Droplet digital PCR versus multiplex real-time PCR method for the
           detection and quantification of DNA from the four transgenic soy traits
           MON87769, MON87708, MON87705 and FG72, and lectin
    • Abstract: Abstract New genetically modified (gm) soy crops are going to be released for human consumption. Therefore, analytical skills have to be developed towards an efficient detection and determination of GMO content in feed and food. Existing approaches to screen gm plants do not detect new gm soy traits in many cases. Therefore, a multiplex quantitative real-time PCR system was developed and characterized for the four new transgenic soy traits MON87769, MON87708, MON87705 and FG72 to avoid time- and cost-consuming application of single event detection. It showed amplification efficiency, correlation and limit of quantification similar to the single PCR systems applied. The droplet digital PCR showed increased specificity. In parallel, we developed four duplex droplet digital PCR systems and compared the results from both methods. This showed that both approaches are fit for routine diagnostics. Real-time PCR may be more suited for screening as it is very cost-efficient. Digital PCR may be more suitable for quantitative analysis as it exhibited a measurement uncertainty of only 17 % or below for a single reaction.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Use of propolis extracts as antioxidant in dairy beverages enriched with
           conjugated linoleic acid
    • Abstract: Abstract The addition of propolis to food formulations containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can improve nutritional properties and stability during storage. The purpose of this study was to enrich dairy beverages with both CLA and Canadian propolis extracts and to determine the chemical characteristics of the enriched beverages, with a focus on antioxidant properties and protection against lipid oxidation. Analysis of DPPH, ORAC, color and aldehyde production along with CLA quantification was performed. Adding different propolis extracts increased the antioxidant capacity of dairy beverages enriched with CLA, while pasteurization treatment reduced the antioxidant capacity. The production of aldehydes during storage under light exposure was reduced significantly in the presence of propolis extracts. Since no nutritional loss was observed during processing and storage of dairy beverages, the main advantage of using propolis extract relates to its higher antioxidant capacity and ability to reduce off-flavors associated with aldehyde production.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • A chemometric approach to identify the grape cultivar employed to produce
           nutraceutical fruit juice
    • Abstract: Abstract Apulian farmers have begun to explore the potential of grape juice as an alternative method to increase the profitability and stability of their farming operations. Grape juice obtained from table cultivar rich in polyphenols are considered value-added food products, so producers are interested in identifying an analytical method that permits (1) to quantify the phenolic composition, in order to select the richer variety of antioxidant substance, and (2) to trace the grape cultivar, in order to have a tool to protect their nutraceutical product from imitations. In this work, a chemometric approach, consisting of the comprehensive application of two-way full-factorial MANOVA, hierarchical cluster (HCA), and principal component analyses (PCA), is proposed as tool to differentiate seven table grape varieties (white, ‘Carati,’ ‘Sugraone,’ and ‘Italia’ and colored ‘Michele Palieri,’ ‘Summer Royal,’ ‘Autumn Royal,’ and ‘Crimson Seedless’) actually used to produce grape juice in Apulia. Anthocyanins were the main flavonoids in the colored grapes, and highly significant quantitative differences (F cultivar × vintage = 25,461; p < 0.001) in their profile were found; moreover, elevated levels of flavonols and flavan-3-ols were also quantified in all the varieties. According to HCA, cultivars were grouped into two clusters: one including ‘Michele Palieri,’ ‘Summer Royal,’ and ‘Autumn Royal,’ mainly characterized by the presence of anthocyanidins acetyl and coumaroyl glucosides, and the other formed by ‘Crimson Seedless,’ ‘Carati,’ ‘Sugraone,’ and ‘Italia,’ with relatively elevated level of procyanidins as well as quercetin and kaempferol derivatives; furthermore, PCA allowed to differentiate either ‘Michele Palieri,’ the only containing epicatechin, from the other colored cultivars, or ‘Italia,’ thanks to its higher content of quercetin-3-O-glucoside, from the other white grapes. Considering these results, the black cultivar ‘Michele Palieri’ has the highest suitability for the production of grape juice with nutraceutical properties.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Composition of tocochromanols in the kernels recovered from plum pits: the
           impact of the varieties and species on the potential utility value for
           industrial application
    • Abstract: Abstract The profile of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3) homologues in kernels recovered from 28 various plum varieties of hexaploid species Prunus domestica L. and diploid plums Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and its crossbreeds were studied. One tocotrienol (α-T3) and four tocopherol homologues (α, β, γ and δ) were determined in all studied samples by an RP-HPLC/FLD method. The concentration of tocochromanols varied considerably in kernels of different plum varieties and amounted, respectively: 3.55–11.84 (α-T), 0.01–0.13 (β-T), 30.58–73.63 (γ-T), 0.71–4.04 (δ-T), 0.24–1.47 mg/100 g dw (α-T3). The total content of tocochromanols was recorded in the range 36.86–83.38 mg/100 g dw. The average percentage of individual tocochromanols detected in the plum kernels was as follows: α-T (11.6 %), β-T (0.1 %), γ-T (83.6 %), δ-T (3.5 %) and α-T3 (1.2 %). Concentration of tocopherol homologues and α-T3 in kernels of the diploid plums P. cerasifera and its crossbreeds were on average ~20 % lower, with the exception of δ-T (50 % lower), in comparison with the P. domestica. The principal component analysis allowed to classify the tested samples in two main groups and several outliers.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Volatile organic compounds released by enzymatic reactions in raw
           nonpareil almond kernel
    • Abstract: Abstract Benzaldehyde is well recognized as the predominant aroma in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis var amara) and is released from amygdalin upon enzymatic hydrolysis followed by a loss of hydrogen cyanide. Sweet almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. D.A. Webb) has a sweeter, nuttier aroma than the bitter variety. While benzaldehyde is detected in raw sweet almond, it is not the predominant compound contributing to aroma due to the lower level of amygdalin. Although a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in sweet almond have been identified, the identity of VOCs due to enzymatic reactions in sweet almond has not been well documented. In this study, we investigated the VOCs released by enzymatic reactions in raw nonpareil (sweet) almond kernel samples and identified several alcohols such as isobutanol, 2-pentanol, 3-methylbutanol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol as the major enzyme-released VOCs. Their released amounts were greater in the sweet almond kernels than in the bitter ones analyzed, suggesting that these alcohols may contribute to the characteristic aroma in the raw sweet almond.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Relationship between sugar content, total acidity, and crystal by-products
           in the making of Traditional Balsamic Vinegar of Modena
    • Abstract: Abstract Traditional Balsamic Vinegar of Modena (TBVM) is a product of Modena district (Emilia Romagna, Italy), well known, and largely appreciated worldwide. During the ageing of homemade TBVM, the concentration of solute produces an increase in density (mainly owing to the evaporation of water), the balance between sweet and acidic tastes, and the formation of dark brown colour. This paper considers 20 samples of homemade TBVM supplied by private owners of Modena district. Since about 20 years, undesirable effects of crystallization of homemade TBVM are becoming common during the period of settling in the wooden barrels, and after the ageing period in the bottles. Although the process to control crystallization of wine is optimized, in the case of homemade TBVM a protocol to control the crystallization during ageing has not been clearly defined yet. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), a common technique used in mineralogy and inorganic chemistry, provided an unambiguous identification of crystal by-products in TBVM. XRPD patterns of ABTM_extra 1, ABTM_extra 2, ABTM_extra 3, and ABTM_trad 1 show the presence of glucose crystals in the bottom of the bottles. XRDP analyses suggest that the glucose deposit can primarily related to the high concentration of the starting cooked must, which determines the imbalance of glucose/fructose ratio and the growth of glucose crystals during ageing. Refractive and titration analyses in ABTM_extra 1, ABTM_extra 2, ABTM_extra 3, and ABTM_trad 1 showed that sugar content and total acidity are >72°Brix and ≤6 g/L, respectively. These results can be ascribed to the high concentration of starting cooked grape must, evaporation of water during ageing, and ageing time. This paper describes the relationships between the sugar content, total acidity (volatile and non-volatile acidity), and crystal by-products during TBVM ageing to suggest the best practice for controlling or eliminating the crystallization. Moreover, this paper shows that the R ratio (°Brix/total acidity) is a good reference parameter to control crystallization in homemade TBVM during ageing.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Supplementation of cultivated mushroom species with selenium:
           bioaccumulation and speciation study
    • Abstract: Abstract Selenium (Se) is a highly essential element, intakes of which in many populations are below the established requirements. As edible mushrooms represent an important part of the human diet in some regions, the present study investigated the concentrations of Se species (Se(IV), Se(VI), Seorg and Setotal) in three cultivated mushroom species (Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko) growing on substrates supplemented with different concentrations of sodium selenite Na2SeO3 (IV) and sodium selenate Na2SeO4 (VI) solutions. The most effective Se supplementation was observed for P. ostreatus fruiting bodies growing on substrates with Se concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 mM (53 and 62 mg kg−1 DW, respectively). Additionally, supplementation with Se salts stimulated P. eryngii biomass growth only. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of analysed Se species were observed for P. nameko fruiting bodies. Additionally, BCF values indicating accumulation of Se were observed when mushrooms were grown on substrates with ≥0.25 mM (P. nameko) or ≥0.5 mM (P. ostreatus and P. eryngii) Se addition. Our findings show that edible mushrooms growing on Se-supplemented substrates may represent food supplementation in the situation of Se deficiency.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Evaluation of the proteolytic activity of Enterococcus faecalis FT132 and
           Lactobacillus paracasei FT700, isolated from dairy products in Brazil,
           using milk proteins as substrates
    • Abstract: Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used by mankind from immemorial times due to their technological properties and ability to improve sensorial properties of foods. Some LAB strains are also able to hydrolyze milk proteins, which increase their digestibility and contribute to the production of desirable flavors. Moreover, proteolytic activity of LAB on milk proteins may release bioactive peptides with different activities such as antihypertensive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. This study aimed to evaluate the proteolytic activity of Enterococcus faecalis FT132 and Lactobacillus paracasei FT700, isolated from Brazilian dairy products. The proteolytic activity was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography using milk proteins as substrates in different conditions. Both E. faecalis FT132 and L. paracasei FT700 were proteolytic at pH 6.5 in the range of 37–42 °C, and these activities were due to metalloproteases. L. paracasei FT700 could then be used as adjunct culture in fermented dairy products in order to increase their digestibility. On the contrary, E. faecalis FT132, which harbors three virulence genes asa1, ace and gelE and which is resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline, cannot be added to food products. However, the peptides produced after hydrolytic activity on milk proteins by both strains might be used as ingredients in purified formulas.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Supplementation with β -carotene or vitamin E protects against
           increase in anaphylactic response in β -lactoglobulin-sensitized
           Balb/c mice: ex vivo study
    • Abstract: Abstract Balb/c mice fed 0 mg, 20 mg of β-carotene (BC) or 50 mg of vitamin E (Vit E) per Kg of diet for 7 weeks were immunized intraperitoneally with β-Lactoglobulin (β-Lg). Specific IgG and IgE anti β-Lg were determined in the mouse sera by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the jejunum was used for assessment of local anaphylactic responses ex vivo in Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc), a measure of active ion transport, and epithelial conductance (G), a measure of passive ion permeability, were measured for each tissue. Specimens were also processed for examination by histological analysis. Compared with sensitized mice (unsupplemented mice), those fed BC or Vit E had lower β-Lg-specific IgG (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively) and IgE levels (p < 0.02 and p < 0.01, respectively). A secretory response reflecting local intestinal anaphylaxis was evident in sensitized mice, as indicated by an increase in Isc (p < 0.009). Sensitized mice demonstrated also an enhanced epithelial permeability as measured by conductance (p < 0.03). BC supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in secretory response (p < 0.02) with no effect on the epithelial permeability. Interestingly, the secretory response and epithelial permeability were significantly reduced by supplementation with Vit E (p < 0.02 and p < 0.009, respectively). These findings provide evidence for the first time that both BC and Vit E regulate epithelial ion transport, but it should be noted that only Vit E-supplemented mice showed a decreased tissue conductance, indicating protection from β-Lg-induced epithelial permeability increase. Analysis of histological sections revealed that BC or Vit E treatment clearly reduced the microscopic lesions caused by β-Lg sensitization.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Genetic and functional analysis of biogenic amine production capacity
           among starter and non-starter lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal
    • Abstract: Abstract This work reports the capacity of 137 strains of starter and non-starter LAB belonging to nine species of the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Leuconostoc (all isolated from artisanal cheeses) to produce histamine, tyramine, putrescine and β-phenylethylamine, the biogenic amines (BA) most commonly found in dairy products. Production assays were performed in liquid media supplemented with the appropriate precursor amino acid; culture supernatants were then tested for BA by (U)HPLC. In addition, the presence of key genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways of the target BA, including the production of putrescine via the agmatine deiminase pathway, was assessed by PCR. Twenty strains were shown to have genes involved in the synthesis of BA; these belonged to the species Lactobacillus brevis (4), Lactobacillus curvatus (3), Lactococcus lactis (11) and Streptococcus thermophilus (2). With the exception of the two S. thermophilus strains, all those possessing genes involved in BA production synthesized the corresponding compound. Remarkably, all the putrescine-producing strains used the agmatine deiminase pathway. Four L. brevis and two L. curvatus strains were found able to produce both tyramine and putrescine. There is increasing interest in the use of autochthonous LAB strains in starter and adjunct cultures for producing dairy products with ‘particular geographic indication’ status. Such strains should not produce BA; the present results show that BA production capacity should be checked by (U)HPLC and PCR.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • In vitro characterization of antibacterial potential of Iranian honey
           samples against wound bacteria
    • Abstract: Abstract Incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens is increasing, thus discovery of alternative therapeutic agents is needed. Honey possesses therapeutic potential, including wound-healing properties and antimicrobial activities. Although antimicrobial activity of honey has been effectively established, the antibacterial properties of Iranian honey samples on wound microorganisms have not been conducted and compared with honey gold standards. Using standard methods, the antibacterial activities of 53 Iranian honey samples and two laboratory-synthesized honeys against 16 drug-resistant clinical isolates and four reference strains were determined. Different concentrations of honey were tested against each type of microorganism to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or minimum bactericidal concentration. The selected honeys with high levels of phenolic equivalent were studied for kinetics of bacterial killing. Also, the ability of selected honey samples to prevent biofilm formation was checked by crystal violet assay. The MICs of Iranian honey samples ranged from 3.12 to >50 % (w/v), and their efficacies were also determined. Nine samples with the highest antibacterial activities were selected. Survival of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was reduced significantly by selected honeys. Moreover, all selected honey samples were able to prevent biofilm formation of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains at concentrations of ≤25 %. The results of the present study have shown that selected Iranian honey samples had lower MIC values than reported standard honeys such as Manuka and Tualang and could be potentially used as alternative medical grade honey, particularly against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Fatty acid composition and fat content in milk from cows grazing in the
           Alpine region
    • Abstract: Abstract The variation in the fat profile of pooled milk from cows grazing in pastures in June and July at 400–700 m and at 1400–2250 m of altitude was evaluated by gas chromatography and compared with that from cows stalled in barns and fed with a diet without fresh grass. The ratios unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in milk samples were 1.33, 1.71 and 1.69 in June and 1.21, 1.69 and 1.84 in July for cows fed with prepared diet, grazing at 400–700 m or grazing at 1400–2250 m, respectively. Analogously, the ratios (oleic plus stearic acid)/palmitic acid were, for the same group of cows, 0.59, 0.72 and 0.78 in June and 0.56, 0.73 and 0.81 in July. In milk from pastured cows, the percentage of oleic, vaccenic, rumenic and α-linolenic acids increased as a function of the altitude; instead, that of linoleic acid and of cis-12-octadecenoic acid decreased. The yield of fat was always highest in milk from 1400 to 2250 m of altitude (up to 3.6 g per 100 mL). For the milk collected in July at 1400–2250 m of altitude, it was observed a decrease in the percentage of decanoic (capric) and dodecanoic acids and an increase in pentadecanoic, stearic, arachidic and docosanoic (behenic) acids. Possible reasons for the differences observed in the milk samples were discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
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