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Diabetologia Notes de lecture     Hybrid Journal  
Diabetology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dialectical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 7)
Die Weltwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 14)
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 5)
Digestive Diseases and Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.803, h-index: 84)
Directieve therapie     Hybrid Journal  
Discrete & Computational Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.088, h-index: 37)
Discrete Event Dynamic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.028, h-index: 30)
Distributed and Parallel Databases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 29)
Distributed Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.361, h-index: 29)
DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater     Full-text available via subscription  
Documenta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.418, h-index: 37)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 8)
Doklady Biological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.193, h-index: 9)
Doklady Botanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.261, h-index: 11)
Doklady Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.386, h-index: 15)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Doklady Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.316, h-index: 10)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 14)
Douleur et Analg├ęsie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.135, h-index: 5)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 6)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access  
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 46)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 8)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 5)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 28)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 17)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 7)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.289, h-index: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.651, h-index: 22)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.698, h-index: 38)
Economia e Politica Industriale     Hybrid Journal  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal  
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 40)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.857, h-index: 31)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.793, h-index: 83)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.041, h-index: 53)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 15)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.519, h-index: 14)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.781, h-index: 52)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 8)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 27)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 215, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 45)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 17)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.542, h-index: 7)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 14)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 5)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 11)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 22)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 12)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.5, h-index: 29)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.319, h-index: 33)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 13)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 55)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 27)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 10)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 26)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 26)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 46)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 53)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 22)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.601, h-index: 55)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 3)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 23)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 32)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 14)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 60)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.413, h-index: 27)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 46)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 14)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 34)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 58)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 85)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 57)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.161, h-index: 4)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 14)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.173, h-index: 8)

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Journal Cover   European Food Research and Technology
  [SJR: 0.773]   [H-I: 49]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2300 journals]
  • Reactivity of pure and commercial grape skin tannins with cell wall
    • Abstract: Abstract Commercial enological skin-derived tannins were used to investigate the role that cell wall material (CWM) plays in proanthocyanidin adsorption and the effect of differences in cell wall composition and tannin composition on the extent of the interaction. Insoluble CWM, prepared from the skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell and Syrah berries, was combined with solutions containing four different commercial enological grape skin-derived tannins (proanthocyanidin-type tannins), and the results obtained were compared with those obtained using four different purified skin tannin fractions. The tannins remaining in the solution after fining with CWM were analyzed by phloroglucinolysis and size exclusion chromatography, which provided data on the extent of the interaction and quantitative and qualitative information for the non-adsorbed compounds. Cell walls from both varieties showed a strong affinity for the tannins, the highest interactions being observed for Monastrell CWs and for those tannins with the highest mean degree of polymerization. These interactions may have some enological implications, especially as regards the optimal moment for adding commercial tannins to the must/wine and also explain some enological differences observed in the extraction of tannins from grape to wine.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Retention of glucosinolates during fermentation of Brassica juncea : a
           case study on production of sayur asin
    • Abstract: Abstract Fermentation can reduce the concentration of health-promoting glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables. The endogenous enzyme myrosinase is hypothesised to mainly responsible for the degradation of glucosinolates during fermentation. In order to retain glucosinolates in the final fermented product, the role of myrosinase activity during the production of sayur asin was investigated. Sayur asin is a traditionally fermented product of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) commonly consumed in Indonesia. It is prepared by a spontaneous fermentation of withered (sun-dried) B. juncea leaves. The leaves of B. juncea contain a substantial amount of the aliphatic glucosinolate sinigrin. Three withering methods were investigated to obtain B. juncea leaves with different myrosinase activities prior to fermentation. Results show that withering by oven at 35 °C for 2.5 h and by microwave at 180 W for 4.5 min reduced myrosinase activity by 84 and 74 %, respectively. Subsequently, sinigrin was not detectable in the leaves after 24 h of incubation in the fermentation medium. However, withering by microwave for 2 min at 900 W inactivated myrosinase completely and produced sayur asin with a sinigrin concentration of 11.4 µmol/10 g dry matter after 7 days of fermentation. This high power-short time pretreatment of B. juncea leaves contributes to the production of sayur asin containing significant levels of health-promoting glucosinolate. In this study, the effect of myrosinase activity during Brassica fermentation was quantified, and optimised production methods were investigated to retain glucosinolate in the final product.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Aromatic compounds released from natural precursors by selected Oenococcus
           oeni strains during malolactic fermentation
    • Abstract: Abstract The changes produced at the volatile fraction of a Tempranillo wine added with a natural glycosidic extract and commercial esters by the action of inoculated Oenococcus oeni strains during malolactic fermentation were assessed. The glycosidic extract was obtained from must of Muscat grape variety, and strains used had been selected in a previous work by their glycosidase and esterase activities against synthetic substrates. Fermentation assays were maintained in incubation for 22 days; after that, wines were analysed for their chemical parameters and the volatile compounds. Significant differences in the concentration of some volatile compounds in wines obtained with the different strains were observed, which could affect the sensory characteristics of the wines. The assayed strains were able to release terpenes, norisoprenoids and C6 alcohols, and to hydrolyse esters such as butyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate. These results revealed that strains presented both glycosidase and esterase activities although in a strain-dependent manner. Strains Da32 and Ab11 are good candidates to be used when floral wines are desired, while strain 93 is the best preserving the fruity aroma of wines.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Effects of different substrates and oils on aflatoxin B 1 production by
           Aspergillus parasiticus
    • Abstract: Abstract Aflatoxin contamination levels vary from crop to crop, suggesting that it is of great significance to explore the effects of different substrates on aflatoxins production. In this study, the effects of corn, wheat, peanut, and soybean on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by Aspergillus parasiticus were investigated, and the effects of corn germ, wheat germ, soybean, and peanut oils on the production of AFB1 by A. parasiticus in the corresponding defatted substrates were evaluated at the rates of 2, 5, 10, and 15 g/100 g of substrate. The effects of the combinations of different oils with different defatted substrates on the accumulation of AFB1 by A. parasiticus were also studied. AFB1 concentration was determined by HPLC. The results indicated that high-lipid substrates of soybean and peanut had significantly higher AFB1 production than low-fat substrates of wheat and corn throughout the entire incubation period (15 days) in both autoclaved and non-autoclaved grains. Corn germ, wheat germ, soybean, and peanut oils with different doses could effectively stimulate AFB1 accumulation, and AFB1 production was determined by the oil content of the substrates. Our results suggest that the oil content of substrates is one of the factors affecting AFB1 production by A. parasiticus and that the composition and content of the substrates may also play a role.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Erratum to: Effect of different halophilic microbial fermentation patterns
           on the volatile compound profiles and sensory properties of soy sauce
    • PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Effects of glycerol on pigments and monacolin K production by the
           high-monacolin K-producing but citrinin-free strain, Monascus pilosus MS-1
    • Abstract: Abstract Glycerol is the principal by-product of biodiesel production which can be utilized by fungi for beneficial metabolites production. In this study, effects of glycerol on main metabolites production and gene expression of pigment and monacolin K (MK) synthesis-related genes of Monascus pilosus MS-1, a high-MK-producing but citrinin-free strain, were investigated. The results indicated that addition of glycerol could increase the dry cell weight but decrease the fermentation broth pH value. Pigments production could be enhanced significantly after adding 2 g/L glycerol and the maximum pigments yield (13.78 U/mL) of fermentation broth was obtained when the glycerol content was up to 40 g/L (p < 0.05). Effect of glycerol on MK production was different from that of Monascus pigment. MK yield of fermentation broth was decreased significantly when the glycerol addition was up to 10 g/L while that of mycelia could be improved as glycerol addition increased (p < 0.05). Results of real-time PCR revealed that when the glycerol additions were up to 40 and 300 g/L, respectively, the gene expressions of regulatory gene (ctnR) for pigment synthesis were 17.31- and 22.22-folds of ctnR in the control; the gene expressions of structural gene (PKS5) for pigment synthesis were 33.27- and 60.07-folds of PKS5 in the control; respectively. However, the gene expressions of regulatory (mkH) and structural (mkA) genes of MS-1 for MK production were decreased after adding glycerol. All this suggesting that glycerol can be used for improving production of citrinin-free Monascus pigments and MK.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Spectroscopic detection of aspartame in soft drinks by surface-enhanced
           Raman spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Abstract Aspartame (N-l-α-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a low-calorie sweetener commonly used in carbonated soft drinks and beverages. In this study, a rapid and simple method was developed for the quantification of aspartame in soft drinks using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). For this purpose, AgNPs were synthesized by a wet chemistry method and characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. Then, mineral water samples were spiked with different concentrations of aspartame (0–1.0 mg ml−1) and Raman measurements were taken on the enhancement of the aspartame Raman signal in the presence of AgNPs. The calibration curve was plotted in terms of Raman band intensity at 1,002 cm−1 against the aspartame concentration. A good linear relationship was obtained by SERS with high determination coefficient values (R 2) for water, mineral water, and fruit-flavored mineral water, i.e., 0.969, 0.977, and 0.977, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision (intra- and inter-day repeatability), and recovery. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values of the aspartame-spiked mineral water samples were 0.17 and 0.56 mg ml−1, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision were 1.3 and 0.9 %, respectively. The recovery of the method was 81–95 % in the concentration range 0–0.6 mg ml−1, and the average RSD was 7.3 %. A short analysis time (15 s), small sample requirement, and aspartame analysis without pre-treatment were found with the SERS system, which may be a more practical and applicable method for specific target analysis.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Nutritional properties of different composite flours from maize ( Zea mays
           ) variety ica v109 and pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum ) malted with
           calcium chloride and gibberellic acid
    • Abstract: Abstract Maize (Zea mays) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) are cereals considered basic foods, used in the preparation of beverage, snacks food, noodles pastas, and other food products. The elaboration of composite flours provides complementation of nutrients, and different chemical, nutritional and rheological characteristics depending on the obtaining process. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the different flours and composite flours from maize (Z. mays) variety ica v109 and pearl millet (P. glaucum) afterward of the malting process using calcium chloride and gibberellic acid. The different flours were malting in diverse conditions; the malted flours and composite flours prepared in ratio of 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1 w/w were analyzed for evaluating the nutritional characteristics (protein, fat, ash, calcium, vitamin C, and soluble solids) of all samples. The malted flours from maize (Z. mays) variety ica v109 and pearl millet (P. glaucum) when compared with unmalted showed significant relative increments in the composition of protein of 43.46 and 33.12 %, mineral such as calcium 14.77 and 2.88 %, vitamin C 13.48 and 91.81 %, and soluble solids 31.44 and 85.08 %, respectively, and a decreased in lipid contents in all sample influenced by the addition of gibberellic acid and calcium chloride in malting process. The different formulations of malted flour, which presented better results due to the nutrient balance, were in the ratio of 1:1 w/w. The composite flours have a wide and promising perspective especially the products from maize flour, which is highly consumed in Colombia.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Phenolic characterization of minor red grape varieties grown in
           Castilla-La Mancha region in different vinification stages
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper reports on a study of several grape native phenolic compounds in five red minor grapevine varieties in danger of extinction in Castilla-La Mancha. The study was performed in different vinification stages not previously reported in conjunction in that kind of grape varieties: skins (before and after vinification), must, during alcoholic fermentation, and after alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. The skins of Rojal showed the highest amount of flavonols and (+)-catechin, being optimal to favor co-pigmentation processes by co-fermentations and/or to develop young rosé wines. Moravia Agria (skins and wines) could improve red wine color in co-winemaking due to its high quantity of anthocyanins. In addition, Bobal, Tortosí, and Moravia Dulce could produce wines with their own entity and be used as young monovarietal wines or even with a short aging. This study could help to diversify oenologic market by minor grape varieties not normally used in other viticultural regions.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Analysis of grapes and the first stages of the vinification process in
           wine contamination with Brettanomyces bruxellensis
    • Abstract: Abstract Brettanomyces bruxellensis is a major cause of wine spoilage due to the production of ethyl phenols, and it has become a major worldwide oenological concern in recent years. The most critical factor in volatile phenol production is the presence of microorganisms responsible for biosynthesis. In this work, carried out during three consecutive harvests, grapes and the first step in grape processing (stemming–crushing) have been evaluated as the origin of wine contamination by these spoilage yeasts. Results showed that there was nil or minimal presence of Brettanomyces yeasts in grapes and on the stemmer, in levels that the method was not able to detect. This shows that the main contamination of wines by this microorganism occurs in later stages of the vinification process and/or during storage. The contamination of many wines with Brettanomyces, either via the fruit or from the winery environment, during the early stages of vinification and before the start of aging, was confirmed by analyzing 100 recently made red wines, in which this yeast was detected in a high percentage of wines (27 %). However, the level of Brettanomyces yeasts found in the samples was low, with values which would not be sufficient to cause organoleptic defects. Consequently, this study confirms that many wines are still tainted by Brettanomyces when the winemaking phase comes to an end. It was also found that wines with problems during fermentation had a higher level of Brettanomyces. This is why it is essential to ensure strict controls during fermentation processes and conservation to prevent wine becoming spoiled or tainted.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Effect of low-frequency magnetic field on formation of pigments of
           Monascus purpureus
    • Abstract: Abstract Monascus purpureus is a key fungus used to produce food pigments from secondary metabolites. Low-frequency magnetic field (LF-MF) affects production of M. purpureus secondary metabolites as one of the cultivation environments. The objective of this study was to measure optimum strength of induced magnetic field and duration of exposure for yellow and red pigment production of M. purpureus in solid-state fermentation. There was a 65.4 and 59.2 % increase in peak yield of yellow and red pigments compared to the control when the treatments were exposed to a magnetic field induction at 0.4 mT on the 8–9th day of incubation time. From kinetics of yellow and red pigment production, yield of yellow and red pigments was significantly increased in the samples exposed to magnetic field from the 8th to 11th day compared with that of the control group. LF-MF could increase the production rates of yellow pigments from 221.25 to 381.75 and red pigments from 165.00 to 292.50 U/g day. It could also significantly prolong the quickly generate time of yellow pigment. The appropriate magnetic field treatment could increase the efficiency of yellow and red pigment production.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Effects of environmental factors on functional properties of Chinese
           chestnut ( Castanea mollissima ) protein isolates
    • Abstract: Abstract Chestnut is a nutritious food source. The effects of physical force on the functional properties of chestnut protein isolates were investigated. Maximum protein solubility, emulsion activity, emulsion stability, and foam capacity, as well as minimum protein solubility, emulsion activity, and foam capacity were observed at pH 12 and 4, respectively. The highest foam stability rate was observed at pH 4, particularly after 60 min. At the same ionic strength, the protein in NaCl showed better solubility than CaCl2. The presence of Ca2+ significantly enhanced the foam capacity and stability of chestnut protein, and the maximum foam capacity was 77.3 % at 0.8 mol/L ionic strength of Ca2+. Sugar could enhance foam stability but inhibit foam capacity, and appropriate concentrations (0.05–0.1 mol/L) increased emulsion activity and stability. The chestnut protein isolates had good emulsification and foam properties, and can be used as additives in food products requiring specific functional properties.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Flavone C -glycosides from Capsicum annuum L.: relationships between
           antioxidant activity and lipophilicity
    • Abstract: Abstract Three flavonoid C-glycosides isolated from pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L.), var. Capel Hot (luteolin 6-C-glucoside, luteolin 6,8-di-C-glucoside and apigenin 6-C-glucoside-8-C-arabinoside), were investigated to determine their antioxidant activity and lipophilicity. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using in vitro methods to generate free radicals in hydrophilic (superoxide radical) and lipophilic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxide radicals) media. Parameters characterising the lipophilicity (log P) of the studied compounds were calculated using three commonly available software programs. The relationships between the calculated log P of the investigated compounds and the experimentally determined antioxidant activities are discussed. The chemical activity of the flavonoid C-glycosides and aglycones was variable depending on the type of assay used. Luteolin and its C-6 glucoside showed the greatest ability to scavenge superoxide radicals (generated in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems) and DPPH radicals and also had the strongest activity in inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity, followed by apigenin-C-glycoside and apigenin. A high positive correlation coefficient was found between the ability of tested C-glycosides to inhibit xanthine oxidase and the calculated log P values. The highest correlation coefficient was obtained for the ACD/log P (Advanced Chemistry Development, Inc.) method (R = 0.790). In contrast, negative correlations were obtained between the abilities to scavenge superoxide, DPPH and lipid peroxyl radicals. The highest negative correlation coefficient was obtained in a β-carotene/linoleic acid model system and the Ghose–Crippen method (R = −0.725).
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Degradation of gluten in rye sourdough products by means of a
           proline-specific peptidase
    • Abstract: Abstract The gluten content of rye sourdough during fermentation was monitored by a competitive ELISA based on the R5 antibody. Although a time-dependent decrease was found, the gluten content was not reduced below the threshold for gluten-free foods of 20 mg/kg, even after prolonged fermentation. Instead, Aspergillus niger prolyl endopeptidase (AN-PEP) extensively degraded gluten concentrations of up to 80,000 mg/kg in rye flour, rye sourdough, and sourdough starter under distinct temperatures and pH values. The enzyme did not lead to inactivation of the microorganisms in the sourdough starter. Gluten-free rye flour alone or in combination with sourdough starter was used to produce gluten-free bread, which was evaluated for its sensory properties. Whereas gluten-free sourdough bread had poor sensory attributes compared to a conventional rye bread used as reference, the replacement of sourdough by egg proteins yielded gluten-free bread comparable to the reference and with higher sensory quality than bread prepared from naturally gluten-free ingredients. Therefore, the feasibility of producing high-quality bread from originally gluten-containing cereals such as rye by means of treatment with AN-PEP has been shown. Rye products rendered gluten-free in this manner have the potential to increase the choice of high-quality gluten-free foods for celiac patients.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Composition of tocochromanols in kernels recovered from different sweet
           cherry ( Prunus avium L.) cultivars: RP-HPLC/FLD and RP-UPLC-ESI/MS n
    • Abstract: Abstract Tocochromanols profile in kernels recovered from fruit pits of seven sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., family: Rosaceae) cultivars was studied. Four tocopherol homologues (α-T, β-T, γ-T, and δ-T) were quantified in all tested samples by RP-HPLC/FLD method. The RP-UPLC-ESI/MSn analyses allowed to detect trace amounts of two tocotrienol homologues (α and γ). The concentration of individual tocopherol homologues in kernels of different sweet cherry cultivars, expressed in mg/100 g dwb, was in the follow range: 3.03–4.96 (α-T), 0.01–0.11 (β-T), 32.26–37.51 (γ-T), and 0.95–1.69 (δ-T). The γ-T was the main tocopherol homologue identified in sweet cherry kernels and constituted approximately 88 % of total detected tocochromanols. The percentage composition of the individual tocopherol homologues in kernels of different sweet cherry cultivars was comparable.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics reveals that dairy protein
           fractions affect urinary urea excretion differently in overweight
    • Abstract: Abstract Dairy proteins are an important part of our diet, and recently, there is considerable focus on understanding the effects of the two major dairy proteins fractions constituted by casein and whey. In the present study, the impact of a dietary intervention with casein, whey, and skim milk was investigated by using NMR-based urine metabolomics. Overweight adolescents (n = 192; age = 12–15 years; BMI = 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to 1 L/day of casein (citrate content: 3.27 mol/L), whey (citrate content: 0.04 mol/L), skim milk, or water for 12 weeks. A significant increase in the urinary excretion of urea was found after the 12-week casein and skim milk interventions, while the 12-week whey intervention had no significant effect on the urea excretion. In addition, NMR-based metabolomics revealed a decreased urinary citrate excretion in the whey group and thereby demonstrated its potential to disclosure exposure effects. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that casein and whey proteins impact urinary urea excretion differently.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Accelerate and enhance the release of haze-protective polysaccharides
           after alcoholic fermentation in winemaking
    • Abstract: Abstract The autolysis of certain yeasts following alcoholic fermentation can help to stabilize wines, especially white wines, due to the action of specific cell-wall components. This process can be speeded up using glucanases, which prompt the release of macromolecules into the medium. This study evaluated the effects of mannoproteins thus released on protein stabilization in white wines. Extracts of three wild wine-yeasts were tested with three different beta-glucanases, one commercial (Lallzyme MMX®) and two obtained from wild yeast strains, one isolated in Brazil (1WA1) and the other in Spain (SR). Analysis of sugar consumption and protein stability identified one yeast strain as a candidate for the optimization of beta-glucanase action. The three enzymes were tested at a range of concentrations and over different time intervals; in all cases, protein stability remained around 38 %, a value close to that recorded in the absence of enzymes, and somewhat lower than that achieved with a commercial mannoprotein preparation. This suggests that the action of beta-glucanases on yeast cell walls and subsequent mannoprotein and polysaccharides release does not always ensure the expected improvement in protein stability; evaluation of this action in winemaking is always important to avoid enzyme wastage.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Influence of gel from ground chia ( Salvia hispanica L.) for wheat bread
    • Abstract: Abstract The effects of chia incorporated as gel in wheat bread dough as hydrocolloid were characterized. To avoid competition of starch and ground chia, chia was incorporated as gel. The gel was prepared of ground chia with 5 and 10 g/g water, respectively. The doughs were prepared with 1–3 % chia related to the amount of wheat flour. To characterize the dough, measurements with a Farinograph, a Rheofermentometer and a Kieffer dough rig were performed. The pasting curves of all variations were recorded. The fundamental rheological characteristics were determined with tests using a rotational rheometer. Baking experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of chia gel addition on the bread quality. The staling and crumb firmness were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and texture analysis. Dough analyses show that the doughs with added chia gel have a softer consistency. Dough stability during fermentation and volume yield of the bread loafs increased with added chia gel to a certain extent. These changes are visible with already 1 % chia. The bread quality was improved with respect to storage as the crumb firmness was reduced compared to the breads without added chia gel.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • A new sensitive method for the detection of chloramphenicol in food using
           time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay
    • Abstract: Abstract A time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) technique was developed to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) contamination in food. By using CAP-ovalbumin, anti-CAP antibodies, and europium-labelled goat anti-rabbit antibodies, an indirect, competitive method for CAP-TRFIA was established. The sensitivity was high, with a detection limit of 0.008 μg/L (8 ppt) for indirect competitive TRFIA formats. Testing showed that the sensitivity of the technique was 2.67 μg/kg in honey, prawn, and chicken muscle tissues, and 0.32 μg/L in milk. The detection range was between 0.008 and 100 μg/L: within this, the intra- and inter-batch coefficients of variation of the CAP-TRFIA method were 6.8 and 13.5 %, respectively. The study suggested that CAP-TRFIA was a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method of screening large quantities of samples and had good prospects for further application.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Identification and characterization of new allergen troponin C (Pen m
           6.0101) from Indian black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon
    • Abstract: Abstract Black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon is the most consumed species of crustaceans all over the world. Seafood allergy is the major threat in developing and westernized countries. The use of recombinant allergen is an effective way to improve diagnosis and treatment for seafood allergy. In this study, the recombinant P. monodon troponin C (rPmTnC) was assessed for its sera collected from allergic individuals. The immunoblot results showed that the rPmTnC recognized by eight allergic individuals out of 35 confirmed the allergenicity of rPmTnC. This novel allergen could be used in allergy diagnosis and treatments. We have identified and cloned a new shrimp allergen Pen m 6.0101 from P. monodon.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
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