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e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 8)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 5)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 28)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 17)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 7)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.289, h-index: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.651, h-index: 22)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.698, h-index: 38)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 40)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.857, h-index: 31)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.793, h-index: 83)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.041, h-index: 53)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 15)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.519, h-index: 14)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.781, h-index: 52)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 8)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 27)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 132, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 45)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 17)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.542, h-index: 7)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 14)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 5)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 11)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal  
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 22)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 12)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.5, h-index: 29)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.319, h-index: 33)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 13)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 55)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 27)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 10)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 26)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 26)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 46)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 53)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 22)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.601, h-index: 55)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 3)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 23)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 32)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 14)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 60)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.413, h-index: 27)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 46)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 14)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 34)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 58)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 85)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 57)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.161, h-index: 4)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 14)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.173, h-index: 8)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.268, h-index: 9)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.111, h-index: 61)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 8)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 20)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.204, h-index: 6)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 57)
Eurasian Soil Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 10)
EURO J. of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EURO J. on Computational Optimization     Hybrid Journal  
EURO J. on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal  
Europaisches J. fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal  
European Actuarial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 37)
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 12)
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 62)
European Biophysics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 53)
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 51)
European Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 49)
European J. for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European J. for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 2)
European J. of Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 17)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.044, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 69)
European J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European J. of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 25)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.946, h-index: 60)
European J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 25)
European J. of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.67, h-index: 25)
European J. of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.242, h-index: 13)

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Journal Cover European Food Research and Technology
   [10 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2208 journals]   [SJR: 0.773]   [H-I: 49]
  • Effect of different halophilic microbial fermentation patterns on the
           volatile compound profiles and sensory properties of soy sauce moromi
    • Abstract: Abstract The effect of inoculated or co-cultured halophilic lactic bacteria (Tetragenococcus halophilus) and yeasts (Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis) on the quality of soy sauce moromi was investigated. Results showed no significant change in the major physicochemical properties of soy sauce moromi such as amino nitrogen, total acid, and reducing sugar at the end of fermentation, whereas the composition of free amino acids slightly changed with different fermentation patterns. In the sample inoculated with T. halophilus, the concentration of proline and tryptophan decreased by 18.83 and 50.87 % compared with the blank sample, whereas tyrosine and histidine increased by 32.41 and 27.04 %. In the sample inoculated with Z. rouxii and C. versatilis, the concentration of bitter-tasting lysine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine increased by more than 20 %, and the concentration of tryptophan decreased by 56.71 %. The proportion of amino acids with sweet taste increased by 0.8 % through the co-culture of the three strains. Meanwhile, the total amount of volatile compounds increased by 117.66, 23.28, and 216.88 % in the T. halophilus inoculated sample, two yeast strain inoculated sample, and three strain inoculated sample, respectively. Increased odour activity values of the nine compounds that mainly contributed to the flavour of moromi ranged from 1 to 7.87 times in the three strain inoculated sample. These findings revealed that the co-culture of the three strains during moromi fermentation was beneficial to the improvement of flavour of soy sauce moromi.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Aroma compounds and sensory characteristics of        class="a-plus-plus">Arneis Terre Alfieri DOC
           wines: the concentration of polyfunctional thiols and their evolution in
           relation to different ageing conditions
    • Abstract: Abstract Arneis is an Italian autochthonous white grape cultivar. This study involved investigating the chemicophysical, aromatic composition and sensory evaluation of Arneis wine in relation to different oenological practices during winemaking and ageing. For the first time, polyfunctional thiols related aromas were identified above their perception threshold in Arneis wine. Moreover, citrus, grapefruit and tropical fruit notes characterized this wine during the first month of ageing, thus suggesting a strong correlation between chemical and sensory results. The concentration of thiols decreased rapidly during the first month of ageing, together with the tropical fruit notes. In particular, the perception of the grapefruit note of the wine decreased in association with the 3-mercaptohexyl acetate content in both the barrel and stainless steel (ST) aged wines. Moreover, the ageing technique clearly affected wine composition and sensory profile; barrel aged wines were characterized both by vanilla and honey notes, and a weaker perception of thiols despite containing a similar concentration to ST aged wines. Within this study, the ability of glutathione to decrease the oxidation of volatile thiols in Arneis wine was confirmed, but under experimental conditions employed, the addition of reduced glutathione did not lead to any statistically significant differences in sensory results.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Distribution of mycotoxins and risk assessment of maize consumers in five
           agro-ecological zones of Nigeria
    • Abstract: Abstract Many individuals are not only food insecure but chronically exposed to high levels of mycotoxins through their diets in many developing countries. Seventy composite samples of stored maize grains were collected from farmers’ storage structures in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Nigeria where maize is predominantly produced between August 2011 and February 2012. The grains were analysed for mycotoxin contamination with the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method and mycotoxin occurrence maps constructed from the database of the distribution of the toxins. A risk assessment was also carried out in order to provide information on the extent of human exposure to the toxins. Twelve regulated mycotoxins with negative economic and public health consequences were detected in the maize grains across the AEZs at concentrations exceeding the maximum allowable limits including AFM1 that was detected for the first time in Nigerian maize. There is a high risk of contamination of the stored grains by Nigerian consumers especially in the Derived and Southern Guinea Savannas, resulting in a national burden of between 126.85 and 38,682.29 DALYs. Intervention strategies are therefore needed across the AEZs to ensure that safe and wholesome foods are made available to the populace.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Aptasensor based on thionine, graphene–polyaniline composite film,
           and gold nanoparticles for kanamycin detection
    • Abstract: Abstract An electrochemical aptasensor modified with thionine (TH), graphene–polyaniline composite film (Gr–PANI), and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) was fabricated for convenient and sensitive determination of kanamycin. Gr–PANI nanocomposite can enhance electron transfer between work electrode surface and potassium ferricyanide. TH has excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the redox of small molecular compounds. GNPs acted as the transducer between the aptamer and Gr–PANI composites. Based on the above-mentioned advantage of these three nanaomatrials, we took advantage of their synergistic effects to fabricate a simple and sensitive aptasensor for kanamycin detection in real milk samples. The aptasensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscope, and electrochemical differential pulse voltammetry. The experimental conditions such as concentration of aptamer, incubation temperature, time, and pH were optimized. Based on the above optimum conditions, this aptasensor showed a favorable analytical performance for kanamycin detection with a detection limit of 8.6 × 10−9 M.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Comparing the effects of exogenous abscisic acid on the phenolic
           composition of Yan 73 and Cabernet Sauvignon (       class="a-plus-plus">Vitis vinifera L.) wines
    • Abstract: Abstract Phenolic compounds from red wines exert a strong influence on wine quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is essential for the physiological and biochemical function of plants, but few investigators have thoroughly researched its effects on phenolic compounds in dyer grape varieties. The effects of exogenous ABA treatment on the phenolic composition and individual anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin phenolic contents of Yan 73 and Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the ABA-treated grapes, including anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes were compared. The phenolic compounds in the Yan 73 wine were different from those in the Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The phenolic content (anthocyanins and non-anthocyanins) of the Yan 73 wine was significantly higher than that of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The concentrations of the individual phenolic compounds were enhanced by the ABA treatment for the two different wine varieties. The effects on the compositions varied, a similar trend was observed for the ratios of Cy-derivative and Dp-derivative pigments from the two wine varieties, and all non-acylated pigments were enhanced. The stilbene content was enhanced, the ratios of flavan-3-ol dimers and dimer-glucosides were reduced, and the effects on the composition of other compounds varied between the two grape varieties.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Microbial population dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of        class="a-plus-plus">Asparagus officinalis L. young
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess the spontaneous fermentation of Asparagus officinalis L. young sprouts. For this purpose, asparagus fermentation was performed according to a traditional procedure originating from northern Greece. Young asparagus sprouts were cut, submerged in a brine solution (8 % NaCl) and placed in room temperature for fermentation to occur. Fermentation was monitored by measuring pH and total titratable acidity values as well as by qualitative and quantitative assessment of the microbiota dynamics. The latter was performed by classical microbiological techniques; clustering was performed by SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and rep-PCR and identification by sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene. A culture-independent approach [PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] was also applied in order to obtain a more integrated view of the microbiota dynamics. Lactic acid bacteria prevailed the fermentation forming a microbial consortium that was stable at species level; Lactobacillus sakei and Enterococcus faecium dominated until the 5th day while Weissella viridescens and W. cibaria dominated from the 7th day until the end of fermentation. Combination of SDS-PAGE with rep-PCR resulted in a very efficient clustering and differentiation also at sub-species level, revealing a succession at that level of all species throughout fermentation. On the other hand, application of PCR-DGGE was of limited usefulness.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Efficient purification of cryoprotective dehydrin protein from the radish
           (Raphanus sativus)
    • Abstract: Abstract Dehydrin is a protein that is related to cold stress tolerance in plants. Because dehydrin shows potent cryoprotective activity, it has the potential to be used in food storage applications. In this paper, we presented an efficient purification method for native dehydrin from radishes (Raphanus sativus). Immunoblot analysis using an anti-Arabidopsis KS-type dehydrin antibody revealed that the related dehydrin accumulates in the radish taproot. The radish dehydrin that accumulated in the vascular tissues of the taproot was purified through two simple chromatographic steps: immobilized metal affinity chromatography followed by anion exchange chromatography. The yield was higher than yields previously reported on a fresh weight basis. The cryoprotective activity for malate dehydrogenase shown by purified dehydrin was more potent than that shown by small molecule cryoprotectants. This suggests that the radish is an appropriate source for the production of native dehydrin.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Use of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance to characterize water
           properties in frozen chicken breasts thawed under high pressure
    • Abstract: Abstract The state of water in high-pressure-thawed and conventionally water bath-thawed chicken breasts was analyzed using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance. The influence of high-pressure thawing on water holding capacity, including thawing loss, cooking loss and expressible fluid, was evaluated. Thawing loss was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared to the conventional thawing method but neither cooking loss nor total expressible fluid changed significantly (p > 0.05). Higher thawing pressures lead to the T21 relaxation time being increased from 39.9 to 55.9 ms, and P21 increased from 89.5 to 94.9 %. Significant negative correlations (p < 0.01) were observed between the thawing loss and T21, T22, P21. These results indicate that high thawing pressures can transform the water from the loosely bound water fraction (T22) to a more tightly bound (T21) water fraction with the increase in water relaxation time.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Phytoestrogenic activity of        class="a-plus-plus">Aceriphyllum rossii and rapid
           identification of phytoestrogens by LC–NMR/MS and bioassay-guided
    • Abstract: Abstract Aceriphyllum rossii Engler (Saxifragaceae) has been used as a nutritious food in Korea, but only minimal studies on this plant have been undertaken. We have examined the estrogenic effect of A. rossii and have discovered its potent constituents. To identify the estrogenic activity of A. rossii, we measured the transactivation of the estrogen-responsive element (ERE) in MCF-7 cells transfected with an ERE-containing construct after treatment of the extract and fractions of A. rossii. A. rossii showed a potent estrogenic activity and gallic acid ethyl ester; quercetin and kaempferol were identified as major constituents of the active fractions by liquid chromatography–nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy/mass spectrometry. We confirmed quercetin and kaempferol are the major active constituents after activity-guided isolation of seven compounds: gallic acid ethyl ester (1), quercetin (2), kaempferol (3), quercetin-3-O-(6″-galloyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), kaempferol-3-O-(6″-galloyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (6), and kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (7). These results show A. rossii could be a possible candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Purification and identification of an ACE-inhibitory peptide from walnut
           protein hydrolysate
    • Abstract: Abstract Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase. It plays an important physiological role in regulating blood pressure in human bodies. ACE-inhibitory peptides inhibit the activity of ACE, thereby decreasing the tension of blood vessels and the blood volume, thus lowering blood pressure. ACE-inhibitory peptides derived from food proteins due to their safety properties and beneficial effects on human health have attracted more and more attentions on their ACE-inhibitory activity. In the present study, a novel ACE-inhibitory peptide, P-1a1, was homogeneously purified from walnut protein hydrolysate by ultrafiltration, consecutive column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The purified peptide was characterized by Edman degradation, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrophotometer and a liquid-phase peptide sequencer. The amino acid sequence of P-1a1 was determined to be LPGRPPIKPWPL. The potent ACE-inhibitory peptide showed a high ACE-inhibitory activity with the IC50 value of 128.98 μg/mL (95.2 μmol/L). The purified peptide could be used in functional food products as a bioactive component with good ACE-inhibitory activity.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Effect of ethanol fraction of burdock leaf on biofilm formation and
           bacteria growth
    • Abstract: Abstract The inhibition effects of burdock leaf ethanol fraction on the viability, biofilm formation of food-related bacteria and the mechanism were first investigated. The results showed that burdock leaf ethanol fraction significantly inhibited the formation of biofilm by Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The lowest concentration of the fraction that showed 100 % inhibition on the formation of L. monocytogenes biofilm was 2.50 mg/ml, which was equal to the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against bacterial growth. As for S. aureus, the lowest concentration of burdock leaf fraction that completely inhibited (100 %) the formation of biofilm was found to be 1.25 mg/ml, which was lower than MIC of the fraction (2.5 mg/ml). Thus, the biofilm inhibition effect of burdock leaf fraction against S. aureus was not completely due to the inhibition on bacteria growth. Then, the effects of burdock leaf fraction on quorum sensing signals were evaluated through GC–MS/MS analysis. The results indicated that burdock leaf fraction interfered with quorum sensing system and changed the composition of signaling molecules, thereby affecting the function of the quorum sensing system, significantly inhibiting the formation of biofilm. Then, the chemical composition of burdock leaf fraction was analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)–MS/MS and eight active compounds were identified. The burdock leaf fraction based on its interfering with quorum sensing systems and the significant inhibition on the formation of biofilm could be highly useful in control of biofilms.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • The effect of infrared stabilized rice bran substitution on nutritional,
           sensory, and textural properties of cracker
    • Abstract: Abstract The potential of infrared stabilized rice bran (SRB) as an ingredient in cracker formulation in terms of nutritional, sensory, and textural attributes was evaluated. Crackers were supplemented with infrared SRB at the rate of 2.5, 5, and 10 % based on flour weight. Crude fat, total ash, insoluble dietary fiber, and Zn, Fe, Ca, K, and P content of the crackers were significantly increased with increasing rice bran substitution (p < 0.05). Phytate content of the crackers that were substituted with 10 % of SRB was approximately three times higher than the control samples. Contribution of 10 % of SRB substitution to B vitamins of crackers was 46, 30, 317, and 121 % for thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and pyridoxine, respectively. The effect on sensory scores of the panelists or textural attributes of the crackers of the replacement of refined wheat flour with SRB up to 10 % was insignificant (p > 0.05).
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Detection of roe deer, red deer, and hare meat in raw materials and
           processed products available in Poland
    • Abstract: Abstract To allow detection of meat from the most popular game species in Poland, we developed a PCR-based method for identification of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and hare (Lepus europaeus). The designed primers were based on the noncoding, mitochondrial D-loop region. Amplicon sizes ranged from 116 to 255 bp. The primers exhibited no cross-reactivity with the DNA from common slaughter and other game species. The detection limit of the assay was established to be below 0.001 % in raw red deer (C. elaphus) and hare (L. europaeus) meat, and below 0.01 % in raw roe deer (C. capreolus) meat, whereas <0.5 % of hare and red deer meat in processed samples could be detected. The PCR-based assay was used for authentication of 17 samples of raw game meat and 32 samples of game meat-containing products available in Polish markets. Analysis of all tested raw meat and processed products revealed the presence of DNA of investigated species in concordance with producers’ declarations.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Multiplex real-time PCR Method for the detection and quantification of DNA
           from the four transgenic soy traits DP-356043-5, DP-305423-1, MON 87701,
           and BPS-CV127-9 and lectin
    • Abstract: Abstract According to the release of authorization, several new transgenic soy crops are expected to be present in the harvest of soy beans. In contrast to earlier times, methods for the detection of these transgenic crops are available already in advance. However, these methods are mainly still inefficient single real-time PCR methods. To increase the efficiency of product control, a multiplex quantitative real-time PCR system was developed and characterized for the four new transgenic soy traits DP-356043-5, DP-305423-1, MON 87701 and BPS-CV127-9. It showed amplification efficiency, correlation and sensitivity similar to the single PCR systems applied therein. To evaluate the robustness, an appropriate testing scheme was developed and applied for the first time on this multiplex real-time PCR system. It showed the robust amplification of all analytes also in case where conditions were varied. This system allows relative multiplex quantification and/or delta–delta Ct method quantification and proofed the applicability in routine.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Influence of sequential inoculation of        class="a-plus-plus">Wickerhamomyces anomalus and
    in the quality of red wines
    • Abstract: Abstract The use of mixed inoculation of non-Saccharomyces yeasts and S. cerevisiae in wine fermentations is of increasing interest for quality enhancement and improved complexity of wines. The effect of sequential inoculation of Wickerhamomyces anomalus (formerly Hansenula anomala) with interesting enological properties in terms of secondary metabolite production and a commercial S. cerevisiae strain in fermentation of non-sterilized red musts from Mazuela variety has been examined. The wines elaborated by sequential inoculation presented higher levels of acetates and ethyl esters, compounds that supply a fruity note, higher levels of lineal alcohols, which are responsible for herbaceous notes and lower concentrations of organic acids, that contribute to increase the aromatic quality, than wines produced by a S. cerevisiae monoculture. Both types of wines were comparable in levels of volatile acidity, glycerol, lactic acid and succinic acid produced. Sensory analysis showed that red wines obtained by mixed fermentations were preferred by 71.5 % of the tasters and were particularly appreciated for its floral and/or fruity notes.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Quick detection technique for clenbuterol hydrochloride by using surface
           plasmon resonance biosensor
    • Abstract: Abstract Clenbuterol hydrochloride (CLB) is a kind of lean meat powder which can increase the conversion rate of lean meat. Though it is allowed in human and veterinary medicine, CLB is harmful for human body and, therefore, is restricted to its use as a growth promoter. In this paper, a quick detection technique for clenbuterol hydrochloride is proposed. The technique, which is based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and immune reaction, includes two methods, the direct method and the suppression method. The direct method can be applied, to screen an antibody and in the study of the dynamic reaction. For the immune suppression method, the concentration of CLB is inversely proportional to the change of SPR angle. The detection limit of this method is smaller than 2 μg/L, and the pork extraction is detected. The concentration of CLB in the sample is 2.75 μg/L, and the concentration of antibody is 250 μg/L. The detection of CLB by SPR is quick, highly sensitive, and label free. And the utilized equipment is cheap, simple, environmental friendly, and easy to control. The proposed technique could achieve the real-time detection of a large number of samples and be widely used to detect CLB in all fields of food processing. Therefore, this method is expected to be used in the inspection process for foods in the supermarket, bazaar, and factory.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • A simple method based on image processing to estimate primary pigment
           levels of Sichuan Dark Tea during post-fermentation
    • Abstract: Abstract A new method quantifying the primary pigments of Sichuan Dark Tea (SDT) rapidly based on the image processing was established. The correlations between the color parameters obtained from SDT images by employing the scanner and Photoshop software and the primary pigment levels were analyzed, and the regression models based on these color parameters were established as well. The results showed that the contents of theaflavin, thearubigins and theabrownin significantly correlated with the parameters of RGB and CMYK modes. The contents of chlorophyll (Chl) Chl-a and Chl-b had high correlation with the parameters of RGB and HSB modes. All the regression models established had the best goodness of fit, in the 95 % confidence intervals, the prediction error of them varied from −3.12 to 2.05 %. Thus, the primary pigments of SDT during post-fermentation could be excellently quantified by the image processing methods developed here.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • In situ monitoring of starch gelatinization with limited water content
           using confocal laser scanning microscopy
    • Abstract: Abstract The gelatinization of starch is crucial for the production of bakery products. Therefore, the examination of the characteristics and the extent of this process are of fundamental importance for research and product development. Typical analysis methods for studying structural starch changes during heating are performed in excess of water. Considering that wheat dough is a complex system with reduced water content, an option to analyze starch gelatinization under actual product conditions is missing. Therefore, an in situ method in a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) equipped with a heating system was developed to monitor the starch gelatinization in samples with different flour to water ratios [(m:v) 1:0.39, 0.49, 0.51, 0.53, 0.55, 0.57, 0.59, 0.98, 4.91, 5.63 and 7.14]. The new method was used to investigate the start of starch gelatinization temperature (T G) by using thresholds based on first derivatives with highest correlation between T G of CLSM and the onset temperature (T o) of differential scanning calorimetry. A highly significant linear correlation between T G of A-type granules and T o was observed (R 2 = 0.903). The size and shape of granules with a ratio of 1:0.98 show a clear impairment against samples with higher water content. The newly modified in situ method enables the measurement of starch gelatinization in different flour to water ratios independent of secondary factors. Consequently, it can be used for complex starch-based systems with reduced water content to investigate the actual starch granule structure disintegration.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Internal bags with barrier layers for foods packed in recycled paperboard:
           recent progress
    • Abstract: Abstract Internal bags for packaging dry foods into boxes of recycled paperboard, collected in Dresden and Zurich in June 2013, were investigated with regard to the layer composition and the barrier efficiency against substances migrating from the recycled fibers. The layers were identified by microtome cuts and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, often after wet-chemical separation of the layers. The barrier efficiency was tested with five surrogate substances and classified between 1 and 5, with class 1 having no significant barrier effect, 4 being a virtually tight barrier consisting of polymeric material and 5 including an aluminum foil. Merely 17 of the 87 bags (20 %) consisted of paper or polyethylene that constituted insignificant barriers. Bags of oriented polypropylene, substantially reducing migration (class 2), were encountered in 32 % of the packs; those with more efficient, but still incomplete barriers (class 3) in 16 % and virtually tight barriers (classes 4 and 5) in 32 % of the products. This is a strong move toward efficient barriers compared to the findings in 2010. Efficient or tight barriers were found for nearly all food types, which suggests that there are no important technical obstacles against the inclusion of a barrier layer into all bags to protect the food against contamination from the recycled paper board.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • In vitro evaluation of the suitability potential probiotic of lactobacilli
           isolates from the gastrointestinal tract of chicken
    • Abstract: Abstract Probiotic lactobacilli could be used to decrease the colonization of pathogenic bacteria in chicken and therefore decrease the risk of foodborne illness to consumers. The present study was conducted to select appropriate microbial strains for the development of potential probiotic. In experiment 1, 18 strains of lactobacilli isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of chicken were evaluated. The strains were demonstrated for their lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and exopolysaccharide productions. For experiment 2, the strains were tested for their acid, bile, antimicrobial activity, and antibiotic resistance levels. Among them, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii BAZ32, Lactobacillus acidophilus BAZ29, BAZ36, BAZ43, and BAZ63 which produced high EPS were selected to aggregation ability. It is concluded that L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii BAZ32, L. acidophilus BAZ29 confer high tolerance to acid, bile, antibiotic resistance, high antimicrobial activity, aggregation ability, and EPS production. These strains may be functional feed additives as potential probiotic in chicken.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
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