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Diabetology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 5)
Dialectical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.314, h-index: 9)
Die Weltwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 15)
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 7)
Digestive Diseases and Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 89)
Directieve therapie     Hybrid Journal  
Discrete & Computational Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 40)
Discrete Event Dynamic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.42, h-index: 32)
Distributed and Parallel Databases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.766, h-index: 30)
Distributed Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 31)
DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater     Full-text available via subscription  
Documenta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 40)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 10)
Doklady Biological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Doklady Botanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 12)
Doklady Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.48, h-index: 17)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.345, h-index: 13)
Doklady Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 17)
Douleur et Analg├ęsie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.113, h-index: 6)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 8)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access  
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.481, h-index: 5)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 102, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 52)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 9)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 16)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, h-index: 7)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 29)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 21)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 9)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 27)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 26)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 43)
Economia e Politica Industriale     Hybrid Journal  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.375, h-index: 6)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.527, h-index: 44)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 9)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.557, h-index: 34)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 14)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.909, h-index: 93)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.333, h-index: 56)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.374, h-index: 15)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.776, h-index: 61)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 9)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 32)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.785, h-index: 52)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 18)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.883, h-index: 10)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.582, h-index: 16)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 8)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.407, h-index: 15)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.678, h-index: 25)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 16)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 31)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.285, h-index: 39)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 15)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 57)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.638, h-index: 31)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 14)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.176, h-index: 7)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 30)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 32)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.632, h-index: 54)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 58)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 28)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 63)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 4)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 24)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.013, h-index: 36)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.942, h-index: 66)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 31)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 52)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.885, h-index: 46)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.4, h-index: 17)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.608, h-index: 38)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.287, h-index: 63)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.731, h-index: 89)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 62)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 6)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 3)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 16)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.206, h-index: 9)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)

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Journal Cover   European Food Research and Technology
  [SJR: 0.803]   [H-I: 56]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2291 journals]
  • β-Glucosidase removal due to bentonite fining during wine making
    • Abstract: Abstract Grape proteins are discussed to cause haze formation in bottled wine leading to economic problems. A common way to remove these proteins is bentonite fining. Although the efficiency of bentonite treatment is well known, the underlying molecular mechanism of the fining process in wine is not well understood. Two white wine varieties, Riesling and Pinot gris, were treated in the must stage with different types of bentonite to investigate their efficiencies. In all cases, bentonite treatment significantly reduced the overall protein concentration based on SDS-PAGE analysis, albeit individual proteins were differently affected. However, our data indicate that one protein band was completely removed independent of the bentonite type. Mass spectrometry analysis identified the major protein as glucan endo-1,3-β-glucosidase of Vitis vinifera, which was accompanied by low amounts of several other proteins. Using molecular modeling, we propose that this enzyme with its positively charged surface is adsorbed on the negatively charged lamella of bentonite during the fining process.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • A novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for detection of the
           carrot materials in foods
    • Abstract: Abstract Carrot is an important elicitor of food allergy. In this study, we developed a novel molecular detection assay based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification technology for the detection of carrot in food materials. The assay had sensitivity up to 4 pg of the purified carrot DNA and had no cross-reactions with other species, such as fennel, parsley, anise, caraway, cumin, walnut, pecan, peanut, cashew, almond, pistachio, sunflower seed, sesame seed, chestnut, soy, barley, wheat, oat, rye, rice, cabbage, green pepper, onion, celery, cucumber, beef, mutton, pork, chicken and shrimp. The validation study demonstrated high reproducibility and specificity. This assay was proved to be a potential tool for the detection and label management of carrot allergens in foods.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Determination of nicotine in tea ( Camellia sinensis ) by
           LC–ESI–MS/MS using a modified QuEChERS method
    • Abstract: Abstract In this work, a method for qualification and quantification of nicotine in dry tea and tea infusions with LC–ESI–MS/MS has been developed. Sample preparation is based on QuEChERS. Nicotine-d4 served as internal standard. This simple and fast method leads to recoveries of 95–104 % and good repeatability. Coefficients of variation are 3.7 % for intra-day precision and 4.6 % for inter-day precision. Limit of quantification (5.9 µg kg−1) is below the requested value of 10 µg kg−1. For some samples, it was superior to use a HILIC column compared with the originally used RP-18. Application to real samples (n = 87) showed nicotine concentrations in dry tea from <0.01 to 1.95 mg kg−1. In brewing studies of green teas and black teas, it was confirmed that the extraction of nicotine into tea brews was between 49 and 52 % for a steeping time of 5 min.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Detection of dog and cat traces in food, pet food and farm animal feed by
           real-time PCR
    • Abstract: Abstract The identification of species presents in food is important due to many reasons. Some of them are economic fraud and/or sanitary problems, which could arise from inaccurate identifications of the composition of food products. Adulteration of processed meat generally occurs when there is a considerable price differential between raw materials from different species. Also, it occurs too when trying to introduce raw material of dubious origin, or even raw materials prohibited in some countries for cultural reasons. For example, dog traces were discovered in pet food in Spain in early 2013. This work describes development and validation of two real-time PCR methods, one for dog detection and other one for cat in foodstuffs. The method is based on specific primers/TaqMan probe sets that amplify a fragment of the Cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences. TaqMan probes allow rapid and accurate assessment of even very small quantities of contaminants, even in thermally treated products. The detection limit was 2 and 0.2 pg of the target DNA from dog and cat, respectively. The methodology was validated to check how the degree of food processing affects the applicability of this technique. Additionally, a total of 100 samples from pet food, farm animal products and raw material were analyzed to apply the developed methodology to commercial samples. Possible applications of these methods are as process control, food security, traceability verification in commercial trade and the correct application of food labelling regulations. In conclusion, the real-time PCR methodology described herein represents a useful tool for the detection of dog and cat traces in all kind of products, including processed products that have undergone aggressive treatments (canned meals and feeds).
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • T g and a w as criteria for the oxidative stability of spray-dried
           encapsulated paprika oleoresin
    • Abstract: Moisture sorption isotherms and glass transition temperature (T g) of paprika oleoresin microcapsules were evaluated. Microcapsules were produced by spray drying using modified starch (Capsul®) as encapsulating agent. The differential and integral thermodynamic functions of enthalpy and entropy were estimated from the sorption data for paprika oleoresin microcapsules. T g of microcapsules conditioned at various water activities (a w’s) were determined by modulated differential scanning calorimetry. The critical water content or water activity (RHc) was estimated from T g values. Both a w and T g were used to determine the critical conditions for microcapsules storage. The GAB model provided a good fit to the experimental data. The point of maximum stability according to the minimum integral entropy (ΔS int)T was found at a w = 0.241 at 35 °C, and at this point the system was within the glassy state. RHc was founded at a w = 0.789 at 35 °C; all microcapsules stored at a w’s ≤ 0.627 were able to maintain their structural integrity without caking and stickiness occurring. The lowest carotenoid degradation of microcapsules during storage at 35 °C proceeded at a w = 0.742, which was near to RHc; however, microcapsules stored at this a w showed incipient caking and agglomeration. Graphical
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Lithium content in the tea and herbal infusions
    • Abstract: Abstract Tea infusions provide many valuable nutrients, including elements. Lithium (Li) is an element which appears rather in small amounts both in environment and in the human tissues or body fluids. Now it is known that it plays a part in many important vital functions. Content of Li in food products is generally small, which is associated with its low consumption. The aim of the study was to examine the concentration of Li in the infusions prepared from different sort of teas available in the market. The content of Li was examined in 55 infusions of black, green, red, fruit and herbal teas. Quantitative studies were performed using atomic absorption spectrometry with atomization in graphite furnace. The largest amount of Li was extracted from the leaves of red tea and rooibos as well as some herbal teas. The determined content of Li in tea infusions was in the range 0.02–1.36 µg/g of tea, and 1 cup (250 mL) of analysed infusions (together with a tap water) provides 2.2–3.0 µg of Li.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.): evaluating microstructural changes
           during the malting process by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and
           scanning electron microscopy
    • Abstract: Abstract Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to investigate the microstructural changes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during the malting process. With the help of these powerful optical tools, the organization of starch, proteins and cell walls of cereals could be investigated separately in projections and the microstructure was visualized with an imaging software. Both microscopes were necessary for the investigation and the evaluation of microstructural changes, because SEM and CLSM have different merits and optical benefits. CLSM achieves an overview of single compounds of the grain, which can be used to quantify them. On the other hand, SEM has a higher magnification, where a deeper insight in the kernel structure could be obtained. In particular, the surface of starch kernels can be visualized, when they get degraded by enzymes. Furthermore, a detailed starch structure can be monitored by using SEM. Various grain regions, such as aleurone layer, starchy endosperm and germ, were visualized with the CLSM, and differences in the single fractions were clearly visible. Starch in unmalted cereals revealed that it is embedded in a compact protein network, which consists of protein bodies and is degraded during the malting process. Also the cell walls, mainly consisting of β-glucan, are clearly visible in the unmalted stage and get more and more degraded during the malting process. Hence the differences in the overall structure of unmalted to malted grains were investigated by CLSM and SEM and verified using established malt analysis.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • New qualitative trait-specific SYBR ® Green qPCR methods to expand
           the panel of GMO screening methods used in the CoSYPS
    • Abstract: Abstract Since 2011, a new Commission Regulation (EU/619/2011) defines that laboratories testing for genetically modified organisms (GMO) need to be able to detect also genetically modified (GM) events pending for authorisation. This, in addition to the fact that the number of GM events authorised in the European Union (EU) that need to be identified multiplies rapidly and that the detection of unauthorised GMO becomes more important, led to the development of a time and cost-effective screening approach. Moreover, the GM elements that are utilised in the transgenic inserts also become increasingly diverse. Consequently, the screening approaches have to be updated to enable full coverage and better discrimination of all these events. To respond to this need, two new qualitative SYBR®Green real-time PCR (qPCR) methods were developed and in-house validated: one method is element-specific and targets the Cry3Bb trait, and the other one is a construct-specific method detecting the gat-tpinII junction. Method acceptance parameters such as the sensitivity, specificity and repeatability were assessed as well as the robustness of the methods. Additionally, the reproducibility was evaluated by transferring the methods to a second laboratory. Both methods allow a specific, sensitive and repeatable detection of the respective targets in food and feed samples and can be easily applied in a routine laboratory. Moreover, they can be used together with previously validated SYBR®Green qPCR methods to expand the panel of screening methods. This allows an extended coverage of the GM events authorised in the EU and adds discriminative power to the screening phase.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Monitoring of some selected heavy metals throughout the brewing process of
           craft beers by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
    • Abstract: Abstract Herbicides, fungicides and bactericides containing heavy metals used in agriculture make it possible to find these toxic metals in beer (Čejka et al. in Ecol Chem Eng S 18:67–74, 2011). The aim of this work was to monitor the distribution of some toxic heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and arsenic (As) during craft beers production (three types of beer produced in four different breweries). The instrumental method adopted in this investigation was inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The collected results demonstrated how a very low (µg/L) heavy metal contamination (mainly Cr, Zn and Cu) was provided by raw materials (water, malt, hops and yeasts) and that these toxic metals mostly pass into the residuals (spent grains, hot trub and yeasts), so only a negligible fraction of them can be detected in beer. For example, treating hops with a high dose of pesticides containing Cu did not cause an increase in its content in final beer because a large part of copper remains in hot trub. Furthermore, the filtration phase caused the increase in the concentration of Cd, Zn, Fe and As, probably due to the use of filtration aids. These increases were insignificant healthwise [,2002)]. The craft beers produced without the final filtration did not present this increase. Pb and Ni were always found below the detection limits.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Extracellular peptidases from insect- and compost-associated
           microorganisms: screening and usage for wheat gluten hydrolysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Screening for microorganisms with an enzyme activity for a specific application is challenging. In this study, we showed a successful way to isolate microorganisms from insects and compost samples, which had a desired enzyme activity, namely the hydrolysis of wheat gluten. This was realized by a two-step screening approach. The first step was an agar plate screening assay for extracellular peptidase activity, and the most promising organisms were further tested in a second screening step: the hydrolysis of a wheat gluten suspension. Here, the extracellular peptidases of two microorganisms showed similar hydrolysis performances compared to the commercial enzyme preparation Alcalase®. The best isolate, which was identified as a Bacillus subtilis species, was cultivated in a bioreactor (35 L scale) to produce a larger amount of the extracellular peptidases. The peptidase activities in the cell-free culture medium were partially purified, as it is common for technical enzyme preparations for the food industry. After centrifugation and ultrafiltration, an ammonium sulfate precipitation was performed. This peptidase preparation was biochemically characterized, and the obtained stability was sufficient for application. Wheat gluten hydrolytic approaches (500 mL scale) were performed under controlled conditions (e.g., pH value). The amount of solubilized gluten protein obtained after 24 h hydrolysis was higher using the enzyme preparation from the isolate compared to Alcalase®. The enzyme stability increased under process conditions, compared to the stability in buffer, due to the stabilizing effect of the substrate. The biochemical characteristics and the hydrolysis performance showed the potential of the novel extracellular peptidases for the hydrolysis of the industrially relevant substrate wheat gluten.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Glycerol and cobalamin metabolism in lactobacilli: relevance of the
           propanediol dehydrogenase pdh 30
    • Abstract: Abstract The genes involved in the glycerol metabolism, glycerol dehydratase (gdh) and two propanediol dehydrogenases (pdh30 and pdh1734), were analyzed in different reuterin- and non-reuterin-producing lactobacilli of biotechnological interest. All the reuterin-producing lactobacilli expressed the gdh, pdh30 and pdh1734, except Lb. coryniformis CECT 5711 which did not contain pdh30. Reuterin production levels in Lb. coryniformis CECT 5711 were much lower than those in reuterin-producing Lb. reuteri. A positive relationship between cobalamin production levels and reuterin production levels was observed in all reuterin-producing lactobacilli tested. Intriguingly, when Lb. coryniformis CECT 5711 was supplemented with cobalamin, a seven times increase in reuterin production was observed. On the other hand, Lb. brevis ESI38 that possess and express gdh, pdh30 and pdh1734, was unable to produce reuterin or cobalamin. To study the role of pdh30 during glycerol metabolism, the gene disruption mutant Lb. brevis INIA ESI38::pORI28-pdh30 was constructed. HPLC analysis of the glycerol fermentation products showed an involvement of the pdh30 in the 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) biosynthesis. However, Lb. coryniformis, that lack pdh30, showed the higher levels of 3-HP, indicating other catalytic mechanisms to produce 3-HP in this strain. The 1,3-propanediol peak was detected in the Lb. reuteri and Lb. coryniformis chromatograms, but not in Lb. brevis, which also confirm divergences in Lactobacillus glycerol metabolism.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Influence of specific taste-active components on meat flavor as affected
           by intrinsic and extrinsic factors: an overview
    • Abstract: Abstract Beef flavor is considered as the most important factor of eating quality and overall acceptability of consumers. Previous studies on beef flavor have demonstrated the role of numerous volatile compounds in meat aroma. However, the contribution of water-soluble compounds such as peptides, amino acids, reducing sugars, nucleotides, acids, and vitamins to the cooked beef taste is not fully known. The present review has mainly focused on the factors associated with flavor of beef and contribution of aforementioned constituents to the flavor. A number of studies have documented that intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as diet/feeding regimes, breed and sex of animal, aging condition, and pH of meat significantly influence the meat flavor. These aforementioned factors differently affect the concentration and level of taste-active compounds and taste contents. Also, it has been established that the amount and proportion of these compounds were affected by the genetic differences among individual meat cuts and the outcome of glycolysis, proteolysis, and lipolysis processes. Conclusively, this review provides insight into the previous significant literature reports on flavor and identifies important factors that are associated with flavor precursors of proteolysis and glycolysis with the viewpoint of palatability of beef meat.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Development of novel sourdoughs with in situ formed exopolysaccharides
           from acetic acid bacteria
    • Abstract: Abstract Acetic acid bacterial strains were investigated for their ability to grow in aerobic and anaerobic sourdoughs (dough yield = 500) produced from wheat, whole wheat, spelt and rye flour and to produce effectual levels of exopolysaccharides (EPS) within 48 h of fermentation. The strains Kozakia (K.) baliensis DSM 14400 and Neoasaia (N.) chiangmaiensis NBRC 101099 were chosen. Both strains remained in aerobic doughs produced with any of the tested flours. For EPS optimization, 50, 75 and 100 g/l sucrose (sucrose) were added to the doughs and the parameters EPS, pH value, sucrose, acetic acid and gluconic acid were analysed. Results were subjected to statistical data analysis. In sucrose-enriched spelt dough, K. baliensis reached up to 49 g/kg EPS, followed by whole wheat (33 g/kg), wheat and rye dough (32–36 g/kg). N. chiangmaiensis produced 24–29 g/kg EPS in spelt and whole wheat doughs. EPS formation was positively correlated with start sucrose dosage. In contrast to this, a rather negative relation between acetic acid formation and start sucrose was found for both strains, and a positive relation with fermentation time. In spelt doughs, K. baliensis and N. chiangmaiensis produced up to 100 and 21–38 mM/kg acetic acid, respectively. Formation of gluconic acid was positively correlated with start sucrose dosage. K. baliensis produced at maximum 165 mM/kg flour and N. chiangmaiensis at maximum 119 mM/kg flour. Remaining sucrose contents were always positively correlated with start sucrose dosage, whereby both tested strains reached remaining sucrose amounts below 50 g/kg. A subsequent experiment with K. baliensis in backslopped spelt dough showed that this strain can remain in the dough over at least 8 days.
      PubDate: 2015-08-01
  • Influence of vintage and selected starter on Torulaspora delbrueckii /
           Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequential fermentation
    • Abstract: Abstract The practice of sequential fermentation of grape juice with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter strain coupled with a selected culture of a non-Saccharomyces yeast is used to improve the sensory profile and add complexity of wines. In this study, the effect of Torulaspora delbrueckii/S. cerevisiae sequential fermentation on Verdicchio wine under winery conditions was investigated, evaluating grape juices of three different vintages and two S. cerevisiae starter strains. In the 3 years of examination, some of oenological characters of the final wines were influenced by grape juices coming from different vintages. However, in all cases, T. delbrueckii/S. cerevisiae sequential fermentation influenced the analytical profiles of the Verdicchio wines according to the S. cerevisiae starter strain used. Indeed, different behaviours were found for the same T. delbrueckii strain together with the autochthonous Sc151 or the commercial VIN13 S. cerevisiae yeast, indicting that the yeast–yeast interaction plays an important role in analytical profile of wines. On the other hand, specific contributions were seen with T. delbrueckii, which is inoculated in sequential fermentation for three consecutive vintages using different starters.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30
  • The identification of relationships between selected honey parameters by
           extracting the contribution of independent variables in a neural network
    • Abstract: Abstract Honey is a product having many valuable properties for human health. The honey quality control regarding its floral or geographical origin, as well as a potential adulteration, should be carried out at any stage of processing and marketing. At present, some new methods of honey quality assessment based on its electrical parameters measurement are developed. The development of accurate methods, which could be useful in practice, requires the knowledge of the relationships between honey chemical and electrical parameters. In particular, the level of the influence of chemical parameters which are modified during honey quality deterioration on electrical features is of the great importance. When the complex impedance is used as electrical parameter, the influence of frequency on relationships investigated is essential. In this work, the influence of glucose content/fructose content ratio, water activity, HMF content, pH, diastase as well as the temperature on honey impedance measured in the frequency of 260 Hz, 11 kHz and 160 kHz has been investigated. Three different methods of the determination of independent variables contribution in a neural network model have been employed. The highest influence on the real part of impedance measured for each frequency has been calculated for HMF content and pH. Similar results have been obtained in the case of the imaginary part of impedance measured for the frequency of 260 Hz. For higher frequencies, the increase in the influence of water activity, diastase and glucose content/fructose content ratio on the imaginary part of impedance has been observed.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30
  • Comparison of the efficiency of different NF membranes for the enrichment
           of milk oligosaccharides from bovine milk
    • Abstract: Abstract Oligosaccharides in milk (MOS) have been reported in the literature to exert various bioactivities and to modulate the immune system. However, processes to obtain milk oligosaccharides on industrial scale as food ingredients are currently not available. Therefore, the aim of the study on hand was the evaluation of different nanofiltration (NF) membranes for the enrichment of MOS from bovine milk. Moreover, a transfer of the NF process from laboratory to pilot plant and industrial scale was performed. The immunostimulatory effect of the MOS concentrates was studied by the activity of NFκB in human embryotic kidney cells (HEKnfκbRE-cells). NF was carried out with lactose hydrolyzed skimmed and ultrafiltered milk permeate by application of different membranes. The quantification of MOS was determined by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and parallel online electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry. The enrichment of MOS (3-sialyl-lactose, 6-sialyl-lactose, N-acetylgalactosaminyl-lactose) on laboratory, pilot plant and industrial scale was achieved by the retention of these oligosaccharides of at least 50 % in NF retentate. The content of MOS in relation to total sugar content in the retentate from NF on industrial scale was 100-fold higher than in the initial sample. The MOS retentates and the standards (3-sialyl-lactose, 6-sialyl-lactose) exhibited increased NFκB activity in HEKnfκbRE-cells. Although there exist a few studies about the enrichment of MOS by NF, this is the first report about a screening of the efficiency of different NF membranes for the enrichment of MOS on different technological scales of production.
      PubDate: 2015-07-29
  • Phytochemicals in native Peruvian Capsicum pubescens (Rocoto)
    • Abstract: Abstract Peru is considered a hotspot with maybe the highest diversity of domesticated chili peppers. Capsicum pubescens is the least explored domesticated chili pepper, especially with regard to its chemical composition. Thirty-two different C. pubescens (Rocoto) accessions, out of the national Peruvian Capsicum germplasm collection at the Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria, were selected for investigating the phytochemical content and its variability. After drying and milling, the fruits were analyzed for the three major capsaicinoids (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nordihydrocapsaicin), flavonoid aglycons (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, tocopherol (α-, β- and γ-) content, fat content, ascorbic acid content, surface color and extractable color. The concentrations for selected traits ranged as follows: total capsaicinoids from 55 to 410 mg/100 g (corresponding to ca. 8400–60,000 SHU), total polyphenols from 1.8 to 2.5 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g, antioxidant capacity from 2.4 to 4.6 mmol Trolox/100 g and tocopherols from 6.8 to 18.4 mg/100 g. Only very few of the accessions contained detectable amounts of the major chili flavonoid quercetin. The results indicate that C. pubescens is generally less diverse and exhibits a lower content of almost all analyzed traits when compared to 147 Peruvian chili pepper accessions belonging to the other four domesticated species.
      PubDate: 2015-07-29
  • Effect of chemical composition on physico-chemical, rheological and
           sensory properties of spreadable processed whey cheese
    • Abstract: Abstract Pasteurised processed cheese spreads of varying chemical composition were developed, using a Myzithra-type cheese, which is a high-moisture and low-fat fresh whey cheese. Nine novel, spreadable processed whey cheese (PWC) samples were prepared comprising only of whey proteins, while guar gum was added as a stabiliser. All samples had a pH value of 5.20, which was obtained with the addition of a starter culture. The effect of chemical composition on the physico-chemical and rheological properties of PWC samples was studied. Due to their texture, two instrumental techniques, lubricated squeezing flow viscometry and texture profile analysis, were considered appropriate for the evaluation of samples. The decrease in protein content or the increase in fat content produced less viscous, consistent and solid samples, which were more spreadable. Protein content was shown to be a better predictor of the texture of PWC samples. Sensory assessments revealed that the majority of PWC samples had good spreadability and flavour and were rated as highly acceptable. Results of sensory and instrumental analyses were highly positively correlated. Results have shown that the choice of the desired formulation could be manipulated for the production of processed whey cheese spreads with specific properties.
      PubDate: 2015-07-28
  • Selection of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains of human origin for
           use in dairy industry
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present study, phenotypic and genotypic methods and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were applied for the species identification of 29 out of 30 strains of the genus Lactobacillus isolated from faecal samples of 30 breastfed infants. All strains were tested for growth in milk and/or reconstituted skimmed milk supplemented with 0.5 % yeast extract, production of lactic acid, bile salts and low pH tolerance, and for production of β-glucuronidase. PCR screenings of tyrosine-decarboxylase and histidine-decarboxylase genes were also carried out. Survival of Lactobacillus cells at low pH and their bile tolerance were strain specific. Finally, seven strains of probiotic species were selected for possible use in the dairy industry and for further tests concerning their probiotic characteristics.
      PubDate: 2015-07-28
  • Development, and complete evaluation, of a novel Most-Probable-Number
           (MPN) qPCR method for accurate and express quantification of Listeria
           monocytogenes in foodstuffs
    • Abstract: Abstract Listeria monocytogenes is still one of the most significant food-borne pathogens. The reason for this importance relies on its capacity to survive under adverse conditions, such as low pH and/or low temperature, and more important is its high lethality, which can reach 30 % of infected individuals. At present, there are several methods available for its detection and enumeration, and a great effort has been focused on the development and evaluation of detection protocols. However, most enumeration approaches, based on culture techniques, take several days to complete, and most alternative protocols do not reach the legal limit required for this bacterium (100 cfu/g). The current study presents the complete development and evaluation of a Most-Probable-Number method combined with a real-time PCR confirmation step, which may be accomplished in 28 h. The method was evaluated in five different food types at different inoculation ranges and was also compared against the ISO 11290-2: 1998 which is the internationally accepted reference method. No discrepancies were observed with respect to the expected results of either inoculated or natural samples, thus proving the suitability of the method for its direct application in the food industry for the reliable control of this pathogen. Our MPN-qPCR proved to be faster than other molecular and traditional methods, as well as to have high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.
      PubDate: 2015-07-26
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