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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2302 journals)

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Diabetologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 163, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 161)
Diabetologia Notes de lecture     Hybrid Journal  
Diabetology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 5)
Dialectical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.314, h-index: 9)
Die Weltwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 15)
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 7)
Digestive Diseases and Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 89)
Directieve therapie     Hybrid Journal  
Discrete & Computational Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 40)
Discrete Event Dynamic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.42, h-index: 32)
Distributed and Parallel Databases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.766, h-index: 30)
Distributed Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 31)
DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater     Full-text available via subscription  
Documenta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 40)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 10)
Doklady Biological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Doklady Botanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 12)
Doklady Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.48, h-index: 17)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.345, h-index: 13)
Doklady Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 17)
Douleur et Analg├ęsie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.113, h-index: 6)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 8)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access  
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.481, h-index: 5)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 52)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 9)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 16)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, h-index: 7)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 29)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 21)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 9)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 27)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 26)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 43)
Economia e Politica Industriale     Hybrid Journal  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.375, h-index: 6)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.527, h-index: 44)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 9)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.557, h-index: 34)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 14)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.909, h-index: 93)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.333, h-index: 56)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.374, h-index: 15)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.776, h-index: 61)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 9)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 32)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.785, h-index: 52)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 18)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.883, h-index: 10)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.582, h-index: 16)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 8)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.407, h-index: 15)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.678, h-index: 25)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 16)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 31)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.285, h-index: 39)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 15)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 57)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.638, h-index: 31)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 14)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.176, h-index: 7)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 30)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 32)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.632, h-index: 54)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 58)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 28)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 63)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 4)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 24)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.013, h-index: 36)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.942, h-index: 66)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 31)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 52)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.885, h-index: 46)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.4, h-index: 17)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.608, h-index: 38)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.287, h-index: 63)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.731, h-index: 89)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 62)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 6)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 3)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 16)

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Journal Cover   European Food Research and Technology
  [SJR: 0.803]   [H-I: 56]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Investigating the thermal stability of six caffeoylquinic acids employing
           rapid-resolution liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight
           tandem mass spectrometry
    • Abstract: Abstract The caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) are one important group with various biological activities of natural products in herbal medicines and food plants. This finding caused new interest in the properties and thermal stability of CQAs, since many processing and preparation of pharmaceutical and foodstuffs involved liquid extraction and heating procedure. A rapid-resolution liquid chromatography method coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry has been developed to research the thermal stability and transformation products of the six CQAs, 5-O-CQA, 3-O-CQA, 4-O-CQA, 3, 4-O-di-CQA, 4, 5-O-di-CQA and 3, 5-O-di-CQA, in water by heating an aqueous solution of each compound in the boiling water for 0–6 h. The order of thermal stability is 5-O-CQA > 3-O-CQA > 4-O-CQA for mono-CQAs. However, it is different with the research results reported by Kuhnert et al.: When the mono-CQAs were treated with aqueous tetramethylammonium hydroxide (pH 12) at the room temperature, the order of the stability is 5-O-CQA > 4-O-CQA > 3-O-CQA in terms of the hydrolysis of the caffeoyl ester. For di-CQAs, the order of thermal stability is 4, 5-O-di-CQA > 3, 5-O-di-CQA > 3, 4-O-di-CQA during heated in the boiling water bath. The mono-CQAs undergo transformations such as isomerization, hydroxylation and/or transformation to caffeic acid and quinic acid. The di-CQAs could isomerize to each other and degrade to mono-CQAs, caffeic acid and the compounds with the formula of C15H14O6. It is useful for researchers to choose the proper sample procedure (extraction method and time) and investigate plant metabolism.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Characterization of the volatile profile of unifloral honey from Kashmir
           Valley of India by using solid-phase microextraction and gas
           chromatography–mass spectrometry
    • Abstract: The aim of the study was to characterize the volatile profile of three different unifloral honeys (apple, cherry and saffron) from Kashmir Valley of India by using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in order to discriminate between their floral origins. A total number of 42 volatiles, particularly aldehydes, esters, ketones, organic acids, hydrocarbons and alcohols, were detected, out of which 29 volatile components were detected for the first time as compared to data available from other countries. Only two compounds furfural and o-hydroxyanisole were found in all honey samples in the average range of 0.082–0.122 and 0.007–0.011 µg/g, respectively. Some volatile compounds present in each specific honey have also been detected in their respective floral origin, thus could be used as chemical markers in defining a given honey to its floral origin. Results showed unique floral markers to authenticate the botanical origin of apple honey, saffron honey and cherry honey allowing their marketing as monofloral rather than generic honey.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Erratum to: Biosynthesis of β (1,3)/(1,6)-glucans of cell wall of the
           yeast Candida utilis ATCC 9950 strains in the culture media supplemented
           with deproteinated potato juice water and glycerol
    • PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Identification of four Donax species by PCR–RFLP analysis of
           cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)
    • Abstract: Four Donax species, D. semistriatus, D. trunculus, D. variegatus and D. vittatus, are found on European coasts. Nevertheless, despite their economic importance there is not a reliable method to differentiate these species independently of their size or condition. Such a method could help to protect consumer rights and avoid commercial fraud due to the replacement of valuable species by less valuable ones with similar morphological traits. In this work, the sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I region was examined in individuals of these species to identify restriction site variation and develop polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphisms assays. Species-specific restriction endonuclease patterns were found with the enzymes AluI, HaeIII and MspI, allowing an exact identification of Donax species. This methodology provides simple, reliable and cost-effective identification of four Donax species and may be useful to prevent commercial fraud and to increase food traceability.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Quality evaluation by physical tests of a traditional Italian flat bread
           Piadina during storage and shelf-life improvement with sourdough and
           enzymes
    • Abstract: The aim of this work was to study the possibility to improve the shelf life of a traditional Italian flat bread named Piadina, typically cooked in the Romagna region, by using sourdough fermentation and enzymes. To evaluate Piadina quality during storage, chemical parameters, subjective and objective mechanical tests were used. Moreover, NIR spectroscopy, coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square regression (PLS), was used to discriminate the samples as a function of formulation and to predict storage time, respectively. The results show that the samples containing yeasts and lactic acid bacteria have higher values in water content. This result is also confirmed by the fact that the average water activity of the control sample is significantly lower compared with that of the samples containing enzymes, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria. For all formulations, rollability is significantly affected by storage time with decreased scores observed during storage. The synergistic action between enzymes, yeasts and lactic acid bacteria increases the shelf life, in terms of rollability. The evaluated texture parameters did not significantly correlate with subjective rollability. The PCA applied to spectroscopic data shows a clear separation between samples with different sourdough percentage, while the results of PLS regression, conducted to estimate the storage time, report determination coefficient spanning from 0.959 to 0.969.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Screening of antimicrobial compounds against Salmonellaty phimurium from
           burdock ( Arctium lappa ) leaf based on metabolomics
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of burdock leaf and screen the antimicrobial compounds from burdock leaf based on metabolomics. The crystal violet assay indicated that 34 % ethanol elution fraction of burdock leaf could completely inhibit biofilm formation of Salmonellaty phimurium at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. Then, the chemical composition of burdock leaf fraction was analyzed by UPLC–MS, and 10 active compounds (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, ursolic acid, rutin, luteolin, crocin, benzoic acid, tenacissoside I) were identified. Lastly, UPLC–MS analysis was applied to obtain the metabolic fingerprints of burdock leaf fractions before and after inhibiting the biofilm of S. phimurium. The metabolic fingerprints were transformed into data with the software MarkerLynx and analyzed with principle component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis. Then, 43 variables were screened as potential anti-biofilm ingredients. Among them, chlorogenic acid and quercetin were confirmed as potential anti-biofilm compounds in burdock leaf. It provided data basic for the study of anti-biofilm compounds in burdock leaves, as well as provided a new and convenient method for fast screening of anti-biofilm ingredients from natural plants.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • γ-Glutamyl- S -allyl-cysteine inhibits hepatic stellate cell
           proliferation and collagen secretion via a proapoptotic mechanism
    • Abstract: We investigated the effects of γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-cysteine (GSAC) on the activated HSC cell line HSC-T6. GSAC inhibited the proliferation of HSC-T6 cells for 24 h with a half inhibitory concentration of 0.084 ± 0.005 mg/mL. FITC–Annexin V/PI double staining revealed that concentrations of 0.02, 0.04, and 0.08 mg/mL GSAC induced apoptosis at rates of 4.72 ± 0.83, 8.56 ± 1.94, and 18.63 ± 0.98 %, respectively. A DNA ladder pattern was observed in cells treated with 0.04 and 0.08 mg/mL GSAC in agarose gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA. The mitochondrial membrane potential decreased and the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased in a concentration-dependent manner in GSAC-treated cells. Western blot analyses revealed that GSAC down-regulated TGF-β1, collagen I, and Bcl-2 and up-regulated Bax. GSAC also significantly increased the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. These results indicate that GSAC inhibited the proliferation and collagen secretion of HSC-T6 cells and that induction of ROS and apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway may play important roles in the underlying mechanism.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • The influence of acorn flour on rheological properties of gluten-free
           dough and physical characteristics of the bread
    • Abstract: Manufacture of gluten-free products requires the use of preselected raw materials. The number of such ingredients is limited; therefore, the portfolio of gluten-free bread is less variable and attractive in terms of their appearance, taste and nutritional value in comparison with traditional bread. The aim of the study was to apply debittered acorn flour as a natural nutritional enrichment of gluten-free bakery products and to check its effects on rheological properties of the dough and quality and staling of the bread. The analysis of rheological properties of gluten-free dough supplemented with acorn flour exhibited significant increase in the moduli G′ and G″ and a decrease in phase shift tangent, which denotes firming of dough structure. Introduction of limited amounts of acorn flour caused an increase in bread volume and improved crumb characteristics. In consequence of a diminished starch retrogradation, the respective loaves exhibited slower staling. Bread supplemented with acorn flour exhibited improved sensory acceptance. The obtained results signify that the application of debittered acorn flour in gluten-free baking could be useful for nutritional reasons, as it enriches bread with protein, minerals and dietary fiber, but also because of its technological effects, including structure strengthening, and sensory improvement.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Phase equilibrium and bioproduction of the aroma compound 2-phenylethanol
           in a biphasic aqueous system
    • Abstract: 2-Phenylethanol (PEA) is a very important natural aroma compound with a roselike odor. The solid–liquid phase equilibrium (SLE) with higher alkanols (decan-1-ol, hexadecan-1-ol, octadecan-1-ol and eicosan-1-ol), alkanes (eicosane) and oleic acid has been determined at ambient pressure in order to explore their potential application for continuous product extraction during fermentation. A dynamic method was used over a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from (246 to 338) K. Complete liquid miscibility and simple liquidus curves were observed for all binary (alkan-1-ol + PEA) systems. Liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) with the upper critical solution temperature was observed in case of (eicosane, or oleic acid + PEA) mixtures. Decan-1-ol was chosen as the best solvent for PEA. The influence of pressure on SLE was determined up to 700 MPa and at three different temperatures (303.15, 313.15 and 323.15) K. The experimental data were correlated with the non-random two-liquid equation, and both SLE and LLE data were described with average low root-mean-square deviation σ T  = 1.25 K for SLE and in mole fraction σ x  = 0.004 for LLE. The experimental data were in a very good agreement with the predictions of the group contribution model Mod. UNIFAC(Do) using published parameters. The main aim of this study was to determine the best solvent for a biphasic in situ product removal at temperature T = 303.15 K. Two solvents, decan-1-ol and oleic acid, were further tested for their influence on yeast cell growth, and both were found to be biocompatible. The well-known oleic acid was found to give better results than decan-1-ol in terms of extraction capability, biocompatibility and overall performance in the bioprocess. Graphical
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • New formulations of functional white sauces enriched with red sweet
           pepper: a rheological, microstructural and sensory study
    • Abstract: Red sweet peppers are good sources of antioxidant compounds, such as fibre and carotenoids. Therefore, innovative products that may replace traditional ones, such as white sauces enriched with red sweet pepper, should be developed to improve their functionality. The aim of this work was to study the rheological behaviour, microstructure, syneresis, colour, sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of new white sauces enriched with red sweet pepper. The results of the rheological studies (viscoelastic behaviour) showed that in the available frequency window all the sauces showed a predominance of the elastic modulus versus the viscous modulus. The effect of incorporating red pepper on the rheological properties depended upon the type of starch used. Microstructure of native starch sauces showed a complex matrix composed of protein and amylose and amylopectin leached from the granules that have been disintegrated during the sauce elaboration. Fat globules were homogenously dispersed and associated with the protein phase. Modified starch sauces showed more swollen starch granules compared with native starch sauces and a protein matrix stabilising the fat globules. All the sauces exhibited considerable intrinsic autofluorescence due to the presence of carotenoids from the red pepper. Consumers scored the modified starch sauces regardless of the starch concentrations based on their highest overall liking and found them beneficial for health. Therefore, new white sauces with high nutritional value, high acceptability, good rheological properties and stability against syneresis could be formulated using red pepper and modified starch.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Application of a nisin Z-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis KT2W2L
           isolated from brackish water for biopreservation in cooked, peeled and
           ionized tropical shrimps during storage at 8 °C under modified
           atmosphere packaging
    • Abstract: Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis KT2W2L was used for biopreservation in cooked, peeled and ionized tropical shrimps (CPITS) during storage at 8 °C under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The neutralized and filtered cell-free supernatant produced by this strain exhibited a broad spectrum of inhibition against 23 strains from 24 indicator strains of food-spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens by agar well diffusion assay. The growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta CD274, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum CD263 and Listeria innocua CIP 80.11T was inhibited by L. lactis subsp. lactis KT2W2L when co-cultivated at 25 °C. However, only L. innocua CIP 80.11T was inhibited in a co-cultivation at 8 °C. L. lactis subsp. lactis KT2W2L was then used for biopreservation in CPITS. Growth of bacteria group inoculated in CPITS was monitored at regular intervals during storage period under MAP at 8 °C by microbial counts and the thermal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) technique. L. lactis subsp. lactis KT2W2L inhibited the growth of B. thermosphacta and L. innocua CIP 80.11T batches after 7 days of storage. However, it was inactive against C. maltaromaticum batch. The growth of L. lactis subsp. lactis KT2W2L alone or in the presence of indicators increased to reach about 8–9 log CFU/g within 7 days of storage and remained constant until the end of the experiment. In the batches without L. lactis subsp. lactis KT2W2L, all bacterial groups grew well on the cooked shrimp matrix, reaching their maximal levels after 2 weeks of storage. The pH of all homogenized suspensions of MAP-CPITS was quite stable at 6.0–6.7. The control batches were under the enumeration threshold (<1.70 ± 0.00 log CFU/g) until 14 days of storage, and then, an increase in growth was detected on agar plates. In addition, TTGE revealed to be an excellent tool to monitor the change of the microbial ecosystem in this product.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Changes in properties of food proteins after interaction with free and
           β-cyclodextrin encapsulated hydroxycinnamic acids
    • Abstract: Polyphenol–protein interactions during food processing may cause deterioration in protein nutritional quality status. This limits the possibility to enrich foods in phenolic preparations. The aim of this study was to assess whether encapsulation of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) from green coffee extract (GCE) [using inclusion in β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)] limits polyphenol–protein interactions. Three different protein isolates: egg white proteins, whey protein concentrate and soy protein isolate were exposed to interact with HCAs from GCE. After interactions, a higher increase in molecular mass and higher degradation of essential amino acids, as well as limitation of proteolytic digestion and solubility of proteins were reported, compared with the controls processed without HCAs. On the other hand, the interactions contributed to a higher radical-scavenging capacity in DPPH˙ and OH˙ assays and color deepening of proteins during processing. Inclusion of HCAs in β-CD cavity resulted in the limitation of the protein–HCA interactions, thus decreased the changes in nutritional and physicochemical properties. Adding HCAs in the form of inclusion complexes could be a promising solution for reducing unfavorable protein–polyphenol interactions during processing of foods enriched with phenolic acids.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Protective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative damage in lung
           fibroblast cell by peptide isolated from plasma albumin hydrolysate
    • Abstract: Antioxidant peptides obtained from alcalase-hydrolyzed porcine plasma albumin (AHA, MW <3 kD) were purified by consecutive chromatographic methods, and the antioxidative effects of unpurified AHA and sub-fractions from the first step of HPLC (P4, MW <1.5 kD) and second step of HPLC (P4b, MW <1.5 kD) were evaluated in cell line. P4 exhibits the highest reducing power (0.89) than its further purified fraction P4b (0.69) and unpurified AHA (0.5). Moreover, a concentration of 100 mg/ml of P4 also demonstrates better protective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative damage and antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GPx) in fibroblast cell than AHA and P4b (P < 0.05). P4 is composed of seven peptides with MW of 500.19, 524.24, 550.23, 568.19, 656.18, 707.44 and 1,022.70, and their amino acids sequences are identified as LIKQ, LQHK, EQKF, PDIPK, KVPQVS, FKDLGE and EHLREKVL, respectively. All the seven peptides contain lysine, indicating that P4 is lysine-rich peptide fraction. We believe these results, with a more pronounced action of P4 than AHA and P4b plus the characterized amino sequences, would lay the foundation of understanding the antioxidative effect of albumin-derived peptides.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Physicochemical, proteolysis and texture changes during the storage of a
           mature soft cheese treated by high-pressure hydrostatic
    • Abstract: Physicochemical, proteolysis and textural changes during the refrigerated storage of mature Torta del Casar cheese (a raw ewe milk cheese) subjected to high-pressure treatment (200 or 600 MPa for 5 or 20 min) were studied. Cheeses were analysed after processing at day 60 and after 60, 120 and 180 days of refrigerated storage (days 120, 180 and 240, respectively). High-pressure processing (HPP) had a negligible effect on physicochemical parameters analysed. Nevertheless, nitrogen fractions were significantly affected by HPP. Soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen and non-protein nitrogen/total nitrogen ratios decreased during storage in cheeses treated at 600 MPa compared with control ones. In the same way, proteolysis of casein fractions (para-κ-casein; αs1-CN I, II, III, αs2-CN: αs-caseins; and β1-CN, β2-CN: β-caseins) at day 240 was significantly reduced by HPP at 600 MPa. The levels of αs-caseins and β-caseins found in cheeses treated at 600 MPa and analysed at the end of storage (day 240) were similar to those obtained in control cheeses at day 120 and 180, respectively. Firmness (N) and consistency (Ns) were affected by pressurisation just after HP treatment (day 60), but these changes were reduced during the storage. Therefore, HP treatments at 600 MPa could be a useful tool to delay the Torta del Casar over-ripening associated with an excess of proteolysis during long storage periods.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Optimization of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy for botanical authentication of
           unifloral honey types and melissopalynological data prediction
    • Abstract: Six hundred thirty-two honey samples from Croatia were analyzed by reference methods (physicochemical and melissopalynological analyses), from which 506 were assigned to one of nine unifloral honey types (black locust, sweet chestnut, lime, sage, heath, mandarin, false indigo, immortelle and winter savory). Vibrational spectra of honey samples recorded using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique were subjected to comprehensive chemometric assessment involving optimization of data preprocessing and multivariate statistical analyses, namely principal component analysis, partial least squares regression, partial least squares-discriminant analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A specially designed hybrid multidimensional model (partial least squares-linear discriminnat analysis) was used to assess a relationship between honey IR spectra and relative frequencies of pollen grains (pollen spectrum) present in selected honey samples. The study demonstrated that a targeted spectral profiling, i.e., preprocessing of a fingerprint spectral region (1,800–700 cm−1) by particular Savitzky–Golay filtering parameters and ROC modelling approach, enables accurate classification (100 % correct classification) of unifloral honeys by their botanical origin with low misclassification risk (MR = 0.099) and negligible small number of misclassified samples (1–2 per class—honey type). The results have also revealed good predictive strength of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy for melissopalynologycal data.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Storage-induced changes in the sensory characteristics and volatiles of
           conventional and lactose-hydrolyzed UHT processed milk
    • Abstract: Storage-induced changes are known to be more prominent in lactose-hydrolyzed (LH) milk compared to conventional milk. Therefore the present study aimed at identifying off-flavors resembling from formation of volatiles during storage of ultra-high temperature treated (UHT) LH milk and conventional UHT milk. Further, the influence of heat processing, indirect or direct, on UHT LH milk was also examined. Storage-induced changes in sensory attributes, volatiles and primary amines were investigated during a 4 months period. Conventional UHT milk (with 5 % lactose) processed using indirect heat treatment (CONVI) and two types of UHT LH milk (with less than 0.01 % lactose) produced using either direct heat treatment (LHD) or indirect heat treatment (LHI) were represented in the study. Sensory descriptive analysis showed that fresh samples of CONVI, LHI and LHD differed in sensory properties and the samples could be differentiated according to boiled and stale aroma as well as color saturation. Differentiation of the fresh samples based on the volatile gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profile was not achievable. During storage, samples developed differently with respect to sensory characteristics, volatiles and the amount of primary amines. Partial least squares models (PLS1) including only methyl ketones and aldehydes showed that 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, heptanal, octanal and nonanal predicted stale flavor. Bitter taste, on the other hand, correlated with the amount of primary amines (Pearson’s correlation, r 2 = 0.71). This finding indicates that storage-induced changes in sensory characteristics, volatiles and primary amines depend on both differences in lactose content and the applied heat processing.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Influence of cultivar, ripeness, blanching, drying, irradiation, and
           pectin recovery on alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango peels
    • Abstract: The influence of different technological treatments on alk(en)ylresorcinol (AR) contents and pattern in mango peels was evaluated using peels from six different mango cultivars. AR concentrations were shown to highly depend on the cultivar. While high AR concentrations were observed in the analyzed monoembryonic cultivars, AR contents in the polyembryonic cultivar Nam Dokmai were significantly lower. Furthermore, for monoembryonic cultivars, AR levels in the peels of ripe fruits were found to be higher than in unripe ones, while AR levels in cv. Nam Dokmai were independent of the ripeness degree. Convective oven drying resulted in a significant reduction in AR contents when compared to lyophilization. Blanching prior to drying diminished AR yields, thus being unsuitable for satisfactory AR recovery. Gamma irradiation did not significantly affect the AR contents. Since depectinization of mango peels significantly concentrated AR amounts in the depectinized pomace, the consecutive extraction of pectin and ARs allows the dual valorization of mango peels. Considering the treatments investigated, the retention of ARs carrying saturated and unsaturated side chains did not differ under acidic conditions, heating, and irradiation, respectively. Consequently, the 1,3-dihydroxybenzene structure was concluded to be the most labile moiety of the AR molecule.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Bacteriocin production and safety evaluation of non-starter Enterococcus
           faecium IM1 and Enterococcus hirae IM1 strains isolated from homemade
           Egyptian dairy products
    • Abstract: This study presents the characterization of some strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from traditional Egyptian dairy products. Isolated LAB (623 isolates) were studied for their antimicrobial activity against taxonomically related microorganisms. Selected LAB were identified by PCR method as Enterococcus faecium IM1 and Enterococcus hirae IM1. Partially purified enterocins showed antimicrobial activity against Lactobacillus bulgaricus 340, Lb. brevis F104 and F145, Lb. sakei, Brochothrix thermosphacta DSMZ20171T and DSMZ20599, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum CIP103135T, C. piscicola S4312, E. faecalis JH2-2 and JH2-2rr04, E. faecium CTC492/t1362 and P13, Listeria grayi CLIP12518, L. innocua 1, CIP80.11T, F and P, L. ivanovii ATCC and CIP78.42T, L. monocytogenes CIP78.35, DSM12464, EGDe, RF124, RF125, RF131, RF132, RF133, RF142, RF151 and RF152, and Vagococcus penaei CIP 109914T but have no effect against Bacillus subtilis 168T, Moellerella wisconsensis MIP2451, Morganella psychrotolerans MIP2488, Pseudomonas fluorescens 10, Salmonella enterica, Sal. montevideo, Sal. typhimurium and Serratia liquefaciens CIP103238T. The inhibitory activity was not due to hydrogen peroxide for E. hirae IM1, but strain E. faecium IM1 may excrete diverse antimicrobial compounds such as hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins. Antimicrobial activity of E. faecium IM1 was initially detected during exponential phase of growth, and the maximal level (1,300 AU/mL) was observed at 12 h and remained stable till the end of incubation time (48 h). Maximum of activity of E. hirae IM1 was observed during the logarithmic phase (6 h) and then decreased after 12 h. Bacteriocins produced by E. faecium IM1 and E. hirae IM1 were stable between pH 5 and pH 8 and stable also until 100 °C/20 min. Tested strains were free from virulence determinant genes as well as hemolytic and gelatinase activities. E. faecium IM1 was sensitive to penicillin, kanamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin and tetracycline but resistant to ampicillin. Otherwise, E. hirae IM1 was sensitive to penicillin, kanamycin, vancomycin and tetracycline but resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. The isolated cultures with antimicrobial activities may be used as safe and useful starter cultures or co-cultures.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Classification of cacao beans ( Theobroma cacao L.) of southern Mexico
           based on chemometric analysis with multivariate approach
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to group samples of cacao collected in Southern of Mexico. For this, several physical bean variables (weight, length, width and bean circumference), chemical (moisture, ash, fat, protein, fatty acids) in addition to polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity (ABTS method) were measured. Forty-five cacao samples derived from plants with Criollo phenotype, and a control sample of T. bicolor was included. All variables were analyzed by multivariate analysis (principal component analysis—PCA, k-means and discriminant analysis—DA). The four physical bean traits were not useful when incorporated into the analysis altogether with the chemical variables and led to wrong grouping, and the PCA did not separate T. bicolor of the cocoa samples, so they were discarded for further analysis. Among chemical variables, those that contributed most to the variance and explained the total variance (PCA) were palmitoleic, palmitic, oleic and stearic fatty acids, as well as moisture content and polyphenol content. All samples were classified into seven homogeneous groups. The geographical origin of the samples did not correlate with chemometric grouping, which shows little influence of microclimates, the possible dispersion of highly related materials or individuals adapted to the microenvironmental conditions of the region. Multivariate analysis allowed the grouping of individuals of cacao based on six chemical characteristics of the beans.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Erratum to: Effects of environmental factors on functional properties of
           Chinese chestnut ( Castanea mollissima ) protein isolates
    • PubDate: 2015-05-07
       
 
 
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