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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1201 - 1400 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
J. of Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 75)
J. of Clinical Monitoring and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 37)
J. of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 34)
J. of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.416, h-index: 31)
J. of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.188, h-index: 8)
J. of Coastal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.474, h-index: 25)
J. of Coatings Technology and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.425, h-index: 25)
J. of Combinatorial Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.093, h-index: 34)
J. of Communications Technology and Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 16)
J. of Community Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 14)
J. of Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.921, h-index: 44)
J. of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.087, h-index: 74)
J. of Comparative Physiology B : Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 59)
J. of Compassionate Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computational Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.291, h-index: 19)
J. of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 20)
J. of Computational Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 60)
J. of Computer and Systems Sciences Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, h-index: 13)
J. of Computer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 31)
J. of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 2)
J. of Computer-Aided Molecular Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.995, h-index: 78)
J. of Computers in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
J. of Computing in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 21)
J. of Consumer Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, h-index: 30)
J. of Contemporary Mathematical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
J. of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 6)
J. of Contemporary Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 23)
J. of Control Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 19)
J. of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 9)
J. of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Cross-Cultural Gerontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.631, h-index: 29)
J. of Cryptographic Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.989, h-index: 11)
J. of Cryptology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 55)
J. of Cultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 29)
J. of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.149, h-index: 8)
J. of Derivatives & Hedge Funds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.114, h-index: 5)
J. of Developmental and Physical Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 29)
J. of Digital Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.578, h-index: 35)
J. of Direct Data and Digital Marketing Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.154, h-index: 6)
J. of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 26)
J. of Dynamics and Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.418, h-index: 31)
J. of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.483, h-index: 16)
J. of Earth System Science     Open Access   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 32)
J. of East Asian Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.537, h-index: 20)
J. of Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 3)
J. of Ecology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Economic Growth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 3.273, h-index: 63)
J. of Economic Interaction and Coordination     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.263, h-index: 12)
J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 23)
J. of Economics and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 19)
J. of Educational Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 21)
J. of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, h-index: 45)
J. of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.577, h-index: 57)
J. of Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.609, h-index: 75)
J. of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.372, h-index: 27)
J. of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 9)
J. of Elementary Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
J. of Elliptic and Parabolic Equations     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 37)
J. of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 11)
J. of Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 5)
J. of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 9)
J. of Environmental Studies and Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
J. of Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.609, h-index: 25)
J. of Evolution Equations     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.826, h-index: 26)
J. of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.145, h-index: 11)
J. of Evolutionary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 52)
J. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 39)
J. of Experimental Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.445, h-index: 28)
J. of Failure Analysis and Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 15)
J. of Family and Economic Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 32)
J. of Family Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.639, h-index: 56)
J. of Financial Services Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 10)
J. of Financial Services Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 36)
J. of Fixed Point Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.644, h-index: 13)
J. of Fluorescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 56)
J. of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.307, h-index: 4)
J. of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 29)
J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.495, h-index: 27)
J. of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 14)
J. of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.18, h-index: 42)
J. of Friction and Wear     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.373, h-index: 7)
J. of Fusion Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 19)
J. of Gambling Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.171, h-index: 57)
J. of Gastroenterology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 88)
J. of Gastrointestinal Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 39)
J. of Gastrointestinal Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.64, h-index: 99)
J. of General Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.804, h-index: 134)
J. of General Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.554, h-index: 22)
J. of Genetic Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.902, h-index: 39)
J. of Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 28)
J. of Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.173, h-index: 56)
J. of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 23)
J. of Geographical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 39)
J. of Geometric Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.491, h-index: 27)
J. of Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 15)
J. of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 60)
J. of Global Policy and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
J. of Grid Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.414, h-index: 37)
J. of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 39)
J. of Hematopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 13)
J. of Heuristics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.308, h-index: 50)
J. of High Energy Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.052, h-index: 153)
J. of Homotopy and Related Structures     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, h-index: 2)
J. of Housing and the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.648, h-index: 28)
J. of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.344, h-index: 19)
J. of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 10)
J. of Immigrant and Minority Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.759, h-index: 37)
J. of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 46)
J. of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Indian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.127, h-index: 12)
J. of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.966, h-index: 80)
J. of Industry, Competition and Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, h-index: 15)
J. of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.673, h-index: 46)
J. of Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 55)
J. of Information Technology Teaching Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
J. of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.25, h-index: 36)
J. of Inherited Metabolic Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.389, h-index: 77)
J. of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 33)
J. of Insect Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 39)
J. of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent and Robotic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.691, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 54)
J. of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.93, h-index: 43)
J. of Intl. Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 4.208, h-index: 130)
J. of Intl. Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.549, h-index: 23)
J. of Intl. Migration and Integration / Revue de l integration et de la migration internationale     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 13)
J. of Intl. Relations and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.793, h-index: 22)
J. of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 27)
J. of Logic, Language and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
J. of Low Temperature Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 52)
J. of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 7)
J. of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.134, h-index: 37)
J. of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.252, h-index: 83)
J. of Management and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 33)
J. of Management Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 6)
J. of Marine Science and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 11)
J. of Marine Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, h-index: 19)
J. of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.228, h-index: 8)
J. of Market-Focused Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Marketing Analytics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Material Cycles and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.449, h-index: 22)
J. of Materials Engineering and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.544, h-index: 40)
J. of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.836, h-index: 123)
J. of Materials Science : Materials in Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.011, h-index: 71)
J. of Mathematical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 45)
J. of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.22, h-index: 22)
J. of Mathematical Imaging and Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.901, h-index: 53)
J. of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.414, h-index: 23)
J. of Mathematical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 23)
J. of Mathematics Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.062, h-index: 20)
J. of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Mechanical Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 26)
J. of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 18)
J. of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 18)
J. of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.717, h-index: 44)
J. of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.874, h-index: 28)
J. of Medical Ultrasonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
J. of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.738, h-index: 82)
J. of Micro-Bio Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.28, h-index: 3)
J. of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
J. of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.317, h-index: 16)
J. of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.952, h-index: 108)
J. of Molecular Histology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.755, h-index: 48)
J. of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.165, h-index: 113)
J. of Molecular Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 50)
J. of Molecular Neuroscience     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.988, h-index: 69)
J. of Mountain Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 15)
J. of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 55)
J. of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, h-index: 84)
J. of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.602, h-index: 28)
J. of Near-Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.689, h-index: 55)
J. of Network and Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.466, h-index: 26)
J. of Neural Transmission     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.034, h-index: 86)
J. of Neuro-Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 90)
J. of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.662, h-index: 45)
J. of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.429, h-index: 105)
J. of NeuroVirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 69)
J. of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.863, h-index: 27)
J. of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.887, h-index: 42)
J. of Nonverbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 47)
J. of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.024, h-index: 68)
J. of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.919, h-index: 60)
J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 6)
J. of Occupational Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.811, h-index: 51)
J. of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Ocean University of China (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.237, h-index: 11)
J. of Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.796, h-index: 52)
J. of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 11)
J. of Optical and Fiber Communications Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 8)
J. of Optimization Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 65)
J. of Ornithology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
J. of Orofacial Orthopedics / Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.574, h-index: 33)
J. of Orthopaedic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.708, h-index: 48)

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Journal Cover European Food Research and Technology
  [SJR: 0.726]   [H-I: 70]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Modulation of in vitro predicted glycaemic index of white wheat bread by
           different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae originating from various
           beverage applications
    • Authors: Mareile Heitmann; Claudia Axel; Emanuele Zannini; Elke K. Arendt
      Pages: 1877 - 1886
      Abstract: Abstract A low glycaemic index (GI) in bakery products can be associated with a decrease of cardiovascular disease and a protective role against the development and management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In this study, the impact of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains applied to the bread-making process on the GI of bread was investigated. The GI was measured using an in vitro enzymatic model system in relation to the metabolic patterns of the different yeast strains and the compositional analysis of the breads. Although total and resistant starch contents of the breads were similar, a significant reduction in GI was obtained for breads fermented with S. cerevisiae s-23, wb-06 and Blanc. Differences in the amount of protein and fat were observed. However, their proportion when related to carbohydrate content was not high enough to effectively alter the GI of the breads. Considering the fermentation process, S. cerevisiae wb-06, Blanc and to some extent s-23 were characterised by slower fermentation rates. The resulting breads were reduced in GI with lower specific volumes as well as firmer crumb structures. Breads high in GI were either characterised by an increased glucose content (S. cerevisiae us-05) or high specific bread volumes and soft crumbs (S. cerevisiae Baker’s yeast and T-58) indicating a relationship between complete starch gelatinisation during baking and starch digestibility. Conclusively, the GI of white wheat bread can be significantly decreased using different strains from the species S. cerevisiae.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2894-2
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Irrigation with treated wastewater affected the minor components of virgin
           olive oil from cv. Chemlali in Tunisia
    • Authors: Saida Bedbabis; Béchir Ben Rouina; Andrea Mazzeo; Giuseppe Ferrara
      Pages: 1887 - 1894
      Abstract: Abstract Water limitation for agriculture is a problem in many countries and irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) can be a tool to face the decreasing availability of water for important domestic crops such as olive. Taking into account this aspect, a research was carried out for 13 years in an olive grove (Chemlali cultivar) located in the area of Sfax (Tunisia). Two different irrigation treatments were applied: (a) irrigation with good quality water (GQW) and (b) irrigation with TWW. The main objective of this 13-year study was to verify the effects of the irrigation with TWW vs. GQW on some minor parameters of the virgin olive oil. Many oil parameters significantly increased in the TWW irrigated plot, in particular lutein, total tocopherols, squalene, campesterol and stigmasterol whereas β-carotene, α-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-sitosterol and total sterols decreased with respect to the GQW treatment. Irrigation with TWW can be a possible tool to irrigate olive groves with two positive effects: saving of freshwater and production of olive oil of good quality.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2896-0
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Polyphenolic profile and antioxidant activity of olive mill wastewater
           from two Sicilian olive cultivars: Cerasuola and Nocellara etnea
    • Authors: Maria Domenica Di Mauro; Roberta Carla Giardina; Giovanni Fava; Emanuele Francesco Mirabella; Rosaria Acquaviva; Marcella Renis; Nicola D’Antona
      Pages: 1895 - 1903
      Abstract: Abstract During the last years, there has been an increasing interest in the valorization of the food-processing side streams due to their potentially valuable phytochemical content. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW), the main by-product of olive oil extraction process, are rich in polyphenolic compounds, widely known for their health-promoting benefits. However, different parameters—such as the distinct olive cultivar, ripeness of the fruit, processing techniques, climate, and storage conditions—play an important role in determining the specific quali-quantitative polyphenolic composition of OMWW. In this work, for the first time, we have characterized and compared the polyphenolic profile of different OMWW generated by centrifugal three-phase olive oil mills processing of two important Sicilian cultivars, Cerasuola and Nocellara etnea. Moreover, the correlated antioxidant activity and the stability of both OMWW samples stored at different conditions were evaluated. Our results show that even if OMWW are characterized by different and individual polyphenolic profile, both side streams have high levels of antioxidant activity. From a comparative point of view, we found that Cerasuola-OMWW showed higher values of total phenols (5.20 ± 0.21 g/l gallic acid), total flavonoids (2.28 ± 0.23 g/l catechin) and hydroxytyrosol content (821.86 ± 0.01 mg/l) respect to the analog parameters measured in Nocellara etnea-OMWW; these phytochemical values showed a significant stability in both OMWW samples stored at −20 °C for 6 months. Conversely, a decrease in the level of these compounds was observed in samples maintained at 4 or 25 °C for 45 days.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2893-3
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Understanding the function of sugar in burger buns: a fundamental study
    • Authors: Aylin W. Sahin; Claudia Axel; Elke K. Arendt
      Pages: 1905 - 1915
      Abstract: Abstract The consumption of sugar-reduced bakery products represents a promising way to decrease health problems such as obesity, which can be related to the increased intake of added sugar. One highly consumed food product are burger buns, which can contain up to 120 g kg−1 sugar. This study evaluates the impact of sugar-reduction on the quality of burger buns and their respective doughs from a fundamental perspective. Sucrose was replaced by wheat starch in 10 g kg−1 steps and compared to a control burger bun (100 g kg−1). A 30%-sugar-reduction increased gas formation during fermentation, which resulted in a higher specific volume (3.85 ± 0.08 ml/g) when compared to the full-sugar product (3.52 ± 0.07 ml/g). The gluten network developed faster when no sucrose was added (−66 s). It also became stronger (+11 BU) causing a decrease in dough extensibility. Sugar-reduction led to a lighter crust and higher water activity [0.915 ± 0.006 (full-sugar), 0.948 ± 0.004 (no-added sugar)], which shortened shelf life by 6 days. Sugar-reduction is highly correlated to dough characteristics, which result in quality changes of the dough as well as product quality parameter. PCA analysis of the data revealed that the addition of 70 g kg−1 sucrose is essential to ensure adequate burger bun quality.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2895-1
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Nashi or Williams pear fruits' Use of volatile organic compounds,
           physicochemical parameters, and sensory evaluation to understand the
           consumer’s preference
    • Authors: Cosimo Taiti; Elettra Marone; Matteo Lanza; Elisa Azzarello; Elisa Masi; Camilla Pandolfi; Edgardo Giordani; Stefano Mancuso
      Pages: 1917 - 1931
      Abstract: Abstract Ripen “ready-to-eat” fruits of “Williams” and of two Nashi cultivars (“Hosui” and “Ya Li”), present contemporarily on the stores, were evaluated by physicochemical parameters (shape, skin color, firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission, measured with a proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer (PTR–ToF–MS), either on whole and cube fruits, and sensory evaluation (panel test and consumer’s liking). The data were analyzed by ANOVA, LSD test, hierarchical clustering, PLS-DA, and CCOA. The highest differences for the physicochemical parameters were observed between Williams and Nashi, as Williams differentiated for sugar content and Hosui for firmness. By VOCs spectral analyses, it was observed that whole and cube “Williams” fruits had the highest number and amount of compounds, followed by “Ya Li;” “Hosui” was characterized by a few signals with low intensities. Fruits of each cultivar showed specific VOCs that could be used as markers for discrimination purposes. In “Williams” pears, the presence and amount of defined masses resulted linked to fruitiness and aroma perceived by the consumer. The higher sugar content and the typical pear aroma perceived by the panelists, emitted by “Williams,” could have influenced the consumer’s liking. The tasters appreciated “Hosui” for firmness, and “Ya Li” for visual, even if they resulted lower in sugar and flavor intensity. In the opinion of the respondents to the consumer test, “Williams” resulted the most appreciated both for the average scores of the acceptability and as percentage of responses at a level >5 of a nine-point hedonic scale.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2898-y
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Degradation of Monastrell grape skins: effect of individual enzymatic
           activities and their synergic combination
    • Authors: Rafael Apolinar-Valiente; Inmaculada Romero-Cascales; Encarna Gómez-Plaza; José María Ros-García
      Pages: 1933 - 1942
      Abstract: Abstract The diffusion of valuable components, from the grape skin into the must is limited by a barrier formed by the cell walls. The deconstruction of the cell wall matrix during fruit ripening probably involves the synergistic action of different enzymatic activities. A degradation of cell wall from grape skin during winemaking by addition of several different enzymatic activities could be deduced. However, the action of the maceration enzymes seems contradictory. This work studies the effectiveness of the addition of three purified enzymatic activities on skin cell wall degradation from Monastrell grapes, considering the possible influence of the cell wall composition and morphology, as well as the potential enzymatic synergy. A synthetic solution (5 g/L tartaric acid; pH value 3.6) with Monastrell grape skins was supplemented with polygalacturonase, cellulase and pectin methylesterase enzymatic activities, together with its paired combinations, and compared to a control sample. Oligouronides, color intensity and total phenolic index (TPI) from the synthetic solution were measured at 12, 24, 36, 60, 84 and 120 h for all the experiences. Cellulase activity acts sooner in Monastrell grapes skin, compared to polygalacturonase enzymatic activity. Concerning combined treatments, all enzymatic combinations show more or less a synergy. This synergistic effect is higher when polygalacturonase + cellulase enzymatic combination is added, increasing oligouronides amount, color intensity and TPI between 12 and 84 h. The other two combinations show an increase for TPI and color intensity only at 24 h. Polygalacturonase + pectin methylesterase combination presents higher oligouronides content only at 36 h.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2900-8
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis as a starter culture significantly
           
    • Authors: Solange Buchin; Gabriel Duboz; Jean-Christophe Salmon
      Pages: 1943 - 1955
      Abstract: Abstract Lactobacillus delbrueckii (LD) is a species usually found in raw milk hard cooked cheeses. Present in raw milk, it grows in cheeses during ripening, but it can also be added in large concentrations with acidifying starter cultures. Its role in cheese proteolysis has been largely demonstrated, but its role in the formation of volatile compounds in cheeses remains to be documented. For this purpose, 16 experimental hard cooked cheeses were made from raw milk using adjunct cultures made up of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus with the addition or not of LD, and ripened for 184 days. Bacterial populations and volatile compounds were monitored throughout ripening. The LD addition affected the early growth of the starters but not the dynamics of the native microbiota. LD had a major effect on proteolysis and on the composition of volatile compounds. Of the 85 volatile compounds identified in the cheeses, 6 of the 7 acids, 10 of the 16 aldehydes, 11 of the 17 alcohols, 10 of the 17 ketones, 10 of the 23 esters, and 4 of the 5 sulphur compounds were affected by the LD addition at one or more stages of ripening. At the end of ripening, levels of the 31 compounds affected by LD were higher in the cheeses with LD added, except one secondary alcohol and 2 methyl-ketones. The question of the effective involvement of LD in these observations, whether due to the metabolic activity of LD or interactions with other microbial populations, is raised.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2899-x
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of different drying methods on the chemical and sensory
           properties of chestnut ( Castanea sativa M.) slices
    • Authors: Teresa Delgado; José Alberto Pereira; Elsa Ramalhosa; Susana Casal
      Pages: 1957 - 1971
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this work was to determine the effect of hot-air convective drying (D), osmotic dehydration (OD), osmotic dehydration + drying (OD + D) and freeze-drying (FD) on chemical and sensorial characteristics of chestnut slices. Proximate composition, sugars, organic acids and lipid profiles were determined along 60 days of storage. Immediately after production, D and FD samples had similar proximate compositions, both with higher fat and protein contents than the osmodehydrated ones, the latter with increased sucrose contents. FD was the method that better preserved starch, amylose, ascorbic and citric acid molecules at day 0, while D originated samples with higher glucose and fructose contents. Along storage, the major variations were observed on organic acids: ascorbic acid decreased on all methods, while fumaric acid increased. Only small variations were observed on the fatty acids and vitamin E profiles and amounts. All samples presented similar and good overall sensorial acceptance with the exception of D. FD was the method that better preserved the sensorial characteristics until 60 days of storage, while D only preserved freshness until 15 days and OD + D until 30 days. In general terms, the most adequate and accepted preservation methods to apply to chestnuts would be FD and OD + D.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2902-6
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Development of fibre-enriched wheat breads: impact of recovered
           agroindustrial by-products on physicochemical properties of dough and
           bread characteristics
    • Authors: Zita E. Martins; Olívia Pinho; Isabel M. P. L. V. O. Ferreira; Mario Jekle; Thomas Becker
      Pages: 1973 - 1988
      Abstract: Abstract Dietary fibre is easily available in plant foods. However, western diet frequently does not meet recommended levels. Fibre supplementation of bread is an opportunity due to its daily consumption. In this work, fibre-enriched extracts were recovered from elderberry (EE), orange (OE), pomegranate (PE), and spent yeast (YE), and their fibre composition was characterized. The impact of wheat flour replacement by different fibre extract amounts on dough properties indicates that (1) optimum water absorption increased with higher concentrations of OE, PE, and YE; (2) development time for EE, PE, and YE was shortened, while the opposite was observed for OE; (3) the onset of starch gelatinization and maximum tanδ increased significantly with 36% EE and 4% PE; (4) protein structure, observed with confocal laser scanning microscopy, was modified by addition of extracts; and (5) maximum and final dough height decreased significantly, except for 4% EE. Wheat flour replacement also had an impact on bread parameters, since (1) volume and specific volume decreased at the highest concentrations in every extract; (2) significant changes were observed in crumb texture and structure, at higher extract concentrations. Multivariate PLS regression highlights the relationships between dough and bread data.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2903-5
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of the formation of biogenic amines in irradiated and smoked
           fish
    • Authors: Martin Křížek; Eva Dadáková; František Vácha; Tamara Pelikánová
      Pages: 1989 - 1995
      Abstract: Abstract Levels of eight biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine) were determined in vacuum-packed fillets of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Fish flesh was treated by high-energy electron beam irradiation at low doses of 0.25 and 0.50 kGy or by smoking. The control and treated packs were stored at 3.5 °C for up to 70 days (irradiated) and for 181 days (smoked). Tyramine content was the most sensitive indicator of the improper status of samples, levels exceeding 10 mg/kg indicated the loss of meat freshness, in spite of persisting good sensory indices. Irradiation prolonged the shelf-life of samples 4–5 times, smoking was more effective. The formation of tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine fitted well the Gompertz model.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2906-2
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Preservation of fresh ground beef patties using plant extracts combined
           with a modified atmosphere packaging
    • Authors: Lynda Bouarab-Chibane; Balkis Ouled-Bouhedda; Lucie Leonard; Laetitia Gemelas; Jalloul Bouajila; Hicham Ferhout; Amandine Cottaz; Catherine Joly; Pascal Degraeve; Nadia Oulahal
      Pages: 1997 - 2009
      Abstract: Abstract High oxygen modified atmosphere packaging of raw ground beef patties favors bright red oxymyoglobin color but also lipid oxidation. Therefore, the effect of the addition of phenolic-rich plant extracts selected for their in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities on microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria, and coliforms), physico-chemical [pH, exudate mass, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], and organoleptic (instrumental color and sensory analysis of cooked patties) quality attributes of beef patties was monitored for 12 days at 4 °C in a high oxygen atmosphere. Prune flesh, pomegranate peel, green tea leaves, grape seed extracts, and Gaillac red wine powder were added at 10 g kg−1 in beef patties. All extracts except prune flesh extract, which had the lowest total phenolic content (3.4 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g−1 against from 81.2 to 570.0 mg GAE g−1 in other extracts), reduced the increase in TBARS in beef patties over 12 days by more than 93% (P < 0.05). While all plant extracts significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of at least 1 from the 6 unwanted bacterial strains which were tested, their effect on total viable and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in beef patties was not significant (P > 0.05). In vitro and in situ antioxidant activities of plant extracts were correlated with their total phenolic content (R 2 = 0.99) unlike in vitro (R 2 = 0.18) and in situ (R 2 = 0.17) antibacterial activities. Interestingly, pomegranate peel extract and Gaillac red wine powder retarded lipid oxidation and color variation, and maintained the redness index of meat.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2905-3
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • RP-HPLC–DAD-ESI-TOF–MS based strategy for new insights into the
           qualitative and quantitative phenolic profile in Tunisian industrial
           Citrus Limon by-product and their antioxidant activity
    • Authors: Boutheina Gargouri; Sonda Ammar; Vito Verardo; Souhail Besbes; Antonio Segura-Carretero; Mohamed Bouaziz
      Pages: 2011 - 2024
      Abstract: Abstract Citrus by-products are an important source of bioactive constituents, such as organic acids and phenolic compounds, with health promoting and nutritive properties. To increase our knowledge about this topic, the aim of the present study was to undertake a comprehensive characterization and quantification of major bioactive compounds in Citrus limon by-product dried powder (CBP) proceeding from a Tunisian company using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF–MS) operating in negative ion mode. Physicochemical properties and the antioxidant activity of CBP were also assessed. As a result, 38 phenolic compounds including 6 phenolic acid derivatives, and 32 flavonoids were characterized and quantified. This work was complemented by the detection of 2 organic acids. To the best of our knowledge, 6 phenolic compounds have not previously been recorded in CBP. In this regard, the main flavonoids in CBP were the flavanones hesperetin 7-O-rutinoside, eriodictyol 7-O-rutinoside, and hesperetin 7-O-neohesperidoside followed by the flavones diosmin. Moreover, the dimer of caffeic acid-O-hexoside was the major phenolic acid. In addition, these results suggested that the extract obtained from CBP had an interesting antioxidant activity comparable with synthetic antioxidants and showed also high amounts of dietary fiber, protein, total sugars, and carotenoids. Finally, the results obtained in this work confirmed that the CBP is a good source of bioactive compounds and the isolation of antioxidant nutraceuticals could be an advantageous way to revalorize these by-products for potential use as dietary additives in functional foods and cosmetics as well as in pharmaceutical industry.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2904-4
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • The relationship between protein changes in porcine longissimus muscle at
           different courses of meat tenderisation
    • Authors: Bożena Grześ; Edward Pospiech; Ewa Iwańska; Beata Mikołajczak; Andrzej Łyczyński; Maria Koćwin-Podsiadła; Elżbieta Krzęcio-Niczyporuk
      Pages: 2025 - 2034
      Abstract: Abstract Among many factors affecting meat tenderness, a special role is attributed to proteins. The aim of this study was to analyse relationships between the tenderness of meat and changes in the abundance of muscle tissue and centrifugal drip proteins as well as in a value of the simple assessment criteria of the glycolysis process in porcine longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles. All of them were used for describing conditions associated with tenderisation process and predicting tenderness. For analysis of protein changes in the muscle tissue (45 min, 48 and 144 h pm) and in its centrifugal drip (48 and 144 h pm), SDS-PAGE technique was applied. The progress of glycolysis was evaluated on the basis of pH value as well as the electrical conductivity (EC) measurements. Warner–Bratzler shear force assessment (48 and 144 h pm) was involved for the evaluation of tenderness. Comparisons concerned four groups of muscles characterised by different courses of tenderisation. The study showed that proteolysis was closely related to the process of glycolysis in muscles which was linked with genotype of pigs. The single correlations between protein changes and meat tenderness varied in the selected groups of muscles. It was possible to make very precise predictions of the meat tenderness using canonical correlation analysis. Based on the percentage participation of the selected muscle tissue and centrifugal drip proteins and measurements of pH and EC at specified time pm it was possible to predict tenderness with a very high probability, even 89%.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2907-1
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Discriminative capacities of infrared spectroscopy and e-nose on Turkish
           olive oils
    • Authors: Olusola Samuel Jolayemi; Figen Tokatli; Susanna Buratti; Cristina Alamprese
      Pages: 2035 - 2042
      Abstract: Abstract The potentials of Fourier transform (FT) near- (NIR) and mid-infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and electronic nose (e-nose) on varietal classification of Turkish olive oils were demonstrated. A total of 63 samples were analyzed, comprising Ayvalik, Memecik, and Erkence oils. Spectra were pretreated with standard normal variate and second derivative. Classification models were built with orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), considering the single data sets and also the combined FT-NIR-IR spectra. OPLS-DA models were validated both by cross validation and external prediction. All the models gave good results, being the average correct classification percentages in prediction higher than 90% for spectroscopic data and equal to 82% for e-nose data. The combined FT-NIR-IR data set gave the best results in terms of coefficients of determination (0.95 and 0.67). Different e-nose sensors discriminated Ayvalik, Memecik, and Erkence oils, explaining their distinct aromatic profiles.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2909-z
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Comparative study of sodium bentonite and sodium-activated bentonite
           fining during white wine fermentation: its effect on protein content,
           protein stability, lees volume, and volatile compounds
    • Authors: Fernando N. Salazar; Matteo Marangon; Mariela Labbé; Eugenio Lira; Juan José Rodríguez-Bencomo; Francisco López
      Pages: 2043 - 2054
      Abstract: Abstract In this work, we compare the effect of the addition during fermentation of both sodium bentonite and sodium-activated bentonite on the protein content, protein stability, lees volume, and aroma compounds of a Sauvignon blanc wine. Protein unstable Sauvignon blanc juices were vinified with or without bentonite added at three different stages: before fermentation, early during fermentation, and towards the end of fermentation. Different addition doses of bentonite were used (X, X − 0.1, X − 0.2 g/L) according to protein instability of the grape juice (X = 1.7 and 2.7 g/L to sodium bentonite and sodium-activated bentonite, respectively). The wines stabilized with sodium-activated bentonite presented a higher content of volatile compounds and a lower volume of lees were produced than those treated with sodium bentonite, an effect that was greater when the fining treatment was done before the start of the fermentation.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2917-z
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Mitigation role of erythritol and xylitol in the formation of
           3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol and its esters in glycerol and shortbread
           model systems
    • Authors: Anna Sadowska-Rociek; Ewa Cieślik; Krzysztof Sieja
      Pages: 2055 - 2063
      Abstract: Abstract The effect of the addition of six sweeteners (erythritol, xylitol, maltitol, sucrose, steviol sweetener, and stevia leaves) on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 3-MCPD esters in glycerol and shortbread model systems subjected to heat treatment was investigated. The highest level of free 3-MCPD was reached for the glycerol model system with the addition of steviol sweetener (114.8 μg kg−1), in contrast to the model with stevia leaves (51.9 μg kg−1). The level of free 3-MCPD in the shortbread model was roughly similar, whilst the levels of esterified 3-MCPD were about 12 times higher. The maximum content was obtained in the model with sucrose (1112 μg kg−1) and the lowest with erythritol (676.4 μg kg−1). In the glycerol model system, 3-MCPD esters were not detected at all. The experiment revealed that acidic conditions, generated mainly by thermal decomposition of glucose, were a key factor promoting the formation of free and bound 3-MCPD, while in the case of the application of polyols, especially erythritol or xylitol, the chloropropanol production was significantly lower. The experiment also showed that antioxidant capacity of products formed under heat treatment (0.53–1.03 mol Trolox kg−1) might have some significance in 3-MCPD formation. The findings of the study suggest that erythritol and xylitol added instead of sugar to shortbread can be effective agents in the mitigation of free and bound 3-MCPD formation. However, we also revealed that the application of sweeteners based on maltodextrin or pure stevia extract did not show any inhibitory effect, and in some cases led to the increase in the 3-MCPD generation, so their use in the bakery industry should be reconsidered.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2916-0
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • TGF beta2 concentration in dairy products: the effect of processing on its
           concentration
    • Authors: Fernanda Lopes da Silva; Antônio Fernandes de Carvalho; Moisés Simeão; Cleuber Raimundo da Silva; Guilherme Mendes da Silva; Pierre Schuck; Italo Tuler Perrone
      Pages: 2065 - 2071
      Abstract: Abstract This work aims to study the effect of processing on the concentration of TGF-β2, evaluating pasteurization, membrane separation, as well as vacuum evaporation and spray drying. The TGF-β content in each sample of milk taken after each processing step has been quantified by ELISA kit. Furthermore, chemical composition analysis has been performed. TGF-β2 has shown a strong correlation (0.95) with the protein content in the samples. There is no influence of pasteurization on the concentration of TGF-β2, although pasteurization affects the distribution of TGF-β2 in the whey protein fractions and casein, which can be observed in the reduction of TGF-β2 content in whey as heat treatment is applied. This trend is unlike that of microfiltration, where it has been observed that TGF-β2 was equally distributed between casein and whey proteins. The concentration obtained by vacuum evaporation showed a concentration factor less than 1 for TGF-β2 once the constituents other than TGF-β2 became more concentrated. However, spray drying showed values greater than 1, demonstrating that TGF-β2 is concentrated in greater quantities than other solid constituents of the samples.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2897-z
      Issue No: Vol. 243, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Determination of phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of 22
           old apple cultivars grown in Poland
    • Authors: Jan Oszmiański; Sabina Lachowicz; Ewa Gławdel; Tomasz Cebulak; Ireneusz Ochmian
      Abstract: Abstract The basic chemical composition, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in 22 old apple cultivars grown in Poland were determined. Fruits were analyzed for contents of individual polyphenolics with the ultra-performance liquid chromatography photodiode detector-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF–MS) method, sugar with the high-performance liquid chromatography–evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) method, and antioxidant capacity with the ABTS and FRAP radical method. A total of 29 bioactive compounds, including 26 polyphenolic compounds (7 flavan-3-ols, 2 dihydrochalcones, 4 anthocyanins, 5 phenolic acids, 8 flavonols) and 3 triterpenoids (ursolic, betulinic and oleanolic acids), were identified in fruits. All the apple cultivars were found to be rich in polyphenols [average 2139.21 mg/100 g dry matter (dm)], especially phenolic acid (average 694.12 mg/kg dm), flavan-3-ols (average 1259.80 mg/kg dm), flavonols (average 106.78 mg/kg dm) and triterpenoids (average 2552.20 µg/g dm), particularly ursolic acid (average 2234.50 µg/g dm), with high ABTS and FRAP capacity (average 72.14 and 46.77 µmol Trolox/100 g dm). The apple cultivars were also found to be a good source of pectins (average 1.19%), acids (average 0.67%) and sugars (average 9.11 g/100 g).
      PubDate: 2017-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2989-9
       
  • Effect of gluten on the properties of ternary biopolymers based on gluten,
           whey protein concentrate, and kaolinite
    • Authors: Marta Wesołowska-Trojanowska; Marta Tomczyńska-Mleko; Konrad Terpiłowski; Bartosz Sołowiej; Maciej Nastaj; Stanisław Mleko
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of different gluten (Gl) concentration on ternary biopolymers with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and kaolinite (KAO). Distilled water dispersions of Gl (10–30%), WPC (7%), and KAO (5%) were heated at 80 °C for 30 min. The concentration of WPC and KAO was based on previous research with montmorillonite. Rheological properties of produced wet biopolymers were evaluated by dynamic rheology and ultrasound viscometry. The obtained biopolymers were dried in the thermostatic cabinet for 24 h at 45 °C. The texture was determined using the puncture test and the microstructure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Surface properties of dried biopolymers were analyzed by surface wettability and roughness measurements. The increase in gluten concentration caused an increase in moduli and viscosity of the obtained wet biopolymers and in the puncture force for dry biopolymers. For the ternary biopolymer, layers with intercalation and exfoliation are observed in comparison with the biopolymer obtained without KAO. With the increasing Gl content in the biopolymer, the number of surface hydrophobic groups with carbon decreased and the number of surface hydrophilic groups increased. Higher Gl concentration produced less porous structure, although there are differences in the micro and nano-scale roughness. Water contact angle decreased with the increased Gl concentration, which is in agreement with less porous microstructure of the surface. The apparent surface free energy increased with the increasing of Gl concentration. The best plastic properties and the best shape of a pot were obtained for the ternary biopolymer with the 15% Gl concentration.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2980-5
       
  • Identification and characterization of glutamate dehydrogenase activity in
           wild Lactococcus lacti s isolated from raw milk cheeses
    • Authors: Luz P. Gómez de Cadiñanos; Carmen Peláez; M. Carmen Martínez-Cuesta; Tomás García-Cayuela; Teresa Requena
      Abstract: Abstract The glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyses the reversible conversion of glutamate into α-ketoglutarate, which initiates amino acid transamination during cheese ripening. This work has investigated the GDH activity in 39 wild isolates of Lactococcus lactis from raw milk cheeses. Only 25% of the isolates were GDH positive with NAD+ as the preferred cofactor. L. lactis IFPL953 showed the highest NAD-GDH activity. The GDH activity at the genetic level in the lactococcal isolates was analysed by PCR amplification of the gdh gene in genomic and plasmid DNA. The gdh gene arrangement of L. lactis IFPL953 in its plasmid location was similar to that in the reference strain GDH+ L. lactis TiL504, suggesting that both lactococci could harbour the same plasmid pGdh442 containing the gdh gene. L. lactis IFPL953 has previously demonstrated a remarkable α-ketoisovalerate decarboxylase activity, which along with its high GDH activity makes the strain particularly useful in enhancing cheese flavour formation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2988-x
       
 
 
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