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e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 8)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 5)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 28)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 17)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 7)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.289, h-index: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.651, h-index: 22)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.698, h-index: 38)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 40)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.857, h-index: 31)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.793, h-index: 83)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.041, h-index: 53)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 15)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.519, h-index: 14)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.781, h-index: 52)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 8)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 27)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 172, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 45)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 17)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.542, h-index: 7)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 14)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 5)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 11)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal  
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 22)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 12)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.5, h-index: 29)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.319, h-index: 33)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 13)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 55)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 27)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 10)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 26)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 26)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 46)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 53)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 22)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.601, h-index: 55)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 3)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 23)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 32)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 14)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 60)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.413, h-index: 27)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 46)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 14)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 34)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 58)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 85)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 57)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.161, h-index: 4)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 14)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.173, h-index: 8)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.268, h-index: 9)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.111, h-index: 61)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 8)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 20)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.204, h-index: 6)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 57)
Eurasian Soil Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 10)
EURO J. of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EURO J. on Computational Optimization     Hybrid Journal  
EURO J. on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal  
Europaisches J. fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal  
European Actuarial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 37)
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 12)
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 62)
European Biophysics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 53)
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 51)
European Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 49)
European J. for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European J. for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 2)
European J. of Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 17)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.044, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 69)
European J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European J. of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 25)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.946, h-index: 60)
European J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 25)
European J. of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.67, h-index: 25)
European J. of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 0.242, h-index: 13)

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Journal Cover European Food Research and Technology
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [10 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 0.773]   [H-I: 49]
  • Spectroscopic detection of aspartame in soft drinks by surface-enhanced
           Raman spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Aspartame (N-l-α-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a low-calorie sweetener commonly used in carbonated soft drinks and beverages. In this study, a rapid and simple method was developed for the quantification of aspartame in soft drinks using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). For this purpose, AgNPs were synthesized by a wet chemistry method and characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. Then, mineral water samples were spiked with different concentrations of aspartame (0–1.0 mg ml−1) and Raman measurements were taken on the enhancement of the aspartame Raman signal in the presence of AgNPs. The calibration curve was plotted in terms of Raman band intensity at 1,002 cm−1 against the aspartame concentration. A good linear relationship was obtained by SERS with high determination coefficient values (R 2) for water, mineral water, and fruit-flavored mineral water, i.e., 0.969, 0.977, and 0.977, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision (intra- and inter-day repeatability), and recovery. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values of the aspartame-spiked mineral water samples were 0.17 and 0.56 mg ml−1, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision were 1.3 and 0.9 %, respectively. The recovery of the method was 81–95 % in the concentration range 0–0.6 mg ml−1, and the average RSD was 7.3 %. A short analysis time (15 s), small sample requirement, and aspartame analysis without pre-treatment were found with the SERS system, which may be a more practical and applicable method for specific target analysis.
      PubDate: 2014-10-14
  • Identification and characterization of new allergen troponin C (Pen m
           6.0101) from Indian black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon
    • Abstract: Abstract Black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon is the most consumed species of crustaceans all over the world. Seafood allergy is the major threat in developing and westernized countries. The use of recombinant allergen is an effective way to improve diagnosis and treatment for seafood allergy. In this study, the recombinant P. monodon troponin C (rPmTnC) was assessed for its sera collected from allergic individuals. The immunoblot results showed that the rPmTnC recognized by eight allergic individuals out of 35 confirmed the allergenicity of rPmTnC. This novel allergen could be used in allergy diagnosis and treatments. We have identified and cloned a new shrimp allergen Pen m 6.0101 from P. monodon.
      PubDate: 2014-10-12
  • Flavone C -glycosides from Capsicum annuum L.: relationships between
           antioxidant activity and lipophilicity
    • Abstract: Three flavonoid C-glycosides isolated from pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L.), var. Capel Hot (luteolin 6-C-glucoside, luteolin 6,8-di-C-glucoside and apigenin 6-C-glucoside-8-C-arabinoside), were investigated to determine their antioxidant activity and lipophilicity. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using in vitro methods to generate free radicals in hydrophilic (superoxide radical) and lipophilic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxide radicals) media. Parameters characterising the lipophilicity (log P) of the studied compounds were calculated using three commonly available software programs. The relationships between the calculated log P of the investigated compounds and the experimentally determined antioxidant activities are discussed. The chemical activity of the flavonoid C-glycosides and aglycones was variable depending on the type of assay used. Luteolin and its C-6 glucoside showed the greatest ability to scavenge superoxide radicals (generated in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems) and DPPH radicals and also had the strongest activity in inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity, followed by apigenin-C-glycoside and apigenin. A high positive correlation coefficient was found between the ability of tested C-glycosides to inhibit xanthine oxidase and the calculated log P values. The highest correlation coefficient was obtained for the ACD/log P (Advanced Chemistry Development, Inc.) method (R = 0.790). In contrast, negative correlations were obtained between the abilities to scavenge superoxide, DPPH and lipid peroxyl radicals. The highest negative correlation coefficient was obtained in a β-carotene/linoleic acid model system and the Ghose–Crippen method (R = −0.725).
      PubDate: 2014-10-11
  • Nutritional properties of different composite flours from maize ( Zea mays
           ) variety ica v109 and pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum ) malted with
           calcium chloride and gibberellic acid
    • Abstract: Maize (Zea mays) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) are cereals considered basic foods, used in the preparation of beverage, snacks food, noodles pastas, and other food products. The elaboration of composite flours provides complementation of nutrients, and different chemical, nutritional and rheological characteristics depending on the obtaining process. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the different flours and composite flours from maize (Z. mays) variety ica v109 and pearl millet (P. glaucum) afterward of the malting process using calcium chloride and gibberellic acid. The different flours were malting in diverse conditions; the malted flours and composite flours prepared in ratio of 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1 w/w were analyzed for evaluating the nutritional characteristics (protein, fat, ash, calcium, vitamin C, and soluble solids) of all samples. The malted flours from maize (Z. mays) variety ica v109 and pearl millet (P. glaucum) when compared with unmalted showed significant relative increments in the composition of protein of 43.46 and 33.12 %, mineral such as calcium 14.77 and 2.88 %, vitamin C 13.48 and 91.81 %, and soluble solids 31.44 and 85.08 %, respectively, and a decreased in lipid contents in all sample influenced by the addition of gibberellic acid and calcium chloride in malting process. The different formulations of malted flour, which presented better results due to the nutrient balance, were in the ratio of 1:1 w/w. The composite flours have a wide and promising perspective especially the products from maize flour, which is highly consumed in Colombia.
      PubDate: 2014-10-10
  • Determination of plasticizer residues in tea by solid phase
           extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
    • Abstract: Abstract Human exposure to plasticizers is widespread because these compounds are commonly found in the environment. Nevertheless, studies on human dietary exposure to plasticizers are limited. This research deals with the evaluation of 27 plasticizer residues in tea infusion samples brewed with and without bag. Levels were determined by solid phase extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPE–GC–MS). Only a small number of plasticizer were detected: di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and DEP were found in all analyzed samples, while di-methyl phthalate (DMP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and DiNP in 80, 70 and 10 % of them. Flavored teas showed higher DMP, DEHA and DEHP residues, probably due to the use of essential oils where plasticizers are accumulated. In addition, decaffeinated black tea showed DBP levels 18 times higher compared with the average of the other samples. The plasticizer contents in samples infused with bag was almost always higher than those infused without bag. The evaluation of contribution of infusion teas to phthalate exposure showed that these do not constitute a risk for the consumers.
      PubDate: 2014-10-07
  • Purification and identification of α 2–3 linked
           sialoglycoprotein and α 2–6 linked sialoglycoprotein in edible
           bird’s nest
    • Abstract: Abstract The distribution of α 2–3 and α 2–6 linked sialoglycoproteins in edible bird’s nest (EBN) was analyzed by Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA) and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) lectin blotting. Q Sepharose Fast Flow, Superdex 75 and Sephadex G-25 columns were combined to enrich sialoglycoproteins from EBN extraction. For purification and identification of α 2–3 linked sialoglycoprotein and α 2–6 linked sialoglycoprotein, MAA-Sepharose-4B, SNA-Sepharose-4B lectin affinity chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) tandem mass spectrometry (MS) were employed successively. The contents of protein, carbohydrate and sialic acid of EBN extraction were 65.43, 20.97 and 10.47 %, respectively; EBN extraction contained high-abundance glycoproteins with the molecular weights of 128 kDa (19.1 %), 106 kDa (18.5 %) and 43 kDa (29.4 %); the 43 kDa glycoproteins contained terminal α 2–3 and α 2–6 sialic acid linkage were successively enriched by three chromatography columns; α 2–3 linked sialoglycoprotein and α 2–6 linked sialoglycoprotein were further purified by affinity chromatography eluted with 0.3 and 0.5 M lactose, respectively. In addition, MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis showed that α 2–3 linked sialoglycoprotein was an acidic mammalian chitinase-like protein, and α 2–6 linked sialoglycoprotein was an acidic mammalian chitinase. This method is proved to be a simple and effective approach to purify sialoglycoproteins from high-abundance glycoproteins in EBN.
      PubDate: 2014-10-05
  • Accelerate and enhance the release of haze-protective polysaccharides
           after alcoholic fermentation in winemaking
    • Abstract: Abstract The autolysis of certain yeasts following alcoholic fermentation can help to stabilize wines, especially white wines, due to the action of specific cell-wall components. This process can be speeded up using glucanases, which prompt the release of macromolecules into the medium. This study evaluated the effects of mannoproteins thus released on protein stabilization in white wines. Extracts of three wild wine-yeasts were tested with three different beta-glucanases, one commercial (Lallzyme MMX®) and two obtained from wild yeast strains, one isolated in Brazil (1WA1) and the other in Spain (SR). Analysis of sugar consumption and protein stability identified one yeast strain as a candidate for the optimization of beta-glucanase action. The three enzymes were tested at a range of concentrations and over different time intervals; in all cases, protein stability remained around 38 %, a value close to that recorded in the absence of enzymes, and somewhat lower than that achieved with a commercial mannoprotein preparation. This suggests that the action of beta-glucanases on yeast cell walls and subsequent mannoprotein and polysaccharides release does not always ensure the expected improvement in protein stability; evaluation of this action in winemaking is always important to avoid enzyme wastage.
      PubDate: 2014-10-04
  • Solid-state fermentation of Ginkgo biloba L. residue for optimal
           production of cellulase, protease and the simultaneous detoxification of
           Ginkgo biloba L. residue using Candida tropicalis and Aspergillus oryzae
    • Abstract: Abstract Ginkgo biloba L. residue (GBLR) is a by-product generated from flavonoids extraction of G. biloba L. Although it contains a high amount of nutritive components, it has toxic compound of ginkgolic acids which restricts its application in the food or animal feed industries. Also, the disposal of huge quantity of GBLR is a major environmental problem in the future. This study investigated the potential of a utilization of GBLR as substrate for cellulase and protease productions by solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Candida tropicalis and Aspergillus oryzae. The study simultaneously is focused on the biodetoxification of toxins in GBLR. The optimum SSF conditions for enzyme production were evaluated as, supplementation with 2 % maltose and peptone, inoculation with 1 × 107 fungi per 5 g residues, 7.0 pH, 40 % moisture content, 25 °C incubation temperature, and 4 days incubation time. Under these conditions, cellulase and protease activities reached up to 1,168.26 and 3,145.68 U/g, respectively. The main toxic compound ginkgolic acid content in the GBLR was reduced from 14.8 to 1.5 mg/g after SSF. The cytotoxicity of the fermented GBLR evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium testing on abelson murine leukemia virus-induced tumor cells showed almost 100 % of cellular viability after 4 days of fermentation. Our results indicate that SSF of GBLR could produce industrial enzymes and the detoxified fermented GBLR could be potentially applied to animal feed.
      PubDate: 2014-10-04
  • Impacts of different cooking and storage methods on the retention and in
           vitro bioaccessibility of l -carnitine in veal muscle ( M. longissimus
           dorsi )
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, effects of different cooking and storage methods on free carnitine (l-carnitine) content, in vitro l-carnitine bioaccessibility, and antioxidant capacity of veal longissimus muscle were examined. Four different cooking methods (boiling, frying, baking, and grilling) and six different storage methods (modified atmosphere, spraying antioxidants, ascorbic acid, l-carnitine solutions, freezing, and storage of samples at +4 °C (by covering with stretch film and in resealable commercial refrigerator bags) were applied to veal longissimus muscle. The l-carnitine content of muscle was decreased in all cooking and storage methods significantly (p < 0.05). In vitro bioaccessibility of l-carnitine in cooked samples was in the range of 34.82 ± 17.98–43.39 ± 11.15 %. The best performance in protection of antioxidant capacities of samples was achieved by spraying ascorbic acid onto the surface of the veal muscle (p < 0.05).
      PubDate: 2014-10-04
  • About the origin of asclepic acid derived from crude homo- and
           heterolipids during successive solvent extraction of rapeseeds
    • Abstract: Abstract To improve oil yield at the final stage of process, relation among solvent extraction mechanism and the removal of homo- and heterolipid classes with different acyl chain domains was studied. Selected technological parameter was decreasing quality of crude oil in the last successively extracted fractions. The composition of fatty acids, originally linked as lipid building-blocks, indicated no differences up to 94 wt% of hexane extractable oil from the rapeseed material. During the same time interval, it was released 95.8 cumulative wt% of oleic acid and only 76.9 cumulative wt% of (Z)-11-octadecenoic (asclepic, cis-vaccenic) acid. Steep decrease of oleic acid content was correlated with the down-trend of total monounsaturated fatty acid concentrations in the simple glycerolipid fractions (from 57.0 –59.0 to 26.7 wt%) and free fatty acid fractions (from 59.0–60.0 to 40.1 wt%). On the other hand, we have observed 7.14-fold increase of asclepic acid concentration derived from the simple glycerolipids (mono-, di- and triacylglycerols), wax and sterol esters. The increment of asclepic acid was 4.78-fold in the fraction of the complex glycerolipids and acylate steryl glycosides. Lipidomic and proteomic analyses of isolated oil bodies, rapeseed hull and dehulled seeds proved an origin of (Z)-11-octadecenoic acid. Furthermore, we determined similar fatty acid composition of lipid fractions derived from pure oil bodies and from dehulled seeds. In both cases, the low content of total asclepic acid: 3.13–3.15 wt% in aleurone cells was observed. Low amount of (Z)-11-octadecenoic acid is novel finding, which indicated that (Z)-11-octadecenoic acid originated from seed coat species that are less accessible to the hexane. It was confirmed that the main portion of asclepic acid moieties were derived from wax and sterol esters, triacylglycerols and heterolipids originally present in rapeseed coat (epidermal layer, testa and aleurone layer). Therefore, increasing amounts of asclepic acid and its precursor, palmitoleic acid, released from seed coats was significant indicator of solvent extraction process efficiency.
      PubDate: 2014-10-04
  • Rapid determination of nitrosamines in sausage and salami using
           microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid–liquid
           microextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, an efficient, sensitive, and rapid method based on microwave-assisted extraction coupled with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for determination and quantification of seven nitrosamines (NAs) in heated meat products (sausage and salami) was developed. At extraction stage, nitrosamines were extracted from sausage and salami samples with 10 mL of a hydrolyzing solvent using microwave at 500 MHz for 1.5 min. Effective parameters on DLLME, such as volumes of extraction and disperser solvents, pH, and salt addition, were optimized using response surface methodology based on central composite design. This technique provided acceptable repeatability in the range of 3.5–5.4 % for spiked samples. The recoveries of NAs were in the range 83.9–109.4 %. Limits of detection and limits of quantification for NAs in the real samples were within the ranges of 0.11–0.48 and 0.41–1.45 ng g−1, respectively. Good linear ranges were obtained for seven NAs in the range of 0.1–200 ng mL−1, with the coefficient (R 2) higher than 0.99. The merit figures, compared with other methods, showed that new proposed method is an accurate, precise, and reliable sample pretreatment method that substantially reduces sample matrix interference and gives very good enrichment factors (126–152).
      PubDate: 2014-10-04
  • Degradation of gluten in rye sourdough products by means of a
           proline-specific peptidase
    • Abstract: Abstract The gluten content of rye sourdough during fermentation was monitored by a competitive ELISA based on the R5 antibody. Although a time-dependent decrease was found, the gluten content was not reduced below the threshold for gluten-free foods of 20 mg/kg, even after prolonged fermentation. Instead, Aspergillus niger prolyl endopeptidase (AN-PEP) extensively degraded gluten concentrations of up to 80,000 mg/kg in rye flour, rye sourdough, and sourdough starter under distinct temperatures and pH values. The enzyme did not lead to inactivation of the microorganisms in the sourdough starter. Gluten-free rye flour alone or in combination with sourdough starter was used to produce gluten-free bread, which was evaluated for its sensory properties. Whereas gluten-free sourdough bread had poor sensory attributes compared to a conventional rye bread used as reference, the replacement of sourdough by egg proteins yielded gluten-free bread comparable to the reference and with higher sensory quality than bread prepared from naturally gluten-free ingredients. Therefore, the feasibility of producing high-quality bread from originally gluten-containing cereals such as rye by means of treatment with AN-PEP has been shown. Rye products rendered gluten-free in this manner have the potential to increase the choice of high-quality gluten-free foods for celiac patients.
      PubDate: 2014-10-04
  • Influence of glycation extent on the physicochemical and gelling
           properties of soybean β-conglycinin
    • Abstract: Abstract To investigate the effect of glycation extent on the physicochemical and gelling properties of β-conglycinin (7S), glycation with different molecular weight of sugars (glucose, maltose and 10 kDa dextran) was conducted in solid state (75 % relative humidity, pH 7.0, at 60 °C for 5 days). Maillard reaction (MR) evolution was indirectly traced by monitoring browning index, degree of grafting and sugar content. The physicochemical properties were characterized by solubility, surface hydrophobicity (H 0) and differential scanning calorimetry. The gelling properties were assessed by the determination of the gel particles, gel solubility, scanning electron microscopy and rheological measurement. Results revealed a higher reactivity of glucose than those of maltose and dextran. Approximately, 1.27 mol of glucose, 0.85 mol of maltose and 0.31 mol of dextran were conjugated to per mol of conglycinin. Glycation reduced H 0, which was in agreement with the change of solubility, and a higher T d with a lower ΔH suggested a relatively aggregated state of 7S during MR especially with glucose, further constituting a gel composed of large gel particles. However, gel network of glycated 7S with dextran was exhibited much denser with a large proportion of small particles and a higher value of elastic modulus was obtained. Solubility profiles of gels in different solvents demonstrated that other types of covalent bonds were formed in gels of 7S after glycation.
      PubDate: 2014-10-02
  • Characterization of novel insect associated peptidases for hydrolysis of
           food proteins
    • Abstract: Abstract Insects are able to feed on a broad spectrum of nutritional sources, due to a variable enzymatic system which can be endogenic or provided by associated microorganisms. This enzymatic system may be employed for the hydrolysis of industrial relevant proteins. Several grain pests were screened for their ability to hydrolyze storage proteins from wheat and rice as well as casein. Zymograms identified hydrolytic activities of the lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica against gluten and rice protein. Besides, R. dominica showed the highest prolyl-specific peptidase activity among all tested insects. Enzyme extracts of R. dominica were purified via anion exchange chromatography using a fast protein liquid chromatography system. Two of the purified peptidase fractions were able to hydrolyze peptides from wheat and barley relevant for celiac disease showing a proline preferential cleaving pattern.
      PubDate: 2014-10-02
  • Genetic system for traceability of goatfishes by FINS methodology and
           authentication of mullets ( Mullus barbatus and Mullus surmuletus ) by
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present study, two methods for the identification of goatfishes using the cytochrome b gene fragment were developed. The first method is based on the phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences (forensically informative nucleotide sequencing), which allows the unequivocal identification of all goatfish species included in this study, while the second one is based on TaqMan probe RT-PCR technology for the authentication of Mullus barbatus and Mullus surmuletus. The methods were checked for the manufacturing process of food, reflecting that it had no influence on the identification of goatfishes. Both techniques can be applied depending on the laboratory equipment and allow the detection of fraudulent or unintentional mislabeling of these species. These tools are useful to clarify questions related to the correct labeling of commercial products and to verify the correct traceability in commercial trade and for fisheries control.
      PubDate: 2014-10-02
  • Analysis of grapes and the first stages of the vinification process in
           wine contamination with Brettanomyces bruxellensis
    • Abstract: Abstract Brettanomyces bruxellensis is a major cause of wine spoilage due to the production of ethyl phenols, and it has become a major worldwide oenological concern in recent years. The most critical factor in volatile phenol production is the presence of microorganisms responsible for biosynthesis. In this work, carried out during three consecutive harvests, grapes and the first step in grape processing (stemming–crushing) have been evaluated as the origin of wine contamination by these spoilage yeasts. Results showed that there was nil or minimal presence of Brettanomyces yeasts in grapes and on the stemmer, in levels that the method was not able to detect. This shows that the main contamination of wines by this microorganism occurs in later stages of the vinification process and/or during storage. The contamination of many wines with Brettanomyces, either via the fruit or from the winery environment, during the early stages of vinification and before the start of aging, was confirmed by analyzing 100 recently made red wines, in which this yeast was detected in a high percentage of wines (27 %). However, the level of Brettanomyces yeasts found in the samples was low, with values which would not be sufficient to cause organoleptic defects. Consequently, this study confirms that many wines are still tainted by Brettanomyces when the winemaking phase comes to an end. It was also found that wines with problems during fermentation had a higher level of Brettanomyces. This is why it is essential to ensure strict controls during fermentation processes and conservation to prevent wine becoming spoiled or tainted.
      PubDate: 2014-10-02
  • Erratum to: High-fiber date pits pudding: formulation, processing, and
           textural properties
    • PubDate: 2014-10-02
  • Relationship between        class="a-plus-plus">N-nitrosodiethylamine
           formation and protein oxidation in pork protein extracts
    • Abstract: Abstract The relationship between protein oxidation and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) formation was assessed. Packaged fresh minced pork was stored at 2 ± 1 °C for 0, 4, 7, and 10 days. Myofibrillar protein (MP), sarcoplasmic protein (SP), and muscle homogenate were obtained from the stored minced pork and allowed to react with sodium nitrite at 80 °C for 1 h. The relationship between NDEA formation and indexes of protein oxidation was assessed by principal component analysis. The formation of NDEA in meat was correlated with protein and lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation promoted the formation of NDEA and was positively correlated with protein oxidation. Carbonyl compounds from oxidized MP and free amines from dissociated SP promoted NDEA formation. Therefore, the effect of protein oxidation on NDEA formation depends on the type of protein and its oxidation products.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Analytical characterisation of the seeds of two tomato varieties as a
           basis for recycling of waste materials in the food industry
    • Abstract: Abstract The tomato processing industry generates annually high amounts of waste. In respect of a possible recycling of these materials, the seeds of the two tomato varieties Waltinger and Red Currant were analysed. Contents of carotenoids and vitamin E were determined by HPLC. The antioxidant capacity was analysed by several assays (Folin–Ciocalteu, TEAC, ORAC), whereby hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds were gathered separately. The fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography. The seeds contained only little amounts of (all-E)-lutein and (all-E)-zeaxanthin. Vitamin E content of Waltinger seeds was nearly twice as high as that of Red Currant seeds with γ-tocopherol as the main vitamer. Red Currant seeds showed always higher antioxidant capacity. Hydrophilic extracts contributed mainly to the total antioxidant capacity. The oil of the seeds was rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially in linoleic acid. Finally, the results showed that tomato seeds contain some important substances. So concerning waste management, they can serve as a secondary raw material for new products such as edible oil.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Two quantitative multiplex real-time PCR systems for the efficient GMO
           screening of food products
    • Abstract: Abstract According to the EU and Swiss food legislation, only deregulated traits of transgenic plants are allowed to be imported and sold to the consumer. In order to control imports of soya and maize products from retailers, efficient and reliable methods for the detection and quantification are a prerequisite. The screening for specific DNA elements characteristic of transgenic plants is crucial for further analysis and has a major impact on the efficiency of the whole analysis workflow. To allow laboratories to efficiently and reliably screen food products for transgenic plant products, two novel multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems were developed and validated. One system determines DNA contents from maize, soya, cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S), NOS terminator from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and CaMV, and the second PCR system simultaneously detects DNA sequences from figwort mosaic virus promoter (PFMV), from bar gene of Streptomyces hygroscopicus, from gene coding for phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) and from a DNA construct of enolpyruvyl shikimate phosphate synthase gene (CP4-EPSPS) and Arabidopsis thaliana (CPT2). The tests exhibit good specificity and a limit of detection of at least 0.1 % for all analytes.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
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