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Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 46)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 8)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 5)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 28)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 17)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 7)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.289, h-index: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.651, h-index: 22)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.698, h-index: 38)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 40)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.857, h-index: 31)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.793, h-index: 83)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.041, h-index: 53)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 15)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.519, h-index: 14)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.781, h-index: 52)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 8)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 27)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 132, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 45)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 17)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.542, h-index: 7)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 14)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 5)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 11)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal  
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 22)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 12)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.5, h-index: 29)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.319, h-index: 33)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 13)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 55)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 27)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 10)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 26)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 26)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 46)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 53)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 22)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.601, h-index: 55)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 3)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 23)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 32)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 14)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 60)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.413, h-index: 27)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 46)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 14)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 34)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 58)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 85)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 57)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.161, h-index: 4)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 14)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.173, h-index: 8)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.268, h-index: 9)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.111, h-index: 61)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 8)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 20)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.204, h-index: 6)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 57)
Eurasian Soil Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 10)
EURO J. of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EURO J. on Computational Optimization     Hybrid Journal  
EURO J. on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal  
Europaisches J. fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal  
European Actuarial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 37)
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 12)
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 62)
European Biophysics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 53)
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 51)
European Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 49)
European J. for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European J. for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 2)
European J. of Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 17)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.044, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 69)
European J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European J. of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 25)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.946, h-index: 60)
European J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 25)

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Journal Cover European Food Research and Technology
   [10 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 0.773]   [H-I: 49]
  • Analysis of saponins as bioactive zoochemicals from the marine functional
           food sea cucumber Bohadschia
    • Abstract: Abstract The edible portion of sea cucumber, body walls, is a source of natural bioactive compounds. Triterpene saponins are the main chemical constituents in sea cucumber that have potential interest for the body health and food industry. Twenty-one lanostane-type non-sulphated triterpene glycosides were isolated from the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the body walls of Bohadschia cousteaui. Ten new saponins called coustesides A (1), B (3), C (9), D (10), E (11), F (12), G (15), H (16), I (17) and J (18), including two pentasaccharide and eight hexasaccharide saponins, together with eleven known triterpene glycosides, were isolated by reversed-phase semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were mainly determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and ROESY) as well as MS experiments and acid hydrolysis. Most of the isolated compounds showed good antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Moreover, sea cucumber B. cousteaui is a rich source of biologically active saponins. Therefore, sea cucumbers are eaten for their therapeutic values as a functional food than for their seafood taste.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Effects of maltodextrin glycosylation following limited enzymatic
           hydrolysis on the functional and conformational properties of soybean
           protein isolate
    • Abstract: Abstract The soy protein hydrolysate (HSPI) was first prepared using Neutrase and then glycosylated with maltodextrin (Md) at different incubation times (120, 180, 240, 270, and 300 min). The effect of glycosylation following limited enzymatic hydrolysis on the physicochemical properties of HSPI was investigated. The sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to confirm the covalent conjugation and determine the changes in the molecular weight of soybean protein isolate (SPI) during the structural modification. Surface hydrophobicity (H 0) measurements revealed that limited hydrolysis as well as glycosylation at 120 min increased H 0; however, further glycosylation decreased H 0 due to the shielding effect of the maltodextrin bound. The increased secondary, tertiary conformation stability was confirmed by the far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy, the intrinsic fluorescence analysis, and the results of differential scanning calorimetry. Subsequently, the functional properties including solubility, heat stability, emulsifying property, as well as antioxidant activities were evaluated. Results indicated that the emulsifying activity index was improved notably from 86.13 ± 1.31 m2/g for the native SPI to 109.07 ± 4.45 m2/g for HSPI–Md conjugates after 270-min incubation. Additionally, the glycosylation had obviously positive effects on the antioxidant activities of the modified SPI proteins. Therefore, HSPI–Md conjugates might be used as potential emulsifiers or multifunctional wall materials for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Impact of ‘oxidizing’ and ‘reducing’ buckwheat
           sourdoughs on brown rice and buckwheat batter and bread
    • Abstract: Abstract The influence of reducing and oxidizing buckwheat sourdoughs on the rheological, protein, and bread properties of buckwheat and brown rice flour was investigated. Batters and breads prepared with chemically acidified doughs, fresh pre-doughs, and fresh pre-doughs containing glutathione (3 mM) were used as controls. No significant differences were observed after the addition of reducing and oxidizing sourdoughs in all trials. Proteolysis was observed after proofing time in buckwheat and brown rice batters, respectively. Acidified doughs increased the elasticity and the gelatinization temperature of buckwheat batters. No notable microstructure changes were detected in brown rice batters. The extension of fermentation time in sourdough caused a slight decrease in bread volumes in all trials. Sourdoughs increased the bread volume and decreased the crumb hardness of buckwheat breads. In trials with brown rice flour, the addition of sourdough did not show relevant volume differences as compared to the controls, except big voids in sourdough bread crumb. Linear correlations between hardness, volume, and cells’ density were observed. However, no clear correlations among rheological parameters and bread characteristics could be detected. These results indicated that the applied strains were responsible for the leavening capacity of the yeast during the proofing time and for crumb structure in trials with buckwheat and brown rice flour. Applied sourdoughs were able to change the molecular, and bread properties of buckwheat and brown rice bread.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Production optimization, purification, and characterization of a novel
           acid protease from a fusant by        class="a-plus-plus">Aspergillus oryzae and        class="a-plus-plus">Aspergillus niger
    • Abstract: Abstract The production of a novel acid protease was enhanced by 44 % through statistical optimization. The cultural parameters, such as inoculum size, temperature, moisture content, and incubation time, were 8.59 × 105 g−1 dry koji, 31 °C, 57 %, and 86 h, respectively. This novel acid protease was purified by 17 folds with a recovery yield of 33.56 % and a specific activity of 4,105.49 U mg−1. Far-UV circular dichroic spectra revealed that this purified protease contained 7.1 % α-helix, 64.1 % β-sheet, and 32 % aperiodic coil. This novel acid protease was active over the temperature range of 35–55 °C with optimum temperature of 40 °C and was stable in the pH range of 2.5–6.5 with optimum pH of 3.5. Mn2+ enhanced its activity while Co2+ showed inhibitory effect. With casein as substrate, the kinetic parameters of K m, V max, energy of activation (E a), and attenuation index of inactivation velocity by heat inducing (λ) were 0.96 mg mL−1, 135.14 μmol min−1 mg−1, 64.11 kJ mol−1, and 0.59, respectively.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of red wines from the
           rediscovered autochthonous Tintilia grapevine grown in the Molise region
    • Abstract: Abstract Tintilia is an autochthonous grapevine of the Italian Molise region which risked to disappear. However, recently, the production of Tintilia red wines is resuming and in the year 2011 the protected designation origin ‘Tintilia del Molise’ was officially registered. In this work, an analytical characterization of representative red wines from Tintilia grape is reported. A total of 36 different physicochemical variables were determined and discussed, considering those with an estimated coefficient of variation <25 % as more characterizing. These were found to be (mean): density (0.9949); dry extract (34.4 g L−1) and ashes (3.8 g L−1); ethyl alcohol (14.2 mL 100 mL−1), glycerol (9.2 g L−1) and total higher alcohols (1.7 g L−1); pH (3.65); the titratable (5.9 g L−1), fixed (5.4 g L−1), and salified (2.5 g L−1) acidity; buffering capacity (52.6 mM/L/pH); total phenols (2,341 mg mL−1); total flavonols (223 mg mL−1) and epicathechin (75.0 mg mL−1); %Red (49.1 %) and %Yellow (43.6 %). Sensory analysis was also performed by professional wine tasters. Finally, the Tintilia results were compared with those of Montepulciano wines. Findings of this analytical study describe the Tintilia red wine as a full-bodied wine; alcoholic; with feeble, but stable acidic profile; rich of phenols, especially flavonols; and finally, with a color balanced between red and yellow pigments.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Selection, identification, and application of Aflatoxin B1 aptamer
    • Abstract: Abstract Aflatoxins represent an important class of mycotoxins that are known to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. Here, we report the use of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment technology to screen for a DNA aptamer that recognizes Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) with high affinity and specificity. AFB1 was first attached to magnetic nanoparticles and then incubated with an ssDNA library. After ten rounds of screening and amplification, 30 aptamer sequences were obtained following enrichment. Combined with a homological and structural analysis and affinity and specificity experiments, aptamer sequence 1, possessing the best affinity and specificity toward AFB1, was finally obtained. The dissociation constants value for aptamer sequence 1 was 11.39 nM. And, the specificity experiment results showed the binding between AFB1 aptamer with five other toxins was very week (did not exceed 15 % compared with AFB1). To demonstrate the potential use of this aptamer for quantitative analysis, a fluorescent bioassay with aptamer 1 was developed. The assay showed a wide linear range, with the AFB1 concentration ranging from 50 to 1,500 ng/L and a detection limit of 35 ng/L. Additionally, the spiked recovery experiment of AFB1 in peanut oil sample exhibited a recovery ratio between 94.2 and 101.2 % which showed good accuracy of the proposed aptamer-based bioassay. This fluorescent method represents a powerful tool for use in the detection of AFB1 without complex sample treatments.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Effects of extraction methods on antioxidant activities of polysaccharides
           from camellia seed cake
    • Abstract: Abstract Four purified polysaccharides (COP-H, COP-U, COP-E, and COP-A) were obtained from seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel. by hot water extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, enzyme extraction, and alkali extraction, respectively. Their structural characterizations were determined, and antioxidant activities were investigated. The results of FT-IR demonstrated that the characteristic absorption bands exhibited slight difference among four polysaccharides. HLPC analysis presented that the molecular weights were calculated to be 394, 297, 462, and 429 kDa for COP-H, COP-U, COP-E, and COP-A, respectively. GC–MS analysis showed that the monosaccharide compositions were identical to four polysaccharides, while the molecular ratios exhibited significant difference. Four polysaccharides showed antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Among four polysaccharides, COP-E showed a higher scavenging activity on DPPH, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical. These findings suggest camellia seed cake polysaccharides have potential as a natural antioxidant.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Effect of glycosylation on the mechanical properties of edible soy protein
           packaging film
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we explore the glycosylation conditions (glucomannan content, reaction time, temperature and humidity) to probe the relationship between glycosylation and mechanical properties of soy protein isolate (SPI) film. The mechanical properties were characterized by studying the tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (EB). Furthermore, degree of glycosylation, free glucomannan content, surface hydrophobicity, sulfhydryl groups content, lysine and arginine content of glycosylation soy protein with different reaction time were investigated to certify the significant effect of glycosylation on mechanical properties of soy protein film. What is more, the comparison of TS and EB, contact angle values and water vapor permeability of glycosylation SPI (GSPI), SPI and mixture of SPI and glucomannan films showed the excellence of GSPI. At the end, the analysis of scanning electron microscope was applied to reveal the effect of glycosylation on the structure of films. These results suggested that glycosylation with glucomannan is an ideal method to enhance the mechanical properties of soy protein isolate film.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Carotenoid content in vegetative and reproductive parts of commercially
           grown Moringa oleifera Lam.
           cultivars from India by LC–APCI–MS
    • Abstract: Abstract Non-availability of standards is the main problem in quantification of carotenoids from plants. In this regard, six major carotenoids, i.e. all-E-luteoxanthin, 13-Z-lutein, all-E-lutein, all-E-zeaxanthin, 15-Z-β-carotene and all-E-β-carotene, were purified using open-column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. Using these purified standards, carotenoids from fresh leaves, flowers and fruits of eight commercially grown cultivars of Moringa oleifera were quantified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. All-E-lutein was found as the major carotenoid in leaves and fruits and accounted for 53.6 and 52.0 % of the total carotenoids, respectively. Among the eight cultivars screened, the cultivar Bhagya (KDM-1) had the maximum amount of all-E-zeaxanthin, all-E-β-carotene and total carotenoids. The methodology used in the present investigation for purification and quantification of carotenoids is simplified and hence finds use in screening of carotenoids in other plants. Results also explore the M. oleifera leaves as a rich source of carotenoids, which is significant for its implications in malnutrition programme to alleviate the vitamin A deficiency.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Effects of nitric oxide on growth of        class="a-plus-plus">Fusarium sulphureum and its virulence
           to potato tubers
    • Abstract: Abstract The antifungal activity of nitric oxide (NO) on Fusarium sulphureum in vitro and curative or preventive efficacy against dry rot in potato tubers was studied. We report that NO released by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) aqueous solution strongly inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth of F. sulphureum in a concentration-dependent manner. When treated with SNP, the fungus, under scanning electron microscopy, appeared distorted with irregular hyphal growth. Transmission electron microscopy observations documented further ultrastructural alterations of hyphae treated with SNP, and these changes included abnormally contracted, distorted hyphal cell walls, large empty cavities in the cytoplasm and even malformed hyphae. Furthermore, SNP was effective at curing and preventing dry rot in potato tubers in vivo. These findings highlight NO as a promising natural fungicide that could partially substitute for the utilization of synthetic fungicides in potato tubers.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Evaluation of chocolate as a source of dietary copper
    • Abstract: Abstract Chocolate has frequently been proposed to be a valuable source of dietary copper, but data on the copper content of major contemporary chocolate brands are scarce. The copper content of 22 brands of chocolate, many of which are sold worldwide, is thus presented here. A reliable hot ashing procedure to determine the copper content of chocolate by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy is also described. It was found that the copper contents of the chocolates analyzed here varied in the range of 1.85 ± 0.10 to 16.50 ± 1.29 μg/g. There was a linear correlation of the copper content of chocolate to its cocoa content with a correlation coefficient R 2 of 0.89, showing that the copper was largely contributed to the chocolate by the cocoa. The value of chocolate as a source of dietary copper is discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Separation and characterization of acetone-soluble phosphatidylcholine
           from Antarctic krill (Euphausia
    ) oil
    • Abstract: Abstract Antarctic krill is the biggest fishery resource in the world with high content of phosphatidylcholine (PC) as a valuable natural product. A new method was developed to extract and separate Antarctic krill PC. The PC was extracted only by acetone from Antarctic krill oil and separated by silica gel column chromatography mixtures of chloroform and methanol as eluting solvents. Thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses were used to characterize the acetone-soluble Antarctic krill PC. The purity of the purified PC was able to reach 97.77 ± 0.65 %, which provided a reference basis for the preparation of standard Antarctic krill PC. Moreover, it was found in the fatty acid analysis that the purified PC contained mainly five fatty acids, including palmitic acid (41.25 %), oleic acid (8.62 %), 7-hexadecenoic acid (4.60 %), EPA (31.34 %), and DHA (14.52 %). The result is helpful for the analysis of Antarctic krill PC’s molecular structures and the evaluation of its nutritional value.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Aptamer-based rapid visual biosensing of melamine in whole milk
    • Abstract: Abstract A rapid and facile visual method for the detection of melamine (MA) in whole milk based on aptamer-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was described in this paper. This strategy combined aptamer as a MA recognition element with AuNPs as the color indicator, providing a rapid and on-site detection of MA by naked eyes or UV–Vis spectrometer. The whole analytical process could finish in 30 min without any assistance of any instrument. Under the optimized condition, the proposed method could be used to detect MA in whole milk with a detection limit of 1.5 mg/L in naked eyes and 0.5 mg/L with UV–Vis spectrometer. The simple rapid technique provided a promising tool for on-site screening of MA adulterant in milk as well as in-house diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Purification and characterization of an alkali-thermostable
           β-mannanase from Bacillus
    PN-11 and its application in mannooligosaccharides
           preparation having prebiotic potential
    • Abstract: Abstract An alkali-thermostable β-mannanase from Bacillus nealsonii PN-11 was purified 38.96-fold to homogeneity with specific activity of 2,288.90 ± 27.80 U mg−1 protein and final recovery of 8.92 ± 0.09 %. The purified β-mannanase was an extracellular monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 50 kDa on SDS–PAGE. The first 20 N-terminal amino acid sequence of mannanase enzyme was MVVKKLSSFILILLLVTSAL. The optimal temperature and pH for enzyme were 65 °C and 8.8, respectively. It was completely stable at 60 °C for 3 h and retained >50 ± 1.0 % activity at 70 °C up to 3 h. The β-mannanase was highly stable between pH 5–10 and retained >85 % of the initial activity for 3 h. The metal ions Ni+2, Co+2, Zn+2 and Mg+2 enhanced the enzyme activity. The enzyme remained stable after 3 h of preincubation with most of the tested organic solvents. According to substrate specificity study, the purified mannanase had high specificity to locust bean gum which was degraded mainly to mannooligosaccharides (MOS) like mannotriose, mannotetraose and mannopentose. These MOS enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus casei but inhibited the growth of Salmonella enterica indicating potential prebiotic properties. The properties of the purified β-mannanase from B. nealsonii PN-11 make this enzyme attractive for biotechnological applications.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • The influence of French fries processing on the glycoalkaloid content in
           coloured-fleshed potatoes
    • Abstract: Abstract French fries made from coloured-fleshed potatoes may be interesting alternative to the traditional snacks for consumers. However, potatoes contain glycoalkaloids (TGA), so potato tubers and obtained fried snacks should be subjected to comprehensive examination. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different stages of French fries processing on the content of TGA (α-solanine and α-chaconine) in the red- and blue-fleshed potatoes, in semi-products and ready-to-eat products. It was stated that during the processing of French fries prepared from coloured-flesh potato varieties significantly decreased the content of TGA (α-solanine and α-chaconine) in the samples obtained at different stages of the process compared to the raw material. Potatoes with blue-fleshed of Vitelotte variety and red-fleshed of Highland Burgundy Red variety can be used to French fries processing due to their low content of TGA (in unpeeled and peeled potatoes). However, Blue Congo variety with blue-fleshed should not be applied to French fries processing, because of high TGA content in raw material and first of all in peeled potatoes flesh. The peeling process of coloured-fleshed potatoes decreased in TGA content on average by about 50 %, cutting process on average by about 53 %, whereas blanching on average by about 58 % compared with the raw material. The highest decrease in TGA content was caused by frying process. The mean values were about 97.5 % in ready-to-eat French fries. In French fries after I and II steps of frying, the ratio α-solanine to α-chaconine was lower (1.0:2.0) than in unpeeled potatoes (1.0:2.3).
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Characterisation of potential milk coagulants from        class="a-plus-plus">Calotropis gigantea plant parts and
           their hydrolytic pattern of bovine casein
    • Abstract: Abstract The steady increase in world cheese demand keeps the search for appropriate coagulating enzymes as rennet substitutes in the scientific focus. This work reports the milk-clotting activities of aqueous crude enzyme (CE) from different parts of Calotropis gigantea using skim milk as substrate. CE from latex exhibited high caseinolytic (86.445 ± 1.055 U/ml) as well as milk-clotting activity (450 U/ml) when compared to other parts. Significant milk clotting index (MCI) was presented by crude enzyme of latex followed by stem, flower and leaf in the decreasing order (p < 0.05). CE from all parts showed an optimum activity at 37 °C, pH 5.5 and 10 mM calcium chloride concentration with excellent pH (4.5–6.5) and thermal stability (30–60 °C). Hydrolysis pattern of casein components by CE during 1 h incubation, as assessed by Tricine–SDS-PAGE, and subsequent peak analysis revealed CE from stem to be closely similar to that of rennin. However, extensive casein hydrolysis was observed when incubated with crude latex enzyme. Casein bands of CE and rennin tended to disappear as incubation progressed to 24 h. Proteolytic degradation was found to be advanced and resulted in complete breakdown of casein fractions unravelling the importance of incubation time as a possible essential requisite for controlled and appropriate casein hydrolysis. The study provides evidence of rennin-like activity associated with C. gigantea plant parts which may serve as a promising source of vegetable milk coagulant.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • The application of d-SPE in the QuEChERS method for the determination of
           PAHs in food of animal origin with GC–MS detection
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper reports the evaluation of the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food of animal origin with GC–MS detection. Although in the available literature, there is a lot of information about sample preparation method for PAHs determination in food samples, but the QuEChERS method application for PAHs determination in food of animal origin has not been reported as yet. The results showed that the best recovery ratios 72.4–110.8 % with relative standard deviation lower than 10 % for all determined compounds were received for the method with ethyl acetate as an extraction solvent, primary–secondary amine and C18 sorbents and evaporation to dryness and dissolving the residues in the hexane. The limit of quantification ranged from 0.0003 to 0.0030 mg kg−1 for pyrene and benzo[a]anthracene, respectively. This method was also used for the determination of PAHs in 15 samples of pork ham. In 8 of 15 samples selected, PAHs were identified. It was observed that in 6 cooked ham and one smoked and cooked samples, any PAHs were found. In other samples, which were smoked and roasted, some low concentration of PAHs was detected. In one sample benzo[a]pyrene (0.0015 mg kg−1), in one sample benzo[b]fluoranthene (0.0015 mg kg−1) and in one sample chrysene (0.0024 mg kg−1) were detected. A number of other less harmful PAHs were also determined. There were no exceedances of maximum levels (according to Commission Regulation (EU) No 835/2011) for determined PAHs in any of the analysed samples.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Seeds recovered from by-products of selected fruit processing as a rich
           source of tocochromanols: RP-HPLC/FLD and RP-UPLC-ESI/MS       class="a-plus-plus">n study
    • Abstract: Abstract Tocochromanol composition was analysed in the seeds of nine various fruits: apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), red currant (Ribes rubrum L.), gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa L.), grape (Vitis vinifera L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. ex Spach), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and canary melon (Cucumis melo L.), recovered from by-products of fruit industry. The concentration range of subsequent tocopherols (Ts) and tocotrienols (T3s) was as follows: 1.29–29.30, 0.00–11.68, 0.42–95.11, 0.00–7.66, 0.03–5.03, 0.00–0.18 and 0.00–6.68 mg/100 g of seed dry weight for α-T, β-T, γ-T, δ-T, α-T3, β-T3 and γ-T3, respectively. The δ-T3 was not detected in any of the tested seeds. All tocochromanols were successfully separated by rapid RP-HPLC/FLD method and confirmed by the RP-UPLC-ESI/MS3 technique.
      PubDate: 2014-05-21
  • Erratum to: Effects of maltodextrin glycosylation following limited
           enzymatic hydrolysis on the functional and conformational properties of
           soybean protein isolate
    • PubDate: 2014-04-18
  • Effect of brine immersion freezing on the determination of ecological
           tracers in fish
    • Abstract: Abstract The use of a multi-ecological tracer approach provides valuable and complementary insights to investigate the complex biology and ecology of large pelagic fish. Brine immersion freezing is the most common preservation technique used onboard for large fish to be frozen whole until they are delivered for sale and processing. We evaluated the effect of brine freezing on lipid and fatty acid composition, C and N stable isotope ratios, and organochlorine contaminant levels of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). Fresh tunas were stored in a saturated sodium chlorine brine immersion tank maintained at −20 °C for 6 weeks, and ecological tracers were analysed on dorsal muscle samples collected before and after brine freezing. No significant effect of the fish preservation technique was found except for δ15N whose signatures slightly increased after a 6-week period of brine immersion. Because N isotopic shift was close to the analytical precision and probably related to a higher risk of salt penetration in small tunas with abraded skin, we consider our results as conservative and conclude that ecological tracers can indeed be analysed on brine-freezing-preserved tunas.
      PubDate: 2014-04-11
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