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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2210 journals)

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Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 46)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 8)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 5)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 28)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 17)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 7)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.289, h-index: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.651, h-index: 22)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.698, h-index: 38)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 40)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.857, h-index: 31)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.793, h-index: 83)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.041, h-index: 53)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 15)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.519, h-index: 14)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.781, h-index: 52)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 8)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 27)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 188, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 45)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 17)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.542, h-index: 7)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 14)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 5)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 11)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 22)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 12)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.5, h-index: 29)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.319, h-index: 33)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 13)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 55)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 27)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 10)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 26)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 26)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 46)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 53)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 22)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.601, h-index: 55)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 3)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 23)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 32)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 14)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 60)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.413, h-index: 27)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 46)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 14)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 34)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 58)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 85)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 57)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.161, h-index: 4)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 14)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.173, h-index: 8)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.268, h-index: 9)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.111, h-index: 61)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 8)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 20)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.204, h-index: 6)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 57)
Eurasian Soil Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 10)
EURO J. of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EURO J. on Computational Optimization     Hybrid Journal  
EURO J. on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal  
Europaisches J. fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal  
European Actuarial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 37)
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 12)
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 62)
European Biophysics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 53)
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 51)
European Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 49)
European J. for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European J. for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 2)
European J. of Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 17)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.044, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 69)
European J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European J. of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 25)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.946, h-index: 60)
European J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 25)

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Journal Cover European Food Research and Technology
   [10 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.773]   [H-I: 49]
  • Yeast DNA recovery during the secondary fermentation step of Lombardy
           sparkling wines produced by Champenoise method
    • Abstract: Abstract The possibility of recovering amplifiable DNA from sparkling wine produced by Champenoise method was investigated. Indeed, the sensory refining of this product occurs through the yeast autolysis with the release of cellular components, including nucleic acids. An efficient and reliable method to purify DNA is provided coupling two purification treatments: organic solvents and magnetic beads that have never been applied before on wine. The yield of DNA extraction ranged between 10 and 60 %. Starting from 150 mL spiked samples, up to 0.1–0.6 pg of yeast DNA was detected, potentially corresponding to about 4–24 cells of a diploid strain of S. cerevisiae. After development of new primers, the performance of the protocol was validated in real-time PCR by targeting the ITS region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the main species involved in the secondary fermentation. The monitoring of sparkling wines during the ageing on lees was carried out in four wineries in Franciacorta and Oltrepò Pavese areas up to 2 years from the tirage to wine samples ready for the market as well. Results show that DNA extraction and amplification are properly obtained all along the times, for the species identification; however, after 16 months of ageing, a pre-amplification step needed to be introduced to the procedure for finding a specific signal. Because of the strong DNA degradation, the typing of the inoculated strain or the grape cultivar was not achieved in commercialized wine samples.
      PubDate: 2014-12-13
       
  • The free and enzyme-released volatile compounds of distinctive Vitis
           amurensis var. Zuoshanyi grapes in China
    • Abstract: Abstract Vitis amurensis var. Zuoshanyi is a native red variety grown in Northeast China with excellent cold hardness for genetic breeding and winemaking potential, but the volatiles profile, especially key compounds related to aroma character, was not fully revealed. In this work, Zuoshanyi grapes were collected across two harvests (2010 and 2011) in Shangzhuang area in Beijing, China. Free and glycosidase enzymatic hydrolysis volatiles were analyzed using SPME coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A total of 135 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Among the 13 categories of constituents, C6 compounds were the most abundant, followed by alcohols and ketones, and esters were the least abundant in two vintages. C6/C9 compounds, MPs (3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine) and (E)-β-damascenone were the major compounds of Zuoshanyi grapes, which contributed “grass, green, fruit, etc.,” aroma as characterization of this distinctive cultivar. Results from hierarchical clustering and heatmap visualization revealed the accumulation patterns of volatile compounds during berry development. Principal component analysis showed clear separation of free and enzyme-released components in two vintages. Rainfall was the major different climate factor in log phase and before veraison of Zuoshanyi grapes in two vintages, and this difference may potentially influence the volatile variances of Zuoshanyi grapes.
      PubDate: 2014-12-12
       
  • Preparation of PEG-modified proanthocyanidin liposome and its application
           in cosmetics
    • Abstract: Abstract Proanthocyanidin liposome modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) was prepared by reverse-phase evaporation method. To obtain the higher encapsulation efficiency of proanthocyanidin liposomes, several factors, including the mass ratio of lecithin to cholesterol and the addition of surfactants and PEG, were investigated. The liposomes then can be evaluated by encapsulation efficiency, the distribution of particle size and storage stability. The results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of the liposomes was around 77.28 %, and the average particle size of the liposomes was 144.9 ± 0.1 nm. In addition, proanthocyanidin could be controlled to release on simulated skin in vitro. These data confirmed that the liposomes could be employed to extend proanthocyanidin’s shelf life and to provide more convenience and better performance for its usage in cosmetics.
      PubDate: 2014-12-12
       
  • Identification of gum Arabic in white wine based on colloid content,
           colloid composition and multi-element stable isotope analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Gum Arabic (GA) is a popular wine additive. Due to its compositional and structural similarity to native grape cell wall arabinogalactans occurring in wine, the chemical proof of a GA addition is difficult. A method for its identification based on the colloid composition and multi-element (H, O and N, C) stable isotope analysis of the colloids was developed. For this purpose, the colloids from non-spiked, authentic (control) and spiked (300 mg l−1 GA) German white wines were isolated and analyzed for their monosaccharide composition. An addition of 300 mg l−1 GA changed the monomer sugar composition of the colloids. Particularly, l-arabinose, d-galactose, d-mannose and d-glucuronic acid were affected. Additionally, the oxygen stable isotope ratios of the isolated polysaccharides were shifted. Principle component analysis indicated the grouping of treated and untreated samples with 300 mg l−1 GA. The groupings were influenced by the content of l-arabinose and d-galactose, colloid content, monosaccharide content, monosaccharide composition and the δ18O values. It could also be concluded that a high content of l-arabinose and d-galactose was accompanied with a lower content of d-mannose. The control samples were only influenced by a significantly higher d-mannose content.
      PubDate: 2014-12-09
       
  • NIR and PLS discriminant analysis for predicting the processability of
           malt during lautering
    • Abstract: Abstract This work is focused on a new strategy for quality analysis of brewing malt using near infrared (NIR) spectra taken from malt kernels in reflection as fingerprint to classify directly to processability of malt. One part of the study deals with calibrating a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model with NIR spectra classifying malt into the three different classes resulting in a five-component model. Therefore, suitable pre-processing algorithms for spectra were tested. The target for calibration is given by an expert opinion on lautering runs (filtration step in brewing). The accuracy achieved using pilot plant data in relation to the expert classification “good”, “normal” and “bad” was 90.6 and 92.7 % in validation and calibration, respectively. The second part of the study is presenting the transfer of these analytical tools to industrial scale. This was established via adjustment to corresponding system conditions. The accuracy achieved using similar algorithms as mentioned before was 93.6 and 76.6 % in calibration and validation, respectively. Independent from this, two numerical possibilities were established for automatic process evaluation classifying the different processes in three categories (good, normal, bad): the first is calculating the residual standard deviation of a process based on multivariate statistical process control and the second is discretizing each process individually based on its single online trends. Both methods were compared to the expert opinion coinciding with 84 and 85 %, respectively.
      PubDate: 2014-12-07
       
  • Oenological consequences of sequential inoculation with non- Saccharomyces
           yeasts ( Torulaspora delbrueckii or Metschnikowia pulcherrima ) and
           Saccharomyces cerevisiae in base wine for sparkling wine production
    • Abstract: Abstract The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts for the production of quality wine has become increasingly frequent in recent years. Several studies of the influence of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Metschnikowia pulcherrima on chemical composition have been reported, especially in aspects concerning aroma. The aim of this article was to study the influence of sequential inoculation of these non-Saccharomyces yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the composition and quality of base wine for sparkling wine production. The results indicate that sequential inoculation with non-Saccharomyces yeasts may be an interesting tool for obtaining base wines with different characteristics. On the one hand, T. delbrueckii Biodiva™ strain increased glycerol concentration, reduced volatile acidity and exerted a positive effect on foaming properties improving foamability (Hm) and foam persistence (Hs). On the other hand, M. pulcherrima Flavia® strain also increased foam persistence (Hs) and changed the aromatic profile, increasing smoky and flowery notes.
      PubDate: 2014-12-07
       
  • Skill development in food professionals: a European study
    • Abstract: Abstract The food sector is the largest employer in the European Union, yet it ranks low in innovation and few educated young people pursue food careers. Updating both the skills and the image of food science and technology professionals (FSTs) first requires understanding the current situation. This work compares the view of currently employed FSTs (3,007) with that of food science and technology (FST) employers (602) regarding skills and when and where they should be developed. European FSTs responded to a web-based survey in 2011 and 2012, and FST employers responded to an e-mail-based survey and/or attended brainstorming workshops from 2009 to 2012. Soft skills, especially those related with communication, were the best evaluated by both groups, whereas technical non-food skills were in the lowest positions. FSTs were judged qualified by their employers in some food skills (food safety and quality, product development, production), while others (engineering maintenance, consumer and nutritional sciences, environmental issues) were more poorly evaluated. In general, FSTs believe themselves to be well qualified by higher education programs, and most of them do not continue training once they are working, with the notable exception of those that achieve positions of high responsibility. However, employers appeared to disagree, recommending that education and training in soft, food and technical skills continue throughout working life. Additionally, they recommended more frequent reinforcement of soft than of food or technical skills. A competitive food sector requires FSTs of the highest quality, and understanding the view of FSTs and their employees can contribute to improved training and thus benefit the European food sector.
      PubDate: 2014-12-07
       
  • The effect of essential oils and cinnamaldehyde on the inactivation of
           Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid egg products: comparison to synthetic
           additives
    • Abstract: Abstract This work explores the effect of the addition of rosemary, cinnamon bark and thyme essential oils (EOs) and one of their main active compounds cinnamaldehyde (CNM) on the inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in liquid whole egg (LWE), liquid egg white (LEW) and liquid egg yolk (LEY) stored at 4 °C. The method is proposed as an alternative to the use of synthetic additives (sorbic acid and sodium benzoate). The growth/survival of S. Enteritidis was studied by quantitative and presence/absence tests. The cinnamon bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity among all the EOs tested in the egg derivatives; however, its effectiveness was higher in LEW than in LWE and LEY. The antibacterial action of the cinnamon bark oil was attributed mainly to its high content of CNM. Concentrations of 1,000 and 6,000 ppm of CNM were enough to reduce a S. Enteritidis population of 106 CFU ml−1 to undetectable levels in LEW and LWE, respectively. CNM addition did not significantly affect the pH or ºBrix of egg products, but the smell and colour of cinnamon were perceptible.
      PubDate: 2014-12-07
       
  • Extraction, sulfonation and anticoagulant activity of xylan from corncob
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this work was to study the anticoagulant activity of sulfonated xylan. The crude corncob xylans were isolated from corncob by alkaline extraction. The water-insoluble xylans were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and dimethylformamide (DMF) to generate the water-soluble sulfonated xylan (WISX-S). The best conditions for the esterification were 1:1 of chlorosulfonic acid to DMF, keep time of 6 h and temperature of 70 °C by the orthogonal analysis. Degree of substitution of esterification product was 1.54. Anticoagulant properties of WISX-S1 and WISX-S2 were compared with normal saline and positive control heparin sodium. In vitro tests demonstrated that WISX-S2 can significantly prolong APTT and TT, but not PT. The results suggest that WISX-S2 may play the key role of anticoagulation through the intrinsic pathway and common pathway. The anticoagulant activity of xylan sulfates may be associated with the degree of substitution and molecular weight within a certain range.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
       
  • Lactobacillus paracasei isolated from grape sourdough: acid, bile, salt,
           and heat tolerance after spray drying with skim milk and cheese whey
    • Abstract: Abstract Lactic acid bacteria have been isolated from sourdough and could present important properties in food manufacturing as starter cultures and also as probiotics. This study evaluated the resistance of Lactobacillus paracasei strain isolated from sourdough to spray drying in the presence of reconstituted skim milk (RSM) and cheese whey (CW). The in vitro tolerance to acid, bile, sodium chloride (NaCl) and heat was studied to free and microencapsulated cells. The microcapsules moisture was determined, and the morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The viability of free and microencapsulated cells decreased by 4.25 log CFU mL−1 and 1.00 log CFU g−1, respectively, when exposed to pH 2.0 for 3 h. At pH 3.0, free cells decreased 0.3 log CFU mL−1, while the microencapsulated form maintained its viability even after 3 h of exposure. After 12 h of exposure to 2 g 100 mL−1 bile salts, free and microencapsulated L. paracasei decreased 3.34 log CFU mL−1 and 2.17 log CFU g−1, respectively. No significant cell loss was observed, for free and microencapsulated form when exposed to NaCl, and microencapsulated cells survived well for 15 min at 65 °C. Moisture content of microcapsules ranged from 4.30 to 4.77 g 100 g−1. L. paracasei was found to possess desirable in vitro resistance to low pH and bile salts, and the microencapsulation in RSM and CW provided a cell protection against acidic pH and bile salts. This strain is good candidate for further investigation to elucidate its potential health benefits and in fermentation processes.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
       
  • Biosynthesis of β (1,3)/(1,6)-glucans of cell wall of the yeast
           Candida utilis ATCC 9950 strains in the culture media supplemented with
           deproteinated potato juice water and glycerol
    • Abstract: Abstract Yeast cell wall β-glucans exhibit valuable functional properties, including therapeutic ones. The possibility of using deproteinated potato juice water (DPJW) with the addition of glycerol in yeast culture of Candida utilis ATCC 9950 for biosynthesis of β(1,3)/(1,6)-glucans of cell wall was determined. The biosynthesis of β-glucans was preferably intensified by media prepared from DPJW at pH 5.0 with 5 or 10 % addition of glycerol. Cells from these cultures were characterized and found to possess thickest cell walls and β-glucan layers. The content of β-glucans in the walls’ preparations was estimated to be approximately 44–45 % and was significantly higher in comparison with the content after culturing in synthetic YPD medium (approximately 31 %). The new developed media may be used in the production of C. utilis biomass with enhanced content of functional β-glucans. It creates the possibility of a favorable, simultaneous management of waste potato juice water and glycerol in the formation of β(1,3)/(1,6)-glucans.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05
       
  • The influence of four drying methods on nonvolatile taste components of
           White Hypsizygus marmoreus
    • Abstract: Abstract The influence of four drying methods on nonvolatile taste components of White Hypsizygus marmoreus (WHM) was studied. The soluble sugar, free amino acids, organic acids, and flavor nucleotides of WHM were determined and compared by HPLC after hot air drying, vacuum drying (VD), microwave-vacuum drying (MVD), and vacuum freeze-drying (FD). Equivalent umami concentration (EUC) was used to evaluate the umami taste of WHM. The results showed that the four drying methods had different influence on the soluble sugar, free amino acids, organic acids, and flavor nucleotides. Soluble sugar retention after MVD was the highest (192.61 mg/g), but the EUC (147.6 g/100 g) was lower. The content of essential amino acids (22.83 mg/g), flavor amino acids (22.05 mg/g), and total amino acids (48.95 mg/g) after VD was the highest, but the EUC was the lowest; FD can reduce the loss of the total flavor nucleotides to the minimum, compared with the other three drying methods. FD got the highest retention rate of the total organic acids especially succinic acid, and the influence on amino acids was almost the same with VD. Considering the maximum retention of nonvolatile taste components, FD is the most optimal drying method. Different drying methods have their respective advantages, and this study provided reference for the processing of the WHM.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05
       
  • Effect of substrate type on sensory characteristics and antioxidant
           capacity of sunflower Maillard reaction products
    • Abstract: Abstract The sensory characteristics and antioxidant capacity of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from two substrates namely sunflower free amino acid and peptides, xylose with and without cysteine model systems (AXC, AX, PXC and PX, respectively) were evaluated and compared. The model systems were heated at 120 °C for 2.0 h and a pH of 7.4. Results showed that AXC had greater meat-like flavour and umami taste, while PXC showed great mouthfulness and continuity taste, and AX and PX showed higher caramel-like flavour and bitter taste. The addition of cysteine was found to accelerate high molecular weight peptide degradation while suppressing low molecular weight cross-linking and colour formation in PXC and AXC. Furthermore, it was observed that sensory attributes of MRPs were not significantly affected by the peptides size. Results also showed that caramel-like flavour and bitter taste were significantly and positively correlated with furans and most of the nitrogen-containing compounds while these compounds had significant and negative impact on mouthfulness, continuity and meat-like flavour. Additionally, sulphur-containing compounds showed significant and positive influence on meat-like flavour, while PXC and PX showed higher antioxidant activities than AXC and AX. It can therefore be concluded that sunflower peptides MRPs can be a good precursor of flavour enhancers with high antioxidant activity, while sunflower free amino acid MRPs can be used to produce meat-like flavour enhancers.
      PubDate: 2014-12-04
       
  • Impact of suppressing the caffeic acid O -methyltransferase ( COMT ) gene
           on lignin, fiber, and seed oil composition in Brassica napus transgenic
           plants
    • Abstract: Abstract The impact of suppressing the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene on lignin and fiber content as well as seed oil composition of Brassica napus was studied. Transgenic lines showed significant reduction in COMT enzyme activity ranging between 21 and 31 % residual activity. Lignin in the transgenic Cruciferin:COMT line 34-3 seeds was reduced by 35 % of the wild type, which decreased acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber by 17.92 and 13.04 % of the control, respectively. The main fatty acids were monounsaturated (67.2–69.5 %) followed by polyunsaturated (20.9–23.3 %). The content of tocols ranged between 338 and 440 mg/100 g oil. The highest antiradical action toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and galvinoxyl radicals was in the oil of the transgenic line 34-3, which contained the highest amount of total phenolic compounds and total tocols. The results show the possibility of reducing lignin in B. napus with no effect on oil content and quality.
      PubDate: 2014-12-04
       
  • Protective action of S-layer proteins from Lactobacillus paracasei M7
           against Salmonella infection and mediated inhibition of Salmonella
           -induced apoptosis
    • Abstract: Abstract Surface layer proteins had been proposed that it could protect human intestine from pathogens and aid in maintaining cellular integrity. However, the functions of S-layer proteins have not yet been fully revealed, and it has been proposed that these structures protected the intestinal microbes from hostile environmental agents. In this study, the ability of the Lactobacilli to inhibit adhesion of Salmonella to intestinal mucosa was studied on cultured HT-29 cells. Lactobacillus paracasei M7 was shown to inhibit the adhesion of Salmonella to epithelial cells, a process which may be related to the specific component of the bacterial surface. Human epithelial HT-29 cells were treated with S-layer proteins after Salmonella injection and pretreated with S-layer proteins to determine their importance in the inhibition of pathogen adherence. According to the analysis of cell cycle by flow cytometry, the HT-29 cells treated by Salmonella in S phase were 26.88 % compared with 36.70 % in the normal HT-29 cells. However, the addition of S-layer proteins made the HT-29 cells in S phase increase to 30.13 %. The activity of caspase-3 in the HT-29 cell was determined using a caspase-3 activity kit, which indicated the degree of apoptosis. Moreover, we also found that Lactobacillus S-layer proteins could protect Salmonella-induced apoptosis through reducing the caspase-3 activity. This mechanism might represent a novel approach for antagonizing Salmonella infection.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03
       
  • Glycation inhibits trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced whey protein
           precipitation
    • Abstract: Abstract Four different WPI saccharide conjugates were successfully prepared to test whether glycation could inhibit WPI precipitation induced by trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Conjugates molecular weights after glycation were analyzed with SDS-PAGE. No significant secondary structure change due to glycation was detected. Glycation decreased the apparent denaturation enthalpy (ΔH) and increased denaturation temperature (T d). The TCA-induced WPI precipitation profiles were shown to be U-shaped. The attachment of maltodextrin and dextran increases WPI solubility against TCA-induced precipitation. However, similar effects were not observed when WPI was glycated with monosaccharide (mannose) and disaccharide (maltose), even though the degrees of glycation were significantly higher, compared to WPI-maltodextrin or WPI-dextran conjugates. The effects against precipitation depended on the molecular weight of saccharides, while the effects of the degrees of glycation were not pronounced. Steric hindrance may be the reason to inhibit TCA-induced protein precipitation after glycation. The information of this study provided may extend our knowledge about TCA-induced protein precipitation mechanism.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02
       
  • Migration of phenolic compounds from different cork stoppers to wine model
           solutions: antioxidant and biological relevance
    • Abstract: Abstract Considering the enological interest of cork, this study aimed to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds able to migrate from different classes (natural cork stoppers “Flor” and “Third” quality and microagglomerate cork stopper) of cork stoppers into bottled wine model solutions. Another aim was to evaluate some antioxidant and biological features of cork phenolics that migrated into the wine model solutions. The main phenolic acids and aldehydes detected were as follows: gallic and protocatechuic acid detected both around 3.5 mg/L and vanillin and protocatechuic aldehyde detected around 2.5 and 1.5 mg/L after 27 months of bottling, respectively. Trace amounts of more complex polyphenols, namely hydrolysable tannins (castalagin/vescalagin and mongolicain A/B), were also detected. Two antioxidant features of the wine model solutions bottled with different wine cork stoppers were studied, namely the antiradical capacity and the reducing capacity, being the natural cork stoppers the ones with the higher activities. The intestinal absorption of the compounds in each wine model solution after 27 months in bottled was evaluated. The simpler phenolic compounds were able to cross Caco-2 cell model. The antiproliferative activity of the same wine model solutions was also evaluated against gastric and breast cancer cells. All samples were active against the two cell lines, which highlight the possible health outcomes of wine sealed with cork stoppers.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Microencapsulation of capsanthin by self-emulsifying nanoemulsions and
           stability evaluation
    • Abstract: Abstract The application of natural colorants in food products has been gained more and more attention, not only due to their nutritional advantages, but also their functional properties. The purpose of this research was to encapsulate capsanthin from paprika by nanoemulsions (NEs), and the stability of resultant NEs was evaluated. The NE systems were first optimized by dropwise adding mixed organic phase [5 wt% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 10 wt% surfactant containing span 20 and tween 80 with the weight ratio 1:3 and HLB 13.4] into water phase. Then capsanthin was mixed with MCT as the oil phase. With the presence of capsanthin, the oil phase composition had great impact on the particle size of NEs that the droplet size increased from 30 to 150 nm with increasing capsanthin content. Generally, higher temperature and stirring speed would decrease the particle size, which also depended on the surfactant-to-oil ratio. The stability results demonstrated that there was no obvious change on the capsanthin NE droplet size and entrapped capsanthin content after 1 month storage at ambient temperature. Our results are important for the design of food-grade delivery systems to encapsulate natural lipophilic pigments or ingredients.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Isolation of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor from pepsin
           hydrolysate of porcine hemoglobin
    • Abstract: Abstract Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been widely used as antihypertensive agents. However, most synthetic ACE inhibitors ineluctably have severe side effects. Researchers have focused on various ACE-inhibitory peptides derived from dietary food. In the present study, we reported peptides produced from porcine blood, an important food in Asian countries. Through enzymatic hydrolysis, we found that peptides from this animal compound have ACE-inhibitory effects. Porcine hemoglobin was hydrolyzed using ordinary proteases, including alcalase, trypsin, neutral, papain, protamex, and pepsin. Results showed that pepsin was the most efficient protease in producing active peptides, and the pepsin hydrolysate of porcine hemoglobin showed the highest activity (IC50 = 1.53 ± 0.03 mg/mL). Combining DA 201-C macroporous resin chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 gel chromatography, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, the fraction 2-IV was purified from pepsin hydrolysis of porcine hemoglobin; this compound exhibited the highest ACE-inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.02 ± 0.01 mg/mL). Through Edman degradation, we also found that the exact amino acid sequence of fraction 2-IV was Gln–Glu–Leu–Pro–Gly. The results indicated that porcine hemoglobin peptides possessed significant ACE-inhibitory effect in vitro, which is an important complement of the previous work.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
  • Superoxide dismutase from hen’s egg yolk can protect fatty acids
           from peroxidative damage
    • Abstract: Abstract Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC1.15.1.1) is a family of enzymes, which remove superoxide anion (O 2 ·− ) from the cells of living organisms. The aim of this study was to describe antioxidative properties of SOD with regard to the protection of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from peroxidative damage and to compare this effect with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In this experiment, Cu, Zn-SOD from hen’s egg yolk with a mass of 15.59 ± 0.38 kDa and pI 6.58 ± 0.10, 6.41 ± 0.08 and 6.30 ± 0.15 was used to protect fatty acids from peroxidative damage in vegetable oil (sunflower oil and olive oil) during 200 days of storage at different temperatures—4, 20 and 35 °C. Antioxidative properties of SOD and BHT were expressed as the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (SFA) in samples after 50, 100 and 200 days of storage as well as the percentage content of selected fatty acids in the examined oils. SOD from egg yolk showed the same or better antioxidant properties with regard to the concentration of linoleic acid (C18:2) contained in sunflower oil and olive oil than the corresponding concentrations of BHT during 200-day storage at 4, 20 and 35 °C. The concentration of linoleic acid (C18:2) in the sample with SOD was significantly higher during storage at 35 °C on day 200. At all storage temperatures, the ratio of SFA to UFA in samples with the addition of SOD was statistically higher than in oils stored without the antioxidant. With regard to linoleic acid (C18:2), SOD proved to be a better antioxidant than BHT. The results demonstrated better antioxidant properties of SOD from hen’s eggs compared with the same concentrations of BHT at elevated temperatures (at 20 and 35 °C) in oil with a high content of UFA. No negative antioxidative effect (worse than that of BHT at a corresponding concentration) of the addition of SOD from egg yolk on fatty acid composition of the tested samples was observed. Though further research is necessary, SOD from hen’s egg yolk seems to be a promising natural antioxidant of vegetable oils.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
       
 
 
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