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European Food Research and Technology    [10 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2187 journals]   [SJR: 0.773]   [H-I: 49]
  • δ13C values and
           phytanic acid diastereomer ratios: combined evaluation of two markers
           suggested for authentication of organic milk and dairy products
    • Abstract: Abstract Authentication of organic milk by suitable markers is currently attracting more and more interests in food control. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficiency of the markers stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C value) with the SRR/RRR phytanic acid diastereomer ratio (SRR/RRR) of milk fat for distinguishing different feeding systems. For stable carbon isotope ratio analysis by elemental analysis–isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS), we first developed a simple sample preparation method based on milk fat extracts allowed to evaporate the solvent in tin capsules for liquid samples. The δ13C values and reproducibility measured with this alternative sample pre-treatment method excellently matched those obtained with the current standard method. Applied to milk samples, the results of the EA-IRMS analysis were linked to the SRR/RRR, and both markers allowed to distinguish milk from cows fed with hay (δ13C value > −28.0 ‰, SRR/RRR <1.5) from feed used in conventional milk production which contained maize silage (C4-plants) (p < 0.001). Milk fat of organic retail cheese samples was also highly depleted in 13C (δ13C value −30.0 ‰ ± 1.1), and the SRR/RRR was low (<1.5). However, seven cheese samples showed inconsistent δ13C values and SRR/RRR, most likely due to the feeding of grass silage. Both parameters (δ13C values and SRR/RRR), together with the phytanic acid content of milk fat, also allowed distinguishing between the feeding of high amounts of pasture, hay, and/or grass silage.
      PubDate: 2014-01-23
  • Sprouted wheat grain with ferritin overexpression as a potential source of
           iron for cereal product fortification
    • Abstract: Abstract Grains of winter wheat (Korweta variety) were partially germinated in an abiotic stress condition (0–15 mM FeSO4 solutions) in order to accumulate iron by ferritin overexpression. The physical, chemical, biochemical properties and technological parameters of the obtained material as well as their resistance to an insect storage pest—granary weevil—were analyzed. Sprouted wheat grains with overexpression of ferritin contain 52 times more iron, more than 50 % in form of ferritin. The contents of reducing sugars, crude protein, fiber and ash as well as amylolytic activity increased significantly in sprouted wheat grain, while starch, fat, wet gluten, falling number and inhibition activity against granary weevil α-amylase decreased. Germinated wheat grain enriched with iron strongly affected granary weevil developmental parameters. Despite the fact that technological parameters of the product were deteriorated, it is worth to consider this material application as an iron supplement for cereal products, when the application of soybean is impossible.
      PubDate: 2014-01-23
  • Cross-linked α-       type-small-caps">l-rhamnosidase aggregates with
           potential application in food industry
    • Abstract: Abstract α-l-Rhamnosidase (E.C. from Brevundimonas sp. Ci19 was immobilized as a cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA) via precipitation with acetone followed by glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The effects of precipitation and cross-linking on CLEA activity were investigated and characterized. Sixty percent acetone solution and 2.0 % glutaraldehyde were used at pH 7.0 for 1-h cross-linking reaction. The yield of rhamnosidase-CLEA was approximately 80 % starting from crude extracts or pure enzyme suggesting non-purification steps are required for extended use. No significant differences in optimum pH and temperature values of the enzyme were recorded after immobilization. The rham-CLEA recycled 4 times showed about 80 % rhamnosidase activity; meanwhile, in the fifth and six recycled time, the enzyme activity was reduced to about 40 and 20 %, respectively.
      PubDate: 2014-01-22
  • Polyphenolic contents in        class="a-plus-plus">Citrus fruit juices:
           authenticity assessment
    • Abstract: Abstract The contents of 49 polyphenols in sweet orange, tangerine, lemon and grapefruit juices from 18 cultivars grown in Spain were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Citrus polyphenolic profiles consist of 81–97 % of flavanones, 0.3–13.6 % of flavones, 0.1–6.0 % of flavonols, 0.6–9.6 % of hydroxycinnamic acids and 0.2–0.4 % of coumarins (only found in grapefruit juices). Several markers that allow to distinguish with practical certainty grapefruit and lemon juices between them and from the other Citrus species are reported. Each of these markers is a reliable and useful tool to detect juice adulteration. Grapefruit juice markers were naringenin-7-O-neohesperidoside, naringenin-7-O-neohesperidoside-4′-O-glucose, naringenin-O-hexosylhexoside, hesperetin-7-O-neohesperidoside, naringenin-O-rhamnosylmalonylhexoside, isosakuranetin-7-O-neohesperidoside, hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-hexoside-O-hexoside, apigenin-7-O-neohesperidoside and scopoletin-O-hexoside. Lemon juice markers were eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside-4′-O-glucoside, eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside, diosmetin-6,8-di-C-glucoside, diosmetin-8-C-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, diosmetin-6-C-glucoside and diosmetin-6,8-di-C-hexosideacylhexoside. The markers naringenin-O-hexosylhexoside, apigenin-6-C-hexoside-O-hexoside, scopoletin-O-hexoside, diosmetin-8-C-glucoside and diosmetin-6,8-di-C-hexosideacylhexoside were detected, characterized and quantitatively determined in grapefruit and lemon juices for the first time by our research group, as far as the authors know. Classification models provided by LDA and PLS-DA correctly identify all sweet orange and tangerine juices. Moreover, PLS regression model determines the percentage (10–70 %) of tangerine juice used to adulterate sweet orange juice with a suitable confidence interval (RMSEP = 7 %).
      PubDate: 2014-01-22
  • Study on antibacterial properties and major bioactive constituents of
           Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis
    ) peels extracts/fractions
    • Abstract: Abstract Recently, considerable attention has been paid to the biologically active of fruit and vegetable processing wastes. In this study, antibacterial properties and major bioactive constituents of Chinese water chestnut peels (CWCP) extracts and fractions were evaluated. The data displayed that ethyl acetate fractions (EF) from CWCP showed greater antibacterial activity than n-butanol fractions, methanol extracts and water fractions against three common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes) assessed by the inhibition zone, minimal inhibition concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values. In accordance with disc diffusion assay, S. aureus was more susceptible to EF than the other two pathogens. Furthermore, action-mode studies indicated that EF exhibited significant bactericidal activity against S. aureus by degrading and disrupting the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane, ultimately the leakage of cell contents led to cell death. Finally, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was used for characterization of bioactive constituents in EF, and ten flavonoids aglycons were identified or tentatively identified. The results suggest that the extracts and fractions from CWCP could be potentially used as a possible food supplement to improve food safety by the control or elimination of foodborne pathogenic bacteria.
      PubDate: 2014-01-21
  • The application of dextran compared to other hydrocolloids as a novel food
           ingredient to compensate for low protein in biscuit and wholemeal wheat
    • Abstract: Abstract Wheat is primarily used for bread-making. However, fungal diseases, grain moisture at harvest and low-protein contents strongly influence the quality of the wheat flour, thus creating challenges for traders, millers and commercial bakers who struggle to produce consistently high-quality products. This paper address the replacement of low-protein/wholemeal flour functionality for bread-making purposes. Three hydrocolloids, xanthan gum, dextran and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, were incorporated into bread recipes based on high-protein flours, low-protein flours and coarse wholemeal flour. Hydrocolloid levels of 0–5 % (flour basis) were used in bread recipes to test the water absorption. The quality parameters of dough (farinograph, extensograph, rheofermentometre) and bread (specific volume, crumb structure and staling profile) were determined. Results showed that xanthan had negative impact on the dough and bread quality characteristics. HPMC and dextran generally improved dough and bread quality and showed dosage dependence. Volume of low-protein flour breads were significantly improved by incorporation of 0.5 % of the latter two hydrocolloids. However, dextran outperformed HPMC regarding initial bread hardness and staling shelf life regardless the flour applied in the formulation.
      PubDate: 2014-01-18
  • NaCl stress and supplemental CaCl       class="a-plus-plus">2 regulating GABA metabolism
           pathways in germinating soybean
    • Abstract: Abstract Effects of NaCl stress and supplemental CaCl2 on soybean growth and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation pathways in germinating soybean were investigated. Germinating under NaCl stress, GABA accumulation was caused not only by the activation of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), diamine oxidase (DAO) and aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) existing in seed but also by their gene expression up-regulation during germination. However, after CaCl2 (6 mM) application, the harmful effect of NaCl stress (50 mM) was removed. GAD activity significantly increased, while its gene expression levels had no significant changes with the control, indicating that the increment in GAD activity was caused by the stimulation of exogenous Ca2+. Meanwhile, GABA was still accumulated although DAO and AMADH activities and their gene expression levels had no significant difference compared with the control. It can be concluded that CaCl2 addition decreased the contribution of polyamine degradation pathway to GABA accumulation compared with NaCl stress, and the increased GABA was mainly synthesized via GABA shunt.
      PubDate: 2014-01-18
  • Formation and functional attributes of electrostatic complexes involving
           napin protein isolate and anionic polysaccharides
    • Abstract: Abstract The formation of electrostatic complexes involving a napin protein isolate (NPI) and carboxylated alginate (AL) and sulfated (κ-, ι-, λ-type carrageenan) (CG) polysaccharides was investigated at a biopolymer mixing ratio of 10:1 (NPI/polysaccharide) as a function of pH (4.0–12.0) using turbidity and electrophoretic mobility. The functionality of the ensuing complexes was tested on the basis of their solubility, emulsion stability and foaming capacity and stability relative to NPI alone. Complexation follows two pH-dependent structure forming events associated with the formation of ‘soluble’ and ‘insoluble’ complexes. Soluble and insoluble complexes for NPI–AL, NPI–κ-CG, NPI–ι-CG and NPI–λ-CG mixtures occurred at pHs 7.1 and 6.2, 8.6 and 7.0, 9.5 and 9.3, and 9.0 and 8.7, respectively. Complexation resulted in a shift in net neutrality from 5.0 for NPI alone to pH 4.2, 3.7, 3.2 and 2.3 in the presence of κ-CG, ι-CG, λ-CG and AL, respectively. Solubility and foaming capacity of NPI were reduced with the addition of polysaccharide. Foaming stability was similar for NPI–κ-CG and NPI–λ-CG mixtures relative to NPI, but increased and decreased for NPI–ι-CG and NPI–AL mixtures, respectively. Emulsion stability was found to be similar for all mixtures relative to NPI, except for the NPI–ι-CG mixture which had reduced emulsion stability.
      PubDate: 2014-01-18
  • Pressure-induced changes of silver carp (       class="a-plus-plus">Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)
           myofibrillar protein structure
    • Abstract: Abstract Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is one of the major species of freshwater fish in China. Modification of myofibrillar proteins induced by high pressure processing (HPP) has been investigated at pressures ranging from 200 to 500 MPa for 10 min at 20 °C. Influence of high pressure on conformational changes of myofibrils was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), surface hydrophobicity measurement, ultraviolet absorption spectra and second-derivative spectroscopy, intrinsic spectrofluorimetry, Raman spectroscopic analysis and circular dichroism (CD). DSC analyses revealed that the conformational stability of myofibrils is reduced to different extents when they are exposed to a pressure over 200 MPa. More sulfydryl groups as well as hydrophobic regions and amino acid residues which had ultraviolet absorbance had been found significantly after HPP (≥300 MPa). Changes in the Raman spectra were interpreted as the occurrence of secondary structural changes in pressure-induced myofibrillar proteins. CD analysis results demonstrated that α-helix was destroyed after processed at 400 MPa for 10 min. The results implicated that HPP can be used as a possible means of improving the functional properties for growing demand for healthier fish products.
      PubDate: 2014-01-17
  • Erratum to: Preparation of high-purity phosphatidylcholine from rapeseed
           oil gums by cation ion-exchange resin
    • PubDate: 2014-01-14
  • Phenolic-rich extracts from Willowherb (       class="a-plus-plus">Epilobium hirsutum L.) inhibit
           lipid oxidation but accelerate protein carbonylation and discoloration of
           beef patties
    • Abstract: Abstract An extraction procedure of phenolics from Willowherb (Epilobium hirsutum L.) was optimized; extracts were characterized in terms of phenolic content, composition, and in vitro antioxidant activity. Additionally, the effect of 50, 200, and 800 ppm Willowherb extracts on the oxidative stability (formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, α-aminoadipic, and γ-glutamic semialdehydes) of beef patties was studied. Acetone (50 %) extract, rich in ellagic acid, myricetin, hydroxybenzoic, and hydroxycinnamic acids, had the highest phenolic content compared to methanol (25, 50, 75, and 100 %), acetone (100 %), or water extracts and displayed intense in vitro antioxidant properties. Lipid oxidation levels in processed beef patties with added Willowherb extract remained as similar to that of 100 ppm gallic acid. A dose-dependent effect of Willowherb extract was observed on protein carbonylation and myoglobin oxidation. The lack of correlation between lipid and myoglobin oxidation and the underlying mechanisms involved in the pro-oxidant action of phenolics on meat proteins are thoroughly discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-01-12
  • A review of the research progress on the bioactive ingredients and
           physiological activities of rice bran oil
    • Abstract: Abstract Rice bran oil is not only a nutritious vegetable oil, but also a specialty oil with unique properties and many health benefits. Good stability, appealing flavor and long fry-life enable rice bran oil be used for frying and also to make margarine and shortening and advanced nutritional oils. More importantly, rice bran oil has been reported to have a high potential for making pharmaceuticals and cosmeceuticals. Rice bran oil has surprisingly high levels of nutraceutical components, such as oryzanol, fat-soluble vitamins, sitosterol, other plant sterols and other nutrients. Thus, rice bran oil has been a study focus in relation to its function and application in many countries in the world, as well as a family’s daily health edible oil. This paper summarizes the research progress on the bioactive ingredients and the physiological activities of rice bran oil.
      PubDate: 2014-01-08
  • Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from poultry carcasses by
           high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a complex group of Gram-positive bacteria belonging to different genera with common morphological, metabolic and physiological characteristics. Their classification was initially based on biochemical methods, but nowadays molecular methods are usually applied for the identification of LAB. Herein, real-time PCR assay coupled with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed for identifying and distinguishing LAB isolates coming from poultry carcasses. The 16S rRNA gene from these isolates was amplified using primers that annealed to conserved regions. The melting curve analysis of the amplicons classified all isolates into ten LAB species and generated ten distinct HRM curve profiles. The results from HRM analysis were compared to those produced by API 50 CH biochemical microkits and ribosomal DNA sequencing, suggesting the superiority of HRM against API. In conclusion, HRM was proven to be a fast, reliable and cost-effective method for identification of LAB isolates. HRM analysis could be used in order to reduce the time needed for the identification assay and the cost of sequencing the entire group of LAB isolates. The melting profile of known LAB species could be used as a reference for the rapid identification of unknown LAB isolates without the need of sequencing.
      PubDate: 2014-01-07
  • Polymerization of proanthocyanidins catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase from
           lotus seedpod
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to investigate the profiles change in proanthocyanidins (PAs) catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from lotus seedpod in a model wine system (MWS). Results showed that PAs from lotus seedpod consisted of dimer (74.00 %) and trimer (22.75 %). PPO could tolerate ethanol concentrations below 20 % (v/v). The optimum temperature of PPO activity was 80 °C, and the optimal pH was 9.0. Its molecular weight was approximately 31 kDa, and its secondary structures were α-helix (59.0 %), β-sheet (4.3 %), turns (14.1 %), and random coils (22.6 %). In the MWS, the trimers gradually increased from 22.55 % at 0 h (control) to 100 % at 10 h incubation, while the dimers decreased from 74.33 % (control) to 0 % at 10 h incubation. Moreover, the composition of the precipitate formed at different incubation time points was approximately 16.54 % of monomers, 21.03 % of dimers, and 62.43 % of trimers at 2 h incubation with PPO. The results from this study have provided in vitro evidence for a possible application of PPO in red wine aging.
      PubDate: 2014-01-07
  • Effect of elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen management on rice milling
    • Abstract: Abstract Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has a potential impact on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.), but little is known on grain milling quality. A field experiment in open-top chamber (OTC) was conducted to assess the effect of elevated CO2 under varying N management on brown rice, milled rice and head rice yield. The experiment was conducted during wet season (June–November) of the year 2011 and 2012 at Kharagpur, India, using a long-duration, high-yielding cultivar ‘Swarna Sub1,’ which was grown in open field and in OTCs of ambient and elevated CO2 environment (25 % higher than ambient) with five different N management levels. The elevated CO2 reduced the brown rice, milled rice and head rice percentage by 1.2, 1.4 and 14 %, respectively, as compared to ambient environment in OTC. Due to elevated CO2, the reduction in processed yields were 9 and 4 % in brown/milled rice and 21 and 15 % in head rice under sole application of chemical fertilizer and integration of chemical and organic sources, respectively. The decrease in rice milling quality was associated with increasing canopy temperature (+0.8 °C) during grain-filling stage under elevated CO2 environment. The elevated CO2 has a substantial adverse impact on grain milling quality, and to some extent, this can be compensated through proper N management.
      PubDate: 2014-01-07
  • Establishment of a quadruplex real-time PCR for screening of genetically
           modified tomatoes
    • Abstract: Abstract With the increase in number of the genetically modified (GM) crops authorized worldwide and specific labeling legislation established by many countries, a reliable and efficient method for routine screening of raw material or processed food products needs to be developed. In this paper, a quadruplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) system is described which allows simultaneous detection of one tomato endogenous gene and three most frequently used transgenic elements in GM products: cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator, and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene. The specificities of the assays are optimized and validated. In the quadruplex qPCR system, the detection ranges for all of the four genes were determined to be 8–80,000 copies per reaction. Finally, the established detection system was applied in amplification of exogenous and endogenous genes from 33 raw materials and 35 processed products samples. The results indicate that quadruplex qPCR method is feasible for screening of GM tomato products, even for some processed food. As this detection system could be easily applied to the detection of transgenic elements in other plant species, we expect it will meet the challenges of routine GM crop detection resulting from a rapid increase in the number of GM crops in the future.
      PubDate: 2014-01-04
  • Comparative study of physiological adaptation to salt stress in the genome
           shuffled Candida
    and a wild-type salt-tolerant yeast strain
    • Abstract: Abstract Candida versatilis is a yeast with a complex salt-tolerant system. It can maintain normal physiological activities and metabolic fermentation under a high-salt environment. The cellular mechanisms of adaptation to salt stress in strains of a wild type of C. versatilis (WT) and S3–5, genome shuffling strains of C. versatilis with improved tolerance to salt, were investigated. The content of intra- and extra-cellular glycerol, intra-cellular Na+, as well as membrane fluidity and permeability, were determined under salt-stressed yeast growth conditions. The results showed that Na+/H+-antiporter played a primary role in Na+ extrusion and H+-ATPase has been associated with yeast survival under salt stress. Considerable amounts of glycerol were produced and secreted by the yeast to outside the cell under this salt stress. Changes in the portion of membrane saturated and unsaturated fatty acid composition of C. versatilis in response to osmotic stress lead to membrane permeability and fluidity decreases. They could restrict the influx of Na+, enhance H+-ATPase activity, and prevent leakage of glycerol across the cell membrane under osmotic stress. The salt tolerance of genome shuffled strain S3–5 was higher than WT. It could be correlated with a higher level of intra-cellular accumulation of glycerol and sodium ions in cells of S3–5 than WT as well as a higher portion of oleic fatty acid (C18: 1) and a lower level of linoleic acid (C18: 2) in cell membranes of the studied yeast mutant. It can be concluded that S3–5 improved physiological regulatory mechanisms of response to salt stress, such as decreased membrane fluidity and a permeability that rapidly adjusted to osmotic stress.
      PubDate: 2014-01-03
  • Comparison of net growth of Shiga toxin-producing        class="a-plus-plus">Escherichia coli strains of
           serogroups O26, O103, and O157 in ground meat at different temperatures
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, the net growth of 22 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26, O103, and O157 strains originating from risk foods, animal feces, and patients suffering from hemolytic-uremic syndrome was compared in ground beef at 15 and 37 °C. The results of this study demonstrated that the ability to grow to high numbers in ground meat at these temperatures is strain-specific rather than serogroup- or origin-specific.
      PubDate: 2014-01-01
  • Synthesis and characterization of a novel sweetener with high sweetness
    • Abstract: A novel sweetener with extremely sweetness potency, N-[N-3-(2-hydroxy-4-methyl-phenyl) propyl-α-aspartyl]-l-phenylalanine-1-methylester, was synthesized through a new synthetic method. 7-methylcoumarin was used as the raw material to synthesize 2-hydroxy-7-methylchroman, an important intermediate, by reduction reaction catalyzed by palladium-carbon and dialuminum hydride. The prepared 2-hydroxy-7-methylchroman then reacted with aspartame through carbonyl-amino condensation reaction and reduction reaction. The yield was approximately 58 %; results of FTIR, EI-MS, and NMR confirmed that the product was N-[N-3-(2-hydroxy-4-methylphenyl) propyl-α-aspartyl]-l-phenylalanine-1-methylester. The synthesized sweetener was a B1, B2, AH1, XH2, G1, E1, G2, E2, G3, G4-type sweetener shown by constructed multipoint attachment model, which well explained why the synthesized sweetener presented so formidable sweetness potency. Graphical
      PubDate: 2014-01-01
  • Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields affect pigment production of
           Monascus purpureus in
           liquid-state fermentation
    • Abstract: Abstract Red pigment is one of natural coloring agents produced from the secondary metabolites of Monascus purpureus. Measures are taken to increase the pigment production. Effect of the extremely low-frequency magnetic field on the red and yellow pigment production of M. purpureus in liquid-state fermentation was estimated by exposing fermentation broth, medium and sterile distilled water used to prepare medium. The maximum yield of red and yellow pigment production had about 20 and 36 % increase for 8 days at 0.4 mT when treating fermentation broth compared to the control value. For sterile distilled water, a significant increase occurred at 0.4 mT compared to 0.1 mT for 5 h. However, the red and yellow pigment production decreased significantly at magnetic fields of 0.9 and 1.2 mT when treating fermentation broth and sterile distilled water. In contrast, the yield of both red and yellow pigment production decreased significantly compared with the control exposure for 3 and 5 h at a magnetic field of 0.4 mT. Different solution (cellular suspension, medium and sterile distilled water) exposure to magnetic fields has different bioeffect on M. purpureus SKY219. The appropriate magnetic field treatment could increase the efficiency of red and yellow pigment production.
      PubDate: 2014-01-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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