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Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 46)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 8)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 5)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 28)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 17)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 7)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.289, h-index: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.651, h-index: 22)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.698, h-index: 38)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 40)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.857, h-index: 31)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.793, h-index: 83)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.041, h-index: 53)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 15)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.519, h-index: 14)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.781, h-index: 52)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 8)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 27)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 146, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 45)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 17)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.542, h-index: 7)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 14)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 5)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 11)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal  
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 22)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 12)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.5, h-index: 29)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.319, h-index: 33)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 13)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 55)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 27)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 10)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 26)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 26)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 46)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 53)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 22)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.601, h-index: 55)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 3)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 23)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 32)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 14)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 60)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.413, h-index: 27)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 46)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 14)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 34)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 58)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 85)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 57)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.161, h-index: 4)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 14)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.173, h-index: 8)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.268, h-index: 9)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.111, h-index: 61)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 8)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 20)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.204, h-index: 6)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 57)
Eurasian Soil Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 10)
EURO J. of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EURO J. on Computational Optimization     Hybrid Journal  
EURO J. on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal  
Europaisches J. fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal  
European Actuarial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 37)
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 12)
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 62)
European Biophysics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 53)
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 51)
European Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 49)
European J. for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European J. for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 2)
European J. of Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 17)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.044, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 69)
European J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European J. of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 25)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.946, h-index: 60)
European J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 25)
European J. of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.67, h-index: 25)

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Journal Cover European Food Research and Technology
   [10 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.773]   [H-I: 49]
  • Optimization of multiplex PCR for the identification of animal species
           using mitochondrial genes in sausages
    • Abstract: Abstract Detection of species fraud in meat products is very important in order to protect consumers from undesirable adulteration, as well as for the economic, religious and health aspects. The most important reason for verification of the labeling statements is to detect fraudulent substitution of expensive meat components with other cheaper animals or mislabeling. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR that could be used in the simultaneous identification of multiple meat species. In this study, ten sausages with a minimum beef content of 55 %, from ten different manufacturing companies, and five samples of cow, chicken, goat, camel and donkey raw meats, for the purpose of positive control, were collected from food markets in Tehran, Iran. Total DNA was extracted from each sausage and the raw meats. Primers were selected in different regions of mitochondrial DNA (12S rRNA, cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 2) for identification of meat species. 12S rRNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 2 primers generated specific fragments of 183 and 145 bp length, for chicken and donkey, respectively. Three different specific primers were used for amplification of cytochrome b gene in goat, camel and cattle species and amplified species-specific DNA fragments of 157, 200 and 274 bp, respectively. The results proved that half of the specimens were contaminated with chicken meat, and this was greater than the proportion of beef stated on the label, while the other half only had chicken residuals, and no beef content. No contamination was found with goat, donkey or camel meats. These findings showed that molecular methods, such as multiplex PCR, is a potentially reliable, sensitive and accurate assay for the detection of adulterated meat species in mixed meat products.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • High-resolution melting analysis: a promising molecular method for meat
    • Abstract: Abstract To find a promising molecular method for meat traceability, three methods of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection: RFLP-PCR analysis, high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, and TaqMan probe analysis, have been compared in terms of accuracy, ease of use, throughput capability, and cost. We genotyped ten pork DNA samples across three SNPs. The results showed that the HRM genotyping method was the most accurate and easiest to use with the lowest cost, while TaqMan probe analysis provided similar results, but its cost was much higher.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Seeds recovered from by-products of selected fruit processing as a rich
           source of tocochromanols: RP-HPLC/FLD and RP-UPLC-ESI/MS       class="a-plus-plus">n study
    • Abstract: Abstract Tocochromanol composition was analysed in the seeds of nine various fruits: apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), red currant (Ribes rubrum L.), gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa L.), grape (Vitis vinifera L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. ex Spach), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and canary melon (Cucumis melo L.), recovered from by-products of fruit industry. The concentration range of subsequent tocopherols (Ts) and tocotrienols (T3s) was as follows: 1.29–29.30, 0.00–11.68, 0.42–95.11, 0.00–7.66, 0.03–5.03, 0.00–0.18 and 0.00–6.68 mg/100 g of seed dry weight for α-T, β-T, γ-T, δ-T, α-T3, β-T3 and γ-T3, respectively. The δ-T3 was not detected in any of the tested seeds. All tocochromanols were successfully separated by rapid RP-HPLC/FLD method and confirmed by the RP-UPLC-ESI/MS3 technique.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • The properties and the related protein behaviors of oil bodies in soymilk
    • Abstract: Abstract Oil bodies (OBs), one of the major components of soymilk, are very important for the properties of soymilk and its related products. In this study, the properties and the related protein behaviors of OBs in the soymilk preparation were systematically examined. Raw soymilk OBs could keep their natural integrities after grinding, and they were bound by many soybean proteins (mainly β-conglycinin, glycinin, and Gly m Bd 30K) that could be removed by pH 11.0 washing. Heated soymilk OBs, including heat-induced coalesced OBs (>1 μm) and modified OBs (around 400 nm), were strongly bound by β-conglycinin and glycinin that even could not be removed by pH 11.0 washing. The oleosins (24 kDa, P29530 and P29531; 18 kDa, C3VHQ8) of raw soymilk OBs were hydrolyzed to 16 kDa polypeptides (on SDS–PAGE gel) when exposed to room temperature, while immediately heating, the raw soymilk could prevent the oleosin hydrolysis. Then, the isolated raw and heated soymilk OBs revealed different dispersion stabilities as a function of pH. At last, tofu curds were made from two reconstituted soymilks containing non-lipid soymilk and raw or heated soymilk OBs (pH 11.0 isolation), and one trend was found that tofu curds containing heated soymilk OBs had lower breaking stress and Young’s modulus than those containing raw soymilk OBs. It is considered that this study is meaningful for designing new strategies to improve the qualities of soymilk and its related products.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • An event-specific real-time PCR detection system for the transgenic rice
           line 114-7-2 of producing functional human serum albumin
    • Abstract: Abstract Transgenic rice 114-7-2 is a newly developed transgenic rice line of producing human serum albumin (HSA). It has attracted much attention because of its economic potential. This paper was designated to discover the integration site of the transgenic HSA rice line 114-7-2 and to establish event-specific methods for qualitative and quantitative detection of the transgenic HSA rice based on the border junction fragment. One gene fragment of 5′ flanking region was successfully isolated using the TAIL-PCR methods. The fragment sequence showed that a 454-bp junction fragment contained 75 bp of T-DNA sequence and 379 bp of rice genome DNA, which is located in chromosome 4. Event-specific real-time PCR method for HSA rice line 114-7-2 was established with the primers (HSA-F/HSA-R) and the probe (HSA-P) targeting the 454-bp junction region. The qualitative PCR assay showed the limit of detection was 0.01 %. In the event-specific quantitative detection method, the LOQ for 114-7-2 HSA rice was estimated to be 0.025 ng or 50 copies. The method developed in this study is highly specific, sensitive, and reliable for transgenic HSA rice sample detection.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Steady-state kinetics of tryptic hydrolysis of β-lactoglobulin after
           dynamic high-pressure microfluidization treatment in relation to
    • Abstract: Abstract Our previous research revealed that dynamic high-pressure microfluidization (DHPM) increased the antigenicity of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) below 80 MPa, which was related to the unfolding of protein. To test the hypothesis that the unfolding of protein may change proteolytic susceptibility of β-Lg and modulate its antigenicity during the digestion, we developed that the steady-state kinetics of tryptic hydrolysis of β-Lg subjected to DHPM (0.1–80 MPa) have been investigated in relation to the antigenicity in this study. According to the steady-state kinetics analysis, the improved digestion of β-Lg was accompanied with the obvious decrease of antigenicity during the hydrolysis with pressure increasing, reflected by the increase of k c , the decrease of K m, the increase of overall catalytic efficiency (k c/K m), and the increase of the binding volume. It was indicated that although DHPM can increase the antigenicity of β-Lg, the enhanced digestibility of β-Lg at elevated pressure contributed to a decrease of antigenicity during the hydrolysis.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Development of suitable standards for quantitative determination of
           persimmon phenol contents in Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin assays
    • Abstract: Abstract Use of gallic acid (GA) as a standard in the Folin-Ciocalteu assay leads to an underestimation of phenol content in persimmon extracts so does the widely used catechin (C) in vanillin assay for determining condensed tannins in persimmon extracts. To develop suitable standards for addressing the issue of accuracy, we prepared highly purified persimmon tannin (PT) and its three fractions (PT20, PT40 and PT60), as well as three characteristic structural subunits of PT including epicatechin-3-gallate-(4β → 8, 2β → O→7)-epicatechin-3-gallate (A-type ECG dimer), epigallocatechin-3-gallate-(4β → 8, 2β → O→7)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (A-type EGCG dimer) and epicatechin-(4β → 8)-epicatechin (B-type EC dimer). We compared the color yield of commercially available standards including the dimers GA, EGCG, ECG, C and PT and its three fractions in the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and vanillin assay, respectively. Our results suggested that for estimating phenol content in persimmon extracts, EGCG, ECG, C and GA were poor standards in Folin-Ciocalteu assay. We recommended PT40 as the most suitable standard in determining the phenol content of persimmon extracts. In the vanillin assay, A-type EGCG dimer or A-type ECG dimer were superior than the commonly used C as standards, and ECG was also an alternative when A-type EGCG dimer or A-type ECG dimer were not available.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Vacuum skin packaging and its effect on selected properties of beef and
           pork meat
    • Abstract: Abstract Physicochemical, instrumental and microbiological examinations of steaks of beef and pork (m. longissimus lumborum) in vacuum skin packaging (VSP), conventional vacuum packing (CVP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were performed. Samples were stored at 2 ± 0.5 °C for 3 (pork) or 5 (beef) weeks. No statistically significant changes in pH values were recorded. Statistically significant (p < 0.001) changes in the thiobarbituric reactive substances content in modified atmosphere packed beef samples, and differences between samples in MAP and VSP or CVP were found from week 2 of the experiment onwards. The biggest changes in colour parameters were found in beef samples in MAP. The lowest and highest purge loss was recorded in samples in VSP and CVP, respectively. Vacuum packing enhanced the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). At the end of the experiment, their numbers ranged from 4.31 log10 cfu g−1 (pork in CVP) to 5.14 log10 cfu g−1 (beef in VSP). LAB populations reached 2 log10 cfu g−1 in MAP beef and pork samples. On the other hand, MAP enabled the development of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta. The highest increase in coliform bacteria counts was recorded in vacuum-packed pork.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Effects of three lighting intensities during display on discolouration of
           beef semitendinosus
    • Abstract: Abstract This study focuses on the changes in colour parameters of beef (semitendinosus muscle) upon the light exposure. In one of the experiments (Experiment I), colour parameters were studied during 60 min of blooming. In the Experiment II, the changes of colour over 168 h of exposure were evaluated. For this purpose, the white fluorescent light of three different intensities, 500, 1,000 and 1,500 lx, was chosen. It is shown that it takes up to 16–18 min for the colour parameters to stabilize after the steak cutting, which is a consequence of increasing availability of oxygen. Beef colour is affected by the light intensity. It was observed that at the beginning of the light exposure, favourable changes took place. However, after few days of exposure to the light, meat colour deteriorates significantly. Changes are mainly related to the redness (a*). The value of a* decreased about 4–7 units (p < 0.05) after 7 days of meat exposure. This significant change of redness is also clearly evident in the visual assessment. White fluorescent light (colour temperature of 3,000 K) with intensity of 500 lx has lower impact on the beef colour than the light with intensity of 1,000 or 1,500 lx. Intensity of 500 lx is more favourable to preserve the desired beef colour, and it could be recommended to use in the retail display. However, further studies taking into account the visual evaluation of beef colour would be useful to confirm this fact.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the        class="a-plus-plus">Musa basjoo flower
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, it was found that the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Musa basjoo flowers was a rich source of antioxidant, due to its high total phenolic contents and significant antioxidant activity. Ten phenolic compounds were isolated from this plant. They are gallic acid (1), caffeic acid methyl ester (2), guaiacylglycerol (3), 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-acrylic acid 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxy carbonyl ethyl ester (4), thero-guaiacylglycerol 8-O-β-d-glycopyranoside (5), quercitrin (6), buein (7), (2R, 3S)-5,7,3′,4′,5′-pentahydroxyflavanonol (8), isoquercitrin (9) and 1,7-bis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-hepta-4E, 6E-dien-3-one (10). In addition, compounds 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 possessed potent strong free radical scavenging activity. Compounds 1 and 10 with powerful activity showed the higher content, implying important roles of 1 and 10 for the antioxidant activity of Musa basjoo flower. The study suggested that components of Musa basjoo flower possessed good antioxidant capacities and the species could be used in the prevention of diseases related to oxidant by-products of human metabolism.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Analysis of ERIC-PCR genomic polymorphism of        class="a-plus-plus">Salmonella isolates from
           chicken slaughter line
    • Abstract: Abstract The chicken slaughter line is a source of cross-contamination of Salmonella. In this study, ERIC-PCR was applied to analyse the ERIC-PCR genomic polymorphism of Salmonella isolates from a commercial chicken slaughter line and to trace the route of contamination. Samples were collected from carcasses and contact surfaces at the points of post-evisceration, post-chilling and post-grading. The prevalence of Salmonella at the evisceration point was high but significantly decreased along the slaughter line. The ERIC-PCR fingerprints indicated that a total of seven groups were clustered, and the genotypic diversity of isolates progressively decreased along the slaughter line. By tracing the genotypic diversity, contact surfaces at post-evisceration were found to be the major contamination sources of Salmonella during chicken processing, since the genotype diversity of isolates from the post-evisceration point could be exactly matched to that from the post-chilling and post-grading points. Interestingly, three Salmonella strains were still detected after decontamination and washing; these three isolates having a strong capacity for attachment were able to produce biofilm on polystyrene surfaces. This study suggests that the evisceration point is the source of cross-contamination, with Salmonella isolates still present after washing procedure. Therefore, more effective measures must be undertaken to control the spread of Salmonella in such processing lines.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Erratum to: Development of suitable standards for quantitative
           determination of persimmon phenol contents in Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin
    • PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Effect of glycerol and dihydroxyacetone concentrations in the culture
           medium on the growth of acetic acid bacteria        class="a-plus-plus">Gluconobacter oxydans ATCC 621
    • Abstract: Abstract Bacteria of the species Gluconobacter oxydans are applied in the industrial production of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) via glycerol oxidation. The major problem of this biotransformation involves process inhibition by substrate and/or product. Improper initial concentration of glycerol and increasing DHA concentration may inhibit the metabolic activity of bacterial cells and impede further course of the reaction. An attempt was, therefore, undertaken in this study to determine which concentrations of glycerol (30, 50, 70, 100 g L−1) and DHA (10–100 g L−1) may inhibit the growth of acetic acid bacteria of G. oxydans ATCC 621 species. Cultures of this strain were run in the Bioscreen C MBR apparatus on experimental culture media with various initial concentrations of glycerol and DHA. Analyses were also carried out to examine the impact of pH (5.0, 7.0, 8.0) of glycerol-containing culture media on cell growth of the analyzed strain G. oxydans. None of the applied substrate concentrations was inhibiting cellular divisions of G. oxydans bacteria. The initial glycerol concentrations that enabled rapid cellular divisions reached 50 g L−1 in the medium with pH 5.0 (coefficient of specific growth rate μ = 0.0550) and 70 g L−1 in the medium with pH 7.0 (μ = 0.0556). DHA was shown to inhibit the mitotic activity of G. oxydans bacteria even at low concentrations (20–30 g L−1), whereas at the concentration of 70 g L−1, it made cell divisions impossible. The applied pH values of the culture media did not inhibit the growth of G. oxydans strain.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Differential transcribed yeast genes involved in flavour formation and its
           associated amino acid metabolism during brewery fermentation
    • Abstract: Abstract During fermentation, Saccharomyces yeast produces various aroma-active metabolites which determine the different characteristics of aroma and taste in fermented beverages. Amino acid utilisation by yeast during brewer’s wort fermentation is considered to be linked to flavour profile. For a better understanding of the relationship between the biosynthesis of aroma-relevant metabolites and the importance of amino acids, DNA microarrays were carried out on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain S81 and the Saccharomyces pastorianus strain S23. Changes in the transcription of those genes were measured which are associated with amino acid assimilation and its derived aroma-active compounds during fermentation. Genes were selected whose average expression level increased or decreased more than 1.5-fold at 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 or 120 h and showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) differential expression pattern during the period of fermentation. For the ale strain, 57 of the detected genes involved in flavour and amino acid metabolism were selected, whereas 46 significant genes were evaluated for the lager strain. Among these, genes were those involved in transcriptional regulation as well as others associated with amino acid transport, such as PUT4 which is accountable for the uptake of proline. Other genes whose expression decreased or increased during fermentation were evaluated—including those participating in amino acid metabolism, for example glutamate and proline metabolism—as well as enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of aroma-active higher alcohols and esters, which are most important for typical beer flavour. This study provides information that might help to improve the understanding and production of defined concentrations of specific aroma compounds during brewery fermentation.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • In vitro evaluation of the probiotic attributes of two pediococci strains
           producing pediocin PA-1 with selective potency as compared to nisin
    • Abstract: Abstract Eighteen dairy starter cultures, spoilage and food-borne pathogenic strains were analyzed for susceptibility to antimicrobial peptides pediocin PA-1 (PedPA-1) and nisin, through the individual 50 % inhibitory concentrations (IC50) determination. The IC50 of purified PedPA-1 was found to be more potent than nisin against five spoilage and food-borne pathogenic strains, i.e., Bacillus cereus NCDC 240, Enterococcus faecalis NCDC 114, Enterococcus faecium NCDC 124, Streptococcus agalactiae NCDC 208 and Staphylococcus aureus NCDC 110. The IC50 of PedPA-1 and nisin ranged from 6.58 to 0.29 µM and 18.91 to 0.03 µM, respectively. Further, PedPA-1 producing Pediococcus pentosaceus NCDC 273 and Pediococcus acidilactici NCDC 252 strains were evaluated for potential probiotic attributes by in vitro studies. Both pediococci strains were able to survive at low pH and 2 % bile with a good bile salt hydrolase activity, cell surface hydrophobicity and β-galactosidase activity that makes them potentially good candidates for probiotics. These strains with proven promising probiotic attributes are good candidates for further investigation through in vivo studies to elucidate their potential health benefits.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • A new glucitol from an endophytic fungus        class="a-plus-plus">Fusarium equiseti Salicorn 8
    • Abstract: Abstract An endophytic fungus Salicorn 8 was isolated from Salicornia bigelovii Torr. and identified as Fusarium equiseti based on internal transcribed spacer gene (ITS) sequence analysis. A new glucitol, diglucotol (1), together with five known compounds, cerebroside C (2), Nb-acetyltryptamine (3), 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (4), cerevisterol (5) and ergosterol peroxide (6), was isolated from the culture of Salicorn 8. The chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and on the basis of their chemical reactivities. This work describes for the first time the isolation of these compounds from F. equiseti. Compound 1 exhibited weak antiproliferative activities toward MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and Caco-2 cancer cells with EC50 values of 97.56, 92.35 and 99.39 μM, respectively, whereas compound 5 showed high levels of inhibitory activities against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and Caco-2 cancer cells with EC50 values of 32.4, 41.5 and 37.56 μM, respectively. Compound 6 exhibited less potent inhibitory activities than 5 against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and Caco-2 cancer cells with EC50 values of 64.5, 52.4 and 77.56 μM, respectively. All of the other compounds were found to be inactive.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Impact of fruit processing methods on DNA extraction from transgenic
           frozen banana products
    • Abstract: Abstract Isolation of high yield and quality of genomic DNA is paramount for ensuring confidence in molecular analyzing food. This study evaluated five different DNA extraction procedures based on laboratory protocols and commercial kits for their efficiency and also assessed the impact of processing procedures on the DNA degradation in various frozen banana products such as frozen-sliced banana, frozen banana puree, frozen plantain banana, and freeze-dried banana powder. The purity and concentration of DNA obtained from the samples were evaluated by spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis. Of the various extraction procedures, we applied modified protocols that allow for effective extraction of DNA from banana. This protocol derived from traditional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide method with modifications that allowed removing unwanted polyphenols and polysaccharides. The results confirm that a profound impact on DNA degradation was seen during the processing of banana products, DNA could still be reliably quantified by real-time PCR. Furthermore, frying resulted in further degradations and drying resulted in the most severe changes. It was noted that in different frozen banana products, nopaline synthase fragment is most stable followed by cauliflower mosaic virus 35S and NPTII gene.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Possibilities of organic and conventional wines differentiation on the
           basis of multivariate analysis of their characteristics (EPR,
           UV–Vis, HPLC and AAS study)
    • Abstract: Abstract Proving of affiliation of wine sample to either organic or conventional production system and of its geographical origin although important both for consumer safety and food control authorities is still problematic. Characteristics of Slovak and some European wines obtained by spectroscopic methods including atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography and isotachophoresis processed subsequently by multivariate statistics were successfully used to differentiate Slovak organic and conventional wines according to their affiliation to production system and, at the same time, to differentiate the Slovak organic and conventional wine samples from those, produced in other European countries. From totally 74 determined experimental characteristics, concentration of Fe and Cu, ferric-reducing power values, Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity values evaluated from ·DPPH assay by EPR ( \(\tiny \small \text{TEAC}_{{^{\cdot} \text{DPPH(EPR)}}}\) ), ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE), % of radicals scavenged, concentration of citric acid, catechin and epicatechin, but also color values a* and chromaticity were identified by ANOVA, Tukey’s HSD multiple comparison and stepwise discrimination tests as the most promising characteristics for white wines differentiation, whereas Fe content and AAE for the differentiation of red wines. Recognition and prediction ability tests of the Slovak white organic and conventional wines reached 100 %, whereas in case of red wines, correctness of recognition reached 90.5 % and of the prediction ability, 90 %. High correctness of differentiation of organic and conventional samples according to the origin of wine was obtained, reaching 95.8 % for white wines and 80.7 % for red wines, with two Slovak wines misclassified as wines of Czech origin.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Exploring 2-aminoacetophenone contents in sparkling wines based on
           analytical data and statistical modelling
    • Abstract: Abstract The influence of the second fermentation step on sparkling wine aroma was investigated with respect to the content of 2-aminoacetophenone (AAP) as an indicator substance for the atypical ageing off-flavour (ATA). AAP contents of aged sparkling wines and their corresponding base wines (Riesling and Chardonnay variety) were determined by means of multidimensional gas chromatography using a stable isotope dilution assay. The majority of sparkling wines were lower in AAP in comparison with their corresponding base wines. Explorative and predictive statistical analyses of the resulting AAP content in sparkling wines were performed concerning the influence of the parameters lees contact time, yeast strain, base wine AAP concentration and total phenolic contents. Both statistical approaches yielded good fits with AAP concentration of the base wine being the predominant factor. Although it was possible to explain the changes in AAP concentrations on the basis of how total phenolics changed during second fermentation, predicted AAP trends did not hinge upon the amount of total phenolics present in a base wine. Unpressurised model fermentations were a promising technological alternative to study the development of AAP in sparkling wines. Altogether, this study presents a multidisciplinary approach to master the challenging task of ATA risk assessment in base wines, which at present rather accesses the sparkling wine producer’s individual experience.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of
           Perilla frutescens (L.)
           Britt. aerial parts against two stored product insects
    • Abstract: Abstract The chemical composition of the essential oil of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. aerial parts and its insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne were investigated. The essential oil of P. frutescens was obtained by hydrodistillation and a total of 34 components in the essential oil were identified with GC–MS. It was found that the main compounds included 2-furyl methyl ketone (71.83 %), decahydro-1-methyl-2-methylene-naphthalene (10.47 %), limonene (5.16 %) and caryophyllene (1.66 %). With a further isolation, the two active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as 2-furyl methyl ketone, limonene. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil and 2-furyl methyl ketone exhibited stronger contact and fumigant activities against the two stored product insects than limonene. Moreover, the essential oil and its constituents exhibited the comparable repellency against the two stored product insects, relative to the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of P. frutescens aerial parts and its isolated compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants as well as repellents for control of insects in stored grains.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
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