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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2302 journals)

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Diabetologia Notes de lecture     Hybrid Journal  
Diabetology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 5)
Dialectical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.314, h-index: 9)
Die Weltwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 15)
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 7)
Digestive Diseases and Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 89)
Directieve therapie     Hybrid Journal  
Discrete & Computational Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 40)
Discrete Event Dynamic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.42, h-index: 32)
Distributed and Parallel Databases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.766, h-index: 30)
Distributed Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 31)
DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater     Full-text available via subscription  
Documenta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 40)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 10)
Doklady Biological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Doklady Botanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 12)
Doklady Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.48, h-index: 17)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.345, h-index: 13)
Doklady Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 17)
Douleur et Analg├ęsie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.113, h-index: 6)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 8)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access  
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.481, h-index: 5)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 52)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 9)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 16)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, h-index: 7)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 29)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 21)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 9)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 27)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 26)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 43)
Economia e Politica Industriale     Hybrid Journal  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.375, h-index: 6)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.527, h-index: 44)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 9)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.557, h-index: 34)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 14)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.909, h-index: 93)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.333, h-index: 56)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 232, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.374, h-index: 15)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.776, h-index: 61)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 9)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 32)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 219, SJR: 1.785, h-index: 52)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 18)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.883, h-index: 10)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.582, h-index: 16)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 8)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.407, h-index: 15)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.678, h-index: 25)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 16)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 31)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.285, h-index: 39)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 15)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 57)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.638, h-index: 31)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 14)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.176, h-index: 7)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 30)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 32)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.632, h-index: 54)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 58)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 28)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 63)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 4)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 24)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.013, h-index: 36)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.942, h-index: 66)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 31)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 52)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.885, h-index: 46)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.4, h-index: 17)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.608, h-index: 38)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.287, h-index: 63)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.731, h-index: 89)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 62)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 6)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 3)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 16)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.206, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover   European Food Research and Technology
  [SJR: 0.803]   [H-I: 56]   [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Characterization of anti-obesity compounds from soybean paste
    • Abstract: Abstract Obesity is the fifth leading cause of death globally. At least 2.8 million adults die each year as a result of being overweight. Therefore, the development of an efficient lipid inhibitor for the biological effects of obesity is highly needed. The discovery of bioactive compounds from food is one possible way to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of various obesity-related diseases. In this study, we found that 7,3′,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone from Korean soybean paste has remarkable anti-obesity activity in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 7,3′,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone significantly reduced the adipose tissue weight to 1.6/100 g of body weight in high-fat mice. In addition, in 7,3′,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone-treated mice, a significant reduction in the serum triglyceride and T-cholesterol was observed at 29 and 37 %, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that 7,3′,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone is expected to create a therapeutic interest in its use for the treatment of obesity.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Antioxidant activity of the different polar solvent extracts of Magnolia
           officinalis leaves and purification of main active compounds
    • Abstract: Abstract The leaf of Magnolia officinalis is abundant in natural resources as a novel potential antioxidant and has great commercial value. In this study, the contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, magnolol and honokiol in different solvent extracts (acetone, methanol and water) were measured. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity of extracts from M. officinalis leaves were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay, 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt free radical scavenging assay, FRAP assays and β-carotene/linoleic acid system. In addition, the correlation between the antioxidant activity and the contents of the active compounds was analyzed. Experimental results indicated that three extracts exhibited antioxidant effects in a concentration-dependent manner, and acetone extracts had the highest antioxidant activity, next methanol and water. There was an intimate relativity between the contents of magnolol and honokiol in different solvent extracts and the antioxidant capability of them. So the magnolol and honokiol of M. officinalis leaves as a representative of the active compounds were extracted and purified by using the macroporous resin column. The purity of depurated sample could reach 82.6 %, which indicates the M. officinalis leaves have the potential to substitute the production of magnolol and honokiol in M. officinalis. The results of this study can provide theoretical and technical references for the reasonable use of the M. officinalis leaves and alleviate the shortage of M. officinalis resources.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Glycation inhibits trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced whey protein
           precipitation
    • Abstract: Abstract Four different WPI saccharide conjugates were successfully prepared to test whether glycation could inhibit WPI precipitation induced by trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Conjugates molecular weights after glycation were analyzed with SDS-PAGE. No significant secondary structure change due to glycation was detected. Glycation decreased the apparent denaturation enthalpy (ΔH) and increased denaturation temperature (T d). The TCA-induced WPI precipitation profiles were shown to be U-shaped. The attachment of maltodextrin and dextran increases WPI solubility against TCA-induced precipitation. However, similar effects were not observed when WPI was glycated with monosaccharide (mannose) and disaccharide (maltose), even though the degrees of glycation were significantly higher, compared to WPI-maltodextrin or WPI-dextran conjugates. The effects against precipitation depended on the molecular weight of saccharides, while the effects of the degrees of glycation were not pronounced. Steric hindrance may be the reason to inhibit TCA-induced protein precipitation after glycation. The information of this study provided may extend our knowledge about TCA-induced protein precipitation mechanism.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Classification of Turkish hazelnut oils based on their triacylglycerol
           structures by chemometric analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Triacylglycerol structures of Turkish hazelnut oils were determined to make classification by chemometric analysis. During 2009 and 2010 crop seasons, 50 samples of 19 hazelnut cultivars (Fosa, Sivri, Mincane, Kalınkara, Kara, Yassıbadem, Tombul, Allahverdi, Kus, Cakıldak, Uzunmusa, Kargalak, Acı, Yuvarlakbadem, Kan, Cavcava, İncekara, Palaz and Bolu) were collected from Giresun, Trabzon, Ordu and Bolu provinces of Turkey. Hazelnut oils were obtained by solvent extraction, and samples were evaluated for their fatty acid, sn-2 fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions. Results have shown that water and oil content of the hazelnuts were between 3.17–4.32 % and 55.01–64.85 %, respectively. Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in all samples ranged between 81.03 and 86.63 %. Higher percentages of oleic acid were determined at sn-2 position of triglycerides as between 86.57 and 91.45 %, followed by linoleic and palmitic acids. Main triacylglycerols of hazelnut oils were OOO, OOL, OOP, SOO and OLL. Triolein was the major one ranging between 57.86 and 68.99 %. A one-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences between variables in the cultivars. Principle component and hierarchical cluster analyses enabled the classification of varieties based on their triacylglycerol structure. Discriminant analysis separated the samples according to their geographical origin.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Inventory of lactic acid bacteria populations in red wine varieties from
           Appellation of Origin Méntrida
    • Abstract: Abstract A study of bacterial populations present during spontaneous malolactic fermentation of wines of different grape varieties (Tempranillo, Merlot, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon and Garnacha) at six wineries of the Appellation of Origin Méntrida has been carried out using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 1,082 isolates were genetically characterised by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR displaying 147 genotypes, 97 of which were clusters including two or more isolates (major clusters). Identification of representative isolates from each, using 16S-ARDRA, species-specific PCR or 16S gene sequencing showed presence of Oenococcus oeni (76.71 % of the isolates), Enterococcus faecium (11.92 %) and Pediococcus parvulus (10.44 %) as predominant species. The presence of coincident genotypes of these species, especially of O. oeni, at different wineries suggests their adaptation to the conditions of elaboration used in the wineries and to the characteristics of the wines from this Appellation of Origin. Combination of these results with those obtained using an independent-culture method, such as the polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR–DGGE), confirmed the predominance of O. oeni that was the only species detected from both methods. Acetobacter sp. and Enterobacteriaceae family were also detected by PCR–DGGE, being the diversity of species lower when this method was used. This research has provided detailed information about the composition of the bacterial community present in wine of different grape varieties, showing for the first time the presence of the species E. faecium, P. parvulus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Acetobacter sp. in wines of this region, some of them considered as potential spoilage bacteria.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Fucoidan isolated from the sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides improves
           insulin resistance in adipocytes via activating PKB/GLUT4 pathway
    • Abstract: Abstract Fucoidan was extracted from the sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides (Am-FUC), and its effect of improving insulin resistance was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Insulin resistance model 3T3-L1 adipocytes were established by treating with 20 ng/ml TNF-α for 24 h. Am-FUC significantly increased the glucose consumption, indicating that Am-FUC improved insulin resistance. Besides, Am-FUC up-regulated PKB/GLUT4 pathway in transcriptional level, enhanced phosphorylation of PI3K and PKB, promoted GLUT4 translocation, which indicated that the pathway was activated. In in vivo experiments, insulin resistance model mice were established by feeding a high-fat high-fructose diet. Am-FUC increased serum insulin level, decreased HOMA-IR, reduced fasting blood glucose level, and improved oral glucose tolerance ability, revealing that Am-FUC can still remit the insulin resistance in vivo. The protein expression levels and phosphorylation of PI3K and PKB in adipose tissue were in keeping with that in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Combination of Am-FUC and rosiglitazone exerted better effect on improving insulin resistance. These findings suggested that Am-FUC improved the insulin resistance by activating the PKB/GLUT4 pathway.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Fusartricin, a sesquiterpenoid ether produced by an endophytic fungus
           Fusarium tricinctum Salicorn 19
    • Abstract: Abstract An endophytic fungus Salicorn 19 was isolated from Salicornia bigelovii Torr. and identified as Fusarium tricinctum using a combination of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1α) and β-tubulin (β-TUB) gene sequence analysis. A bioassay-guided fractionation led to a new sesquiterpenoid ether with unique skeleton fusartricin (1), and two known compounds fusarielin B (2) and enniatin B (3) from the culture of Salicorn 19. Their chemical structures were elucidated based on ESI–MS and NMR analysis, as well as a comparison with the literature data. Antimicrobial experiments revealed that compounds 1 exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against E. aerogenes, M. tetragenu and C. albicans with the MIC values 19, 19 and 19 µM, respectively, and compound 2 showed a broader spectrum antimicrobial activity against M. smegmati, B. subtilis, M. phlei and E.coli with MIC values 19, 19, 10 and 10 µM, respectively, and compound 3 displayed powerful antimicrobial activities toward B. subtilis, E. aerogenes and M. tetragenus with MIC values 13, 13 and 6 µM.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Event-specific quantitative detection of genetically modified wheat
           B72-8-11 based on the 3′ flanking sequence
    • Abstract: Abstract Various PCR technologies have been developed for the execution of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling policies of which an event-specific PCR detection method based on the flanking sequence of exogenous inserted DNA is the key trend in GMO detection due to its high specificity. In this study, 3′ flanking sequence between the host wheat DNA and the exogenous integrated gene construct of pHMW1Dx5 vector in transgenic wheat B72-8-11 was revealed by means of adaptor PCR, thus the fragment with the length of 210 bp was obtained, including a 144 bp unknown wheat genome DNA sequence. The event-specific quantitative PCR primers were designed based upon the revealed 3′ flanking sequence, and a SYBR Green I real-time PCR assay was subsequently applied. In the quantitative SYBR Green I real-time PCR assay, the LOD and LOQ were 10 and 20 haploid genome copies, respectively. In addition, three mixed wheat B72-8-11 samples with known contents were detected using this established quantitative PCR system, and the ideal results indicated that the developed event-specific quantitative PCR detection method could be used for identification and quantification of B72-8-11 wheat and its derivates.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Coordination of l -arginine and iron cation improves stability of
           hemoglobin concentrates
    • Abstract: Abstract This work evaluated the effects of l-arginine on the stability of porcine hemoglobin concentrates during storage. The addition of l-arginine increased both the oxyhemoglobin content and a* values but decreased both the methemoglobin content and free iron content (p < 0.05) during storage. The addition of iron cation decreased both the oxyhemoglobin content and a* values but increased both the methemoglobin content and free iron content (p < 0.05). CD spectra disclosed that the free iron induced the transformation of the hemoglobin secondary structure from an α-helix to a β-pleated, β-turn, and random-coil arrangement, while l-arginine hindered the behavior of the free iron. Infrared spectra revealed that the l-arginine coordinated with the free Fe2+ or Fe3+ to form the corresponding complex at 25 °C and pH 7.3. These results showed that l-arginine enhanced the stability of hemoglobin concentrates by coordinating with free iron.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • The influence of four drying methods on nonvolatile taste components of
           White Hypsizygus marmoreus
    • Abstract: Abstract The influence of four drying methods on nonvolatile taste components of White Hypsizygus marmoreus (WHM) was studied. The soluble sugar, free amino acids, organic acids, and flavor nucleotides of WHM were determined and compared by HPLC after hot air drying, vacuum drying (VD), microwave-vacuum drying (MVD), and vacuum freeze-drying (FD). Equivalent umami concentration (EUC) was used to evaluate the umami taste of WHM. The results showed that the four drying methods had different influence on the soluble sugar, free amino acids, organic acids, and flavor nucleotides. Soluble sugar retention after MVD was the highest (192.61 mg/g), but the EUC (147.6 g/100 g) was lower. The content of essential amino acids (22.83 mg/g), flavor amino acids (22.05 mg/g), and total amino acids (48.95 mg/g) after VD was the highest, but the EUC was the lowest; FD can reduce the loss of the total flavor nucleotides to the minimum, compared with the other three drying methods. FD got the highest retention rate of the total organic acids especially succinic acid, and the influence on amino acids was almost the same with VD. Considering the maximum retention of nonvolatile taste components, FD is the most optimal drying method. Different drying methods have their respective advantages, and this study provided reference for the processing of the WHM.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Two new monascus red pigments produced by Shandong Zhonghui Food Company
           in China
    • Abstract: Abstract Different monascus red pigments were produced by many companies in China with their own strains, but most of them are rarely identified. Two new monascus red pigments of the homologous series were isolated from commercial monascus red pigments produced by Shandong Zhonghui Food Company in China, and their structures were identified by visible light absorbance, Fourier transform infrared, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Their molecular weights were 303.5 and 331.5, respectively. Their molecular formulas were C18H25NO3 and C20H29NO3. Their λ max are observed at 426.0, 493.5 nm. They are characterized by the absence of lactone ring, carbonyls and methyl, the presence of hydroxyls and the existence of double bonds at the end of the aliphatic side chains. The characteristic X-ray diffraction pattern of the new monascus red pigments is the strong diffraction peaks at 31.62°, 45.34° and 56.40° 2θ and the weak ones at 27.28°, 66.08° and 75.20° 2θ. The findings in the paper have inferred that many monascus red pigments might be synthesized in the half way of well-known red pigments synthesis. Those two pigments have potential application in beverages.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Secretory expression and characterization of a novel thermo-stable,
           salt-tolerant endo-1,4-β-mannanase of Bacillus subtilis WD23 by
           Pichia pastoris
    • Abstract: Abstract Endo-1,4-β-mannanases have a wide range of potential industrial applications. It was mainly used for the production of functional oligosaccharides in the food industry. In order to increase the production of endo-1,4-β-mannanases, inducible and constitutive expression of a novel endo-1,4-β-mannanase from Bacillus subtilis WD23 in Pichia pastoris GS115 was performed and the recombinant enzyme was characterized. The recombinant mannanase gene was successfully expressed in a fully active form in P. pastoris GS115, and the activity of recombinant mannanase reached to 5,156.742 U/mL, which was higher than those from other recombinant system. Optimal purified enzyme activity was detected at pH 6.3 and 70 °C, and the purified enzyme displayed broad temperature stability (40–70 °C). 150 mg/mL NaCl could still improve the activity of the enzyme. Flight mass spectrometry determination confirmed that recombinant proteins are mannanase.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Effects of postharvest oligochitosan treatment on anthracnose disease in
           citrus ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit
    • Abstract: Abstract Citrus fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) is susceptible to infection by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during poststorage, which rapidly decreases sensory and nutritional quality of the fruit. The ability of oligochitosan treatment to control C. gloeosporioides of citrus fruit during storage was examined, and possible underlying mechanisms were discussed. Disease incidence and lesion diameter were lower in oligochitosan-treated fruits compared with their respective controls. The fruits dipped in oligochitosan showed increased contents of lignin, hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbate, glutathione, total phenol, and flavonoid compounds. In addition, enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), polyphenoloxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU, EC 3.2.1.39) also increased in citrus fruit peels, all of which were correlated with the onset of induced disease resistance. These results indicated that oligochitosan treatment can induce disease resistance of citrus fruit to C. gloeosporioides Penz. Oligochitosan can be a potential alternative to conventional control methods of postharvest anthracnose in citrus fruit.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Comparative evaluation of ELISA kits’ reliability for the aflatoxin
           M 1 determination in goat milk
    • Abstract: Abstract Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used in the food industry for detecting aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk. The purpose of this survey was to compare the performance of three ELISA kits for the determination of AFM1 in goat milk by evaluating specific performance parameters such as precision, accuracy, repeatability and specificity, with AFM2 coexistence. Goat milk, with known AFM1 concentration (5 ng l−1), was spiked with AFM1 at 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ng l−1 and also with AFM2 in the same concentrations. At extremely low concentrations of AFM1 (17.5 ng l−1), all kits were imprecise, while by increasing the AFM1 concentration, at levels close to or higher than the maximum tolerable limit (55, 80 and 100 ng l−1) precision significantly improved for all kits. All kits presented high repeatability and fairly good specificity, regardless of the AFM2 presence that was examined for the first time.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Variation in antioxidant properties and metabolites during flower
           maturation of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae flowers
    • Abstract: Abstract Antioxidant properties of methanol extracts from Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) flowers during maturation were determined with different antioxidant assays, including antioxidant activity in emulsion system, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and reducing power. Antioxidant metabolites, such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-O-diCQA) and 3,4-O-diCQA, were also identified and analyzed by DPPH–HPLC–DAD–TOF/MS method. Significant variation in antioxidant properties and related compounds was observed between different maturity stages, and the strongest antioxidant activity was observed at stage I accompanying the highest content of antioxidant compounds. Chlorogenic acid and its derivatives were the main antioxidant compounds in FLJ flowers, accounting for more than 90 % of total bioactive molecules. In summary, bud-developing-stage (stage I and stage II) FLJ flowers possess the highest functional benefit.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • The effect of rapeseed microstructure on the mechanism of solution and
           diffusion extraction
    • Abstract: Abstract Here, we present the effect of rapeseed microstructure on the extraction mechanism. “Solution and diffusion” extraction had to be considered to deepen the understanding of the process. Transmitted light microscopy images of the ultramicrotome-cut casting sections proved the presence of “conductive” capillary system with radius R from 8 to 25 μm. The rate of “solution extraction” was controlled by capillary flow through “conductive” voids. It was described by derived and extended Hagen–Poiseuille equation. The rate of solvent extraction of soybeans was described by negative power function, whereas rapeseed extraction was defined by complex nonlinear curve-fitting model. Specific surface area of large (1.3 ± 0.1 m2 g−1) and small (1.5 ± 0.1 m2 g−1) fraction of rapeseed extraction meal particles did not differ significantly, contrary to flaked soybeans. This is the novel finding. Significant differences could be explained by vegetable seed histology context (seed and cell size, sorption abilities). “Diffusion extraction” was rate determining at the flat part of the time-dependent extraction curve. Isolated fraction of free fatty acids originated from simultaneous lipolysis of acylglycerol species and hydrolysis of glycerophospholipids and glyceroglycolipids. Decreasing quality of last fractions increased refining loss and material costs. Compounds such as waxes (6.89–10.40 wt%), complex glycerolipids (14.83–15.26 wt%), and free fatty acids (2.26–2.45 wt%) had to be removed by edible oil refining.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Yeast protein extracts: an alternative fining agent for red wines
    • Abstract: Abstract Wine producers have to label the use of certain animal proteins for fining of must and wine since 2012 [regulation (EC) No. 579/2012] under specific conditions, which has encouraged the search for alternative fining agents produced out of plants or yeasts. Yeast proteins are naturally present in wine and first studies of yeast protein extracts (YPE) for the fining of wine have been published, which were mainly focused on the technical properties of the YPE as fining agents. The present study used YPE of different production techniques for fining of red wine and evaluated their technical properties. Furthermore, the sensory effect of the new fining agents, their protein composition and the presence of glycans and glycoproteins were examined. The YPE showed differences in their protein profile and in protein glycosylation, but all YPE that were investigated were successfully applied for fining of red wine. Mannoproteins were detected in all YPE, and they did not prevent the mutual precipitation of proteins and tannins that is necessary for successful fining as reported earlier in case of glycans and glycoproteins. The chemical parameters of the red wine were modified by fining with YPE in a way comparable to fining with gelatine, a traditional fining agent used as reference, and the initial quality of wine flavour was maintained during the treatments.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • NIR and PLS discriminant analysis for predicting the processability of
           malt during lautering
    • Abstract: Abstract This work is focused on a new strategy for quality analysis of brewing malt using near infrared (NIR) spectra taken from malt kernels in reflection as fingerprint to classify directly to processability of malt. One part of the study deals with calibrating a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model with NIR spectra classifying malt into the three different classes resulting in a five-component model. Therefore, suitable pre-processing algorithms for spectra were tested. The target for calibration is given by an expert opinion on lautering runs (filtration step in brewing). The accuracy achieved using pilot plant data in relation to the expert classification “good”, “normal” and “bad” was 90.6 and 92.7 % in validation and calibration, respectively. The second part of the study is presenting the transfer of these analytical tools to industrial scale. This was established via adjustment to corresponding system conditions. The accuracy achieved using similar algorithms as mentioned before was 93.6 and 76.6 % in calibration and validation, respectively. Independent from this, two numerical possibilities were established for automatic process evaluation classifying the different processes in three categories (good, normal, bad): the first is calculating the residual standard deviation of a process based on multivariate statistical process control and the second is discretizing each process individually based on its single online trends. Both methods were compared to the expert opinion coinciding with 84 and 85 %, respectively.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Acidification of protein-enriched rice starch doughs: effects on
           breadmaking
    • Abstract: Abstract The impact of acid incorporation (acetic + lactic, 0.5 %) into rice starch-based doughs enriched with different proteins (egg albumin, calcium caseinate, pea and soy protein isolates) at different doses (0, 5 and 10 %) was investigated on dough proofing and thermal properties, and bread quality evaluated from physical and sensory measurements. Proteins from vegetable sources led to breads with lower-specific volume and harder crumb, effects being magnified with protein dose and reduced with acid addition. Incorporation of proteins from animal source resulted in different behaviours according to the protein type, dosage and acidification. Protein addition increased the dough pH and total titratable acidity and reduced the impact of acid addition on dough acidity. Albumin-added doughs had significantly higher temperature of gelatinization than most of the other supplemented doughs, while vegetable proteins led to significantly lower gelatinization enthalpy than the control dough. Acid addition affected dough proofing and significantly improved the volume and texture of protein-enriched breads without detriment of either odour or taste.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Comparison of the degradation kinetics of A-type and B-type
           proanthocyanidins dimers as a function of pH and temperature
    • Abstract: Abstract The degradation behaviors of four different proanthocyanidins dimers including B-type (e)picatechin (E)C dimer and A-type (epi)catechin (E)C dimer, A-type (epi)catechin-3-O-gallate (E)CG dimer and A-type (epi)gallocatechin-3-O-gallate (E)GCG dimer as affected by pH and temperature were compared in this study. The results showed that the stability of proanthocyanidins dimers was not only temperature and pH dependent, but also structure dependent. Proanthocyanidins dimers were found to be unstable at pH as low as 1.5 and physiological pH conditions, and they were rather unstable at alkaline conditions and temperature above 25 °C. Among the four dimers tested, B-type (E)C dimer was the least stable, while A-type (E)C dimer was the most stable. In general, B-type dimers showed less stability than A-type ones. The higher the degree of galloylation and the more the hydroxyl groups in the molecular, the less stable the proanthocyanidins dimers.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
 
 
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