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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2302 journals)

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Diabetologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 270, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 161)
Diabetologia Notes de lecture     Hybrid Journal  
Diabetology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 5)
Dialectical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.314, h-index: 9)
Die Weltwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 15)
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 7)
Digestive Diseases and Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 89)
Directieve therapie     Hybrid Journal  
Discrete & Computational Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 40)
Discrete Event Dynamic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.42, h-index: 32)
Distributed and Parallel Databases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.766, h-index: 30)
Distributed Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 31)
DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater     Full-text available via subscription  
Documenta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 40)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 10)
Doklady Biological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Doklady Botanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 12)
Doklady Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.48, h-index: 17)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.345, h-index: 13)
Doklady Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 17)
Douleur et Analg├ęsie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.113, h-index: 6)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 8)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access  
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.481, h-index: 5)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 52)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 9)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 16)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, h-index: 7)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 29)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 21)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 9)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 27)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 26)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 43)
Economia e Politica Industriale     Hybrid Journal  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.375, h-index: 6)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.527, h-index: 44)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 9)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.557, h-index: 34)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 14)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.909, h-index: 93)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.333, h-index: 56)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.374, h-index: 15)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.776, h-index: 61)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 9)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 32)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 223, SJR: 1.785, h-index: 52)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 18)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.883, h-index: 10)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.582, h-index: 16)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 8)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.407, h-index: 15)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.678, h-index: 25)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 16)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 31)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.285, h-index: 39)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 15)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 57)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.638, h-index: 31)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 14)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.176, h-index: 7)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 30)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 32)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.632, h-index: 54)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 58)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 28)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 63)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 4)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 24)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.013, h-index: 36)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.942, h-index: 66)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 31)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 52)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.885, h-index: 46)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.4, h-index: 17)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.608, h-index: 38)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.287, h-index: 63)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.731, h-index: 89)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 62)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 6)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 3)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 16)

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Journal Cover   European Food Research and Technology
  [SJR: 0.803]   [H-I: 56]   [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • In vitro characterization of antibacterial potential of Iranian honey
           samples against wound bacteria
    • Abstract: Abstract Incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens is increasing, thus discovery of alternative therapeutic agents is needed. Honey possesses therapeutic potential, including wound-healing properties and antimicrobial activities. Although antimicrobial activity of honey has been effectively established, the antibacterial properties of Iranian honey samples on wound microorganisms have not been conducted and compared with honey gold standards. Using standard methods, the antibacterial activities of 53 Iranian honey samples and two laboratory-synthesized honeys against 16 drug-resistant clinical isolates and four reference strains were determined. Different concentrations of honey were tested against each type of microorganism to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or minimum bactericidal concentration. The selected honeys with high levels of phenolic equivalent were studied for kinetics of bacterial killing. Also, the ability of selected honey samples to prevent biofilm formation was checked by crystal violet assay. The MICs of Iranian honey samples ranged from 3.12 to >50 % (w/v), and their efficacies were also determined. Nine samples with the highest antibacterial activities were selected. Survival of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was reduced significantly by selected honeys. Moreover, all selected honey samples were able to prevent biofilm formation of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains at concentrations of ≤25 %. The results of the present study have shown that selected Iranian honey samples had lower MIC values than reported standard honeys such as Manuka and Tualang and could be potentially used as alternative medical grade honey, particularly against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Effect of the degree of toasting on the extraction pattern and profile of
           antioxidant polyphenols leached from oak chips in model wine systems
    • Abstract: Abstract The effect of the degree of toasting of oak chips used in wine ageing on the extraction pattern of polyphenols was investigated using model wine systems. Pattern identification was carried out employing a Box–Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology, using resident time (t) and amount of chips (A Chip) as the independent variables. The responses selected to assess the process were the total polyphenol concentration, the antiradical activity and the reducing power of the model wines. Further, a deeper insight into the effects exerted by chip toasting was provided by the examination of the analytical polyphenolic composition of model wines, using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The results obtained demonstrated that even moderate toasting provoked drastic decrease in the native oak wood polyphenols (ellagitannins), as indicated by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay, with a concomitant reduction in both the antiradical activity and reducing power. The evolution pattern for all three independent variables during model wine treatment with chips having different degree of toasting was also substantially affected. Light toasting was shown to generate a series of small molecular weight phenolics, but some of them did not survive more intense (heavy) toasting.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Beneficial hypolipidemic influence of a combination of dietary fenugreek (
           Trigonella foenum - graecum ) seeds and garlic ( Allium sativum ) in
           induced hypercholesterolemic rats
    • Abstract: Abstract Health beneficial hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant influences of dietary fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum), garlic (Allium sativum), and their combination included along with a high cholesterol diet (HCD) were evaluated in Wistar rats. Dietary interventions were made by inclusion of 10 % fenugreek seed powder or 2 % garlic powder or their combination in HCD/normal diet groups. These dietary interventions significantly (p < 0.05) countered the hypercholesterolemia; the effect produced being more by the combination. LDL-associated cholesterol was particularly countered by 35, 15, and 50 % with fenugreek, garlic, and fenugreek + garlic, respectively, while HDL-associated cholesterol was restored. Elevated cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and atherogenicity index were also reversed by these dietary interventions, the effect being higher in the case of fenugreek + garlic. Hepatic cholesterol was lowered by dietary fenugreek, garlic, or their combination (p < 0.05). While the elevated myocardial cholesterol was countered by 28, 15, and 52 % with the respective interventions in HCD-fed situation, and cholesterol:phospholipid ratio was also beneficially modulated (p < 0.05) with higher benefit from the combination. Increase in lipid peroxides in liver and heart was effectively countered by dietary fenugreek, garlic, and fenugreek + garlic, with a restoration of vitamin E. The reduction in lipid peroxides was 34 and 57 % by fenugreek + garlic in these tissues, respectively. The diminished activity of glutathione peroxidase in serum, liver and heart, and of catalase in serum was effectively restored (p < 0.05) by these dietary interventions. This study indicated that dietary fenugreek and garlic may have higher cardio protective influence when consumed together, and this may be strategic to derive maximum nutraceutical benefit from these ingredients.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Purification procedure for (2 R ,3 S ,2″ R ,3″ R
           )-manniflavanone and its minor (2 R ,3 S ,2″ S ,3″ S )-isomer
           from Garcinia buchananii stem bark
    • Abstract: Abstract (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-Manniflavanone (1) and its minor isomer (2R,3S,2″S,3″S)-manniflavanone (2) are known for their very high in vitro antioxidative activities. Preliminary data revealed several promising bioactivities, which have to be further evaluated in detail. To enable these investigations as well as animal and/or preclinical studies, preparative amounts of (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone (1) are highly demanded. Therefore, we developed a fast and efficient three-step isolation procedure, which includes extraction of the stem bark, pre-separation via MPLC of the crude extract and a final isocratic preparative HPLC purification. Within about 3 days in total, 1 g of pure (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone (>98 % purity UV) could be isolated by means of isocratic preparative (flow rate 42 mL/min) HPLC separation of the corresponding MPLC fraction.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Fast determination of anthocyanins in red grape musts by Fourier transform
           mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression
    • Abstract: Abstract The viability of using the Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy matched with partial least squares regression (PLS-R) for the determination of 12 anthocyanins (five non-acylated, three acetylated, three p-coumaroylated and one caffeoylated 3-O-glucosides) in red grapes musts has been studied. Four different PLS regression models were built using 257 samples of grape musts of three harvests, and the prediction of the anthocyanin concentrations using these models was evaluated by internal and external validation sample sets. Cross-validation errors between 9.4 and 30.6 % were attained for major anthocyanins. The major one, malvidin-3-O-glucoside (range of concentrations between 58.78 and 202.76 mg/L), showed standard errors of calibration between 9.01 and 21.12 mg/L. Standard prediction errors for an external validation set including must samples of a new harvest were quite high (between 9.55 and 56.16 %), but somewhat lower (14.91–40.75 %) when considering the regression model including musts of the three harvest. However, good efficiency was observed when using predicted values to order the different musts according to increasing anthocyanin concentration. A correction of FT-IR predicted values should be introduced in order to have more exact absolute values. The proposed method is quick and simple and can be easily implemented for routine winery control of musts and to be used as a quality parameter of harvested grape in terms of their potential contribution to wine color.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • The effect of essential oils and cinnamaldehyde on the inactivation of
           Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid egg products: comparison to synthetic
           additives
    • Abstract: Abstract This work explores the effect of the addition of rosemary, cinnamon bark and thyme essential oils (EOs) and one of their main active compounds cinnamaldehyde (CNM) on the inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in liquid whole egg (LWE), liquid egg white (LEW) and liquid egg yolk (LEY) stored at 4 °C. The method is proposed as an alternative to the use of synthetic additives (sorbic acid and sodium benzoate). The growth/survival of S. Enteritidis was studied by quantitative and presence/absence tests. The cinnamon bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity among all the EOs tested in the egg derivatives; however, its effectiveness was higher in LEW than in LWE and LEY. The antibacterial action of the cinnamon bark oil was attributed mainly to its high content of CNM. Concentrations of 1,000 and 6,000 ppm of CNM were enough to reduce a S. Enteritidis population of 106 CFU ml−1 to undetectable levels in LEW and LWE, respectively. CNM addition did not significantly affect the pH or ºBrix of egg products, but the smell and colour of cinnamon were perceptible.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • HPLC–DAD–MS/MS identification and HPLC–ABTS· +
           on-line antioxidant activity evaluation of bioactive compounds in
           liquorice ( Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) extract
    • Abstract: Liquorice has being used as a folk medicine for pharmacological activities in China. The phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of liquorice extract were investigated, total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) contents were determined, and the antioxidant activity of different fractions from the extract was evaluated by scavenging free radicals (ABTS·+, DPPH· and ONOO−). On-line HPLC–ABTS·+ and HPLC–ESI–MS/MS analysis were applied to screen and identify free radical scavengers of liquorice extract. The results indicated that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of the extract contained higher contents of TP and TF and exhibited stronger antioxidant activities. Thirteen compounds in the extract were identified as glycyrrhizic acid, liquorice-saponin G2, liquiritin, licuraside, ononin, glycycoumarin, isoglycyrol, liquiritin apioside, liquorice-glycoside A, liquorice-glycoside B, licoric-saponin A3, isoliquiritin apioside and isolicoflavonol, in which ten compounds were free radical scavengers. In addition, glycyrrhizic acid, ononin and liquiritin were quantitatively analyzed. These findings revealed that liquorice extract had potential antioxidant activity and could be utilized as a nutraceutical resource. Graphical
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Oenological consequences of sequential inoculation with non- Saccharomyces
           yeasts ( Torulaspora delbrueckii or Metschnikowia pulcherrima ) and
           Saccharomyces cerevisiae in base wine for sparkling wine production
    • Abstract: Abstract The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts for the production of quality wine has become increasingly frequent in recent years. Several studies of the influence of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Metschnikowia pulcherrima on chemical composition have been reported, especially in aspects concerning aroma. The aim of this article was to study the influence of sequential inoculation of these non-Saccharomyces yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the composition and quality of base wine for sparkling wine production. The results indicate that sequential inoculation with non-Saccharomyces yeasts may be an interesting tool for obtaining base wines with different characteristics. On the one hand, T. delbrueckii Biodiva™ strain increased glycerol concentration, reduced volatile acidity and exerted a positive effect on foaming properties improving foamability (Hm) and foam persistence (Hs). On the other hand, M. pulcherrima Flavia® strain also increased foam persistence (Hs) and changed the aromatic profile, increasing smoky and flowery notes.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Skill development in food professionals: a European study
    • Abstract: Abstract The food sector is the largest employer in the European Union, yet it ranks low in innovation and few educated young people pursue food careers. Updating both the skills and the image of food science and technology professionals (FSTs) first requires understanding the current situation. This work compares the view of currently employed FSTs (3,007) with that of food science and technology (FST) employers (602) regarding skills and when and where they should be developed. European FSTs responded to a web-based survey in 2011 and 2012, and FST employers responded to an e-mail-based survey and/or attended brainstorming workshops from 2009 to 2012. Soft skills, especially those related with communication, were the best evaluated by both groups, whereas technical non-food skills were in the lowest positions. FSTs were judged qualified by their employers in some food skills (food safety and quality, product development, production), while others (engineering maintenance, consumer and nutritional sciences, environmental issues) were more poorly evaluated. In general, FSTs believe themselves to be well qualified by higher education programs, and most of them do not continue training once they are working, with the notable exception of those that achieve positions of high responsibility. However, employers appeared to disagree, recommending that education and training in soft, food and technical skills continue throughout working life. Additionally, they recommended more frequent reinforcement of soft than of food or technical skills. A competitive food sector requires FSTs of the highest quality, and understanding the view of FSTs and their employees can contribute to improved training and thus benefit the European food sector.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Yeast DNA recovery during the secondary fermentation step of Lombardy
           sparkling wines produced by Champenoise method
    • Abstract: Abstract The possibility of recovering amplifiable DNA from sparkling wine produced by Champenoise method was investigated. Indeed, the sensory refining of this product occurs through the yeast autolysis with the release of cellular components, including nucleic acids. An efficient and reliable method to purify DNA is provided coupling two purification treatments: organic solvents and magnetic beads that have never been applied before on wine. The yield of DNA extraction ranged between 10 and 60 %. Starting from 150 mL spiked samples, up to 0.1–0.6 pg of yeast DNA was detected, potentially corresponding to about 4–24 cells of a diploid strain of S. cerevisiae. After development of new primers, the performance of the protocol was validated in real-time PCR by targeting the ITS region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the main species involved in the secondary fermentation. The monitoring of sparkling wines during the ageing on lees was carried out in four wineries in Franciacorta and Oltrepò Pavese areas up to 2 years from the tirage to wine samples ready for the market as well. Results show that DNA extraction and amplification are properly obtained all along the times, for the species identification; however, after 16 months of ageing, a pre-amplification step needed to be introduced to the procedure for finding a specific signal. Because of the strong DNA degradation, the typing of the inoculated strain or the grape cultivar was not achieved in commercialized wine samples.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Biosynthesis of β (1,3)/(1,6)-glucans of cell wall of the yeast
           Candida utilis ATCC 9950 strains in the culture media supplemented with
           deproteinated potato juice water and glycerol
    • Abstract: Abstract Yeast cell wall β-glucans exhibit valuable functional properties, including therapeutic ones. The possibility of using deproteinated potato juice water (DPJW) with the addition of glycerol in yeast culture of Candida utilis ATCC 9950 for biosynthesis of β(1,3)/(1,6)-glucans of cell wall was determined. The biosynthesis of β-glucans was preferably intensified by media prepared from DPJW at pH 5.0 with 5 or 10 % addition of glycerol. Cells from these cultures were characterized and found to possess thickest cell walls and β-glucan layers. The content of β-glucans in the walls’ preparations was estimated to be approximately 44–45 % and was significantly higher in comparison with the content after culturing in synthetic YPD medium (approximately 31 %). The new developed media may be used in the production of C. utilis biomass with enhanced content of functional β-glucans. It creates the possibility of a favorable, simultaneous management of waste potato juice water and glycerol in the formation of β(1,3)/(1,6)-glucans.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Protective action of S-layer proteins from Lactobacillus paracasei M7
           against Salmonella infection and mediated inhibition of Salmonella
           -induced apoptosis
    • Abstract: Abstract Surface layer proteins had been proposed that it could protect human intestine from pathogens and aid in maintaining cellular integrity. However, the functions of S-layer proteins have not yet been fully revealed, and it has been proposed that these structures protected the intestinal microbes from hostile environmental agents. In this study, the ability of the Lactobacilli to inhibit adhesion of Salmonella to intestinal mucosa was studied on cultured HT-29 cells. Lactobacillus paracasei M7 was shown to inhibit the adhesion of Salmonella to epithelial cells, a process which may be related to the specific component of the bacterial surface. Human epithelial HT-29 cells were treated with S-layer proteins after Salmonella injection and pretreated with S-layer proteins to determine their importance in the inhibition of pathogen adherence. According to the analysis of cell cycle by flow cytometry, the HT-29 cells treated by Salmonella in S phase were 26.88 % compared with 36.70 % in the normal HT-29 cells. However, the addition of S-layer proteins made the HT-29 cells in S phase increase to 30.13 %. The activity of caspase-3 in the HT-29 cell was determined using a caspase-3 activity kit, which indicated the degree of apoptosis. Moreover, we also found that Lactobacillus S-layer proteins could protect Salmonella-induced apoptosis through reducing the caspase-3 activity. This mechanism might represent a novel approach for antagonizing Salmonella infection.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Study of the inheritability of the yeast trait “interaction with
           natural antioxidant activity of red wine” in four generations of
           Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its enhancing by spore clone selection and
           hybridization
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this research was to study the inheritability of the yeast trait “interaction with natural antioxidant activity of red wine” and to enhance this trait by spore clone selection and hybridization of wine yeasts. This research was carried out using as a model three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wild types), 24 derived spore clones, three hybrids obtained crossing the derived spore clones and 34 spore clones derived from the three hybrids. Using these yeast strains, micro-winemaking trials were carried out utilizing grape must of the black varieties, Cabernet and Magliocco: the wines showed significant differences, due to the wine starter used, both for Folin–Ciocalteu’s index and for DPPH analysis. Data validate the main role that wine yeast selection plays to enhance red wine content in antioxidant compounds. Data also demonstrate that using spore clone selection and hybridization, it is possible to significantly enhance the natural antioxidant activity of wines, so improving their quality and stability.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Extraction, sulfonation and anticoagulant activity of xylan from corncob
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this work was to study the anticoagulant activity of sulfonated xylan. The crude corncob xylans were isolated from corncob by alkaline extraction. The water-insoluble xylans were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and dimethylformamide (DMF) to generate the water-soluble sulfonated xylan (WISX-S). The best conditions for the esterification were 1:1 of chlorosulfonic acid to DMF, keep time of 6 h and temperature of 70 °C by the orthogonal analysis. Degree of substitution of esterification product was 1.54. Anticoagulant properties of WISX-S1 and WISX-S2 were compared with normal saline and positive control heparin sodium. In vitro tests demonstrated that WISX-S2 can significantly prolong APTT and TT, but not PT. The results suggest that WISX-S2 may play the key role of anticoagulation through the intrinsic pathway and common pathway. The anticoagulant activity of xylan sulfates may be associated with the degree of substitution and molecular weight within a certain range.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Lactobacillus paracasei isolated from grape sourdough: acid, bile, salt,
           and heat tolerance after spray drying with skim milk and cheese whey
    • Abstract: Abstract Lactic acid bacteria have been isolated from sourdough and could present important properties in food manufacturing as starter cultures and also as probiotics. This study evaluated the resistance of Lactobacillus paracasei strain isolated from sourdough to spray drying in the presence of reconstituted skim milk (RSM) and cheese whey (CW). The in vitro tolerance to acid, bile, sodium chloride (NaCl) and heat was studied to free and microencapsulated cells. The microcapsules moisture was determined, and the morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The viability of free and microencapsulated cells decreased by 4.25 log CFU mL−1 and 1.00 log CFU g−1, respectively, when exposed to pH 2.0 for 3 h. At pH 3.0, free cells decreased 0.3 log CFU mL−1, while the microencapsulated form maintained its viability even after 3 h of exposure. After 12 h of exposure to 2 g 100 mL−1 bile salts, free and microencapsulated L. paracasei decreased 3.34 log CFU mL−1 and 2.17 log CFU g−1, respectively. No significant cell loss was observed, for free and microencapsulated form when exposed to NaCl, and microencapsulated cells survived well for 15 min at 65 °C. Moisture content of microcapsules ranged from 4.30 to 4.77 g 100 g−1. L. paracasei was found to possess desirable in vitro resistance to low pH and bile salts, and the microencapsulation in RSM and CW provided a cell protection against acidic pH and bile salts. This strain is good candidate for further investigation to elucidate its potential health benefits and in fermentation processes.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Preparation of PEG-modified proanthocyanidin liposome and its application
           in cosmetics
    • Abstract: Abstract Proanthocyanidin liposome modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) was prepared by reverse-phase evaporation method. To obtain the higher encapsulation efficiency of proanthocyanidin liposomes, several factors, including the mass ratio of lecithin to cholesterol and the addition of surfactants and PEG, were investigated. The liposomes then can be evaluated by encapsulation efficiency, the distribution of particle size and storage stability. The results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of the liposomes was around 77.28 %, and the average particle size of the liposomes was 144.9 ± 0.1 nm. In addition, proanthocyanidin could be controlled to release on simulated skin in vitro. These data confirmed that the liposomes could be employed to extend proanthocyanidin’s shelf life and to provide more convenience and better performance for its usage in cosmetics.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Impact of suppressing the caffeic acid O -methyltransferase ( COMT ) gene
           on lignin, fiber, and seed oil composition in Brassica napus transgenic
           plants
    • Abstract: Abstract The impact of suppressing the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene on lignin and fiber content as well as seed oil composition of Brassica napus was studied. Transgenic lines showed significant reduction in COMT enzyme activity ranging between 21 and 31 % residual activity. Lignin in the transgenic Cruciferin:COMT line 34-3 seeds was reduced by 35 % of the wild type, which decreased acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber by 17.92 and 13.04 % of the control, respectively. The main fatty acids were monounsaturated (67.2–69.5 %) followed by polyunsaturated (20.9–23.3 %). The content of tocols ranged between 338 and 440 mg/100 g oil. The highest antiradical action toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and galvinoxyl radicals was in the oil of the transgenic line 34-3, which contained the highest amount of total phenolic compounds and total tocols. The results show the possibility of reducing lignin in B. napus with no effect on oil content and quality.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Effect of substrate type on sensory characteristics and antioxidant
           capacity of sunflower Maillard reaction products
    • Abstract: Abstract The sensory characteristics and antioxidant capacity of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from two substrates namely sunflower free amino acid and peptides, xylose with and without cysteine model systems (AXC, AX, PXC and PX, respectively) were evaluated and compared. The model systems were heated at 120 °C for 2.0 h and a pH of 7.4. Results showed that AXC had greater meat-like flavour and umami taste, while PXC showed great mouthfulness and continuity taste, and AX and PX showed higher caramel-like flavour and bitter taste. The addition of cysteine was found to accelerate high molecular weight peptide degradation while suppressing low molecular weight cross-linking and colour formation in PXC and AXC. Furthermore, it was observed that sensory attributes of MRPs were not significantly affected by the peptides size. Results also showed that caramel-like flavour and bitter taste were significantly and positively correlated with furans and most of the nitrogen-containing compounds while these compounds had significant and negative impact on mouthfulness, continuity and meat-like flavour. Additionally, sulphur-containing compounds showed significant and positive influence on meat-like flavour, while PXC and PX showed higher antioxidant activities than AXC and AX. It can therefore be concluded that sunflower peptides MRPs can be a good precursor of flavour enhancers with high antioxidant activity, while sunflower free amino acid MRPs can be used to produce meat-like flavour enhancers.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • The free and enzyme-released volatile compounds of distinctive Vitis
           amurensis var. Zuoshanyi grapes in China
    • Abstract: Abstract Vitis amurensis var. Zuoshanyi is a native red variety grown in Northeast China with excellent cold hardness for genetic breeding and winemaking potential, but the volatiles profile, especially key compounds related to aroma character, was not fully revealed. In this work, Zuoshanyi grapes were collected across two harvests (2010 and 2011) in Shangzhuang area in Beijing, China. Free and glycosidase enzymatic hydrolysis volatiles were analyzed using SPME coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A total of 135 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Among the 13 categories of constituents, C6 compounds were the most abundant, followed by alcohols and ketones, and esters were the least abundant in two vintages. C6/C9 compounds, MPs (3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine) and (E)-β-damascenone were the major compounds of Zuoshanyi grapes, which contributed “grass, green, fruit, etc.,” aroma as characterization of this distinctive cultivar. Results from hierarchical clustering and heatmap visualization revealed the accumulation patterns of volatile compounds during berry development. Principal component analysis showed clear separation of free and enzyme-released components in two vintages. Rainfall was the major different climate factor in log phase and before veraison of Zuoshanyi grapes in two vintages, and this difference may potentially influence the volatile variances of Zuoshanyi grapes.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Identification of gum Arabic in white wine based on colloid content,
           colloid composition and multi-element stable isotope analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Gum Arabic (GA) is a popular wine additive. Due to its compositional and structural similarity to native grape cell wall arabinogalactans occurring in wine, the chemical proof of a GA addition is difficult. A method for its identification based on the colloid composition and multi-element (H, O and N, C) stable isotope analysis of the colloids was developed. For this purpose, the colloids from non-spiked, authentic (control) and spiked (300 mg l−1 GA) German white wines were isolated and analyzed for their monosaccharide composition. An addition of 300 mg l−1 GA changed the monomer sugar composition of the colloids. Particularly, l-arabinose, d-galactose, d-mannose and d-glucuronic acid were affected. Additionally, the oxygen stable isotope ratios of the isolated polysaccharides were shifted. Principle component analysis indicated the grouping of treated and untreated samples with 300 mg l−1 GA. The groupings were influenced by the content of l-arabinose and d-galactose, colloid content, monosaccharide content, monosaccharide composition and the δ18O values. It could also be concluded that a high content of l-arabinose and d-galactose was accompanied with a lower content of d-mannose. The control samples were only influenced by a significantly higher d-mannose content.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
 
 
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