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Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 15)
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 7)
Digestive Diseases and Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 89)
Directieve therapie     Hybrid Journal  
Discrete & Computational Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 40)
Discrete Event Dynamic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.42, h-index: 32)
Distributed and Parallel Databases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.766, h-index: 30)
Distributed Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 31)
DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater     Full-text available via subscription  
Documenta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 40)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 10)
Doklady Biological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Doklady Botanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 12)
Doklady Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.48, h-index: 17)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.345, h-index: 13)
Doklady Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 17)
Douleur et Analg├ęsie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.113, h-index: 6)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 8)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access  
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.481, h-index: 5)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 52)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 9)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 16)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, h-index: 7)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 29)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 21)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 9)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 27)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 26)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 43)
Economia e Politica Industriale     Hybrid Journal  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.375, h-index: 6)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.527, h-index: 44)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 9)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.557, h-index: 34)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 14)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.909, h-index: 93)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.333, h-index: 56)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.374, h-index: 15)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.776, h-index: 61)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 9)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 32)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.785, h-index: 52)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 18)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.883, h-index: 10)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.582, h-index: 16)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 8)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.407, h-index: 15)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.678, h-index: 25)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 16)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 31)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.285, h-index: 39)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 15)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 57)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.638, h-index: 31)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 14)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.176, h-index: 7)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 30)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 32)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.632, h-index: 54)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 58)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 28)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 63)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 4)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 24)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.013, h-index: 36)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.942, h-index: 66)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 31)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 52)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.885, h-index: 46)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.608, h-index: 38)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.287, h-index: 63)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.731, h-index: 89)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 62)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 6)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 3)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 16)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.206, h-index: 9)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 67)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 10)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 0.484, h-index: 23)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.163, h-index: 6)

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Journal Cover   European Food Research and Technology
  [SJR: 0.803]   [H-I: 56]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2280 journals]
  • Phytochemicals in native Peruvian Capsicum pubescens (Rocoto)
    • Abstract: Abstract Peru is considered a hotspot with maybe the highest diversity of domesticated chili peppers. Capsicum pubescens is the least explored domesticated chili pepper, especially with regard to its chemical composition. Thirty-two different C. pubescens (Rocoto) accessions, out of the national Peruvian Capsicum germplasm collection at the Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria, were selected for investigating the phytochemical content and its variability. After drying and milling, the fruits were analyzed for the three major capsaicinoids (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nordihydrocapsaicin), flavonoid aglycons (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, tocopherol (α-, β- and γ-) content, fat content, ascorbic acid content, surface color and extractable color. The concentrations for selected traits ranged as follows: total capsaicinoids from 55 to 410 mg/100 g (corresponding to ca. 8400–60,000 SHU), total polyphenols from 1.8 to 2.5 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g, antioxidant capacity from 2.4 to 4.6 mmol Trolox/100 g and tocopherols from 6.8 to 18.4 mg/100 g. Only very few of the accessions contained detectable amounts of the major chili flavonoid quercetin. The results indicate that C. pubescens is generally less diverse and exhibits a lower content of almost all analyzed traits when compared to 147 Peruvian chili pepper accessions belonging to the other four domesticated species.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Comparative study of coadjuvants for extraction of olive oil
    • Abstract: Abstract Three complete 23 factorial designs were developed in order to evaluate the effect of three physical acting coadjuvants on the extraction of virgin olive oil: talc, calcium carbonate and silica. Ranges of operating conditions were 0–2 % (w/w) for dosage of the coadjuvant, 20–60 °C for temperature and 20–60 min for time. Mathematical models and statistical analysis (ANOVA) were performed to evaluate the effects of these coadjuvants on oil yield, quality of virgin olive oil (acidity, peroxide index and UV absorption at 270 and 232 nm), natural pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) and natural antioxidants. In all cases, the oils obtained with coadjuvants were the same quality of those from non-treated olive paste. Therefore, all of them are producing a physical action. While improved oil extraction yields were achieved by using talc and calcium carbonate (1.1 and 1.0 kg oil per 100 kg olives), the use of silica resulted in an oil yield reduction (1.3 kg/100 kg olives). Concerning natural pigments and antioxidants, none of the studied coadjuvants modified the pigment content while that of the antioxidants increased slightly. All oils obtained with coadjuvants showed higher contents of polyphenols and tocopherols, which indicates increasing quality and nutraceutical level.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Detection of non- Saccharomyces yeast strains in alcoholic fermentations
           by direct PCR and/or plating methods
    • Abstract: Abstract Since the population of indigenous non-Saccharomyces yeasts is displaced from an alcoholic fermentation within a few hours, the use of a selective enrichment broth would be a valid approach for their detection. To accomplish this, yeast carbon base (YCB)–lysine broth without or with different concentrations of cycloheximide was tested. Lysine is an amino acid that cannot serve as the only nitrogen source for Saccharomyces spp., which is in contrast to non-Saccharomyces yeast, while cycloheximide is an antibiotic that is more or less effective against Saccharomyces spp. strains. Metagenomics, the study of genetic material from mixed microbial community as a grape must fermentation has the potential for operating in a culture-independent environment. Direct identification by PCR (dPCR) without previous isolation and a classical approach to analyse the yeast population in a wine inoculated with a mixed population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts were compared. Results showed that pre-incubation on YCB–lysine and dPCR combined with classic approaches based on the use of solid media is a suitable strategy for detecting yeast species involved in vinifications.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Preparation, characterization and identification of calcium-chelating
           Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) ossein oligopeptides
    • Abstract: Abstract Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) bones (normally discarded during manufacturing) were used to prepare salmon ossein oligopeptides (SOOP). Calcium-chelating salmon ossein oligopeptides (SOOP-Ca) were obtained by calcium-chelating peptides from SOOP. The calcium-chelating capacity of SOOP-Ca was 52.47 ± 0.08 %. SOOP-Ca had high protein content (63.42 ± 1.02 %) and low molecular weight, and 72.32 % of the molecular weight was less than 1 ku. Scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet wavelength scanning and infrared spectra all showed that the structure of SOOP-Ca is different from that of SOOP. SOOP-Ca was stable at a range of temperatures and at various pH values. It was also stable during in vitro gastric protease digestion. SOOP-Ca was separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Ten major fractions were collected and subjected to mass spectrometry to identify peptide components. A total of 22 peptide sequences were identified. This study suggested that SOOP-Ca might be useful as food additives, dietary nutrients and pharmaceutical agents which could promote calcium absorption.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Physico-chemical properties of globular tiger nut proteins
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigates the properties of globular tiger nut proteins by determining the average molecular mass, protein fractions, denaturation temperature and the isoelectric point. Tiger nut proteins (TNP) prepared by aqueous extraction had a purity of 83.5 % w/w on dry mass. Fractionation of TNP revealed that glutelin was the constituent with the highest concentration (>47.5 % w/w), followed by albumin (31.8 %), globulin (4.7 %) and prolamin (3.8 %). A residual protein fraction of 12.2 % appeared as electrophoretically similar to glutelin. TNP had an apparent molecular mass (m m) of 5.3–88 kDa. Both albumin and globulin fractions had m m of 5.3–73 kDa, whilst prolamin and glutamine fractions were 5.3–46.2 and 5.3–30 kDa, respectively. TNP had an onset temperature (T o), denaturation temperature (T d) and enthalpy of transition (∆H) of 54.40, 69.61 °C and 5.43 J/g, respectively. In decreasing order of T o and T d among the protein fractions were prolamin, albumin, globulin and glutelin. Albumin and glutelin showed the highest and lowest ∆H, respectively. Finally, the isoelectric point of TNP was 4.90. Fundamentally, the properties of TNP show that they might be useful for the techno-functional application in tiger nut-based food systems.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Metatartaric acid: physicochemical characterization and analytical
           detection in wines and grape juices
    • Abstract: Abstract Seven commercial metatartaric acid (MTA) products used for tartaric stabilization of wines were investigated regarding molecular masses and composition. Combined size-exclusion chromatography with MALS detection showed that the products had medium molecular masses in a range of 2–9 kDa. All samples were highly polydisperse products with a broad molecular weight distribution. Beside oligomeric or polymeric contents, the products contained on average 13 g/100 g monomeric tartaric acid, thus reducing the effectiveness of MTA in respect of achieving tartaric stability. An analytical method to determine MTA in wines and grape juices based on an anion-exchange cleanup step, HPLC separation, and MS detection was developed. The method shows a sufficient robustness to evaluate important enological or food legal aspects in connection with MTA.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Influence of vintage and selected starter on Torulaspora delbrueckii /
           Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequential fermentation
    • Abstract: Abstract The practice of sequential fermentation of grape juice with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter strain coupled with a selected culture of a non-Saccharomyces yeast is used to improve the sensory profile and add complexity of wines. In this study, the effect of Torulaspora delbrueckii/S. cerevisiae sequential fermentation on Verdicchio wine under winery conditions was investigated, evaluating grape juices of three different vintages and two S. cerevisiae starter strains. In the 3 years of examination, some of oenological characters of the final wines were influenced by grape juices coming from different vintages. However, in all cases, T. delbrueckii/S. cerevisiae sequential fermentation influenced the analytical profiles of the Verdicchio wines according to the S. cerevisiae starter strain used. Indeed, different behaviours were found for the same T. delbrueckii strain together with the autochthonous Sc151 or the commercial VIN13 S. cerevisiae yeast, indicting that the yeast–yeast interaction plays an important role in analytical profile of wines. On the other hand, specific contributions were seen with T. delbrueckii, which is inoculated in sequential fermentation for three consecutive vintages using different starters.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Synergistic and antagonistic effects between alpha-tocopherol and phenolic
           acids in liposome system: spectroscopic study
    • Abstract: Abstract The physicochemical interactions between alpha-tocopherol and three phenolic acids, which constitute main phenolics in coffee brew: caffeic, chlorogenic and ferulic acid, in l-α-phosphatidylcholine liposome system were studied. Steady-state and fluorescence lifetime measurements were applied to elucidate location of investigated phenolic acids in liposomes, and the results have shown that ferulic acid is most embedded into membrane structure. Lipophilic studies have shown that at pH 7.4 the partition coefficients for all phenolic acids are similar. Antioxidant capacity measurements of studied antioxidants were taken using fluorescent probe BODIPY. The synergistic effect was observed in all tested antioxidant systems with the exception of sample consisting of chlorogenic acid (2.5 μM) and alpha-tocopherol (2.5 μM), where antagonistic effect was noted. Concentration of antioxidants was a significant factor in the observed phenomenon. The most effective antioxidant system against oxidation in liposomes was combination of alpha-tocopherol and ferulic acid. This phenomenon could be explained by interaction of ferulic acid with the interior of the phospholipids membrane.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Effect of chemical composition on physico-chemical, rheological and
           sensory properties of spreadable processed whey cheese
    • Abstract: Abstract Pasteurised processed cheese spreads of varying chemical composition were developed, using a Myzithra-type cheese, which is a high-moisture and low-fat fresh whey cheese. Nine novel, spreadable processed whey cheese (PWC) samples were prepared comprising only of whey proteins, while guar gum was added as a stabiliser. All samples had a pH value of 5.20, which was obtained with the addition of a starter culture. The effect of chemical composition on the physico-chemical and rheological properties of PWC samples was studied. Due to their texture, two instrumental techniques, lubricated squeezing flow viscometry and texture profile analysis, were considered appropriate for the evaluation of samples. The decrease in protein content or the increase in fat content produced less viscous, consistent and solid samples, which were more spreadable. Protein content was shown to be a better predictor of the texture of PWC samples. Sensory assessments revealed that the majority of PWC samples had good spreadability and flavour and were rated as highly acceptable. Results of sensory and instrumental analyses were highly positively correlated. Results have shown that the choice of the desired formulation could be manipulated for the production of processed whey cheese spreads with specific properties.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Critical review of the methods of β-glucan analysis and its
           significance in the beer filtration process
    • Abstract: Abstract β-Glucans are polymers containing β-glycosidic linkages that occur in beer as degradation products of yeast and cereal cell walls. These polysaccharides are known to have a technological influence on the filter performance time because of their functional properties as viscous, gel-forming hydrocolloids. Despite knowledge of the impact of β-glucans on filterability gained using model solutions, these results can only rarely be transferred to the brewing process. Because current quantification methods are based on various chemical and physical properties of these polymers, comparisons between methods are limited. Significant results concerning kieselguhr filtration, particularly the gel content, were assayed using fluorometric methods. Furthermore, viscosity measurements yielded a good correlation with kieselguhr filtration. Informative results for membrane filtration could be obtained using chromatographic separation of the sample and detection of high molecular weight fractions (>90 kDa) using enzymatic degradation. Although β-glucan molecules affect both kieselguhr and membrane filtration, the molecular fractions involved and their physical properties differ, as demonstrated using the measurement methods described.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Comparison of the efficiency of different NF membranes for the enrichment
           of milk oligosaccharides from bovine milk
    • Abstract: Abstract Oligosaccharides in milk (MOS) have been reported in the literature to exert various bioactivities and to modulate the immune system. However, processes to obtain milk oligosaccharides on industrial scale as food ingredients are currently not available. Therefore, the aim of the study on hand was the evaluation of different nanofiltration (NF) membranes for the enrichment of MOS from bovine milk. Moreover, a transfer of the NF process from laboratory to pilot plant and industrial scale was performed. The immunostimulatory effect of the MOS concentrates was studied by the activity of NFκB in human embryotic kidney cells (HEKnfκbRE-cells). NF was carried out with lactose hydrolyzed skimmed and ultrafiltered milk permeate by application of different membranes. The quantification of MOS was determined by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and parallel online electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry. The enrichment of MOS (3-sialyl-lactose, 6-sialyl-lactose, N-acetylgalactosaminyl-lactose) on laboratory, pilot plant and industrial scale was achieved by the retention of these oligosaccharides of at least 50 % in NF retentate. The content of MOS in relation to total sugar content in the retentate from NF on industrial scale was 100-fold higher than in the initial sample. The MOS retentates and the standards (3-sialyl-lactose, 6-sialyl-lactose) exhibited increased NFκB activity in HEKnfκbRE-cells. Although there exist a few studies about the enrichment of MOS by NF, this is the first report about a screening of the efficiency of different NF membranes for the enrichment of MOS on different technological scales of production.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Comparative study of phenolic profile of fruit and juice samples of a
           progeny of ‘Meana’ × ‘Florina’ from
           an Asturian cider apple breeding program
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present work, a comparative study of the detailed phenolic profile of fruit and juice samples from an Asturian cider apple breeding program was carried out. To achieve this, a fast, selective and sensitive UHPLC-DAD strategy was developed and validated. The proposed method allowed determining 49 polyphenols in apple samples and 41 phenolic compounds in apple juice samples in 18 min. Furthermore, six minor flavonoids have been quantified for the first time in apples: phloretin-hexosyl-hexoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-arabinopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-arabinofuranoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside. The selectivity and reliability of this methodology allowed us to apply it in a successful manner to select the most interesting descendants from a progeny of ‘Meana’ × ‘Florina’ (a cider and a dessert apple, respectively) in terms of their phenolic composition. Descendants X9701-349, 119, 370, 120 and 069 could be proposed for cider production, since they exhibited a higher phenolic content than ‘Meana’ apple juice. Although flavan-3-ol, procyanidin and dihydrochalcone levels were similar to those observed in ‘Meana’ apple, flavonol levels increased slightly. Furthermore, it is worth noting that hydroxycinnamic acid concentration was up to three times higher. This fact could lead to an increase in cider astringency and color, as well as in cider aroma. Thus, this methodology is proposed to be applicable to the determination of the phenolic profile in other fruit and/or plant extracts.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Selection of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains of human origin for
           use in dairy industry
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present study, phenotypic and genotypic methods and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were applied for the species identification of 29 out of 30 strains of the genus Lactobacillus isolated from faecal samples of 30 breastfed infants. All strains were tested for growth in milk and/or reconstituted skimmed milk supplemented with 0.5 % yeast extract, production of lactic acid, bile salts and low pH tolerance, and for production of β-glucuronidase. PCR screenings of tyrosine-decarboxylase and histidine-decarboxylase genes were also carried out. Survival of Lactobacillus cells at low pH and their bile tolerance were strain specific. Finally, seven strains of probiotic species were selected for possible use in the dairy industry and for further tests concerning their probiotic characteristics.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • The identification of relationships between selected honey parameters by
           extracting the contribution of independent variables in a neural network
    • Abstract: Abstract Honey is a product having many valuable properties for human health. The honey quality control regarding its floral or geographical origin, as well as a potential adulteration, should be carried out at any stage of processing and marketing. At present, some new methods of honey quality assessment based on its electrical parameters measurement are developed. The development of accurate methods, which could be useful in practice, requires the knowledge of the relationships between honey chemical and electrical parameters. In particular, the level of the influence of chemical parameters which are modified during honey quality deterioration on electrical features is of the great importance. When the complex impedance is used as electrical parameter, the influence of frequency on relationships investigated is essential. In this work, the influence of glucose content/fructose content ratio, water activity, HMF content, pH, diastase as well as the temperature on honey impedance measured in the frequency of 260 Hz, 11 kHz and 160 kHz has been investigated. Three different methods of the determination of independent variables contribution in a neural network model have been employed. The highest influence on the real part of impedance measured for each frequency has been calculated for HMF content and pH. Similar results have been obtained in the case of the imaginary part of impedance measured for the frequency of 260 Hz. For higher frequencies, the increase in the influence of water activity, diastase and glucose content/fructose content ratio on the imaginary part of impedance has been observed.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • The postharvest performance of kiwi fruit after long cold storage
    • Abstract: Abstract Conventionally (CG), semi-organically (low chemical, LCG) and organically grown (OG) kiwi fruit was stored at 0° C for 24 weeks. Firmness gradually decreased with storage time regardless of cultivation type, and the rate of softening was slightly higher in OG fruits than those of CG or LCG fruits. Soluble solids content increased with storage time, while acidity decreased in all fruits. Reducing sugar content considerably increased until 12 weeks after storage, while starch content significantly decreased. Rate of fruit decay abruptly increased at middle stage of storage in OG fruits. In 24 weeks after storage, the rate reached 35 %. Most fruits decayed with infection of Botritis cineria regardless of cultivation type. Respiration and ethylene contents have peaked at middle stage of storage, and those contents were slightly higher in OG than in CG and LCG fruits. Shelf life of kiwi fruit considerably decreased in OG fruits by increasing fruit decay and softening during storage. Fluorescence measurements showed a difference between the investigated samples, especially in their antioxidant status. The used statistical evaluation confirmed the obtained results. The quenching properties of these samples are correlated with their antioxidant properties and the amount of polyphenols and the decrease in fluorescence intensity.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Changes in the flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and flavanols composition of
           cocoa beans of different Theobroma cacao L. groups affected by roasting
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present study, the effect of roasting conditions on the individual flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and flavanols content of cocoa beans of five different Theobroma cacao L. groups was studied. The raw cocoa beans were roasted at four different temperatures (110, 120, 135, and 150 °C) and three different relative air humidities (0.3, 2.0, and 5.0 %). The great variations in the contents of both total and individual phenolic compounds among the different studied cocoa groups were observed. In general, the cocoa beans of the Forastero group from Brazil exhibited the highest content of individual flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and flavanols, while the samples of the Trinitario type from Papua New Guinea had the lowest polyphenols levels. Roasting significantly affected the profile and levels of the flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and flavanols in cocoa beans. The changes depended upon the different cocoa types evaluated and their processing conditions. A decrease in epicatechin, procyanidin B, procyanidin C1, both anthocyanins, and quercetin glycosides was observed in all of the five cocoa groups tested after roasting. This reduction coincided with the increase in catechin and quercetin contents in roasted cocoa beans from the five cocoa groups.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Nutritional quality of seeds and leaf metabolites of Chia ( Salvia
           hispanica L.) from Southern Italy
    • Abstract: Abstract Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is an expanding functional food crop from Central America, but little is known about effects of new growing environments and agronomical treatments on seed quality. The quality of seeds produced in Europe has never been reported and there’s a lack of information on secondary metabolites of leaves, an emerging product of Chia. In this work, the nutritional quality and oxidative stability of Chia seeds produced in Southern Italy (Basilicata region) have been evaluated, taking into account also different nitrogen fertilization strategies. The quality of seeds produced in Basilicata has been also compared with that of commercially available seeds from traditional and new production areas. Oil extracted from Italian Chia seeds was not quantitatively significantly different, but more rich in chlorophyll, carotenoids and α-linolenic acid than in commercial seeds. Oxidative stability, polyphenols and antioxidant activity were also influenced by seed source. Fertilization system affected free acidity, chlorophyll and carotenoids, whereas it reduced p-Anisidine value, phenols and oxidative stability. Moreover, the metabolic profile of Chia leaves has been reported for the first time; in particular, several flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids, and the two uncommon flavonoids acetyl vitexin and acetyl orientin were found.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Effect on quality and composition of Riesling wines fermented by
           sequential inoculation with non- Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces
    • Abstract: Abstract The production of nonvolatile and volatile compounds by different commercial non-Saccharomyces yeast strains in Riesling grape musts was monitored during fermentation, and the related changes in wine quality were noted. Sequential fermentations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Pichia kluyveri, Lachancea thermotolerans, or Metschnikowia pulcherrima were compared to a single fermentation using S. cerevisiae alone. The results from all developed analyses showed significant differences in several parameters including population kinetics, nonvolatile and volatile compounds, and sensorial parameters.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol and glycidol: no formation by deep
           frying during large-scale production of potato crisps
    • Abstract: Abstract Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPDE) as well as 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol (glycidol, GE) can occur as undesirable foodborne toxicants in fats/oils and related products. Because of their significant toxicity, it is a worldwide aim to minimize levels of 3-MCPDE and GE, and several research programmes are currently trying to gain further understanding of their formation. Here we report on the non-formation of 3-MCPDE and GE during the deep frying of potato crisps in large-scale industrial production using high-oleic sunflower oils (HOSO). Samples of potato crisps and corresponding frying oils were taken in nine series at several frying time points and subsequently analysed by GC–MS. The analysed samples (crisps and frying oils) showed very low levels of both contaminants varying between 0.10 and 0.85 mg/kg fat for 3-MCPDE and between 0.09 (LOQ) and 0.91 mg/kg fat for GE. The results indicate no significant change of either 3-MCPDE or GE levels during frying. Thus, the endogenous formation of 3-MCPDE and GE during frying of potato crisps using HOSO and typical large-scale conditions can be excluded.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Development of stable isotope dilution assays for the quantitation of free
           phenolic acids in wheat and barley and malts produced thereof
    • Abstract: Abstract Free phenolic acids present in cereal malts serve as precursors of different volatile compounds in beer. To study their generation from wheat and barley on the way to the respective malts, stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) were developed using high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to quantitate the free phenolic acids caffeic, cinnamic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and vanillic acid in the grain as well as in the malts produced thereof. An optimised extraction procedure using methanol instead of water in combination with the newly developed SIDAs enabled their selective and sensitive quantitation with low limits of detection and limits of quantitation as well as good recoveries. In kiln-dried wheat malt, the most abundant free phenolic acid was sinapic acid with 2.30 mg/kg dry mass, while in kiln-dried barley malt ferulic acid predominated with 2.76 mg/kg dry mass. The concentration of the latter in kiln-dried malt is of special interest, because this acid is a well-known precursor of the important wheat beer aroma compound 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol. The concentration of cinnamic acid, the precursor of the toxicologically relevant vinylbenzene (styrene), in kiln-dried wheat and barley malt were 0.56 and 0.97 mg/kg dry mass, respectively. Generally, kiln-dried barley malt showed higher concentrations of most phenolic acids in comparison to kiln-dried wheat malt.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
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