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Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 46)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 8)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 5)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 28)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 17)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 7)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.289, h-index: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.651, h-index: 22)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.698, h-index: 38)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 40)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.857, h-index: 31)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.793, h-index: 83)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.041, h-index: 53)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 15)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.519, h-index: 14)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.781, h-index: 52)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 8)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 27)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 204, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 45)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 17)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.542, h-index: 7)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 14)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 5)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 11)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 22)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 12)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.5, h-index: 29)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.319, h-index: 33)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 13)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 55)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 27)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 10)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 26)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 26)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 46)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 53)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 22)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.601, h-index: 55)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 3)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 23)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 32)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 14)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 60)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.413, h-index: 27)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 46)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 14)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 34)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 58)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 85)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 57)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.161, h-index: 4)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 14)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.173, h-index: 8)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.268, h-index: 9)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.111, h-index: 61)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 8)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 20)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.204, h-index: 6)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 57)
Eurasian Soil Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 10)
EURO J. of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EURO J. on Computational Optimization     Hybrid Journal  
EURO J. on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal  
Europaisches J. fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal  
European Actuarial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 37)
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 12)
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 62)
European Biophysics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 53)
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 51)
European Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 49)
European J. for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European J. for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 2)
European J. of Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 17)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.044, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 69)
European J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European J. of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 25)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.946, h-index: 60)
European J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 25)

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Journal Cover European Food Research and Technology     [SJR: 0.773]   [H-I: 49]
   [10 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]
  • A novel trait-specific real-time PCR method enables quantification of
           genetically modified (GM) maize content in ground grain samples containing
           stacked GM maize
    • Abstract: Abstract Stacked genetically modified (GM) maize is increasingly produced; thereby, current event-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods have led to the overestimation of GM organism (GMO) content compared with the actual weight/weight percentage of GM organism in maize samples. We developed a feasible qPCR method in which the GMO content is calculated based on the quantification of two herbicide-tolerant trait genes, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4epsps) and phosphinothricin N-acetyl-transferase from Streptomyces viridochromogenes (pat) to quantify the GMO content in ground grain samples containing stacked GM maize. The GMO contents of two genes were quantified using a plasmid calibrant and summed for quantification of total GMO content. The trait-specific method revealed lower biases for examination of test samples containing stacked GM maize compared with the event-specific method. Our results clearly show that the trait-specific method is not only simple and cost-effective, but also useful in quantifying the GMO content in ground grain samples containing stacked GM maize, which are expected to be major events in the near future. The developed method would be the only feasible way to conduct the quantification of GMO content in the ground maize samples containing stacked GM maize for the verification of the labeling regulation.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial properties of extracts from
           Trollius chinensis Bunge
    • Abstract: Abstract Trollius chinensis Bunge is a traditional edible and medicinal plant utilized popularly in north China. This study is intended to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts obtained with different processing methods from Trollius chinensis Bunge. The results showed that all extract displayed moderate or great potential of antioxidant and antibacterial activity, especially ultrasound-assisted ethanol extracts (UAE). It exhibited the highest 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH; EC50 0.215 ± 1.10 mg/mL), 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS; EC50 < 10 μg/mL) and reducing power (RP; EC50 0.25 ± 0.02 mg/mL) with the highest level of flavonoids content (71.56 ± 0.35 mg/g) and total phenolic (35.75 ± 0.35 mg/g). In addition, the UAE had high antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (19.7 ± 0.6 mm inhibition zone), Bacillus subtilis (16.4 ± 0.3 mm inhibition zone), Escherichia coli (15.3 ± 0.2 mm inhibition zone), respectively. The HPLC analysis show that the main flavonoids components in T. chinensis Bunge were revealed to be 2″-O-β-L-galactopyranosylorientin, orientin, vitexin, hyperin. These results suggested the extracts of T. chinensis Bunge could be potentially used as a promising source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents for using in the food or drug industries.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Experimental and theoretical study of bisphenol A migration from
           polycarbonate into regulated EU food simulant
    • Abstract: Abstract The specific migration of [2,2-bis(4 hydroxyphenyl) propane] from polycarbonate films into ethanol 50 % food simulant was studied. A phenomenological model based on a resistances-in-series system was resolved through the regula falsi algorithm. The diffusion–convection model was not able to describe the BPA concentration change as a function of time after 40 h, since an equilibrium condition with a plateau is not achieved. BPA generation due to PC hydrolysis produces an increase in BPA concentration. The continuous generation of BPA can be described by a generation–diffusion–convection model, where BPA generation obeys to a pseudo-zero-order reaction.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Biotechnological activities from yeasts isolated from olive oil mills
    • Abstract: Abstract The yeast biota associated to three eastern Spain oil mills has been evaluated. Each environment has associated a characteristic number and variability of yeasts. The D1/D2 rDNA sequencing protocol has been proved to be a useful method to identify 216 yeasts from oleic environments, showing us Candida (several species), Saccharomyces paradoxus, Citeromyces matritensis and Cryptococcus sp. as the most representative genera. Moreover, a further screening of biochemical activities has provided us with a collection of isolates able to metabolize different substrates. In particular, protease, β-glucosidase, pectinase, polygalacturonase, xylanase, lipase, esterase and catalase activities were investigated. The majority of the strains showed moderate or high β-glucosidase, lipase and pectinase activities, while protease and polygalacturonase activities are less frequent. In a second step, nutritional competition assays were carried out to investigate the antagonic effect of yeasts associated to olive oil mills with Aspergillus fungi. Yeasts can be an effective biocontrol tool as they can colonize olives and compete for space and nutrients with pathogenic fungi, avoiding the use of chemical fungicides.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Capsaicinoids, flavonoids, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity and color
           attributes in 23 native Peruvian chili peppers ( Capsicum spp.) grown in
           three different locations
    • Abstract: Abstract Twenty-three Peruvian chili pepper accessions, belonging to the four domesticated species Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum frutescens, were grown under different meteorological conditions and agricultural practices in three Peruvian locations (Chiclayo, Piura and Pucallpa). Results are reported for powdered oven-dried bulk samples of each accession and each location by important quality attributes (capsaicinoids, flavonoids, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, total polyphenols, extractable color (ASTA 20.1) and surface color). Multivariate data evaluation by principle component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis did not show any underlying structure. Moreover, a high influence of the environment on the analyzed traits could be demonstrated by analysis of variance. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.001) between the accessions and all locations were observed for all traits. Besides, significant interaction between accessions and locations indicated that the accessions responded differently to changes of the locations. The calculation of an environmental impact factor allowed differing between chili peppers provided consistent phytochemical levels widely independent of the location or those that provided exceptional high levels for a specific trait at one of the locations.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Genetic system for traceability of goatfishes by FINS methodology and
           authentication of mullets ( Mullus barbatus and Mullus surmuletus ) by
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present study, two methods for the identification of goatfishes using the cytochrome b gene fragment were developed. The first method is based on the phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences (forensically informative nucleotide sequencing), which allows the unequivocal identification of all goatfish species included in this study, while the second one is based on TaqMan probe RT-PCR technology for the authentication of Mullus barbatus and Mullus surmuletus. The methods were checked for the manufacturing process of food, reflecting that it had no influence on the identification of goatfishes. Both techniques can be applied depending on the laboratory equipment and allow the detection of fraudulent or unintentional mislabeling of these species. These tools are useful to clarify questions related to the correct labeling of commercial products and to verify the correct traceability in commercial trade and for fisheries control.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Preparation of (3R, 3′R)-astaxanthin monoester and (3R,
           3′R)-astaxanthin from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana )
    • Abstract: Abstract A special method is described for the preparation of (3R, 3′R)-astaxanthin monoester (AM) and (3R, 3′R)-astaxanthin from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana). Purified AM was obtained on a large scale from crude extract extracted from Antarctic krill in 38.14 % yield by silica gel column chromatography. After the AM was saponified with methanolic KOH (0.10 mol L−1) and separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography, pure astaxanthin was obtained. There was only one optical (3R, 3′R)-isomer of the esterification of astaxanthin with (-)-camphanic acid chloride detected by high-performance liquid chromatography compared with astaxanthin standard. It was further proved that the AM consists of only one optical (3R, 3′R)-isomer. Twelve types of fatty acids in the AM from Antarctic krill were found by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids are the major fatty acids. It is the first time to prepare (3R, 3′R)-AM and (3R, 3′R)-astaxanthin from Antarctic krill. The purified (3R, 3′R)-AM and (3R, 3′R)-astaxanthin can be used as a standard for further related study.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Bioprocess of robusta cherry coffee with polyphenol oxidase and quality
    • Abstract: Abstract Flavor plays an important role in consumer satisfaction and influences further consumption of foods. Robusta coffee is rich in caffeine and phenolics and is undesirable for coffee connoisseurs compared to arabica coffee. The exogenous polyphenol oxidase (4,000 U/ml) was extracted from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus florida otherwise referred as the oyster mushroom. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed with DEAE-cellulose with a recovery yield of 51.2 %. It appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE gel with a molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa. The PPO with specific activity of 125 U/mg proteins was active at pH 5–7 and 30–60 °C temperature. The robusta cherry coffee was treated with PPO at different intervals of time and the changes induced were evaluated. Insignificant changes were observed with respect to the visual properties of the treated beans. However, the PPO-induced biochemical reactions that resulted in the reduction of bitterness of robusta cherry coffee and also decline in caffeine and chlorogenic compositions were compared to untreated. The nonvolatile components such as phenolics of the treated samples were found to have reduced from 6.50 to 4.05 % (30 min) and 3.96 % (60 min) in the treated samples leading to elevated sensory attributes with overall rating of 8–8.5 in hedonic scale. This is the first implication of PPO on robusta cherry coffee to enhance the quality profile and are viable compared with physical and chemical methods.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Effects of saccharide on the structure and antigenicity of
           β-conglycinin in soybean protein isolate by glycation
    • Abstract: Abstract Soybean is a high-quality plant protein resource and also a major food allergen. Glycation is widely used to modify protein allergens. In the current report, the influences of different saccharides on soybean protein structure and antigenicity through glycation were investigated. Soybean protein isolate (SPI) and saccharides (glucose, galactose, maltose, lactose, and dextran), at 1:1 weight ratio, were dry-heated at 60 °C and 79 % relative humidity for different times. The content of free amino group in glycated products was decreased by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid method. In addition, high-molecular aggregates were generated in the glycated SPI, indicating that glycation reaction occurred in SPI–saccharide conjugates. Moreover, the structure of SPI in conjugates changed with exposure to aromatic side chains. Of all the SPI–saccharide conjugates, with time increased from 0 to 72 h, the antigenicity inhibition rate of β-conglycinin in SPI–glucose complexes declined from 83.55 (0 h) to 29.80 % (48 h), suggesting that introducing saccharides in SPI is an effective method to reduce the antigenicity of β-conglycinin.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Purification and identification of α 2–3 linked
           sialoglycoprotein and α 2–6 linked sialoglycoprotein in edible
           bird’s nest
    • Abstract: Abstract The distribution of α 2–3 and α 2–6 linked sialoglycoproteins in edible bird’s nest (EBN) was analyzed by Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA) and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) lectin blotting. Q Sepharose Fast Flow, Superdex 75 and Sephadex G-25 columns were combined to enrich sialoglycoproteins from EBN extraction. For purification and identification of α 2–3 linked sialoglycoprotein and α 2–6 linked sialoglycoprotein, MAA-Sepharose-4B, SNA-Sepharose-4B lectin affinity chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) tandem mass spectrometry (MS) were employed successively. The contents of protein, carbohydrate and sialic acid of EBN extraction were 65.43, 20.97 and 10.47 %, respectively; EBN extraction contained high-abundance glycoproteins with the molecular weights of 128 kDa (19.1 %), 106 kDa (18.5 %) and 43 kDa (29.4 %); the 43 kDa glycoproteins contained terminal α 2–3 and α 2–6 sialic acid linkage were successively enriched by three chromatography columns; α 2–3 linked sialoglycoprotein and α 2–6 linked sialoglycoprotein were further purified by affinity chromatography eluted with 0.3 and 0.5 M lactose, respectively. In addition, MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis showed that α 2–3 linked sialoglycoprotein was an acidic mammalian chitinase-like protein, and α 2–6 linked sialoglycoprotein was an acidic mammalian chitinase. This method is proved to be a simple and effective approach to purify sialoglycoproteins from high-abundance glycoproteins in EBN.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Characterization of novel insect associated peptidases for hydrolysis of
           food proteins
    • Abstract: Abstract Insects are able to feed on a broad spectrum of nutritional sources, due to a variable enzymatic system which can be endogenic or provided by associated microorganisms. This enzymatic system may be employed for the hydrolysis of industrial relevant proteins. Several grain pests were screened for their ability to hydrolyze storage proteins from wheat and rice as well as casein. Zymograms identified hydrolytic activities of the lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica against gluten and rice protein. Besides, R. dominica showed the highest prolyl-specific peptidase activity among all tested insects. Enzyme extracts of R. dominica were purified via anion exchange chromatography using a fast protein liquid chromatography system. Two of the purified peptidase fractions were able to hydrolyze peptides from wheat and barley relevant for celiac disease showing a proline preferential cleaving pattern.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Impacts of different cooking and storage methods on the retention and in
           vitro bioaccessibility of l -carnitine in veal muscle ( M. longissimus
           dorsi )
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, effects of different cooking and storage methods on free carnitine (l-carnitine) content, in vitro l-carnitine bioaccessibility, and antioxidant capacity of veal longissimus muscle were examined. Four different cooking methods (boiling, frying, baking, and grilling) and six different storage methods (modified atmosphere, spraying antioxidants, ascorbic acid, l-carnitine solutions, freezing, and storage of samples at +4 °C (by covering with stretch film and in resealable commercial refrigerator bags) were applied to veal longissimus muscle. The l-carnitine content of muscle was decreased in all cooking and storage methods significantly (p < 0.05). In vitro bioaccessibility of l-carnitine in cooked samples was in the range of 34.82 ± 17.98–43.39 ± 11.15 %. The best performance in protection of antioxidant capacities of samples was achieved by spraying ascorbic acid onto the surface of the veal muscle (p < 0.05).
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • A novel antibacterial tripeptide from Chinese leek seeds
    • Abstract: Abstract Antibacterial peptides have been one of the most prospects as a new member of antibiotics in food and/or medicine industry. In this thesis, a novel antibacterial peptide, designated as CLP-1, was purified from Chinese leek seeds by a gel filtration chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. CLP-1 was composed of three amino acids, and the sequence was identified as Ser-Asn-Ala (SNA) using LC–MS/MS, which was a novel short antibacterial peptide from Chinese leek seeds. SNA showed moderate antibacterial activity against the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and the minimal inhibition concentration values of SNA against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, and Bacillus subtilis were 4.31, 2.24, 4.31, and 2.24 mM, respectively. Moreover, SNA exerted slighter hemolytic activity at concentration of 3.44 mM.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Ozone fumigation increases the abundance of nutrients in Brassica
           vegetables: broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Chinese cabbage
           ( Brassica pekinensis )
    • Abstract: Abstract B rassicaceae vegetables, among them broccoli and Chinese cabbage, are well recognized due to the nutritional properties. Four-week-old Chinese cabbage and broccoli seedlings were fumigated with O3 for 3 days before being transplanted into the field. The effect of O3 treatment was determined after reaching marketable quality (ca. 10 weeks). The inflorescences of O3-treated broccoli were enriched in vitamin E (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol), whereas Chinese cabbage heads had an increased content of anthocyanins and β-carotene. Ozone treatment did not significantly affect the productivity of both examined vegetables.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Determination of plasticizer residues in tea by solid phase
           extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
    • Abstract: Abstract Human exposure to plasticizers is widespread because these compounds are commonly found in the environment. Nevertheless, studies on human dietary exposure to plasticizers are limited. This research deals with the evaluation of 27 plasticizer residues in tea infusion samples brewed with and without bag. Levels were determined by solid phase extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPE–GC–MS). Only a small number of plasticizer were detected: di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and DEP were found in all analyzed samples, while di-methyl phthalate (DMP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and DiNP in 80, 70 and 10 % of them. Flavored teas showed higher DMP, DEHA and DEHP residues, probably due to the use of essential oils where plasticizers are accumulated. In addition, decaffeinated black tea showed DBP levels 18 times higher compared with the average of the other samples. The plasticizer contents in samples infused with bag was almost always higher than those infused without bag. The evaluation of contribution of infusion teas to phthalate exposure showed that these do not constitute a risk for the consumers.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Solid-state fermentation of Ginkgo biloba L. residue for optimal
           production of cellulase, protease and the simultaneous detoxification of
           Ginkgo biloba L. residue using Candida tropicalis and Aspergillus oryzae
    • Abstract: Abstract Ginkgo biloba L. residue (GBLR) is a by-product generated from flavonoids extraction of G. biloba L. Although it contains a high amount of nutritive components, it has toxic compound of ginkgolic acids which restricts its application in the food or animal feed industries. Also, the disposal of huge quantity of GBLR is a major environmental problem in the future. This study investigated the potential of a utilization of GBLR as substrate for cellulase and protease productions by solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Candida tropicalis and Aspergillus oryzae. The study simultaneously is focused on the biodetoxification of toxins in GBLR. The optimum SSF conditions for enzyme production were evaluated as, supplementation with 2 % maltose and peptone, inoculation with 1 × 107 fungi per 5 g residues, 7.0 pH, 40 % moisture content, 25 °C incubation temperature, and 4 days incubation time. Under these conditions, cellulase and protease activities reached up to 1,168.26 and 3,145.68 U/g, respectively. The main toxic compound ginkgolic acid content in the GBLR was reduced from 14.8 to 1.5 mg/g after SSF. The cytotoxicity of the fermented GBLR evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium testing on abelson murine leukemia virus-induced tumor cells showed almost 100 % of cellular viability after 4 days of fermentation. Our results indicate that SSF of GBLR could produce industrial enzymes and the detoxified fermented GBLR could be potentially applied to animal feed.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Influence of glycation extent on the physicochemical and gelling
           properties of soybean β-conglycinin
    • Abstract: Abstract To investigate the effect of glycation extent on the physicochemical and gelling properties of β-conglycinin (7S), glycation with different molecular weight of sugars (glucose, maltose and 10 kDa dextran) was conducted in solid state (75 % relative humidity, pH 7.0, at 60 °C for 5 days). Maillard reaction (MR) evolution was indirectly traced by monitoring browning index, degree of grafting and sugar content. The physicochemical properties were characterized by solubility, surface hydrophobicity (H 0) and differential scanning calorimetry. The gelling properties were assessed by the determination of the gel particles, gel solubility, scanning electron microscopy and rheological measurement. Results revealed a higher reactivity of glucose than those of maltose and dextran. Approximately, 1.27 mol of glucose, 0.85 mol of maltose and 0.31 mol of dextran were conjugated to per mol of conglycinin. Glycation reduced H 0, which was in agreement with the change of solubility, and a higher T d with a lower ΔH suggested a relatively aggregated state of 7S during MR especially with glucose, further constituting a gel composed of large gel particles. However, gel network of glycated 7S with dextran was exhibited much denser with a large proportion of small particles and a higher value of elastic modulus was obtained. Solubility profiles of gels in different solvents demonstrated that other types of covalent bonds were formed in gels of 7S after glycation.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Recent advances in the production of partially substituted wheat and
           wheatless bread
    • Abstract: Abstract Bread is a universally accepted food for all irrespective of race, age, gender, religion or geographical location. Bread is produced from wheat, which is a temperate crop; hence, tropical nations depend on imports of wheat to support bread making. The continued consumption of bread has led to the drain of foreign exchange of many developing countries and has exacerbated celiac diseases in susceptible individuals even in developed countries. In many wheat-importing countries, composite flour is being promoted, while developed countries are researching on alternatives to wheat bread. This paper reviews recent advances in the production of partially substituted wheat, gluten-free and wheatless bread. The production of wheatless and gluten-free bread is quite challenging. The study found that substituted wheat flour beyond 20 % and wheatless bread will require the use of bread improvers such as enzymes, sourdough, hydrocolloids, chemicals and emulsifiers. In addition, modified starch, flours from other sources such as tubers, cereals, pseudo-cereals, legumes and oil seeds have been used as alternatives for bread making.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Study on the gel properties and secondary structure of soybean protein
           isolate/egg white composite gels
    • Abstract: Abstract The gel properties and secondary structures of soybean protein isolate/egg white composite gels with different blend ratios and protein concentrations were investigated in this paper. The hardness, springiness and water-holding capacity of composite gels were all increased with the increase in the protein concentrations. When total protein concentration was above 0.03 g mL−1, the soybean protein isolate/egg white proteins blended in ratio of 1:1 showed higher enhancement in springiness and water-holding capacity. The hardness and storage modulus of gels increased gradually with the increase in egg white in the composite gels. The content of α-helical structures of the gels were increased firstly and then decreased, whereas the content of β-sheet was increased gradually with the increase in egg white ratio. The tendencies of α-helical and β-sheet were in accordance with springiness and hardness of gels, respectively. The microstructure investigations showed that gels formed an even structure with less large particles at the soybean protein isolate/egg white ratio of 1:1, which was related to the higher springiness and water-holding capacity. The relationship between changes in the protein structure and the texture properties could be used to design product systems.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Rapid determination of nitrosamines in sausage and salami using
           microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid–liquid
           microextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, an efficient, sensitive, and rapid method based on microwave-assisted extraction coupled with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for determination and quantification of seven nitrosamines (NAs) in heated meat products (sausage and salami) was developed. At extraction stage, nitrosamines were extracted from sausage and salami samples with 10 mL of a hydrolyzing solvent using microwave at 500 MHz for 1.5 min. Effective parameters on DLLME, such as volumes of extraction and disperser solvents, pH, and salt addition, were optimized using response surface methodology based on central composite design. This technique provided acceptable repeatability in the range of 3.5–5.4 % for spiked samples. The recoveries of NAs were in the range 83.9–109.4 %. Limits of detection and limits of quantification for NAs in the real samples were within the ranges of 0.11–0.48 and 0.41–1.45 ng g−1, respectively. Good linear ranges were obtained for seven NAs in the range of 0.1–200 ng mL−1, with the coefficient (R 2) higher than 0.99. The merit figures, compared with other methods, showed that new proposed method is an accurate, precise, and reliable sample pretreatment method that substantially reduces sample matrix interference and gives very good enrichment factors (126–152).
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
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