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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2334 journals)

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Showing 1201 - 1400 of 2334 Journals sorted alphabetically
J. of Community Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.699, h-index: 8)
J. of Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.676, h-index: 39)
J. of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.98, h-index: 63)
J. of Comparative Physiology B : Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.981, h-index: 50)
J. of Compassionate Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Computational Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 16)
J. of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 17)
J. of Computational Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.419, h-index: 54)
J. of Computer and Systems Sciences Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.252, h-index: 11)
J. of Computer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.342, h-index: 26)
J. of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
J. of Computer-Aided Molecular Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 70)
J. of Computers in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Computing in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 16)
J. of Consumer Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, h-index: 23)
J. of Contemporary Mathematical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.115, h-index: 4)
J. of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 4)
J. of Contemporary Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 16)
J. of Control Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 13)
J. of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 8)
J. of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Cross-Cultural Gerontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.412, h-index: 23)
J. of Cryptographic Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 6)
J. of Cryptology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.598, h-index: 49)
J. of Cultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.445, h-index: 24)
J. of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 5)
J. of Derivatives & Hedge Funds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 3)
J. of Developmental and Physical Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 23)
J. of Digital Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 29)
J. of Direct Data and Digital Marketing Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 3)
J. of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.556, h-index: 22)
J. of Dynamics and Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.33, h-index: 29)
J. of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 11)
J. of Earth System Science     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 27)
J. of East Asian Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 15)
J. of Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, h-index: 3)
J. of Economic Growth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 5.251, h-index: 54)
J. of Economic Interaction and Coordination     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.231, h-index: 11)
J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.463, h-index: 20)
J. of Economics and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 15)
J. of Educational Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, h-index: 14)
J. of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 38)
J. of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.566, h-index: 49)
J. of Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.752, h-index: 68)
J. of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 24)
J. of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.127, h-index: 7)
J. of Elementary Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
J. of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.707, h-index: 32)
J. of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 8)
J. of Engineering Research     Open Access  
J. of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 7)
J. of Environmental Studies and Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
J. of Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.484, h-index: 21)
J. of Evolution Equations     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.312, h-index: 22)
J. of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 9)
J. of Evolutionary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
J. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.565, h-index: 34)
J. of Experimental Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.587, h-index: 22)
J. of Failure Analysis and Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 12)
J. of Family and Economic Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 27)
J. of Family Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 45)
J. of Financial Services Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
J. of Financial Services Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.196, h-index: 29)
J. of Fixed Point Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.467, h-index: 10)
J. of Fluorescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 47)
J. of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 1)
J. of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.839, h-index: 21)
J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.578, h-index: 22)
J. of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 10)
J. of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 36)
J. of Friction and Wear     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
J. of Fusion Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 16)
J. of Gambling Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 50)
J. of Gastroenterology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.724, h-index: 73)
J. of Gastrointestinal Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 36)
J. of Gastrointestinal Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.632, h-index: 87)
J. of General Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.379, h-index: 115)
J. of General Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.357, h-index: 17)
J. of Genetic Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 32)
J. of Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.42, h-index: 24)
J. of Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.049, h-index: 48)
J. of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 14)
J. of Geographical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.839, h-index: 32)
J. of Geometric Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.496, h-index: 23)
J. of Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.349, h-index: 13)
J. of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.919, h-index: 51)
J. of Global Policy and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
J. of Grid Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.727, h-index: 32)
J. of Hand and Microsurgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.785, h-index: 30)
J. of Hematopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 11)
J. of Heuristics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 43)
J. of High Energy Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.027, h-index: 139)
J. of Homotopy and Related Structures     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 1)
J. of Housing and the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 21)
J. of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.317, h-index: 15)
J. of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 7)
J. of Immigrant and Minority Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.573, h-index: 29)
J. of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 41)
J. of Indian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, h-index: 7)
J. of Indian Prosthodontic Society     Open Access   (SJR: 0.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.064, h-index: 68)
J. of Industry, Competition and Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 11)
J. of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.65, h-index: 39)
J. of Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.659, h-index: 43)
J. of Information Technology Teaching Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.902, h-index: 31)
J. of Inherited Metabolic Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 66)
J. of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.316, h-index: 27)
J. of Insect Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.537, h-index: 36)
J. of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.775, h-index: 36)
J. of Intelligent and Robotic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 36)
J. of Intelligent Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 39)
J. of Intelligent Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 44)
J. of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.073, h-index: 38)
J. of Intl. Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 4.835, h-index: 108)
J. of Intl. Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 16)
J. of Intl. Migration and Integration / Revue de l integration et de la migration internationale     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 9)
J. of Intl. Relations and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 15)
J. of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.228, h-index: 21)
J. of Logic, Language and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 20)
J. of Low Temperature Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 48)
J. of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 4)
J. of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.845, h-index: 32)
J. of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 73)
J. of Management and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 26)
J. of Management Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.134, h-index: 4)
J. of Marine Science and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 8)
J. of Marine Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.317, h-index: 22)
J. of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 5)
J. of Market-Focused Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Marketing Analytics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Material Cycles and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.392, h-index: 16)
J. of Materials Engineering and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 31)
J. of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 101)
J. of Materials Science : Materials in Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.697, h-index: 48)
J. of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 77)
J. of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.183, h-index: 61)
J. of Mathematical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.407, h-index: 41)
J. of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.709, h-index: 17)
J. of Mathematical Imaging and Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.25, h-index: 44)
J. of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 19)
J. of Mathematical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.32, h-index: 20)
J. of Mathematics Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.042, h-index: 14)
J. of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Mechanical Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 20)
J. of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.434, h-index: 13)
J. of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 13)
J. of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 32)
J. of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 21)
J. of Medical Ultrasonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 11)
J. of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.971, h-index: 75)
J. of Micro-Bio Robotics     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 35)
J. of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 11)
J. of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.07, h-index: 99)
J. of Molecular Histology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 43)
J. of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.452, h-index: 100)
J. of Molecular Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.55, h-index: 42)
J. of Molecular Neuroscience     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.242, h-index: 61)
J. of Mountain Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 11)
J. of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.052, h-index: 51)
J. of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 66)
J. of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.586, h-index: 22)
J. of Near-Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 48)
J. of Network and Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.331, h-index: 23)
J. of Neural Transmission     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.302, h-index: 77)
J. of Neuro-Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.342, h-index: 80)
J. of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.239, h-index: 36)
J. of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.406, h-index: 91)
J. of NeuroVirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.367, h-index: 63)
J. of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.452, h-index: 22)
J. of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.772, h-index: 36)
J. of Nonverbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 38)
J. of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.456, h-index: 60)
J. of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.886, h-index: 50)
J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 3)
J. of Occupational Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.166, h-index: 43)
J. of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Ocean University of China (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.144, h-index: 8)
J. of Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.031, h-index: 46)
J. of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.228, h-index: 8)
J. of Optical and Fiber Communications Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.831, h-index: 2)
J. of Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Optimization Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.928, h-index: 55)
J. of Ornithology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
J. of Orofacial Orthopedics / Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.667, h-index: 27)
J. of Orthopaedic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 42)
J. of Paleolimnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 58)
J. of Parasitic Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 5)
J. of Pediatric Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 21)
J. of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Pharmaceutical Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.617, h-index: 14)
J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 2)
J. of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.567, h-index: 41)
J. of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 31)
J. of Philosophical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.94, h-index: 20)

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Journal Cover European Food Research and Technology
  [SJR: 0.803]   [H-I: 56]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2334 journals]
  • Food traceability using the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopic ratio mass spectrometry
    • Authors: C. Baffi; P. R. Trincherini
      Pages: 1411 - 1439
      Abstract: Abstract Today, food traceability needs to develop suitable “robust” analytical methods, in terms of the precision and of the reliability of results, which can support modern legislative tools, aimed at guaranteeing food authenticity and origin and trying to avoid possible frauds. This review paper highlights the most recent results obtained with the use of the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratio technique, when applied to the traceability of the origin of different foods for human consumption, such as vegetables, beverages, dairy products, and meat and fish products. The instrumental techniques, with the relative methodologies and the quality of the final results, will be examined and commented.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2712-2
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Effect of dietary rapeseed oil and humus-containing mineral preparation on
           cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation products content in pork
    • Authors: Anna Marietta Salejda; Grazyna Krasnowska
      Pages: 1441 - 1446
      Abstract: Abstract Two groups of finishing borrows (final crossbreeds of (Polish Landrace(maternal) × Large White Breed) × Pietrain(paternal)) were fed a commercial feed (control group CG) enriched with either rapeseed oil or humus-containing mineral preparation (experimental group EG). Samples of tissue fat extracted from Semimembranous muscle contained an average of 12.95 mg/g cholesterol (CG) and 13.14 mg/g (EG). Used feed supplementation had significant effect on the inhibition of cholesterol oxidation process in pork. Sum of cholesterol oxidation products was lower in raw material of pigs fed enriched diet than in those fed only commercial diet. Additionally, cholesterol contained in raw material of finishers fed experimental diet was less susceptible to oxidation during storage. Results showed that samples of EG contain significantly (p ≤ 0.05) less of such compounds as: 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 5,6α-epoxycholesterol, 5,6β-epoxycholesterol, 20α-hydroxycholesterol and cholestantriol in comparison with the control group. Results highlight the potential of using rapeseed oil and humus-containing mineral preparation to prevent cholesterol oxidation of pork.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2644-x
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Study of phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of myrtle leaves
           and fruits as a function of maturation
    • Authors: Louiza Babou; Lila Hadidi; Clara Grosso; Farid Zaidi; Patrícia Valentão; Paula B. Andrade
      Pages: 1447 - 1457
      Abstract: Abstract This is the first study about the influence of the maturation stage and of extraction processes on the phenolic content, radical scavenging properties and inhibition of cholinesterases by leaves and fruits (whole fruit, seeds and pericarp) of Myrtus communis. Ten phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC–DAD in six different plant materials, namely gallic acid, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, myricetin, ellagic acid, quercetin and kaempferol. All extracts exhibited a dose-dependent effect against DPPH, superoxide anion (O 2 ●− ) and nitric oxide (●NO) radicals. Leaves collected in September and December, ripe berries harvested in December and seeds from ripe berries were the most active ones, displaying IC50 values between 3.89 and 19.02, 24.19 and 34.69 and 13.69 and 76.01 μg/mL against DPPH, O 2 ●− and ●NO, respectively. All plant parts were more active than ascorbic acid as radical scavengers against O 2 ●− (IC50 = 372.85 μg/mL) and ●NO (IC50 = 248.25 μg/mL). Ripe berries and pericarps were the only parts containing anthocyanins, had the lowest amount of phenolic compounds (6.00–15.44 g/kg of dry extract) and were the least active ones. PCA analysis was performed to select the extracts with strong antiradical activity and possessing the highest amount of phenolic compounds (c.a. 50 g/kg of dry extract), to be further tested against cholinesterases; however, the selected seed extracts displayed weak inhibitory activity. This study demonstrates that the development stage of M. communis is a key factor to obtain and optimize a desired composition of phenolic antioxidants to be applied, for instance, as additives for the development of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2645-9
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Apple peel flavonoids as natural antioxidants for vegetable juice
           applications
    • Authors: Laura Massini; Daniel Rico; Ana Belen Martin-Diana; Catherine Barry-Ryan
      Pages: 1459 - 1469
      Abstract: Abstract Commercial carrot and tomato juices (final concentration: 90 % juice, v/v) were added with a phenolic extract from apple peels consisting mostly of flavan-3-ols (>50 %), flavonol glycosides and dihydrochalcones in order to enhance their antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant contribution of the added extract to the capacity of the hydrophilic and lipophilic components of the juices was measured as ascorbic acid equivalents with ferric reducing–antioxidant power and radical scavenging capacity against DPPH˙ assays, and as inhibition against lipid peroxidation using an emulsified lipid in an oven test. Results showed that the addition of apple peel flavonoids at concentrations equal to or above 160 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/L as total phenolics in the juices led to significantly higher (p < 0.05) radical scavenging capacity and to an increased protection against lipid peroxidation compared to control. The oxidative index of the model emulsified lipid with added enriched juices (20 mg/L as GAE) was lower than the control and comparable to a mixture of synthetic antioxidants (25 μM). The antioxidant capacity of the enriched juices was mostly attributed to their hydrophilic components, particularly flavonoids with medium-to-high polarity such as catechins, dimers of (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin and quercetin glycosides. Nevertheless, it was suggested that oligomeric procyanidins with medium-to-low polarity could also contribute to the total antioxidant capacity as lipophilic components.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2646-8
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content of seven insect species
           assessed by several extraction systems
    • Authors: Rebeca Pilar Ramos-Bueno; María José González-Fernández; María José Sánchez-Muros-Lozano; Fernando García-Barroso; José Luis Guil-Guerrero
      Pages: 1471 - 1477
      Abstract: Abstract Species from Diptera (Hermetia illucens and Lucilia sericata), Coleoptera (Tenebrio molitor and Zophoba morio) and Orthoptera (Locusta migratoria, Acheta domestica and Anacridium aegyptium) were analyzed for fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content. The following solvent systems were tested for extraction: direct methylation (CH3OH/CH3COCl/hexane); n-hexane; acetone; ethanol/water; hexane/ethanol; and direct saponification (KOH and ethanol). Direct methylation was performed as control of extraction yields and to evaluate the possible use of these fats as biodiesel. Insect lipids were extracted by ethanol in a similar extent as did other tested organic solvents, while direct methylation of the biomass provided the highest yields. L. sericata and Z. morio contained high percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids; A. aegyptium and L. migratoria were two polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched species, while H. illucens and Z. morio showed high proportions of medium-chain fatty acids. All extracted fats might be used in the alimentary industry, as evidenced by their low cholesterol content, as well as for biodiesel obtainment, as suggested by computed saponification, iodine and cetane values. Samples of H. illucens and L. migratoria showed exceptional cetane numbers (64.8 and 60.7, respectively), and all tested species except A. aegyptium exhibited an exceptional fatty acid profile for biodiesel production.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2647-7
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Identification and quantification of glucosinolates in Korean leaf mustard
           germplasm ( Brassica juncea var. integrifolia ) by liquid
           chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Heon Woong Kim; Ho Cheol Ko; Hyung Jin Baek; Soo Muk Cho; Hwan Hee Jang; Young Min Lee; Jung Bong Kim
      Pages: 1479 - 1484
      Abstract: Abstract In the present investigation, glucosinolate content was identified and quantified in 210 accessions of Korean leaf mustard (Brassica juncea var. integrifolia) by a liquid chromatography (LC) with electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled with a positive-mode ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS/MS). Eleven individual GSLs including two new compounds were identified in the accessions using desulfo-glucosinolates (DS-GSLs) LC–MS library, and they were elucidated by interpreting the fragmentation data ([M + H-glucose]+) obtained. The newly identified GSLs contained aliphatic and hydroxyl functional group in their back bone were named as 1-ethyl-2-hydroxyethyl DS-GSLs (glucosisautricin) or 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl DS-GSLs (glucoconringiin) and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl DS-GSLs, respectively. Among all tested accessions, the total DS-GSLs content was found to be varied between 5.3 and 23.2 mg/g dry weight (DW) with an average of 13.0 mg/g DW in the germplasm. Each individual DS-GSLs component was found in decreasing order of sinigrin (41.7 %) >glucoiberverin (21.7 %) >gluconasturtiin (12.6 %) >glucobarbarin (10.0 %) >glucoiberin (5.1 %) >glucocheirolin (3.6 %) >glucobrassicanapin (2.6 %) >gluconapin (2.1 %), and >glucobrassicin (0.6 %). Interestingly, sinigrin and gluconasturtiin were present in higher content, and progoitrin was not detected significantly in the germplasm of Korean leaf mustard. In particular, accession K046197 (purple) was found to show highest total DS-GSL content (23.2 mg/g DW).
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2648-6
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Effects of glutenin in wheat gluten on retrogradation of wheat starch
    • Authors: Junjie Guo; Xijun Lian; Haiqi Kang; Kai Gao; Lin Li
      Pages: 1485 - 1494
      Abstract: Abstract Retrogradation is the process of starch recrystallization, and it profoundly affects the quality, acceptability and shelf-life of starch-containing foods. The influence of glutelin on the wheat starch retrogradation was studied in this paper. Glutenin was isolated from wheat flour, and its effect on retrogradation of wheat starch, amylose and amylopectin was investigated with UV–Vis (starch-iodine), IR and 13C NMR. The results showed that glutenin probably interacted with amylose during gelation and retrogradation of starch. The results of IR showed that the addition of glutenin to wheat starch reduced the number of hydrogen bonds formed between amyloses during retrogradation. The 13C NMR results suggested that tyrosine (Tyr) of glutenin might combine with amylose at the first carbon atom when they were mixed homogeneously and such combination was strengthened during retrogradation. Glutenin and amylose formed double helix with each other completely and hindered amylose–amylose short-term retrogradation of wheat starch, and glutenin would no longer inhibit the retrogradation of starch when all of the Tyr formed hydrogen bond with amylose. These results suggest that glutenin could play a powerful role in retarding the retrogradation of amylose, which is very important for the food industry.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2649-5
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Antibacterial effect of kaempferol and (−)-epicatechin on
           Helicobacter pylori
    • Authors: Ricardo A. Escandón; Miguel del Campo; Remigio López-Solis; Elías Obreque-Slier; Héctor Toledo
      Pages: 1495 - 1502
      Abstract: Abstract Phenolic compounds are generated by the secondary metabolism of plants and have been associated with antibacterial properties. Among bacteria affecting human health, Helicobacter pylori has been associated with gastric cancer. There is limited information about the effect of individual or grouped phenolics on H. pylori growth. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of phenolics being part of highly complex food or beverage matrices. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial effect of kaempferol and (−)-epicatechin, both individually and combined, on H. pylori in liquid and solid cultures and in co-cultures with AGS human gastric carcinoma cells. Bacterial viability tests were performed in liquid cultures with subsequent CFU/mL counting and in solid cultures by measuring inhibition haloes. Kinetic curves of bacterial growth inhibition in the presence of those phenolics, and the protective effect of (−)-epicatechin on AGS cells against H. pylori infection were characterized. (−)-Epicatechin and kaempferol displayed antibacterial activities, being (−)-epicatechin more effective than kaempferol. After the combined application of both phenols, a synergistic effect of kaempferol plus low but not high doses of (−)-epicatechin was observed. Finally, (−)-epicatechin yielded protection to AGS cells against H. pylori infection. (−)-Epicatechin and kaempferol, both individually and combined, have antibacterial properties and protective effect on H. pylori infection.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2650-z
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Influence of α-amylase and xylanase on the chemical, physical and
           volatile compound properties of wheat bread supplemented with wholegrain
           barley flour
    • Authors: N. O’Shea; K. N. Kilcawley; E. Gallagher
      Pages: 1503 - 1514
      Abstract: Abstract The Irish barley variety “Sanette” was incorporated at 30 % inclusion levels into a wheat bread formulation. Baking enzymes were used to improve the baking characteristics of the final breads. The enzymes studied were fungal α-amylase, xylanase and a combination of the two enzymes. Volume, cell structure, crumb texture, compositional analysis and volatile compounds of the baked breads were evaluated. Experiments were replicated thrice, and the data were analysed using a one-way ANOVA for significant differences less than p < 0.05. Baking results illustrated that using xylanase on its own and in combination with fungal α-amylase resulted in breads with a larger loaf volume (3.16 and 3.05 mL/g) in comparison with the control (2.69 mL/g, p < 0.006). Crumb softness increased following the addition of the α-amylase and xylanase combination (6.94 N) compared to the control (11.17 N, p < 0.001). The use of barley flour in the breads increased the concentration of isoamyl alcohol from the alcohol group and decreased the concentration of compounds from the pyrazine and sulphur groups. Using the enzyme combination resulted in volatile compounds similar to the 30 % wholegrain wheat bread, e.g. 2-methyl butanal and 2,3-butanedione. The incorporation of barley into a wheat bread formulation on a 30 % replacement basis in combination with the two enzymes (α-amylase and xylanase) increased the total amount of fibre present in the bread (6.3 %) compared to the 30 % wholegrain wheat bread (4.8 %).
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2651-y
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Simultaneous determination of selected anti-nutritional components in
           Asiatic plants using ion chromatography
    • Authors: A. Filipiak-Szok; M. Kurzawa; E. Szłyk
      Pages: 1515 - 1521
      Abstract: Abstract Anti-nutritional components such as: oxalates, thiocyanates and phytic acid were determined in 20 plants samples originated from Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda (e.g., Andrographis paniculata, Angelica sinensis, Emblica officinalis, Withania somnifera, Polygonum multiflorum, Bacopa monnieri, Pueraria lobata, Cola accuminata, Curcuma longa, Ocimum sanctum, Mucuna pruriens, Garcinia cambogia, Panax ginseng, Bupleurum sinensis, Salviae miltiorrhizae, Schisandra sinensis, Terminalia arjuna). Extraction and analysis procedures for these anti-nutritional components determination were modified and optimized. Water-soluble oxalates, thiocyanates and phytic acid were simultaneously determined by new procedure with ion chromatography method, resulting in analyzed samples: 0.38–145.39 mg 100 g−1 dry mass (d.m.) for oxalates, 0.94–34.34 mg 100 g−1 d.m. for thiocyanates, whereas 0.42–16.13 mg 100 g−1 d.m. for phytic acid. The highest of the total content of anti-nutritional components was observed for the O. sanctum, but the lowest for C. longa. Moreover, oxalates and phytic acid were determined by titration, whereas thiocyanates by spectrophotometric method.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2652-x
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Black tea processing waste as a source of antioxidant and antimicrobial
           phenolic compounds
    • Authors: Özlem Güçlü Üstündağ; Sevcan Erşan; Ezgi Özcan; Gizem Özan; Neslihan Kayra; F. Yesim Ekinci
      Pages: 1523 - 1532
      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the value-added potential of black tea processing waste (BTPW) as a source of antioxidant and antimicrobial phenolic compounds. The effects of extraction solvent (water, 50 % ethanol and 80 % ethanol) and sample [different BTPW streams and black tea (BT)] and their interaction on the yield of phenolics (catechins, theaflavins and gallic acid), antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracts were investigated. Total catechin (EC, EGCG, ECG) and theaflavin contents of BTPW samples were in the range of 5.2–6.0 and 11.5–16.0 mg/g DW, respectively. While catechins and theaflavins were recovered quantitatively using aqueous ethanol solvents, only 25–28 % of catechins and 6–7 % of theaflavins could be recovered in water extracts. Antioxidant activities of BTPW extracts, which were in the range of 2.23–3.59 (for DPPH), 0.59–0.92 (for FRAP) and 1.59–2.43 µmol TE/mg extract (for ABTS assay), were comparable to those of BT extracts. BTPW and BT extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (1.26–3.65 mm), S. flexneri (1.33–3.89 mm) and B. cereus (1.87–3.90 mm); however, inhibition of C. albicans was not observed. BTPW can be used as a raw material for the development of value-added products with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for applications in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and agricultural sectors. Aqueous ethanol solvents offer low-cost, non-toxic, green alternatives for the recovery of antioxidant and antibacterial phenolics from BTPW.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2653-9
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on chlorophylls and
           chlorophyll–protein complexes in spinach
    • Authors: Rongrong Wang; Shenghua Ding; Xiaosong Hu; Xiaojun Liao; Yan Zhang
      Pages: 1533 - 1543
      Abstract: Abstract Chlorophylls and chlorophyll–protein complexes determine the color and other sensory properties of spinach. This study investigated the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (100, 250, and 500 MPa for 5 min) treatments on structure, chlorophylls and soluble protein contents, protein peptide and fatty acid compositions, chlorophylls absorption spectra, emission, and excitation fluorescence spectra of thylakoid membrane in spinach, in order to better understand the changes in chlorophylls and chlorophyll–protein complexes under HHP. The result showed that HHP-treated samples showed a compact and stacked structure of thylakoid membrane in spinach. For the components of thylakoid membrane, both of chlorophylls and soluble protein contents were significantly (p<0.05) reserved by HHP treatments. The composition of proteins, peptides, and fatty acids was close to untreated samples, revealing higher stability under HHP. In addition, chlorophylls emission and excitation fluorescence spectra capacities of thylakoid membrane were better maintained under HHP treatments compared with thermal treatment, indicating higher light-harvesting and excitation efficiencies of Photosystem II (PS II). As the key functional component of thylakoid membrane, retention of PS II reflected the stability of thylakoid membrane functions under HHP. Hence, chlorophylls and chlorophyll–protein complexes were effectively sustained under HHP treatments, providing new opportunities to preserve the color quality of green vegetables.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2654-8
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • High molecular weight compounds generated by roasting barley malt are
           pro-oxidants in metal-catalyzed oxidations
    • Authors: Daniel O. Carvalho; Lars H. Øgendal; Mogens L. Andersen; Luís F. Guido
      Pages: 1545 - 1553
      Abstract: Abstract The roasting process and color development have been related to an increase of the antioxidant activity of roasted malts. However, roasting is also responsible for the development of high molecular compounds with a pro-oxidant effect, leading to increased levels of radicals in systems based on iron- and copper-catalyzed Fenton reactions. For this reason, the overall antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of three malt types with different roasting degrees (pilsner, melano and black) were evaluated in a Fenton-based model beer system (5.8 % ethanol, v/v). Black malt exhibited 50 % lower radical quenching capacity compared with pale and melano malts, as determined by spin trapping and electron spin resonance detection. These differences were related to the degree of roasting and the development of high molecular weight browning compounds. High molecular weight compounds isolated from black malt wort (molecular mass in the range of 4 × 106 and 108 g mol−1) were responsible for an increase of radicals (approximately 40 %) in a Fenton reaction and were able to accelerate metal-catalyzed oxidation in a beer model, as shown by a decrease of almost 11 % of the dissolved oxygen. Although black malt was able to reduce the overall levels of radicals generated by the Fenton reaction, high molecular weight compounds had an opposite effect due to the reductive redox-cycling of the catalytic amounts of iron.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2655-7
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Anti-adipogenic activity of Carduus crispus and its constituent apigenin
           in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by downregulating PPARγ and C/EBPα
    • Authors: Yoo Na Hong; Jaemoo Chun; Yeong Shik Kim
      Pages: 1555 - 1563
      Abstract: Abstract Carduus crispus, native to Europe and Asia, is a traditional herbal medicine used for treating inflammatory disorders in Korea. Obesity is characterized by a state of chronic inflammation with increased inflammatory markers along with the expression and release of inflammation-related adipokines. Most anti-obesity drugs have been developed based on this concept. Our research for anti-obesity agents derived from C. crispus utilized the 3T3-L1 cell line. The methanol extract was initially screened and exhibited significant inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Among five liquid–liquid partition fractions, the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction showed the most potent suppressive effect compared with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol, and water. The EA fraction was considered for further study because of the presence of abundant polyphenols, including flavonoids. To isolate the active components from the EA fraction, elution–extrusion countercurrent chromatography was used. Among the seven fractions from the EA layer, fraction 6 inhibited lipid accumulation as well as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma protein expression levels. The active component apigenin (fraction 6) was confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The present data suggest that apigenin is one of the main bioactive compounds from C. crispus for inhibiting adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2656-6
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Characterisation of the key aroma compounds in commercial native
           cold-pressed rapeseed oil by means of the Sensomics approach
    • Authors: Katrin Matheis; Michael Granvogl
      Pages: 1565 - 1575
      Abstract: Abstract A systematic approach for the characterisation of the most important aroma-active compounds in a commercial native cold-pressed rapeseed oil on the basis of the Molecular Sensory Science Concept, consisting of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), identification experiments by gas chromatography–olfactometry and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), and recombination experiments, was performed. Forty-nine aroma-active compounds, isolated by thin layer distillation, were identified with a flavour dilution factor ≥8 during AEDA and headspace AEDA, 23 thereof reported in native cold-pressed rapeseed oil for the first time. Twenty-three odorants were quantitated via SIDA revealing for 11 compounds concentrations above their respective odour thresholds. Thereby, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, dimethyl trisulphide, dimethyl sulphide, butanoic acid, and octanal showed the highest OAVs (ratio of concentration divided by respective odour threshold). For data validation, a reconstitution model was prepared by mixing the odorants in their natural occurring concentrations in an odourless oily matrix showing an aroma profile very similar to the profile of the original rapeseed oil, confirming that all key aroma compounds were identified and quantitated successfully.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2657-5
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • The effect of pH and modified maize starches on texture, rheological
           properties and meltability of acid casein processed cheese analogues
    • Authors: Bartosz Sołowiej; Agnieszka Dylewska; Dariusz Kowalczyk; Monika Sujka; Marta Tomczyńska-Mleko; Stanisław Mleko
      Pages: 1577 - 1585
      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pH on texture, rheological properties and meltability of processed cheese analogues obtained using acid casein (AC) at 11, 12 or 13 % concentration or using 10 % AC with 1, 2 or 3 % acetylated distarch adipate (ADA) or hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate (HDP). Hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and viscosity increased with protein or starch concentration. The increase in complex viscosity (η*) was greater for samples contained ADA than HDP. In general, starch-containing cheese analogues exhibited more viscous properties (tan δ > 1) in higher pH values (6.0–7.0) and more elastic properties (tan δ < 1) in lower pH values (4.5–5.5). All processed cheese analogues obtained at pH 5.0–7.0 presented good melting characteristics. These various characteristics analysed in the present study may ensure the valuable information for obtaining cheeses with proper textural/rheological properties and meltability.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2658-4
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • The role of spontaneous fermentation for the production of cachaça :
           a study of case
    • Authors: Cauré Barbosa Portugal; André Ricardo Alcarde; Aline Marques Bortoletto; Arthur Paron de Silva
      Pages: 1587 - 1597
      Abstract: Abstract Artisanal cachaças are traditionally produced from spontaneous fermentation from sugarcane must in Brazil. The microbiological traits of such processes are still poorly understood, and this work aimed to assess the microbial population dynamics during one fermentation—a study of case—for the production of cachaça, as well as to correlate the chemical, and sensory profiles of the distillate. One fermentation was carried out by gradually increasing sugarcane must concentration, and the microbial communities were assessed by plating on selective and differential media. Distillation was performed in a simple copper pot still, and the distillate fractions analyzed by gas chromatograph. Acetic and lactic bacteria took part during the whole process, and the yeasts Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Pichia fermentans and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii were detected throughout fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae emerged along the process, directly competing with H. guilliermondii during tumultuous fermentation. The spirit showed low levels of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetic acid, even as no methanol and ethyl carbamate traces. The cachaça produced stood out by fruity aromas, in contrast to other similar samples from uncontrolled processes. Sugarcane fermentations are traditionally performed in batch system, implying in complex interactions of microorganisms. Microbiota diversity contributes to the organoleptic complexity, but makes a point on rigorous monitoring to ensure high quality of the product. These findings shed light on better understanding the role of microbial population dynamics in spontaneous fermentation for cachaça’s production, even as bringing new information about the microorganisms implicated and their impact on the chemical quality of the product.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2659-3
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Cultivar identification in dry hop cones and pellets using microsatellite
           loci
    • Authors: Grazyna Korbecka-Glinka; Urszula Skomra; Hanna Olszak-Przybys
      Pages: 1599 - 1605
      Abstract: Abstract Chemical composition of hop cones has a great impact on aroma and taste of beer. Individual hop cultivars have a characteristic flavour profile; therefore, their identity and purity in raw material (hop cones and pellets) are crucial for brewers. Here, we described a simple method of cultivar identification in hop based on six microsatellite loci amplified in two multiplex PCRs. The selected set of markers is sufficient to distinguish nine major hop cultivars grown in Poland. We successfully identified cultivar origin of commercially produced samples of hop cones and pellets. One of the five cone samples, labelled by a grower as pure Lubelski, appeared to be a mixture of two Polish cultivars: Lubelski and Marynka. Genotyping of experimentally prepared cone mixtures of these two cultivars showed that even small admixtures of 3–5 % can be detected if a few loci are used for analysis.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2715-z
      Issue No: Vol. 242, No. 9 (2016)
       
  • Chemical profile of spirits obtained by spontaneous fermentation of
           different varieties of plum fruits
    • Authors: Pawel Satora; Magdalena Kostrz; Pawel Sroka; Tomasz Tarko
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of plum spirits, derived from four varieties of plums (Węgierka Zwykła, Węgierka Dąbrowicka, Stanley and Čačanska Lepotica) after spontaneous fermentation. During fermentation, mashes were weighed daily to determine the weight loss. After fermentation, samples were distilled (simple and fractional) and analyzed using official, GC-FID and SPME–GC–MS methods. The obtained plum spirits differed significantly in chemical composition. Most favorable for the fermentation process were mashes obtained from Węgierka Dąbrowicka and Stanley plums, which contained relatively high levels of reducing sugars and free amino nitrogen, respectively. The best fermentation kinetics were shown by Stanley plum mashes, and the process lasted about 10 days. All fermented mashes were characterized by comparable consumption of sugars, from 96.1 to 97 %, and contained from 5.4 to 6.3 vol% ethanol. GC-FID and SPME–GC–MS analysis showed over 64 volatile components in analyzed plum spirits. In case of 24 of them the detected concentration exceeded odor threshold values in all samples. Six compounds (ethyl dodecanoate, benzyl acetate, methyl cinnamate, 1-heptanol, α-terpineol and benzothiazole) influenced the aroma of specific sample. The highest concentration of volatiles was found in Węgierka Zwykła spirits, including the highest levels of higher alcohols, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, methyl dodecanoate, ethyl benzoate, 1-octanol, damascenone, α-terpineol, eugenol, 2-bornene, α-ocimene and others. Stanley spirits contained the lowest amounts of analyzed components quantitatively. All spirits gained similar scores in sensory evaluation—15.3–16.6 points.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2762-5
       
  • Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye
    • Authors: Shiwen Zhuang; Radhakrishna Shetty; Mikkel Hansen; Arvid Fromberg; Preben Bøje Hansen; Timothy John Hobley
      Abstract: Abstract Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions of fermentable wort carbohydrates were observed in the worts (all at ca. 12°P), and in particular oat wort had lower concentration of maltose compared to the others, resulting in the lowest concentration of alcohol in final beer. Moreover, wort made from unmalted grains also showed lower free amino nitrogen and higher viscosity than malt wort. Furthermore, the use of 100 % unmalted grains resulted in a decrease in the levels of colour and brightness, as well as higher alcohols and esters in the final beers. Consequently, the study provides valuable information for exploring beer brewing with 100 % unmalted barley, oat, rye or wheat using exogenously added enzymes. It also helps to understand the process ability by revealing specific needs when manufacturing different type of beers from unmalted grains, potentially paving the way to process optimisation and development of future products.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-016-2758-1
       
 
 
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