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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2209 journals)

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e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 8)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 5)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 28)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 17)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 7)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.289, h-index: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.651, h-index: 22)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.698, h-index: 38)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 40)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.857, h-index: 31)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.793, h-index: 83)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.041, h-index: 53)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 15)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.519, h-index: 14)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.781, h-index: 52)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 8)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 27)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 173, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 45)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 17)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.542, h-index: 7)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 14)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 5)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 11)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal  
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 22)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 12)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.5, h-index: 29)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.319, h-index: 33)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 13)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 55)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 27)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 10)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 26)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 26)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 46)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 53)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 22)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.601, h-index: 55)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 3)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 23)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 32)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 14)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 60)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.413, h-index: 27)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 46)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 14)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 34)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 58)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 85)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 57)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.161, h-index: 4)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 14)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.173, h-index: 8)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.268, h-index: 9)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.111, h-index: 61)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 8)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 20)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.204, h-index: 6)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 57)
Eurasian Soil Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 10)
EURO J. of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EURO J. on Computational Optimization     Hybrid Journal  
EURO J. on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal  
Europaisches J. fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal  
European Actuarial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 37)
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 12)
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 62)
European Biophysics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 53)
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 51)
European Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 49)
European J. for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European J. for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 2)
European J. of Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 17)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.044, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 69)
European J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European J. of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 25)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.946, h-index: 60)
European J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 25)
European J. of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.67, h-index: 25)
European J. of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 0.242, h-index: 13)

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Journal Cover European Food Research and Technology
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 0.773]   [H-I: 49]
  • Fluorescein-5-thiosemicarbazide (FTSC) labeling for fluorescent imaging of
           pectin-derived oligogalacturonic acid transported in living cells by
           confocal microscopy
    • Abstract: Abstract Confocal microscopy is a powerful and effective tool for in vivo elucidation of the molecular basis of biological molecules. Chemical labeling of non-ultraviolet or non-fluorescent carbohydrate with fluorescent tag is an essential step that makes intra-cellular microscopic inspection possible. However, current labeling methods have proved unsuitable for functional pectin-derived oligogalacturonic acid due to the low fluorescence intensity and/or the formation of lactone byproducts. Here, fluorescein-5-thiosemicarbazide (FTSC) was employed for fluorescent labeling of pectin-derived oligogalacturonic acid under mild and neutral reaction conditions to avoid the generation of lactone byproducts. ESI–MS and LC–MS data displayed that pectin-derived pentagalacturonic acid, GalA5, could be quantitatively labeled with FTSC to afford thiosemicarbazones, without any lactone byproducts yielded. Moreover, GalA5-FTSC thiosemicarbazone showed good stability and desirable fluorescence characteristics and exhibited rather low levels of cytotoxicity against sensitive rat thymus cells. Additionally, we have achieved successful fluorescent imaging of GalA5-FTSC thiosemicarbazones transported in living SW-620 and HepG2 cells. The assay illustrates methodological significance in structure–activity elucidation study of functional carbohydrates especially acid oligo-/polysaccharides.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Induction, purification and characterization of malolactic enzyme from
           Oenococcus oeni SD-2a
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to purify a malolactic enzyme (MLE) from Oenococcus oeni (O. oeni) strain and determine its properties in detail. O. oeni SD-2a was cultivated in the ATB broth supplemented with 7 g/L l-malic acid for harvesting the cells. After harvest, the cells were washed and disrupted for purification of MLE. MLE was purified from the supernatant of the disrupted cells through protamine sulfate precipitation, anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The purified MLE was identified using mass spectrometry. The MLE was purified by 43-fold with a yield of 0.42 % and possessed a specific activity of 419.2 U/mg. The purified enzyme with a nominal molecular mass of 59 kDa and a theoretical pI of 4.76 exhibited a maximum enzyme activity at 35 °C and pH 6.0, which retained over 50 % of its initial activity in the presence of 14 % (v/v) ethanol. Mn2+ was proven to be the most effective divalent cation to promote enzyme activity. Under the conditions of temperature 30 °C and pH 6.0, the K m and V max of MLE on l-malic acid were 12.5 × 10−3 M and 43.86 μmol/(min × mg), respectively. Moreover, the purified enzyme exhibited a higher stability with 0.1 M NaCl in addition and had a half-life of 30 days at 4 °C.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • High-fiber date pits pudding: formulation, processing, and textural
           properties
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this project was to prepare high-fiber pudding using date pits to meet the FDA requirement for health claim. Pudding desert was prepared with dates pits (DP), starch, sugar, xanthan gum (DX), flaxseeds gum (DF), and powdered milk. DP were milled, sieved through 149-µm sieve, and used for formulating high-fiber pudding. The pudding formulation included yeast, DX, or DF, and without gum (DP). Danette chocolate pudding, a commercial sample, was used as a reference. The formulation was cooked using rapid visco analyzer (RVA), and the gel was further analyzed by Brookfield viscometer and texture analyzer. The RVA profile of the formulation included peak viscosity, setback, and final viscosity. The data obtained from the RVA showed that pudding samples containing DX or DF gums exhibited higher peak viscosities (3,012.7 ± 22.5, 1,236.3 ± 110.9 cP, respectively) as compared to the DP pudding 735.3 ± 38.3 cP. The presence of DX instigated higher gel hardness than DF and DP, whereas DF caused higher cohesiveness than DP and DX. The shear stress as a function of shear rate profile indicated that DF was closer to Danette pudding sample. The consistency coefficient index (K), which was obtained from the power law, was higher for both DX and DF, indicating higher viscosity, whereas lower flow behavior index (n) signifies a more pseudoplastic system of these samples. Based on the Ea values, it can be concluded that DX sample is less temperature dependent (lower Ea) than DF (higher Ea). The sensory testing showed that yeast treatment brought the formulation closer to the control in terms of panel acceptance.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Impact of quinoa bran on gluten-free dough and bread characteristics
    • Abstract: Abstract Besides an appealing texture and taste, gluten-free products should feature a well-balanced nutrient profile, since celiac disease or chronic inflammations are likely to induce malnutrition for involved patients. Due to their composition, pseudocereals represent a promising ingredient to improve nutrient profile of gluten-free bread. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of quinoa bran on gluten-free bread quality, focusing on volume, pore size and sensory acceptance. The impact of quinoa bran was studied in a gluten-free bread formulation. Five different quinoa bran and two whole grain flour concentrations were evaluated and compared to a control formulation based on rice and corn flour. The rheological properties of quinoa bran as well as the effect on dough development up to a replacement level of 80 % were investigated. Baking tests were carried out, and loaf volume, crumb firmness and sensory characteristics were determined. Quinoa fractions significantly increased carbon dioxide formation (p < 0.05) due to a higher substrate availability. Gas retention was reduced by increasing bran levels (p < 0.05). Oscillation measurements indicated a firming impact of quinoa bran which might have caused a more permeable dough structure, promoting the release of carbon dioxide. With regard to the specific loaf volume significant differences were found across the quinoa milling fractions and the applied levels (p < 0.05). Overall this study demonstrated that 10 % bran improved the bread volume by 7.4 % and enhanced the appearance without compromising the taste.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • A novel homopolymeric phytoferritin from chickpea seeds with high
           stability
    • Abstract: Abstract Iron deficiency is a major public health problem in the world. Phytoferritin as an alternative iron supplement has received increasing attentions recently. Plant ferritins are usually heteropolymers comprising two different H-type subunits, H-1 and H-2, while homopolymeric plant ferritin is rare. In the present study, a newly homopolymeric ferritin chickpea seed ferritin (CSF) was isolated and purified to homogeneity from chickpea seed (Cicer arietinum L.) by two consecutive anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE result indicates that CSF only consists of 28.0 kDa (H-2) subunits, which was identified by Western blot analysis as well. N-terminal sequence and MALDITOF-MS analyses indicate that the subunit of CSF and H-2 subunit of heteropolymeric pea seed ferritin (PSF) share high identity in amino acid sequence. Subsequently, we demonstrated that homopolymeric CSF exhibits a higher catalyzing activity than heteropolymeric PSF at both low and high iron loadings. More importantly, the stability of homopolymeric CSF is much higher than all known plant ferritin due to its highest H-2 subunit content, which is favorable for its application as iron supplement.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Methods for PDO olive oils traceability: state of art and discussion about
           the possible contribution of strontium isotopic tool
    • Abstract: Abstract Olive oil represents an important ingredient in the Mediterranean diet and is appreciated both for nutritional and sensory properties, often related to geographical origin and cultivar of olive fruits employed. Fraudsters trying to seek financial gain can adulterate the product causing economic repercussions and, sometimes sanitary risks. The “protected designation of origin” (PDO) label insures a relative protection of both consumers and honest producers, since it prescribes production techniques and specific geographical origin, but one of the main problems is to set down objective tools to control these specifications. We reviewed numerous studies using various analytical tools to discriminate PDO olive oils’ geographical origin depending on (1) volatiles compounds, (2) fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition, (3) trace elements, and/or (4) stable isotope ratios, but we highlighted that, despite their efficiency, none of them could provide an irrefutable identification. However, 87Sr/86Sr signature revealed to be an optimal geographical fingerprint in the same purpose for other food products like cereals, orange juice, coffee or alcoholic beverages. Such 87Sr/86Sr studies do not exist on olive oils, probably because of analytical issues, but we propose that developing complementary 87Sr/86Sr studies could be a promising tool to re-enforce the characterization of PDO olive oils.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Changes in the content of fructans and arabinoxylans during baking
           processes of leavened and unleavened breads
    • Abstract: Abstract Fructans and arabinoxylans (AXs) are prebiotics naturally occurring in cereal grains which have well-known beneficial effects on human health. However, the majority of grains consumed by humans are processed prior to the consumption. The effect of baking on fructan and AX levels has been studied in rye breads, but there is a scarcity of data on the presence of fructans and AXs in wheat breads. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of baking on stability of fructans and total AXs in breads made from both wheat and rye flours. Bread loaves were baked using an automatic bread maker Breville BBM100 (Sydney, Australia). Sugar analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography on a Dionex ICS-3000 unit. This study showed slight loss of total AXs (6–10 %) during preparation processes of leavened, yeast-free and unleavened breads. In contrast, there was 40–60 % degradation in fructan content of leavened, but no significant losses of fructans in unleavened breads. Yeast-free breads had higher contents of both fructans and AXs than leavened breads. Generally, smaller changes in the content of these prebiotics were apparent in wholemeal and rye than in white breads. It seems that differences in the structures of AXs and fructans in cereals, and the presence of yeast play significant role in determining stabilities of these components during baking.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant
           effect of bioactive peptides obtained from different varieties of common
           beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with in vivo antihypertensive activity in
           spontaneously hypertensive rats
    • Abstract: Abstract Peptides obtained from three varieties of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) named plus black (PB), azufrado higuera (AH) and pinto Saltillo (PS) presented antimicrobial, antioxidant and antihypertensive activities. Peptides were obtained from these common beans protein concentrates after treatment with Alcalase® followed by ultrafiltration using 1-, 3- and 10-kDa molecular weight cutoff membranes. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2′-azino-bis (3-etilbenzotiazolin-6-sulfonic) acid method and was expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). The highest antioxidant activity (630, 550 and 517 mM TEAC/mg protein) was observed in the group of peptides with a molecular weight lower than 1 kDa (F < 1) from PB, AH and PS bean varieties, respectively. Antibacterial activity was determined as susceptibility test in which ten of twelve bacteria strains showed growth inhibition with the total hydrolysates (TH) and the peptidic fraction 3–10 kDa; subsequently, the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined with the standard microdilution assay in a 96-well plates in which the peptidic fraction F < 1 kDa presented antimicrobial activity against Shigella dysenteriae with the three beans varieties at 0.1, 0.4 and 0.3 mg/mL (for PB, AH and PS, respectively). Additionally to the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, the TH of the PB and AH bean varieties presented high inhibition of the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) (IC50 = 4.34 ± 0.29 and 4.82 ± 1.59 μg/mL, respectively). And, when the peptidic fraction F3–10 kDa was tested, the AH variety showed a significant increase in the ACE-I capacity (IC50 = 1.09 ± 0.04 μg/mL). Importantly, this peptidic fraction decreased the systolic blood pressure in a spontaneously hypertensive rat model after 2 h of administration by a single interperitoneally dose.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Mechanistic insight into the radical scavenging activity of polyphenols
           and its application in virtual screening of phytochemical library: an in
           silico approach
    • Abstract: Abstract Polyphenols are amply present in fruits, vegetables, beverages and thus very common items in our diet. They are better characterized as antioxidants and are able to scavenge various radicals and singlet oxygen. The present study aims to provide structural and electronic insight into the antioxidant activity of polyphenols and identify novel natural antioxidant. With systematic searches of the large descriptor spaces available in CODESSA, we found that number of benzene ring (constitutional descriptors), electrostatic descriptors related to the hydrogen bonding ability and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy of the polyphenols are very important descriptors related to the electron donation ability of polyphenols, evident from t test values and principal component analysis. Decreasing LUMO energy facilitates electron transfer and stability of the resulting polyphenolic radical increases with the number of attached aromatic ring due to enhanced resonance. Hydrogen bonding present in the parent polyphenol also facilitates electron donation and stabilizes the phenolic radical. Using multiple linear regressions, we have derived two quantitative structure activity relation (QSAR) models with four and five descriptors, respectively, and validated using cross-validation techniques. The calculated square correlation coefficient for four and five descriptor models is R 2 = 0.89 and R 2 = 0.9, respectively, with cross-validated squared correlation coefficient \({R}_{\text{CV}}^{2}\)  = 0.83 and \({R}_{\text{CV}}^{2}\)  = 0.87, respectively. Virtual screening using the derived QSAR models on in-house developed phytochemical database identified several highly potent natural antioxidants exhibiting their activity by electron donation coupled proton transfer pathway.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Comparison on aroma compounds in Chinese soy sauce and strong aroma type
           liquors by gas chromatography–olfactometry, chemical quantitative
           and odor activity values analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract In order to elucidate the differences on aroma compounds in Chinese liquors with different aroma styles and the reasons, aroma compounds of Xijiu in soy sauce aroma and strong aroma type were investigated in the research. By gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC–O), aroma compounds in Chinese liquor were chosen for quantitative and odor activity value (OAV) analysis. Ethyl hexanoate, butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, hexanoic acid and dimethyl trisulfide were considered to be the most powerful odorants in both liquor samples (aroma intensity ≥3.5) by GC–O. As important aroma compounds (OAV ≥10) in the liquors, ethyl propanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate and 1-propanol were considered with much higher OAVs in soy sauce aroma type liquor, while OAVs of ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl heptanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl lactate, hexyl acetate, butyl hexanoate, hexyl hexanoate and hexanoic acid were far lower in strong aroma type liquor. The OAV of ethyl hexanoate in strong aroma type liquor exceeded 50,000, which explained the reason why strong aroma liquor was considered with prominent fruity aroma. The odor differences between the liquors were mainly caused by the manufacturing practices.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Assessment of expression of Leloir pathway genes in wild-type
           galactose-fermenting Streptococcus thermophilus by real-time PCR
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, four galactose-positive (Gal+) Streptococcus thermophilus strains viz. AJM, JM1, KM3 and AUKD8 and one galactose-negative (Gal−) S. thermophilus NCDC 218 were used to characterize the organization of Leloir pathway genes using long-range PCR, and expression of these genes were studied using real-time PCR, in presence of different sugars. Long-range PCR results showed that both Gal+ and Gal− isolates, the gal–lac gene order (galRKTEM–lacSZ), are conserved including the size of individual genes. The promoter sequence of the three Gal+ isolates (AJM, JM1 and KM3) possessed single base pair deletion at −28 region of galR and C to T substitution at −9 box galK region. In contrast, Gal+ AUKD8 had A to T substitution at preceding −25 region of galR. The expression of galK and galM grown in the presence of galactose was significantly higher in case of AJM (30- and 7.6-fold, respectively), followed by KM3 and JM1. In addition, galR, galT and galE showed higher expression in galactose, than in lactose and glucose medium. This study gives a preliminary idea on Leloir pathway gene expression in wild Gal+ S. thermophilus, and further studies may throw more light on the role of gal–lac operon in galactose metabolism.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Salicylic acid treatment enhances expression of chalcone isomerase gene
           and accumulation of corresponding flavonoids during fruit maturation of
           Lycium chinense
    • Abstract: Abstract Chalcone isomerase (CHI) is a key gene involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, and flavonoids are important active ingredients in goji berries. Goji berry is a fruit with multi-nutrients consumed all over the world. Up to now, expression patterns of CHI gene and the regulation of flavonoid accumulation in goji berries still remain unknown. In this work, a CHI gene was cloned from fruits of Lycium chinense and was given the name LcCHI. Its relative expression and accumulation of total corresponding flavonoids during fruit maturation were investigated. During the fruit maturation, the expression of LcCHI gene increased gradually, and the accumulation of total flavonoids showed an overall upward trend. This study also showed that the expression of LcCHI gene and the content of total flavonoids in the goji berries could be up-regulated by exogenous salicylic acid (SA) treatment. A reactive oxygen species-dependent signaling pathway was suggested to be involved in this process. This research showed that the expression of LcCHI gene was positively correlated with total flavonoid accumulation and the regulation of them by SA could be a potential approach to produce more desired and valuable flavonoids in goji berries.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Purification and characterization of hydrolytic and transgalactosyl
           α-galactosidase from Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 10797
    • Abstract: Abstract α-Galactosidase purified from Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 10797 by fast performance liquid chromatography system using ion exchange and gel-filtration columns showed the K m of 3.83 mM and V max of 416.44 µmol/min/mg protein calculated from the substrate p-nitrophenyl-α-d-galactopyranoside. The molecular mass was 188 kDa by gel-filtration, but 90 kDa by SDS-PAGE, indicating a homodimer. The optimum temperature was 37 °C, and the optimum pH was at 6 with an acceptable stability between pH 4 and 8. This enzyme was activated by 10 mM monovalent ions such as K+, NH4 +, Li+, and CS+, while the activity was inhibited by divalent ions such as Cu2+, Zn2+, and Fe2+. Melibiose was hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose, raffinose to galactose and sucrose, while stachyose to galactose and sucrose. A novel source of α-galactosidase from L. helveticus possessing both hydrolytic activity to eliminate flatulence sugars and transgalactosylation activities to synthesize galacto-oligosaccharides is identified and characterized.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Detection of GI and GII noroviruses in drinking water and vegetables using
           filtration and real-time RT-PCR
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of the study was to provide a rapid and sensitive method for detecting NoV GI and NoV GII in drinking water and vegetables. The method is based on viral concentration by microporous membrane adsorption method before RNA extraction and real-time RT-PCR amplification. Then water and vegetable samples which artificially contaminated with NoV GI and GII stool samples were used to determine the mean virus recoveries and the method sensitivity. The method showed the detection limit of NoV GI was 4.13 × 102 copies/500 mL for drinking water and 4.13 × 103 copies/15 g for lettuce and coriander. The detection limit of NoV GII was 2.94 × 101 copies/500 mL for distilled water, 2.94 × 102 copies/500 mL for Mountain spring water and mineral water, and 2.94 × 103 copies/15 g for lettuce and coriander. The method described provides a valuable tool for monitoring the potential public health risks associated with noroviruses contamination in drinking water and vegetables.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Identification of oxidative modification of shrimp ( Metapenaeus ensis )
           tropomyosin induced by malonaldehyde
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, shrimp tropomyosin was subjected to malonaldehyde (MDA)-induced oxidative stress in aqueous situation. The in vivo cross-linking of tropomyosin was evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the structural changes were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The location of the resulting protein carbonyls was determined by mass spectrometry. The SDS-PAGE of the cross-linked tropomyosin showed four new bands corresponding to two, three, four, and five-time molecular weights of tropomyosin. The conformational structures were partly destroyed because of the thermal denaturation at higher temperatures. The α-helix content increased, and new chemical bonds were formed by the MDA modification. These physiochemical properties were confirmed by the identification of amino acid side-chain modifications by using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Lysine (Lys), glutamine (Gln), and asparagine (Asn) residues in tropomyosin were modified at four lysine (Lys-76, 168, 189, and 233), five glutamine (Gln-61, 70, 118, 147, and 247), and four asparagine (Asn-17, 107, 203, and 215) sites. Apart from these MDA modification sites, oxidized methionine was observed by data search. These results indicate that some active food ingredients, such as MDA, can react with the side chains of amino acids resulting in structural changes in the protein.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Punicalagin exhibits negative regulatory effects on LPS-induced acute lung
           injury
    • Abstract: Abstract Punicalagin, mainly isolated from the fruit of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), is a natural polyphenolic compound. In the present study, we investigated the negative regulatory effect of punicalagin on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the murine model of ALI, the data showed that punicalagin inhibited the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and decreased protein concentration and myeloperoxidase activity with a single 4 mg/kg dose of punicalagin prior to the administration of intratracheal LPS in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of punicalagin how to modulate signal transduction. MAPK and NF-κB activation were measured by Western blot and immunocytochemical analysis. The data showed that punicalagin significantly inhibited phosphorylated p38 MAPK protein expression and shocked p65-NF-κB translocation into the nucleus. These results indicated punicalagin may exert negative regulatory effects on ALI partly through suppressing p38 MAPKs or/and NF-κB pathways. This study offered a novel therapeutic strategy for improving clinical effects of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome and provided more evidence for the health benefits of pomegranate fruits.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • The adulteration of food, lessons from the past, with reference to butter,
           margarine and fraud
    • Abstract: Abstract The history of food adulteration and fraud and attempts at their control from the Middle Ages to date is traced for Belgium and for the UK with special reference to butter and margarine. The development of analytical procedures for the authentication of milk fat is outlined, from those based on the characterisation of fatty acids derived from milk fat in the nineteenth century to chromatographic methods in the next century and the recent rapid spectroscopic approaches. The importance of adequate surveillance programmes to reduce the incidence of food fraud is stressed.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Effects of different substrates and oils on aflatoxin B 1 production by
           Aspergillus parasiticus
    • Abstract: Abstract Aflatoxin contamination levels vary from crop to crop, suggesting that it is of great significance to explore the effects of different substrates on aflatoxins production. In this study, the effects of corn, wheat, peanut, and soybean on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by Aspergillus parasiticus were investigated, and the effects of corn germ, wheat germ, soybean, and peanut oils on the production of AFB1 by A. parasiticus in the corresponding defatted substrates were evaluated at the rates of 2, 5, 10, and 15 g/100 g of substrate. The effects of the combinations of different oils with different defatted substrates on the accumulation of AFB1 by A. parasiticus were also studied. AFB1 concentration was determined by HPLC. The results indicated that high-lipid substrates of soybean and peanut had significantly higher AFB1 production than low-fat substrates of wheat and corn throughout the entire incubation period (15 days) in both autoclaved and non-autoclaved grains. Corn germ, wheat germ, soybean, and peanut oils with different doses could effectively stimulate AFB1 accumulation, and AFB1 production was determined by the oil content of the substrates. Our results suggest that the oil content of substrates is one of the factors affecting AFB1 production by A. parasiticus and that the composition and content of the substrates may also play a role.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
       
  • Nicotinic acid and derivatives as multifunctional pharmacophores for
           medical applications
    • Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is one of the major health problems worldwide. It is a vascular condition known as an atherosclerosis referring to the accumulation of immune cells and lipids in vascular walls that finally obstructs blood flow to trigger heart attack. To prevent and treat the atherosclerosis is to control blood lipid level. Diverse classes of lipid-lowering drug have been used. Nicotinic acid (niacin or vitamin B3) is the first drug that has been used for over five decades. Nicotinic acid and its derivatives play important role as multifunctional pharmacophores exerting a variety of biological activities. This review focuses on the redox and non-redox reactions as well as antioxidant activity of nicotinic acid derivatives and drugs acting on nicotinic acid receptor including therapeutic and cosmetic applications. Structure–activity relationship of nicotinic acid derivatives has been discussed. This article could provide insight into the rational design and development of novel bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential. Graphical
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
       
  • Erratum to: High-fiber date pits pudding: formulation, processing, and
           textural properties
    • PubDate: 2014-10-02
       
 
 
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