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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1201 - 1400 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
J. of Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.968, h-index: 29)
J. of Clinical Geropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 75)
J. of Clinical Monitoring and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 37)
J. of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 34)
J. of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.416, h-index: 31)
J. of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.188, h-index: 8)
J. of Coastal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.474, h-index: 25)
J. of Coatings Technology and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.425, h-index: 25)
J. of Combinatorial Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.093, h-index: 34)
J. of Communications Technology and Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 16)
J. of Community Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 14)
J. of Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.921, h-index: 44)
J. of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.087, h-index: 74)
J. of Comparative Physiology B : Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 59)
J. of Compassionate Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computational Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.291, h-index: 19)
J. of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 20)
J. of Computational Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 60)
J. of Computer and Systems Sciences Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, h-index: 13)
J. of Computer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 31)
J. of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 2)
J. of Computer-Aided Molecular Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.995, h-index: 78)
J. of Computers in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
J. of Computing in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 21)
J. of Consumer Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, h-index: 30)
J. of Contemporary Mathematical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
J. of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 6)
J. of Contemporary Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 23)
J. of Control Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 19)
J. of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 9)
J. of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Cross-Cultural Gerontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.631, h-index: 29)
J. of Cryptographic Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.989, h-index: 11)
J. of Cryptology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 55)
J. of Cultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 29)
J. of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.149, h-index: 8)
J. of Derivatives & Hedge Funds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.114, h-index: 5)
J. of Developmental and Physical Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 29)
J. of Digital Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.578, h-index: 35)
J. of Direct Data and Digital Marketing Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.154, h-index: 6)
J. of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 26)
J. of Dynamics and Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.418, h-index: 31)
J. of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.483, h-index: 16)
J. of Earth System Science     Open Access   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 32)
J. of East Asian Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.537, h-index: 20)
J. of Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 3)
J. of Ecology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Economic Growth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 3.273, h-index: 63)
J. of Economic Interaction and Coordination     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.263, h-index: 12)
J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 23)
J. of Economics and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 19)
J. of Educational Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 21)
J. of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, h-index: 45)
J. of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.577, h-index: 57)
J. of Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.609, h-index: 75)
J. of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.372, h-index: 27)
J. of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 9)
J. of Elementary Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
J. of Elliptic and Parabolic Equations     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 37)
J. of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 11)
J. of Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 5)
J. of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 9)
J. of Environmental Studies and Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
J. of Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.609, h-index: 25)
J. of Evolution Equations     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.826, h-index: 26)
J. of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 11)
J. of Evolutionary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 52)
J. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 39)
J. of Experimental Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.445, h-index: 28)
J. of Failure Analysis and Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 15)
J. of Family and Economic Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 32)
J. of Family Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.639, h-index: 56)
J. of Financial Services Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 10)
J. of Financial Services Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 36)
J. of Fixed Point Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.644, h-index: 13)
J. of Fluorescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 56)
J. of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.307, h-index: 4)
J. of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 29)
J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.495, h-index: 27)
J. of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 14)
J. of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.18, h-index: 42)
J. of Friction and Wear     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.373, h-index: 7)
J. of Fusion Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 19)
J. of Gambling Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.171, h-index: 57)
J. of Gastroenterology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 88)
J. of Gastrointestinal Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 39)
J. of Gastrointestinal Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.64, h-index: 99)
J. of General Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.804, h-index: 134)
J. of General Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.554, h-index: 22)
J. of Genetic Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.902, h-index: 39)
J. of Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 28)
J. of Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.173, h-index: 56)
J. of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 23)
J. of Geographical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 39)
J. of Geometric Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.491, h-index: 27)
J. of Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 15)
J. of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 60)
J. of Global Policy and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
J. of Grid Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.414, h-index: 37)
J. of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 39)
J. of Hematopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 13)
J. of Heuristics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.308, h-index: 50)
J. of High Energy Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.052, h-index: 153)
J. of Homotopy and Related Structures     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, h-index: 2)
J. of Housing and the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.648, h-index: 28)
J. of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.344, h-index: 19)
J. of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 10)
J. of Immigrant and Minority Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.759, h-index: 37)
J. of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 46)
J. of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Indian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.127, h-index: 12)
J. of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.966, h-index: 80)
J. of Industry, Competition and Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.327, h-index: 15)
J. of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.673, h-index: 46)
J. of Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 55)
J. of Information Technology Teaching Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
J. of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.25, h-index: 36)
J. of Inherited Metabolic Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.389, h-index: 77)
J. of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 33)
J. of Insect Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 39)
J. of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent and Robotic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.691, h-index: 43)
J. of Intelligent Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 54)
J. of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.93, h-index: 43)
J. of Intl. Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.208, h-index: 130)
J. of Intl. Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.549, h-index: 23)
J. of Intl. Migration and Integration / Revue de l integration et de la migration internationale     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 13)
J. of Intl. Relations and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.793, h-index: 22)
J. of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 27)
J. of Logic, Language and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
J. of Low Temperature Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 52)
J. of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 7)
J. of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.134, h-index: 37)
J. of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.252, h-index: 83)
J. of Management and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 33)
J. of Management Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 6)
J. of Marine Science and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 11)
J. of Marine Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, h-index: 19)
J. of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.228, h-index: 8)
J. of Market-Focused Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Marketing Analytics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Material Cycles and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.449, h-index: 22)
J. of Materials Engineering and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.544, h-index: 40)
J. of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.836, h-index: 123)
J. of Materials Science : Materials in Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
J. of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.011, h-index: 71)
J. of Mathematical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 45)
J. of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.22, h-index: 22)
J. of Mathematical Imaging and Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.901, h-index: 53)
J. of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.414, h-index: 23)
J. of Mathematical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 23)
J. of Mathematics Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.062, h-index: 20)
J. of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Mechanical Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 26)
J. of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 18)
J. of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 18)
J. of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.717, h-index: 44)
J. of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.874, h-index: 28)
J. of Medical Ultrasonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
J. of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.738, h-index: 82)
J. of Micro-Bio Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.28, h-index: 3)
J. of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
J. of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.317, h-index: 16)
J. of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.952, h-index: 108)
J. of Molecular Histology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.755, h-index: 48)
J. of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.165, h-index: 113)
J. of Molecular Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 50)
J. of Molecular Neuroscience     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.988, h-index: 69)
J. of Mountain Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 15)
J. of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 55)
J. of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, h-index: 84)
J. of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.602, h-index: 28)
J. of Near-Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.689, h-index: 55)
J. of Network and Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.466, h-index: 26)
J. of Neural Transmission     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.034, h-index: 86)
J. of Neuro-Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 90)
J. of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.662, h-index: 45)
J. of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.429, h-index: 105)
J. of NeuroVirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 69)
J. of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.863, h-index: 27)
J. of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.887, h-index: 42)
J. of Nonverbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 47)
J. of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.024, h-index: 68)
J. of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.919, h-index: 60)
J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 6)
J. of Occupational Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.811, h-index: 51)
J. of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Ocean University of China (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.237, h-index: 11)
J. of Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.796, h-index: 52)
J. of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 11)
J. of Optical and Fiber Communications Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 8)
J. of Optimization Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 65)
J. of Ornithology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

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Journal Cover European Food Research and Technology
  [SJR: 0.726]   [H-I: 70]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Evaluation of physical, sensorial, and antioxidant properties of
           gluten-free bread enriched with Moringa Oleifera leaf powder
    • Authors: Hayat Bourekoua; Renata Różyło; Urszula Gawlik-Dziki; Leila Benatallah; Mohammed Nasreddine Zidoune; Dariusz Dziki
      Pages: 189 - 195
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder addition on physical, sensorial, and antioxidant properties of gluten-free bread. Moringa leaf powder (MLP) was incorporated at different levels (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10% in basic replacement) in gluten-free bread. The results revealed that addition more than 2.5% decreased the specific volume of bread. The hardness and chewiness of bread slightly decreased with 2.5 and 10% MLP addition, whereas springiness was not affected by MLP. For sensory evaluation, the most acceptable gluten-free bread was obtained for control bread and bread with 2.5% MLP. The lightness of crumb and crust decreased with increasing of MLP from 63.37 to 27.59 and from 52.40 to 33.49, respectively. The total phenolics content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of extracts increased with the addition of MLP. The addition of MLP already for 2.5% resulted in large increase in the content of TPC (from 0.88 to 2.12 GAE/g dw). The high activity for DPPH scavenging was found for 7.5% and for 10% of MLP addition. For ABTS scavenging capacity, the high activity was for 5.0, 7.5, and 10%. Regarding RED and OH scavenging capacity, gluten-free breads with MLP from 2.5 to 10% presented significantly higher activity (RED from 32.92 to 21.56 and OH scavenging from 54.38 to 47.31 EC50 mg dw comparing to control bread (40.02; 90.81 EC50 mg dw/ml, respectively). Taking into account both the sensory evaluation and antioxidant activity, the addition of MFP should not exceed 5%.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2942-y
      Issue No: Vol. 244, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Thrombin inhibitory peptides derived from Mytilus edulis proteins:
           identification, molecular docking and in silico prediction of toxicity
    • Authors: Liting Feng; Maolin Tu; Meiling Qiao; Fengjiao Fan; Hui Chen; Wei Song; Ming Du
      Pages: 207 - 217
      Abstract: Optimization of the thrombin inhibitory activities of different enzymatic hydrolysates was conducted, and then an optimal hydrolysis condition by trypsin (5000 u/g) was determined as follows, digested at 45 °C and pH 8.5 for 2 h with a protein concentration of 25 mg/mL. Thrombin inhibitory activity was proved to be 76.92 ± 4.66% under this condition. A total of 39 peptides were identified in the hydrolysate by UPLC-Q-TOF–MS/MS, and all the peptides were predicted to be nontoxic by in silico predictive approaches. Twenty-six peptides were predicted to be anticoagulant peptides by molecular docking method, and the peptide 26 (Lys-Asn-Ala-Glu-Asn-Glu-Leu-Gly-Glu-Val-Thr-Val-Arg) was predicted to be a better anticoagulant peptide through both structure–activity relationship and affinity activity to thrombin. The interactional positions between peptide and thrombin were also involved in the interaction site on the S1 pocket of thrombin and strongly promoted its thrombin inhibitory activity. The firmly non-bonded interactions made the bound of peptide and thrombin firmly. Eventually, the chemical identification and activity verification of synthetic peptide 26 were conducted, and the thrombin inhibitory activity was 89.96 ± 5.30% at the concentration of 9 mg/mL. This study optimized an enzymatic hydrolysis and a virtual screening method for predicting and verifying the anticoagulant peptide from Mytilus edulis, respectively, which provided a good theoretical basis and application method for the research and development of the anticoagulant peptides, especially from the seafood products.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2946-7
      Issue No: Vol. 244, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effect of almond roasting, light exposure and addition of different garlic
           cultivars on almond oil stability
    • Authors: Adrián Rabadán; José E. Pardo; Ricardo Gómez; Manuel Álvarez-Ortí
      Pages: 219 - 224
      Abstract: The oxidation of commercial oils is currently a major concern for producers and consumers. In this study, we evaluate the influence on almond oil stability of previous almond roasting, light exposure and the addition of four different garlic cultivars by two different addition methods. Results show that previous almond roasting and oil storage in darkness conditions reduce significantly the oxidation of almond oil over time. The direct addition of garlic shows slight reductions on oils stability. However, differences appear depending on the garlic cultivar and the way of garlic addition. The addition of the whole clove causes lower reductions on oil stability than the addition of crushed garlic, but only on roasted oils. Within the considered garlic cultivars, the “Purple garlic from Las Pedroñeras” (European Protected Geographical Indication) shows higher protection to oxidation, especially if the whole garlic clove was added to oil from roasted almonds.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2947-6
      Issue No: Vol. 244, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • N ε -(carboxymethyl)- l -lysine content in cheese, meat and fish products
           is affected by the presence of copper during elaboration process
    • Authors: Sarahi Jaramillo Ortiz; Kazimierz Wrobel; Armando Gomez Ojeda; Francisco Javier Acevedo-Aguilar; Alma Rosa Corrales Escobosa; Eunice Yanez Barrientos; Ma Eugenia Garay-Sevilla; Katarzyna Wrobel
      Pages: 225 - 234
      Abstract: Formation of dietary advanced glycation end products has been extensively studied, principally with the aim to decrease their intake. In this work, the relationship between copper potentially present during food elaboration and N ε-(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine (CML) concentrations, has been examined for the first time. For CML determination, a reversed phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry procedure, based on acid hydrolysis, ethyl chloroformate derivatization and quantification in MRM mode was set-up, yielding method quantification limit of 98 µg kg−1; copper was determined by ICP-MS. For eleven commercial cheeses, CML and Cu were found in the ranges 3.70–8.58 µg g−1 and 0.08–15.5 µg g−1, respectively, suggesting an inverse relation between these two parameters. For beef, chicken, Mexican pork “carnitas” and salmon, the CML concentration was lower in the item cooked in Cu casserole while element concentration was increased, as compared to this same raw material prepared in Teflon™ (except for “carnitas”). Concentration-dependent effect of Cu, manifest by decreased CML formation, was confirmed evaluating conversion percentage of chemically protected lysine (ZLys) to ZCML in the absence and in the presence of different Cu concentrations (50.0% and 20.4% conversion for Cu:ZLys molar ratio 0:1 and 0.04:1, respectively). Consistent results obtained in the analysis of three different sample types point to the inhibitory effect of copper during CML formation; however, it should be stressed that Cu is only one parameter within a complex set of factors/conditions involved in glycation process. Although better understanding of the observed effect at molecular level is needed, the results obtained in this work strongly suggest beneficial effect of copper, inhibiting glycation process during food elaboration.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2949-4
      Issue No: Vol. 244, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Influence of the volatile substances released by oak barrels into a
           Cabernet Sauvignon red wine and a discolored Macabeo white wine on sensory
           appreciation by a trained panel
    • Authors: María Navarro; Nikolaos Kontoudakis; Sergio Gómez-Alonso; Esteban García-Romero; Joan Miquel Canals; Isidro Hermosín-Gutíerrez; Fernando Zamora
      Pages: 245 - 258
      Abstract: The analytical and sensory analysis of wines aged in barrels of French and American oak with three different levels of toasting was performed to determine the relationship between the volatile substances released by oak wood and sensory appreciation by a trained panel. For that purpose, a discolored white wine of Macabeo and a red wine of Cabernet Sauvignon from 2012 vintage were aged for 12 months in new barrels. Similar wines from the following vintage were aged in the same barrels for knowing how the use of the barrels affects their capacity to release volatile substances and its organoleptic impact. A significant correlation was found between the appreciation of coconut and smoked/toasted notes by the panel and the theoretical sensory impact of β-methyl-γ-octalactone and volatile phenols, respectively, in two different wines aged in new oak barrels. Vanillin correlated significantly in only one of the wines tasted. The panelists generally preferred wines aged in medium-toasted new barrels for both oak species. In a triangle test, tasters could distinguish between wines aged in new American and French oak barrels when the toasting level was light or medium but not when it was heavy. They were also able to distinguish between wines aged in new and 1-year-used barrels. It can be concluded that the botanical origin of the oak, the toasting level of the staves and the number of times that the barrels have been used previously have a real impact on the volatile composition of the wine and in its sensory impact.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2951-x
      Issue No: Vol. 244, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Profile of phenolic and organic acids, antioxidant properties and
           ergosterol content in cultivated and wild growing species of Agaricus
    • Authors: Monika Gąsecka; Zuzanna Magdziak; Marek Siwulski; Mirosław Mleczek
      Pages: 259 - 268
      Abstract: Among the Agaricus genus, both cultivated and wild growing species can be found. In the study, the profile of phenolic compounds and organic acids, as well as ergosterol content of different species of edible Agaricus, was estimated together with a comparison of their ability to scavenge DPPH radicals. The investigation was carried out on seven strains of Agaricus bisporus (one brown and six white), Agaricus blazei, Agaricus arvensis, Agaricus bitorquis, Agaricus campestris and Agaricus silvaticus. Before analysis, the samples were dried. Among nine organic acids detected in Agaricus species, oxalic, lactic and succinic acids were the most abundant. The profile was very heterogeneous with A. silvaticus, A. camperstis and A. arvensis found to be the species richest in organic acids. The phenolic profile revealed only phenolic acids, among which gallic, caffeic and ferulic were detected in all species. The dominant were gallic, trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acids. The highest sum of phenolic acids and total phenolic content was found in A. brasiliensis. Antiradical of the extracts against DPPH radical was as follows: A. bitorquis > A. arvensis > A. brasiliensis > brown A. bisporus > A. campestris > A. silvaticus > white A. bisporus. The lowest EC50 value was estimated for A. brasiliensis and A. arvensis. A correlation was confirmed between antioxidant activity and phenolic acids. Ergosterol content reached the highest level in A. silvaticus and A. campestris. The investigation emphasizes the value of Agaricus species as a source of different bioactive compounds including phenolic compounds and organic acids.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2952-9
      Issue No: Vol. 244, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effect of pre-treatment and drying method on physico-chemical properties
           
    • Authors: Benedict Purschke; Henrik Brüggen; Rafaela Scheibelberger; Henry Jäger
      Pages: 269 - 280
      Abstract: Edible insects have emerged as an alternative source for feed and food. Fractionation is considered as a promising strategy to produce standardised insect-based intermediates to augment industrial applicability and consumer acceptance. So far, mainly wet fractionation techniques were studied to separate insect components and concentrate protein. This study investigated a dry fractionation approach to yield protein-enriched and differently composed fractions of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor). The influence of post-harvest procedures including different pre-treatments (blanching, freezing, etc.), drying methods (oven drying, fluidized bed drying, freeze-drying, etc.), and defatting on physico-chemical properties of the larvae were studied. Furthermore, the impact of pre-processing on disintegration of larvae during roller milling was investigated via sieve classification. Applied post-harvest process chain significantly affected the colour, dimensions, apparent density, and hardness of dried larvae with an impact on fractionation behaviour and characteristics of the obtained fractions. Drying at elevated temperatures caused pronounced darkening and shrinkage due to browning reactions and tissue collapse. Mechanical properties were affected as well leading to heterogeneous particle size distributions after milling and sieving. A large fraction of particles <500 µm was determined for samples exhibiting low mechanical hardness such as freeze-dried and defatted larvae. Significant differences in macro-nutrient composition of the sieving fractions were found deviating in chitin (3.6–16.1%db), protein (52.5–58.2%db) and fat (21.4–26.6%db) content. Highest protein recovery of max 72% was determined in the particle size fraction 500–1000 µm. Concluding, these results provide insights into physico-chemical characteristics of mealworms affected by pre-treatment and drying. The potential of dry fractionation techniques for protein enrichment and delivery of a variety of differently composed mealworm fractions was demonstrated and may provide an interesting potential to optimize water and energy consumption during insect fractionation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2953-8
      Issue No: Vol. 244, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Molecular characterization of Dalmatian cultivars and the influence of the
           olive fruit harvest period on chemical profile, sensory characteristics
           and oil oxidative stability
    • Authors: Tea Bilušić; Mirella Žanetić; Ivica Ljubenkov; Ivana Generalić Mekinić; Snježana Štambuk; Viktor Bojović; Barbara Soldo; Prokopios Magiatis
      Pages: 281 - 289
      Abstract: Four Dalmatian autochthonous olive cultivars (Buhavica, Drobnica, Lastovka and Oblica) were molecularly characterized by analyzing length variability of genomic DNA sequences encompassing 15 microsatellite repeats. Furthermore, several important parameters of olive oils were analyzed in relation to the harvest period. An analysis of major phenolics secoiridoids was done by qNMR, while the fatty acid profile of oils and squalene content was determined by GC–FID. Oxidative stability was evaluated by the Rancimat method and sensory evaluation was carried out by a trained professional panel. The results indicate that the effect of the harvest period on the phenolic profile of oils depends on the olive cultivar and is related to its genetic profile. Drobnica oil from the late harvest contained an extremely high concentration of oleocanthal + oleacein (966 mg/kg). The longest oxidative stability was achieved by Drobnica and Lastovka oils from the early harvest period (20.95 and 18.65 h). Squalene had no effect on the oil oxidative stability. This study shows that the content of phenolic secoiridoids depends mainly on the cultivar. In addition, some cultivars, such as Drobnica did not show significant change of phenolic secoiridoids content in relation to the harvest period.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2954-7
      Issue No: Vol. 244, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effectiveness of a combined ethanol–aqueous extract of alga Cystoseira
           compressa for the quality enhancement of a chilled fatty fish species
    • Authors: Hanane Oucif; José M. Miranda; Smaïl Ali Mehidi; Sidi-Mohamed El-Amine Abi-Ayad; Jorge Barros-Velázquez; Santiago P. Aubourg
      Pages: 291 - 299
      Abstract: Seaweeds have attracted an increasing attention as a new source for bioactive compounds, these include preservative compounds. This study is a first attempt to employ alga Cystoseira compressa for the preservation of chilled fish. For it, a combined ethanol–aqueous extract of this alga was included in the icing system and employed as chilling medium for the storage of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) for 11 days. On the basis of the microbial groups (aerobes, psychrotrophs, proteolytic, lipolytic and Enterobacteriaceae bacteria) assessed, an inhibitory effect (p < 0.05) on microbial activity in horse mackerel muscle was observed as a result of including the alga extract in the icing medium; such preservative effect was also proved by chemical determinations related to microbial activity (pH and trimethylamine values). Additionally, a significant decrease (p < 0.05) of lipid hydrolysis (free fatty acids formation) and oxidation (fluorescent compounds formation) in fish was also observed as a result of the presence of C. compressa extracts in the icing medium. The icing medium proposed in this work (i.e., the combination of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. compressa) may constitute a promising strategy to the application of natural algae extracts for fatty fish storage and enhance quality retention during commercialisation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2955-6
      Issue No: Vol. 244, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Validation of 13 duplex droplet digital PCR systems for quantitative GMO
           analysis of most prevalent GMO traits
    • Authors: René Köppel; Thomas Bucher; Dylan Bär; Franziska van Velsen; Arthika Ganeshan
      Pages: 313 - 321
      Abstract: Digital PCR methods were recently introduced in food analysis. To run these methods within the scope of ISO17025, they have to be validated. Although several guidelines are available, each laboratory has to implement these guidelines in an adapted validation scheme. We present here one possible implementation. We chose 13 GMO traits which were predominantly detected in the past. The results show that in the range of 1% GMO content, the digital PCR has a little superior performance compared to real time PCR. In the range of the detection limit, measurement uncertainty remains comparable to real time PCR. During validation, a conversion factor was determined for each trait suggesting that the calculation from % copies/copies to % weight/weight may be possible. This shows that GMO contents can be measured without the use of reference material by the validation described here and determination of a conversion factor, which is a great improvement in terms of expense and storage capacity.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2957-4
      Issue No: Vol. 244, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Purification, characterization, and action mechanism of plantaricin DL3, a
           novel bacteriocin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced by Lactobacillus
           plantarum DL3 from Chinese Suan-Tsai
    • Authors: Xinran Lv; Yang Lin; Yu Jie; Mengtong Sun; Bolin Zhang; Fengling Bai; Hongfei Zhao; Jianrong Li
      Pages: 323 - 331
      Abstract: A novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum DL3 isolated from Suan-Tsai, a traditional Chinese fermented cabbage, was designated as plantaricin DL3. It was purified by ethyl acetate extraction followed by gel filtration and high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight of plantaricin DL3 was determined as 2149 Da by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF–MS) analysis. The amino acid sequence of plantaricin DL3 was predicted to be VGPGAINAGTYLVSRELFER by MALDI-TOF–MS/MS. This bacteriocin exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, high thermal stability (15 min, 121 °C) and narrow pH stability (pH 2.5–5.5). The mechanism of action of this bacteriocin was responsible for the disruption of cell wall, accompanied with the leakage of proteins. These results suggested that plantaricin DL3 has potential applications in the control of Pseudomonas spp. in aquatic products.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2958-3
      Issue No: Vol. 244, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Characteristics of gluten-free bread: quality improvement by the addition
           of starches/hydrocolloids and their combinations using a definitive
           screening design
    • Authors: Hayat Bourekoua; Renata Różyło; Leila Benatallah; Agnieszka Wójtowicz; Grzegorz Łysiak; Mohammed Nasreddine Zidoune; Agnieszka Sujak
      Pages: 345 - 354
      Abstract: To establish factors affecting the quality of gluten-free bread based on rice semolina supplemented with field bean semolina and improving its final quality, a new study with definitive screening design was conducted after an appropriate choice of six factors: agar–agar, water, two types of gums gum arabic and locust bean gum, and two types of starches tapioca starch and corn starch. We investigated the effect of the aforementioned parameters on specific volume, hardness, chewiness, and springiness of breads. The results showed that specific volume of gluten-free breads increased significantly (p < 0.05) with the addition of gum arabic, tapioca and corn starches, and water; addition of agar–agar, gum arabic, tapioca starch and water affected the hardness. With regard to chewiness, the results showed that gum arabic and water and also the interaction between them had a significant effect. Gum arabic, tapioca and corn starches, and water affected the springiness. In addition, we observed the interactions among the additives. For all the tested parameters, water and gum arabic had statistically significant (p < 0.0001) effect and affected all the properties of examined breads. These factors were retained for process characterization of optimized gluten-free bread. The final optimum formulation of rice/field bean contained 1.5% of gum arabic and 71.5% of water. The optimum gluten-free bread with gum arabic showed high volume, good textural, structural, and sensory qualities with high acceptability compared to the gluten-free control bread without any improver.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2960-9
      Issue No: Vol. 244, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Impact of heat moisture treatment and hydration level on physico-chemical
           and viscoelastic properties of doughs from wheat-barley composite flours
    • Authors: Concha Collar; Enrique Armero
      Pages: 355 - 366
      Abstract: The impact of heat moisture treatment (HMT) on the thermoviscous, viscoelastic and mechanical properties of binary flour matrices (wheat:barley, 60:40, wt:wt) was investigated in untreated and HMT (15% moisture content, 1 h heating time at 120 °C) hydrated samples to assess the potential of HMT to modify dough viscoelasticity and doughmaking functionality in diluted breadmaking wheat matrices. HMT significance was tackled (a) in excess of water, by applying successive cooking and cooling cycles to hydrated samples (14%, w:w), determination of viscometric parameters, and subsequent determination of textural (compression test) and viscoelastic parameters (stress relaxation test) in pasted and gelled hydrated flours, and (b) under water restrictions by assessing the consistency (forward extrusion test), the primary and secondary mechanical properties (Texture Profile Analysis), and the viscoelastic behaviour (stress relaxation test) of untreated and HMT mixed doughs made at different flour hydration levels (63 and 70%). In highly hydrated blends, HMT barley flour provided enhanced viscosity patterns regardless of the presence of native or HMT wheat flour, and harder gels with larger initial stress to reach a defined deformation, particularly in the presence of HMT wheat flour. Under restricted water availability, doughs made at 70% hydration level when compared to their counterparts made at 63% explicited lower stress relaxation curves with higher values for both initial decay rate and extent of the decay, shorter relaxation times and higher percent of stress relaxation, giving softer and more cohesive doughs. The most elastic-like dough blends were those prepared with HMT wheat and barley flours at 63% hydration, while the most viscous-like doughs were those from native flours made at 70% hydration.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2961-8
      Issue No: Vol. 244, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effect of polyphenols dietary grape by-products on chicken patties
    • Authors: Maria Nardoia; Claudia Ruiz-Capillas; Donato Casamassima; Ana M. Herrero; Tatiana Pintado; Francisco Jiménez-Colmenero; Susana Chamorro; Agustín Brenes
      Pages: 367 - 377
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the dietary effect that the inclusion (40 g kg−1) of grape seed (GS), grape skin (SS), grape pomace (GP), and (0.2 g kg−1) of vitamin E (E) had on the composition and microbiological quality of chicken breast meat and on the physico-chemical parameters (TBARS, pH, color, Kramer shear force), sensorial characteristics, and microbiological quality of chicken breast meat patties during chilled storage (0, 3, 6, and 9 days) at 2 °C. In general, proximate composition and microbial counts of the raw chicken breast meat and the patties were not affected. Lower TBARS values were detected in patties formulated with breast meat obtained from birds fed E, SS, and GP diets. No clear effect was observed on the color or textural characteristics of the different patties. The addition of SS and GP in chicken diets reduced TBARS values showing some improvement in the oxidative stability of breast patties without affecting its technological properties, sensorial attributes, or microbial quality.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-017-2962-7
      Issue No: Vol. 244, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • The impact of high pressure and drying processing on internal structure
           and quality of fruit
    • Authors: Monika Janowicz; Andrzej Lenart
      Abstract: High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) could be assessed as an unconventional method to ensure the stability of food quality. Pressure not only extends the shelf life of food by partly eliminating microorganisms, but also changes its properties, providing the opportunity to create new food products with innovated structure. Technological advances in fruit processing create the possibility of combining traditional drying with unconventional methods of its preservation. The attractiveness of processed by HHP dried fruit is high quality. The advantages of HHP and the benefits of its application in fruit drying explain the need for an interest in using this method by technologists and manufacturers. The most important is to extend the application in various sectors of the food drying to create new, attractive food products.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-018-3047-y
       
  • Utilization of ‘early green harvest’ and non- Saccharomyces cerevisiae
           yeasts as a combined approach to face climate change in winemaking
    • Authors: Nemanja Teslić; Francesca Patrignani; Michele Ghidotti; Giuseppina Paola Parpinello; Arianna Ricci; Rosanna Tofalo; Rosalba Lanciotti; Andrea Versari
      Abstract: Present study aimed to ascertain whether the combination of two factors, i.e., time of harvest and type of yeast, can significantly moderate the effect of climate change on Chardonnay wine composition. In this view, three Chardonnay musts obtained from grapes at different harvest date [technological maturity ‘as control’; delayed harvest; a mixture of ‘early (green) harvest’ with delayed harvest ‘as alternative approach’] and three selected yeast strains [Saccharomyces cerevisiae ‘as control’; hybrid Saccharomyces cerevisiae/Saccharomyces paradoxus; scalar alternative approach with Starmerella bacillaris and hybrid Saccharomyces cerevisiae/Saccharomyces paradoxus] were used to design and compare six different trials, replicated at pilot level (n. total fermentations: 18). Wines were evaluated in terms of sensory and chemical parameters (alcohol, acidity, organic acids, phenolic compounds and glycerol) and results tested by statistical analysis. Although the wine alcohol content decreased at the best by ~ 1.2% v/v, whereas the total acidity increased up to ~ 2.5 g/L, the results from sensory evaluation highlighted that the proposed ‘alternative approach’ may cause excessive acidity and bitterness perception, therefore, further deacidification and fining treatments may be needed. The present approach to reduce the alcohol content of wine and increase its total acidity is simple, inexpensive and applicable in all wineries.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-018-3045-0
       
  • Comparison of the mechanism of enzymatic browning in frozen white and
           brown A. bisporus
    • Authors: Emilia Bernaś
      Abstract: The mechanism of browning in frozen white and brown A. bisporus stored for 8 months at − 25 °C has been determined based on the level of enzymatic activity, free amino acids, total polyphenols, antioxidant activity and color. The brown variety was less resistant than the white variety to enzymatic browning, due to a higher activity of monophenolase and a minor degree of diphenolase. The mechanism of browning was connected with the regeneration of monophenolase and diphenolase and a reduction in the level of total polyphenols and l-tyrosine. In the white variety, the activity of monophenolase was correlated with the level of l-tyrosine and antioxidant activity, and in the brown variety with the level of l-phenylalanine and parameter a*. Irrespective of the variety, the most effective pre-treatment was vacuum impregnation in sodium metabisulfite and citric acid and then blanching in water. The second pre-treatment in terms of effectiveness was blanching in the sodium erythorbate and citric acid in the brown variety, and blanching in water in the white.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-018-3039-y
       
  • Phytochemical and sensorial characterization of Hyssopus officinalis
           subsp. aristatus (godr.) Nyman ( Lamiaceae ) by GC–MS, HPLC–UV–DAD,
           spectrophotometric assays and e-nose with aid of chemometric techniques
    • Authors: Avni Hajdari; Annamaria Giorgi; Giangiacomo Beretta; Fabrizio Gelmini; Susanna Buratti; Simona Benedetti; Anna Merkouri; Xhavit Mala; Shqipe Kabashi; Daniela Pentimalli; Bledar Pulaj; Bexhet Mustafa
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential compositional differences among different populations of H. officinalis subsp. aristatus (Godr.) Nyman. The plant specimens were collected in different locations in Western Balkans (Kosovo and Albania) and subjected to phytochemical profiling (GC–MS for their essential oils and HPLC-UV-DAD for fingerprinting of their solvent extractable phytochemicals). Antioxidant capacity, total flavonoid and phenol contents were measured using different assays. Out of the five location considered, the specimen from one location displayed significant differences both in terms of essential oil composition and of polyphenolic total content. The electronic nose measurements used to characterize their aromatic profile, was able to clearly discriminate the accessions, indicating a good correlation, in particular, with the marked chemotypic difference established by essential oil profiling (1,8-cineol vs. isopinocamphone/camphone). H. officinalis subspp. aristatus (Godr.) Nyman may constitute an interesting subject for further studies on the effect of genetic and environmental factors, or of their combinations, on its chemotypic expression and sensorial properties.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-018-3046-z
       
  • Aroma profile and appearance of dark chocolate formulated with palm
           sugar–sucrose blends
    • Authors: Arifin Dwi Saputro; Davy Van de Walle; Michael Hinneh; Jim Van Durme; Koen Dewettinck
      Abstract: Palm sap sugar is a natural alternative sweetener that can be made from the sap/nectar of several species of palm tree flowers. In this work, a thorough investigation about the impact of chemical composition and physical properties of palm sugar on the formation of aroma and appearance of dark chocolate was carried out. Five sucrose–palm sugar blends with different palm sugar (PS) proportion, namely PS0, PS25, PS50, PS75, and PS100, were used as sweetener. The results showed that a higher concentration of some alkyl pyrazines, alkyl furans, alkyl alcohols, 2-acetylpyrrole, and acetic acid observed in the palm sugar-sweetened dark chocolate could be attributed to the aroma profile of palm sugar. In addition, there were some aroma volatiles which were only observed in palm sugar-sweetened dark chocolate, such as 2-furoic acid, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, 2,3-dihydro-5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP). The higher the proportion of palm sugar, the higher the concentration of these volatiles. Aside from this, the presence of more amorphous sugar was probably responsible for a higher concentration of aroma volatiles in chocolates containing palm sugar. Regarding the chocolate appearance, the effect of particle size in determining the colour was less pronounced than the effect of particle density and possible sugar network formation in the chocolate. The latter factor, might affect the surface roughness, resulting in different colour parameters. It seemed that the Maillard reaction during chocolate processing, which may influence the aroma profile and darkness of chocolate, occurred in much lesser extent that in the palm sugar production.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-018-3043-2
       
  • Geographical discrimination of pine and fir honeys using multivariate
           analyses of major and minor honey components identified by 1 H NMR and
           HPLC along with physicochemical data
    • Authors: Ioannis K. Karabagias; Manos Vlasiou; Stavros Kontakos; Chryssoula Drouza; Michael G. Kontominas; Anastasios D. Keramidas
      Abstract: The objective of the present work was the geographical discrimination of the most common honeydew honeys produced in Greece, namely pine and fir, on the basis of sugar, free amino acid and organic acid content, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), along with moisture content, sugar ratios, or sugars to moisture ratio, using chemometrics. For this purpose, 39 pine and 31 fir honey samples were collected from professional beekeepers from eight different regions in Greece. Data were subjected to multivariate analysis and modeled using supervised statistical methods. The combination of 1H NMR and HPLC based on metabolites along with the aforementioned physicochemical data resulted in the geographical discrimination of pine and fir honeys. Respective prediction rates were 76.9 and 80.6%, using a model validation technique: the cross-validation method. Present results support the combined use of instrumental and conventional methods for honey geographical origin differentiation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00217-018-3040-5
       
 
 
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