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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2302 journals)

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Diabetologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 163, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 161)
Diabetologia Notes de lecture     Hybrid Journal  
Diabetology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 5)
Dialectical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.314, h-index: 9)
Die Weltwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 15)
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 7)
Digestive Diseases and Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 89)
Directieve therapie     Hybrid Journal  
Discrete & Computational Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 40)
Discrete Event Dynamic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.42, h-index: 32)
Distributed and Parallel Databases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.766, h-index: 30)
Distributed Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 31)
DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater     Full-text available via subscription  
Documenta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 40)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 10)
Doklady Biological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Doklady Botanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 12)
Doklady Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.48, h-index: 17)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.345, h-index: 13)
Doklady Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 17)
Douleur et Analg├ęsie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.113, h-index: 6)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 8)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access  
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.481, h-index: 5)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 52)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 9)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 16)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, h-index: 7)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 29)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 21)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 9)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 27)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 26)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 43)
Economia e Politica Industriale     Hybrid Journal  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.375, h-index: 6)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.527, h-index: 44)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 9)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.557, h-index: 34)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 14)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.909, h-index: 93)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.333, h-index: 56)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.374, h-index: 15)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.776, h-index: 61)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 9)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 32)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 80, SJR: 1.785, h-index: 52)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 18)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.883, h-index: 10)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.582, h-index: 16)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 8)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.407, h-index: 15)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.678, h-index: 25)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 16)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 31)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.285, h-index: 39)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 15)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 57)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.638, h-index: 31)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 14)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.176, h-index: 7)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 30)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 32)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.632, h-index: 54)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 58)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 28)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 63)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 4)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 24)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.013, h-index: 36)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.942, h-index: 66)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 31)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 52)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.885, h-index: 46)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.4, h-index: 17)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.608, h-index: 38)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.287, h-index: 63)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.731, h-index: 89)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 62)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 6)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 3)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 16)

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Journal Cover   European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
  [SJR: 1.768]   [H-I: 57]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1435-165X - ISSN (Online) 1018-8827
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based
           sample of Finnish adolescents
    • Abstract: We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15–16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9 % of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19
       
  • Chronotherapeutic treatments for depression in youth
    • Abstract: Chronotherapeutics such as wake therapy and bright light therapy are well-established methods in treating adults with depressive disorders and are additionally beneficent for sleep regulation. Few studies concerning chronotherapeutics in juvenile depression exist, though the established treatments are insufficient and sleep disorders often co-occur. In this study, we investigate the impact of two types of chronotherapeutics on depressive symptoms and sleep behavior in a juvenile setting. Juvenile inpatients (n = 62) with moderate to severe depressive symptoms took part in either a combined setting consisting of one night wake therapy followed by 2 weeks bright light therapy or in a setting of bright light therapy alone. Depressive symptoms, general psychopathology, clinical impression and sleep behavior were measured before (T1), directly after (T2) and 2 weeks after intervention (T3). Depressive symptoms decreased while sleep quality increased in both groups. The bright light therapy alone group showed further improvement at T3 in regards to depressive symptoms. Correlation analyses indicated significant negative correlations between sleep quality and awaking after restorative sleep with the depressive symptoms. However, only awaking after restorative sleep had a predictive impact on treatment outcome. The present study provides first evidence for a positive impact of chronotherapeutic interventions on treatment outcome in depressed juvenile inpatients. Bright light therapy seems to stabilize and further enhance reduction of depressive symptoms during follow-up, whereas one night wake therapy does not have an additional long-lasting impact on depressive symptoms and sleep parameters.
      PubDate: 2015-05-17
       
  • Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care: views of parents and
           adolescents in the community
    • Abstract: Parents with a child suffering from psychosocial problems frequently experience barriers to psychosocial care, which may hinder access. Expectations of barriers may have the same effect, but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine parents’ and adolescents’ expectations of barriers regarding psychosocial care for the child, along with associated child and family characteristics. We obtained data on an age-stratified random sample of school children/pupils aged 4–18 via questionnaires (N = 666; response rate 70.3 %). Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care were measured with the “Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies” questionnaire (BTPS-exp). Results showed that 64 % of the parents of children below age 12, 59 % of the parents of adolescents (age 12–18), and 84 % of the adolescents expected one or more barriers. Parents and adolescents expected barriers most frequently with respect to irrelevance of treatment. Mainly parents with low educational level and their adolescents expected barriers regarding treatment, and quite a few characteristics of parents of adolescents were associated with expecting multiple barriers regarding treatment demands and issues, for example, single parents, parents of lower educational level and of adolescent boys, and parents of adolescents with psychosocial problems. We conclude that adolescents especially, but also their parents and parents of younger children, expect major barriers to psychosocial care, which may greatly hinder appropriate care seeking. This evidence may support professionals and policymakers in their attempts to improve access to psychosocial care.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13
       
  • Erratum to: Mechanisms in the relation between GABRA2 and adolescent
           externalizing problems
    • PubDate: 2015-05-05
       
  • Association between mental health and comorbid obesity and hypertension
           among children and adolescents in the US
    • Abstract: This paper examines the association between mental health and comorbid obesity and hypertension among US children and adolescents using data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES). Questionnaires from NHANES were used to assess mental health during the previous 30 days. Respondents were then categorized into two groups namely “poor mental health” and “good mental health” based on their responses to these survey questions. Three multiple logistic regression models, based on these categories, are estimated to compute the odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals in the association of obesity and hypertension and mental health. As a select example, the results of Model 2 reveal that compared with respondents who are not obese, obese respondents have increased odds (OR = 1.24; P < 0.0001) of poor mental health. Furthermore compared with non-hypertensive respondents, hypertensive respondents have higher odds (OR = 2.96; P < 0.0001) of poor mental health. These findings have important implications for mental health management in younger populations. It brings into focus the maintenance of a healthy body mass index and hypertension control in mitigating poor mental health.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Multilevel analysis of ADHD, anxiety and depression symptoms aggregation
           in families
    • Abstract: A strong genetic role in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been demonstrated by several studies using different methodologies. Shortcomings of genetic studies often include the lack of golden standard practices for diagnosis for ADHD, the use of categorical instead of a dimensional approach, and the disregard for assortative mating phenomenon in parents. The current study aimed to overcome these shortcomings and analyze data through a novel statistical approach, using multilevel analyses with Bayesian procedures and a specific mathematical model, which takes into account data with an elevated number of zero responses (expected in samples with few or no ADHD symptoms). Correlations of parental clinical variables (ADHD, anxiety and depression) to offspring psychopathology may vary according to gender and type of symptoms. We aimed to investigate how those variables interact within each other. One hundred families, comprising a proband child or adolescent with ADHD or a typically developing child or adolescent were included and all family members (both biological parents, the proband child or adolescent and their sibling) were examined through semi-structured interviews using DSM-IV criteria. Results indicated that: (a) maternal clinical variables (ADHD, anxiety and depression) were more correlated with offspring variables than paternal ones; (b) maternal inattention (but not hyperactivity) was correlated with both inattention and hyperactivity in the offspring; (c) maternal anxiety was correlated with offspring inattention; on the other hand, maternal inattention was correlated with anxiety in the offspring. Although a family study design limits the possibility of revealing causality and cannot disentangle genetic and environmental factors, our findings suggest that ADHD, anxiety and depression are variables that correlate in families and should be addressed together. Maternal variables significantly correlated with offspring variables, but the paternal variables did not.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Chronic multisite pain in adolescent girls and boys with emotional and
           behavioral problems: the Young-HUNT study
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of chronic multisite pain with high disability in relation to emotional or behavioral problems and resilience factors in adolescence. A second aim was to investigate if resilience factors could attenuate the associations between psychiatric symptoms and chronic multisite pain. The study was based on a large cross-sectional study carried out in Norway between 2006 and 2008 and included 7,070 adolescents aged 13–19 years. Chronic multisite pain was defined as pain at least once a week during the last 3 months, scoring high on a disability index, and occurring in three or more locations. Chronic multisite pain was prevalent among adolescents with high scores (>85 %) for anxiety/depression, social anxiety, conduct or attention problems (22.8–31.0 % for girls, 8.8–19.0 % for boys). Several coexistent psychiatric symptoms increased the prevalence of chronic multisite pain for both girls and boys. Resilience factors, including high self-esteem, seldom feeling lonely, and high scores for family cohesion or social competence, were associated with a lower prevalence and markedly attenuated the association between psychiatric symptoms and chronic multisite pain. Psychiatrists should be careful to assess and treat comorbid chronic pain in adolescents with emotional or behavioral problems.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Continued cognitive-behavior therapy versus sertraline for children and
           adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder that were
           non-responders to cognitive-behavior therapy: a randomized controlled
           trial
    • Abstract: Expert guidelines recommend cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) as a first-line treatment in pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and the addition of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors when CBT is not effective. However, the recommendations for CBT non-responders are not supported by empirical data. Our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of sertraline (SRT) versus continued CBT in children and adolescents that did not respond to an initial course of CBT. Randomized controlled trial conducted in five sites in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, 54 children and adolescents, age 7–17 years, with DSM-IV primary OCD were randomized to SRT or continued CBT for 16 weeks. These participants had been classified as non-responders to CBT following 14 weekly sessions. Primary outcomes were the CY-BOCS total score and clinical response (CY-BOCS <16). The study was a part of the Nordic Long-Term OCD Treatment Study (NordLOTS). Intent-to-treat sample included 50 participants, mean age 14.0 (SD = 2.7) and 48 % (n = 24) males. Twenty-one of 28 participants (75 %) completed continued CBT and 15 of 22 participants (69.2 %) completed SRT. Planned pairwise comparison of the CY-BOCS total score did not reveal a significant difference between the treatments (p = .351), the response rate was 50.0 % in the CBT group and 45.4 % in the SRT group. The multivariate χ 2 test suggested that there were no statistically significant differences between groups (p = .727). Within-group effect sizes were large and significant across both treatments. These large within-group effect sizes suggest that continued treatment for CBT non-responders is beneficial. However, there was no significant between-group differences in SRT or continued CBT at post-treatment.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Denoting treatment outcome in child and adolescent psychiatry: a
           comparison of continuous and categorical outcomes
    • Abstract: Various approaches have been proposed to denote treatment outcome, such as the effect size of the pre-to-posttest change, percentage improvement, statistically reliable change, and clinical significant change. The aim of the study is to compare these approaches and evaluate their aptitude to differentiate among child and adolescent mental healthcare providers regarding their treatment outcome. Comparing outcomes according to continuous and categorical outcome indicators using real-life data of seven mental healthcare providers, three using the Child Behavior Checklist and four using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as primary outcome measure. Within each dataset consistent differences were found between providers and the various methods led to comparable rankings of providers. Statistical considerations designate continuous outcomes as the optimal choice. Change scores have more statistical power and allow for a ranking of providers at first glance. Expressing providers’ performance in proportions of recovered, changed, unchanged, or deteriorated patients has supplementary value, as it denotes outcome in a manner more easily interpreted and appreciated by clinicians, managerial staff, and, last but not least, by patients or their parents.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Prevalence and diagnostic validity of motivational impairments and
           deficits in visuospatial short-term memory and working memory in ADHD
           subtypes
    • Abstract: Deficits in working memory (WM) and reinforcement sensitivity are thought to give rise to symptoms in the combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of ADHD. Children with ADHD are especially impaired on visuospatial WM, which is composed of short-term memory (STM) and a central executive. Although deficits in visuospatial WM and reinforcement sensitivity appear characteristic of children with ADHD on a group-level, the prevalence and diagnostic validity of these impairments is still largely unknown. Moreover, studies investigating this did not control for the interaction between motivational impairments and cognitive performance in children with ADHD, and did not differentiate between ADHD subtypes. Visuospatial WM and STM tasks were administered in a standard (feedback-only) and a high-reinforcement (feedback + 10 euros) condition, to 86 children with ADHD-C, 27 children with ADHD-I (restrictive subtype), and 62 typically developing controls (aged 8–12). Reinforcement sensitivity was indexed as the difference in performance between the reinforcement conditions. WM and STM impairments were most prevalent in ADHD-C. In ADHD-I, only WM impairments, not STM impairments, were more prevalent than in controls. Motivational impairments were not common (22 % impaired) and equally prevalent in both subtypes. Memory and motivation were found to represent independent neuropsychological domains. Impairment on WM, STM, and/or motivation was associated with more inattention symptoms, medication-use, and lower IQ scores. Similar results were found for analyses of diagnostic validity. The majority of children with ADHD-C is impaired on visuospatial WM. In ADHD-I, STM impairments are not more common than in controls. Within both ADHD subtypes only a minority has an abnormal sensitivity to reinforcement.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Long-term effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in adolescents with
           schizophrenia spectrum disorders
    • Abstract: To compare a sample of adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) treated with either ECT or antipsychotics (AP) alone at long-term follow-up. Patients diagnosed with SSD (n = 21) treated with ECT due to resistance to AP or catatonia under the age of 18 years (ECT group), were compared to a randomly selected group of patients with SSD treated only with AP (non-ECT group) (n = 21) and matched for age, gender, diagnosis and duration of illness. Baseline data were gathered retrospectively from medical records. Subjects were assessed at follow-up (mean of follow-up period = 5.5 years; range 2–9 years) using several clinical scales such as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Improvement in PANSS positive, negative, general, total and CGI and GAF scores between baseline and follow-up assessment did not differ significantly between groups. At follow-up, no differences were observed for the PANSS negative, CGI and GAF scores between groups, but patients in the ECT group still had higher PANSS total, positive and general scores. ECT treatment followed by AP medication in treatment-resistant SSD or catatonia is at least as effective in the long term as AP alone in non-resistant patients.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Predictors of and barriers to service use for children at risk of ADHD:
           longitudinal study
    • Abstract: Many children with, or at risk of, ADHD do not receive healthcare services for their difficulties. This longitudinal study investigates barriers to and predictors of specialist health service use. This is a 5-year follow-up study of children who participated in a cluster randomised controlled trial, which investigated school-level interventions (provision of books with evidence-based information and/or feedback of names of children) for children at risk of ADHD. 162 children who had high levels of ADHD symptoms at age 5 (baseline) were followed up at age 10 years. Using baseline data and follow-up information collected from parents and teachers, children who had and had not used specialist health services over the follow-up period were compared and predictors (symptom severity, comorbid problems, parental perception of burden, parental mental health, and socio-demographic factors) of specialist service use investigated. The most common parent-reported barrier reflected lack of information about who could help. Amongst children using specialist health services who met criteria for ADHD at follow-up, 36 % had been prescribed stimulant medication. Specialist health service use was associated with each one-point increase in teacher-rated symptoms at baseline [inattention symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.40; 95 % CI 1.12–1.76) and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.23; 95 % CI 1.05–1.44)]. Parental mental health problems were also independently associated with service use (for each one-point increase in symptoms, adjusted OR = 1.41; 95 % CI 1.04–1.91). Severity of teacher-rated ADHD symptoms in early school years is a determinant of subsequent service use. Clinicians and teachers should be aware that parental mental health problems are independently associated with service use for children at risk of ADHD.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • The relationship between premorbid body weight and weight at referral, at
           discharge and at 1-year follow-up in anorexia nervosa
    • Abstract: Body mass index (BMI) is one of the most important outcome predictors in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). A low premorbid BMI percentile calculated by the patients recalled premorbid weight and the height at first admission has been found to predict the BMI at first inpatient admission. In this study, we sought to confirm this relationship. We additionally analyze the relationship between premorbid BMI percentile and BMI percentile at discharge from the first inpatient treatment and at 1-year follow-up or alternatively if applicable upon readmission within this time period. We included 161 female patients aged 11–18 years of the multisite ANDI-trial with a DSM-IV diagnosis of AN. We used a multivariate statistical model including the independent variables age, duration of illness, duration of treatment, BMI at admission and BMI percentile at discharge. The relationship between premorbid BMI percentile and BMI at admission was solidly confirmed. In addition to premorbid BMI percentile, BMI at admission and age were significant predictors of BMI percentile at discharge. BMI percentile at discharge significantly predicted BMI percentile at 1-year follow-up. An additional analysis that merely included variables available upon referral revealed that premorbid BMI percentile predicts the 1-year follow-up BMI percentile. Further studies are required to identify the underlying biological mechanisms and to address the respective treatment strategies for AN patients with a low or high premorbid BMI percentile.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European
           adolescents: results from a cross-national representative survey of
           prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates
    • Abstract: Excessive use of online computer games which leads to functional impairment and distress has recently been included as Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the DSM-5. Although nosological classification of this phenomenon is still a matter of debate, it is argued that IGD might be described best as a non-substance-related addiction. Epidemiological surveys reveal that it affects up to 3 % of adolescents and seems to be related to heightened psychosocial symptoms. However, there has been no study of prevalence of IGD on a multi-national level relying on a representative sample including standardized psychometric measures. The research project EU NET ADB was conducted to assess prevalence and psychopathological correlates of IGD in seven European countries based on a representative sample of 12,938 adolescents between 14 and 17 years. 1.6 % of the adolescents meet full criteria for IGD, with further 5.1 % being at risk for IGD by fulfilling up to four criteria. The prevalence rates are slightly varying across the participating countries. IGD is closely associated with psychopathological symptoms, especially concerning aggressive and rule-breaking behavior and social problems. This survey demonstrated that IGD is a frequently occurring phenomenon among European adolescents and is related to psychosocial problems. The need for youth-specific prevention and treatment programs becomes evident.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • Emotional and behavioural difficulties in children and adolescents with
           hearing impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: The aim of this study is to estimate the extent to which children and adolescents with hearing impairment (HI) show higher rates of emotional and behavioural difficulties compared to normally hearing children. Studies of emotional and behavioural difficulties in children and adolescents were traced from computerized systematic searches supplemented, where appropriate, by studies referenced in previous narrative reviews. Effect sizes (Hedges’ g) were calculated for all studies. Meta-analyses were conducted on the weighted effect sizes obtained for studies adopting the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and on the unweighted effect sizes for non-SDQ studies. 33 non-SDQ studies were identified in which emotional and behavioural difficulties in children with HI could be compared to normally hearing children. The unweighted average g for these studies was 0.36. The meta-analysis of the 12 SDQ studies gave estimated effect sizes of 0.23 (95 % CI 0.07, 0.40), 0.34 (95 % CI 0.19, 0.49) and −0.01 (95 % CI −0.32, 0.13) for Parent, Teacher and Self-ratings of Total Difficulties, respectively. The SDQ sub-scale showing consistent differences across raters between groups with HI and those with normal hearing was Peer Problems. Children and adolescents with HI have scores on emotional and behavioural difficulties measures about a quarter to a third of a standard deviation higher than hearing children. Children and adolescents with HI are in need of support to help their social relationships particularly with their peers.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
       
  • A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of DSM-5 specific
           learning disorders in representative school samples from the second to
           sixth grade in Brazil
    • Abstract: Little is known about specific learning disorder (SLD) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and even less from representative school samples in small size cities outside huge urban centers. Few studies addressed the new DSM-5 criteria for SLDs. We investigated the prevalence of DSM-5 SLDs, their comorbidities and correlates in school samples of students from the second to sixth grades living in median cities from four different geographic regions in Brazil. A national test for academic performance covering reading, writing and mathematical abilities was applied. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the K-SADS-PL applied to the primary caregiver. A total of 1618 children and adolescents were included in the study. The following prevalence rates of SLDs were found: 7.6 % for global impairment, 5.4 % for writing, 6.0 % for arithmetic, and 7.5 % for reading impairment. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was the only comorbidity significantly associated with SLD with global impairment (p = 0.031). Anxiety disorders and ADHD were associated with SLD with arithmetic impairment. Significant differences were detected in prevalence rates among cities, and several socio-demographic correlates (age, gender, IQ, and socioeconomic status) were significantly associated with SLD with global impairment in our sample. Careful validation and normatization of instruments to assess academic performance is a major problem in LMICs. As expected, we found a significant heterogeneity in prevalence rates of SLD according to geographic regions considering that Brazil is a country with a robust diversity. SLD with global and arithmetic impairment was significantly associated with psychiatric comorbidities.
      PubDate: 2015-04-30
       
  • Identifying children and adolescents at ultra high risk of psychosis in
           Italian neuropsychiatry services: a feasibility study
    • Abstract: The past 20 years have seen the evolution of the construct of a clinical high-risk (hereafter, HR) state for psychosis. This construct is designed to capture the pre-psychotic phase. Some aspects of this approach, such as its feasibility in children and adolescents, are still under investigation. In the present study, we address the feasibility of implementing prodrome clinics for HR individuals within the framework of Italy’s national child and adolescent neuropsychiatry services and the clinical relevance of a HR diagnosis in this population. Using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) to identify help-seeking patients meeting at least one HR criterion at baseline (HR+), we recruited 50 subjects for a feasibility study. The results obtained show that the Italian version of the CAARMS is easily administrable, causing patients no substantial discomfort. The prevalence of HR+ in our cohort was 44 %, which increased by an additional 18 % when negative symptoms were considered as an experimental inclusion criterion (HRNeg). The HR+ subjects were significantly more impaired in their social and occupational functioning than their HR− peers (subjects not at HR). The cumulative 1-year transition risk of psychosis of the HR+ group was 26.7 %. When the HRNeg group was added, the 1-year transition risk was 17.3 %. We suggest that administration of the CAARMS to children and adolescents with putative prodromal psychosis is feasible and that this assessment can easily be integrated into existing Italian neuropsychiatry services although clinicians should interpret results with caution as results in this age group still have to be replicated.
      PubDate: 2015-04-30
       
  • Identification of determinants of referral and follow-up body mass index
           of adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa: evidence for the role of
           premorbid body weight
    • PubDate: 2015-04-28
       
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder dimensionality: the reliable
           ‘g’ and the elusive ‘s’ dimensions
    • Abstract: The best structural model for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms remains a matter of debate. The objective of this study is to test the fit and factor reliability of competing models of the dimensional structure of ADHD symptoms in a sample of randomly selected and high-risk children and pre-adolescents from Brazil. Our sample comprised 2512 children aged 6–12 years from 57 schools in Brazil. The ADHD symptoms were assessed using parent report on the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA). Fit indexes from confirmatory factor analysis were used to test unidimensional, correlated, and bifactor models of ADHD, the latter including “g” ADHD and “s” symptom domain factors. Reliability of all models was measured with omega coefficients. A bifactor model with one general factor and three specific factors (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity) exhibited the best fit to the data, according to fit indices, as well as the most consistent factor loadings. However, based on omega reliability statistics, the specific inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity dimensions provided very little reliable information after accounting for the reliable general ADHD factor. Our study presents some psychometric evidence that ADHD specific (“s”) factors might be unreliable after taking common (“g” factor) variance into account. These results are in accordance with the lack of longitudinal stability among subtypes, the absence of dimension-specific molecular genetic findings and non-specific effects of treatment strategies. Therefore, researchers and clinicians might most effectively rely on the “g” ADHD to characterize ADHD dimensional phenotype, based on currently available symptom items.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17
       
  • Erratum to: Six years ahead: a longitudinal analysis regarding course and
           predictive value of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in
           children and adolescents
    • PubDate: 2015-04-11
       
 
 
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