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Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 46)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 8)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 5)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 28)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 17)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 7)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.289, h-index: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.651, h-index: 22)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.698, h-index: 38)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 40)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.857, h-index: 31)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.793, h-index: 83)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.041, h-index: 53)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 15)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.519, h-index: 14)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.781, h-index: 52)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 8)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 27)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 159, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 45)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 17)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.542, h-index: 7)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 14)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 5)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 11)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal  
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 22)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 12)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.5, h-index: 29)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.319, h-index: 33)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 13)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 55)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 27)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 10)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 26)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 26)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 46)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 53)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 22)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.601, h-index: 55)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 3)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 23)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 32)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 14)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 60)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.413, h-index: 27)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 46)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 14)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 34)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 58)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 85)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 57)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.161, h-index: 4)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 14)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.173, h-index: 8)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.268, h-index: 9)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.111, h-index: 61)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 8)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 20)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.204, h-index: 6)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 57)
Eurasian Soil Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 10)
EURO J. of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EURO J. on Computational Optimization     Hybrid Journal  
EURO J. on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal  
Europaisches J. fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal  
European Actuarial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 37)
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 12)
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 62)
European Biophysics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 53)
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 51)
European Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 49)
European J. for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European J. for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 2)
European J. of Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 17)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.044, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 69)
European J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European J. of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 25)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.946, h-index: 60)
European J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 25)
European J. of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.67, h-index: 25)

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Journal Cover European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [6 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1435-165X - ISSN (Online) 1018-8827
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 1.269]   [H-I: 51]
  • Continued cognitive-behavior therapy versus sertraline for children and
           adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder that were
           non-responders to cognitive-behavior therapy: a randomized controlled
    • Abstract: Abstract Expert guidelines recommend cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) as a first-line treatment in pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and the addition of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors when CBT is not effective. However, the recommendations for CBT non-responders are not supported by empirical data. Our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of sertraline (SRT) versus continued CBT in children and adolescents that did not respond to an initial course of CBT. Randomized controlled trial conducted in five sites in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, 54 children and adolescents, age 7–17 years, with DSM-IV primary OCD were randomized to SRT or continued CBT for 16 weeks. These participants had been classified as non-responders to CBT following 14 weekly sessions. Primary outcomes were the CY-BOCS total score and clinical response (CY-BOCS <16). The study was a part of the Nordic Long-Term OCD Treatment Study (NordLOTS). Intent-to-treat sample included 50 participants, mean age 14.0 (SD = 2.7) and 48 % (n = 24) males. Twenty-one of 28 participants (75 %) completed continued CBT and 15 of 22 participants (69.2 %) completed SRT. Planned pairwise comparison of the CY-BOCS total score did not reveal a significant difference between the treatments (p = .351), the response rate was 50.0 % in the CBT group and 45.4 % in the SRT group. The multivariate χ 2 test suggested that there were no statistically significant differences between groups (p = .727). Within-group effect sizes were large and significant across both treatments. These large within-group effect sizes suggest that continued treatment for CBT non-responders is beneficial. However, there was no significant between-group differences in SRT or continued CBT at post-treatment.
      PubDate: 2014-09-20
  • Brain changes in early-onset bipolar and unipolar depressive disorders: a
           systematic review in children and adolescents
    • Abstract: Abstract Pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) and unipolar disorder (UD) share common symptomatic and functional impairments. Various brain imaging techniques have been used to investigate the integrity of brain white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) in these disorders. Despite promising preliminary findings, it is still unclear whether these alterations may be considered as common trait markers or may be used to distinguish BD from UD. A systematic literature search of studies between 1980 and September 2013 which reported WM/GM changes in pediatric and adolescent BD/UD, as detected by diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based analysis was conducted. Of the 34 articles judged as eligible, 17 fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were finally retained in this review. More abnormalities have been documented in the brains of children and adolescents with BD than UD. Reductions in the volume of basal ganglia and the hippocampus appeared more specific for pediatric UD, whereas reduced corpus callosum volume and increased rates of deep WM hyperintensities were more specific for pediatric BD. Seminal papers failed to address the possibility that the differences between unipolar and bipolar samples might be related to illness severity, medication status, comorbidity or diagnosis. UD and BD present both shared and distinctive impairments in the WM and GM compartments. More WM abnormalities have been reported in children and adolescents with bipolar disease than in those with unipolar disease, maybe as a result of a low number of DTI studies in pediatric UD. Future longitudinal studies should investigate whether neurodevelopmental changes are diagnosis-specific.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12
  • Prenatal exposure to binge pattern of alcohol consumption: mental health
           and learning outcomes at age 11
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of the study is to investigate whether episodic binge pattern of alcohol consumption during pregnancy is independently associated with child mental health and academic outcomes. Using data from the prospective, population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we investigated the associations between binge patterns of alcohol consumption during pregnancy (≥4 drinks per day) and child mental health [as rated by both parent (n = 4,610) and teacher (n = 4,274)] and academic outcomes [based on examination results (n = 6,939)] at age 11 years. After adjusting for prenatal and postnatal risk factors, binge pattern of alcohol consumption (≥4 drinks in a day on at least one occasion) during pregnancy was associated with higher levels of mental health problems (especially hyperactivity/inattention) in girls at age 11 years, according to parental report. After disentangling binge-pattern and daily drinking, binge-pattern drinking was independently associated with teacher-rated hyperactivity/inattention and lower academic scores in both genders. Episodic drinking involving ≥4 drinks per day during pregnancy may increase risk for child mental health problems and lower academic attainment even if daily average levels of alcohol consumption are low. Episodic binge pattern of drinking appears to be a risk factor for these outcomes, especially hyperactivity and inattention problems, in the absence of daily drinking.
      PubDate: 2014-09-11
  • Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of
           adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health
           in young adulthood
    • Abstract: Abstract This study reports the outcomes of childhood and adolescent eating-disordered behaviour on the development of body mass index (BMI) and psychological functioning in young adulthood in a population-based sample in Germany (the BELLA study). Information at baseline and follow-up was obtained through a telephone interview and mailed self-report questionnaires. At both measurement points, BMI, eating disorder symptoms (SCOFF questionnaire), and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in the same cohort of 771 participants (n = 420 females, n = 351 males). The age range at baseline was 11–17 years, and the age range at follow-up was 17–23 years. High scores for eating-disordered behaviour in childhood or adolescence significantly predicted eating-disordered behaviour in young adulthood (multiplicative effect estimate: 1.31; 95 % CI: 1.2–1.42, p < 0.0001), although there was a decline in prevalence (from 19.3 to 13.8 %, p = 0.002) and severity (mean decrease in SCOFF 0.07, 95 % CI: −0.01–0.14, p = 0.06). After accounting for potentially confounding variables at baseline (SES, probands’ BMI, parental BMI, depressive symptoms), participants with more eating disorder symptoms at baseline had a higher risk of developing overweight (odds ratio (OR): 1.58; 95 % CI: 1.19–2.09, p = 0.001), obesity (OR = 1.67; 95 % CI: 1.03–2.66, p = 0.03), and depressive symptoms at follow-up (additive effect estimate: 0.45; 95 %CI: 0.19–0.7, p = 0.0006). Early symptoms of depression showed a significant relationship with extreme underweight in young adulthood (OR = 1.13; 95 %CI: 1.01–1.25, p = 0.02). The high stability of eating disorder symptoms and the significant association with overweight and worse mental health in adulthood underscore the need for early detection and intervention during childhood and adolescence. Youth with depression should be monitored for the development of restrictive eating disorders.
      PubDate: 2014-09-11
  • Predictors of and barriers to service use for children at risk of ADHD:
           longitudinal study
    • Abstract: Abstract Many children with, or at risk of, ADHD do not receive healthcare services for their difficulties. This longitudinal study investigates barriers to and predictors of specialist health service use. This is a 5-year follow-up study of children who participated in a cluster randomised controlled trial, which investigated school-level interventions (provision of books with evidence-based information and/or feedback of names of children) for children at risk of ADHD. 162 children who had high levels of ADHD symptoms at age 5 (baseline) were followed up at age 10 years. Using baseline data and follow-up information collected from parents and teachers, children who had and had not used specialist health services over the follow-up period were compared and predictors (symptom severity, comorbid problems, parental perception of burden, parental mental health, and socio-demographic factors) of specialist service use investigated. The most common parent-reported barrier reflected lack of information about who could help. Amongst children using specialist health services who met criteria for ADHD at follow-up, 36 % had been prescribed stimulant medication. Specialist health service use was associated with each one-point increase in teacher-rated symptoms at baseline [inattention symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.40; 95 % CI 1.12–1.76) and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.23; 95 % CI 1.05–1.44)]. Parental mental health problems were also independently associated with service use (for each one-point increase in symptoms, adjusted OR = 1.41; 95 % CI 1.04–1.91). Severity of teacher-rated ADHD symptoms in early school years is a determinant of subsequent service use. Clinicians and teachers should be aware that parental mental health problems are independently associated with service use for children at risk of ADHD.
      PubDate: 2014-09-09
  • The role of the mother–child relationship for anxiety disorders and
           depression: results from a prospective-longitudinal study in adolescents
           and their mothers
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aims to examine whether (a) low child valence (emotional connectedness) within the mother–child relationship increases the risk for offspring depression, (b) low child potency (individual autonomy) increases the risk for offspring anxiety, and (c) maternal psychopathology pronounces these associations. We used data from a prospective-longitudinal study of adolescents (aged 14–17 at baseline) and their mothers (N = 1,015 mother–child dyads). Anxiety disorders and depression were assessed repeatedly over 10 years in adolescents (T0, T1, T2, T3) and their mothers (T1, T3) using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Valence and potency were assessed in mothers (T1) with the Subjective Family Image Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression were used to estimate associations between low child valence/potency and offspring psychopathology (cumulated lifetime incidences; adjusted for sex and age). In separate models (low valence or low potency as predictor), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.26 per SD), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety (OR = 1.24) and depression (OR = 1.24). In multiple models (low valence and low potency as predictors), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.19), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety only (OR = 1.22). Low child potency interacted with maternal anxiety on predicting offspring depression (OR = 1.49), i.e. low child potency predicted offspring depression only in the presence of maternal anxiety (OR = 1.33). These findings suggest that low child valence increases the risk for offspring depression, while low child potency increases the risk for offspring anxiety and depression and interacts with maternal psychopathology on predicting offspring depression.
      PubDate: 2014-09-09
  • Prevalence and diagnostic validity of motivational impairments and
           deficits in visuospatial short-term memory and working memory in ADHD
    • Abstract: Abstract Deficits in working memory (WM) and reinforcement sensitivity are thought to give rise to symptoms in the combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of ADHD. Children with ADHD are especially impaired on visuospatial WM, which is composed of short-term memory (STM) and a central executive. Although deficits in visuospatial WM and reinforcement sensitivity appear characteristic of children with ADHD on a group-level, the prevalence and diagnostic validity of these impairments is still largely unknown. Moreover, studies investigating this did not control for the interaction between motivational impairments and cognitive performance in children with ADHD, and did not differentiate between ADHD subtypes. Visuospatial WM and STM tasks were administered in a standard (feedback-only) and a high-reinforcement (feedback + 10 euros) condition, to 86 children with ADHD-C, 27 children with ADHD-I (restrictive subtype), and 62 typically developing controls (aged 8–12). Reinforcement sensitivity was indexed as the difference in performance between the reinforcement conditions. WM and STM impairments were most prevalent in ADHD-C. In ADHD-I, only WM impairments, not STM impairments, were more prevalent than in controls. Motivational impairments were not common (22 % impaired) and equally prevalent in both subtypes. Memory and motivation were found to represent independent neuropsychological domains. Impairment on WM, STM, and/or motivation was associated with more inattention symptoms, medication-use, and lower IQ scores. Similar results were found for analyses of diagnostic validity. The majority of children with ADHD-C is impaired on visuospatial WM. In ADHD-I, STM impairments are not more common than in controls. Within both ADHD subtypes only a minority has an abnormal sensitivity to reinforcement.
      PubDate: 2014-09-06
  • Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European
           adolescents: results from a cross-national representative survey of
           prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates
    • Abstract: Abstract Excessive use of online computer games which leads to functional impairment and distress has recently been included as Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the DSM-5. Although nosological classification of this phenomenon is still a matter of debate, it is argued that IGD might be described best as a non-substance-related addiction. Epidemiological surveys reveal that it affects up to 3 % of adolescents and seems to be related to heightened psychosocial symptoms. However, there has been no study of prevalence of IGD on a multi-national level relying on a representative sample including standardized psychometric measures. The research project EU NET ADB was conducted to assess prevalence and psychopathological correlates of IGD in seven European countries based on a representative sample of 12,938 adolescents between 14 and 17 years. 1.6 % of the adolescents meet full criteria for IGD, with further 5.1 % being at risk for IGD by fulfilling up to four criteria. The prevalence rates are slightly varying across the participating countries. IGD is closely associated with psychopathological symptoms, especially concerning aggressive and rule-breaking behavior and social problems. This survey demonstrated that IGD is a frequently occurring phenomenon among European adolescents and is related to psychosocial problems. The need for youth-specific prevention and treatment programs becomes evident.
      PubDate: 2014-09-05
  • Denoting treatment outcome in child and adolescent psychiatry: a
           comparison of continuous and categorical outcomes
    • Abstract: Abstract Various approaches have been proposed to denote treatment outcome, such as the effect size of the pre-to-posttest change, percentage improvement, statistically reliable change, and clinical significant change. The aim of the study is to compare these approaches and evaluate their aptitude to differentiate among child and adolescent mental healthcare providers regarding their treatment outcome. Comparing outcomes according to continuous and categorical outcome indicators using real-life data of seven mental healthcare providers, three using the Child Behavior Checklist and four using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as primary outcome measure. Within each dataset consistent differences were found between providers and the various methods led to comparable rankings of providers. Statistical considerations designate continuous outcomes as the optimal choice. Change scores have more statistical power and allow for a ranking of providers at first glance. Expressing providers’ performance in proportions of recovered, changed, unchanged, or deteriorated patients has supplementary value, as it denotes outcome in a manner more easily interpreted and appreciated by clinicians, managerial staff, and, last but not least, by patients or their parents.
      PubDate: 2014-09-03
  • Long-term effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in adolescents with
           schizophrenia spectrum disorders
    • Abstract: Abstract To compare a sample of adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) treated with either ECT or antipsychotics (AP) alone at long-term follow-up. Patients diagnosed with SSD (n = 21) treated with ECT due to resistance to AP or catatonia under the age of 18 years (ECT group), were compared to a randomly selected group of patients with SSD treated only with AP (non-ECT group) (n = 21) and matched for age, gender, diagnosis and duration of illness. Baseline data were gathered retrospectively from medical records. Subjects were assessed at follow-up (mean of follow-up period = 5.5 years; range 2–9 years) using several clinical scales such as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Improvement in PANSS positive, negative, general, total and CGI and GAF scores between baseline and follow-up assessment did not differ significantly between groups. At follow-up, no differences were observed for the PANSS negative, CGI and GAF scores between groups, but patients in the ECT group still had higher PANSS total, positive and general scores. ECT treatment followed by AP medication in treatment-resistant SSD or catatonia is at least as effective in the long term as AP alone in non-resistant patients.
      PubDate: 2014-09-03
  • Registration of aggressive incidents in an adolescent forensic psychiatric
           unit and implications for further practice
    • Abstract: Abstract Although aggression is part of daily life in psychiatric units for adolescents, empirical data on its prevalence are sparse. Only few studies have described prevalence of aggressive incidents in adolescent psychiatric wards, and data in forensic psychiatric care are even more limited. Available studies reported high prevalence rates of aggression, ranging from 0.4 to 2.4 incidents of aggression per day across (forensic) child and adolescent psychiatric units. Between 27 and 78 % of all admitted youth committed an aggressive act. In this study, we collected systematically registered data of all aggressive incidents from the first 2 years (2010–2012) on a newly established forensic adolescent psychiatric unit, which used a formal aggression management program embedded in the social competence model, which is based on early intervention in the ‘chain of behavior’ to prevent any further escalation. The inclusion of also minor aggressive incidents is unique in the literature and the clinical relevance is highlighted. A mean of one incident a day took place, with each adolescent involved in at least one incident. Notably, 1.7 aggressive incidents per month made seclusion of restraint use necessary. Based on the social competence theory, the aggression management model suggests intervening early in the cascade of aggression, in order to prevent further escalation and reduce the need for intrusive interventions. Evidence supported that aggression is a contextual event, as external factors clearly influence the incidence of aggression. Aggression management should be built on both relational and structural security.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Somatic symptoms in children with anxiety disorders: an exploratory
           cross-sectional study of the relationship between subjective and objective
    • Abstract: Abstract Symptoms of childhood anxiety disorders include activation of bodily stress systems to fear stimuli, indicating alterations of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Self-reported somatic symptoms are frequently reported, while studies including objective measures of ANS are scarce and show inconsistent results. Even less studied is the relationship between subjective and objective measures of somatic symptoms in anxious children. Increased knowledge of this relationship may have relevance for treatment programmes for anxiety disorders. This cross-sectional study examined subjective and objective measures of ANS responsiveness in a clinical sample of children with anxiety disorders (7–13 years; n = 23) and in healthy controls (HC; n = 22) with equal distributions of gender and age. The subjective measure used was the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which includes a subscale on somatic symptoms. The objective measures consisted of an orthostatic challenge (head-up tilt test), and an isometric muscular exercise (handgrip) while the participants were attached to the Task Force Monitor, a combined hardware and software device used for continuous, non-invasive recording of cardiovascular variables. The anxiety disorder group reported significantly more somatic symptoms than HCs (both by mother and child reports). In contrast, no relevant differences in cardiovascular variables were demonstrated between the anxiety group and HCs. Finally, there were no significant correlations between subjective and objective measures in either group. Because of the small sample size, the findings must be interpreted carefully, but the results do not support previous reports of functional alterations of the ANS in anxious children.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Elevated levels of exhaled nitric oxide in patients with anorexia nervosa
    • Abstract: Background Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in eating behavior and inflammatory response. Moreover, there is evidence that NO production is altered in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Aim To assess whether the overproduction of NO in AN can affect NO level in exhaled air. Materials and methods Exhaled NO level was studied in 23 girls with AN and compared with that of healthy age- and gender-matched nonatopic controls. Results Exhaled NO levels were significantly higher in girls with AN compared with healthy age-matched controls. Conclusions It appears that anorexia nervosa was accompanied by a higher level of exhaled NO, likely resulting from a systemic increase in NO production because of the severe catabolic state.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Screening instruments in child and adolescent psychiatry: general and
           methodological considerations
    • PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Sexual maturation among youth with ADHD and the impact of stimulant
    • Abstract: Objective Evaluate the differences in achieving puberty between ADHD and non-ADHD participants and the effects of medication on that process among ADHD participants. Procedure A subset of participants with ADHD from the Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD (n = 342) were compared with respect to Tanner staging to participants from a comparison group without ADHD (n = 159) at the 36-month follow-up assessment. Further comparisons were made for Tanner stages and Auxology of the participants in the ADHD group who were always (n = 61), never (n = 56), newly (n = 74) and inconsistently (n = 116) treated with stimulants. Results No statistically significant differences in Tanner stages of sexual development were found between the ADHD and non-ADHD groups at the age of assessment (between 10 and 14 years of age) or among the ADHD medication subgroups, although a trend was observed for stimulant-associated delayed pubertal initiation using auxological analysis. Conclusion Children with or without ADHD did not differ in Tanner stages at the 3-year follow-up assessment, and exposure to stimulant medication does not appear to affect sexual development within this age range.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Erratum to: Clinical and biological correlates of adolescent anorexia
           nervosa with impaired cognitive profile
    • PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Common Danish standards in prescribing medication for children and
           adolescents with ADHD
    • Abstract: Abstract Assessing whether symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children are age-inappropriate is essential. Hence, comparing children within one school grade is problematic and the risk of applying relative standards is inherent. Being young-for-grade increases the likelihood of receiving medication in countries with high prevalence of ADHD medication. We test the same hypothesis in a cohort of 418,396 children and find no difference between children who are young-for-grade and old-for-grade. The Danish system, with its restrictive approach to medication and clear diagnostic guidelines seems to have avoided a systematic bias of ADHD medication in young children reported in other countries.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • The relation between bullying and subclinical psychotic experiences and
           the influence of the bully climate of school classes
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aims to examine the association between the bully climate of school classes and the prevalence of subclinical psychotic experiences among students who are involved in bullying (either as bully or as victim). Data were derived from the Dutch health behavior in school-aged children survey of 2005, a nationally representative cross-sectional study with a total of 5,509 adolescents between the age of 12 and 16. The data were analyzed using a multilevel regression analysis. The study revealed that both bullying and being bullied in school classes was associated with an increased level of subclinical psychotic experiences. The bully climate of a school class moderates this effect, i.e., the higher risk for bully-victims on subclinical psychotic experiences was less strong in classes with a higher percentage of classmates involved in bullying. Thus, bully climate has to be taken into account when studying the psychological experiences associated with being bullied.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Striatal volume deficits in children with ADHD who present a poor response
           to methylphenidate
    • Abstract: Abstract Methylphenidate (MPH) is the first choice of medical treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Its mechanism of action is to inhibit the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline mainly in the region of the striatum. It has been estimated that 10–30 % of patients with ADHD do not respond adequately to MPH. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether striatal differences exist between good and poor responders to MPH. The sample included 27 treatment-naïve children with ADHD between the ages of 6 and 14. MPH administration started 1 day after the MRI acquisition. After a month, psychiatrists established the good or poor response to treatment according to clinical criteria. MRI images were analyzed using a technique based on regions of interest applied specifically to the caudate and accumbens nuclei. Sixteen patients showed good response to MPH and 11 a poor one. Regions of interest analysis showed that good responders had a higher concentration of gray matter in the head of both caudate nuclei and the right nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between caudate and accumbens nuclei volume and the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale and Continuous Performance Test improvement. These results support the hypothesis of the involvement of the caudate and accumbens nuclei in MPH response and in ADHD pathophysiology.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • The Swedish Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: a
           presentation of the Association and its work
    • PubDate: 2014-09-01
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