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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2209 journals)

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Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 46)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 8)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 5)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 28)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 17)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 7)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.289, h-index: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.651, h-index: 22)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.698, h-index: 38)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 40)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.857, h-index: 31)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.793, h-index: 83)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.041, h-index: 53)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 15)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.519, h-index: 14)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.781, h-index: 52)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 8)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 27)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 132, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 45)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 17)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.542, h-index: 7)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 14)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 5)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 11)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal  
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 22)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 12)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.5, h-index: 29)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.319, h-index: 33)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 13)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 55)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 27)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 10)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 26)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 26)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 46)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 53)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 22)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.601, h-index: 55)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 3)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 23)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 32)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 14)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 60)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.413, h-index: 27)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 46)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 14)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 34)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 58)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 85)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 57)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.161, h-index: 4)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 14)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.173, h-index: 8)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.268, h-index: 9)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.111, h-index: 61)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 8)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 20)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.204, h-index: 6)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 57)
Eurasian Soil Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 10)
EURO J. of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EURO J. on Computational Optimization     Hybrid Journal  
EURO J. on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal  
Europaisches J. fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal  
European Actuarial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 37)
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 12)
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 62)
European Biophysics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 53)
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 51)
European Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 49)
European J. for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European J. for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 2)
European J. of Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 17)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.044, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 69)
European J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European J. of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 25)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.946, h-index: 60)
European J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 25)

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Journal Cover European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
   [6 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1435-165X - ISSN (Online) 1018-8827
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 1.269]   [H-I: 51]
  • Trends in psychopharmacologic treatment of tic disorders in children and
           adolescents in Germany
    • Abstract: Abstract Data on medical treatment of children and adolescents with tic disorders are scarce. This study examined the administrative prevalence of psychopharmacological prescriptions in this patient group in Germany. Data of the largest German health insurance fund were analysed. In outpatients aged 0–19 years with diagnosed tic disorder, psychotropic prescriptions were evaluated for the years 2006 and 2011. In 2011, the percentage of psychotropic prescriptions was slightly higher than in 2006 (21.2 vs. 18.6 %). The highest prescription prevalence was found in Tourette syndrome (51.5 and 53.0 %, respectively). ADHD drugs were most frequently prescribed, followed by antipsychotics. In 2011, prescriptions of second generation antipsychotics (SGA) were higher and prescriptions of first generation antipsychotics (FGA) lower than in 2006. Concerning prescribed antipsychotic substances, in 2011 risperidone prescriptions were higher and tiapride prescriptions lower. Paediatricians issued 37.4 %, and child and adolescent psychiatrists issued 37.1 % of psychotropic prescriptions. The FGA/SGA ratio was highest in GPs (1.25) and lowest in child and adolescent psychiatrists (0.96). From 2006 to 2011, there was only a slight increase in psychotropic prescriptions for children and adolescents with a diagnosis of tic disorder in Germany, which stands in contrast towards the significant increase in psychotropic prescriptions in other child and adolescent psychiatric disorders (e.g. ADHD). There were marked differences in treatment patterns by tic disorder subgroups, with Tourette syndrome patients receiving most frequently psychopharmacotherapy. Risperidone prescriptions increased, probably reflecting a switch in prescribing practice towards up-to-date treatment guidelines. In primary care physicians, dissemination of current tic disorder treatment guidelines might constitute an important educational goal.
      PubDate: 2014-06-03
       
  • Pathological Internet use among European adolescents: psychopathology and
           self-destructive behaviours
    • Abstract: Abstract Rising global rates of pathological Internet use (PIU) and related psychological impairments have gained considerable attention in recent years. In an effort to acquire evidence-based knowledge of this relationship, the main objective of this study was to investigate the association between PIU, psychopathology and self-destructive behaviours among school-based adolescents in eleven European countries. This cross-sectional study was implemented within the framework of the European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe. A representative sample of 11,356 school-based adolescents (M/F: 4,856/6,500; mean age: 14.9) was included in the analyses. PIU was assessed using the Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire. Psychopathology was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Self-destructive behaviours were evaluated by the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory and Paykel Suicide Scale. Results showed that suicidal behaviours (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), depression, anxiety, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention were significant and independent predictors of PIU. The correlation between PIU, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention was stronger among females, while the link between PIU and symptoms of depression, anxiety and peer relationship problems was stronger among males. The association between PIU, psychopathology and self-destructive behaviours was stronger in countries with a higher prevalence of PIU and suicide rates. These findings ascertain that psychopathology and suicidal behaviours are strongly related to PIU. This association is significantly influenced by gender and country suggesting socio-cultural influences. At the clinical and public health levels, targeting PIU among adolescents in the early stages could potentially lead to improvements of psychological well-being and a reduction of suicidal behaviours.
      PubDate: 2014-06-03
       
  • Understanding the elevated risk of substance use by adolescents in special
           education and residential youth care: the role of individual, family and
           peer factors
    • Abstract: Abstract Adolescents who attend special education for behavioural problems (SEB) and adolescents who live in a residential youth care institution (RYC) are characterised by behavioural disorders and problematic family backgrounds and have an increased risk for substance use. Though it is likely that the high rates of substance use in SEB/RYC settings might be inherent to the risk profile of these adolescents, little is known about the actual role the risk profile has in explaining substance use. The present study examined the extent to which the elevated risk of substance use in SEB/RYC can be explained by high levels of individual, family, and peer risk indicators that are known to characterise their risk profile. Self-report questionnaires from 531 adolescents in RYC (50 % male; mean age 14.7) and 603 adolescents in SEB (81 % male; mean age 14.1) were compared with information from 1,905 adolescents attending special education for students with learning disabilities (SEL) (56 % male; mean age 14.1). Results show that adolescents in SEB/RYC reported higher levels of daily smoking, weekly alcohol consumption, cannabis and hard drug use, as well as greater prevalence of individual, family and peer factors. Though individual, family and in particular peer risk indicators all explain some of the variance in substance use, the differences between adolescents in SEB/RYC compared with SEL remained significant and substantial, with the exception of heavy alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that deviant peer affiliation, in particular, plays a role in explaining high substance use levels in SEB/RYC and those factors relevant to the residential settings and special education schools might also contribute to substance use in these high-risk groups.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Searching for the best approach to assess teachers’ perception of
           inattention and hyperactivity problems at school
    • Abstract: Abstract Although major guidelines in the field and current diagnostic criteria clearly demand an assessment of children’s attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at school, few studies address the fundamental question of which is the best approach for clinicians to get this information from teachers. Three screening strategies for ADHD were applied to teachers of 247 third grade students. They were asked (1) an overt question about potential cases of ADHD in their classroom; (2) to complete a broad-band questionnaire assessing common child mental health problems; (3) to rate ADHD-specific symptoms in a narrow-band questionnaire. Based on the overt question, teachers identified one in five students (21.1 %) as having ADHD; 28 cases (11.3 %) were identified using standard cut-offs for the narrow-band, and 13 (5.3 %) using a standard threshold for the sub-scale of hyperactivity from the broad-band questionnaire. Agreement among strategies was low (k = 0.28). A subsample of students, clinically assessed to confirm screenings, showed modest agreement with final diagnosis. The narrow-band questionnaire had the best diagnostic performance. Multivariate analysis indicated that the presence of a comorbid externalizing disorder was the only variable associated with teachers’ ascertainment of ADHD caseness or non-caseness. Choice of screening strategy significantly affects how teachers report on ADHD symptoms at school. The halo effect of externalizing behaviors impacts the correct identification of true cases of ADHD in the school setting. Clinicians can rely on narrow-band instruments like the SNAP-IV to get information on ADHD symptoms at school from teachers.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • A parent-based intervention programme involving preschoolers with AD/HD
           behaviours: are children’s and mothers’ effects sustained over
           time'
    • Abstract: Abstract To evaluate the 12-month efficacy of a parent-based intervention programme on children’s and mothers’ outcomes in a sample of Portuguese preschoolers displaying early hyperactive and inattentive behaviours (AD/HD behaviours), 52 preschool children whose mothers had received the Incredible Years basic parent training (IY) were followed from baseline to 12 months of follow-up. Reported and observational measures were used. Effects were found in the children’s reported AD/HD behaviours at home and at school after 12 months. Large effect sizes were also found in mothers’ variables: a decrease in self-reported dysfunctional parenting practices and an improved sense of competence and observed positive parenting. However, the improvements in coaching skills that have been observed after 6 months of follow-up decreased over time. No other significant differences were found between 6 and 12 months follow-up, with small effect sizes indicating that the significant post-intervention changes in child and parenting measures were maintained. After 12 months of follow-up, there was a clinically important reduction of over 30 % in reported AD/HD behaviours in 59 % of children. The sustained effects observed both for children and their mothers suggest long-term benefits of IY. Therefore, efforts should be made by Portuguese policy makers and professionals to deliver IY as an early preventive intervention for children displaying early AD/HD behaviours.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Effectiveness of preventive support groups for children of mentally ill or
           addicted parents: a randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Abstract In various countries preventive support groups are offered to children of mentally ill and/or addicted parents to reduce the risk that they will develop problems themselves. This study assessed the effectiveness of Dutch support groups for children aged 8–12 years old in terms of reducing negative cognitions; improving social support, competence, and parent–child interaction (direct intervention goals); and reducing emotional and behavioural problems (ultimate intervention aim). Children from 254 families were randomly assigned to the intervention or a control condition. Parents and children completed questionnaires at baseline and 3 and 6 months later. Emotional and behavioural problems of intervention group children were also assessed 1 year after the start. Univariate analyses of variance showed that children in the intervention group experienced a greater decrease in negative cognitions and sought more social support, immediately after participation and 3 months later, as compared to control group children. They also remained stable in their feelings of social acceptance (competence aspect) immediately after the intervention, whereas these feelings declined in control group children. The intervention and control groups both improved over time in terms of cognitions, competence, parent–child interaction and emotional and behavioural problem scores. Additional improvement in terms of problem scores was found in the intervention group 1 year after baseline. Further enhancement of effectiveness requires re-consideration of the support group goals; it should be studied whether the goals reflect the most important and influential risk and protective factors for this specific population. Besides, effects should be studied over a longer period.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Clinical and cognitive risk factors for psychotic symptoms in 22q11.2
           deletion syndrome: a transversal and longitudinal approach
    • Abstract: Abstract 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. Better identifying risk factors for the emergence of psychotic symptoms in this population is needed to improve clinical assessment and early interventions. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders, hallucinations and delusions were characterized in an original sample of 104 individuals with 22q11DS. Further analysis of positive and negative symptoms was performed in a subsample of 59 individuals. Finally, longitudinal data available in 56 patients were used to explore the developmental trajectories of psychotic symptoms as well as the associations between psychotic symptoms and cognitive functioning. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders and psychotic symptoms were frequent in adolescent and adults with 22q11DS. The severity of hallucinations and non-persecutory delusional ideas discriminated patients at ultra-high risk for conversion to psychosis. Whereas approximately one-third of patients experienced an emergence of psychotic symptoms during a 4-year interval, 20 % displayed transient symptoms. Individuals with psychotic symptoms were characterized by a lower cognitive functioning in the context of the 22q11DS. The present study adds important data on the characteristics and developmental trajectory of psychotic symptoms in this population. This information may ultimately help clinicians dealing with these patients to reduce the duration of untreated psychosis and improve outcome.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Elimination disorders and anxious-depressed symptoms in preschool
           children: a population-based study
    • Abstract: Abstract The prevalence rates of elimination disorders and anxious/depressed symptoms of a representative sample of young children and their associations were assessed. 2,079 children in a defined geographical area were examined at school-entry. A parental questionnaire with 4 questions referring to symptoms of incontinence and 14 items of the anxious/depressed scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was administered. 9.5 % of 6-year-old children wet at night, 2.7 % wet during day and 1.2 % had faecal incontinence. Significantly more boys wet at night (11.7 %) than girls (7.2 %; OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.43–0.78). 12.7 % had clinically relevant anxious/depressed symptoms. Children with at least one elimination disorder had significantly higher T values of the ‘anxious/depressed’ CBCL than continent controls. Children with faecal incontinence had highest T values of the ‘anxious/depressed’ CBCL syndrome scale, significantly higher than those of children with other elimination disorders and controls. Elimination disorders, as well as anxious/depressed symptoms are common at a young age. Boys are more affected by elimination disorders than girls, but not by anxious/depressed symptoms. Children with faecal incontinence have the highest rate of anxious/depressed symptoms.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • A right to confidentiality or a duty to disclose' Ethical guidance for
           conducting prevention research with children and adolescents
    • Abstract: Abstract Conducting prevention research with children and adolescents raises ethical challenges especially regarding confidentiality. Research with children and adolescents often applies methodologies which aims at the disclosure of sensitive information about practices that impact on adolescent mental and physical health such as sexual activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, illegal drug use, self-damaging and suicidal behaviour (ideation and attempts). The scope of the article is to review normative documents that cover topics relevant for confidentiality when conducting research with children and adolescents. A systematic literature search in MEDLINE was performed to identify relevant international and European guidelines and codes of ethics that cover health, behavioural and social science research. Additionally, the European Research Ethics website was consulted for double check. However, none of the documents aimed at biomedical, behavioural or social research offers concrete support in resolving practical research ethics problems regarding confidentiality. The codes show a lack of clarity in any circumstances in which the researcher might have an obligation to breach confidentiality by disclosing sensitive information. Only little information is given on what kind of disclosed information, if disclosed, might justify breaching confidentiality. The findings prove a need for normative documents to address the ethical questions regarding confidentiality arising in research practice explicitly and specifically. Moreover, further forms of ethical guidance should be developed to support ethical research with children and adolescents.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Emotional and behavioral problems in migrant children and adolescents in
           Europe: a systematic review
    • Abstract: Abstract Based on findings of Stevens and Vollebergh [69], who analyzed cross-cultural topics, this review considers the current prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems of native children and adolescents in comparison with children with a migration background in European countries. 36 studies published from 2007 up to 2013 chosen from a systematic literature research were included and analyzed in their perspective design in detail. Previous studies showed great differences in their results: Especially in Germany, many studies compare the heterogeneous group of immigrant children with native children to analyze an ethnic minority or migration process effect. Only a British and Turkish study demonstrates the selection effect in migration. Most Dutch or British studies examined different ethnic groups, e.g. Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Pakistani, Indian or Black migrant children and adolescents. Migrant childhood in Europe could be declared a risk in increasing internalizing problem behavior while the prevalent rate in externalizing problem behavior was comparable between native and migrant children. A migration status itself can often be postulated as a risk factor for children’s mental condition, in particular migration in first generation. Furthermore, several major influence factors in migrant children’s mental health could be pointed out, such as a low socio-economic status, a Non-European origin, an uncertain cultural identity of the parents, maternal harsh parenting or inadequate parental occupation, a minority status, the younger age, gender effects or a specific culture declaration in diseases.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Marked elevation of adrenal steroids, especially androgens, in saliva of
           prepubertal autistic children
    • Abstract: Abstract Autism is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral manifestations, but its biomarkers are not well defined. A strong gender bias typifying autism (it is 4–5 times more prevalent in males) suggests involvement of steroid hormones in autism pathobiology. In order to evaluate the potential roles of such hormones in autism, we compared the salivary levels of 22 steroids in prepubertal autistic male and female children from two age groups (3–4 and 7–9 years old) with those in healthy controls. The steroids were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed that autistic children had significantly higher salivary concentrations of many steroid hormones (both C21 and C19) than control children. These anomalies were more prominent in older autistic children and in boys. The levels of androgens (androstenediol, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone and their polar conjugates) were especially increased, indicative of precocious adrenarche and predictive of early puberty. The concentrations of the steroid precursor, pregnenolone, and of several pregnanolones were also higher in autistic than in healthy children, but cortisol levels were not different. Some steroids, whose levels are raised in autism (allopregnanolone, androsterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their sulfate conjugates) are neuroactive and modulate GABA, glutamate, and opioid neurotransmission, affecting brain development and functioning. These steroids may contribute to autism pathobiology and symptoms such as elevated anxiety, sleep disturbances, sensory deficits, and stereotypies among others. We suggest that salivary levels of selected steroids may serve as biomarkers of autism pathology useful for monitoring the progress of therapy.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Subthreshold attention deficit hyperactivity in children and adolescents:
           a systematic review
    • Abstract: Abstract Subthreshold disorders, conditions with relevant psychiatric symptoms which do not meet the full criteria of a disorder according to the prevailing classification systems, have received increased attention recently. The current paper aims to present a systematic review of subthreshold attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Searching five computerised databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Psychinfo, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) with two categories of search terms [(1) subclinical; subsyndromal; subthreshold (2) ADHD] the authors examined the prevalence of subthreshold ADHD among children and adolescents, the comorbidity of subthreshold ADHD and whether there was already any impact of subthreshold ADHD on functioning. Before these questions were answered, the included articles were examined to see what kinds of definitions of child and adolescent subthreshold ADHD are used and what kinds of assessments are used for measuring subthreshold ADHD among children and adolescents. The results of the 18 articles included show that different definitions of subthreshold ADHD in children and adolescents exist, a large variety of instruments are used, the prevalence rate of subthreshold ADHD is wide-ranging (0.8–23.1 %), the comorbidity of subthreshold ADHD is high and there are several areas where subthreshold ADHD has a meaningful impact on functioning. All these suggest that focusing on subthreshold ADHD can be important in preventative interventions. The results of this systematic review support the dimensional approach of ADHD. Further research on uniform criteria of subthreshold ADHD is needed to support the inclusion of this condition in classification systems.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Effects of structural and dynamic family characteristics on the
           development of depressive and aggressive problems during adolescence. The
           TRAILS study
    • Abstract: Abstract Both structural (i.e., SES, familial psychopathology, family composition) and dynamic (i.e., parental warmth and rejection) family characteristics have been associated with aggressive and depressive problem development. However, it is unclear to what extent (changes in) dynamic family characteristics have an independent effect on problem development while accounting for stable family characteristics and comorbid problem development. This issue was addressed by studying problem development in a large community sample (N = 2,230; age 10–20) of adolescents using Linear Mixed models. Paternal and maternal warmth and rejection were assessed via the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran for Children (EMBU-C). Aggressive and depressive problems were assessed via subscales of the Youth/Adult Self-Report. Results showed that dynamic family characteristics independently affected the development of aggressive problems. Moreover, maternal rejection in preadolescence and increases in paternal rejection were associated with aggressive problems, whereas decreases in maternal rejection were associated with decreases in depressive problems over time. Paternal and maternal warmth in preadolescence was associated with fewer depressive problems during adolescence. Moreover, increases in paternal warmth were associated with fewer depressive problems over time. Aggressive problems were a stable predictor of depressive problems over time. Finally, those who increased in depressive problems became more aggressive during adolescence, whereas those who decreased in depressive problems became also less aggressive. Besides the effect of comorbid problems, problem development is to a large extent due to dynamic family characteristics, and in particular to changes in parental rejection, which leaves much room for parenting-based interventions.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Paternal influences on treatment outcome of behavioral parent training in
           children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aims to explore the influence of paternal variables on outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 83 referred, school-aged children with ADHD were randomly assigned to BPT plus ongoing routine clinical care (RCC) or RCC alone. Treatment outcome was based on parent-reported ADHD symptoms and behavioral problems. Moderator variables included paternal ADHD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and parenting self-efficacy. We conducted repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) for all variables, and then analyzed the direction of interaction effects by repeated measures ANOVA in high and low scoring subgroups. Paternal ADHD symptoms and parenting self-efficacy played a moderating role in decreasing behavioral problems, but not in decreasing ADHD symptoms. Paternal depressive symptoms did not moderate either treatment outcome. BPT is most beneficial in reducing children’s behavioral problems when their fathers have high levels of ADHD symptoms or high-parenting self-efficacy.
      PubDate: 2014-05-31
       
  • Justice and rejection sensitivity in children and adolescents with ADHD
           symptoms
    • Abstract: Abstract Justice sensitivity captures individual differences in the frequency with which injustice is perceived and the intensity of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral reactions to it. Persons with ADHD have been reported to show high justice sensitivity, and a recent study provided evidence for this notion in an adult sample. In 1,235 German 10-to 19-year olds, we measured ADHD symptoms, justice sensitivity from the victim, observer, and perpetrator perspective, the frequency of perceptions of injustice, anxious and angry rejection sensitivity, depressive symptoms, conduct problems, and self-esteem. Participants with ADHD symptoms reported significantly higher victim justice sensitivity, more perceptions of injustice, and higher anxious and angry rejection sensitivity, but significantly lower perpetrator justice sensitivity than controls. In latent path analyses, justice sensitivity as well as rejection sensitivity partially mediated the link between ADHD symptoms and comorbid problems when considered simultaneously. Thus, both justice sensitivity and rejection sensitivity may contribute to explaining the emergence and maintenance of problems typically associated with ADHD symptoms, and should therefore be considered in ADHD therapy.
      PubDate: 2014-05-31
       
  • Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child
           outcomes: beyond the HPA axis
    • Abstract: Abstract Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often proposed mechanism, namely that involving the HPA axis and cortisol, as well as other less well-studied but possibly relevant and complementary mechanisms. We present evidence for a role of the following mechanisms: compromised placental functioning, including the 11β-HSD2 enzyme, increased catecholamines, compromised maternal immune system and intestinal microbiota, and altered health behaviors including eating, sleep, and exercise. The roles of (epi)genetics, the postnatal environment and the fetus are also discussed. We conclude that maternal prenatal psychosocial stress is a complex phenomenon that affects maternal emotions, behavior and physiology in many ways, and may influence the physiology and functioning of the fetus through a network of different pathways. The review concludes with recommendations for future research that helps our understanding of the mechanisms by which maternal prenatal stress exerts its effect on the fetus.
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
       
  • A meta-analysis of cognitive functions in children and adolescents with
           major depressive disorder
    • Abstract: Abstract The cumulative prevalence rates of major depressive disorders (MDD) in children and adolescents averages 9.5 %. The majority of adults with MDD suffer from significant cognitive deficits, but the available neuropsychological data on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents with MDD yielded mixed results. Meta-analytic methods were used to assess the severity of cognitive deficits in children and adolescents with MDD as compared to healthy children and adolescents. We identified 17 studies comparing the intelligence, executive functions, verbal memory and attention of 447 patients with DSM-IV MDD and 1,347 healthy children and adolescents. Children and adolescents with MDD performed 0.194–0.772 (p < 0.001) standard mean differences worse than healthy control subjects in neuropsychological test procedures. The most pronounced deficits of children and adolescents with MDD were seen in inhibition capacity (STD = 0.772; p = 0.002), phonemic verbal fluency (STD = 0.756; p = 0.0001), sustained attention (STD = 0.522; p = 0.000), verbal memory (STD = 0.516; p = 0.0009) and planning (STD = 0.513; p = 0.014). We revealed cognitive deficits of children and adolescents with MDD in various cognitive domains. Long-term studies should investigate how the cognitive deficits of depressed youth affect their academic and social functioning, and whether age, comorbidity and depression severity play a role in this process.
      PubDate: 2014-05-29
       
  • ESAT and M-CHAT as screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders at
           18 months in the general population: issues of overlap and association
           with clinical referrals
    • Abstract: Abstract The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) and the Early Screening of Autistic Traits (ESAT) were designed to screen for autism spectrum disorders in very young children. The aim of this study was to explore proportions of children that screened positive on the ESAT or the M-CHAT and to investigate if screening positive on the ESAT and M-CHAT is associated with clinical referral by 18 months and other aspects of children’s development, health, and behavior. In this study, the mothers of 12,948 18-month-old children returned a questionnaire consisting of items from the ESAT and M-CHAT, plus questions about clinical and developmental characteristics. The M-CHAT identified more screen-positive children than the ESAT, but the ESAT was associated with more clinical referrals and tended to identify more children with medical, language, and behavioral problems. A post hoc analysis of combining the two instruments found this to be more effective than the individual instruments alone in identifying children referred to clinical services at 18 months. Further analysis at the level of single items is warranted to improve these screening instruments.
      PubDate: 2014-05-28
       
  • Maternal use of antidepressant or anxiolytic medication during pregnancy
           and childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes: a systematic review
    • Abstract: Abstract Antidepressant and anxiolytic medications are widely prescribed and used by pregnant women for acute and maintenance therapy. These drugs are able to pass the placental barrier, and may potentially influence fetal and brain development. It is possible that exposure to prenatal antidepressants or anxiolytic medication may disturb neurotransmitter systems in the brain and have long-lasting consequences on neurodevelopment in the offspring. As all medication during pregnancy may pose a certain risk to the developing fetus, the potential benefits of the medication must be weighed against the risks for both mother and her unborn child. Therefore, information to guide patients and physicians to make a well-balanced decision for the appropriate treatment during pregnancy is needed. In this systematic review, an overview of maternal use of antidepressant or anxiolytic medication during pregnancy and childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes is provided. Some studies indicate a relation between prenatal exposure to antidepressants and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes such as delayed motor development/motor control, social difficulties, internalizing problems and autism, but cannot rule out confounding by indication. Overall, the results of the observational studies have been inconsistent, which makes translation of the findings into clinical recommendations difficult. More well-designed observational studies and also randomized controlled trials (e.g., maintenance treatment vs. cessation) are needed to move forward and provide a comprehensive evaluation of the risks and benefits of antidepressant and anxiolytic use during pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2014-05-27
       
  • Sleep in child and adolescent psychiatry: overlooked and underappreciated
    • PubDate: 2014-05-13
       
 
 
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