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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2302 journals)

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Diabetologia Notes de lecture     Hybrid Journal  
Diabetology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 5)
Dialectical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.314, h-index: 9)
Die Weltwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 15)
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 7)
Digestive Diseases and Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 89)
Directieve therapie     Hybrid Journal  
Discrete & Computational Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 40)
Discrete Event Dynamic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.42, h-index: 32)
Distributed and Parallel Databases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.766, h-index: 30)
Distributed Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 31)
DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater     Full-text available via subscription  
Documenta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 40)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 10)
Doklady Biological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Doklady Botanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 12)
Doklady Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.48, h-index: 17)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.345, h-index: 13)
Doklady Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 17)
Douleur et Analg├ęsie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.113, h-index: 6)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 8)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access  
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.481, h-index: 5)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 52)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 9)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 16)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, h-index: 7)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 29)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 21)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 9)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 27)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 26)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 43)
Economia e Politica Industriale     Hybrid Journal  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.375, h-index: 6)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.527, h-index: 44)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 9)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.557, h-index: 34)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 14)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.909, h-index: 93)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.333, h-index: 56)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 234, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.374, h-index: 15)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.776, h-index: 61)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 9)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 32)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 219, SJR: 1.785, h-index: 52)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 18)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.883, h-index: 10)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.582, h-index: 16)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 8)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.407, h-index: 15)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.678, h-index: 25)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 16)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 31)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.285, h-index: 39)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 15)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 57)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.638, h-index: 31)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 14)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.176, h-index: 7)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 30)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 32)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.632, h-index: 54)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 58)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 28)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 63)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 4)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 24)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.013, h-index: 36)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.942, h-index: 66)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 31)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 52)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.885, h-index: 46)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.4, h-index: 17)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.608, h-index: 38)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.287, h-index: 63)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.731, h-index: 89)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 62)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 6)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 3)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 16)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.206, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover   European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
  [SJR: 1.768]   [H-I: 57]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1435-165X - ISSN (Online) 1018-8827
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Erratum to: Six years ahead: a longitudinal analysis regarding course and
           predictive value of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in
           children and adolescents
    • PubDate: 2015-04-11
       
  • Genetics in child and adolescent psychiatry: methodological advances and
           conceptual issues
    • Abstract: Abstract Discovering the genetic basis of early-onset psychiatric disorders has been the aim of intensive research during the last decade. We will first selectively summarize results of genetic research in child and adolescent psychiatry by using examples from different disorders and discuss methodological issues, emerging questions and future directions. In the second part of this review, we will focus on how to link genetic causes of disorders with physiological pathways, discuss the impact of genetic findings on diagnostic systems, prevention and therapeutic interventions. Finally we will highlight some ethical aspects connected to genetic research in child and adolescent psychiatry. Advances in molecular genetic methods have led to insights into the genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders, but not yet provided definite pathways to pathophysiology. If replicated, promising findings from genetic studies might in some cases lead to personalized treatments. On the one hand, knowledge of the genetic basis of disorders may influence diagnostic categories. On the other hand, models also suggest studying the genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders across diagnoses and clinical groups.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08
       
  • Measuring quantitative autism traits in families: informant effect or
           intergenerational transmission?
    • Abstract: Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a high degree of heritability, but there is still much debate about specific causal genes and pathways. To gain insight into patterns of transmission, research has focused on the relatedness of quantitative autism traits (QAT) between family members, mostly using questionnaires. Yet, different kinds of bias may influence research results. In this paper, we focus on possible informant effects and, taking these into account, on possible intergenerational transmission of QAT. This study used multiple informant data retrieved via the Social Responsiveness Scale from 170 families with at least one member with ASD. Using intraclass correlations (ICCs) and mixed model analyses, we investigated inter-informant agreement and differences between parent and teacher reports on children and between self- and other-reports on adults. Using structural equation modelling (SEM), we investigated the relatedness of QAT between family members in ASD families. Parent–teacher agreement about social responsiveness was poor, especially for children with ASD, though agreement between parents was moderate to strong for affected and unaffected children. Agreement between self- and other-report in adult men was good, but only moderate in women. Agreement did not differ between adults with and without ASD. While accounting for informant effects, our SEM results corroborated the assortative mating theory and the intergenerational transmission of QAT from both fathers and mothers to their offspring.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Bully/victims: a longitudinal, population-based cohort study of their
           mental health
    • Abstract: Abstract It has been suggested that those who both bully and are victims of bullying (bully/victims) are at the highest risk of adverse mental health outcomes. However, unknown is whether most bully/victims were bullies or victims first and whether being a bully/victim is more detrimental to mental health than being a victim. A total of 4101 children were prospectively studied from birth, and structured interviews and questionnaires were used to assess bullying involvement at 10 years (elementary school) and 13 years of age (secondary school). Mental health (anxiety, depression, psychotic experiences) was assessed at 18 years. Most bully/victims at age 13 (n = 233) had already been victims at primary school (pure victims: n = 97, 41.6 % or bully/victims: n = 47, 20.2 %). Very few of the bully/victims at 13 years had been pure bullies previously (n = 7, 3 %). After adjusting for a wide range of confounders, both bully/victims and pure victims, whether stable or not from primary to secondary school, were at increased risk of mental health problems at 18 years of age. In conclusion, children who are bully/victims at secondary school were most likely to have been already bully/victims or victims at primary school. Children who are involved in bullying behaviour as either bully/victims or victims at either primary or secondary school are at increased risk of mental health problems in late adolescence regardless of the stability of victimization. Clinicians should consider any victimization as a risk factor for mental health problems.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • The role of the mother–child relationship for anxiety disorders and
           depression: results from a prospective-longitudinal study in adolescents
           and their mothers
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aims to examine whether (a) low child valence (emotional connectedness) within the mother–child relationship increases the risk for offspring depression, (b) low child potency (individual autonomy) increases the risk for offspring anxiety, and (c) maternal psychopathology pronounces these associations. We used data from a prospective-longitudinal study of adolescents (aged 14–17 at baseline) and their mothers (N = 1,015 mother–child dyads). Anxiety disorders and depression were assessed repeatedly over 10 years in adolescents (T0, T1, T2, T3) and their mothers (T1, T3) using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Valence and potency were assessed in mothers (T1) with the Subjective Family Image Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression were used to estimate associations between low child valence/potency and offspring psychopathology (cumulated lifetime incidences; adjusted for sex and age). In separate models (low valence or low potency as predictor), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.26 per SD), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety (OR = 1.24) and depression (OR = 1.24). In multiple models (low valence and low potency as predictors), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.19), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety only (OR = 1.22). Low child potency interacted with maternal anxiety on predicting offspring depression (OR = 1.49), i.e. low child potency predicted offspring depression only in the presence of maternal anxiety (OR = 1.33). These findings suggest that low child valence increases the risk for offspring depression, while low child potency increases the risk for offspring anxiety and depression and interacts with maternal psychopathology on predicting offspring depression.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Predictors of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in early-onset first
           episodes of psychosis: a support vector machine model
    • Abstract: Abstract Identifying early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) at a very early stage remains challenging. To assess the diagnostic predictive value of multiple types of data at the emergence of early-onset first-episode psychosis (FEP), various support vector machine (SVM) classifiers were developed. The data were from a 2-year, prospective, longitudinal study of 81 patients (age 9–17 years) with early-onset FEP and a stable diagnosis during follow-up and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). The input was different combinations of baseline clinical, neuropsychological, magnetic resonance imaging brain volumetric and biochemical data, and the output was the diagnosis at follow-up (SSD vs. non-SSD, SSD vs. HC, and non-SSD vs. HC). Enhanced recursive feature elimination was performed for the SSD vs. non-SSD classifier to select and rank the input variables with the highest predictive value for a diagnostic outcome of SSD. After validation with a test set and considering all baseline variables together, the SSD vs. non-SSD, SSD vs. HC and non-SSD vs. HC classifiers achieved an accuracy of 0.81, 0.99 and 0.99, respectively. Regarding the SSD vs. non-SSD classifier, a combination of baseline clinical variables (severity of negative, disorganized symptoms and hallucinations or poor insight) and neuropsychological variables (impaired attention, motor coordination, and global cognition) showed the highest predictive value for a diagnostic outcome of SSD. Neuroimaging and biochemical variables at baseline did not add to the predictive value. Thus, comprehensive clinical/cognitive assessment remains the most reliable approach for differential diagnosis during early-onset FEP. SVMs may constitute promising multivariate tools in the search for predictors of diagnostic outcome in FEP.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Relationship between particular areas of victimization and mental health
           in the context of multiple victimizations in Spanish adolescents
    • Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this paper is to study the relationship between different areas of victimization (e.g., sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms taking into account the full range of victimizations adolescents suffer. The final aim is to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that those studies which focus on just one area of victimization may be introducing into our psychological knowledge. A total of 923 adolescents (62.4 % girls) between 14 and 18 years old were recruited from seven secondary schools in Catalonia, Spain. The Youth Self-report and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire were employed to assess psychological problems (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) and victimization, respectively. The large majority of adolescents reported having experienced more than one area of victimization. However, Conventional Crime area was the one that was more reported in isolation. Overall, the explicative power of a particular area of victimization was greatly reduced or even lost its significance when the other areas were taken into account. However, some areas remained significant and were different by gender. Clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of victimizations adolescents suffer when intending to understand the psychological aftermaths of victimization. Some areas of victimization appear to be more important at explaining particular psychological symptoms, those being Peer and Sibling Victimization in the case of boys, and both Conventional Crime and Internet Victimization in the case of girls.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Executive function and attention in children and adolescents with
           depressive disorders: a systematic review
    • Abstract: Abstract Numerous studies have shown that Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in adults is associated with deficits in cognitive control. Particularly, impairment on executive function (EF) tasks has been observed. Research into EF deficits in children and adolescents with MDD has reported mixed results and it is currently unclear whether paediatric MDD is characterised by impairments in EF and attention. PsycInfo, Scopus and Medline were systematically searched to identify all studies that have investigated EF and attention in paediatric depressive disorders between 1994 and 2014. 33 studies meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria were identified. While across different domains of EF some studies identified a deficit in the clinical group, the majority of studies failed to find deficits in response inhibition, attentional set shifting, selective attention, verbal working memory, and verbal fluency. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between depressive disorders in children and adolescents and spatial working memory processing, sustaining attention, planning, negative attentional bias and measures of ‘hot’ EF. There is little support for EF deficits in paediatric depression. However, there are numerous methodological problems that may account for null findings. Alternatively, chronicity and/or severity of symptoms may explain discrepancies between cognitive deficits in adult and paediatric MDD. Recommendations for future studies are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Enrolment of children and adolescents in psychosocial care: more likely
           with low family social support and poor parenting skills
    • Abstract: Abstract Knowledge about determinants of child and adolescent enrolment in psychosocial care concerns only single types of care and usually only socio-demographic factors. The social environment is also a likely key determinant but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between family social support, parenting skills and child and adolescent enrolment in psychosocial care. We obtained data on 1,331 children (response rate 56.6 %), 4–18 years old, enrolled in preventive child health care, and child and adolescent social care and mental health care because of psychosocial problems, and on 463 children (response rate 70.3 %) not enrolled in psychosocial care. Results showed that enrolment in psychosocial care was associated with low family social support (odds ratio; 95 %-confidence interval: 3.2; 2.4–4.4), and with poor parenting skills, i.e. poor supervision (1.5; 1.1–2.1) and inconsistent disciplining (1.5; 1.1–2.1). Children’s psychosocial problems partially mediated the associations with family social support and completely with parenting skills. Children’s problems did not moderate the associations. Positive parenting was not associated with care enrolment. We conclude that low family social support and poor parenting are important factors associated with enrolment, in particular because they are associated with more frequent occurrence of children’s psychosocial problems. This implies that professionals and policymakers need to be aware that factors in children’s social environment are related with enrolment in psychosocial care, in addition to children’s psychosocial problems.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Correlates, stability and predictors of borderline personality disorder
           among previously suicidal youth
    • Abstract: Abstract This article examines a large cohort of previously suicidal adolescents, identifying those that surpassed threshold criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD), according to the Abbreviated Diagnostic Interview of Borderlines (Ab-DIB), and determining the stability, correlates and predictors of BPD from early-to-late adolescence. Two hundred and eighty-six youth (mean baseline age 14.6 years; SD 1.5), presenting consecutively to a metropolitan pediatric hospital emergency department for evaluation of suicidality, were assessed at initial consultation for Axis I and II disorders and demographic and clinical variables. Two hundred and twenty-nine (80 %) were re-assessed for those variables 4 years later and 204 (70.3 %) had complete data sets at recruitment and follow-up. Previously suicidal youths who met BPD threshold on the Ab-DIB at recruitment were distinguishable at baseline from those who did not in conduct disorder symptoms (p < 0.003), lower levels of functioning (p < 0.001), drug use (p < 0.001), stressful life events (p < 0.003) and family relations (p < 0.001). The BPD diagnosis was consistent, according to this measure, at baseline and follow-up for 76 % of participants. Four groups with respect to borderline pathology (persisting, remitting, emerging and never) were identified (ICC = 0.603, 95 % CI = 0.40–0.78). Persistent BPD status was predictable by older age at presentation (p < 0.01) and level of functioning (p < 0.05). Eight percent were also suicidal at the 4-year follow-up. Using a self-report measure of BPD, we suggest that suicidal youth can indeed be diagnosed with the disorder at 14 years old, supporting the shift from DSM-IV to DSM-5, given what appears to be its temporal stability, differentiation of those suffering with considerable symptomatology or not, and predictors of its status in late adolescence. The low suicidality rate at follow-up indicates a good short-term prognosis.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Challenges in children’s enrolment to psychosocial services
    • PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Minor neurodevelopmental impairments are associated with increased
           occurrence of ADHD symptoms in children born extremely preterm
    • Abstract: Abstract ADHD is more common in children born preterm than at term. The purpose of the study was to examine if, and to what extent, ADHD symptoms are associated with minor neurodevelopmental impairments (NDI) in extremely preterm children. In a national population-based cohort with gestational age 22–27 weeks or birth weight <1,000 g assessed at 5 years of age, scores on Yale Children’s Inventory (YCI) scales (seven scales) were related to normal functions vs. NDI defined as mild impairments in cognitive function (IQ 70–84), motor function (Movement Assessment Battery for children score > the 95th percentile or freely ambulatory cerebral palsy), vision (correctable), and hearing (no hearing aid). YCI was completed for 213 of 258 eligible children (83 %). Children with minor NDIs (n = 98) had significantly higher scores (more ADHD symptoms) than those without NDI (n = 115) on the YCI scales of Attention, Tractability, Adaptability and Total score. Increasing numbers of minor NDIs were associated with higher mean YCI scores. In multivariate analysis only decreased hearing, IQ, and male gender were significantly associated with scores on the Attention scale. Thirty-three children (16 %) had scores >3 on the Attention scale (probably ADHD), and the proportion was significantly higher for those with mild NDIs compared to those without (Odds ratio = 2.7, 95 % CI 1.3–6.0). Children born extremely preterm with minor NDIs were more likely to have ADHD symptoms than those with no NDI, and increasing number of minor NDIs were associated with more ADHD symptoms.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Treatment use in a prospective naturalistic cohort of children and
           adolescents with catatonia
    • Abstract: Abstract We aimed to (1) describe the treatment used in a large sample of young inpatients with catatonia, (2) determine which factors were associated with improvement and (3) benzodiazepine (BZD) efficacy. From 1993 to 2011, 66 patients between the ages of 9 and 19 years were consecutively hospitalized for a catatonic syndrome. We prospectively collected sociodemographic, clinical and treatment data. In total, 51 (77 %) patients underwent a BZD trial. BZDs were effective in 33 (65 %) patients, who were associated with significantly fewer severe adverse events (p = 0.013) and resulted in fewer referrals for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (p = 0.037). Other treatments included ECT (N = 12, 18 %); antipsychotic medications, mostly in combination; and treatment of an underlying medical condition, when possible. For 10 patients, four different trials were needed to achieve clinical improvement. When all treatments were combined, there was a better clinical response in acute-onset catatonia (p = 0.032). In contrast, the response was lower in boys (p = 0.044) and when posturing (p = 0.04) and mannerisms (p = 0.008) were present as catatonic symptoms. The treatment response was independent of the underlying psychiatric or systemic medical condition. As in adults, BZDs should be the first-line symptomatic treatment for catatonia in young patients, and ECT should be a second option. Additionally, the absence of an association between the response to treatment and the underlying psychiatric condition suggests that catatonia should be considered as a syndrome.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
       
  • Mechanisms in the relation between GABRA2 and adolescent externalizing
           problems
    • Abstract: Abstract Conduct problems, alcohol problems and hyperactive–inattentive symptoms co-occur at a high rate and are heritable in adolescence. The γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor, α2 gene (GABRA2) is associated with a broad spectrum of externalizing problems and disinhibitory-related traits. The current study tested whether two important forms of disinhibition in adolescence, impulsivity and sensation seeking, mediated the effects of GABRA2 on hyperactive–inattentive symptoms, conduct problems, and alcohol problems. Participants were assessed at two waves (11–17 and 12–18 years old; N = 292). Analyses used the GABRA2 SNP, rs279858, which tags the two complementary (yin–yang) GABRA2 haplotypes. Multiple informants reported on adolescents’ impulsivity and sensation seeking and adolescents self-reported their hyperactive–inattentive symptoms, conduct problems and lifetime alcohol problems. Impulsivity mediated the effect of GABRA2 on alcohol problems, hyperactive–inattentive symptoms, and conduct problems, whereas sensation seeking mediated the effect of GABRA2 on alcohol problems (AA/AG genotypes conferred risk). GABRA2 directly predicted adolescent alcohol problems, but the GG genotype conferred risk. Results suggest that there may be multiple pathways of risk from GABRA2 to adolescent externalizing problems, and suggest important avenues for future research.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
       
  • Sex-specific and time-dependent effects of prenatal stress on the early
           behavioral symptoms of ADHD: a longitudinal study in China
    • Abstract: Abstract There is increasing evidence that prenatal stressful life events (SLEs) may be a potential risk factor for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the sex-specific and time-dependent effects of prenatal stress on ADHD are less clear. In this prospective longitudinal study, data on prenatal SLEs during different stages of gestation and indicators of buffers against stress, including maternal social support and avoidance coping, were obtained from 1765 pregnant women at 32 weeks of gestation. The behavioral symptoms of ADHD in children aged 48–54 months were evaluated by reports from the parents. There were 226 children (12.8 %) above the clinically significant cutoff for ADHD. After adjusting for potential confounders, boys whose mother experienced severe SLEs in the second trimester had a significantly increased risk (OR = 2.41, 95 % CI: 1.03–5.66) of developing ADHD symptoms compared with boys whose mothers did not experience severe SLEs at this time. However, no significantly increased risk of ADHD symptoms was observed in girls born to mothers experienced prenatal severe SLEs. Additionally, significant interaction effects of prenatal SLEs, social support and coping style on ADHD symptoms were found in males. Boys whose mothers experienced severe SLEs during the second trimester accompanied by a higher score for avoidance coping (OR = 3.31, 95 % CI: 1.13–9.70) or a lower score for social support (OR = 4.39, 95 % CI: 1.05–18.31) were likely to be at a higher risk for ADHD symptoms. The epidemiological evidence in this prospective follow-up study suggests that the effect of prenatal SLEs on ADHD symptoms in offspring may depend on the timing of prenatal stress and may vary according to the sex of the offspring.
      PubDate: 2015-03-20
       
  • Suicidality among military-connected adolescents in California schools
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous research indicates that suicidal ideation is higher among military-connected youth than non military-connected youth. This study extends prior work by examining suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts in military-connected and non military-connected adolescents. Data were gathered from 390,028 9th and 11th grade students who completed the 2012–2013 California Healthy Kids Survey. Bivariate comparisons and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted to examine differences in suicidal ideation, plans, attempts, and attempts requiring medical attention between military and not military-connected youth. In multivariate logistic analyses, military-connected youth were at increased risk for suicidal ideation (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI = 1.37–1.49), making a plan to harm themselves (OR = 1.19, CI = 1.06–1.34), attempting suicide (OR = 1.67, CI = 1.43–1.95), and an attempted suicide which required medical treatment (OR = 1.71, CI = 1.34–2.16). These results indicate that military-connected youth statewide are at a higher risk for suicidal ideation, plans, attempts, and attempts requiring medical care because of suicidal behaviors. It is suggested that policies be implemented to increase awareness and screening among primary care providers, school personnel, and military organizations that serve military-connected youth.
      PubDate: 2015-03-20
       
  • Mental health of adolescents before and after the death of a parent or
           sibling
    • Abstract: Abstract The death of a parent or sibling (family bereavement) is associated with mental health problems in approximately, 25 % of the affected children. However, it is still unknown whether mental health problems of family-bereaved adolescents are predicted by pre-existing mental health problems, pre-loss family functioning, or multiple bereavements. In this study, a prospective longitudinal assessment of change in mental health following bereavement was done in a large representative sample from the ‘Tracking Adolescents Individual Lives Survey’ (TRAILS). This is a four-wave prospective cohort study of Dutch adolescents (n = 2230) of whom 131 (5.9 %) had experienced family bereavement at the last wave (T4). Family-bereaved adolescents reported more internalizing problems, within 2 years after family bereavement, compared to the non-bereaved peers, while taking into account the level of internalizing problems before the bereavement. A clinically relevant finding was that 22 % new cases were found in family-bereaved, in comparison to 5.5 % new cases in non-bereaved. Low SES predicted more internalizing problems in family-bereaved but not in non-bereaved adolescents. Family functioning, reported by the adolescent, did not predict mental health problems within 2 years. Multiple family bereavements predicted fewer externalizing problems. In conclusion, internalizing problems increase in adolescents after family bereavement in comparison to non-bereaved and these can be predicted by pre-loss factors. Awareness among professionals regarding the risks for aggravation of mental health problems after family loss is needed.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19
       
  • Emotional and behavioural difficulties in children and adolescents with
           hearing impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study is to estimate the extent to which children and adolescents with hearing impairment (HI) show higher rates of emotional and behavioural difficulties compared to normally hearing children. Studies of emotional and behavioural difficulties in children and adolescents were traced from computerized systematic searches supplemented, where appropriate, by studies referenced in previous narrative reviews. Effect sizes (Hedges’ g) were calculated for all studies. Meta-analyses were conducted on the weighted effect sizes obtained for studies adopting the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and on the unweighted effect sizes for non-SDQ studies. 33 non-SDQ studies were identified in which emotional and behavioural difficulties in children with HI could be compared to normally hearing children. The unweighted average g for these studies was 0.36. The meta-analysis of the 12 SDQ studies gave estimated effect sizes of 0.23 (95 % CI 0.07, 0.40), 0.34 (95 % CI 0.19, 0.49) and −0.01 (95 % CI −0.32, 0.13) for Parent, Teacher and Self-ratings of Total Difficulties, respectively. The SDQ sub-scale showing consistent differences across raters between groups with HI and those with normal hearing was Peer Problems. Children and adolescents with HI have scores on emotional and behavioural difficulties measures about a quarter to a third of a standard deviation higher than hearing children. Children and adolescents with HI are in need of support to help their social relationships particularly with their peers.
      PubDate: 2015-03-11
       
  • Prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders among adolescents living in
           residential youth care
    • Abstract: Abstract Most adolescents are placed in residential youth care (RYC) because of severe psychosocial strains and child maltreatment, which represent risk factors for developing mental disorders. To plan RYC units and ensure that residents receive evidence-based psychiatric interventions, it is necessary to obtain reliable and valid prevalence estimates of mental disorders in this population. However, there is a lacuna of research on diagnoses derived from standardized clinical interviews. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders applying diagnostic interviews in an entire population of adolescents living in RYC in Norway. All young people in RYC were invited to participate in the study. Eighty-six RYC institutions with 601 eligible adolescents were included and 400 adolescents, 12–20 years old, participated in the study, yielding a response rate of 67 %. Anonymous Child Behaviour Checklist scores for 141 (70 %) of the declining residents were also available, allowing diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) for 541 youths to be estimated. Diagnoses were assessed by trained interviewers with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment interview (CAPA). Seventy-six point two per cent (71.5–80.8 CI 95 %) of adolescents received at least one 3-month DSM-IV diagnosis. Prevalence rates for internalizing psychiatric disorders were higher than for behavioural disorders. Comorbidity was high between these two groups. Mental disorders were prevalent among children and youth in RYC. Our results create major concerns and challenge the existing organization of the RYC system.
      PubDate: 2015-03-07
       
  • Are all the 18 DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria equally useful for diagnosing
           ADHD and predicting comorbid conduct problems'
    • Abstract: Abstract In view of ICD-11 revision, we evaluate whether the 18 DSM-IV diagnostic items retained by DSM-5 could be further improved (i) in predicting ADHD ‘caseness’ and ‘impairment’ and (ii) discriminating ADHD without CD (ADHD − CD) cases from ADHD with CD (ADHD + CD) cases. In a multi-centre study sample consisting of 1497 ADHD probands and 291 unaffected subjects, 18 diagnostic items were examined for redundancy; then each item was evaluated for association with caseness, impairment and CD status using Classical Test Theory, Item-Response Theory and logistic regression methods. First, all 18 DSM-IV items contributed significantly and independently to the clinical diagnosis of ADHD. Second, not all the DSM-IV items carried equal weighting. “Often loses things”, “forgetfulness” and “difficulty sustaining attention” mark severity for Inattentiveness (IA) items and “often unduly noisy”, “exhibits a persistent pattern of restlessness”, “leaves seat in class” and “often blurts out answers” for Hyperactivity/Impulsivity (HI) items. “Easily distracted”, “inattentive to careless mistakes”, “often interrupts” and “often fidgets” are associated with milder presentations. In the IA domain, “distracted” yields most information in the low-severity range of the latent trait, “careless” in the mid-severity range and “loses” in the high-severity range. In the HI domains, “interrupts” yields most information in the low-severity range and “motor” in the high-severity range. Third, all 18 items predicted impairment. Fourth, specific ADHD items are associated with ADHD + CD status. The DSM-IV diagnostic items were valid and not redundant; however, some carried more weight than others. All items were associated with impairment.
      PubDate: 2015-03-06
       
 
 
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