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ISSN (Print) 1573-1510 - ISSN (Online) 1567-7419
• Double-averaged rough-bed open-channel flow with high Glossosoma (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae) abundance
• Abstract: Abstract Spatially averaged velocity distributions, turbulence characteristics, and stream bed roughness elevations were collected in two streams with rough-bed substrate. Variogram analysis of substrate roughness height yielded characteristic length scales of the stream bed over which bed elevations were correlated from 0.14 to 0.41 m. Temporally and spatially averaged (double-averaged) vertical velocity profiles followed a composite distribution consisting of a linear distribution below the roughness crest height and a power or wake law above the crest. Our double-averaged velocity data demonstrated the applicability of both the wake law and power law to open-channel flow for which a low ratio of flow depth to roughness height does not support the development of the universal logarithmic velocity law. A power-law scaling relationship among spatially averaged Glossosoma density, stream bed roughness characteristics, and double-averaged fluid flow conditions was developed. The density of Glossosoma scaled directly with substrate crest elevation, normalized spatial fluctuation of longitudinal velocity in the proximity of the bed, and inversely with the standard deviation of the crest elevation. The proposed dimensionless scaling relationship explains 84 % of the Glossosoma variability.
PubDate: 2013-06-01

• Periodically driven circulation near the shore of a lake
• Abstract: Abstract Solutions are found for a linear model of the circulation near the shore of a lake that is subject to two diurnal forcing mechanisms. The first is the day/night heating/cooling induced horizontal pressure gradient. The second is an unsteady surface stress modelling a sea breeze/gully wind pattern. The two forcing mechanisms can oppose or reinforce each other depending on their relative phase. The interplay of different dynamic balances at different times and locations in the domain lead to complex circulation patterns especially during the period of flow reversal.
PubDate: 2013-06-01

• Quantifying a significance of sediment particle size to hyporheic sedimentary oxygen demand with a permeable stream bed
• Abstract: Abstract A mechanistic model of sedimentary oxygen demand (SOD) for hyporheic flow is presented. The permeable sediment bed, e.g. sand or fine gravel, is considered with hydraulic conductivity in the range $0.1 < K < 20$  cm/s. Hyporheic pore water flow is induced by pressure fluctuations at the sediment/water interface due to near-bed turbulent coherent motions. A 2-D advection–diffusion equation is linked to the pore water flow model to simulate the effect of advection–dispersion driven by interstitial flow on oxygen transfer through the permeable sediment. Microbial oxygen uptake in the sediment is expressed as a function of the microbial growth rate, and is related to the sediment properties, i.e. the grain diameter $(d_{s})$ and porosity $(\phi )$ . The model describes the significance of sediment particle size to oxygen transfer through the sediment and microbial oxygen uptake: With increasing grain diameter $(d_{s})$ , the hydraulic conductivity $(K)$ increases so does the oxygen transfer rate, while particle surface area per volume (the available surface area for colonization by biofilms) decreases reducing the microbial oxygen uptake rate. Simulation results show that SOD increases as the hydraulic conductivity $(K)$ increases before a threshold has been reached. After that, SOD diminishes with the increment of the hydraulic conductivity $(K)$ .
PubDate: 2013-06-01

• Numerical modelling of horizontal sediment-laden jets
• Abstract: Abstract Sediment-laden turbulent flows are commonly encountered in natural and engineered environments. It is well known that turbulence generates fluctuations to the particle motion, resulting in modulation of the particle settling velocity. A novel stochastic particle tracking model is developed to predict the particle settling out and deposition from a sediment-laden jet. Particle velocity fluctuations in the jet flow are modelled from a Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation function that incorporates the physical mechanism leading to a reduction of settling velocity. The model is first applied to study the settling velocity modulation in a homogeneous turbulence field. Consistent with basic experiments using grid-generated turbulence and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations, the model predicts that the apparent settling velocity can be reduced by as much as 30 % of the stillwater settling velocity. Using analytical solution for the jet mean flow and semi-empirical RMS turbulent velocity fluctuation and dissipation rate profiles derived from CFD predictions, model predictions of the sediment deposition and cross-sectional concentration profiles of horizontal sediment-laden jets are in excellent agreement with data. Unlike CFD calculations of sediment fall out and deposition from a jet flow, the present method does not require any a priori adjustment of particle settling velocity.
PubDate: 2013-05-18

• Gravity currents in rotating, wedge-shaped, adverse channels
• Abstract: Abstract Results are presented from a series of parametric experimental and analytical studies of the behaviour of dense gravity currents along rotating, up-sloping, wedge-shaped channels. High resolution density profile measurements at fixed cross- and along-channel locations reveal the outflowing bottom gravity currents to adjust to quasi-steady, geostrophically-balanced conditions along the channels, with the outflow layer thickness and cross-channel interface slope shown to scale with the inlet Burger number for all experimental conditions tested. A general analytical solution to the classic rotating hydraulics problem has been developed under the assumption of inviscid, zero-potential-vorticity conditions to model dense water flow through a triangular constriction and thus simulate the vee-channel configurations under consideration. Predictions from this zero-PV model are shown to provide good overall quantitative agreement with experimental measurements obtained both under hydraulically-controlled conditions at the channel exit and for subcritical conditions generated along the channel length. Quantitative discrepancies between measurements and analytical predictions are attributed primarily to assumptions and limitations associated with the zero-PV modelling approach adopted, as well as the to the rapid adjustment in outflow characteristics as the channel exit is approached, as characterised by the along-channel variation in densimetric Froude number for the outflows.
PubDate: 2013-05-09

• Efficient numerical computation and experimental study of temporally long equilibrium scour development around abutment
• Abstract: Abstract For the abutment bed scour to reach its equilibrium state, a long flow time is needed. Hence, the employment of usual strategy of simulating such scouring event using the 3D numerical model is very time consuming and less practical. In order to develop an applicable model to consider temporally long abutment scouring process, this study modifies the common approach of 2D shallow water equations (SWEs) model to account for the sediment transport and turbulence, and provides a realistic approach to simulate the long scouring process to reach the full scour equilibrium. Due to the high demand of the 2D SWEs numerical scheme performance to simulate the abutment bed scouring, a recently proposed surface gradient upwind method (SGUM) was also used to improve the simulation of the numerical source terms. The abutment scour experiments of this study were conducted using the facility of Hydraulics Laboratory at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore to compare with the presented 2D SGUM–SWEs model. Fifteen experiments were conducted with their scouring flow durations vary from 46 to 546 h. The comparison shows that the 2D SGUM–SWEs model gives good representation to the experimental results with the practical advantage.
PubDate: 2013-05-01

• Performance and validation of a coupled parallel ADCIRC–SWAN model for THANE cyclone in the Bay of Bengal
• Abstract: Abstract An accurate prediction of near-shore sea-state is imperative during extreme events such as cyclones required in an operational centre. The mutual interaction between physical processes such as tides, waves and currents determine the physical environment for any coastal region, and hence the need of a parallelized coupled wave and hydrodynamic model. The present study is an application of various state-of-art models such as WRF, WAM, SWAN and ADCIRC used to couple and simulate a severe cyclonic storm Thane that developed in the Bay of Bengal during December 2011. The coupled model (ADCIRC–SWAN) was run in a parallel mode on a flexible unstructured mesh. Thane had its landfall on 30 December, 2011 between Cuddalore and Pondicherry where in-situ observations were available to validate model performance. Comprehensive experiment on the impact of meteorological forcing parameters with two forecasted tracks derived from WRF model, and JTWC best track on the overall performance of coupled model was assessed. Further an extensive validation experiment was performed for significant wave heights and surface currents during Thane event. The significant wave heights measured along satellite tracks by three satellites viz; ENVISAT, JASON-1 and JASON-2, as well in-situ near-shore buoy observation off Pondicherry was used for comparison with model results. In addition, qualitative validation was performed for model computed currents with HF Radar Observation off Cuddalore during Thane event. The importance of WRF atmospheric model during cyclones and its robustness in the coupled model performance is highlighted. This study signifies the importance of coupled parallel ADCIRC–SWAN model for operational needs during extreme events in the North Indian Ocean.
PubDate: 2013-04-28

• Experimental and numerical study on the shear velocity distribution along one or two dunes in tandem
• Abstract: Abstract This paper investigates, experimentally and numerically, the shear velocity distribution along a single transverse dune and along two closely spaced dunes, analyzing the flow effects of one dune upon the other. The paper focuses on two-dimensional models simulating transverse sand dunes. The shape of the two pile geometries studied is described by sinusoidal curves, one having a maximum slope of $32^{\circ }$ and the other $27.6^{\circ }$ , with leeward flow separation. The tests were carried out for two undisturbed wind speeds and the experimental data obtained through wind-tunnel modeling encompass flow visualization and shear-velocity results. A generally good agreement is observed between the experimental measurements and computational results. From the inquiry between shear velocity distributions and published eroded contours for the same geometries, it appears the Bagnold’s approach is insufficient in the prediction of threshold conditions in wake flows formed in the dune’s leeward side.
PubDate: 2013-04-27

• Direct numerical simulations of boundary condition effects on the propagation of density current in wall-bounded and open channels
• Abstract: Abstract The propagation of density current under different boundary conditions is investigated using high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS). A revised Kleiser and Schumann influence-matrix method is used to treat the general Robin type velocity boundary conditions and the related “tau” error corrections in the numerical simulations. Comparison of the simulation results reveals that the boundary conditions change the turbulent flow field and therefore the propagation of the front. This paper mainly focuses on the effects of boundary conditions and initial depth of the dense fluid. The differences in energy dissipation and overall front development in wall-bounded and open channels are examined. Through DNS simulations, it is evident that with the decrease of initial release depth ratio ( $D/H$ ), the effect of the top boundary becomes less important. In wall-bounded channels, there are three distinctive layers in the vertical distribution of energy dissipation corresponding to the contributions from bottom wall, interface, and top wall, respectively. In open channels, there are only two layers with the top one missing due to the shear free nature of the boundary. It is found that the energy dissipation distribution in the bottom layer is similar for cases with the same $D/H$ ratio regardless the top boundary condition. The simulation results also reveal that for low Reynolds number cases, the energy change due to concentration diffusion cannot be neglected in the energy budget. To reflect the real dynamics of density current, the dimensionless Froude number and Reynolds number should be defined using the release depth $D$ as the length scale.
PubDate: 2013-04-27

• Hydrodynamic characteristics and related mass-transfer properties in open-channel flows with rectangular embayment zone
• Abstract: Abstract Consecutive groynes and embayments form dead water zones, where sedimentation and high concentrations of pollutants are often observed. It is thus very important to understand the mass and momentum exchange between the main channel and side cavities in rivers and hydraulic engineering structures. The spanwise gradient of the streamwise velocity near the junction produces small-scale turbulent vortices because of shear instability. Furthermore, large-scale horizontal circulation is also generated in the cavity zone. These coherent turbulent structures play a significant role in mass and sediment transfer at the boundary between the mainstream and embayment. However, the relation between turbulence and mass transfer is poorly understood. In this study, we performed particle image velocity and laser-induced fluorescence experiments using a laboratory flume, laser light sheets and a high-speed CMOS camera. We examined the exchange properties of a dye as a function of bed configuration and sedimentation effect. Both primary and secondary gyres were observed in the flat bed and downward-sloping bed, whereas the primary gyre was prevalent in the upward-sloping bed. Moreover, the horizontal circulation strongly affected the mass-transfer properties between the mainstream and side cavity.
PubDate: 2013-04-25

• The role of coherent turbulent structures in explaining scalar dissimilarity within the canopy sublayer
• Abstract: Abstract Scalar similarity is widely assumed in models and interpretation of micro-meteorological measurements. However, in the air space within and just above the canopy (the so-called canopy sublayer, CSL) scalar similarity is generally violated. The scalar dissimilarity has been mainly attributed to differences in the distribution of sources and sinks throughout the canopy. Since large-scale coherent structures in the CSL (e.g. double roller and sweep/ejection) arise from the instabilities generated by the interaction between the mean flow and the canopy, they may encode key dynamical features about the production term responsible for the source–sink dissimilarity of scalars. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the geometric attributes of coherent structures are tightly coupled to the onset and the vertical extent of scalar dissimilarity within the CSL. Large-eddy simulation (LES) runs were used to investigate the role of coherent structures in explaining scalar dissimilarity among three scalars (potential air temperature, water vapour and $\text{ CO }_2$ concentration) within the CSL under near-neutral conditions for horizontally uniform but vertically varying vegetation leaf area density. It was shown that coherent structures, when identified from the first mode of a novel proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) approach, were able to capture some features of the scalar dissimilarity in the original LES field. This skill was quantified by calculating scalar–scalar correlation coefficients and turbulent Schmidt numbers of the original field and the coherent structures, respectively. However, coherent structures tend to magnify the magnitude of scalar–scalar correlation, particularly in cases where this correlation is already strong. The ability of coherent structures to describe more complex features such as the scalar sweep-ejection cycle was also explored. It was shown that the first mode of the POD does not capture the relative importance of sweeps to ejections in the original LES field. However, the superposition of few secondary coherent structures, derived from higher order POD modes, largely diminish the discrepancies between the original field and the POD expansion.
PubDate: 2013-04-12

• On the effective hydraulic conductivity and macrodispersivity for density-dependent groundwater flow
• Abstract: Abstract In this paper, semi-analytical expressions of the effective hydraulic conductivity ( $K^{E})$ and macrodispersivity ( $\alpha ^{E})$ for 3D steady-state density-dependent groundwater flow are derived using a stationary spectral method. Based on the derived expressions, we present the dependence of $K^{E}$ and $\alpha ^{E}$ on the density of fluid under different dispersivity and spatial correlation scale of hydraulic conductivity. The results show that the horizontal $K^{E}$ and $\alpha ^{E}$ are not affected by density-induced flow. However, due to gravitational instability of the fluid induced by density contrasts, both vertical $K^{E}$ and $\alpha ^{E}$ are found to be reduced slightly when the density factor ( $\gamma$ ) is less than 0.01, whereas significant decreases occur when $\gamma$ exceeds 0.01. Of note, the variation of $K^{E}$ and $\alpha ^{E}$ is more significant when local dispersivity is small and the correlation scale of hydraulic conductivity is large.
PubDate: 2013-04-10

• New analytical formulations for calculation of dispersion parameters of Gaussian model using parallel CFD
• Abstract: Abstract New analytical formulations are presented for calculation of most effective parameters in the Gaussian plume dispersion model; the standard deviations of concentration for horizontal and vertical dispersion in neutral atmosphere conditions. Employing parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) as a powerful tool, some well-known analytical generations of Pasquill–Gifford–Turner experimental data are modified. To achieve this aim, CFD simulations are carried out for single stack dispersion on flat terrain surface and ground level concentrations are determined in different distances. An inverse procedure in Gaussian plume dispersion model is then applied and standard deviations of horizontal and vertical dispersions are obtained. The values are compared with those of the well-known methods of Doury, Briggs and Hanna in two cases: the experimental data for release of krypton-85 from 100 m high and pollution dispersion from three 28 m high stacks of Besat power plant near Tehran. The comparison indicates that new formulations for plume dispersion are more accurate than other well-known formulations.
PubDate: 2013-04-01

• Numerical study of coastal sandbar migration, by hydro-morphodynamical coupling
• Abstract: Abstract We present a numerical model based on the hydro-morphodynamical coupling to study coastal sandbar migration. In order to improve both nonlinear and dispersive wave processes in relatively shallow water, we developed a finite element model based on the Legendre polynomials and on the Extended Boussinesq model. This model reproduces the propagation of wave trains with a high degree of accuracy on a greater range of depths than the standard Boussinesq models. We also implemented the Total Variation Diminishing schemes to improve the quality of the computed hydrodynamic fields, especially in areas where sharp flow gradients occurred. The coupled morpho-hydrodynamical model is then used to simulate the migration of real sandbars observed at Rousty beach (Mediterranean French coast). For verification the model results are compared with field measurements obtained from a small-scale field campaign carried out over two years at Rousty beach, and the results of this comparison are thoroughly discussed and analyzed.
PubDate: 2013-04-01

• Numerical simulation of sand dune erosion
• Abstract: Abstract Erosion of sand or other granular material is a subject of utmost importance in several fields of practical interest, including industrial processes or environmental issues. Resulting from intricate interaction between the incident flow field and localized body forces responsible for the granular material cohesion, erosion is a particularly complex phenomenon. The present work addresses this problem, proposing a numerical method to compute the time evolution of a sand dune subjected to aeolian erosion, along with the associated entrainment and deposition fluxes. Turbulent fluid flow is computed through a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver based on a generalized coordinate system. A Lagrangian approach is adopted for tracking the trajectories of particles entrained in the saltation regime, thus allowing prediction of the corresponding deposition locations. Different models for saltation fluxes are tested, along with several formulations for the creeping-to-saltation flux ratio, creeping threshold and creeping distance. Comparison with results from wind tunnel experiments is very encouraging, stressing the relative importance of creeping in the erosion process for the presently studied conditions.
PubDate: 2013-04-01

• The effect of non-uniform depth on the baroclinic response to wind in elongated basins
• Abstract: Abstract We examined the effect of along-thalweg depth variability on the baroclinic response to wind in elongated narrow basins with a sharp thermocline. The effect of depth variability was examined by deriving a modal-based forced model with two density layers and applying the model to a symmetric curved-bottom basin (CB), an asymmetric wedge-shaped basin (with a sloping bottom towards a vertical wall, WB), and a flat-bottom basin (FB). The baroclinic responses of CB, WB, and FB to uniform wind were found to differ in time-scale, number and energy of excited modes, and temporal pattern and along-thalweg structure of baroclinic flow and thermocline deflection. For all bottom profiles that were examined, the fundamental mode was found to dominate the response to spatially-uniform wind. Compared to FB, the asymmetric depth variability in WB increased the number and energy of excited higher modes and localized the interface shear, while the symmetric deviation from flat bottom in CB caused the opposite effects. Linear deviation from uniform wind was found to feed energy into higher baroclinic modes for the symmetric CB, but was found to reduce the energy of higher baroclinic modes for WB when the deviation from uniform wind is comparable to the spatial-average magnitude. Our results can explain the observation of the second baroclinic mode and irregular wave patterns in some lakes and reservoirs. Further, our results suggest that one-dimensional vertical mixed-layer models provide better results for shear entrainment in curved-bottom basins than in wedge-shaped basins.
PubDate: 2013-04-01

• Turbulence and aeration in hydraulic jumps: free-surface fluctuation and integral turbulent scale measurements
• Abstract: Abstract In an open channel, a change from a supercritical to subcritical flow is a strong dissipative process called a hydraulic jump. Herein some new measurements of free-surface fluctuations of the impingement perimeter and integral turbulent time and length scales in the roller are presented with a focus on turbulence in hydraulic jumps with a marked roller. The observations highlighted the fluctuating nature of the impingement perimeter in terms of both longitudinal and transverse locations. The results showed further the close link between the production and detachment of large eddies in jump shear layer, and the longitudinal fluctuations of the jump toe. They highlighted the importance of the impingement perimeter as the origin of the developing shear layer and a source of vorticity. The air–water flow measurements emphasised the intense flow aeration. The turbulent velocity distributions presented a shape similar to a wall jet solution with a marked shear layer downstream of the impingement point. The integral turbulent length scale distributions exhibited a monotonic increase with increasing vertical elevation within 0.2 < Lz/d1 < 0.8 in the shear layer, where Lz is the integral turbulent length scale and d1 the inflow depth, while the integral turbulent time scales were about two orders of magnitude smaller than the period of impingement position longitudinal oscillations.
PubDate: 2013-04-01

• Removing the boundary influence on negatively buoyant jets
• Abstract: Abstract A comprehensive laboratory study of negatively buoyant discharges is presented. Unlike previous studies, here the focus is on generating data sets where influences of the bottom boundary have been eliminated. There are significant discrepancies in the published dilution data for these flows and a contributing factor is the large variation in the bottom boundary condition. A Laser-induced Fluorescence system is employed to gather flow spread, peak concentration (minimum dilution) and trajectory data for a wide range of densimetric Froude numbers and initial discharge angles. Data from these experiments are compared with previously published data, along with predictions from integral models and a revised form of the previously published semi-analytical solutions. The new data sets are not distorted by mixing processes associated with the bottom boundary and therefore provide the basis for more meaningful assessments of the predictive capabilities of existing models, given that the influences of the bottom boundary on contaminant mixing are not incorporated into these models. In general the models assessed are able to predict key geometric quantities with reasonable accuracy, but their minimum dilution predictions are conservative. Importantly dilution at the return point shows a strong dependence on the initial discharge angle and this could have important implications for the design of discharge systems.
PubDate: 2013-03-30

• Observed relationships between microstructure patches and the gradient Richardson number in a thermally stratified lake
• Abstract: Abstract Microstructure profiles of velocity and temperature were collected in Lake Kinneret during the summer months of 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2001 using the Portable Flux Profiler. The profiles were analysed to determine the turbulent properties within statistically homogeneous microstructure patches that were identified in each profile. The nature of the turbulent properties and their distribution is discussed in terms of the dominant forcing mechanisms that exist through the water column. It was found that the properties of binned patch data collapsed reasonably into log-linear functions of the gradient Richardson number $Ri_{g}$ with changes in behaviour at $Ri_{g} = 0.03$ and 0.2. For $Ri_{g} < 0.03$ the observations were dominated by boundary turbulence and law-of-the-wall approximations were shown to provide a good description of the observed data near the lake surface. For 0.03 $<Ri_{g} < 0.2$ the microstructure appeared to represent turbulence generated primarily by shear instabilities in the interior of the lake that were sampled at various stages of their evolution from the initial stages of development at critical $Ri_{g} \sim$ 0.2, where buoyancy frequency and internal shear peak. In terms of the mixing that results from the observed turbulence, both regimes suggest that mixing efficiency $\gamma _{mix}$ falls in a relatively narrow range from 0.07 to 0.16 over the large range 10 $^{-5} \!<\! Ri_{g} \!<\! 0.2$ . For supercritical $Ri_{g}$ , shear weakened and turbulence was dominated by strong buoyancy forces so that mixing was suppressed and $\gamma _{mix}$ decreased rapidly toward zero.
PubDate: 2013-03-13

• Flow and turbulence in an industrial/suburban roughness canopy
• Abstract: Abstract A field study conducted to investigate the flow and turbulence structure of the urban boundary layer (UBL) over an industrial/suburban area is described. The emphasis was on morning and evening transition periods, but some measurements covered the entire diurnal cycle. The data analysis incorporated the dependence of wind direction on morphometric parameters of the urban canopy. The measurements of heat and momentum fluxes showed the possibility of a constant flux layer above the height $z\approx 2{H}$ , wherein the Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) is valid; here $H$ is the averaged building height. For the nocturnal boundary layer, the mean velocity and temperature profiles obeyed classical MOST scaling up to $\sim 0.5\Lambda \left( {\sim 6{H}}\right)$ , where $\Lambda$ is the Obukhov length scale, beyond which stronger stratification may disrupt the occurrence of constant fluxes. For unstable and neutral cases, MOST scaling described the mean data well up to the maximum measured height $(\sim 6{H})$ . Available MOST functions, however, could not describe the measured turbulence structure, indicating the influence of additional governing parameters. Alternative turbulence parameterizations were tested, and some were found to perform well. Calculation of integral length scales for convective and neutral cases allowed a phenomenological description of eddy characteristics within and above the urban canopy layer. The development of a significant nocturnal surface inversion occurred only on certain days, for which a criterion was proposed. The nocturnal UBL exhibited length scale relationships consistent with the evening collapse of the convective boundary layer and maintenance of buoyancy-affected turbulence overnight. The length and velocity scales so identified are useful in parameterizing turbulent dispersion coefficients in different diurnal phases of the UBL.
PubDate: 2013-03-07