Authors:Gourabananda Pahar; Anirban Dhar Pages: 555 - 579 Abstract: A coupled divergence-free Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH) framework for sediment transport is extended for application in generalized free-surface flow situations. The computation of interaction force pair between pure fluid and sediment modules makes the model flexible enough to be applicable for diverse scenarios with variable resolutions. Three scenarios are included to quantify the contribution of individual components in the force pair. First two scenarios with rapid free-surface variation highlight the effect of fluid pressure gradient on granular flow. The third scenario with minimal free-surface variation considers bed movement under a horizontal marine pipeline for a prolonged time period. The framework can simulate sediment transport for generalized problems with slowly/rapidly varying free-surface flow conditions. PubDate: 2018-06-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-017-9551-y Issue No:Vol. 18, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:G. Huang; C. Le Ribault; I. Vinkovic; S. Simoëns Pages: 581 - 609 Abstract: The micro-scale prediction of sand trapping or take-off over hilly terrains is a crucial issue in semi-arid regions for soil depletion. In this context, large eddy simulations around one or several hills are performed in order to provide statistical parameters to characterize the flow at micro-scales and provide data for mesoscale modelling. We focus on the determination of recirculation zones since they play an important role in solid particle erosion or entrapment. A new wall modeling adapted from Huang et al. (J Turbul 17:1–24, 2016) for rough boundary layers is found to improve the prediction of the recirculation zone length downstream of an isolated hill and is used for all the numerical cases presented here. A geometrical parameterization of the recirculation zones is proposed. When the recirculation region is assumed to have an ellipsoidal shape, the total surface of the recirculation can be obtained from this new parameterization and easily extrapolated to more general dune configurations. Numerical results are compared with experiments performed in our laboratory (Simoëns et al. in Procedia IUTAM 17:110–118, 2015) and good agreement is achieved. We explore general aerodynamic cases deduced from the urban canopy scheme of Oke (Energy Build 11:103–113, 1988). In this scheme the momentum and mass exchange between the upper layer and the space between hills is sorted according to the streamwise hill spacing within three basic cases of skimming, wake or isolated flow. The study of the recirculation zones, the mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles around an isolated or two consecutive hills with different distances shows that the double hill configuration with 3H separation behaves as much as a whole to the upcoming flow. The vortex formed between the crests does not strongly affect the overall evolution of the outer flow. By an a priori prediction of the preferential zones of erosion and accumulation of fictive particles, it is shown that isolated dunes present more deposition and less erosion than two-hill configurations. The results presented in this study will be discussed in the presence of Lagrangian transport of sand particles above 2D Gaussian hills in future work. PubDate: 2018-06-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-017-9552-x Issue No:Vol. 18, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:Davide Vettori; Vladimir Nikora Pages: 611 - 636 Abstract: Flow–vegetation interactions is an interdisciplinary research area with applications in the management of coastal waters, lakes, and watercourses. Due to an emerging interest in the cultivation of seaweeds, this study seeks to develop a sound understanding of the physical interactions between flow and seaweeds. This is achieved via experiments in a laboratory flume using plastic-made models of blades of the seaweed species Saccharina latissima. In the experiments, strain gages, a digital camera, and acoustic Doppler velocimeters were used for measuring drag forces, blade movements (reconfiguration), and flow velocities. The study involved experiments with single blades and with pairs of tandem blades at different spacing between the blades. The revealed mechanisms controlling the dynamics of seaweed blade models varied depending on the ratio of blade length to eddy length scale. The drag coefficient of seaweed blade models appeared to be dependent on the Reynolds number, the Cauchy number, and the ratio of blade length to integral turbulence length scale. Turbulence had a primary role in controlling blade model dynamics and its drag coefficient. Seaweed blade models affected the flow in their wakes by increasing the turbulence intensity and reducing the mean longitudinal velocity. These effects on the flow are the reason for which, in a pair of tandem blades, the drag force experienced by the downstream blade is lower than that experienced by the upstream blade. PubDate: 2018-06-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-017-9556-6 Issue No:Vol. 18, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:Eslam Reda Lotfy; Zambri Harun Pages: 637 - 659 Abstract: Coherent structures in the atmospheric boundary layer are fundamental to the transport of momentum and heat as well as to the production of turbulence. The present work attempts to investigate the behavior of the inclination angle of the vortex packet structures ( \(\gamma\) ) under different stability conditions. The data were collected from the Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR) site at the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The main measurements were conducted by placing two hotwires 3 and 12 m above ground. The two-point correlation method was used to calculate the vortex packet structure inclination angle, while the one-point correlation method was employed to calculate its length-scale. The inclination angle was found to increase under both stable and unstable conditions. As the Obukhov stability parameter ( \(\zeta\) ) approaches 0, the inclination angle ranged between \(\gamma = 15^\circ\) to \(\gamma = 18^\circ\) for the stable and unstable conditions, respectively, which agrees with the findings of previous research. The vertical gradient of velocity is the dominant parameter affecting the inclination angle under different stability conditions. PubDate: 2018-06-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-017-9558-4 Issue No:Vol. 18, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:H. Sharma; Z. Ahmad Pages: 661 - 681 Abstract: In order to maintain the water quality of moving streams, it is essential to know the process of pollutant mixing. The transverse mixing is very important which is needed to be modeled to understand mixing phenomenon. It was observed that transverse mixing is a strong function of secondary currents, thus, submerged vanes, which are aerofoil skewed at angle of 10°–40° with respect to flow, generate transverse circulations that can be utilized to induce secondary currents in the flow to enhance transverse mixing. Present study is an attempt to utilize submerged vanes as an instrument to enhance the transverse mixing by incorporating various vane configurations. In order to study the effect of vane generated circulations on transverse mixing, experimentations were conducted on three vane sizes and for various row arrangements of vanes attached to bed. An attempt is made to investigate the effect of submerged vane size and rows on transverse velocity, concentration profile and transverse mixing coefficient. It was observed by measurement of concentration profile that transverse mixing was more enhanced for submerged vanes of higher height. It was also observed that as the number of rows is proportional to the transverse mixing. By measuring the transverse velocity profile, it was observed that more and more fluid was advected in transverse direction for higher rows of vanes. By utilizing the observed transverse mixing coefficients, number of vane rows and relative height of vane, a predictor was derived to predict transverse mixing coefficient in the presence of submerged vane rows. It was observed that the derived predictor shows a fair amount of agreement in the result predicted. PubDate: 2018-06-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-017-9565-5 Issue No:Vol. 18, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:C. W. Higgins; M. G. Wing; J. Kelley; C. Sayde; J. Burnett; H. A. Holmes Pages: 683 - 693 Abstract: We used an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) to lift and suspend distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technologies to observe the onset of an early morning transition from stable to unstably stratified atmospheric conditions. DTS employs a fiber optic cable interrogated by laser light, and uses the temperature dependent Raman scattering phenomenon and the speed of light to obtain a discrete spatial measurement of the temperature along the cable. The UAS/DTS combination yielded observations of temperature in the lower atmosphere with high resolution (1 s and 0.1 m) and extent (85 m) that revealed the detailed processes that occurred over a single morning transition. The experimental site was selected on the basis of previous experiments and long term data records; which indicate that diurnal boundary layer development and wind sectors are predictable and consistent. The data showed a complex interplay of motions that occur during the morning transition that resulted in propagation and growth of unstable wave modes. We observed a rapid cooling of the air aloft (layer above the strong vertical temperature gradient) layer directly after sunrise due to vertical mixing followed by an erosion of the strong gradient at the stable layer top. Midway through the transition, unstable wave modes were observed that are consistent with Kelvin–Helmholtz motions. These motions became amplified through the later stages of the transition. PubDate: 2018-06-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-017-9569-1 Issue No:Vol. 18, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:A. Khosronejad; J. L. Kozarek; P. Diplas; C. Hill; R. Jha; P. Chatanantavet; N. Heydari; F. Sotiropoulos Pages: 695 - 738 Abstract: We employ a three-dimensional coupled hydro-morphodynamic model, the Virtual Flow Simulator (VFS-Geophysics) in its Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes mode closed with \(k-\omega\) model, to simulate the turbulent flow and sediment transport in large-scale sand and gravel bed waterways under prototype and live-bed conditions. The simulation results are used to carry out systematic numerical experiments to develop design guidelines for rock vane structures. The numerical model is based on the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary approach to simulate flow and sediment transport processes in arbitrarily complex rivers with embedded rock structures. Three validation test cases are conducted to examine the capability of the model in capturing turbulent flow and sediment transport in channels with mobile-bed. Transport of sediment materials is handled using the Exner equation coupled with a transport equation for suspended load. Two representative meandering rivers, with gravel and sand beds, respectively, are selected to serve as the virtual test-bed for developing design guidelines for rock vane structures. The characteristics of these rivers are selected based on available field data. Initially guided by existing design guidelines, we consider numerous arrangements of rock vane structures computationally to identify optimal structure design and placement characteristics for a given river system. PubDate: 2018-06-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-018-9579-7 Issue No:Vol. 18, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:Abhishek Sanskrityayn; Vijay P. Singh; Vinod Kumar Bharati; Naveen Kumar Pages: 739 - 757 Abstract: In the present study analytical solutions of a two-dimensional advection–dispersion equation (ADE) with spatially and temporally dependent longitudinal and lateral components of the dispersion coefficient and velocity are obtained using Green’s Function Method (GFM). These solutions describe solute transport in infinite horizontal groundwater flow, assimilating the spatio-temporal dependence of transport properties, dependence of dispersion coefficient on velocity, and the particulate heterogeneity of the aquifer. The solution is obtained in the general form of temporal dependence and the source term, from which solutions for instantaneous and continuous point sources are derived. The spatial dependence of groundwater velocity is considered non-homogeneous linear, whereas the dispersion coefficient is considered proportional to the square of spatial dependence of velocity. An asymptotically increasing temporal function is considered to illustrate the proposed solutions. The solutions are validated with the existing solutions derived from the proposed solutions in three special cases. The effect of spatially/temporally dependent heterogeneity on the solute transport is also demonstrated. To use the GFM, the ADE with spatio-temporally dependent coefficients is reduced to a dispersion equation with constant coefficients in terms of new position variables introduced through properly developed coordinate transformation equations. Also, a new time variable is introduced through a known transformation. PubDate: 2018-06-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-018-9578-8 Issue No:Vol. 18, No. 3 (2018)

Authors:Yansen Wang; Benjamin T. MacCall; Christopher M. Hocut; Xiping Zeng; Harindra J. S. Fernando Abstract: A three-dimensional thermal lattice Boltzmann model (TLBM) using multi-relaxation time method was used to simulate stratified atmospheric flows over a ridge. The main objective was to study the efficacy of this method for turbulent flows in the atmospheric boundary layer, complex terrain flows in particular. The simulation results were compared with results obtained using a traditional finite difference method based on the Navier–Stokes equations and with previous laboratory results on stably stratified flows over an isolated ridge. The initial density profile is neutral stratification in the boundary layer, topped with a stable cap and stable stratification aloft. The TLBM simulations produced waves, rotors, and hydraulic jumps in the lee side of the ridge for stably stratified flows, depending on the governing stability parameters. The Smagorinsky turbulence parameterization produced typical turbulence spectra for the velocity components at the lee side of the ridge, and the turbulent flow characteristics of varied stratifications were also analyzed. The comparison of TLBM simulations with other numerical simulations and laboratory studies indicated that TLBM is a viable method for numerical modeling of stratified atmospheric flows. To our knowledge, this is the first TLBM simulation of stratified atmospheric flow over a ridge. The details of the TLBM, its implementation of complex boundaries and the subgrid turbulence parameterizations used in this study are also described in this article. PubDate: 2018-06-09 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-018-9599-3

Authors:Anastasios I. Stamou; Georgios Mitsopoulos; Peter Rutschmann; Minh Duc Bui Abstract: In the present work, we verified a 3D computational fluid dynamics model for vertical slot fish-passes (VSFs) that employs the renormalization-group k-epsilon turbulence model (RNG KE) and the volume of fluid (VOF) method. We compared model calculations with experiments in two pool designs T1 and T2 of an experimental VSF and with 2D calculations using the shallow water equations (SWE) and the standard k-epsilon (2D SKE) model. Calculations of the 3D model showed (1) good agreement with experiments and 2D calculations in predicting mean flow velocities, (2) better performance in the determination of the water surface in the VSF, which is attributed to the accurate VOF method, (3) superior prediction of turbulence characteristics than the 2D model, which is due to the 3D RNG KE model that overcomes the problem of turbulence overestimation of the 2D SKE model, and to the fact that the 3D model takes into account the 3D features of the flow in the fish pass. Moreover, the present 3D calculations showed that the common assumptions in VSFs that (1) the flow is 2D, and (2) the simulation of 4 pools of a VSF is sufficient to obtain satisfactory results, are not always valid. Flow can be considered as 2D only in pool design T2 and for certain geometries and flow characteristics in pool design T1; while, eventually, all the pools of a fish pass need to be modeled to ensure accurate results. Finally, the present work illustrates the need to perform fish experiments simultaneously with flow experiments. PubDate: 2018-06-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-018-9602-z

Abstract: Wind-driven rain (WDR) is responsible for many potential negative effects on bridges, such as structural cracking, aggregate erosion, steel corrosion and storm water management problems and so on. Hence, accurate evaluations of the WDR effects on bridges are essential to provide solutions for preventing material degradation and improving durability capability of bridges. However, in most previous WDR numerical studies, the turbulent dispersion of raindrops was neglected. In this paper, the turbulent dispersion is integrated into Eulerian multiphase model to investigate the WDR effects on a bridge with rectangular cross-section. Especially, the influences of the turbulent dispersion are discussed in detail by comparing the WDR simulation results for the cases with and without consideration of the turbulent dispersion in terms of WDR flow fields, volume fraction, specific catch ratio, catch ratio, rain loads and aerostatic force coefficients. The results indicate that the turbulent dispersion for a certain range of raindrop size is needed to be taken into account for obtaining accurate WDR simulation results for bridges. PubDate: 2018-05-30 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-018-9603-y

Authors:Lup Wai Chew; Amir A. Aliabadi; Leslie K. Norford Abstract: The Reynolds number for flow in a street canyon, Re = UrefH/ν (where Uref is a reference velocity, H the street canyon height, and ν the kinematic viscosity), cannot be matched between reduced-scale experiments and full-scale field measurements. This mismatch is often circumvented by satisfying the Re independence criterion, which states that above a critical Re (Rec), the flow field remains invariant with Re. Rec = 11,000 is often adopted in reduced-scale experiments. In deep street canyons with height-to-width aspect ratio ≥ 1.5, reduced-scale experiments have shown two recirculation vortices induced by the mean flows, but full-scale field measurements have observed only one vortex. We investigated this discrepancy by conducting water channel experiments with Re between 104 and 105 at three aspect ratios. The canyons with aspect ratio 1.0 have Rec = 11,000, the canyons with aspect ratio 1.5 have Rec between 31,000 and 58,000, while the canyons with aspect ratio 2.0 have Rec between 57,000 and 87,000. Therefore, the widely adopted Rec = 11,000 is not applicable for canyons with aspect ratio greater than 1.5. Our results also confirm that there is only one vortex in deep canyons at high Re. This single-vortex flow regime could change our fundamental understanding of deep canyons, which are often assumed to exhibit multiple-vortex flow regimes. Applications such as numerical model validation based on the multiple-vortex regime should be revisited. Our experimental data with Re up to 105 could be used to validate numerical models at high Re. PubDate: 2018-05-22 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-018-9601-0

Authors:Gaetano Maria Di Cicca; Paul Morvan; Michele Onorato Abstract: The turbulence behaviour along a wall roughened by pyramidal elements was analysed in the region extending from the apex of the roughness elements up to the external limit of the roughness sub-layer. The data used for the analysis were obtained by particle image velocimetry technique. The rough wall turbulent boundary layer flow is characterized by a relatively low Reynolds number. All the results on the rough wall were compared with data referring to the canonical flow on a smooth wall turbulent boundary layer. Mean values and turbulence quantities for the two flows collapse when approaching the external limit of the roughness sublayer. The quadrant analysis of the Reynolds shear stress, in the region near the surface, shows that the contribution of the sweep motions is about equivalent for the two flows (except for wall distances lower than 40 viscous units). The contribution of the ejection motions appears to be more important over the smooth wall than over the rough wall with increasing differences approaching the wall. The probability density functions of the streamwise fluctuating velocity field for the rough wall case appear to be positively skewed in the zone very close to the pyramid apex, in contrast with the behavior observed for the smooth wall case at corresponding distances from the wall. The integral and Taylor scales for the rough wall case appear to be strongly reduced by the presence of the roughness, while the Kolmogorov microscale shows higher values. PubDate: 2018-05-19 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-018-9600-1

Authors:R. C. Cruz-Gómez; Heriberto J. Vazquez Abstract: The interaction of North Brazil Current (NBC) rings with the Lesser Antilles Arc (LAA) and the Barbados Island (BI) is addressed by experimental modeling and observations. Our results compare well with previous experimental results and numerical simulations. Several sizes, intensities and two different vorticity profiles (non-isolated and initially isolated vortices) were tested. Three regimes were found namely: (1) the vortex surrounds the BI and its translational motion (TM) stops North of BI; (2) the vortex passes through the corridor between the LAA and the BI by reducing its size; and (3) The vortex stopped at the entrance to the corridor South of the BI. Isolated vortices were prone to stopped North of the BI. Apparently the intensity in the outer vorticity ring has an influence on the fate of the NBC ring. Non-isolated vortices can also stop its TM North of the BI because when in \(\beta\) plane they develop an outer ring similar to the isolated vortices. From these results we conclude that intense and big NBC rings are likely to stop its TM North of the BI. Medium and moderate vortices stops its TM South of the BI and they reduce their size until they are able to pass through the corridor between the LAA and the BI. Mild vortices of all sizes stop South of the corridor, close to the BI and the LAA. Drifter trajectories and Sea Surface Height altimetry confirm the results. PubDate: 2018-05-17 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-018-9592-x

Authors:Bing Wang; Ling Cao; Fiorenza Micheli; Rosamond L. Naylor; Oliver B. Fringer Abstract: Aquaculture in many countries around the world has become the biggest source of seafood for human consumption. While it alleviates the pressure on wild capture fisheries, the long-term impacts of large-scale, intensive aquaculture on natural coastal systems need to be better understood. In particular, aquaculture may alter habitat and exceed the carrying capacity of coastal marine ecosystems. In this paper, we develop a high-resolution numerical model for Sanggou Bay, one of the largest kelp and shellfish aquaculture sites in Northern China, to investigate the effects of aquaculture on nutrient transport and residence time in the bay. Drag from aquaculture is parameterized for surface infrastructure, kelp canopies, and bivalve cages. A model for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) includes transport, vertical turbulent mixing, sediment and bivalve sources, and a sink due to kelp uptake. Test cases show that, due to drag from the dense aquaculture and thus a reduction of horizontal transport, kelp production is limited because DIN from the Yellow Sea is consumed before reaching the interior of the kelp farms. Aquaculture drag also causes an increase in the nutrient residence time from an average of 5 to 10 days in the middle of Sanggou Bay, and from 25 to 40 days in the shallow inner bay. Low exchange rates and a lack of DIN uptake by kelp make these regions more susceptible to phytoplankton blooms due to high nutrient retention. The risk is further increased when DIN concentrations rise due to river inflows. PubDate: 2018-05-17 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-018-9595-7

Authors:William Anderson; Jianzhi Yang; Kalyan Shrestha; Ankit Awasthi Abstract: Spanwise surface heterogeneity beneath high-Reynolds number, fully-rough wall turbulence is known to induce a mean secondary flow in the form of counter-rotating streamwise vortices—this arrangement is prevalent, for example, in open-channel flows relevant to hydraulic engineering. These counter-rotating vortices flank regions of predominant excess(deficit) in mean streamwise velocity and downwelling(upwelling) in mean vertical velocity. The secondary flows have been definitively attributed to the lower surface conditions, and are now known to be a manifestation of Prandtl’s secondary flow of the second kind—driven and sustained by spatial heterogeneity of components of the turbulent (Reynolds averaged) stress tensor (Anderson et al. J Fluid Mech 768:316–347, 2015). The spacing between adjacent surface heterogeneities serves as a control on the spatial extent of the counter-rotating cells, while their intensity is controlled by the spanwise gradient in imposed drag (where larger gradients associated with more dramatic transitions in roughness induce stronger cells). In this work, we have performed an order of magnitude analysis of the mean (Reynolds averaged) transport equation for streamwise vorticity, which has revealed the scaling dependence of streamwise circulation intensity upon characteristics of the problem. The scaling arguments are supported by a recent numerical parametric study on the effect of spacing. Then, we demonstrate that mean streamwise velocity can be predicted a priori via a similarity solution to the mean streamwise vorticity transport equation. A vortex forcing term has been used to represent the effects of spanwise topographic heterogeneity within the flow. Efficacy of the vortex forcing term was established with a series of large-eddy simulation cases wherein vortex forcing model parameters were altered to capture different values of spanwise spacing, all of which demonstrate that the model can impose the effects of spanwise topographic heterogeneity (absent the need to actually model roughness elements); these results also justify use of the vortex forcing model in the similarity solution. PubDate: 2018-05-16 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-018-9596-6

Authors:Ronghui Ye; Chenming Zhang; Jun Kong; Guangqiu Jin; Hongjun Zhao; Zhiyao Song; Ling Li Abstract: This paper proposes a new high-resolution finite volume method for solving the two-dimensional (2D) solute transport equation using an unstructured mesh. A new simple r-factor algorithm is introduced into the Total Variation Diminishing flux limiter to achieve a more efficient yet accurate high-resolution scheme for solving the advection term. To avoid the physically-meaningless negative solutions resulted from using the Green–Gauss theorem, a nonlinear two-point flux approximation scheme is adopted to deal with the anisotropic diffusion term. The developed method can be readily coupled with a two-dimensional finite-volume-based flow models under unstructured triangular mesh. By integrating with the ELCIRC flow model, the proposed method was verified using three idealized benchmark cases (i.e., advection of a circle-shaped solute field, advection in a cyclogenesis flow field and transport of a initially square-shaped solute plume), and further applied to simulate the non-reactive solute transport process driven by irregular tides in the Deep Bay, eastern Pearl River Estuary of China. These cases are also simulated by models using other existing methods, including different r-factor for advection term and the Green–Gauss theorem for diffusion term. The comparison between the results from the new method and those from other existing methods demonstrated the new method could describe advection induced concentration shock and discontinuities, and anisotropic diffusion at high resolution without providing spurious oscillations and negative values. PubDate: 2018-05-15 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-018-9598-4

Authors:G. C. Cuchiara; B. Rappenglück Abstract: We implemented the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model and WRF Large-Eddy Simulation (WRF–LES), focusing on calculations for the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and compared the results against a data set of a well-documented campaign, in the Houston–Galveston area, Texas, in summer 2006. A methodology using WRF in a mesoscale and LES was implemented to assess the performance of the model in simulating the evolution and structure of the PBL over Houston during the Vertical Mixing Experiment. Also, the WRF model in a real case mode was examined to explore potential differences between the results of each simulation approach. We analyzed both WRF results for key meteorological parameters like wind speed, wind direction and potential temperature, and compared the model results against the observations. The reasonably good agreement of LES results forced with observed surface fluxes provides confidence that LES describes turbulence quantities such as turbulent kinetic energy correctly and warrants further turbulence structure analysis. The LES results indicate a weak but noticeable nighttime turbulent kinetic energy which was produced by wind shear in Houston’s planetary boundary layer and which may likely be related to intermittent turbulence. This is supported by observations made at the University of Houston Moody Tower air quality station when intermittent peaks of carbon monoxide occurred in the evening, although the variability in wind conditions was very little. PubDate: 2018-05-15 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-018-9597-5

Authors:T. Kubwimana; P. Salizzoni; E. Bergamini; A. Mos; P. Méjean; L. Soulhac Abstract: In order to properly size the mechanical ventilation system of a tunnel, it is essential to estimate the wind-driven pressure difference that might rise between its two portals. In this respect, we explore here the pressure distribution over a tunnel portal under the influence of an incident atmospheric boundary layer and, in particular, its dependency on wind direction and on tunnel geometry. Reduced scale models of generic configurations of a tunnel portal are studied in an atmospheric wind tunnel. Pressure distributions over the front section of different open cavities are measured with surface taps, which allows us to infer the influence of the tunnel aspect ratio and wind direction on a pressure coefficient \(C_{P}\) , defined as a spatially and time averaged non-dimensional pressure. Experiments reveal that the magnitude of the coefficient \(C_{P}\) , as a function of the wind direction, is significantly influenced by the portal height-to-width ratio and almost insensitive to its length. The experimental data set is completed by hot-wire anemometry measurements providing vertical distribution of velocity statistics. The same configurations are simulated by numerically solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, adopting the standard \(k - \varepsilon\) turbulence model. Despite some discrepancies between numerical and experimental estimates of some flow parameters (namely the turbulent kinetic energy field), the numerical estimates of the pressure coefficients \(C_{P}\) show very good agreement with experimental data. The latter is also compared to the predictions of an analytical model, based on the estimate of a spatially averaged velocity within an infinitely long street canyon. The results of the model, which takes into account varying canyon aspect ratios, are in reasonable agreement with experimental data for all cases studied. Notably, its predictions are significantly better than those provided by the simple analytical relations usually adopted as a reference in tunnel ventilation studies. PubDate: 2018-04-07 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-018-9589-5

Authors:Mahbobeh Momeni; Ataollah Soltani Goharrizi; Bahador Abolpour Abstract: In this study, motion and deposition of various sizes of aerosols in turbulent flow of air inside and outside of two-dimensional buildings with closed and open windows have been investigated, numerically. This simulation was based on FVM solving of RANS equations with k–ε model. Eulerian–Lagrangian method was used to simulate fluid and particles motions, respectively, and one-way coupling between them was considered. Effect of particles size on deposition efficiency has been calculated. The results shown that, the particles deposition outside and inside of the building with domical roof is less than triangular and flat roof buildings. PubDate: 2018-03-13 DOI: 10.1007/s10652-018-9583-y