Abstract: Abstract
Sediment-laden turbulent flows are commonly encountered in natural and engineered environments. It is well known that turbulence generates fluctuations to the particle motion, resulting in modulation of the particle settling velocity. A novel stochastic particle tracking model is developed to predict the particle settling out and deposition from a sediment-laden jet. Particle velocity fluctuations in the jet flow are modelled from a Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation function that incorporates the physical mechanism leading to a reduction of settling velocity. The model is first applied to study the settling velocity modulation in a homogeneous turbulence field. Consistent with basic experiments using grid-generated turbulence and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations, the model predicts that the apparent settling velocity can be reduced by as much as 30 % of the stillwater settling velocity. Using analytical solution for the jet mean flow and semi-empirical RMS turbulent velocity fluctuation and dissipation rate profiles derived from CFD predictions, model predictions of the sediment deposition and cross-sectional concentration profiles of horizontal sediment-laden jets are in excellent agreement with data. Unlike CFD calculations of sediment fall out and deposition from a jet flow, the present method does not require any a priori adjustment of particle settling velocity. PubDate: 2014-02-01

Abstract: Abstract
In wind tunnel experiments, we study the effects of soil moisture on the threshold condition to entrain fine grain sand/silt into eolian flow and the near-bed concentration of airborne particles. To study the effect of particle shape on moisture bonding, we use two types of particles nearly equal in size: spherical glass beads
$(d_{50} = 134\,\upmu \mathrm{m})$
and sieved quartz sand
$(d_{50} = 139 \,\upmu \mathrm{m})$
. Both are poorly graded soils. We conducted these experiments at low moisture contents
$({<}1\,\%)$
. We found that the spherical particles were more sensitive to changes in moisture than the sand, attributable to the large differences in specific surface area of the two particles. The larger specific surface area for sand is due to the surface roughness of the angular sand particle. Consequently, sand “stores” more moisture via surface adsorption, requiring higher soil moisture content to form liquid bridges between sand particles. Based on these findings, we extend the concept of a threshold moisture content,
$w^{\prime }$
—originally proposed for clayey soils—to soils that lack any measureable clay content. This allows application of existing models developed for clayey soils that quantify the moisture effect on the threshold friction velocity to sand and silty soils (i.e., clay content
$=$
0). Additionally, we develop a model that quantifies the moisture effects on near-surface airborne particulate concentration, using experimental observations to determine the functional dependence on fluid and particle properties, including soil specific area. These models can be applied to numerical simulation of particulate plume formation and dispersion. PubDate: 2014-02-01

Abstract: Abstract
The issue of the transport of dissolved nutrients and contaminants between the sediment in the bottom of a lake or reservoir and the body of water above it is an important one for many reasons. In particular the biological and chemical condition of the body of water is intricately linked to these mass transport processes. As the review by Boudreau (Rev Geophys 38(3):389–416, 2000) clearly demonstrates those transport processes are very complex involving mechanisms as diverse as the wave-induced flux between the sediment and the overlying water and the effect of burrowing animals on the transport within the sediment as well as basic diffusion mechanisms. The present paper focuses on one facet of these transport processes; we re-examine the balance of diffusion and wave-induced advection and demonstrate that the wave-induced flux of a solute from submerged sediment is not necessarily purely diffusive as suggested by Harrison et al. (J Geophys Res 88:7617–7622, 1983) but can be dominated by a mean or time-averaged flux induced by the advective fluid motion into and out of the sediment caused by the fluctuating pressure waves associated with wave motion. Indeed along the subtidal shoreline where the fluctuating bottom pressures are greatest, wave-induced advection will dominate the mean, time-averaged transport of solute into or out of the sediment as suggested in the work of Riedl et al. (Mar Biol 13:210–221, 1972). However, the present calculations also indicate that this advective flux decreases rapidly with increasing depth so that further away from the shoreline the advective flux becomes negligible relative to the diffusive flux and therefore the latter dominates in deeper water. PubDate: 2014-02-01

Abstract: Abstract
This study focuses on the influence of emission conditions—velocity and temperature—on the dynamics of a buoyant gas release in the atmosphere. The investigations are performed by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. The aim is to evaluate the reliability of a Lagrangian code to simulate the dispersion of a plume produced by pollutant emissions influenced by thermal and inertial phenomena. This numerical code implements the coupling between a Lagrangian stochastic model and an integral plume rise model being able to estimate the centroid trajectory. We verified the accuracy of the plume rise model and we investigated the ability of two Lagrangian models to evaluate the plume spread by means of comparisons between experiments and numerical solutions. A quantitative study of the performances of the models through some suitable statistical indices is presented and critically discussed. This analysis shows that an additional spread has to be introduced in the Lagrangian trajectory equation in order to account the dynamical and thermal effects induced by the source conditions. PubDate: 2014-02-01

Abstract: Abstract
The hydrodynamics of flows through a finite length semi-rigid vegetation patch (VP) were investigated experimentally and numerically. Detailed measurements have been carried out to determine the spatial variation of velocity and turbulence profiles within the VP. The measurement results show that an intrusion region exists in which the peak Reynolds stress remains near the bed. The velocity profile is invariant within the downstream part of the VP while the Reynolds stress profile requires a longer distance to attain the spatially invariant state. Higher vegetation density leads to a shorter adjustment length of the transition region, and a higher turbulence level within the VP. The vegetation density used in the present study permits the passing through of water and causes the peak Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy each the maximum at the downstream end of the patch. A 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes model incorporating the Spalart–Allmaras turbulence closure was employed subsequently to replicate the flow development within the VP. The model reproduced transitional flow characteristics well and the results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Additional numerical experiments show that the adjustment length can be scaled by the water depth, mean velocity and maximum shear stress. Empirical equations of the adjustment lengths for mean velocity and Reynolds stress were derived with coefficients quantified from the numerical simulation results. PubDate: 2014-02-01

Abstract: Abstract
A comprehensive experimental investigation for an inclined (
$60^{\circ }$
to vertical) dense jet in perpendicular crossflow—with a three-dimensional trajectory—is reported. The detailed tracer concentration field in the vertical cross-section of the bent-over jet is measured by the laser-induced fluorescence technique for a wide range of jet densimetric Froude number
$Fr$
and ambient to jet velocity ratios
$U_r$
. The jet trajectory and dilution determined from a large number of cross-sectional scalar fields are interpreted by the Lagrangian model over the entire range of jet-dominated to crossflow-dominated regimes. The mixing during the ascent phase of the dense jet resembles that of an advected jet or line puff and changes to a negatively buoyant thermal on descent. It is found that the mixing behavior is governed by a crossflow Froude number
$\mathbf{F} = U_r Fr$
. For
$\mathbf{F} < 0.8$
, the mixing is jet-dominated and governed by shear entrainment; significant detrainment occurs and the maximum height of rise
$Z_{max}$
is under-predicted as in the case of a dense jet in stagnant fluid. While the jet trajectory in the horizontal momentum plane is well-predicted, the measurements indicate a greater rise and slower descent. For
$\mathbf{F} \ge 0.8$
the dense jet becomes significantly bent-over during its ascent phase; the jet mixing is dominated by vortex entrainment. For
$\mathbf{F} \ge 2$
, the detrainment ceases to have any effect on the jet behavior. The jet trajectory in both the horizontal momentum and buoyancy planes are well predicted by the model. Despite the under-prediction of terminal rise, the jet dilution at a large number of cross-sections covering the ascent and descent of the dense jet are well-predicted. Both the terminal rise and the initial dilution for the inclined jet in perpendicular crossflow are smaller than those of a corresponding vertical jet. Both the maximum terminal rise
$Z_{max}$
and horizontal lateral penetration
$Y_{max}$
follow a
$\mathbf{F}^{-1/2}$
dependence in the crossflow-dominated regime. The initial dilution at terminal rise follows a
$S \sim \mathbf{F}^{1/3}$
dependence. PubDate: 2014-02-01

Abstract: Abstract
The influence of different nutrient sources on the seasonal variation of nutrients and phytoplankton was assessed in the northern area of the Perth coastal margin, south–western Australia. This nearshore area is shallow, semi-enclosed by submerged reefs, oligotrophic, nitrogen-limited and receives sewage effluent via submerged outfalls. Analysis of 14 year of field observations showed seasonal variability in the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phytoplankton biomass, measured as chlorophyll-a. For 2007–2008, we quantified dissolved inorganic nitrogen inputs from the main nutrient sources: superficial runoff, groundwater, wastewater treatment plant effluent, atmospheric deposition and exchange with surrounding coastal waters. We validated a three-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecological model and then used it to assess nutrient-phytoplankton dynamics. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variations of nitrate and chlorophyll-a satisfactorily. Such variations were highly influenced by exchange through the open boundaries driven by the wind field. An alongshore (south–north) flow dominated the flux through the domain, with dissolved inorganic nitrogen annual mean net-exportation. Further, when compared with the input of runoff, the contributions from atmospheric-deposition, groundwater and wastewater effluent to the domain’s inorganic nitrogen annual balance were one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively. Inputs through exchange with offshore waters were considerably larger than previous estimates. When the offshore boundary was forced with remote-sensed derived data, the simulated chlorophyll-a results were closer to the field measurements. Our comprehensive analysis demonstrates the strong influence that the atmosphere–water surface interactions and the offshore dynamics have on the nearshore ecosystem. The results suggest that any additional nutrient removal at the local wastewater treatment plant is not likely to extensively affect the seasonal variations of nutrients and chlorophyll-a. The approach used proved useful for improving the understanding of the coastal ecosystem. PubDate: 2014-02-01

Abstract: Abstract
Dust emissions from stockpiles surfaces are often estimated applying mathematical models such as the widely used model proposed by the USEPA. It employs specific emission factors, which are based on the fluid flow patterns over the near surface. But, some of the emitted dust particles settle downstream the pile and can usually be re-emitted which creates a secondary source. The emission from the ground surface around a pile is actually not accounted for by the USEPA model but the method, based on the wind exposure and a reconstruction from different sources defined by the same wind exposure, is relevant. This work aims to quantify the contribution of dust re-emission from the areas surrounding the piles in the total emission of an open storage yard. Three angles of incidence of the incoming wind flow are investigated (
$30^{\circ }, 60^{\circ }$
and
$90^{\circ }$
). Results of friction velocity from numerical modelling of fluid dynamics were used in the USEPA model to determine dust emission. It was found that as the wind velocity increases, the contribution of particles re-emission from the ground area around the pile in the total emission also increases. The dust emission from the pile surface is higher for piles oriented
$30^{\circ }$
to the wind direction. On the other hand, considering the ground area around the pile, the
$60^{\circ }$
configuration is responsible for higher emission rates (up to 67 %). The global emissions assumed a minimum value for the piles oriented perpendicular to the wind direction for all wind velocity investigated. PubDate: 2014-02-01

Abstract: Abstract
For the abutment bed scour to reach its equilibrium state, a long flow time is needed. Hence, the employment of usual strategy of simulating such scouring event using the 3D numerical model is very time consuming and less practical. In order to develop an applicable model to consider temporally long abutment scouring process, this study modifies the common approach of 2D shallow water equations (SWEs) model to account for the sediment transport and turbulence, and provides a realistic approach to simulate the long scouring process to reach the full scour equilibrium. Due to the high demand of the 2D SWEs numerical scheme performance to simulate the abutment bed scouring, a recently proposed surface gradient upwind method (SGUM) was also used to improve the simulation of the numerical source terms. The abutment scour experiments of this study were conducted using the facility of Hydraulics Laboratory at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore to compare with the presented 2D SGUM–SWEs model. Fifteen experiments were conducted with their scouring flow durations vary from 46 to 546 h. The comparison shows that the 2D SGUM–SWEs model gives good representation to the experimental results with the practical advantage. PubDate: 2014-02-01

Abstract: Abstract
In this paper, semi-analytical expressions of the effective hydraulic conductivity (
$K^{E})$
and macrodispersivity (
$\alpha ^{E})$
for 3D steady-state density-dependent groundwater flow are derived using a stationary spectral method. Based on the derived expressions, we present the dependence of
$K^{E}$
and
$\alpha ^{E}$
on the density of fluid under different dispersivity and spatial correlation scale of hydraulic conductivity. The results show that the horizontal
$K^{E}$
and
$\alpha ^{E}$
are not affected by density-induced flow. However, due to gravitational instability of the fluid induced by density contrasts, both vertical
$K^{E}$
and
$\alpha ^{E}$
are found to be reduced slightly when the density factor (
$\gamma $
) is less than 0.01, whereas significant decreases occur when
$\gamma $
exceeds 0.01. Of note, the variation of
$K^{E}$
and
$\alpha ^{E}$
is more significant when local dispersivity is small and the correlation scale of hydraulic conductivity is large. PubDate: 2014-02-01

Abstract: Abstract
We report a semi-analytical theory of wave propagation through a vegetated water. Our aim is to construct a mathematical model for waves propagating through a lattice-like array of vertical cylinders, where the macro-scale variation of waves is derived from the dynamics in the micro-scale cells. Assuming infinitesimal waves, periodic lattice configuration, and strong contrast between the lattice spacing and the typical wavelength, the perturbation theory of homogenization (multiple scales) is used to derive the effective equations governing the macro-scale wave dynamics. The constitutive coefficients are computed from the solution of micro-scale boundary-value problem for a finite number of unit cells. Eddy viscosity in a unit cell is determined by balancing the time-averaged rate of dissipation and the rate of work done by wave force on the forest at a finite number of macro stations. While the spirit is similar to RANS scheme, less computational effort is needed. Using one fitting parameter, the theory is used to simulate three existing experiments with encouraging results. Limitations of the present theory are also pointed out. PubDate: 2014-02-01

Abstract: Abstract
During the Queensland floods in the summer of 2010–2011, a flood-driven Brisbane River plume extended into Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, and then seaward, travelling in a northward direction. It covered approximately 500 km
$^{2}$
. This paper presents a three- dimensional hydrodynamic numerical model investigation into the behaviour of the Brisbane River plume. The model was verified by using satellite observations and field measurement data. The present study concludes that the high river discharge was the primary factor determining the plume size and its seaward extensions. A notable finding was that the plume was a bottom-trapped type rather than a buoyant type. Further, the southerly winds were found to have moderately confined the alongshore extension of the plume, and had caused the plume to mix thoroughly with the ocean water. PubDate: 2014-02-01

Abstract: Abstract
Turbulent flow and dispersion characteristics over a complex urban street canyon are investigated by large-eddy simulation using a modified version of the Fire Dynamics Simulator. Two kinds of subgrid scale (SGS) models, the constant coefficient Smagorinsky model and the Vreman model, are assessed. Turbulent statistics, particularly turbulent stresses and wake patterns, are compared between the two SGS models for three different wind directions. We found that while the role of the SGS model is small on average, the local or instantaneous contribution to total stress near the surface or edge of the buildings is not negligible. By yielding a smaller eddy viscosity near solid surfaces, the Vreman model appears to be more appropriate for the simulation of a flow in a complex urban street canyon. Depending on wind direction, wind fields, turbulence statistics, and dispersion patterns show very different characteristics. Particularly, tall buildings near the street canyon predominantly generate turbulence, leading to homogenization of the mean flow inside the street canyon. Furthermore, the release position of pollutants sensitively determines subsequent dispersion characteristics. PubDate: 2014-01-24

Abstract: Abstract
The coherent turbulent flow around a single circular bridge pier and its effects on the bed scouring pattern is investigated in this study. The coherent turbulent flow and associated shear stresses play a major role in sediment entrainment from the bed particularly around a bridge pier where complex vortex structures exist. The conventional two-dimensional quadrant analysis of the bursting process is unable to define sediment entrainment, particularly where fully three-dimensional flow structures exist. In this paper, three-dimensional octant analysis was used to improve understanding of the role of bursting events in the process of particle entrainment. In this study, the three-dimensional velocity of flow was measured at 102 points near the bed of an open channel using an Acoustic Doppler Velocity meter (Micro-ADV). The pattern of bed scouring was measured during the experiment. The velocity data were analysed using the Markov process to investigate the sequential occurrence of bursting events and to determine the transition probability of the bursting events. The results showed that external sweep and internal ejection events were an effective mechanism for sediment entrainment around a single circular bridge pier. The results are useful in understanding scour patterns around bridge piers. PubDate: 2014-01-17

Abstract: Abstract
In this paper we provide a description of the three-dimensional flow induced by a sequence of lateral obstacles in a straight shallow open-channel flow with flat bathymetry. The obstacles are modelled as rectangular blocks and are located at one channel wall, perpendicular to the main stream direction. Two aspect ratios of the resulting dead zones are analysed. The flow structure is experimentally characterised by particle image velocimetry measurements in a laboratory flume and simulated using three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulations. Good agreement between experimental measurements and numerical results is obtained. The results show that the effect of the obstacles in the main channel is observed up to one obstacle length in the spanwise direction. The spacing between obstacles does not seem to have a large influence in the outer flow. The mean flow within the dead zone is characterised by a large recirculation region and several additional vortex systems. They are discussed in the paper, as well as the mean and root-mean-square wall shear-stresses. PubDate: 2014-01-10

Abstract: Abstract
We use field data and a high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic numerical model to investigate the horizontal transport and dispersion characteristics in the upper reaches of the shallow Río de la Plata estuary, located between the Argentinean and Uruguayan coasts, with the objective of relating the mixing characteristics to the likelihood of algal bloom formation. The 3D hydrodynamic model was validated with an extensive field experiment including both, synoptic profiling and in situ data, and then used to quantify the geographic variability of the local residence time and rate of dispersion. We show that during a high inflow regime, the aquatic environment near the Uruguayan coast, stretching almost to the middle of the estuary, had short residence time and horizontal dispersion coefficient of around 77
$\mathrm {m}^{2}\,\mathrm {s}^{-1}$
, compared to the conditions along the Argentinean coastal regime where the residence time was much longer and the dispersion coefficient (40
$\mathrm {m}^{2}\,\mathrm {s}^{-1}$
) much smaller, making the Argentinian coastal margin more susceptible for algae blooms. PubDate: 2014-01-05

Abstract: Abstract
A simple conceptual model is presented to describe the near-surface flow of a long, partially urbanized valley of slope
$\beta $
located normal to a coastline, considering forcing due to differential surface temperatures between the sea, undeveloped (rural) land and urban area. Accordingly, under weak synoptic conditions and when the coastal and urban (thermally induced pressure-gradient) forcing are in phase with that of the valley thermal circulation, the mean flow velocity
$U$
is parameterized by the cumulative effects of multiple forcing:
$U = \varGamma w_*\beta ^{1/3} +C(g\alpha \varDelta TL)^{1/2}$
. This accounts for the coastal/urban forcing due to surface-air buoyancy difference
$g\alpha \Delta T$
over a distance
$L$
. Here
$\varGamma $
and
$C$
are constants and
$w_*$
the convective velocity. Comparisons with data of the Meteo-diffusion field experiment conducted in a coastal semi-urbanized valley of Italy (Biferno Valley) reveal that the inferences of the model are consistent with observed valley flow velocities as well as sharp morning and prolonged evening transitions. While the experimental dataset is limited, the agreement with observations suggests that the model captures essential dynamics of valley circulation subjected to multiple forcing. Further observations are necessary to investigate the general efficacy of the model. PubDate: 2014-01-05

Abstract: Abstract
All numerical codes developed to solve the advection–diffusion-reaction (ADR) equation need to be verified before they are moved to the operational phase. In this paper, we initially provide four new one-dimensional analytical solutions designed to help code verification; these solutions are able to handle the challenges of the scalar transport equation including nonlinearity and spatiotemporal variability of the velocity and dispersion coefficient, and of the source term. Then, we present a solution of Burgers’ equation in a novel setup. Proposed solutions satisfy the continuity of mass for the ambient flow, which is a crucial factor for coupled hydrodynamics-transport solvers. By the end of the paper, we solve hypothetical test problems for each of the solutions numerically, and we use the derived analytical solutions for code verification. Finally, we provide assessments of results accuracy based on well-known model skill metrics. PubDate: 2013-12-31

Abstract: Abstract
Lake Villarrica, located in south central Chile, has a maximum depth of 167 m and a maximum fetch of about 20 km. The lake is monomictic, with a seasonal thermocline located at a depth of approximately 20 m. Field data show the presence of basin-scale internal waves that are forced by daily winds and affected by Coriolis acceleration. A modal linear and non-linear analysis of internal waves has been used, assuming a two-layer system. The numerical simulations show good agreement with the internal wave field observations. The obtained modes were used to study the energy dissipation within the system, which is necessary to control the amplitude growth. Field data and numerical simulations identify (1) the occurrence of a horizontal mode 1 Kelvin wave, with a period of about a day that coincides with the frequency of daily winds, suggesting that this mode of the Kelvin waves is in a resonant state (subject to damping and controlled by frictional effects in the field) and (2) the presence of higher-frequency internal waves, which are excited by non-linear interactions between basin-scale internal waves. The non-linear simulation indicates that only 10 % of the dissipation rate of the Kelvin wave is because of bottom friction, while the rest 90 % represents the energy that is radiated from the Kelvin wave to other modes. Also, this study shows that modes with periods between 5 and 8 h are excited by non-linear interactions between the fundamental Kelvin wave and horizontal Poincaré-type waves. A laboratory study of the resonant interaction between a periodic forcing and the internal wave field response has also been performed, confirming the resonance for the horizontal mode 1 Kelvin wave. PubDate: 2013-12-25