Abstract: Abstract
The present paper explores the characteristics of turbulent flow and drag over two artificial 2-D forward-facing waveform structures with two different stoss side slopes of
$50^{\circ }$
and
$90^{\circ },$
respectively. Both structures possessed a common slanted lee side slope of
$6^{\circ }.$
Flume experiments were conducted at the Fluvial Mechanics Laboratory of Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata. The velocity data were analyzed to identify the spatial changes in turbulent flow addressing the flow separation region with recirculating eddy, the Reynolds stresses, the turbulent events associated with burst-sweep cycles and the drag over two upstream-facing bedforms for Reynolds number
$Re_h=1.44\times 10^5.$
The divergence at the stoss side slope between the two structures revealed significant changes in the mean flow and turbulence. Comparison showed that during the flood-tide condition there was no flow separation region on the gentle lee side of the structure with smaller slope at the stoss side, while for the other structure with vertical stoss side slope a thick flow separation region with recirculating eddy was observed at the gentle lee side just downstream of the crest. The recirculating eddy induced on the lee-side had a strong influence on the resistance that the structure exerts to the flow due to loss of energy through turbulence. In contrast, a great amount of reduction in drag was observed in the case of smaller stoss side sloped structure as there was no flow separation. The quadrant analysis was also used to highlight the turbulent event evolution along the bed form structures under flood-tide conditions. PubDate: 2014-06-01

Abstract: Abstract
A tidal bore is a series of waves propagating upstream as the tidal flow turns to rising, and the bore front corresponds to the leading edge of the tidal wave in a funnel shaped estuarine zone with macro-tidal conditions. Some field observations were conducted in the tidal bore of the Garonne River on 7 June 2012 in the Arcins channel, a few weeks after a major flood. The tidal bore was a flat undular bore with a Froude number close to unity:
$\hbox {Fr}_{1} = 1.02$
and 1.19 (morning and afternoon respectively). A key feature of the study was the simultaneous recording of the water elevation, instantaneous velocity components and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) estimates, together with a detailed characterisation of the sediment bed materials. The sediment was some silty material (
$\hbox {d}_{50} \approx 13~\upmu \hbox {m}$
) which exhibited some non-Newtonion thixotropic behaviour. The velocity and SSC estimate were recorded simultaneously at high frequency, enabling a quantitative estimate of the suspended sediment flux at the end of the ebb tide and during the early flood tide. The net sediment flux per unit area was directed upstream after the bore, and its magnitude was much larger than that at end of ebb tide. The field observations highlighted a number of unusual features on the morning of 7 June 2012. These included (a) a slight rise in water elevation starting about 70 s prior to the front, (b) a delayed flow reversal about 50 s after the bore front, (c) some large fluctuations in suspended sediment concentration (SSC) about 100 s after the bore front and (d) a transient water elevation lowering about 10 min after the bore front passage. The measurements of water temperature and salinity showed nearly identical results before and after the tidal bore, with no evidence of saline and thermal front during the study. PubDate: 2014-06-01

Abstract: Abstract
Meandering flows in rectangular shallow reservoirs were experimentally investigated. The characteristic frequency, the longitudinal wave length and the mean lateral extension of the meandering jet were extracted from the first paired modes, obtained by a proper orthogonal decomposition of the surface velocity field measured by large scale PIV. The depth-normalised characteristic lengths and the Strouhal number were then compared to the main dimensionless numbers characterizing the experiments: Froude number, friction number and reservoir shape factor. The normalised wave length and mean lateral extension of the meandering jet are neither correlated with the Froude number nor with the reservoir shape factor; but a clear relationship is found with the friction number. Similarly, the Strouhal number is found proportional to a negative power of the friction number. In contrast, the Froude number and the reservoir shape factor enable to predict the occurrence of a meandering flow pattern: meandering jets occur for Froude number greater than 0.21 and for a shape factor smaller than 6.2. PubDate: 2014-06-01

Abstract: Abstract
In the present study, the prediction accuracy of a dynamic one-equation sub-grid scale model for the large eddy simulation of dispersion around an isolated cubic building is investigated. For this purpose, the localized dynamic
$k_\mathrm{SGS} $
-equation model (LDKM) is employed and the results are compared with the available experimental data and two other classic sub-grid scale models, namely, standard Smagorinsky–Lilly model (SSLM) and dynamic Smagorinsky–Lilly model (DSLM). It is shown that the three SGS models give results in good agreement with experiment. However, near the ground level of the leeward wall, dimensionless time-averaged concentration,
$\langle K\rangle $
, profile is not quite similar to the experimental data. It is also demonstrated that the LDKM predicts the values of
$\langle K\rangle $
on the roof, leeward and side walls more acceptably than the SSLM and DSLM. Whereas, the streamwise elongation of time-averaged structures of the plume shape is more over-estimated with the LDKM than with the other two SGS models. In terms of numerical difficulty, the LDKM is found to be stable and computationally reasonable. In addition, it does not suffer from a flow dependent constant such as the Smagorinsky coefficient employed in the SSLM model. PubDate: 2014-06-01

Abstract: Abstract
With a growing awareness of water pollution problems, in recent years there has been a considerable increased effort in developing and applying numerical models to predict accurately the contaminant distributions, particularly in free surface flows. This numerical study presents a predictive hydrodynamic model in order to explore the dispersion phenomenon of a pollutant injected from time-dependent sources in a turbulent free surface flow. More precisely, we study the impact of pulsation on the dispersion of an injected material. The air/water interface was modeled with the volume of fluid method and sharpness of the free surface was assured by means of Geo-Reconstruct scheme. The numerical results showed that the pulsation played a dominant role at the early stage of the pollutant transport. It was also observed that the pulsation affected the distribution of the injected material especially near the front and that a major swirling action was developed compared to the constant-rate-injection case. PubDate: 2014-06-01

Abstract: Abstract
The atmospheric boundary layer adjustment at the abrupt transition from a canopy (forest) to a flat surface (land or water) is investigated in a wind tunnel experiment. Detailed measurements examining the effect of canopy turbulence on flow separation, reduced surface shear stress and wake recovery are compared to data for the classical case of a solid backward-facing step. Results provide new insights into the interpretation for flux estimation by eddy-covariance and flux gradient methods and for the assessment of surface boundary conditions in turbulence models of the atmospheric boundary layer in complex landscapes and over water bodies affected by canopy wakes. The wind tunnel results indicate that the wake of a forest canopy strongly affects surface momentum flux within a distance of 35–100 times the step or canopy height, and mean turbulence quantities require distances of at least 100 times the canopy height to adjust to the new surface. The near-surface mixing length in the wake exhibits characteristic length scales of canopy flows at the canopy edge, of the flow separation in the near wake and adjusts to surface layer scaling in the far wake. Components of the momentum budget are examined individually to determine the impact of the canopy wake. The results demonstrate why a constant flux layer does not form until far downwind in the wake. An empirical model for surface shear stress distribution from a forest canopy to a clearing or lake is proposed. PubDate: 2014-06-01

Abstract: Abstract
A tidal bore is a hydrodynamic discontinuity propagating upstream in an estuarine zone with a funnel shape as the tide starts rising under spring tidal conditions. The transient sediment motion beneath tidal bores was investigated in laboratory under controlled flow conditions by measuring simultaneously the fluid and sediment particle velocities. Although no sediment transport was observed in the initially steady flow and in undular bores, a transient sheet flow motion was observed beneath the breaking bores. The sediment transport was initiated during the passage of the bore roller toe by the large longitudinal pressure gradient force, and the sediment particles were subjected to large horizontal accelerations. About 5 % of all particles were accelerated in excess of 1 g. The sediments were advected upstream with an average velocity close to the instantaneous fluid velocity. The time evolution of instantaneous particle velocity for each trajectory was analysed, using the starting point of particle trajectory corresponding to the entrainment point, and the end point to the particle stoppage point. The present data provided some quantitative data in terms of force terms acting on sediment particles beneath a tidal bore and their trajectory characteristics. PubDate: 2014-05-16

Abstract: Abstract
This paper aims to study of the efficiency of windbreaks composed by three dimensional arrays of pillars and used for snow deposition. Windbreaks and snow fences are commonly designed as two dimensional porous fences. This gives good efficiency, but might in some cases be regarded as architecturally boring. It also represents an obstruction to human traffic, and is sometimes difficult to integrate in the landscape architecture. The air flow around three different geometrical configurations of pillars is analyzed. The three arrangements include four and six rows of pillars and a sculptural representation of a Saami (indigenous people of northern Scandinavia) labyrinth. The numerical simulations of wind and snow deposition show that the flow pattern in the arrays is not very sensitive to wind speed. The four row array seems to produce snow drifts which are longer, and have the maximum height located further downwind than a common 50 % porous snow fence. The results of the windbreak, inspired by the Saami labyrinth, show that there is a large variation of the friction velocity within the labyrinth. Based on the results, such arrangement can be regarded as an alternative for landscape architects aiming to shelter a specific area. However, optimisation studies on internal structure of the size, orientation and shape of the pillars should be performed based on local wind climate. The methods outlined here seems suitable for such studies. PubDate: 2014-05-14

Abstract: Abstract
The fluid dynamics of a water jet impinging on a flat surface in confined conditions were studied using particle image velocimetery. The experiments were meant to replicate conditions expected in a jet erosion test (JET) designed to assess cohesive sediment erosion parameters in field applications. High-resolution two-dimensional velocity vectors were measured in a plane passing the jet centerline including free jet, impingement, and wall jet regions within a fixed-wall box. The general flow behavior in the free jet and wall jet regions is in good agreement with the behavior of impinging jets in an unconfined environment. Results show that the entrainment coefficient, however, is lower than values in unconfined conditions, lowering lateral spreading rates. The rate of momentum transfer also increases along the axial direction since the confinement causes secondary flow and recirculation in the box. Wall shear stress is calculated based on extrapolation of Reynolds shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy, where the latter procedure provides more consistent results with expected scour hole shape under an impinging jet. This wall shear stress distribution shows higher values near jet impingement in comparison to previously reported distributions, especially as formulated for the JET under unconfined conditions. The maximum value of wall shear stress is found to be about 2.4 times greater than the commonly accepted value in the literature, and also occurs at a position closer to the impingement point. The shear stress at the impingement point is also close to its maximum value, which is consistent with the expected scour hole shape beneath an impinging jet. These findings have important implications for the use of jet impingement theory to assess sediment erosion, especially in the application of the JET. PubDate: 2014-05-01

Abstract: Abstract
Fundamentals of nonlinear wave-particle interactions are studied experimentally in a Hele-Shaw configuration with wave breaking and a dynamic bed. To design this configuration, we determine, mathematically, the gap width which allows inertial flows to survive the viscous damping due to the side walls. Damped wave sloshing experiments compared with simulations confirm that width-averaged potential-flow models with linear momentum damping are adequately capturing the large scale nonlinear wave motion. Subsequently, we show that the four types of wave breaking observed at real-world beaches also emerge on Hele-Shaw laboratory beaches, albeit in idealized forms. Finally, an experimental parameter study is undertaken to quantify the formation of quasi-steady beach morphologies due to nonlinear, breaking waves: berm or dune, beach and bar formation are all classified. Our research reveals that the Hele-Shaw beach configuration allows a wealth of experimental and modelling extensions, including benchmarking of forecast models used in the coastal engineering practice, especially for shingle beaches. PubDate: 2014-04-17

Abstract: Abstract
Flow and turbulence data collected during a yearlong experiment in a street-canyon configuration located in suburban terrain are analyzed. The instrumentation included 13 sonic anemometers deployed on two masts within the street canyon and on three masts on the building roofs. Flow patterns were classified as being in the wake-interference regime. The in-canyon flow and turbulence structure showed a strong dependence on the above-roof wind direction. While channeling along the street dominates for most wind directions, recirculation patterns develop for narrow sectors with above-roof wind directions perpendicular to the street. For these cross-flow scenarios, different scaling velocities were tested and the influence of upwind fetch and stability was investigated in more detail. Similar to previous studies, our findings confirmed that it is difficult to identify a single velocity scale that unifies both mean flow and turbulence properties inside the canyon. Turbulence properties scaled best with the friction velocity at the upwind roof but scaling with mean wind speeds measured at the upwind roof or at an operational meteorological station 5-km away from the study area, resulted in comparable or even better statistics for the mean flow parameters. Turbulence kinetic energy in the shear-layer region at roof layer varied depending on upwind fetch and stability. As turbulence is transported from the shear layer into the canyon region, the in-canyon turbulence characteristics also varied as a function of these two parameters. PubDate: 2014-04-05

Abstract: Abstract
During sunny days with periods of low synoptic wind, buoyancy forces can play a critical role on the air flow, and thus on the dispersion of pollutants in the built urban environments. Earlier studies provide evidence that when a surface inside an urban street canyon is at a higher temperature than that of local ambient air, buoyancy forces can modify the mechanically-induced circulation within the canyons (i.e., gaps between buildings). The aspect ratio of the urban canyon is a critical factor in the manifestation of the buoyancy parameter. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on urban street canyons with six different aspect ratios, focusing on the special case where the leeward wall is at a greater temperature than local ambient air. A non-dimensional measure of the influence of buoyancy is used to predict demarcations between the flow regimes. Simulations are performed under a range of buoyancy conditions, including beyond those of previous studies. Observations from a field experiment and a wind tunnel experiment are used to validate the results. PubDate: 2014-04-03

Abstract: Abstract
Turbidity currents traversing canyon-fan systems flow over bed slopes that decrease in the downstream direction. This slope decrease eventually causes turbidity currents to decelerate and enter a net-depositional mode. When the slope decrease is relatively rapid in the downstream direction, the turbidity current undergoes a concomitantly rapid and substantial transition. Similar conditions are found when turbidity currents debouch to fan systems with loss of lateral confinement. In this work a simplified approach to perform direct numerical simulation of continuous turbidity currents undergoing slope breaks and loss of lateral confinement is presented and applied to study turbulence modulation in the flow. The presence of settling sediment particles breaks the top–bottom symmetry of the flow, with a tendency to self-stratify. This self-stratification damps turbulence, particularly near the bottom wall, affecting substantially the flow’s ability to transport sediment in suspension. This work reports results on two different situations: turbidity currents driven by fine and coarser sediment flowing through a decreasing slope. In the case of fine sediment, after the reduction in the slope of the channel, the flow remains turbulent with only a modest influence on turbulence statistics. In the case of coarse sediments, after the change in slope, turbulence is totally suppressed. PubDate: 2014-04-01

Abstract: Abstract
In this paper, the authors review the current state of the science on the dynamics of gravity currents generated by positively and negatively buoyant jet discharges from submerged round outfalls (i.e., a point source) in inland and coastal waters. Specifically, this article focuses on describing gravity currents occurring at both the bottom boundary and the free surface of the receiving fluid. The manmade discharge operations generating both types of gravity currents and their significance to sustainability of the surrounding hydro-environment are first described. The authors then summarize the flow regimes characteristics of these discharges before becoming gravity currents and how those flow regimes influence the dynamics of the gravity currents. The gravity current dynamics in the calm receiving waters are then analyzed. This analysis is followed by an analysis of the influence of the hydrodynamic forces (e.g., currents, turbulence, waves) on the dynamics of gravity currents. Finally, the authors review quantitative modeling approaches for different forms of gravity current, and identify the current knowledge gaps and research needs. PubDate: 2014-04-01

Abstract: Abstract
We consider the dam-break initial stage of propagation of a gravity current of density
$\rho _{c}$
released from a lock (reservoir) of height
$h_0$
in a channel of height
$H$
. The channel contains two-layer stratified fluid. One layer, called the “tailwater,” is of the same density as the current and is of thickness
$h_T (< h_0)$
, and the other layer, called the “ambient,” is of different density
$\rho _{a}$
. Both Boussinesq (
$\rho _{c}/\rho _{a}\approx 1$
) and non-Boussinesq systems are investigated. By assuming a large Reynolds number, we can model the flow with the two-layer shallow-water approximation. Due to the presence of the tailwater, the “jump conditions” at the front of the current are different from the classical Benjamin formula, and in some circumstances (clarified in the paper) the interface of the current matches smoothly with the horizontal interface of the tailwater. Using the method of characteristics, analytical solutions are derived for various combinations of the governing parameters. To corroborate the results, two-dimensional direct numerical Navier–Stokes simulations are used, and comparisons for about 80 combinations of parameters in the Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq domains are performed. The agreement of speed and height of the current is very close. We conclude that the model yields self-contained and fairly accurate analytical solutions for the dam-break problem under consideration. The results provide reliable insights into the influence of the tailwater on the propagation of the gravity current, for both heavy-into-light and light-into-heavy motions. This is a significant extension of the classical gravity-current theory from the particular
$h_T=0$
point to the
$h_T > 0$
domain. PubDate: 2014-04-01

Abstract: Abstract
Three-dimensional 3-D Large eddy simulation (LES) has become a powerful tool to investigate evolution and structure of gravity currents, especially for cases (e.g., high Reynolds number flows, flows with massive separation) where 3-D Direct numerical simulation using non-dissipative viscous solvers is computationally too expensive. In this paper we briefly review some important results obtained based on high-resolution 3-D LES of bottom-propagating compositional Boussinesq currents in lock-exchange configurations. LES was used to provide a detailed description of the structure of the current, to discuss the role of the large-scale coherent structures, and to predict the evolution of the front velocity over the different stages of the current propagation. Three main types of lock-exchange flows are considered: (1) currents with a high volume of release (HVR) and a low volume of release (LVR) propagating in a channel with a smooth horizontal bed; (2) HVR and LVR currents propagating in a horizontal channel containing a porous layer; and (3) currents propagating in a horizontal channel containing an array of bottom obstacles (2-D dunes and ribs). The simulations are performed using non-dissipative numerical algorithms and sub-grid scale models that predict a zero eddy viscosity in regions where the turbulence is negligible. Experimental data is used to validate LES predictions. LES results show that in most cases the evolution of the front velocity is consistent with that predicted based on shallow-flow theory. LES flow fields are then used to estimate important quantities (e.g., bed friction velocity, sediment entrainment capacity) that are very difficult to obtain from experiments and to understand how the structure and evolution of the current change because of the additional drag induced by obstacles present within the channel or at the channel bed. The paper also discusses how the evolution and structure of the current change as the Reynolds number is increased to values that are relevant for gravity currents encountered in geosciences and environmental engineering applications. PubDate: 2014-04-01

Abstract: Abstract
The curvature-driven secondary flow in sinuous submarine channels has been a subject of considerable interest and controversy. Here, results from numerical model studies involving saline flow in laboratory-scale channels are presented. A 3D finite volume model of density and turbidity currents is used and simulations are run with different inflow discharges and channel-axis slopes. The simulation results show strong influence of bend wave length, channel gradient, confinement and cross sectional shape on the structure of secondary flow in submarine channels. Major findings are: (i) reversal of secondary flow in submarine channels is strongly associated with a tight bend characterized by a smaller wave length to width ratio or larger wave number, (ii) for the same inflow condition and planform characteristics, a trapezoidal channel cross section is more favorable to secondary flow reversal than a rectangular cross section, (iii) lateral convection resulting from the interaction between in-channel and overbank flows leads to the reversal of secondary flow in an unconfined channel at a lower channel slope than in a confined channel with the same dimensions, (iv) flow discharge has only nominal effect on the secondary flow in submarine channels. PubDate: 2014-04-01

Abstract: Abstract
The measurements taken during the Vertical Transport and Mixing Experiment (VTMX, October, 2000) on a northeastern slope of Salt Lake Valley, Utah, were used to calculate the statistics of velocity fluctuations in a katabatic gravity current in the absence of synoptic forcing. The data from ultrasonic anemometer-thermometers placed at elevations 4.5 and 13.9 m were used. The contributions of small-scale turbulence and waves were isolated by applying a high-pass digital (Elliptical) filter, whereupon the filtered quantities were identified as small-scale turbulence and the rest as internal gravity waves. Internal waves were found to play a role not only at canonical large gradient Richardson numbers
$(\overline{\hbox {Ri}_\mathrm{g} } >1)$
, but sometimes at smaller values
$(0.1 < \overline{\hbox {Ri}_\mathrm{g}}<1)$
, in contrast to typical observations in flat-terrain stable boundary layers. This may be attributed, at least partly, to (critical) internal waves on the slope, identified by Princevac et al. [1], which degenerate into turbulence and help maintain an active internal wave field. The applicability of both Monin-Obukhov (MO) similarity theory and local scaling to filtered and unfiltered data was tested by analyzing rms velocity fluctuations as a function of the stability parameter z/L, where L is the Obukhov length and z the height above the ground. For weaker stabilities,
$\hbox {z/L}<1$
, the MO similarity and local scaling were valid for both filtered and unfiltered data. Conversely, when
$\hbox {z/L}>1$
, the use of both scaling types is questionable, although filtered data showed a tendency to follow local scaling. A relationship between z/L and
$\overline{\hbox {Ri}_\mathrm{g} }$
was identified. Eddy diffusivities of momentum
$\hbox {K}_\mathrm{M}$
and heat
$\hbox {K}_\mathrm{H}$
were dependent on wave activities, notably when
$\overline{\hbox {Ri}_\mathrm{g} } > 1$
. The ratio
$\hbox {K}_{\mathrm{H}}/\hbox {K}_{\mathrm{M}}$
dropped well below unity at high
$\overline{\hbox {Ri}_\mathrm{g} }$
, in consonance with previous laboratory stratified shear layer measurements as well as other field observations. PubDate: 2014-04-01

Abstract: Abstract
The propagation of density current under different boundary conditions is investigated using high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS). A revised Kleiser and Schumann influence-matrix method is used to treat the general Robin type velocity boundary conditions and the related “tau” error corrections in the numerical simulations. Comparison of the simulation results reveals that the boundary conditions change the turbulent flow field and therefore the propagation of the front. This paper mainly focuses on the effects of boundary conditions and initial depth of the dense fluid. The differences in energy dissipation and overall front development in wall-bounded and open channels are examined. Through DNS simulations, it is evident that with the decrease of initial release depth ratio (
$D/H$
), the effect of the top boundary becomes less important. In wall-bounded channels, there are three distinctive layers in the vertical distribution of energy dissipation corresponding to the contributions from bottom wall, interface, and top wall, respectively. In open channels, there are only two layers with the top one missing due to the shear free nature of the boundary. It is found that the energy dissipation distribution in the bottom layer is similar for cases with the same
$D/H$
ratio regardless the top boundary condition. The simulation results also reveal that for low Reynolds number cases, the energy change due to concentration diffusion cannot be neglected in the energy budget. To reflect the real dynamics of density current, the dimensionless Froude number and Reynolds number should be defined using the release depth
$D$
as the length scale. PubDate: 2014-04-01