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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover AGE
  [SJR: 1.358]   [H-I: 33]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1574-4647 - ISSN (Online) 0161-9152
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Multimodal physical activity increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor
           levels and improves cognition in institutionalized older women
    • Authors: Kelem Vedovelli; Bruno Lima Giacobbo; Márcio Silveira Corrêa; Andréa Wieck; Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon; Elke Bromberg
      Abstract: Physical activity has been proposed as a promising intervention to improve cognition and decrease the risk of dementia in older adults. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to mediate, at least partially, these effects of exercise. However, intervention studies of the effects of multimodal exercises on cognition and BDNF levels are scarce and composed by small samples. Thus, the generalization of the conclusions of these studies depends on the reproducibility of the results. In order to contribute to the knowledge on the field, the present study evaluated the effects of a physical activity intervention composed by muscle strengthening and aerobic conditioning on BDNF levels and cognition in older women. Independent and non-demented subjects (≥75 years) were assigned to a 3-month physical activity intervention (n = 22, 60 min exercise sessions three times a week) or to a control condition (n = 10, no exercise). Clinical (anxiety and depression symptoms), neuropsychological (Digit Span, Stroop, Trail Making, and Contextual Memory tests), physical (upper and lower limb strength, aerobic conditioning), and physiological (serum BDNF) parameters were evaluated immediately before, 1 month, and 3 months after starting intervention. Results indicated that controls had stable levels for all measured variables, whereas the intervention group improved on physical fitness, depressive symptoms, cognitive performance, and BDNF levels. Moreover, a linear regression identified an association between aerobic conditioning and BDNF levels. In conclusion, combined muscle strengthening and aerobic conditioning was able to improve cognitive performance and increase BDNF levels. Aerobic conditioning seems to be an important mediator of these outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9987-5
       
  • A system to identify inhibitors of mTOR signaling using high-resolution
           growth analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • Authors: Mitchell B. Lee; Daniel T. Carr; Michael G. Kiflezghi; Yan Ting Zhao; Deborah B. Kim; Socheata Thon; Margarete D. Moore; Mary Ann K. Li; Matt Kaeberlein
      Abstract: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of growth and proliferation and mTOR inhibition is a promising therapy for a variety of diseases and disorders. Inhibition of mTOR complex I (mTORC1) with rapamycin delays aging and increases healthy longevity in laboratory animals and is used clinically at high doses to prevent organ transplant rejection and to treat some forms of cancer. Clinical use of rapamycin is associated with several unwanted side effects, however, and several strategies are being taken to identify mTORC1 inhibitors with fewer side effects. We describe here a yeast-based growth assay that can be used to screen for novel inhibitors of mTORC1. By testing compounds using a wild-type strain and isogenic cells lacking either TOR1 or FPR1, we can resolve not only whether a compound is an inhibitor of mTORC1 but also whether the inhibitor acts through a mechanism similar to rapamycin by binding Fpr1. Using this assay, we show that rapamycin derivatives behave similarly to rapamycin, while caffeine and the ATP competitive inhibitors Torin 1 and GSK2126458 are mTORC1 inhibitors in yeast that act independently of Fpr1. Some mTOR inhibitors in mammalian cells do not inhibit mTORC1 in yeast, and several nutraceutical compounds were not found to specifically inhibit mTOR but resulted in a general inhibition of yeast growth. Our screening method holds promise as a means of effectively assaying drug libraries for mTOR-inhibitory molecules in vivo that may be adapted as novel treatments to fight diseases and extend healthy longevity.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9988-4
       
  • Recent advances in CMV tropism, latency, and diagnosis during aging
    • Authors: Sean X. Leng; Jeremy Kamil; John G. Purdy; Niels A. Lemmermann; Matthias J. Reddehase; Felicia D. Goodrum
      Abstract: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the largest viruses known to cause human diseases. Chronic CMV infection, as defined by anti-CMV IgG serology, increases with age and is highly prevalent in older adults. It has complex biology with significant immunologic and health consequences. This article aims to summarize research findings presented at the 6th International Workshop on CMV and Immunosenescence that relate to advances in the areas of CMV tropism, latency, CMV manipulation of cell metabolism, and T cell memory inflation, as well as novel diagnostic evaluation and translational research of chronic CMV infection in older adults. Information summarized here represents the current state of knowledge in these important fields. Investigators have also identified a number of areas that deserve further and more in-depth investigation, including building more precise parallels between mouse CMV (mCMV) and human CMV (HCMV) research. It is hoped that this article will also stimulate engaging discussion on strategies and direction to advance the science to the next level.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9985-7
       
  • Hypertension-induced synapse loss and impairment in synaptic plasticity in
           the mouse hippocampus mimics the aging phenotype: implications for the
           pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment
    • Authors: Zsuzsanna Tucsek; M. Noa Valcarcel-Ares; Stefano Tarantini; Andriy Yabluchanskiy; Gábor Fülöp; Tripti Gautam; Albert Orock; Anna Csiszar; Ferenc Deak; Zoltan Ungvari
      Abstract: Strong epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that hypertension has detrimental effects on the cerebral microcirculation and thereby promotes accelerated brain aging. Hypertension is an independent risk factor for both vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the pathophysiological link between hypertension-induced cerebromicrovascular injury (e.g., blood–brain barrier disruption, increased microvascular oxidative stress, and inflammation) and cognitive decline remains elusive. The present study was designed to characterize neuronal functional and morphological alterations induced by chronic hypertension and compare them to those induced by aging. To achieve that goal, we induced hypertension in young C57BL/6 mice by chronic (4 weeks) infusion of angiotensin II. We found that long-term potentiation (LTP) of performant path synapses following high-frequency stimulation of afferent fibers was decreased in hippocampal slices obtained from hypertensive mice, mimicking the aging phenotype. Hypertension and advanced age were associated with comparable decline in synaptic density in the stratum radiatum of the mouse hippocampus. Hypertension, similar to aging, was associated with changes in mRNA expression of several genes involved in regulation of neuronal function, including down-regulation of Bdnf, Homer1, and Dlg4, which may have a role in impaired synaptic plasticity. Collectively, hypertension impairs synaptic plasticity, reduces synaptic density, and promotes dysregulation of genes involved in synaptic function in the mouse hippocampus mimicking the aging phenotype. These hypertension-induced neuronal alterations may impair establishment of memories in the hippocampus and contribute to the pathogenesis and clinical manifestation of both vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9981-y
       
  • A constant companion: immune recognition and response to cytomegalovirus
           with aging and implications for immune fitness
    • Authors: Aisha Souquette; Justin Frere; Megan Smithey; Delphine Sauce; Paul G. Thomas
      Abstract: Approximately 50% of individuals aged 6–49 years in the United States are infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV), with seroprevalence increasing with age, reaching 85–90% by 75–80 years according to Bate et al. (Clin Infect Dis 50 (11): 1439-1447, 2010) and Pawelec et al. (Curr Opin Immunol 24:507-511, 2012). Following primary infection, CMV establishes lifelong latency with periodic reactivation. Immunocompetent hosts experience largely asymptomatic infection, but CMV can cause serious illness in immunocompromised populations, such as transplant patients and the elderly. Control of CMV requires constant immune surveillance, and recent discoveries suggest this demand alters general features of the immune system in infected individuals. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of the immune response to CMV and the role of CMV in immune aging and fitness, while highlighting the importance of potential confounding factors that influence CMV studies. Understanding how CMV contributes to shaping “baseline” immunity has important implications for a host’s ability to mount effective responses to diverse infections and vaccination.
      PubDate: 2017-06-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9982-x
       
  • CMV immune evasion and manipulation of the immune system with aging
    • Authors: Sarah E. Jackson; Anke Redeker; Ramon Arens; Debbie van Baarle; Sara P. H. van den Berg; Chris A. Benedict; Luka Čičin-Šain; Ann B. Hill; Mark R. Wills
      Abstract: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes numerous proteins and microRNAs that function to evade the immune response and allow the virus to replicate and disseminate in the face of a competent innate and acquired immune system. The establishment of a latent infection by CMV, which if completely quiescent at the level of viral gene expression would represent an ultimate in immune evasion strategies, is not sufficient for lifelong persistence and dissemination of the virus. CMV needs to reactivate and replicate in a lytic cycle of infection in order to disseminate further, which occurs in the face of a fully primed secondary immune response. Without reactivation, latency itself would be redundant for the virus. It is also becoming clear that latency is not a totally quiescent state, but is characterized by limited viral gene expression. Therefore, the virus also needs immune evasion strategies during latency. An effective immune response to CMV is required or viral replication will cause morbidity and ultimately mortality in the host. There is clearly a complex balance between virus immune evasion and host immune recognition over a lifetime. This poses the important question of whether long-term evasion or manipulation of the immune response driven by CMV is detrimental to health. In this meeting report, three groups used the murine model of CMV (MCMV) to examine if the contribution of the virus to immune senescence is set by the (i) initial viral inoculum, (ii) inflation of T cell responses, (iii) or the balance between functionally distinct effector CD4+ T cells. The work of other groups studying the CMV response in humans is discussed. Their work asks whether the ability to make immune responses to new antigens is compromised by (i) age and HCMV carriage, (ii) long-term exposure to HCMV giving rise to an overall immunosuppressive environment and increased levels of latent virus, or (iii) adapted virus mutants (used as potential vaccines) that have the capacity to elicit conventional and unconventional T cell responses.
      PubDate: 2017-06-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9986-6
       
  • How does cytomegalovirus factor into diseases of aging and vaccine
           responses, and by what mechanisms'
    • Authors: Allison E. Aiello; Yen-Ling Chiu; Daniela Frasca
      Abstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen for both clinical and population settings. There is a growing body of research implicating CMV in multiple health outcomes across the life course. At the same time, there is mounting evidence that individuals living in poverty are more likely to be exposed to CMV and more likely to experience many of the chronic conditions for which CMV has been implicated. Further research on the causal role of CMV for health and well-being is needed. However, the strong evidence implicating CMV in type 2 diabetes, autoimmunity, cancer, cardiovascular disease, vaccination, and age-related alterations in immune function warrants clinical and public health action. This imperative is even higher among individuals living in socioeconomically disadvantaged settings and those exposed to high levels of chronic psychosocial stress.
      PubDate: 2017-06-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9983-9
       
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) research in immune senescence comes of age: overview
           of the 6th International Workshop on CMV and Immunosenescence
    • Authors: Janko Nikolich-Žugich; René A.W. van Lier
      Abstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most complex and most ubiquitous latent persistent viruses, with a considerable ability to evade and manipulate the immune system. Following an early-life infection, most immunocompetent humans spend several decades living with CMV, and, because the virus in these hosts does not cause manifest disease, CMV can be considered part of normal aging for more than half of humanity. However, there is accumulating evidence that CMV carriage is not a null event and that both potentially harmful and potentially beneficial outcomes emanate from the interaction of CMV with its mammalian hosts. This article provides an overview of the 6th International Workshop on CMV and Immunosenescence, highlighting the advances in the field made in the past two years, as related to CMV epidemiology/geroscience, CMV virology with an accent on latency, and CMV immune evasion and immune recognition of the virus and its antigens.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9984-8
       
  • Androgen supplementation improves some but not all aspects of immune
           senescence in aged male macaques
    • Authors: Maham Rais; Randall M. Wilson; Henryk F. Urbanski; Ilhem Messaoudi
      Abstract: Aging leads to a progressive decline in immune function commonly referred to as immune senescence, which results in increased incidence and severity of infection. In addition, older males experience a significant disruption in their levels of circulating androgens, notably testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which has been linked to sarcopenia, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Since sex steroid levels modulate immune function, it is possible that the age-related decline in androgen levels can also affect immune senescence. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the pleiotropic effects of physiological androgen supplementation in aged male rhesus macaques (n = 7/group) on immune cell subset frequency and response to vaccination. As expected, frequency of naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells declined in aged non-treated macaques, while that of memory T cells increased. In contrast, frequency of naïve and memory T cells remained stable in androgen-supplemented males. In addition, levels of inflammatory cytokines increased less steeply in supplemented aged males compared to the aged controls. Despite these changes, androgen-supplemented animals only showed modest improvement in antibody responses following vaccination compared to age non-treated controls. These data indicate that short-term physiological androgen supplementation can improve some but not all aspects of immune senescence.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9979-5
       
  • Demonstration of impaired neurovascular coupling responses in TG2576 mouse
           model of Alzheimer’s disease using functional laser speckle contrast
           imaging
    • Authors: Stefano Tarantini; Gabor A. Fulop; Tamas Kiss; Eszter Farkas; Dániel Zölei-Szénási; Veronica Galvan; Peter Toth; Anna Csiszar; Zoltan Ungvari; Andriy Yabluchanskiy
      Abstract: Increasing evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies indicates that cerebromicrovascular dysfunction and microcirculatory damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of many types of dementia in the elderly, including both vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and Alzheimer’s disease. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include impairment of neurovascular coupling responses/functional hyperemia (“neurovascular uncoupling”). Due to the growing interest in understanding and pharmacologically targeting pathophysiological mechanisms of VCID, there is an increasing need for sensitive, easy-to-establish methods to assess neurovascular coupling responses. Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a technique that allows rapid and minimally invasive visualization of changes in regional cerebromicrovascular blood perfusion. This type of imaging technique combines high resolution and speed to provide great spatiotemporal accuracy to measure moment-to-moment changes in cerebral blood flow induced by neuronal activation. Here, we provide detailed protocols for the successful measurement in neurovascular coupling responses in anesthetized mice equipped with a thinned-skull cranial window using LSCI. This method can be used to evaluate the effects of anti-aging or anti-AD treatments on cerebromicrovascular health.
      PubDate: 2017-06-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9980-z
       
  • Loss of gait control assessed by cognitive-motor dual-tasks: pros and cons
           in detecting people at risk of developing Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s
           diseases
    • Authors: Maroua Belghali; Nathalie Chastan; Fabien Cignetti; Damien Davenne; Leslie M. Decker
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are age-related progressive neurodegenerative diseases of increasing prevalence worldwide. In the absence of curative therapy, current research is interested in prevention, by identifying subtle signs of early-stage neurodegeneration. Today, the field of behavioral neuroscience has emerged as one of the most promising areas of research on this topic. Recently, it has been shown that the exacerbation of gait disorders under dual-task conditions (i.e., simultaneous performance of cognitive and motor tasks) could be a characteristic feature of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The cognitive-motor dual-task paradigm during walking allows to assess whether (i) executive attention is abnormally impaired in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease or (ii) compensation strategies are used in order to preserve gait function when the basal ganglia system is altered in prodromal Parkinson’s disease. This review aims at (i) identifying patterns of dual-task-related gait changes that are specific to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, respectively, (ii) demonstrating that these changes could potentially be used as prediagnostic markers for disease onset, (iii) reviewing pros and cons of existing dual-task studies, and (iv) proposing future directions for clinical research.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9977-7
       
  • Differential effects of early-life nutrient restriction in long-lived
           GHR-KO and normal mice
    • Authors: Yimin Fang; Samuel McFadden; Justin Darcy; Cristal M. Hill; Joshua A. Huber; Steve Verhulst; John J. Kopchick; Richard A. Miller; Liou Y. Sun; Andrzej Bartke
      Abstract: There is increasing evidence that growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (collectively referred to as somatotropic signaling) during development has a profound influence on aging and longevity. Moreover, the absence of GH action was shown to modify responses of adult mice to calorie restriction (CR) and other antiaging interventions. It was therefore of interest to determine whether GH resistance in GH receptor knockout (GHR-KO) mice would modify the effects of mild pre-weaning CR imposed by increasing the number of pups in a litter (the so-called litter crowding). In addition to the expected impact on body weight, litter crowding affected glucose homeostasis, hepatic expression of IGF-1 and genes related to lipid metabolism, and expression of inflammatory markers in white adipose tissue, with some of these effects persisting until the age of 2 years. Litter crowding failed to further extend the remarkable longevity of GHR-KO mice and, instead, reduced late life survival of GHR-KO females, an effect opposite to the changes detected in normal animals. We conclude that the absence of GH actions alters the responses to pre-weaning CR and prevents this intervention from extending longevity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9978-6
       
  • Erratum to: Effects of aging on the relationship between cognitive demand
           and step variability during dual-task walking
    • Authors: Leslie M. Decker; Fabien Cignetti; Nathaniel Hunt; Claudia Rodríguez-Aranda; Jane F. Potter; Nicholas Stergiou; Stephanie A. Studenski
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9974-x
       
  • Role of DNA methylation in the dietary restriction mediated cellular
           memory
    • Authors: Archana Unnikrishnan; Jordan Jackson; Stephanie A. Matyi; Niran Hadad; Benjamin Wronowski; Constantin Georgescu; Karla P. Garrett; Jonathan D. Wren; Willard M. Freeman; Arlan Richardson
      Abstract: An important facet of dietary restriction (DR) that has been largely overlooked is that DR can have early effects that create a cellular memory, which persists even when DR is discontinued. The goal of this study was to determine if DNA methylation played a role in the cellular memory of DR by examining the effect of short-term DR on gene expression and DNA methylation and determining if the changes in expression and DNA methylation persist when DR is discontinued and mice returned to ad libitum (AL) feeding. We show that DR can induce substantial changes in gene expression within 1 month of its implementation in various tissues, and more interestingly, ~19–50% of these changes in gene expression persist across the tissues even when DR is discontinued. We then determined whether DR induced changes in DNA methylation in the promoter of three candidate genes identified from our gene expression analysis (Pomc, Hsph1, and Nts1) that correlated with the changes in the expression of these genes. Decreased methylation at three specific CG sites in the promoter of the Nts1 gene encompassing the distal consensus AP-1 site was correlated with increased Nts1 expression. Both the promoter hypomethylation and increased Nts1 expression persisted even after DR was discontinued and mice fed AL, supporting our hypothesis that DNA methylation could play a role in the memory effect of DR. The changes in DNA methylation in the Nts1 gene are likely to occur in intestinal stem cells and could play a role in preserving the intestinal stem cell pool in DR mice.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9976-8
       
  • A new mouse model of frailty: the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase knockout
           mouse
    • Abstract: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that is an important public health problem for the older adults living in the USA. Although several methods have been developed to measure frailty in humans, we have very little understanding of its etiology. Because the molecular basis of frailty is poorly understood, mouse models would be of great value in determining which pathways contribute to the development of frailty. More importantly, mouse models would be critical in testing potential therapies to treat and possibly prevent frailty. In this article, we present data showing that Sod1KO mice, which lack the antioxidant enzyme, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, are an excellent model of frailty, and we compare the Sod1KO mice to the only other mouse model of frailty, mice with the deletion of the IL-10 gene. Sod1KO mice exhibit four characteristics that have been used to define human frailty: weight loss, weakness, low physical activity, and exhaustion. In addition, Sod1KO mice show increased inflammation and sarcopenia, which are strongly associated with human frailty. The Sod1KO mice also show alterations in pathways that have been proposed to play a role in the etiology of frailty: oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell senescence. Using Sod1KO mice, we show that dietary restriction can delay/prevent characteristics of frailty in mice.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9975-9
       
  • Norman S. Wolf, D.V.M., Ph.D., 1927–2017: experimental pathologist
           and geroscientist
    • Authors: George M. Martin
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9969-7
       
  • Cognitive status, fast walking speed and walking speed reserve—the Gait
           and Alzheimer Interactions Tracking (GAIT) study
    • Authors: Michele L. Callisaya; Cyrille P. Launay; Velandai K. Srikanth; Joe Verghese; Gilles Allali; Olivier Beauchet
      Abstract: The aims of this study were to (1) determine if older people at their fast walking speed (FWS) are able to reach the speed required at pedestrian crossings (>1.2 m/s) and (2) determine the role of cognitive impairment on the ability to alter speed and walk quickly. Participants were recruited from the Angers Memory Clinic, France. Gait speed was assessed at preferred and FWS using a GAITRite walkway. Walking speed reserve (WSR) was calculated as the difference between FWS and preferred speeds. Participants were classified into cognitive stages (cognitively healthy, mild cognitive impairment, mild and moderate dementia) based on neuropsychological evaluations. The proportion of participants with a FWS of <1.2 m/s was reported. The association between cognitive stage and preferred, fast and walking speed reserve was assessed using multivariable regression, adjusting for covariates. The mean age of the sample (n = 681) was 73.3 (SD 5.8) years. At preferred speed 73.7%, and at FWS 12.8%, of participants had speeds less than 1.2 m/s. Poorer cognitive stage was associated with slower preferred speed (β −0.08, 95% CI −0.10, −0.06), FWS (β −0.13, 95% CI −0.16, −0.10) and also with smaller WSR (m/s) (β −0.05, 95% CI −0.07, −0.03), but not WSR (%) (β −1.73, 95% CI −4.38, 0.93). In older people, worse stages of cognitive impairment were associated with poorer ability to increase speed and walk quickly. Such limitations may result in reduced ability to access the community.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9973-y
       
  • Influence of Nrf2 activators on subcellular skeletal muscle protein and
           DNA synthesis rates after 6 weeks of milk protein feeding in older adults
           
    • Authors: Adam R. Konopka; Jaime L. Laurin; Robert V. Musci; Christopher A. Wolff; Justin J. Reid; Laurie M. Biela; Qian Zhang; Fredrick F. Peelor; Christopher L. Melby; Karyn L. Hamilton; Benjamin F. Miller
      Abstract: In older adults, chronic oxidative and inflammatory stresses are associated with an impaired increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis after acute anabolic stimuli. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Protandim have been shown to activate nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor for the antioxidant response element and anti-inflammatory pathways. This study tested the hypothesis that compared to a placebo control (CON), CLA and Protandim would increase skeletal muscle subcellular protein (myofibrillar, mitochondrial, cytoplasmic) and DNA synthesis in older adults after 6 weeks of milk protein feeding. CLA decreased oxidative stress and skeletal muscle oxidative damage with a trend to increase messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of a Nrf2 target, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1). However, CLA did not influence other Nrf2 targets (heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1)) or protein or DNA synthesis. Conversely, Protandim increased HO-1 protein content but not the mRNA expression of downstream Nrf2 targets, oxidative stress, or skeletal muscle oxidative damage. Rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis were maintained despite lower mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein syntheses after Protandim versus CON. Similarly, DNA synthesis was non-significantly lower after Protandim compared to CON. After Protandim, the ratio of protein to DNA synthesis tended to be greater in the myofibrillar fraction and maintained in the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic fractions, emphasizing the importance of measuring both protein and DNA synthesis to gain insight into proteostasis. Overall, these data suggest that Protandim may enhance proteostatic mechanisms of skeletal muscle contractile proteins after 6 weeks of milk protein feeding in older adults.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9968-8
       
  • The association between frailty, the metabolic syndrome, and mortality
           over the lifespan
    • Authors: Alice E. Kane; Edward Gregson; Olga Theou; Kenneth Rockwood; Susan E. Howlett
      Abstract: Frailty and the metabolic syndrome are each associated with poor outcomes, but in very old people (90+ years) only frailty was associated with an increased mortality risk. We investigated the relationship between frailty, metabolic syndrome, and mortality risk, in younger (20–65 years) and older (65+ years) people. This is a secondary analysis of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets for 2003–2004 and 2005–2006, linked with mortality data up to 2011. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Frailty was operationalized using a 41-item frailty index (FI). Compared to the younger group (n = 6403), older adults (n = 2152) had both a higher FI (0.10 ± 0.00 vs. 0.22 ± 0.00, p < 0.001) and a greater prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (24.1 vs. 45.5%, p < 0.001). The metabolic syndrome and FI were correlated in younger people (r = 0.25, p < 0.001) but not in older people (r = 0.08, p < 0.1). In bivariate analyses, the FI predicted mortality risk in both age groups whereas the metabolic syndrome did so only in the younger group. In Cox models, adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and each other, the FI was associated with increased mortality risk at both ages (younger HR 1.05 (1.04–1.06); older HR 1.04 (1.03–1.04) whereas the metabolic syndrome did not contribute to mortality risk. The FI better predicted mortality than did the metabolic syndrome, regardless of age.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9967-9
       
  • Microglia activation and phagocytosis: relationship with aging and
           cognitive impairment in the rhesus monkey
    • Authors: Eli Shobin; Michael P. Bowley; Larissa I. Estrada; Nadine C. Heyworth; Mary E. Orczykowski; Sherri A. Eldridge; Samantha M. Calderazzo; Farzad Mortazavi; Tara L. Moore; Douglas L. Rosene
      Abstract: While cognitive decline is observed in the normal aging monkey, neurons are not lost with age. Instead, frontal white matter is lost as myelin degenerates and both correlate with age-related cognitive decline. As age-related myelin damage increases, there should be an increase in clearance of damaged myelin by microglial phagocytosis. In this study, brains of behaviorally tested rhesus monkeys were assessed using unbiased stereology to quantify the density of activated microglia (LN3 antibody positive) and phagocytic microglia (galectin-3 (Gal-3) antibody positive) in three white matter regions: the corpus callosum, cingulum bundle (CGB), and frontal white matter (FWM). LN3 cell density was significantly increased in the CGB, whereas Gal-3 cell density was significantly increased in all regions. Increases in Gal-3 cell density in the FWM were associated with cognitive impairment. In the FWM of old animals, Gal-3-positive microglia were classified by morphological subtype as ramified, hypertrophic, or amoeboid. The densities of hypertrophic and amoeboid microglia significantly correlated with cognitive impairment. Finally, microglia were double-labeled with LN3 and Gal-3 showing that 91% of Gal-3 cells were also LN3 positive, thus expressing an “activated” phenotype. Furthermore, 15% of all double-labeled cells formed phagocytic cups. Overall, these results suggest that microglia become activated in white matter with age where the majority express a phagocytic phenotype. We hypothesize that age-related phagocytic activation of microglia is a response to accumulating myelin pathology. The association of Gal-3 in the FWM with cognitive impairment may reflect regional differences in damage or dysfunction of normal clearance mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2017-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11357-017-9965-y
       
 
 
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