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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2355 journals)

 Acoustics Australia   [0 followers]  Follow         Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)    ISSN (Print) 0814-6039 - ISSN (Online) 1839-2571    Published by Springer-Verlag  [2355 journals]
• Clarifications on the Design and Interpretation of Conclusions from Health
Canada’s Study on Wind Turbine Noise and Health
• Authors: David S. Michaud; Katya Feder; Sonia A. Voicescu; Leonora Marro; John Than; Mireille Guay; Eric Lavigne; Allison Denning; Brian J. Murray; Shelly K. Weiss; Paul Villeneuve
Abstract: It has been extensively communicated that Health Canada’s Community Noise and Health Study (CNHS) did not find positive associations between wind turbine noise (WTN) levels and any of the evaluated health outcomes, beyond an increase in the prevalence of high annoyance toward several wind turbine features. The authors emphasize that this general conclusion remains bound by the study strengths and limitations. Following the publication of the CNHS findings, there has been interest among some individuals to present alternative interpretations of the results originally reported by Michaud et al. (J Acoust Soc Am 139(3):1443–1454, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4942391). While recognizing the importance of independent scientific re-evaluation and/or reinterpretation, this commentary serves to clarify and, where necessary, correct some of the information put forward by others. One factor that has been re-evaluated by external stakeholders is the subsample of participants that comprise the lowest WTN category. In their reanalysis, they have eliminated this category, or introduced alternative comparative data. This paper identifies substantial issues associated with the re-evaluation put forth. To thoroughly address these issues and to avoid further confusion or misinterpretation, the authors of the CNHS provide a comparison between the CNHS health condition prevalence data and nationally representative health-based surveys conducted in Canada during the same calendar year. In addition, this paper responds to comments received to date on the CNHS, including the study’s age range, the generalization of findings, the provision of raw data, and conclusions on the association between WTN level and health.
PubDate: 2018-02-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0125-4

• News Item
• PubDate: 2018-01-04
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0122-7

• Study on the Optimization of the Distribution of Absorbing Material on a
Noise Barrier
• Authors: Leilei Chen; Wenchang Zhao; Xiaohui Yuan; Baochun Zhou
Abstract: Noise barriers have been widely used to decrease the transportation noise. How to utilize limited structure and material to achieve the environmental requirements for noise control is an important research topic. This research combines the use of boundary element method and SIMP to generate an acoustic topology optimization method and applies this optimization method to optimization distribution of absorbing material installed on the noise barrier’s edges. Optimality criteria method is used to update the design variables and look for the final optimal solution. A new material interpolation scheme for acoustic problems based on SIMP is given, where the interpolation variable is not real structural density used in conventional SIMP, but fictitious material density deciding the normalized surface admittance. It is noteworthy that gray elements exist in the acoustic optimization analysis based on SIMP. However, a modified method based on a smoothed Heaviside function is applied to eliminate the gray elements. In order to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm in this paper, vertical barrier and T-shaped barrier with two wells are used for the numerical analysis, respectively.
PubDate: 2018-01-03
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0123-6

• Differences in Vocalisation Patterns of Dugongs Between Fine-Scale
Habitats Around Talibong Island, Thailand
• Authors: Kotaro Tanaka; Kotaro Ichikawa; Hideaki Nishizawa; Kongkiat Kittiwattanawong; Nobuaki Arai; Hiromichi Mitamura
Pages: 243 - 251
Abstract: Examining characteristics of a species’ fine-scale habitat use contributes to effective and practical spatially explicit conservation. Dugongs (Dugong dugon) are endangered herbivorous mammals that use vocalisation for communication. In a small, specific area of Thai waters, classified here as a “vocal hotspot,” vocalisation rates are elevated, implying that in this area acoustic communication plays an important role. We recorded dugong calls in the vocal hotspot and a nearby feeding area. We then compared temporal patterns of vocalisation between the two sites to investigate the degree of variability in vocalisation between fine-scale habitats, which is important for understanding dugong habitat use by passive acoustic monitoring. From the 489 total hours of recording, 6607 and 2032 calls were observed in the vocal hotspot and feeding area, with mean vocalisation rates (calls per hour) 13.5 and 4.2, respectively. Vocalisation rate had distinctive 24-h periodicity in only the vocal hotspot. Environmental factors that correlated with changes in detected vocalisation rate also differed between the two locations. Water level correlated with vocalisation rate in the feeding area; in contrast, current direction correlated with vocalisation rate in the vocal hotspot. In conclusion, the vocalisation pattern for dugongs differed between the two sites, and we suggest that their habitat use varies at fine spatial scales.
PubDate: 2017-08-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0094-7
Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 2 (2017)

• Adaptive Matched Field Processing for Source Localization Using Improved
• Authors: Phu Ninh Tran; Khanh Dang Trinh
Pages: 325 - 330
Abstract: Matched field processing (MFP) has been a method widely applied for shallow underwater target localization, which is a critical issue in underwater acoustic. To enhance the efficiency of conventional MFP methods, different adaptive MFP algorithms have been developed; the white noise constraints (WNC) MFP or diagonal loading (DL) algorithm is such a typical one. The WNC or DL one has been considered to be the most desirable method because it is more robust to environment mismatch in practical in comparison with the minimum-variance distortionless response MFP algorithm, a popular high-resolution method. Although having exceptional ability to localize underwater sources in mismatch scenarios, the DL method has still been not reach high resolution in certain cases. In the paper, we proposed an adaptive method known as improved diagonal loading algorithm to make an increase in the resolution and the peak background rate in the ambiguity surface of source localization results in comparison with DL one. The proposed algorithm works by adding one more parameter that is adjusted in the steering vector of the DL algorithm. The simulation results show that the new algorithm attains better beamforming performance in terms of high resolution than the existing adaptive MFP algorithms in the case of environmental mismatch caused by noise effects and the limitation of the snapshots.
PubDate: 2017-08-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0089-4
Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 2 (2017)

• Characterization and Clinical Trials of the Prototype Ear Simulator
Designed for Neonates Hearing Assessment
• Authors: Baki Karaböce; Enver Sadıkoğlu; Eyüp Bilgiç
Pages: 403 - 410
Abstract: This article aims to describe the characterization of the new prototype ear simulator for neonates and demonstrate its utility in clinical measurements. Experimental evaluations have been performed in order to demonstrate consistency with the theoretical model in acoustic transfer impedance. Temperature and atmospheric pressure dependency measurements have been applied for verification of the stability of the ear simulator in variable environmental conditions. Thus, the main objective of this study is to outline the benefits of the new ear simulator in audiometric measurements for neonates. Acoustic transfer impedance of the ear simulator has been determined and compared with the theoretical model, and its environmental dependence has been studied between 100 Hz and 10,000 Hz. A modified method usually applied for reciprocity calibration of microphones has been used in measurements. Comparison of the new ear simulator with the IEC 60318-4 ear simulator and a $$2\,\hbox {cm}^{3}$$ coupler has been presented. The ear simulator has been used to calibrate acoustics stimuli from an audiometer (Interacoustics AD226 with Otometrics insert earphone) and two otoacoustic emission devices (Otodynamics Otoport and Interacoustics Titan). The consistency of experimental evaluations in acoustic transfer impedance with the theoretical model has been confirmed. In clinical trials, an audiometer and two otoacoustic emission devices were investigated and a smaller standard deviation of 1.0 dB, 0.8 dB and 0.7 dB at 1 kHz, 2 kHz and 4 kHz, respectively, has been achieved compared to the old $$2\,\hbox {cm}^{3}$$ coupler which has a 1.5 dB, 1.8 dB and 1.9 dB standard deviations at same frequencies. Average differences and standard deviations between the two couplers (IEC 60318-4 and the universal ear simulator) are $$11.4 \pm 0.3\,\hbox {dB}$$ at 1 kHz, $$11.0 \pm 0.1\,\hbox {dB}$$ at 2 kHz and $$13.3 \pm 0.2\,\hbox {dB}$$ at 4 kHz. These differences represent the error incurred by using an adult ear simulator for neonates applications. The new universal ear simulator designed especially for hearing assessments of neonates has been characterized and used in clinical trials. The consistency between theoretical model and experimental measurements has been approved. Clinical trials showed that a more accurate calibration of OAE and audiometers for neonates would be possible. However, further applications for different age groups and broader clinical trials should be planned. Intercomparisons between different laboratories and clinics can maintain the comparability of hearing measurements and higher impact.
PubDate: 2017-08-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0085-8
Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 2 (2017)

• Correction to: Shape Dependence of Acoustic Performances of Buildings with
a Hyperbolic Paraboloid Cable Net Membrane Roof
• Authors: Fabio Rizzo; Paolo Zazzini
Abstract: In the original article, the reference Rizzo and Ricciardelli (2017) was incorrectly published. The invalid reference and the corrected reference are given.
PubDate: 2017-11-29
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0121-8

• Health Effects Related to Wind Turbine Sound, Including Low-Frequency
Sound and Infrasound
• Authors: Irene van Kamp; Frits van den Berg
Abstract: A narrative review of observational and experimental studies was conducted to assess the association between exposure to wind turbine sound and its components and health effects in the general population. Literature databases Scopus, Medline and Embase and additional bibliographic sources such as reference sections of key publications and journal databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed studies published from 2009 to 2017. For the period until early 2015 only reviews were included, while for the period between January 2015 and January 2017 all relevant publications were screened. Ten reviews and 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies examined subjective annoyance as the primary outcome, indicating an association between exposure levels and the percentage highly annoyed. Sound from wind turbines leads to a higher percentage of highly annoyed when compared to other sound sources. Annoyance due to aspects, like shadow flicker, the visual (in) appropriateness in the landscape and blinking lights, can add to the noise annoyance. There is no evidence of a specific effect of the low-frequency component nor of infrasound. There are indications that the rhythmic pressure pulses on a building can lead to additional annoyance indoors. Personal characteristics such as noise sensitivity, privacy issues and social acceptance, benefits and attitudes, the local situation and the conditions of planning a wind farm also play a role in reported annoyance. Less data are available to evaluate the effects of wind turbines on sleep and long-term health effects. Sleep disturbance as well as other health effects in the vicinity of wind turbines was found to be related to annoyance, rather than directly to exposure.
PubDate: 2017-10-23
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0115-6

• Response from Author to “Comments on Determination of Sound Power Level
of Mining Equipment” by J. Parnell
• Authors: Neil Pennington
Abstract: In the April 2017 edition of this journal, the Author published a theoretical Technical Note in the peer-reviewed section of the journal. Commentary on that Technical Note was provided in Forum section of that same issue by Jeff Parnell of the NSW Department of Planning and Environment. The primary concerns were that simplification of the method could result in underestimation of noise impacts. This reply aims to allay some of those concerns.
PubDate: 2017-10-05
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0116-5

• Vertical Correlation of the Acoustic Field in Deep Water Measured with
Explosive Sources
• Authors: Hui Li; Kunde Yang; Zhixiong Lei; Rui Duan
Abstract: In this paper we report the measurement and analysis on vertical correlations of acoustic signals received by a vertical line array deployed near the sea bottom in deep water. The source data were from one calibration experiment of sound exposure level of explosive charges. The source–receiver range is about 17 km. The sound transmission duct is the well-known reliable acoustic path (RAP). The vertical correlation coefficients are estimated at center frequencies of 300, 600, 1000 and 1500 Hz with 1/3 octave bands. Two types of explosive charges are used with nominal source depths of 50 and 300 m, respectively. The variation of vertical correlation coefficients strongly relies on source depth and center frequency. For each scene, ten groups of experiment data exhibit uniform variation of vertical correlation coefficients with fractional differences due to the fluctuation of ocean waveguide. Besides, the noise-free numerical modeling results reach good agreements with the measured ones, which reflect the stability of RAP as a sound transmission duct in the space/frequency domain. Due to the obvious arrival structures of rays, the theoretical solution of vertical correlation coefficient is derived based on the ray theory. At last, the effects of source–receiver geometry on the variability of vertical correlation are discussed.
PubDate: 2017-10-05
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0117-4

• Design and Validation of a Simulator Tool Useful for Designers and Policy
Makers in Urban Sound Planning
• Authors: Carlos Villazón Laso; César Asensio; Ignacio Pavón
Abstract: Currently, the design of the urban soundscapes has been approached from distinct perspectives, which include, in all cases, the evaluation of how people perceive sound. An effective way to know how people experience an acoustic environment is through the use of simulators, where the inhabitants can design and establish their preferred sound levels. Making these tools available to different urban specialists, so they can be applied in individual common working environments, will allow them to be incorporated into the distinct stages of urban design, considerably improving solutions that promote more pleasant and restorative soundscapes for users. This paper describes the design and testing of a software based on a portable simulation tool whose function is to evaluate the acceptability of a variety of environmental noise sources categorized in four groups—water, birds, music and people. The experiment also evaluates the acceptability of these sounds sources with and without traffic noise mixed into the replayed sound. In order to validate it, two experiments with separate groups of people have been applied in two different places. With the exception of the “people” group of sounds, the results showed no correlation between sound level and acceptability, vibrancy, calmness both with and without the traffic and also the same preferred sounds were chosen in both places. These results suggest that it is possible to make prior participatory listening tests out of the laboratory. Finally, the participants commented that this experience improves their understanding of the acoustic environment and makes them aware of it.
PubDate: 2017-10-05
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0090-y

• Wind Farm Noise Uncertainty: Prediction, Measurement and Compliance
Assessment
• Authors: Kristy L. Hansen; Branko Zajamsek; Colin H. Hansen
Abstract: In most jurisdictions containing wind farms, base noise limits have been set by local regulatory authorities, with the intention of protecting the amenity of surrounding communities. It is a standard requirement that during the planning process for a new wind farm, the developer demonstrates that the proposed wind farm will comply with the relevant limits. At present, results from noise prediction models are commonly presented without uncertainty values, despite the fact that simplifications and approximations have been made in the models. Therefore, when prediction models indicate that the wind farm will generate noise within 3 dB of base noise limits, it is likely that these limits will be exceeded. Despite the fact that regulatory authorities often require that compliance measurements are taken to validate predictions of wind farm noise, it is very difficult to make substantial changes to noise emissions, without a corresponding reduction in electrical power output. Current methods of compliance assessment do not provide an indication of the amount of time that wind farms exceed allowable noise limits as they focus on ‘average’ levels only. Therefore, it is possible for wind farms to exceed allowable limits on a regular basis, and by significant margins. Hence, a more conservative approach is warranted during wind farm noise prediction and it is proposed that the upper level of the uncertainty estimate of the prediction model should not be permitted to exceed the allowable level.
PubDate: 2017-10-05
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0114-7

• Low-Frequency Acoustic Propagation Modelling for Australian
Range-Independent Environments
• Authors: Matthew W. Koessler; Alec J. Duncan; Alexander N. Gavrilov
Abstract: Large portions of the Australian continental shelf have a seabed composed of layered cemented or semi-cemented calcarenite. This work investigates the ability of a wavenumber integration sound propagation model, two normal mode sound propagation models, and a parabolic equation sound propagation model to consistently predict the acoustic field over four types of calcarenite style seabeds. The four geoacoustic models that are presented here represent seabed types that are likely to be found in the Australian marine environment. Transmission loss results for each geoacoustic model are computed using each sound propagation model, which are compared over a broad band of low frequencies in order to assess their relative performance. The performance of the wavenumber integration model, SCOOTER, and the two normal mode models over a broad band of low frequencies was found to be accurate and robust for all the tested scenarios. However, for one of the normal mode models, KRAKENC, long computational runtimes were incurred to produce accurate results. The parabolic equation model RAMSGeo produced accurate transmission loss results at some of the frequencies, but it also produced some unrealistic transmission loss predictions when thin layers were present in the seabed. The normal mode model ORCA was found to have the best balance between accuracy and efficiency because it had the shortest runtimes for most of the calculation frequencies and the shortest overall runtime.
PubDate: 2017-09-19
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0108-5

• Sound Quality Experiments in a Student Hostel with Newly Designed Sonic
Crystal Window
• Authors: Hsiao Mun Lee; Long Bin Tan; Kian Meng Lim; Heow Pueh Lee
Abstract: A new design of sonic crystal window was designed to replace the existing glass louver window in a student hostel in NUS in order to achieve good balancing of natural ventilation, daylighting and noise mitigation. Numerical studies were performed on the SC window to confirm the window design. The noise level inside the room was measured using sound quality head and torso simulator for simulated white noise, pink noise and construction noise on the ground floor as well as the actual environmental noise. Ten human subjects were asked to evaluate the construction noise and environmental noise inside the room. Psychoacoustics analyses were also performed on these two types of noises. The SC window was designed such that it can attenuate the noise at frequency range of traffic noise. The SC window was able to attenuate extra 4.59 and 9.40 dBA of white noise at full frequency range and frequencies ranging from 700 to 1400 Hz, respectively. The overall amount of pink noise attenuated by the SC window was similar to that of white noise. It can be concluded that gender affected the human subjective perception toward construction noise. All human subjects felt that the degree of annoyance for environmental noise passing through the glass louver window was higher than the SC window. The SC window would successfully reduce the loudness of the construction and environmental noises compared to the glass louver window.
PubDate: 2017-09-13
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0111-x

• A Study of the Effects on Transmission Loss of Modelled Water Column
Variations within an Area off the East Australian Coast
• Authors: Adrian D. Jones; Alex Zinoviev; Michael V. Greening
Abstract: The present accuracy of ocean and atmospheric models permits the description of water column features, and sea surface wind stress, at a resolution which enables employment in underwater acoustic transmission applications. In an investigation of aspects of linking modelled ocean data with range-dependent acoustic transmission models, a Parabolic Equation (PE) transmission code was used with data generated by the BLUElink suite of ocean and atmospheric models for a deep-water region off the east Australian coast for a particular summer period. A typical presence of warm and cold core eddies was observed to accompany a highly variable acoustic environment. Variations in expected range to particular levels of Transmission Loss were found to be mainly related to changes in the depth of the mixed surface layer, but also due to changes in the sound speed gradient in the thermocline. The study also made a brief consideration of the likely impact of wind speed variation over the region, and the effects of modelled ocean currents on acoustic transmission.
PubDate: 2017-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0110-y

• Reducing the Ambulance Siren Noise for Distant Auscultation of the Lung
Sound
• Authors: Bing-Yuh Lu; Meng-Lun Hsueh; Huey-Dong Wu
Abstract: Ambulance sirens sound very loud for transportation safety. However, loud sounds interfere with the auscultation of lung sounds. This study proposed an auscultation system that includes (1) an ACER Aspire 17 notebook as a server; (2) a smart mobile as a wireless hotspot (HwaWei Amazing A6); and (3) an ACER Aspire 5 notebook as a client. National Instruments data socket software gives read and write privileges to the IP addresses of the server and client. This real-world distant auscultation system works. The real-time adaptive filter reduced siren noise of 60 dB in power intensity. Surprisingly, a previous simulation of the adaptive filter had performed a noise reduction of 60 dB. Therefore, this real-time remote auscultation system is a reliable device for the ambulance service.
PubDate: 2017-08-17
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0109-4

• The Tympanal Recess of the Cetacean Cochlea: Function and Evolution
• Authors: Travis Park; Erich M. G. Fitzgerald; Alistair R. Evans
Abstract: Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) primarily use sound to communicate and hunt for prey. Their auditory anatomy is highly specialised, but much about its function remains unknown. In particular, a feature of the cochlea known as the tympanal recess present in some mysticetes (baleen whales) and odontocetes (toothed whales) has defied functional explanation. Here, we present and discuss several hypotheses that may clarify the function and evolution of the tympanal recess. One potential function in particular, the vibroacoustic duct mechanism, seems most plausible although further work is needed to test the hypothesis, which hints at the possibility of sperm whales and beaked whales being able to detect both high and low frequencies.
PubDate: 2017-08-17
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0104-9

• Potential Use of Broadband Acoustic Methods for Micronekton Classification
• Authors: Arti Verma; Rudy J. Kloser; Alec J. Duncan
Abstract: Broadband acoustic methods are an emerging technology with potential use in identification and classification of marine organisms. The application of broadband methods to scientific surveys of mesopelagic micronektons (animals of 2–20 cm length found at depths of 200–1000 m) is described. The principles of the broadband system are briefly outlined with particular emphasis on its use for micronekton detection and identification employing the TS-frequency curve of single targets. The use of acoustic scattering models to determine characteristics of the marine organism such as size and material properties is also discussed. As an example of the application of this technique, broadband echosounders mounted on a depth-profiling platform were used to collect high-frequency (55–160 kHz) acoustic data from mesopelagic depths (up to 600–1000 m) of the Great Australian Bight region. Some example results from narrowband and broadband echosounders are compared. The resulting frequency-dependent target strength curves of selected targets enabled classification into different acoustic groups, demonstrating the significant advantage provided by the broadband system. There is still a large gap between the achievable acoustic classification and the ultimate aim of species level classification, and to this end some limitations of broadband echosounder systems in identifying targets are discussed along with the use of video and still cameras to assist in the interpretation of acoustic data.
PubDate: 2017-08-17
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0105-8

• Underwater particle motion (acceleration, velocity and displacement) from
recreational swimmers, divers, surfers and kayakers
• Authors: Christine Erbe; Miles Parsons; Alec J. Duncan; Klaus Lucke; Alexander Gavrilov; Kim Allen
Abstract: When humans take to the water, they generate sound. This is helpful for the detection, classification, localisation and tracking of certain activities for purposes of border security, health and safety of offshore industrial development, environmental management, etc. The most commonly measured acoustic quantity is pressure. Vector quantities related to particle motion, such as particle velocity and acceleration, can equally identify the activity and they carry directional information. Acoustic pressure and particle motion were measured from 10 water sports activities within an Olympic-sized pool: swimming backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly and freestyle; snorkelling with fins; kicking a boogie board with fins; paddling with alternating or simultaneous arms while lying on a surfboard; scuba-diving; kayaking and jumping into the pool. Activities that occurred at the surface and that involved repeatedly piercing the surface were the strongest sound generators. Surface activities that produced fewer bubbles and scuba-diving at depth generated less broadband power. The vector fields around water sports activities can be expected somewhat different in the open ocean from within a pool, and more research is needed to understand how marine fauna might perceive these vector quantities.
PubDate: 2017-08-10
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0107-6

• High-Frequency Modulated Signals Recorded Off the Antarctic Peninsula
Area: Are Killer Whales Emitting Them'
• Authors: M. V. Reyes Reyes; S. Baumann-Pickering; A. Simonis; M. L. Melcón; J. Trickey; J. Hildebrand; M. Iñíguez
Abstract: High-frequency modulated signals with a stereotyped down-swept contour were recorded in the northwestern Antarctic Peninsula using an autonomous recorder and a towed hydrophone array. Signals have a mean start frequency at 21.6 kHz, end frequency at 15.7 kHz, −10 dB bandwidth of 5.9 kHz, and duration of 65.2 ms. Bouts of signals were generally recorded with a median inter-signal interval of 2.1 s. HFM signals partially modulated in the non-ultrasonic range similar to the ones described in this paper have already been reported for killer whales in the North Pacific, Western South Atlantic and Western Australian coast. The HFM signals were recorded in the presence of other odontocete sounds such as whistles, echolocation clicks and burst-pulsed sounds. The similarities of these sounds with vocalizations described for killer whales in the Western Australian coast lead us to strongly believe that the described HFM signals were produced by Antarctic killer whales. This paper described for the first time HFM signals in Antarctica and discussed evidence suggesting that Antarctic type A killer whales are the most probable candidates to produce such signals. However, a visual confirmation is still needed and the function of the HFM signals remains unknown.
PubDate: 2017-08-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40857-017-0103-x

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