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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Acta Geochimica
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2096-0956 - ISSN (Online) 2365-7499
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Molecular simulation study on K + –Cl − ion pair in geological
           fluids
    • Authors: Mengjia He; Xiandong Liu; Xiancai Lu; Rucheng Wang
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: This paper reports a classical molecular dynamics study of the potential of mean forces (PMFs), association constants, microstructures K+–Cl− ion pair in supercritical fluids. The constrained MD method is used to derive the PMFs of K+–Cl− ion pair from 673 to 1273 K in low-density water (0.10–0.60 g/cm3). The PMF results show that the contact ion-pair (CIP) state is the one most energetically favored for a K+–Cl− ion pair. The association constants of the K+–Cl− ion pair are calculated from the PMFs, indicating that the K+–Cl− ion pair is thermodynamically stable. It gets more stable as T increases or water density decreases. The microstructures of the K+–Cl− ion pair in the CIP and solvent-shared ion-pair states are characterized in detail. Moreover, we explore the structures and stabilities of the KCl–Au(I)/Cu(I) complexes by using quantum mechanical calculations. The results reveal that these complexes can remain stable for T up to 1273 K, which indicates that KCl may act as a ligand complexing ore-forming metals in hydrothermal fluids.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-016-0130-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The formation of porphyry copper deposits
    • Authors: Weidong Sun; Jin-tuan Wang; Li-peng Zhang; Chan-chan Zhang; He Li; Ming-xing Ling; Xing Ding; Cong-ying Li; Hua-ying Liang
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Copper is a moderately incompatible chalcophile element. Its behavior is strongly controlled by sulfides. The speciation of sulfur is controlled by oxygen fugacity. Therefore, porphyry Cu deposits are usually oxidized (with oxygen fugacities > ΔFMQ +2) (Mungall 2002; Sun et al. 2015). The problem is that while most of the magmas at convergent margins are highly oxidized, porphyry Cu deposits are very rare, suggesting that high oxygen fugacity alone is not sufficient. Partial melting of mantle peridotite even at very high oxygen fugacities forms arc magmas with initial Cu contents too low to form porphyry Cu deposits directly (Lee et al. 2012; Wilkinson 2013). Here we show that partial melting of subducted young oceanic slabs at high oxygen fugacity (>ΔFMQ +2) may form magmas with initial Cu contents up to >500 ppm, favorable for porphyry mineralization. Pre-enrichment of Cu through sulfide saturation and accumulation is not necessarily beneficial to porphyry Cu mineralization. In contrast, re-melting of porphyritic hydrothermal sulfide associated with iron oxides may have major contributions to porphyry deposits. Thick overriding continental crust reduces the “leakage” of hydrothermal fluids, thereby promoting porphyry mineralization. Nevertheless, it is also more difficult for ore forming fluids to penetrate the thick continental crust to reach the depths of 2–4 km where porphyry deposits form.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-016-0132-4
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of pollution levels and human health risk of heavy metals in
           dust deposited on Yerevan’s tree leaves (Armenia)
    • Authors: N. Maghakyan; G. Tepanosyan; O. Belyaeva; L. Sahakyan; A. Saghatelyan
      Pages: 16 - 26
      Abstract: The total concentrations of Cd, As, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Ag, Hg, and Mo were determined in the atmospheric dust of the city of Yerevan by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAnalyst PE 800). Heavy metal pollution levels were evaluated by calculating geo-accumulation (I geo ) and summary pollution (Zc) indices. Potential human health risk was assessed using the United States Environmental Protection agency’s human health risk assessment model. The results show that mean contents of all elements tested except Ni and Cr were substantially higher than local geochemical background values. According to the I geo , Yerevan territory is strongly-to-extremely polluted by As, Ag, Hg, Mo, and Cd. The Zc assessment indicated that very high pollution was detected in 36 % of samples, high in 32 %, average in 12 %, and low in 20 %. The health risk assessment revealed a non-carcinogenic risk (HI >1) for children at 13 samplings sites and for adults at one sampling site. For children the risk was due to elevated levels of Mo, Cd, Co, and As, while for adults, only Mo. Carcinogenic risk (>1:1,000,000) of As and Cr via ingestion pathway was observed in 25 and 14 samples, respectively. This study, therefore, is the base for further detailed investigations to organize problematic site remediation and risk reduction measures.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-016-0122-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Research progress on aging of organic pollutants in geosorbents: a review
    • Authors: Xianjin An; Baohua Xiao; Xinyue Di; Hui Dong; Haiming Tang
      Pages: 27 - 43
      Abstract: Geosorbents are the main host of anthropogenic organic pollutants and play a vital role in their fate and transport in the natural environment. Soil and sediment are the most common and abundant geosorbents in the natural environment; their interactions with organic pollutants, especially sorption and desorption processes, have been extensively studied from the perspectives of thermodynamics and kinetics. Recently, the aging of organic pollutants in geosorbents has drawn increased attention, leading to an improved understanding of interactions between organic pollutants and geosorbents and informing remediation criteria. Aging has been deemed important in accurately assessing ecologic and health risks of organic pollutants, and both positive and negative impacts have been reported in studies of natural and artificial sorbents. This paper summarizes recent research progress on organic pollutant aging in geosorbents, including related mechanism research, influence factors, bioavailability assessments, and biological and physicochemical remediation of aged organic pollutants. We also discuss issues in the current research and bring forward suggestions for future study.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-016-0129-z
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Platinum-group element geochemistry of mafic rocks from the Dongchuan
           area, southwestern China
    • Authors: Siqi Yang; Hong Zhong; Weiguang Zhu; Wenjun Hu; Zhongjie Bai
      Pages: 52 - 65
      Abstract: Mafic intrusions and dykes are well preserved in the Yinmin and Lanniping districts, located within the western margin of the Yangtze Block, SW China. Although these mafic rocks from the two areas formed during different periods, they share similar ranges of PGE concentration. Most of the Yinmin gabbroic dykes contain relatively high PGE concentrations (PGEs = 13.9–87.0 ppb) and low S contents (0.003 %–0.020 %), higher than the maximum PGE concentrations of mafic magmas melting from the mantle. Two exceptional Yinmin samples are characterized by relatively low PGE (PGEs = 0.31–0.37 ppb) and high S (0.114 %–0.257 %) contents. In contrast, most samples from the Lanniping gabbroic intrusion have low PGE concentrations (PGEs = 0.12–1.02 ppb) and high S contents (0.130 %–0.360 %), except that the three samples exhibit relatively high PGE (PGEs = 16.3–34.8 ppb) and low S concentrations (0.014 %–0.070 %). All the Yinmin and Lanniping samples are characterized by the enrichment of PPGE relative to IPGE in the primitive-mantle normalized diagrams, and the high-PGE samples exhibit obvious Ru anomalies. This study suggests that during the ascent of the parental magma, removal of Os–Ir–Ru alloys and/or chromite/spinel leads to high Pd/Ir ratios and Ru anomalies for the Yinmin high-PGE samples and relatively lower Pd/Ir ratios and Ru anomalies for the Lanniping low-PGE samples. We propose that the magmas parental to the Yinmin gabbroic dykes are initially S-unsaturated, and subsequently, minor evolved magma reached sulfur saturation and led to sulfide segregation. Although the Lanniping parental magmas are originally not saturated in S, the high Cu/Pd ratios (3.8 × 104 to 3.2 × 106) for most of the Lanniping samples indicate the S-saturated state and sulfide segregation. A calculation shows that the PGE-poor magmas might have experienced 0.01 %–0.1 % sulfide segregation in the magma chamber. Therefore, our study provides a possible opportunity to discover PGE-enriched sulfide mineralization somewhere near or within the Lanniping mafic intrusion.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-016-0120-8
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Analyzing crude oils from the Junggar Basin (NW China) using
           comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with
           time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS)
    • Authors: Yuce Wang; Wanyun Ma; Ni Zhou; Jiangling Ren; Jian Cao
      Pages: 66 - 73
      Abstract: As a new technology of analyzing crude oils, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) has received much research attention. Here we present a case study in the Junggar Basin of NW China. Results show that the hydrocarbons, including saturates and aromatics, were all well-separated without large co-elution, which cannot be realized by conventional one-dimensional GC–MS. The GC×GC technique is especially effective for analyzing aromatics and low-to-middle-molecular-weight hydrocarbons, such as diamondoids. The geochemical characteristics of crude oils in the study area were investigated through geochemical parameters extracted by GC×GC-TOFMS, improving upon the understanding obtained by GC–MS. Thus, the work here represents a new successful application of GC×GC-TOFMS, showing its broad usefulness in petroleum geochemistry.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-016-0115-5
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The Harrat Al-Birk basalts in southwest Saudi Arabia: characteristic
           alkali mafic magmatism related to Red Sea rifting
    • Authors: Rami A. Bakhsh
      Pages: 74 - 88
      Abstract: Harrat Al-Birk volcanics are products of the Red Sea rift in southwest Saudi Arabia that started in the Tertiary and reached its climax at ~5 Ma. This volcanic field is almost monotonous and is dominated by basalts that include mafic–ultramafic mantle xenoliths (gabbro, websterite, and garnet-clinopyroxenite). The present work presents the first detailed petrographic and geochemical notes about the basalts. They comprise vesicular basalt, porphyritic basalt, and flow-textured basalt, in addition to red and black scoria. Geochemically, the volcanic rock varieties of the Harrat Al-Birk are low- to medium-Ti, sodic-alkaline olivine basalts with an enriched oceanic island signature but extruded in a within-plate environment. There is evidence of formation by partial melting with a sort of crystal fractionation dominated by clinopyroxene and Fe–Ti oxides. The latter have abundant titanomagnetite and lesser ilmenite. There is a remarkable enrichment of light rare earth elements and depletion in Ba, Th and K, Ta, and Ti. The geochemical data in this work suggest Harrat Al-Birk basalts represent products of water-saturated melt that was silica undersaturated. This melt was brought to the surface through partial melting of asthenospheric upper mantle that produced enriched oceanic island basalts. Such partial melting is the result of subducted continental mantle lithosphere with considerable mantle metasomatism of subducted oceanic lithosphere that might contain hydrous phases in its peridotites. The fractional crystallization process was controlled by significant separation of clinopyroxene followed by amphiboles and Fe–Ti oxides, particularly ilmenite. Accordingly, the Harrat Al-Birk alkali basalts underwent crystal fractionation that is completely absent in the exotic mantle xenoliths (e.g. Nemeth et al. in The Pleistocene Jabal Akwa Al Yamaniah maar/tuff ring-scoria cone complex as an analogy for future phreatomagmatic to magmatic explosive eruption scenarios in the Jizan Region, SW Saudi Arabia 2014).
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-016-0126-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Skarn mineralogy and its geological significance for the Tayuan
           (Cu–Mo)–Pb–Zn deposit, northern Daxinganling metallogenic belt
    • Authors: Chao Li; Tao Ren; Jian-Guo Huang; Run-Sheng Han; He-Jun Yin; Hong-Yang Zhou; Zhi-Hong Feng
      Pages: 89 - 101
      Abstract: The Tayuan (Cu–Mo)–Pb–Zn deposit is located in the northern part of Daxinganling, NE China. Lenticular ore body occurs in the skarn zone. The skarn minerals mainly include garnet, pyroxene, epidote and wollastonite. Electron microprobe analysis shows that the end member of garnet is mainly andradite (Ad62–97Gr11–45), the pyroxene is mainly diopside, and epidote is mainly clinozoisite. These characteristics indicate that the Tayuan polymetallic skarn deposit is mainly calcareous skarn. Sometimes the content zonation can be observed in garnets. With one garnet crystal, content is shifty from the core to the rim. In general, the iron content in the core is higher than in the edge. The content in the garnet shows that the garnet in the Tayuan deposit formed from weak oxidation in alkaline environment with the oxygen fugacity increasing, suggesting that the hydrothermal fluid evolved from an acidic to a slight alkaline state. In the Tayuan polymetallic deposit, the ratio of Mn/Fe in pyroxene is about 1.3, and of Mg/Fe, it is about 2. The components of garnet in the Tayuan deposit plot in the field of the typical skarn Zn, Cu, Mo deposits in the world.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-016-0128-0
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Integration of SEM/WDX elemental mapping and micromorphology to determine
           mineralogical traits of peat soils (case study: Northern Iran)
    • Authors: Milad Kurdi; Taymor Eslamkish
      Abstract: We explored the potential use of combining wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDX) and micromorphology of thin sections to identify minerals in peat soils. Peat soil minerals from three peats and swamps across Golestan Province in northern Iran were first characterized by micromorphological studies. Soils were composed mainly of quartz, muscovite, biotite, pyroxene, sericitized Fe-nodules, and iron-rich garnet. In addition, micromorphological results indicated that Galougah Coastal Swamp sections contained some inorganic residue with biological origin including oyster and limpet, which may be related to the swamp’s location near Gorgan Gulf. In order to determine mineralogical properties of samples, twelve unknown grains were chosen for elemental concentration map studies. Quartz, garnet, ilmenite, calcite, and pyroxene in Suteh samples; epidote and Fe-nodule in Ghaleh-Ghafeh Peat Swamp; and barite, phyllosilicates, and calcite in Galougah were identified by WDX mapping of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, C, Ba, S, and Ti. Composition of the oysters’ body was also analyzed by WDX for Si, Ca, Fe, and C. The results indicated that most of the minerals in all sections likely formed through weathering, inheriting their composition from the parent rock. This research suggests that merging micromorphology and SEM/WDX image techniques can be useful in confirming the presence of mineral particles in soil science. Graphical
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0148-4
       
  • Speciation and spatial distribution of Cr in chromite ore processing
           residue site, Yunnan, China
    • Authors: Guangzhu Zhou; Xin Yin; Jing Zhou; Weiyu Cheng
      Abstract: Remediation of COPR sites requires the key information including chromium oxidation, speciation and spatial distribution. Samples were gathered from a COPR site in Luliang County in Qujing, Yunnan Province of China. The total Cr, Cr(VI) and chromium species were investigated. Results indicated the concentration of total Cr was between 110.5 and 21,774 mg/kg, and the concentration of Cr(VI) was between 0.1 and 1075 mg/kg. The map of total-Cr and ratio of Cr(VI)/total-Cr (%) showed that the maximum of total-Cr and Cr(VI) appeared in the layers near the surface. In the horizontal direction, the pollution was more serious in the middle and southeast part than that in the west. Additionally, acid extractable chromium increased in the layers at depth from −0.3 to −2.0 m, and it decreased in the deeper layers. There was a trend that the movable Cr(VI) migrated to the deeper layers, and then it turned into Cr(III). Water played an important role for the Cr distribution. Cr(VI) in COPR released to the soil solution after rainfall, and then gravity led the solution down to the deeper layers. After repeated rainfall and leaching, Cr(VI) moved to the deeper soil layers. Due to capillarity and evaporation, Cr(VI) migrated and was enriched at the surface layer. Therefore, measures on controlling water movement should be taken in the remediation of the COPR site.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0147-5
       
  • Adsorption of 133 Cs and 87 Sr on pumice tuff: A comparative study between
           powder and intact solid phase
    • Authors: Mohammad Rajib; Chiaki T. Oguchi
      Abstract: This study examines the use of intact samples as an alternative to powder in conventional batch sorption studies to determine the distribution coefficient (K d). Stable cesium (133Cs) and strontium (87Sr) were used under specified geochemical conditions to compare the K d values of powder and block pumice tuff samples. The aim of the study was to infer any K d difference under laboratory and field conditions. K d values for block samples were found to be less than one order of magnitude lower than powder materials for both Cs and Sr on fresh tuff, and more than one order of magnitude lower in oxidized tuff. Destruction of micropores in oxidized tuff was estimated to be mainly responsible for reducing K d values in oxidized tuff. However, approximately one order of magnitude difference in K d values indicates that homogenously prepared intact samples can be used for sorption coefficient measurement at closer to in situ conditions. Pore size distribution analysis using mercury intrusion porosimetry revealed that lower K d values on block samples result from lower surface area available as sorption sites due to inaccessible closed pores in the intact solid.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-016-0133-3
       
  • Responses of antioxidant defense system of epilithic mosses to drought
           stress in karst rock desertified areas
    • Authors: Xianqiang Zhang; Yuzhong Zhao; Shijie Wang
      Abstract: Barbula fallax Hedw., Erythrodontium julaceum (Schwaegr.) Par., and Bryum argenteum Hedw. are typical rock mosses growing on rocks in different terrestrial habitats. In this study, B. fallax and E. julaceum, which are epilithic mosses growing in rock desertification in Guizhou, China, were used as ecophysiological mosses in a combination of field investigations and laboratory experiments. We also investigated the reference moss B. argenteum, which is a widely distributed moss in habitats with soil as substrate. Our research focused on the response of the antioxidant defense system of epilithic mosses to drought stress. Most antioxidant defense indicators increased initially, then declined at later stages of drought stress. In contrast, the carotenoid content increased constantly. In addition, there was an initial increase (albeit variable) in relative membrane permeability, with this parameter showing a parabolic trend in all of the epilithic mosses. Among the three species, E. julaceum demonstrated the strongest resistance followed by B. fallax and then by B. argenteum. The epilithic mosses displayed stronger resistance compared to the native mosses; the increase in O 2 -· content and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the early stage of drought stress induced the enzymatic and non-enzymatic scavenging systems to sequester ROS. Moreover, the radical scavenging ability and strong drought tolerance was maintained. The long-term growth of bryophyte under drought conditions in a karst environment can help eliminate the intense response of mosses to drought stress as they adapt.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0140-z
       
  • Carboniferous Alaskan-type complex along the Sino–Mongolian boundary,
           southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt
    • Authors: Yuruo Shi; Linlin Li; Alfred Kröner; Jing Ding; Wei Zhang; Zengbao Huang; Ping Jian
      Abstract: We present zircon ages and geochemical data for the Hongshishan Carboniferous Alaskan-type mafic–ultramafic complex exposed in the Beishan area along the Sino–Mongolian boundary, southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. This complex mainly consists of dunite, harzburgite, lherzolite, wehrlite, and gabbro, which intrudes Early Carboniferous volcanic rocks and reveals a zoned structure. Zircons of a gabbro sample yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 357 ± 4 Ma, reflecting the time of Early Carboniferous magmatism. Zircon ages were also obtained for an andesite (322 ± 3 Ma) and a basaltic andesite (304 ± 2 Ma). High initial Nd isotope whole-rock values suggest that the Hongshishan gabbro [ε Nd(t) = +9.6 − +10.2] and basalt [ε Nd(t) = +10.0 − +10.8] were derived from a depleted mantle source. Slightly lower ε Nd(t) values for the ultramafic rocks [ε Nd(t) = +8.5 − +8.7] suggest some interaction of the parental magma with the continental crust. In contrast, the Late Carboniferous Quershan samples in this area represent subduction-related arc volcanic rocks with Adakite-like compositions. The early Carboniferous Hongshishan Alaskan-type complex was interpreted to represent the remnants of a magma chamber that crystallized at the base of a mature island arc, whereas the Quershan island arc volcanic rocks suggest the resurrection of the subduction process after arc-continent collision and uplift of the roots of the arc.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0145-7
       
  • Adakitic rocks associated with the Shilu copper–molybdenum deposit in
           the Yangchun Basin, South China, and their tectonic implications
    • Authors: Lipeng Zhang; Yongbin Hu; Jinlong Liang; Trevor Ireland; Youliang Chen; Rongqing Zhang; Saijun Sun; Weidong Sun
      Abstract: South China is famous for the extensive magmatism and polymetallic mineralization that took place there in the Mesozoic. Shilu is a large porphyry–skarn Cu–Mo deposit in the Yangchun Basin, South China. The lithology of the Shilu intrusion is granodiorite and quartz diorite, both of which are high-K calc-alkaline series, with high Sr (>400 ppm) content along with low Y and Yb contents. Most of the samples have characteristics of adakite except for a few samples that have slightly higher Y and Yb contents, which may be plausibly explained by crustal contamination. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry zircon U–Pb dating revealed ages between 106.6 ± 1.3 and 103.9 ± 0.5 Ma, with multiple magmatic pulses. Molybdenite Re–Os isochron age of 102.2 ± 2.9 Ma (MSWD = 9.4) was determined, which is identical to the youngest zircon U–Pb age (103.9 ± 0.5 Ma) within error. The Shilu intrusion has high oxygen fugacity as indicated by high zircon Ce4+/Ce3+ and EuN/EuN* ratios. Considering the geochemical characteristics (high Sr, and low Y and Yb contents), high oxygen fugacity, and copper mineralization of the Shilu intrusion, it was most likely formed by partial melting of a subducted young oceanic slab. Whole-rock Sr–Nd isotope-, zircon Hf isotope-, and whole-rock trace element analyses show that Shilu adakitic magmas may have interacted with type II enriched mantle and/or crustal materials during ascent. South China was affected by the Pacific tectonic regime to the east and the Neo-Tethys tectonic regime to the south in the Cretaceous. Based on the Pacific Plate drifting and rotation history, it is hard to explain how the Pacific Plate would have subducted and melted, forming adakitic rocks in the Shilu region. Considering the tectonic history of Southeast Asia and the South China Sea, the Neo-Tethys trench should have been much closer to the South China Block in the Cretaceous, and thus have had a greater impact on the South China Block. Based on the subduction direction, time of subduction, and distance between the Neo-Tethys subduction zone and the Shilu deposit, subduction of the Neo-Tethys ridge is the best mechanism for explaining the Shilu adakitic rocks and Cu–Mo mineralization.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0146-6
       
  • Ore-forming elements diffusion and distribution in the altered host rock
           surrounding the Koktokay No. 3 pegmatite in the Chinese Altay
    • Authors: Jingyu Zhao; Hui Zhang; Yong Tang; Zhenghang Lü; Yang Chen
      Abstract: Petrography and geochemistry of the altered and unaltered host rocks surrounding the Koktokay No. 3 pegmatite revealed that the unaltered amphibolite is mainly composed of hornblende, plagioclase, and ilmenite. Beyond these primary components, the altered host rocks contain a few newly formed minerals, including biotite, tourmaline, chlorine, and muscovite. The alteration zone surrounding the Koktokay No. 3 pegmatite is limited to 2.0 m, characterized by biotitization, tourmalization, and chloritization. In the altered host rocks, the contents of SiO2, MgO, MnO, Na2O, and TiO2 did not vary greatly. However, Al2O3 showed a weak decreasing trend with the increasing distance from the pegmatite contact zone, while Fe2O3 and CaO showed an increasing trend. The contents of Li, Rb, and Cs in the altered host rocks were much higher than those in the unaltered host rocks, decreasing with distance from the contact. The chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) pattern of the altered and unaltered host rock was right-inclined from La to Lu, but enriched in light REEs over heavy REEs after hydrothermal alteration. An isocon plot shows that some oxides migrated in with an order of P2O5 > K2O > TiO2 > Al2O3 > SiO2 > MnO ≥ MgO, while others migrated out with an order of Na2O > CaO > Fe2O3. For REEs, the migration ratios are positive values with Cs > Rb > Li > Nb > Ta > Be, signifying that all REEs migrated from the exsolved magmatic fluid into the altered host rocks. It was concluded that diffusion was the only mechanism for migration of ore-forming elements in the alteration zone. The effective diffusion coefficients (D eff ) of LiF, RbF, and CsF were estimated under a fluid temperature of 500–550 °C. Using a function of concentration (C (x,t)) and distance (x), the order of migration distance was determined to be LiF > CsF > RbF, with diffusion times of (3.39 ± 0.35) × 106, (3.19 ± 0.28) × 105 and (6.33 ± 0.05) × 105 years, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0141-y
       
  • Geological characteristics and shale gas distribution of carboniferous
           mudstones in the Tarim Basin, China
    • Authors: Luofu Liu; Jinqi Qiao; Baojian Shen; Xinyi Lu; Yueshu Yang
      Abstract: Extant research on Paleozoic mudstone is well developed in the Tarim Basin, while the research on Carboniferous mudstone is relatively weak. Through systematic study of lithology, geochemical characteristics, reservoir characteristics and gas–bearing properties of Carboniferous mudstone in the Tarim Basin, this study aims to provide a geological basis for the Paleozoic shale gas exploration and development, favorable zone optimization, and resource potential evaluation in the Tarim Basin. The results show that the sedimentary environments of organic-rich mudstone in the study area were mainly basin facies and slope facies. Lithology is dominated by black carbonaceous mudstone, followed by calcareous mudstone, siliceous mudstone, and siliceous rocks. Mudstone is mainly developed in the Kalashayi Formation, which is located in the Bachu and Markit slope belt, with the cumulative thickness of 30–200 m. The organic carbon content is commonly more than 0.4%, and the organic matter types are type II and type III. Thermal evolution degree is widely distributed from a low mature to over mature stage, and different tectonic units have a greater difference. The contents of quartz plus feldspar are between 12% and 82.5%, with an average of 45.8%. The content distribution of clay mineral is from 12% to 57%, with an average of 38.2%. Carbonate minerals (mainly siderite) content is below 50%. The brittle mineral content of the mudstone is approximately 65%, with a strong compressibility, and the mudstone has the material basis of forming crack and natural fracture. Microscopic pores in micro–nanometer level are well developed in the mudstone, including micro bedding joint, microcrack, interbedded pores of clay mineral, nanoscale intragranular or edge pores in the massive organic matter, bioclastic micropores, and mineral dissolution pores, etc. According to the standards provided by the Ministry of Land and Resources in China, the Kalashayi Formation in Bamai Area is a favorable area for shale gas development.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0144-8
       
  • A practical soil management to improve soil quality by applying mineral
           organic fertilizer
    • Authors: Leilei Xiao; Qibiao Sun; Huatao Yuan; Bin Lian
      Abstract: Heavy use of chemical fertilizer causes increasing soil and environmental crisis, and the use of organic fertilizer increases obvious in recent years. In this study, mineral organic fertilizer (MOF) and compound fertilizer (CF) were applied in amaranth culture to explore the effects of these two kinds of fertilizers on soil quality and the potential function for CO2 fixation. Some soil parameters were tested, e.g. pH value, organic carbon content, microbial biomass, urease activity, and available potassium content. In addition, some parameters of soil infiltration water were also determined, such as pH and HCO3 − concentration. Experimental results showed that MOF improved soil quality and amaranth biomass and increased possible soil carbon sink. On the contrary, the utilization of CF worsened soil quality and made the soil acidize. These results suggested that MOF can partially replace CF to improve plant growth, soil quality and possible CO2 sink.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0139-5
       
  • Temporary fluoride concentration changes in groundwater in the context of
           impact assessment in the Vaniyar sub-basin, South India
    • Authors: S. Satheeshkumar; S. Venkateswaran; R. Kannan
      Abstract: India’s surface water and groundwater distribution is temporally variable due to the monsoon. Agriculture is one of the dominant economic sectors in India. Groundwater quality is regularly assessed to determine usability for drinking and irrigation. In this study, World Health Organization and Bureau of Indian Standards guidelines were used to determine suitability of groundwater near artificial recharge structures (ARS) with a focus on the structures´ impact on groundwater quality. Groundwater resources were evaluated for irrigation suitability using electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio, the US Salinity Laboratory diagram, sodium concentration, Wilcox’s diagram, Kelly’s index, and Doneen’s permeability index. EC and major ions were tested in recharge areas at different distances from the ARS. The construction of ARS at optimal distances along major streams has improved groundwater quantity and quality in the sub-basin. Before construction of ARS, fluoride concentrations were higher; after construction, fluoride was reduced in most locations. Water stored in the check dam and groundwater in the wells closer to the structure were suitable for both drinking and irrigation purposes. Impact of ARS on nearby groundwater quality was observed at Pallipatti, Mulayanur, Venkadasamuthram, Pudupatti, Poyyappatti, Harur1, and Sekkampatti. More distant sites included Pappiredipatti, Nambiyappati, Menasi, Harur, Todampatti, and Adikarapatti. Data demonstrated improved groundwater quality in the area of the ARS. Through recharge, the non-potable fluoride in the region is reduced to the permissible limit for human consumption.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-016-0137-z
       
  • Evaluation of hydrogeochemical characteristics and the impact of
           weathering in seepage water collected within the sedimentary formation
    • Authors: M. V. Prasanna; R. Nagarajan; S. Chidambaram; A. Anand Kumar; C. Thivya
      Abstract: A study was conducted by collecting eight seepage water samples that drain through the sedimentary rocks, mainly sandstone and shale, to evaluate the hydrogeochemical characteristics. The collected samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters using standard procedures. Three water types were identified in the Piper plot and the hydrogeochemical evolution starts from a Ca–Cl facies (type 1) via mixed Ca–Mg–Cl and Ca–Na–HCO3 facies (type 2) to Na–Cl facies (type 3). Increasing trend of electrical conductivity (EC) values were observed from type 1 water to type 3 water. Lower ionic concentrations with an average EC value of 35.7 µs/cm in Ca–Cl facies indicate the recharge water by monsoonal rainfall, and ion exchange/weathering process is reflected in the mixing zone. Higher ionic concentration with an average EC value of 399 µs/cm is noted in Na–Cl facies, which indicates the ion exchange during water–rock interaction. Higher log pCO2 values are also found in this facies, revealing the longer residence time of seepage water in the rock matrix, which release more ions into the water. The relative mobility of elements during weathering suggest that the order of mobility in both sandstone and shale is Na > Ca > Mg > K. It was observed that the hydrogeochemistry of seepage water is mainly controlled by the bedrock geology.
      PubDate: 2016-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-016-0125-3
       
  • Carbon isotopic composition and genetic types of natural gas in the
           Sichuan Basin, China
    • Authors: Jin-ning Peng; Dong-yan Wang; Guang-xiang Liu; Min Zhang; Feng-li Li
      Abstract: The origin and genetic types of natural gas in the Sichuan Basin are still disputed. To classify the origin and genetic types in different areas, the paper analyzes the carbon isotopic composition of gases and geologic features in the Sichuan Basin. The results showed that the gas sourced from terrestrial layers is typically characterized by terrestrial origin and was mainly accumulated nearby to form reservoir. The carbon isotopic composition of gas showed a normal combination sequence distribution, suggesting that natural gas in continental strata is not affected by secondary alteration or that this deformation is very weak. The gas source is singular, and only gas from the southern and northern Sichuan Basin shows the characteristic of mixed sources. However, marine gas presents the characteristics of an oil-formed gas. The carbon isotopic composition of natural gas in the western and central part of the basin mostly distributes in a normal combination sequence, and few of them showed an inversion, indicating that the gas perhaps had not experienced secondary alteration. The carbon isotopic composition of marine-origin gas in the southern, northern and eastern Sichuan Basin displays a completely different distribution pattern, which is probably caused by different mixing ratio of gas with multi-source and multi-period.
      PubDate: 2016-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-016-0134-2
       
 
 
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