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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Acta Geochimica
  [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2096-0956 - ISSN (Online) 2365-7499
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of hydroxyl in clay mineral
           from a weathering profile: New proxies for paleo-climate change'
    • Authors: Chengfan Yang; Shouye Yang; Ni Su
      Pages: 370 - 373
      Abstract: Recent studies suggest that the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of clay minerals can indicate paleoclimate. Here, we report mineralogy and stable isotopic records (δD and δ18OOH) of a weathering profile located in the Fujian Province, aiming to validate whether hydroxyl stable isotopes can indicate paleo-precipitation and paleo-temperature. Our results indicate that the δD and δ18OOH changes in the kaolinite hydroxyl of the weathering profile are basically determined by the isotopic composition of paleo-meteoric water and paleo-temperature, respectively. Nevertheless, whether the δD and δ18OOH of kaolinite can quantitatively indicate paleo-precipitation and paleo-temperature needs to be verified further, and especially, the structural oxygen isotopic composition that is the essential element for the kaolinite formation temperature calculation has to be constrained in future work.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0166-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Sequestration of carbon as carbonate in the critical zone: insights from
           the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau
    • Authors: Albert Galy; Yibo Yang; Xiaomin Fang
      Pages: 389 - 391
      Abstract: The carbon pool stored in soil carbonate is comparable to the soil organic carbon. Therefore, secondary calcite precipitation in supersaturated catchment could be an important, yet poorly constrained, carbon sink within the modern global carbon cycle. The chemical analysis of some dissolved species transported by rivers, such as elevated Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios but also heavy stable Ca isotopic compositions, witness the formation of secondary calcite in rivers draining arid regions. However, in areas affected by active tectonics and rapid physical erosion, co-variations in the fluvial Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios could also be related to incongruent carbonate weathering processes. Here, we present a model to assess the roles played by incongruent carbonate dissolution and secondary calcite precipitation in modern weathering processes. We tested and applied the model to rivers draining the Himalayan–Tibetan region. The results suggest that regional aridity in the drainage basin promotes carbon sequestration as secondary carbonate but that for a given runoff, incongruent dissolution of carbonate possibly related to rapid physical erosion amplifies such sequestration. The isotopic compositions (13C/12C and 18O/16O) of detrital carbonate transported by the main rivers in South and South-East Tibet imply that around 1% of the suspended material transported by those rivers corresponds to secondary carbonate and can represent between 5% and 15% of the alkalinity flux. Most of these alkalinity transported as particulate material is, nevertheless related to the weathering of carbonate lithologies and is also subjected to dissolution prior its final storage in sedimentary basins. However, on glacial-interglacial timescale this will amplify the significant role of mountain weathering on climatic variations.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0170-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Uranium comminution age responds to erosion rate semi-quantitatively
    • Authors: Le Li; Laifeng Li; Gaojun Li
      Pages: 426 - 428
      Abstract: Here we present (234U/238U) data from river sediments collected on the Tibetan Plateau. The (234U/238U) ratios of a specific grain size fraction show good correlation with erosion rates, which were determined by in-situ–produced cosmogenic nuclides. This correlation has previously been observed in a wide range of geomorphic settings, suggesting that (234U/238U) ratios of fluvial sediments have great potential to quantify erosion rates.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0182-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The influence of urbanization on karst rivers based on nutrient
           concentration and nitrate dual isotopes: an example from southwestern
           China
    • Authors: Zhong-Jun Wang; Fu-Jun Yue; Jie Zeng; Si-Liang Li
      Pages: 446 - 451
      Abstract: China is experiencing rapid urbanization that has changed the water quality of rivers, especially nutrient loads. In this study, a typical urban river located in a karst area, Chengguan River, was chosen to explore the influence of urbanization on river ecosystems based on nutrient concentration and nitrate isotopes. The results show monthly variability of water chemistry and nutrient concentration. Nutrient concentration in two tributaries and the mainstem showed significant spatial variability, with heavy N and P pollution in one tributary near a suburban area, indicating a response to different levels of urbanization. Measurements of nitrate dual isotopes suggest that volatilization, assimilation, nitrification, and denitrification all occur in the polluted river. Water chemistry and nitrate isotopes show that major nitrogen sources included domestic waste and agricultural input, such as chemical fertilizer and manure. The results suggest that urbanization increases nutrient concentrations and accelerates the riverine nitrogen dynamic, and point to the need to manage point sources of sewage effluents to improve the water quality of urban rivers in southwestern China.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0188-9
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Low net primary productivity of dominant tree species in a karst forest,
           southwestern China: first evidences from tree ring width and girth
           increment
    • Authors: Jian Ni; Haiyang Xu; Libin Liu
      Pages: 482 - 485
      Abstract: Aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of two dominant species, one deciduous tree (Platycarya strobilacea) and one evergreen tree (Machilus cavaleriei), was estimated based on the tree-ring width and the girth increment as well as allometric functions in a karst evergreen and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in central Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Results showed that the ANPP increased from 1961 to 2015, especially during the last 20–30 years, but with strong variations. The deciduous tree had higher ANPP than the evergreen tree according to two kinds of estimates by the tree ring and girth increment. The averaged ANPP for these two mature trees was 2.27 kg/individual/year, ca. 8 t/ha/year considering the normal stand density. Such karst forest productivity was lower than the natural subtropical forests in China and in the world.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0202-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Soil organic carbon dynamics study bias deduced from isotopic
           fractionation in corn plant
    • Authors: Chenglong Tu; Congqiang Liu; Xiaohui Lu; Lifeng Cui; Jiayin Du
      Pages: 535 - 538
      Abstract: Carbon stable isotope techniques were extensively employed to trace the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) across a land-use change involving a shift to vegetation with different photosynthetic pathways. Based on the isotopic mass balance equation, relative contributions of new versus old SOC, and SOC turnover rate in corn fields were evaluated world-wide. However, most previous research had not analyzed corn debris left in the field, instead using an average corn plant δ 13C value or a measured value to calculate the proportion of corn-derived SOC, either of which could bias results. This paper carried out a detailed analysis of isotopic fractionation in corn plants and deduced the maximum possible bias of SOC dynamics study. The results show approximately 3‰ isotopic fractionation from top to bottom of the corn leaf. The 13C enrichment sequence in corn plant was tassel > stalk or cob > root > leaves. Individual parts accounting for the total dry mass of corn returned distinct values. Consequently, the average δ 13C value of corn does not represent the actual isotopic composition of corn debris. Furthermore, we deduced that the greater the fractionation in corn plant, the greater the possible bias. To alleviate bias of SOC dynamics study, we suggest two measures: analyze isotopic compositions and proportions of each part of the corn and determine which parts of the corn plant are left in the field and incorporated into SOC.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0227-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Carbazoles and benzocarbazoles confirm migration of leaked petroleum
           through caprocks and overlaying formations of Valhall Well 2/8-8 in the
           North Sea
    • Authors: S. Abrakasa; M. C. Onojake; V. Ukaegbu; H. O. Nwankwoala
      Abstract: A wildcat may not result in a petroleum prospect; however, it may indicate potential need for frontier exploration, since petroleum could leak into economic accumulations. Carbazoles and benzocarbazoles are nitrogen compounds in petroleum and can be employed to explicitly explain migration direction and distance of leaking petroleum. The hypothesis of this study is that the mechanism of the reaction involving the attraction of carbazoles to clay minerals on the matrix of the walls along their migration pathways determines the isomer that is preferentially attached to the mineral matrix. The objectives of this study are (a) to produce a profile for carbazoles and benzocarbazoles ratios in the cap rock overlying the reservoir, (b) to compare carbazole and benzocarbazole ratios to 20S/(20S + 20R) αααC29 Sterane maturity ratios (c) to infer migration direction from the carbazoles and benzocarbazoles ratio. Samples used were side wall cores and drill cuttings of water-based mud drilling. The EOM (extractable organic matter) from various formations overlying the reservoir was obtained using Soxtherm Automatic Equipment. The TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) was obtained from the EOM by using a precleaned isolute C18 500 mg / 3 mL column, eluted with hexane, while the polars were eluted with dichloromethane. Fractionation into saturates and aromatics was done using a silver nitrate–silica gel column. The profiles of 1,8/1,3 and 1,8/2,4 dimethyl carbazoles and the benzocarbazoles ratios show a vertical gradient of decreasing ratio with increasing vertical distance from the reservoir. This corroborates the %VRo equivalent of 20S/(20S + 20R) αααC29 Sterane and the carbazole ratios infer vertical migration of leaked petroleum.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0247-2
       
  • Basic formation mechanisms of Lake Doroninskoye soda water, East Siberia,
           Russia
    • Authors: Svetlana V. Borzenko; Leonid V. Zamana; Larisa I. Usmanova
      Abstract: The primary scientific goal of studying salt lakes is to better understand the formation of small continental-type hydrogeochemical systems. Many scientists have attributed the metamorphism of the chemical composition of salt lakes to the evaporative concentration of water. However, the formation of soda water is inconsistent with this hypothesis. Thus, analyzing intrabasinal biochemical processes and water—rocks interactions during the evaporative concentration of water allows us to understand the major mechanisms of the formation and evolution of water compositions. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify the key processes involved in the formation of the chemical composition of the water in Lake Doroninskoye. An analysis of the distribution of major components shows that Na+, HCO3 −, CO3 2−, and Cl− are dominant in this water. High concentrations of these elements are the result of evaporative water concentration. Calcium, magnesium, and potassium are not accumulated because the water is saturated in minerals containing these elements. The main barrier to the growth of the sulfate content of water is sulfate reduction. This process also contributes to the additional reproduction of carbon dioxide, which reacts with the products of the hydrolysis of aluminosilicates OH− to form HCO3 − and CO3 2−, thus further contributing to the natural processes of soda formation.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0250-7
       
  • Assessment of bacterial biomass in the highly contaminated urban Nanming
           River, Guiyang, SW China
    • Authors: Hao Xiao; Hua-Yun Xiao; Pan Wu
      Abstract: High anthropogenic N loads and abundant bacteria are characteristic of highly contaminated urban rivers. To better understand the dispersal and accumulation of bacteria, we determined contents and isotopic compositions of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) and bacteria in a highly contaminated urban river (the Nanming) and effluents in winter and summer of 2013. Relative to SPOM, bacterial biomass in the river was depleted in 13C and 15N and its C/N ratio was lower (δ13C: − 33.2‰ ± 3.1‰; δ15N: − 1.5‰ ± 1.2‰; C/N: 4.8 ± 0.6), while effluents showed higher 13C and 15N contents and C/N ratios (δ13C: − 25‰ ± 2.1‰; δ15N: + 8.5‰ ± 1.1‰; C/N: 8.1 ± 1.2). Source recognition of SPOM was based on carbon isotopes because they are conservative and distinct between end-members (effluent detritus and bacterial biomass). Using a mixing model, bacterial biomass in the river was calculated to account for < 20% and < 56% of bulk suspended particulate organic nitrogen in winter and summer, respectively. An N budget showed that bacterial N was a small proportion of total nitrogen (< 7.4%) in the riverwater.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0251-6
       
  • Chemical characterization and sources of PM2.5 at 12-h resolution in
           Guiyang, China
    • Authors: Longchao Liang; Na Liu; Matthew S. Landis; Xiaohang Xu; Xinbin Feng; Zhuo Chen; Lihai Shang; Guangle Qiu
      Abstract: The increasing emission of primary and gaseous precursors of secondarily formed atmospheric particulate matter due to continuing industrial development and urbanization are leading to an increased public awareness of environmental issues and human health risks in China. As part of a pilot study, 12-h integrated fine fraction particulate matter (PM2.5) filter samples were collected to chemically characterize and investigate the sources of ambient particulate matter in Guiyang City, Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Results showed that the 12-h integrated PM2.5 concentrations exhibited a daytime average of 51 ± 22 µg m−3 (mean ± standard deviation) with a range of 17–128 µg m−3 and a nighttime average of 55 ± 32 µg m−3 with a range of 4–186 µg m−3. The 24-h integrated PM2.5 concentrations varied from 15 to 157 µg m−3, with a mean value of 53 ± 25 µg m−3, which exceeded the 24-h PM2.5 standard of 35 µg m−3 set by USEPA, but was below the standard of 75 µg m−3, set by China Ministry of Environmental Protection. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was applied to determine PM2.5 chemical element concentrations. The order of concentrations of heavy metals in PM2.5 were iron (Fe) > zinc (Zn) > manganese (Mn) > lead (Pb) > arsenic (As) > chromium (Cr). The total concentration of 18 chemical elements was 13 ± 2 µg m−3, accounting for 25% in PM2.5, which is comparable to other major cities in China, but much higher than cities outside of China.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0248-1
       
  • Spatial characters of nutrients in Wujiangdu Reservoir in karst river, SW
           China
    • Authors: Jun Zhu; Siliang Li; Yuchun Wang; Haiyu Yan; Limin Liao; Jun Zhong
      Abstract: A preliminary assessment of the Wujiangdu Reservoir examined nutrient distribution and transport. Water samples were collected in the summer (July) of 2004, during the high-flow season. Inorganic nutrients (N, P, Si) and chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations of the Wujiangdu Reservoir and its inflow rivers were analyzed. Other water parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and electrical conductivity) were measured as well. The results show gradually decreasing concentrations of NO3 −-N and dissolved silicate in the surface water moving downstream to the dam of the Wujiangdu Reservoir. Additionally, soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations measured very low, with most falling below the sensitivity threshold of the method used in surface waters. Particulate phosphorus and NO3 −-N were the predominant species of phosphorus and nitrogen in the reservoir, respectively. The concentration of nutrients in the Yeji River was the largest of all inflow rivers. The maximum concentration of chl a was found near the dam. These results reflect upstream conditions similar to that of a river, and reservoir conditions near the dam similar to that of a natural lake system.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0246-3
       
  • Effects and underlying mechanisms of damming on carbon and nitrogen cycles
           and transport in rivers of Southwest China: project introduction
    • Authors: Hua-Yun Xiao
      Abstract: Southwest China is the primary area for damming rivers to produce hydroelectric energy and store water. River damming has changed hydrodynamic, chemical, and biological processes, which are related to sinks and sources of greenhouse gases and carbon and nitrogen fluxes of different interfaces. Here, I provide an introduction to a river damming-related foundation, the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YTA0601000). Supported by the foundation, we carried out research on multi-processes/multi-interfaces of carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles in a dammed river system and have produced important results, as presented in this issue of the journal.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0245-4
       
  • Rapid and sensitive method for determining free amino acids in plant
           tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence
           detection
    • Authors: Nengjian Zheng; Huayun Xiao; Zhongyi Zhang; Xiaofei Gao; Jingjing Zhao
      Abstract: This paper describes a reliable and rapid method for the complete separation and quantitation of twenty-five amino acids typically found in plants, based on reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography–linked fluorescence detector using a 150 × 4.6 mm Zorbax Eclipse AAA column. Plant tissue free amino acids (FAA) were extracted by ultrasonication with 5% (v/v) aqueous trifluoroacetic acid followed by ultrafiltration of extracts. The following analysis of amino acids was performed through programmed precolumn derivatization with ortho-phthalaldehyde and 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate reagents and efficient elution of derivatives within 26 min using binary gradient scheme. The method was validated over a concentration range of 4.5–450 μmol L−1 (μM). Separation analysis showed good selectivity (resolution > 1.5) for most amino acids. The average repeatability (RSD%, relative standard deviation) of the analysis at seven calibration concentrations was below 4% and ranged from 1.13% to 12.04%. The intra-day mean coefficient of variation at two concentrations (22.5 and 90 μM) was within 2%, and the intermediate precision was less than 4%. The limits of detection were between 0.012 and 6.68 μM. The coefficients of determination (R2) of the linear calibration curves were from 0.9989 to 0.9999. When the method was applied to plant samples, the FAA recoveries at two spiked levels (25 and 100 μM) ranged from 67.0% to 108.9% with an average of 94.4%, and the precision was 0.26%–12.31% RSD. A specific application combining this method with optimized extraction and interference removal procedures was successfully used to determine the FAA pools in different plant tissues. Finally, a PLS-DA multivariate statistics model was validated for the classification of three plant species according to their FAA profiles.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0244-5
       
  • Enrichment characteristics and risk assessment of Hg in bird feathers from
           Caohai wetland in Guizhou Province, China
    • Authors: Fengcheng Peng; Tianrong He; Zhenji Li; Mengyu Chen; Xiaoli Qian; Lingxia Zeng; Yiyuan Xu
      Abstract: Based on the analysis of the enrichment characteristics of Hg and MeHg in bird feathers from Caohai National Nature Reserve in Guizhou, the risks of Hg pollution to the birds from Caohai wetland have been evaluated. The total Hg content of bird feathers ranges from 40 to 5058 ng/g with an average of 924 ng/g. The content of MeHg is significantly correlated with total Hg (r = 0.68, p < 0.01), and the content are among 0.75 and 113 ng/g. The total Hg content in the birds feathers is significantly dependent on their feeding habits, which is mainly in accordance with the following rule: carnivorous birds > omnivorous birds that are mainly carnivorous > omnivorous birds that are mainly herbivorous. There are also differences in the Hg enrichment ability in the different parts of bird feathers, and the total Hg and MeHg content in the wing feathers are significantly higher than that in the other parts of feathers. The bioaccumulation coefficients of aqueous Hg and MeHg by bird feathers are 0.9 × 104–112.13 × 104 (mean value is 20.47 × 104) and 0.47 × 104–70.4 × 104 (mean value is 9.52 × 104), respectively. Although the whole Hg level in Caohai bird feathers is not too high, the Hg content in some carnivorous birds exceeds over or approaches the abnormal threshold when birds are breeding (5 μg/g), which indicates that the birds in Caohai wetland are faced with some risks of ecological Hg pollution.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0242-7
       
  • Oil geochemistry derived from the Qinjiatun–Qikeshu oilfields:
           insight from light hydrocarbons
    • Authors: Jin Li; Ting Kong; Min Zhang
      Abstract: A suite of 27 oils from the Qinjiatun–Qikeshu oilfields in the Lishu Fault Depression of the Songliao Basin was analyzed using whole oil gas chromatography. In combination with the relative distribution of C27, C28, and C29 regular steranes, detailed geochemical analyses of light hydrocarbons in oil samples revealed crude oils characterized by the dual input of lower aquatic organisms and higher terrestrial plants. Several light hydrocarbon indicators suggest that the liquid hydrocarbons have maturities equivalent to vitrinite reflectances of around 0.78%–0.93%. This is consistent with the maturity determination of steranes C29 20S/(20S + 20R) and C29 ααβ/(ααα + αββ). Crude oils derived from the two distinct oilfields likely both have source rocks deposited in a lacustrine environment based on light hydrocarbon parameters and on higher molecular weight hydrocarbon parameters. The results show that light hydrocarbon data in crude oils can provide important information for understanding the geochemical characteristics of the Qinjiatun–Qikeshu oils during geologic evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0243-6
       
  • A hydrochemical approach to estimate mountain front recharge in an aquifer
           system in Tamilnadu, India
    • Abstract: Mountain-front recharge (MFR) is a process of recharging an aquifer by infiltration of surface flow from streams and adjacent basins in a mountain block and along a mountain front (MF). This is the first attempt in India to estimate MFR along the foothills of Courtallam using hydrogeochemistry and geostatistical tools. The estimation of MFR has been carried out by collecting groundwater samples along the foothills of Courtallam. Collected water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions using standard procedures. Hydrogeochemical facies show the existence of four water types in this region. Calcium-rich water derived from gneissic rock terrain indicates significant recharge from higher elevation. Log pCO2 and ionic strength of the samples were also calculated to identify the geochemical process. Majority of the collected samples have sodium-rich water and weak ionic strength, which indicate foothill recharge and low residence time. Silicate and carbonate weathering have an equal interplay along the foothills with a relatively large fraction of Mg from the MF. The spatial diagrams of three factors show that the southern part of the study area is dominated by both weathering and anthropogenic processes, whereas the northern part is dominated by both leaching and weathering processes. Thus, the dominant weathering process represented by the second factor indicates the large recharge process along the foothills.
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0229-4
       
  • Source and yearly distribution of PAHs in the snow from the Hailuogou
           glacier of Mountain Gongga, China
    • Authors: Chaoqi Yu; Meihan Li; Yinling Cao; Xian He; Hong Zhou; Tingting Zhang; Chongying Li
      Abstract: Snow samples were collected over a 3-year period from 2012 to 2014 at the Hailuogou glacier of Mountain Gongga (Mt. Gongga) and analyzed for 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS). The results show that total average levels of the 16 PAHs ranged from 452 to 290 ng·L−1 with a possible declining trend from 2012 to 2014. Distances between the sampling sites and the emission sources were estimated at typically less than 500 km. The results suggest that the major source of PAHs was from coal combustion, while contributions from automobile exhaust played an important role in more recent years. This finding was in agreement with the characteristics of presence of local industry, residence, and recent development of tourism of the surrounding areas.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0231-x
       
  • Re–Os geochronology of the Cambrian stage-2 and -3 boundary in Zhijin
           County, Guizhou Province, China
    • Authors: Shuaichao Wei; Yong Fu; Houpeng Liang; Zhihua Ge; Wenxi Zhou; Guangzhe Wang
      Abstract: The black shale series that formed in the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition are important stratigraphic records of the co-evolution of the paleo-ocean, -climate, and -biology. In this study, we measured Re–Os isotopic compositions of the black shale in the Niutitang Formation from the Gezhongwu section in Zhijin, Guizhou Province. The samples had high Re and Os contents, with Re ranging from 21.27 to 312.78 ng/g and Os ranging from 0.455 to 7.789 ng/g. The Re–Os isotope isochron age of 522.9 ± 8.6 Ma implies deposition of the Niutitang black shale predated the Chengjiang Fauna, providing an age constraint for the expansion of oceanic anoxia in the study area. The initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.826 ± 0.026 indicates that enhanced continental weathering might have triggered the expansion of the oceanic anoxia.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0228-5
       
  • Zircon SHRIMP U–Pb age of Late Jurassic OIB-type volcanic rocks from the
           Tethyan Himalaya: constraints on the initial activity time of the
           Kerguelen mantle plume
    • Authors: Yuruo Shi; Chenyang Hou; J. Lawford Anderson; Tianshui Yang; Yiming Ma; Weiwei Bian; Jingjie Jin
      Abstract: This work presents zircon U–Pb age and whole-rock geochemical data for the volcanic rocks from the Lakang Formation in the southeastern Tethyan Himalaya and represents the initial activity of the Kerguelen mantle plume. SHRIMP U–Pb dating of zircons from the volcanic rocks yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 147 ± 2 Ma that reflects the time of Late Jurassic magmatism. Whole rock analyses of major and trace elements show that the volcanic rocks are characterized by high content of TiO2 (2.62 wt%–4.25 wt%) and P2O5 (0.38 wt%–0.68 wt%), highly fractionated in LREE/HREE [(La/Yb)N = 5.35–8.31] with no obvious anomaly of Eu, and HFSE enrichment with no obvious anomaly of Nb and Ta, which are similar to those of ocean island basalts and tholeiitic basaltic andesites indicating a mantle plume origin. The Kerguelen mantle plume produced a massive amount of magmatic rocks from Early Cretaceous to the present, which widely dispersed from their original localities of emplacement due to the changing motions of the Antarctic, Australian, and Indian plates. However, our new geochronological and geochemical results indicate that the Kerguelen mantle plume started from the Late Jurassic. Furthermore, we suggest that the Kerguelen mantle plume may played a significant role in the breakup of eastern Gondwanaland according to the available geochronological, geochemical and paleomagnetic data.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0239-2
       
  • Effects of organic mineral fertiliser on heavy metal migration and
           potential carbon sink in soils in a karst region
    • Authors: Ping Chen; Yulong Ruan; Shijie Wang; Xiuming Liu; Bin Lian
      Abstract: Heavy metal pollution in karst mountainous area of Guizhou has spread due to the long-term exploitation of mineral resources and the improper disposal of environmentally hazardous waste. Heavy metals are characterised by non-degradation, strong toxicity, and constant accumulation, posing a grave threat to karst mountain fragile soil ecosystem. To reduce the harm caused by heavy metal pollution and damage to agricultural products, research was undertaken on the basis of previous work by simulating pot experiments on pak choi cabbage (Brassica rapa chinensis) planted in Cd-contaminated soil: different amounts of organic mineral fertilisers (OMF) compared with chemical fertiliser (CF) were used and by detecting the amount of heavy metal in the mature vegetable, a better fertilisation strategy was developed. The results showed that the Cd content in vegetables grown with CF was 23.70 mg/kg, while that of vegetables grown with OMF and bacterial inoculant was the lowest at 15.13 mg/kg. This suggests that the use of OMF and microbes in karst areas not only promotes plant growth but also hinders plant absorption of heavy metal ions in the soil. In addition, through the collection of pot leachate, the detection of water chemistry characteristics, and the calculation of the calcite saturation index, it was found that the OMF method also induces certain carbon sink effects. The results provide a new way in which rationalise the use of OMFs in karst areas to alleviate soil heavy metal pollution and increase soil carbon sequestration.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11631-017-0230-y
       
 
 
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