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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
  [SJR: 0.821]   [H-I: 49]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-5241 - ISSN (Online) 0364-216X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Mastopexy on Reconstructed Breast Following Massive Weight Loss: An
           Innovative Technique Using Dermo-Capsular Flaps
    • Authors: A. Cogliandro; M. Barone; G. Cassotta; R. Salzillo; P. Persichetti
      Pages: 396 - 399
      Abstract: Background We have developed a dermo-capsular flap mastopexy technique for patients who have experienced massive weight loss after breast reconstruction. The aim of this technique is to lift the inframammary fold, adequately cover the implant, and remove excess skin, elevating the breast and obtaining symmetry with the contralateral breast. Methods Between January 2014 and February 2017, we performed this technique on 20 women who were candidates for second-stage breast reconstruction following nipple-sparing mastectomy. All patients had experienced substantial weight loss (> 15 kg) and presented with ptosis after first-stage reconstruction. Results There were 8 patients with bilateral reconstruction following bilateral mastectomy (4 with bilateral nipple-sparing mastectomy). There were 12 patients with unilateral mastectomy, all with contralateral breast ptosis treated by augmentation via inverted-T mastopexy (n = 7) or crescent mastopexy (n = 5). The average lift of the nipple-areola complex was 5 cm (range 2–8 cm). The average follow-up was 12 months (range 4–36 months). Two patients had complications, including partial wound dehiscence (in a heavy smoker) and recurrence of breast asymmetry. Conclusions Implant breast reconstruction after massive weight loss is still possible even in the setting of thin, ptotic, and anelastic breast tissue. Our inverted-T dermo-capsular flap mastopexy technique for reconstructed breast is safe and effective with good outcomes and high patient satisfaction. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0992-y
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 2 (2018)
  • Comment on: Complications and Treatment Strategy After Breast Augmentation
           by Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Injection—Summary of 10 Years’ Clinical
    • Authors: Nickolay Markov; Michael Alperovich; Tomer Avraham
      Pages: 410 - 411
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-1035-4
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 2 (2018)
  • Comment on Mycobacterium Chelonae Infection of the Buttocks Secondary to
           Lipofilling: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
    • Authors: Masoud Keikha
      Pages: 610 - 610
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-1005-x
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 2 (2018)
  • Response to Comment on Mycobacterium chelonae Infection of the Buttocks
           Secondary to Lipofilling: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
    • Authors: S. E. Hammond; J. A. Jaller; N. Joumblat; R. S. Kirsner; C. J. Salgado
      Pages: 611 - 612
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-1042-5
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 2 (2018)
  • G-Spotplasty: A New Surgical Plastic Intervention—The Preliminary
    • Authors: Adam Ostrzenski
      Abstract: Background Ostrzenski’s G-pot anatomical structure discovery has been verified by the anatomy, histology, MRI in vivo, and electrovaginography in vivo studies. The objectives of this scientific-clinical investigation were to develop a new surgical reconstructive intervention (G-spotplasty); to determine the ability of G-spotplasty surgical implementation; to observe for potential complications; and to gather initial information on whether G-spotplasty improves female sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and sexual concerns. Methods A case series study was designed and conducted with 5-year follow-up (October 2013 and October 2017). The rehearsal of new G-spotplasty was performed on fresh female cadavers. Three consecutive live women constituted this clinical study population, and they were subjected to the newly developed G-spotplasty procedure in October 2013. Preoperatively and postoperatively, a validated, self-completion instrument of Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire (SRA-Q) was used to measure female sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and sexual concerns. Results Three out of twelve women met inclusion criteria and were incorporated into this study. All patients were subjected to G-spotplasty, completed 5-year follow-up, and returned completed SRA-Q in a sealed envelope. New G-spotplasty was successfully implemented without surgical difficulty and without complications. All patients reported re-establishing vaginal orgasms with different degrees of difficulties, observing return of anterior vaginal wall engorgement, and were very pleased with the outcome of G-spotplasty. Conclusions The G-spotplasty is a simple surgical intervention, easy to implement, and improves sexual activities, sexual behaviors, and sexual concerns. The preliminary results are very promising and paved the way for additional clinical-scientific research. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1137-7
  • Etiology and Treatment of Congenital Festoons
    • Authors: Mokhtar Asaadi
      Abstract: Background Festoons and malar bags present a particular challenge to the plastic surgeon and commonly persist after the traditional lower blepharoplasty. They are more common than we think and a trained eye will be able to recognize them. Lower blepharoplasty in these patients requires addressing the lid-cheek junction and midcheek using additional techniques such as orbicularis retaining ligament (ORL) and zygomaticocutaneous ligament (ZCL) release, midface lift, microsuction, or even direct excision (Kpodzo e al. in Aesthet Surg J 34(2):235–248, 2014; Goldberg et al. in Plast Reconstr Surg 115(5):1395–1402, 2005; Mendelson et al. in Plast Reconstr Surg 110(3):885–896, 2002). The goal in these patients is to restore a smooth contour from the lower eyelid to the cheek. The review of literature shows the need for more than one surgery for treatment of the festoons (Furnas in Plast Reconstr Surg 61(4):540–546, 1978). One of the reasons WHY these cases are so challenging is that the festoons tend to persist even after surgical treatment. As Furnas said, “Malar mounds have acquired some notoriety for their persistence in the face of surgical efforts to remove them” (Furnas in Clin Plast Surg 20(2):367–385, 1993). This could be due to different etiology between acquired and congenital festoons. There are currently no cases of congenital festoons described in the literature. In the last 10 years, we have treated a total of 59 patients with festoons or malar mounds. We used the terminology of festoon for acquired cases and malar mound for congenital ones (Kpodzo et al. 2014). We were successful with treating 56 patients who developed acquired festoons later on in life; however, three cases required an additional treatment to improve residual puffiness that they had after the first operation. From the above findings, we hypothesized that there should be something common in patients with congenital festoons or malar mounds which are different from acquired festoons. All of these three patients had one thing in common, and that was a history of puffiness of the prezygomatic space since childhood. Each of these patients expressed that these conditions have been present since a young age but became worse with aging over time. To date, there are no descriptions of the cause or treatment for congenital festoons. Here, we present the first case series of three patients with congenital festoons. We discuss the possible etiology of congenital festoons, the physical exam, and the surgical approaches. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 59 patients who had surgical correction of festoons in the past 10 years, three of which were presented since childhood. In this paper, we will discuss the pathophysiology and the surgical treatments for congenital festoons. Only patients with festoons present since birth were included. The first two cases were treated with a subciliary blepharoplasty with release of the orbicularis retaining and zygomaticocutaneous ligaments and midface lift with canthopexy and orbicularis muscle suspension. The third case had a subciliary lower blepharoplasty approach, skin, and muscle flap and direct excision of the fat through the orbicularis from the subcutaneous space. In addition, each patient required further treatments to address supra-orbicularis fat by various methods. Results All patients with acquired festoons had successful results with one operation by subciliary skin muscle flap, release of the ORL and ZCL, midface lift, and muscle suspension. All three patients with congenital festoons had residual puffiness that required surgical and non-surgical treatments. There were no complications. Our first case required three surgical treatments for complete correction. The second and third cases required Kybella injections after their initial surgical treatments. The specimen of the first patient, Fig. 10, who had direct excision, showed localized fat collection immediately under the skin and above the orbicularis oculi muscle. Conclusions Correction of congenital festoons or malar mounds requires a combination of subciliary lower blepharoplasty with skin muscle flap, midface lift, and orbicularis muscle suspension, as well as addressing the supra-orbicularis fat via direct excision, off-label Kybella injection or liposuction. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2018-04-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1129-7
  • Dual Coverage of the Inferior Pole with Conjoined Fascial Flap and
           Acellular Dermal Matrix for Immediate One-Stage Breast Reconstruction with
           a Prosthetic Implant
    • Authors: Seo H. Lee; Yong S. Chun; Heung K. Park; Yang W. Kim; Young W. Cheon
      Abstract: Background Elevation of a conjoined fascial flap composed of the pectoralis major, serratus anterior, and external oblique fascia is a type of surgical technique using autologous tissue to cover the lower pole after immediate one-stage direct-to-implant (DTI) breast reconstruction. However, volumetric breast implants hinder use of this technique alone. For better structural stability and more aesthetically favorable breast contour in large breasts, we have devised a technique involving dual coverage of the lower pole by a conjoined fascial flap and acellular dermal matrix (ADM). Methods Twenty Asian patients underwent DTI breast reconstruction from March 2013 to May 2014. ADM was used to cover the inferomedial quadrant of the breast, and a conjoined fascial flap was elevated to cover the remaining inferolateral quadrant. Both patient- and plastic surgeon-reported outcome measures were assessed using questionnaires. Result For every domain of the patient- and plastic surgeon-reported questionnaires, the mean scores were between satisfied and very satisfied. Two patients developed a seroma and one patient developed partial skin flap necrosis. Both seromas resolved after a series of aspirations. The necrotic skin flap was revised under local anesthesia 3 weeks after the reconstructive surgery. Conclusion The use of dual coverage of the inferior pole with a conjoined fascial flap and ADM for immediate DTI among patients with large breasts is supported by high scores in both patient- and plastic surgeon-reported outcome measures, as well as low complication rates. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1138-6
  • Methylene Blue: A Color Test for a Quality De-epithelialization
    • Authors: V. Bucaria; R. Elia; M. Maruccia; M. Vestita; A. Boccuzzi; G. Giudice
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1126-x
  • Glandular Liposculpture in the Treatment of Gynecomastia
    • Authors: S. S. Shirol
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1135-9
  • Does Simultaneous Liposuction Adversely Affect the Outcome of Thread
           Lifts' A Preliminary Result
    • Authors: Yong Woo Lee; Tae Hwan Park
      Abstract: Background Along with advances in thread lift techniques and materials, ancillary procedures such as fat grafting, liposuction, or filler injections have been performed simultaneously. Some surgeons think that these ancillary procedures might affect the aesthetic outcomes of thread lifting possibly due to inadvertent injury to threads or loosening of soft tissue via passing the cannula in the surgical plane of the thread lifts. The purpose of the current study is to determine the effect of such ancillary procedures on the outcome of thread lifts in the human and cadaveric setting. Methods We used human abdominal tissue after abdominoplasty and cadaveric faces. In the abdominal tissue, liposuction parallel to the parallel axis was performed in one area for 5 min. We counted 30 passes when liposuction was performed in one direction. This was repeated as we changed the direction of passages. The plane of thread lifts (dermal vs subcutaneous) and angle between liposuction and thread lifts (parallel vs perpendicular) were differentiated in this abdominal tissue study group. Then, we performed parallel or perpendicular thread lifts using a small slit incision. Using a tensiometer, the maximum holding strength was measured when pulling the thread out of the skin as much as possible. We also used faces of cadavers to prove whether the finding in human abdominal tissue is really valid with corresponding techniques. Results Our pilot study using abdominal tissue showed that liposuction after thread lifts adversely affects it regardless of the vector of thread lifts. In the cadaveric study, however, liposuction prior to thread lifting does not significantly affect the holding strength of thread lifts. Conclusions Liposuction or fat grafting in the appropriate layer would not be a hurdle to safely performing simultaneous thread lifts if the target lift tissue is intra-SMAS or just above the SMAS layer. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1132-z
  • Lower Lateral Cartilage Cephalic Malposition: An Over-Diagnosed Entity
    • Authors: Farhad Hafezi; Bijan Naghibzadeh; Abbas Kazemi Ashtiani
      Abstract: Background Lower lateral cartilage malposition is represented by anterior convexity of the lower lateral cartilage (LLC) dome with posterior pinch, as defined by Sheen and Constantian. This anatomic variation consists of cephalic, or upward and inward, rotation of lateral crura, particularly in bulbous tip patients. In most cases, “bulbous pinch” LLC is positioned toward the medial canthus, not laterally, so it is referred to as cephalic displacement. Accordingly, it is recommended to caudally displace cartilage in the majority of rhinoplasty cases in which variation is seen. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to measure the exact angle of lateral crura with fixed reference points on the face. Methods We drew and marked LLC contours and vertical/horizontal lines in 40 consecutive rhinoplasty cases. We then divided them into two groups: (1) bulbous pinch and (2) flat LLCs. The right- and left-sided LLC angles to midline and horizontal lines were measured and compared to assess whether there was any significant difference between the two subgroups. Results There was no significant difference between the angles of LLC rotation in the bulbous and flat LLCs groups, measured both vertically and horizontally. Conclusion Based on our findings, although cephalic malposition of LLCs may be present in some patients but in the majority of cases the etiology of nasal lateral wall pinching is not cephalic displacement of lateral crura but most probably is due, rather, to severe convexity of the posterior and lateral crura. According to our findings, cephalic malposition is an uncommon anatomic variation of LLCs that has been reported at high frequency (60–70% of their rhinoplasty cases). This finding may help to correct this deformity into a normal anatomic configuration. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1136-8
  • Bone and Soft Tissue Nasal Angles Discrepancies and Overlying Skin
           Thickness: A Computed Tomography Study
    • Authors: Sami Alharethy; Sama Alohali; Ibrahim Alquniabut; Yong Ju Jang
      Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to derive the normal values for bone and soft tissue nasal angles as well as the overlying skin thickness and to attempt to determine the correlation between differences in bone and soft tissue angles and overlying skin thickness in Middle Eastern patients. Materials and Methods Three-dimensional cephalometric analysis was performed for 100 patients who underwent computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses. The nasofrontal angle, pyramidal angle-nasal root, pyramidal angle-tip of the nasal bone, and overlying skin thickness were measured, and the results were analyzed according to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Results All soft tissue angles were significantly larger than the bone angles, with the mean difference being 11.62°, 30.80°, and 27.05° for the nasofrontal angle (P = 0.000), pyramidal angle-nasal root (P = 0.000), and pyramidal angle-tip of the nasal bone (P = 0.000), respectively. The mean overlying skin thickness was 3.89 ± 1.48 mm at the nasion, 1.16 ± 0.6 mm at the rhinion, and 2.93 ± .97 mm at the nasal tip. Differences in the nasofrontal angle were strongly correlated with the skin thickness at the nasion (P = 0.001). Conclusion A simple clinical exam of the soft tissue nasal angles does not reflect the underlying bone angles that will be encountered during rhinoplasty. BMI does not influence nasal shape, and rhinoplasty surgery should take into account the ethnic group, age, and sex of the patient. Surgeons should leave a minor skeletal hump at the end of the nasal bone for Middle Eastern patients. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1127-9
  • Shape, Position and Dimension of the Nipple Areola Complex in the Ideal
           Male Chest: A Quick and Simple Operating Room Technique
    • Authors: Sara Tanini; Giulia Lo Russo
      Abstract: Introduction The anatomical features of the chest identify an individual as male or female and even the smallest details of these features determine the appropriate appearance for each gender. In female-to-male patients, the creation of an aesthetically pleasing male chest is the most important step. Incorrect positioning of the nipple areola complex (NAC) on the chest wall and suboptimal shaping and sizing of the NAC are common pitfalls in male NAC creation. Patients and Methods We have analyzed the anatomical chest features of 26 water polo players, to verify our hypothesis of the relationship between the pectoralis major muscle and NAC and to create a method for repositioning the NAC that is applicable in the operating room, is easy, practical and reproducible without the use of formulas and based on an easily identifiable landmark. Results In our reference group, the NAC has a constant relationship with the pectoralis major muscle, positioned on average 3 cm medial to the lateral border of the pectoralis muscle and 2.5 cm above the inferior pectoralis major insertion. This supports our hypothesis and our surgical technique. We use the index finger to find a vertical axis and a line 2.5 cm above the inferior pectoralis shadow to find the horizontal axis. We also introduce a modification to the receiving site to recreate an oval areola more similar to that of an ideal male chest. Conclusions Our anatomical study and statistical analysis support a consistent relationship between the position and shape of the NAC and the borders of the pectoral muscle. We have used this relationship to develop our “trick,” which is easily applicable in the operating room to find the NAC position without using formulas and numbers. This method allowed us to place the NAC in a position very close to that of a typical male subject, and it permitted us to reduce the surgery time. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1131-0
  • Longitudinal Analysis of Superficial Midfacial Fat Volumes Over a 10-Year
    • Authors: Jacob Tower; Kimberly Seifert; Boris Paskhover
      Abstract: Background Volumetric changes to facial fat that occur with aging remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate for longitudinal changes to midfacial fat volumes in a group of individuals. Methods We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study of adult subjects who underwent multiple facial computed tomographic (CT) scans timed at least 8 years apart. Subjects who underwent facial surgery or suffered facial trauma were excluded. Facial CT scans were analyzed, and superficial cheek fat volumes were measured and compared to track changes that occurred with aging. Results Fourteen subjects were included in our analysis of facial aging (5 male, 9 female; mean initial age 50.9 years; mean final age 60.4 years). In the right superficial cheek there was an increase in mean (SD) superficial fat volume from 10.33 (2.01) to 10.50 (1.80) cc, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.75). Similar results were observed in the left cheek. There were no statistically significant longitudinal changes to caudal, middle, or cephalad subdivisions of bilateral superficial cheek fat. A simple linear regression was performed to predict superficial cheek fat pad volume based on age which did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.31), with an R2 of 0.039. Conclusions This study is the first to quantitatively assess for longitudinal changes to midfacial fat in a group of individuals. Superficial cheek fat remained stable as subjects aged from approximately 50 to 60 years old, with no change in total volume or redistribution within a radiographically defined compartment. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1134-x
  • Axillary Accessory Breast: Optimal Time for Operation
    • Authors: Sung Ryul Lee; Seung Geun Lee; Geon Young Byun; Myoung Jin Kim; Bum Hwan Koo
      Abstract: Background Accessory breasts are usually located in the axilla. Symptoms associated with an axillary accessory breast (AAB) may newly develop or worsen after pregnancy. After childbirth, AAB engorgement and hyperplasia may occur due to milk formation. We evaluated the optimal time for AAB excision and assessed variations in clinical presentations and surgical outcomes associated with pregnancy. Methods In total, 540 women whose symptoms began from puberty and underwent AAB excision were retrospectively analyzed. Group 1 comprised 416 patients who underwent operations before pregnancy, and Group 2 comprised 124 patients who underwent operations after childbirth. AABs were classified according to the Damsoyu–Lee (DL) classification. Satisfaction was measured by pain and cosmesis 3 months postoperatively. Results Group 2 had more patients with severe symptoms [DL class II (n = 8, 6.5%) and III (n = 15, 12.1%)] than Group 1 (p = 0.049). The specimen weight and liposuction volume were greater in Group 2. The reoperation rate was also higher in Group 2 [loosening skin excision (n = 4, 3.2%) and remnant gland excision (n = 3, 2.4%)] (p = 0.032). In Group 2, 31 (25%) patients had AAB engorgement after childbirth and 7 (5.6%) had milk secretion from the accessory nipple after childbirth. The overall satisfaction score was lower in Group 2 than 1. Conclusions Pregnancy may cause accessory breast gland hyperplasia. After childbirth, symptoms such as AAB engorgement and milk secretion from the accessory nipple may occur. The optimal timing for operation for AAB appears to be before the onset of pregnancy because of lower reoperation rates and greater patient satisfaction. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2018-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1128-8
  • Letter to the Editor Regarding: Fleming D, Stone J, Tansley P. Spontaneous
           Regression and Resolution of Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large
           Cell Lymphoma: Implications for Research, Diagnosis and Clinical
           Management. Aesth Plast Surg, 2018
    • Authors: Roberto N. Miranda; Mark W. Clemens
      PubDate: 2018-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1125-y
  • Correction to: Randomized Controlled Study Comparing Disposable
           Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy with Standard Care in Bilateral Breast
           Reduction Mammoplasty Evaluating Surgical Site Complications and Scar
    • Authors: V. Tanaydin; J. Beugels; A. Andriessen; J. H. Sawor; R. R. W. J. van der Hulst
      Abstract: The second to last sentence in the Results section of the should be corrected to, “At 180-days follow-up, there was a significant improvement in total VAS scores.”
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1123-0
  • Buttock Lifting Using Elastic Thread (Elasticum ® ) with a New
           Classification of Gluteal Ptosis
    • Authors: Chang Hyun Oh; Seung Bin Jang; Chang Min Kang; Jeong Su Shim
      Abstract: Purpose Conventional buttock lifting is invasive, so it is difficult to recommend it to patients especially to those who do not have severe gluteal ptosis. In addition, the gluteal area is a large area change among the joints. Therefore, this surgery can cause pain during hip flexion after lifting using a conventional thread. The authors report on buttock lifting using an elastic thread with high satisfaction from patients. Methods From July 2016 to June 2017, 60 patients were enrolled in this study. The degree of gluteal ptosis was graded from Grade 0 to Grade 6. All patients underwent lifting of both buttocks using Elasticum®. We drew a circle along the outer edge of the buttock and another small circle inside the first circle. A stab incision was done at 5 points (A, B, C, C′, and D), and then according to the circle, lifting was done. Postoperative grade changes and complications were evaluated. Result Grades 2–5 were lifted to at least Grade 2 after surgery, but Grade 6 was at most Grade 3 (14.2%), with 85.8% of these to either Grade 5 or Grade 6. Seven patients (11.67%) complained of postoperative pain, and 6 patients (10.00%) showed skin dimpling or creases 10 days after surgery, all of which disappeared at 1 month after surgery. Conclusion Buttock lifting with elastic thread is effective in pre-ptosis to moderate gluteal ptosis. Because of the elasticity of the thread, postoperative pain is low on hip flexion, so the lifting is done naturally. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1124-z
  • Judicial Precedent-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines of Propofol in
           Sedative Esthetic Surgery
    • Authors: Duk Hee Lee; Joo Hyun Woo; Seung Eun Hong
      Abstract: Background Propofol is has been widely used for sedation in the field of esthetic surgery because of its favorable pharmacokinetic profile. Propofol sedation-induced side effects are rare. However, when present, they can be serious. The number of malpractice claims associated with propofol sedation has increased in recent years. This study aims to show which procedures lead to the most claims in the field of esthetic surgery through a review of Korean precedents. Methods Thirteen precedent cases of propofol sedation in the field of esthetic surgery were collected between 2000 and 2016. We analyzed the type of procedure, administration route, anesthesia provider, complications, timing of damaging events, average indemnification, plaintiff’s (patients) winning rate, ratio and the reason of limitation of liability and the key factors affecting the judgement in these cases. Results Most plaintiffs were women, and in most cases (11/13, 73.3%), the times of the damaging events were in maintenance and the anesthesia provider was the surgeon. The most common complication related to propofol sedation was hypoxic brain damage. Among the 13 cases, 12 were won by the plaintiff. The mean claim settlement was 339,455,814 KRW (USD 301,792.15). The key factors affecting the judgement were administration method and staff, monitoring method, preparation of emergency kit, response to emergencies, transfer to a higher-level hospital, detailed medical recording about event and informed consent. Conclusion The number of claims owing to propofol sedation after esthetic surgery is increasing. Close monitoring during the operation, immediate reaction to an event and thorough medical records were main key factors that influenced the judgement. Preoperative explanation about the possibility of complications was important. The findings will help surgeons achieve high patient satisfaction and reduce liability concerns. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-018-1122-1
  • Epicanthal Restoration Surgery with Scar Excision in Severe Epicanthal
    • Authors: Yoon Jae Chung; Mun Geun Koo; Soo Hyang Lee
      Abstract: Background Medial epicanthoplasty is a common aesthetic surgery in Asia to remove the epicanthal fold. With increasing use of this surgery, unsatisfactory results have grown. Several methods have been developed to correct it. However, there are limitations in restoration if the patient has a severe scar or does not have enough skin for reconstruction. By aggressively removing scar tissue, the authors present a better reverse redraping epicanthoplasty. Methods The procedure was performed on 512 patients who had complications of medial epicanthoplasty from May 2011 to October 2015. The mean age was 31.3 years. Those who had already undergone reconstruction were 15.4% (n = 79). Of these, 68 patients received a V–Y flap and the rest had V–Y modification surgery. After the design, the skin-muscle flap was dissected and elevated. The upper and lower eyelid skin was pulled medially. The previous scar tissue was widely excised while removing skin excess, and the new epicanthal fold was created without a rectangular shape. Results The mean interepicanthal distance has been increased from 32.8 to 36.6 mm. The mean lengthening effect is 3.8 mm. Lacrimal lake exposure, fierce and narrow appearance, and incomplete medial eyelid closure were improved. Conclusions Medial epicanthoplasty is a common cosmetic surgery in the Asian population. A demand for an effective reconstructive method has grown in association with higher complication rates. The authors have better results to make a natural epicanthal fold through aggressive scar removal in the reverse redraping epicanthoplasty. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-1023-8
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