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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
  [SJR: 0.821]   [H-I: 49]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-5241 - ISSN (Online) 0364-216X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Buccal Fat Pad: An Effective Option for Facial Reconstruction and
           Aesthetic Augmentation
    • Authors: Jeong Tae Kim; Ramesh Sasidaran
      Abstract: Introduction Autogenous grafting with lipoaspirate and dermo-fat grafting are popular techniques employed by plastic surgeons for correcting small volume facial defects and contour deformities. These techniques however present certain disadvantages. In this article, we present the use of the buccal fat pad graft as an alternative method of correcting such facial deformities. Patients and Methods Free buccal fat pad grafting was carried out in 15 patients in our institution. All were harvested using an intraoral approach. The buccal fat pad graft was used to correct periorbital contour depressions, nasal tip deformities, as a camouflage graft over exposed silicon nasal implants and as a filler in the depression deformity after mass excision. Results All 15 patients demonstrated good contour deformity correction without a significant graft resorption up to 3 years of follow-up. There were no donor site complications. The amount used ranged from 1 to 5 cc in volume as a spacer or barrier for the moderate-sized volume defect or depression, even though more than 5 cc of fat graft could be harvested if required. Conclusion In conclusion, the buccal fat pad graft represents an easy, expedient and exceptional tool for the correction of contour deformities, volume replacement or for aesthetic augmentation. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0962-4
  • Announcements October 2017
    • PubDate: 2017-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0955-3
  • Discussion of the Article “Effects of Fat Grafting Containing Stem Cells
           in Microstomia and Microcheilia Derived from Systemic Sclerosis” by Dr.
           Blezien and Colleagues
    • Authors: Bahman Guyuron
      PubDate: 2017-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0938-4
  • Desmoid Tumor and Silicone Breast Implant Surgery: Is There Really a
           Connection' A Literature Review
    • Authors: R. Tzur; E. Silberstein; Y. Krieger; Y. Shoham; Y. Rafaeli; A. Bogdanov-Berezovsky
      Abstract: Background Desmoid tumors are borderline tumors of the connective tissue, arising in the musculo-aponeurotic stromal elements. A desmoid tumor (DT) has an infiltrative and locally aggressive growth pattern and usually does not metastasize; however, it has a high recurrence and complication rate. DT located in the breast (BDT) represents a rare extra-abdominal form. Recently, the presence of breast silicone implants was suggested by several researchers as a risk factor for developing BDT. Objectives The goal of this review is to investigate the possible correlation between BDT and breast implant surgery. Methods We conducted a literature review of BDT-reported cases, associated with breast implant surgery. Results The search revealed 36 cases of BDT associated with silicone breast implants. Conclusions Based on the reviewed data, the incidence of BDT following breast implant surgery is lower than BDT in the general population. At the moment, a possible association between breast implants and the development of breast desmoid tumors cannot be unequivocally confirmed. A world registry with accurate documentation of each case of BDT associated with breast implant surgery should be performed for future investigation. Level of Evidence II This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0948-2
  • Sexuality Among Women Treated for Breast Cancer: A Survey of Three
           Surgical Procedures
    • Authors: Ana Olivia Cortés-Flores; Adriana Vargas-Meza; Gilberto Morgan-Villela; Jorge Jiménez-Tornero; Carlos José Zuloaga-Fernández del Valle; Manuel Solano-Genesta; Roberto Carlos Miranda-Ackerman; Iztel Vázquez-Reyna; Luis Alberto García-González; Guillermo Alonso Cervantes-Cardona; Gabino Cervantes-Guevara; Clotilde Fuentes-Orozco; Alejandro González-Ojeda
      Abstract: Background The quality of life of Mexican patients with breast cancer has been studied, but female sexual function has only been explored superficially. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire has been validated as a tool to measure sexual function among women with cancer. However, no study in Mexico has been published. Purpose To evaluate and compare female sexuality of breast cancer survivors treated with three surgical procedures. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional questionnaire survey applied in patients without active disease and free of any oncologic treatment who underwent conservative mastectomy, and mastectomy with and without reconstruction. Patients included in this study had no evidence of active disease after at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up and agreed to complete the FSFI questionnaire during a surveillance visit. Results Seventy-four patients were included: 37.8% had undergone conservative mastectomy, 29.7% radical mastectomy, and 32.4% radical mastectomy plus reconstruction. Patients in the radical mastectomy group were older than those in the other groups (p = 0.002). Female sexual dysfunction was observed in 34% of patients, but in patients who underwent radical mastectomy, it was 63% by contrast with 14 and 29% in women treated with conservative mastectomy and radical mastectomy with reconstruction (p = 0.001). Conclusions We found a lower prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in patients treated with conservative mastectomy or reconstruction after radical mastectomy. Alternatively, radical mastectomy was offered to older patients, a condition that could contribute together with a loss of female perception to a higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction. Level of Evidence III This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0960-6
  • Closed-Suction Drains After Subcutaneous Mastectomy for Gynecomastia: Do
           They Reduce Complications'
    • Authors: Jerry W. Chao; Janani A. Raveendran; Connor Maly; Gary Rogers; Michael Boyajian; Albert K. Oh
      Abstract: Background In cases of refractory gynecomastia, surgical excision of excess glandular breast tissue is often warranted. Closed-suction drain placement is commonplace; however, the effect of drains on preventing complications after male breast surgery has not been fully elucidated in the literature. Objective To investigate the effect of drains on reducing seroma and hematoma after subcutaneous mastectomy for gynecomastia. Methods Retrospective chart review of patients undergoing subcutaneous mastectomy for gynecomastia over a 10-year period. Charts were reviewed for demographics, BMI, comorbidities, type of local anesthesia, specimen weight, use of liposuction, and placement of drains. Outcomes were determined by seroma or hematoma in the 30-day postoperative period. Results A total of 163 breasts were studied (group I = no-drain, n = 46; group II = drain, n = 117). Group I had a higher rate of clinically significant seromas requiring needle aspiration than group II (6.5 vs 0%, p = 0.0214). There was no difference in rates of hematoma (group I vs II, 2.2 vs 6.0%, p = 0.443) and total fluid collections (group I vs II, 19.6 vs 16.2%, p = 0.647). BMI, use of local anesthesia, specimen weight, and use of liposuction were not significantly associated with postoperative complications. Conclusions Closed-suction drains may reduce rates of clinically significant seromas requiring needle aspiration. Though drains carry their own pertinent adverse effects (e.g., patient discomfort and anxiety, cost, and additional clinic visits), there remains no universal standard of care and surgeon practices vary widely. Given the potential to reduce seroma rates, we recommend that surgeons consider placing drains and discuss with patients the benefits and risks of drains after surgical treatment of gynecomastia. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0959-z
  • Chen’s Double Eyelid Fold Illusion: An Eye Size Assimilation Illusion
           Induced by a Supratarsal Fold in the Brow–Eye Unit, A Preliminary Report
    • Authors: Sheng-Ni Chen; Sheng-Hung Chen; Chen-Chia Chen; Chien-Lin Huang; Hao-Chih Tai; Yong-Ping Wang
      Abstract: Background Double eyelidplasty can enhance the eye size and facial attractiveness of Asian individuals with single eyelids. The authors hypothesize that a supratarsal fold can induce an eye size assimilation illusion to enhance eye dimensions and aesthetics, and seek to define the optimum vertical proportion between a supratarsal fold and the eye fissure associated with maximal induction of the size assimilation illusion. Methods A photometric study of the replicated photographs of ten female Taiwanese patients after double eyelidplasty was designed. Each photograph was edited by shifting the supratarsal folds vertically at a regular fold/eye ratio increment of 0.1. The perceived attractiveness of edited photographs of each patient was rated by 100 adult observers using a score of 1–5. The palpebral parameters were measured and analyzed. Results The mean rating score increased gradually when a supratarsal fold was added and peaked when the fold/eye ratio was 0.3 and the mean Chen’s double eyelid fold ratio was 0.631 ± 0.023. After the peak, the mean score decreased gradually and was lower than the photograph without a fold when the fold/eye ratio exceeded 0.5 and the mean Chen’s ratio exceeded 0.729 ± 0.027. Conclusion Within the optimal ranges of the fold/eye ratio and Chen’s double eyelid fold ratio, eyes are perceived as larger and more attractive due to a hybrid presentation of two interdependent eye size assimilation illusions induced by a supratarsal fold in the brow–eye unit. “Chen’s double eyelid fold illusion” is proposed to describe this complex visual phenomenon. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0961-5
  • Comparison of Sensory Changes Following Superomedial and Inferior Pedicle
           Breast Reduction
    • Authors: Ümran Muslu; Dilek Şenen Demirez; Asım Uslu; Mehmet Ali Korkmaz; Meral Bilgilisoy Filiz
      Abstract: Background More attention is focused on sensory outcomes following breast reduction operations. We conducted this prospective, non-randomized study to compare two commonly used breast reduction techniques, superomedial pedicle and inferior pedicle, regarding sensation of the nipple-areolar complex. Methods We prospectively assigned 60 patients with macromastia into the superomedial pedicle group (SMP group, n = 30) or the inferior pedicle (IP group, n = 30) group. Six patients who withdrew from the study and another six patients who did not attend return visits were excluded. Algometry was used to measure the sensation of breast skin, cardinal points of the areola and the nipple. Two-point discrimination was also measured on the areola. Measurements were performed before surgery, at 3 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively. Results There were 20 patients in the SMP group and 28 patients in the IP group. The mean ages of the patients were 43.2 ± 12.7 and 45.9 ± 10.8 years, respectively (p = 0.438). The mean BMI of the patients were 32.4 ± 6.7 and 30.4 ± 5.3 kg/m2, respectively (p = 0.257). The mean weights of resected tissues were 802.5 (280–2180) versus 773.7 (349.5–1425.0) g, respectively (p = 0.900). Although breast sensation did not change in the SMP group, sensation in the upper medial and lower lateral portions of breast skin was reduced in the IP group. Two-point discrimination test results did not change in either group. The amount of changes in algometry and two-point discrimination tests were similar in both groups. Conclusion Both superomedial and inferior pedicle breast reduction techniques are safe and reliable in terms of sensory changes. Level of Evidence III This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0958-0
  • Evaluation of A Well-Known Technique with Ultrasound: Dorsal Grafting in
    • Authors: Basak Caypinar Eser; A. Emre Ilhan; Betul Cengiz
      Abstract: Objective We aimed to evaluate the survival of a well-known camouflage technique using ultrasound imaging of the graft through the nasal dorsum and supratip. Material and Method Twenty-two patients (8 women and 14 men) who underwent primary rhinoplasty performed by the same surgeon in Isparta, Turkey, between December 2013 and February 2015, were evaluated in this retrospective study. We used the remaining pieces of harvested septal cartilage during rhinoplasty as autologous graft material and venous blood mixture as a scaffold in a Turkish Delight fashion. We used a 10- to 14-MHz broadband linear ultrasound probe (Toshiba Aplio MX ultrasound system, Toshiba Medical Systems, Tustin, California). The mean total skin thickness values through bone (nasal dorsum) and cartilage (upper lateral cartilage) were calculated for each patient. Data were recorded for statistical analysis. We evaluated the patients pre- and postoperatively on the seventh day, first month, sixth month, and just before the end of the first year using ultrasonography. We made detailed ultrasonographic images of the skin and the underskin through the bone sculpture and compared the measurements. All patients were scanned at the same time of day to exclude diurnal variation of dermal edema. Patients who presented for primary functional rhinoplasty were included in the study. Results Nasal dorsum cartilage was significantly thicker on the seventh postoperative day, but the difference was not statistically significant in the sixth month after surgery compared with baseline values. There was no statistically significant difference between preoperative measures and measures in the sixth month. The difference in supratip thickness was significantly greater on the seventh postoperative day, and there was a large difference at the first month compared with preoperative values, but this did not reach significance. There was no significant difference in supratip thickness between pre- and postoperative values at the sixth month. Conclusion This method can be easily performed to reduce visual and tactual irregularities on the dorsum of the nose and can promote perfection on the dorsal esthetic line, but it is not sufficient for augmentation. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0956-2
  • Optimal Positioning of the Nipple–Areola Complex in Men Using the
           Mohrenheim-Estimated-Tangential-Tracking-Line (METT-Line): An Intuitive
    • Authors: Nina S. Naidu
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0957-1
  • RE: Prosthetic Breast Implant Rupture: Imaging—Pictorial Essay
    • Authors: M. Marcasciano; A. Conversi; J. Kaciulyte; L. A. Dessy
      Abstract: Cooperation between plastic surgeons and radiologists is fundamental when breast prosthesis rupture is suspected. We describe our experience managing the case of suspected implant rupture in a patient that underwent CT scan imaging for thoracic pain. Poor clinical information given to radiologists leads to wrong diagnosis: during surgery, both prostheses were checked revealing no signs of rupture. Full communication among different specialists involved in the multidisciplinary approach is always recommended, and an easy-to-use national breast implant register would allow a better management of patients’ follow-up and eventual preoperative planning. Level of evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0942-8
  • Fat Injection: A Systematic Review of Injection Volumes by Facial Subunit
    • Authors: Shirley Shue; David E. Kurlander; Bahman Guyuron
      Abstract: Background Fat grafting to the aging face has become an integral component of esthetic surgery. However, the amount of fat to inject to each area of the face is not standardized and has been based mainly on the surgeon’s experience. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of injected fat volume to different facial zones. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed through a MEDLINE search using keywords “facial,” “fat grafting,” “lipofilling,” “Coleman technique,” “autologous fat transfer,” and “structural fat grafting.” Articles were then sorted by facial subunit and analyzed for: author(s), year of publication, study design, sample size, donor site, fat preparation technique, average and range of volume injected, time to follow-up, percentage of volume retention, and complications. Descriptive statistics were performed. Results Nineteen articles involving a total of 510 patients were included. Rhytidectomy was the most common procedure performed concurrently with fat injection. The mean volume of fat injected to the forehead is 6.5 mL (range 4.0–10.0 mL); to the glabellar region 1.4 mL (range 1.0–4.0 mL); to the temple 5.9 mL per side (range 2.0–10.0 mL); to the eyebrow 5.5 mL per side; to the upper eyelid 1.7 mL per side (range 1.5–2.5 mL); to the tear trough 0.65 mL per side (range 0.3–1.0 mL); to the infraorbital area (infraorbital rim to lower lid/cheek junction) 1.4 mL per side (range 0.9–3.0 mL); to the midface 1.4 mL per side (range 1.0–4.0 mL); to the nasolabial fold 2.8 mL per side (range 1.0–7.5 mL); to the mandibular area 11.5 mL per side (range 4.0–27.0 mL); and to the chin 6.7 mL (range 1.0–20.0 mL). Conclusions Data on exactly how much fat to inject to each area of the face in facial fat grafting are currently limited and vary widely based on different methods and anatomical terms used. This review offers the ranges and the averages for the injected volume in each zone. Level of Evidence III This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0936-6
  • Keloid Skin Flap Retention and Resurfacing in Facial Keloid Treatment
    • Authors: Shu Liu; Weizhong Liang; Kexin Song; Youbin Wang
      Abstract: Objective Facial keloids commonly occur in young patients. Multiple keloid masses often converge into a large lesion on the face, representing a significant obstacle to keloid mass excision and reconstruction. We describe a new surgical method that excises the keloid mass and resurfaces the wound by saving the keloid skin as a skin flap during facial keloid treatment. Methods Forty-five patients with facial keloids were treated in our department between January 2013 and January 2016. Multiple incisions were made along the facial esthetic line on the keloid mass. The keloid skin was dissected and elevated as a skin flap with one or two pedicles. The scar tissue in the keloid was then removed through the incision. The wound was covered with the preserved keloid skin flap and closed without tension. Radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen were applied after surgery. Patients underwent follow-up examinations 6 and 12 months after surgery. Results Of the 45 total patients, 32 patients were cured and seven patients were partially cured. The efficacy rate was 88.9%, and 38 patients (84.4%) were satisfied with the esthetic result. Conclusion We describe an efficacious and esthetically satisfactory surgical method for managing facial keloids by preserving the keloid skin as a skin flap. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0949-1
  • Evaluation of the Neo-umbilicus Cutaneous Sensitivity Following
    • Authors: Mathias Tremp; Wenjin Wang; Carlo M. Oranges; Dirk J. Schaefer; Wei Wang; Daniel F. Kalbermatten
      Abstract: Background Abdominal cutaneous sensitivity loss after abdominoplasty is an undesirable outcome. However, little is known in the literature about sensitivity changes of the neo-umbilicus after abdominoplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate post-abdominoplasty cutaneous sensitivity of the neo-umbilicus using clinical, quantitative, and reproducible methods. Methods Patients who underwent abdominoplasty were included, whereas the control group consisted of healthy volunteers with similar demographic characteristics but who did not undergo abdominoplasty. The umbilicus was divided into five zones, and superficial tactile sensitivity and spatial orientation were assessed subjectively (score 1–4) and objectively (Semmes–Weinstein monofilament examination). Results Twenty patients (45 ± 12 years) operated on consecutively between April 2012 and May 2016 and 14 healthy volunteers in the control group (39 ± 9 years) could be included. Although there were statistically significant differences (p = 0.0005) in the average cutaneous pressure thresholds between the control group (0.4 g/mm2, range 0.07–2 g/mm2) and the study group (0.4 g/mm2, range 0.07–4 g/mm2), patient satisfaction after a mean follow-up of 33 ± 16 months (range 10–62 months) was acceptable (mean satisfaction score 1.8 ± 0.7). Furthermore, spatial perceptions were precise in all patients and similar to the control group. Conclusion Our long-term results indicate that spontaneous reinnervation of the neo-umbilicus after abdominoplasty together with accurate spatial orientation can occur. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0951-7
  • Postoperative Pain Control by Intercostal Nerve Block After Augmentation
    • Authors: Chang Min Kang; Woo Jeong Kim; Sean Hyuck Yoon; Chul Bum Cho; Jeong Su Shim
      Abstract: Background In breast augmentation with implant, there is severe pain due to damage from expansion of breast tissue and the pectoralis major. Therefore, the authors conducted this study to analyze the effectiveness of postoperative intercostal nerve block (ICNB) in reducing postoperative pain after breast augmentation with implant. Method Forty-four female patients were enrolled in the study. Just before awaking from general anesthesia, 34 cases were injected with 0.2% ropivacaine to both third, fourth, fifth, and sixth intercostal spaces. We compared them (ICNB group) with the control group for VAS scores at the time of arrival in the recovery room, after 30, 60, and 120 min. Result The average VAS scores per time of the control group and ICNB group were 7.1 ± 0.74 and 3.50 ± 1.81 at arrival time in the recovery room, 7.00 ± 0.67 and 3.03 ± 1.47 after 30 min, 5.50 ± 0.71 and 2.68 ± 1.49 after 60 min, and 4.60 ± 0.84 and 2.00 ± 1.35 after 120 min. VAS scores of two groups were significantly different at each time and decreased overall. Also, time and group effect of the two groups were significantly different, especially between 30 and 60 min. Conclusion ICNB just before awaking from general anesthesia showed a statistically significant reduction in VAS score, and this means postoperative pain was reduced effectively and time to discharge could be shortened. Therefore, it can be a good way to reduce postoperative pain after augmentation mammoplasty with implant. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0802-6
  • Madelung’s Disease: Is Insobriety the Chief Cause'
    • Authors: Yuan Gao; Ji-lin Hu; Xian-xiang Zhang; Mao-shen Zhang; Yun Lu
      Abstract: Background Madelung’s disease (MD) is a rare disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by massive fatty deposits distributed in a symmetrical pattern mainly in the head, neck, and upper trunk. Here, we sought to explore the pathogeny and treatment of MD. Methods We enrolled ten patients who underwent surgical operations and one patient who refused an operation at our hospital between January 2009 and December 2016. We collected their medical histories and the preoperative and postoperative serological indices. The serum chemistry clinical outcomes were compared between the preoperative and postoperative states. Results The mean alcohol intake of the eleven patients exceeded 450 g daily. Ten patients underwent open excisions, and the other patient refused an operation. No significant differences were observed between the preoperative and postoperative serum chemistry results. No recurrence has yet been observed in any of the ten operated patients. Conclusions All of the patients in our study had associated alcoholism. Thus, insobriety might be one of the causes of MD. We believe that open operations may be an effective treatment based on the outcomes of the surgeries. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0920-1
  • Commentary on “Occlusion-Fit V-Line Guide and Gooseneck Saw for Safe and
           Accurate Mandibuloplasty in Asian [Patients]” by Song et al.
    • Authors: S. Anthony Wolfe
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0944-6
  • Impact of Metabolic Syndrome on the Morbidity and Mortality of Patients
           Undergoing Panniculectomy
    • Authors: Dmitry Zavlin; Kevin T. Jubbal; Christopher L. Balinger; Tue A. Dinh; Jeffrey D. Friedman; Anthony Echo
      Abstract: Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the concomitant disease process of obesity and at least two of the following variables: diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, or reduced high-density lipoprotein. These entities are well established as risk factors for complications following surgery. Obese patients are particularly prone to the development of MetS. The authors therefore aimed at elucidating the impact of MetS on the perioperative panniculectomy outcomes. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was analyzed for all primary procedures of panniculectomy from 2010 through 2015. The cases were stratified based on the presence or absence of MetS and evaluated for demographic data, intraoperative details, and their morbidity and mortality within 30 days after surgery. Results A total of 7030 cases were included in this study. Patients with MetS (6.2%) were of significantly worse health, required more emergency admissions (p = 0.022), longer hospitalization (p < 0.001), and more frequently inpatient procedures (p < 0.001) compared to the control group without MetS (3.8%). Plastic surgery was the predominant specialty operating on 79.5% of all cases. Surgical (23.3 vs. 8.7%) complications, readmission (8.7 vs. 3.0%), and reoperations (6.9 vs. 3.1%) rates were all significantly higher in patients with MetS that those without (p < 0.001). One fatality occurred in each cohort (0.23 vs. 0.02%, p = 0.010). Conclusion Comorbidities are not uncommon in patients undergoing panniculectomy, especially in those diagnosed with MetS. Health-care providers need to be aware of the increased morbidity and mortality in this high-risk subgroup and need to consider preoperative optimization and management before proceeding with surgery. Level of Evidence III This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0952-6
  • Invited Commentary on “A Simplified Method for Management of Platysmal
           Bands: Platysmotomy as an Office Procedure”
    • Authors: Graeme Southwick
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0950-8
  • Surgical Outcome and Cosmetic Results of Autologous Fat Grafting After
           Breast Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: A
           Retrospective Cohort Study of 222 Fat Grafting Sessions in 109 Patients
    • Authors: Arjen A. van Turnhout; Saskia Fuchs; Kristel Lisabeth-Broné; Eline J. C. Vriens-Nieuwenhuis; Wouter B. van der Sluis
      Abstract: Background Breast conserving surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (RT) often lead to breast deformity. Reconstruction of these defects is a surgical challenge. Lately, the popularity of autologous fat grafting in these patients is growing. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical outcomes and aesthetic results of autologous fat grafting after BCS and RT. Materials and Methods A database of all patients who underwent fat grafting after BCS and RT was prospectively maintained. Patient demographics, clinical and surgical characteristics and intra- and postoperative complications were analysed. Preoperative and 6-month postoperative photographs were evaluated by a four-member expert-panel assessing the aesthetic outcome (Harvard scale, five-point aesthetic scale and an overall score). Results Between June 2008 and January 2016, 109 consecutive patients (114 breasts) underwent 222 fat grafting procedures. The mean clinical postoperative follow-up was 26 ± 19 months (range 10–97). The median number of fat grafting sessions sufficient for a satisfactory surgical result was two (range 1–6). Localized infections occurred in four patients, all treated effectively with oral antibiotics. Fat necrosis that required excision under local anaesthesia occurred once. The overall cosmetic appearance was rated 5.1/10 before and 7.2/10 after reconstruction (p < 0.01). A significant improvement was noted in breast symmetry, volume, shape and scarring. Conclusion Fat grafting after BCS and RT provides significant aesthetic improvement of the breast. It has a positive effect on the postsurgical scar and irradiated tissue and helps to restore the volume deficit, which makes it suitable as a reconstructive approach in this patient group. Level of evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00266-017-0946-4
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