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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Aerobiologia
  [SJR: 0.511]   [H-I: 36]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-3025 - ISSN (Online) 0393-5965
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe
    • Authors: B. Sikoparija; C. A. Skjøth; S. Celenk; C. Testoni; T. Abramidze; K. Alm Kübler; J. Belmonte; U. Berger; M. Bonini; A. Charalampopoulos; A. Damialis; B. Clot; Å. Dahl; L. A. de Weger; R. Gehrig; M. Hendrickx; L. Hoebeke; N. Ianovici; A. Kofol Seliger; D. Magyar; G. Mányoki; S. Milkovska; D. Myszkowska; A. Páldy; C. H. Pashley; K. Rasmussen; O. Ritenberga; V. Rodinkova; O. Rybníček; V. Shalaboda; I. Šaulienė; J. Ščevková; B. Stjepanović; M. Thibaudon; C. Verstraeten; D. Vokou; R. Yankova; M. Smith
      Pages: 181 - 189
      Abstract: The European Commission Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action FA1203 “SMARTER” aims to make recommendations for the sustainable management of Ambrosia across Europe and for monitoring its efficiency and cost-effectiveness. The goal of the present study is to provide a baseline for spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe that can be used for the management and evaluation of this noxious plant. The study covers the full range of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. distribution over Europe (39°N–60°N; 2°W–45°E). Airborne Ambrosia pollen data for the principal flowering period of Ambrosia (August–September) recorded during a 10-year period (2004–2013) were obtained from 242 monitoring sites. The mean sum of daily average airborne Ambrosia pollen and the number of days that Ambrosia pollen was recorded in the air were analysed. The mean and standard deviation (SD) were calculated regardless of the number of years included in the study period, while trends are based on those time series with 8 or more years of data. Trends were considered significant at p < 0.05. There were few significant trends in the magnitude and frequency of atmospheric Ambrosia pollen (only 8% for the mean sum of daily average Ambrosia pollen concentrations and 14% for the mean number of days Ambrosia pollen were recorded in the air). The direction of any trends varied locally and reflected changes in sources of the pollen, either in size or in distance from the monitoring station. Pollen monitoring is important for providing an early warning of the expansion of this invasive and noxious plant.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9463-1
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Pollen-monitoring: between analyst proficiency testing
    • Authors: B. Sikoparija; EAS QC Working Group; C. Galán; M. Smith
      Pages: 191 - 199
      Abstract: This study presents the results of a Europe-wide training and Quality Control (QC) exercise carried out within the framework of the European Aerobiology Society’s QC Working Group and European COST Action FA1203 entitled “sustainable management of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europe (SMARTER)” with the aim of ensuring that pollen counters in Europe are confident in the identification of Ambrosia pollen grains. A total of 69 analysts from 20 countries examined a test slide by light microscopy, which contained Ambrosia pollen and pollen from other Asteraceae that could be recorded in the atmosphere at the same time of year (i.e. Artemisia, Iva, and Xanthium). Daily average pollen concentrations produced by individual participants were compared with the assigned value and the bias was measured by z-score. Both the assigned value and standard deviation for proficiency testing were calculated following the consensus value principle (ISO13528:2005) from the results reported by all the participants in the test. It took a total of 531 days from when the exercise commenced until all 69 analysts reported their results. The most outliers were reported for Artemisia pollen concentrations followed by Xanthium and Iva. The poor results for Artemisia and Xanthium were probably caused by low concentrations on the test slide leading to larger bias due to the unequal distribution of pollen over the microscope slide. Participants performed the best in identifying and quantifying Ambrosia pollen. Performing inter-laboratory ring tests with the same sample is very time consuming and might not be appropriate for large-scale proficiency testing in aerobiology. Pollen with similar morphology should be included in the education process of aerobiologists.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9461-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Errors in determining the flow rate of Hirst-type pollen traps
    • Authors: Jose Oteros; Jeroen Buters; Gottfried Laven; Stefani Röseler; Reinhard Wachter; Carsten Schmidt-Weber; Frieder Hofmann
      Pages: 201 - 210
      Abstract: Standardisation of methods of pollen monitoring networks is vital for data quality. In pollen monitoring networks in Europe, the Hirst-type trap is standard. Hirst traps are calibrated with handheld rotameters. We detected a systematic error in the flow rate calibrated by these standard handheld rotameters. We measured the flow rate of 19 Hirst traps from three commercial brands during calibration but also during monitoring. We used three different rotameters supplied by the manufacturers of the traps, respectively. The actual air flow rate was measured using an electronic heat anemometer with negligible air flow resistance. After calibration to 10 l/min, the rotameter was removed, which led to a significant increase in the flow rate in the range of 10.5–17.2 l/min, a systematic error between 5 and 72%. No significant difference was found between the different commercial trap brands. The analysis revealed that the error depended on the type of the rotameter and the individual trap. The error may be explained by the additional air flow resistance of each rotameter. The total resistance of the system—trap plus rotameter—is higher during calibration when the rotameter is held on the inlet compared to the routine monitoring without the rotameter. Depending on the characteristic curve of the suction pump in the trap (fan), the air flow rate increases to values considerably higher than 10 l/min. Thus, monitoring is done under a higher flow rate than that was calibrated. In order to obtain comparable data within a monitoring network, a solution for correction of this systematic error seems advisable, preferably in cooperation with the manufacturers.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9467-x
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Comparison of dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol and Sabouraud dextrose
           agar with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol for airborne mold sampling
    • Authors: Sibel Mentese; Muserref Tatman Otkun; Elif Palaz
      Pages: 211 - 219
      Abstract: The more the mold species isolated on a culture medium, the more the sampling environment is represented accurately. According to the sampling purpose, it is crucial to use the best culture medium for mold. However, no study is available regarding the comparison of dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol (DRBC) and Sabouraud dextrose agar with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol (SDA-CHX-CHL) culture media in terms of their application for airborne sampling, isolation, and identification of fungi. Airborne mold samples were impacted onto both DRBC and SDA-CHX-CHL, simultaneously using single-stage Andersen sampler. The limit of detection (LOD) value for airborne mold count was 7 CFU m−3 (1 colony growth on the Petri dish). The total mold counts (TMC) ranged between <7 and 504 CFU m−3 (med 56 CFU m−3) and <7 and 1218 CFU m−3 (med 259 CFU m−3), collected on SDA-CHX-CHL and DRBC, respectively. Significantly higher TMC were observed on DRBC than on SDA regardless of the sampling environment (i.e, indoor or outdoor) (p < 0.05). Among the most predominant mold genera, observation frequencies of Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. on both culture media were found to be more than 70%. Observation frequencies of Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp., and yeast were found to be higher in samples collected on DRBC than those on SDA-CHX-CHL. Finally, DRBC was found to be superior to SDA in terms of both number of colonies and number of genera isolated from the air.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9462-2
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Atmospheric concentrations and intradiurnal pattern of Alternaria and
           Cladosporium conidia in Tétouan (NW of Morocco)
    • Authors: Fadoua Bardei; Hassan Bouziane; Maria del Mar Trigo; Nabila Ajouray; Fatima El Haskouri; Mohamed Kadiri
      Pages: 221 - 228
      Abstract: Fungal spores of Alternaria and Cladosporium are ubiquitous components of both indoor and outdoor air samples and are the main causes of human respiratory allergies. Monitoring these airborne fungal spores during 2009–2014 was carried out by means of Hirst-type spore trap to investigate their airborne spore concentrations with respect to annual load, seasonality and overall intradiurnal pattern. Alternaria and Cladosporium spores are present throughout the year in the atmosphere of Tétouan, although they show seasonal variations. Despite important differences between years, their highest levels presented a first peak during spring and a higher second peak in summer or autumn depending on the year. The spore concentrations were homogeneously distributed throughout the day with slight increase of 7.6 and 3.7% on average between 12–14 and 14–16 h for Alternaria and Cladosporium, respectively. The borderline of 3000 sp/m3 of Cladosporium linked to the occurrence of allergic diseases was exceeded between 13 and 31 days. Airborne spores of Alternaria overcame the threshold value of 100 sp/m3 up to 95 days, suggesting that Cladosporium and Alternaria could be clinically significant aeroallergens for atopic patients.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9465-z
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Viable airborne microbial counts from air-cooling units with and without
           complaints of urine and body odors
    • Authors: Ka Man Lai; Yik Hei Sung; Kowk Keung Ma
      Pages: 229 - 241
      Abstract: Viable airborne microbial counts are commonly used in indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment, but studies linking the microbial counts to a specific type of indoor microbial contamination are limited. We hypothesize that the airborne microbial counts can differentiate air-cooling units with and without complaints of urine and body odors. The keratinolytic property of some isolated bacteria prompts to the hypothesis that keratinase is present in the units to break down keratins, structural proteins that form human skin scales, as sources of amino acids and ammonium to produce the odors. Seven bacterial species and four fungal species were identified in the units and room air. Airborne Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Methylobacterium organophilum counts contributed the most to the microbial dissimilarities of units with and without odor complaints. Keratinolytic bacteria and a methylotrophic bacterium were abundant in the units. All the units contained ammonium, and keratinase activity was higher in the units with odor complaints. Extracellular keratinase activity was more effective at 20 °C than at 30 or 4 °C. Keratinolytic bacteria produced high levels of ammonium in the culture with skin cells. Viable airborne microbial counts can help IAQ inspectors to identify potential odor-causing air-cooling units. Keratins may be broken down in the units and associated with the odor complaints.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9466-y
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Pollen spectrum in Northern Tunis, Tunisia
    • Authors: S. Hadj Hamda; A. Ben Dhiab; C. Galán; M. Msallem
      Pages: 243 - 251
      Abstract: This study has been focused on airborne pollen concentration in Northern Tunis. Pollen has been detected by a volumetric Hirst-type spore trap. This suction sampler was placed for two hydrologic years in the area of Mornag, northeastof Tunisia (36°40N; 10°17E). Fifty-two taxa were identified with heterogeneous daily pollen concentrations and a dominance of anemophilous plants. The main pollen types detected in the atmosphere were Olea europaea (38.7 and 20.75%), Cupressus (33.57 and 55.4%), Urticaceae (9.22 and 12.24%), Poaceae (3.55 and 3.32%), Mercurialis annua (2.96 and 1.6%) and Amaranthaceae (2.49 and 1.55%). The monthly pollen spectrum indicated a seasonal periodicity of airborne pollen with the main pollen season during spring. Two pollen seasons have been observed during these hydrologic years, due to both Cupressus and Amaranthaceae airborne pollen is represented during winter or spring, and also during autumn and late summer, respectively. Other pollen types represent a long pollen season, i.e., Urticaceae, starting in autumn and following until late spring. Daily pollen concentration showed a different behavior during the flowering season between both years, observing differences related to pollen index. Correlation between daily pollen concentrations of the dominant taxa showed a positive and significant correlation between airborne pollen concentrations of spring-pollinated taxa and mean temperature, but negative with maximum temperature, humidity and rainfall. In the case of minimum temperature, a different response, positive for trees and negative for herbaceous plants, has been observed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9464-0
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Variations and trends of Betula pollen seasons in Moscow (Russia) in
           relation to meteorological parameters
    • Authors: Elena Severova; Olga Volkova
      Pages: 253 - 264
      Abstract: This study investigates possible links of meteorological data and the start date, end date, duration, date of peak, peak value and Seasonal Pollen Index (SPI) of birch pollen seasons recorded in Moscow, Russia, during 1993–2015. Pollen data were collected by a volumetric spore trap. Correlation analysis was used to study relationships between various parameters of pollen seasons. Simple linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate trends over time; multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to describe SPI fluctuations as a function of seasonal or monthly climatic parameters. Air temperatures increased significantly during the study period, but no effect on the timing of the birch pollen season was found. Only the severity of the season showed significant changes that can be considered as a consequence of global warming. Rainfall in May and June of the year preceding flowering, total rainfall in the 40-day pre-season period and average temperature during the pollination were shown to be the most important parameters affecting birch pollen concentrations.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9460-4
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Spatial and temporal variations in the Annual Pollen Index recorded by
           sites belonging to the Portuguese Aerobiology Network
    • Authors: Irene Câmara Camacho; Elsa Caeiro; Raquel Ferro; Roberto Camacho; Rita Câmara; Agnieszka Grinn-Gofroń; Matt Smith; Agnieszka Strzelczak; Carlos Nunes; Mário Morais-Almeida
      Pages: 265 - 279
      Abstract: This study presents the findings of a 10-year survey carried out by the Portuguese Aerobiology Network (RPA) at seven pollen-monitoring stations: five mainland stations (Oporto, Coimbra, Lisbon, Évora and Portimão) and two insular stations [Funchal (Madeira archipelago) and Ponta Delgada (Azores archipelago)]. The main aim of the study was to examine spatial and temporal variations in the Annual Pollen Index (API) with particular focus on the most frequently recorded pollen types. Pollen monitoring (2003–2012) was carried out using Hirst-type volumetric spore traps, following the minimum recommendations proposed by the European Aerobiology Society Working Group on Quality Control. Daily pollen data were examined for similarities using the Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric test and multivariate regression trees. Simple linear regression analysis was used to describe trends in API. The airborne pollen spectrum at RPA stations is dominated by important allergenic pollen types such as Poaceae, Olea and Urticaceae. Statistically significant differences were witnessed in the API recorded at the seven stations. Mean API is higher in the southern mainland cities, e.g. Évora, Lisbon and Portimão, and lower in insular and littoral cities. There were also a number of significant trends in API during the 10-year study. This report identifies spatial and temporal variations in the amount of airborne pollen recorded annually in the Portuguese territory. There were also a number of significant changes in API, but no general increases in the amount of airborne pollen.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9468-9
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Airborne pollen in Córdoba City (Spain) and its implications for
           pollen allergy
    • Authors: J. Cebrino; S. Portero de la Cruz; M. J. Barasona; P. Alcázar; C. Moreno; E. Domínguez-Vilches; C. Galán
      Pages: 281 - 291
      Abstract: Pollen allergy is among the most widespread allergic disease in Andalusia. However, few studies have examined patient information in conjunction with data on airborne pollen concentrations. This paper sought to identify the airborne pollen types prevalent in Córdoba, to examine the relationship between airborne pollen and the occurrence of allergies, and to investigate the use of drugs to treat various symptoms displayed by pollen-allergy sufferers over the study period. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in Córdoba City between February and June in 2014 and 2015, using an original specific questionnaire to collect socio-demographic, symptom and pollen-allergy data. Airborne pollen was collected using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was applied. A total of 178 sensitive subjects were included in the study. The prevalence of allergy to olive, grass and plane-tree pollen was 70.73, 73.17 and 19.51%, respectively, in 2014, and 70.83, 70.83 and 21.12%, respectively, in 2015. In both years, rhinitis was the most common allergic symptom (93.90% in 2014, 87.75% in 2015) and a significant correlation between the occurrence of rhinitis and antihistamine consumption was found (p < 0.05 in 2014, p < 0.001 in 2015). The percentage of asthmatic subjects using an inhaler was significantly higher than those who did not used it (63.16% vs. 26.98%; p < 0.01). In conclusion, this paper supports previous studies showing that the most allergenic pollen types in spring were olive, grass and plane-tree pollen. In addition, we found that rhinitis was the main symptom and antihistamines the medication most widely used by the sensitized population in Córdoba.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9469-8
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Seasonal variability in bacterial and fungal diversity and community
           composition of the near-surface atmosphere in coastal megacity
    • Authors: Ai-ling Xu; Zhi-wen Song; Xiu-lu Lang; Xiang Chen; Yan Xia
      Abstract: Bacteria and fungi are ubiquitous in the near-surface atmosphere where they may impact on the surrounding environment and human health, especially in coastal megacities. However, the diversity, composition, and seasonal variations of these airborne microbes remain limited. This study investigated the airborne microbes of the near-surface atmosphere in coastal megacity Qingdao over one year. It was found that the sample in summer displayed the highest bacterial and fungal diversity, while sample in winter exhibited the lowest bacterial and fungal diversity. Proteobacteria was the dominating bacteria, and Dothideomycetes was the most dominating fungi in the near-surface atmosphere, which took up 53–76 and 49–78% relative abundance, respectively. However, the bacterial diversity and community composition had significant seasonal variations. These data suggest that a complex set of environmental factors, including landscaping ratio, solar radiation temperature, and marine microorganisms, can affect the composition of airborne microbes in the near-surface atmosphere in coastal megacity. The analysis of the pathogenic microorganisms or opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms existed in the near-surface atmosphere revealed that the relative abundance of pathogenic microorganisms in autumn was the highest. The main pathogenic microorganisms or opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms were Acinetobacter baumannii (accounting for up to 9.93% relative abundance), Staphylococcus epidermidis (accounting for up to 11.26% relative abundance), Mycobacterium smegmatis (accounting for up to 3.68% relative abundance), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (accounting for up to 5.36% relative abundance), which may be related to certain human or plant diseases in specific environments or at certain seasons. Therefore, the investigation of airborne microbial communities of near-surface atmosphere in coastal megacities is very important to both the understanding of airborne microbes and public health.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9489-z
  • A comparative study of hourly and daily relationships between selected
           meteorological parameters and airborne fungal spore composition
    • Authors: Agnieszka Grinn-Gofroń; Beata Bosiacka; Aleksandra Bednarz; Tomasz Wolski
      Abstract: Air sampling was conducted in Szczecin (Poland) throughout April–September 2013. The final data set included 177 daily and 4248 hourly samples. The total of 21 types of spores, which occurred in a number >10 in the season, were taken into account. The following meteorological parameters were analyzed: air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed. Effects of individual weather parameters on hourly and daily concentrations of different fungal spore types were examined using Spearman’s rank association test, whereas effects of complex of meteorological factors on hourly and daily compositions of spore were assessed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA). Airborne fungal spore distribution patterns in relation to meteorological variables were determined by RDA, after DCA results detected a linear structure of the spore data. The RDA results obtained indicated that all the applied variables accounted for 20 and 22% of the total variance in the hourly and daily spore data, respectively. The results of stepwise forward selection of variables revealed all included hourly and daily meteorological variables were statistically significant. The largest amount of the total variance in the spore composition was explained by the air temperature in both cases (16%). Multivariate ordination did not show large differences between the hourly and daily relationships (with exception of wind speed impact), while the differences between simple hourly and daily correlations were more clear. Correlations between daily values of variables were in most cases higher than between hourly values of variables.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9493-3
  • The effects of book disinfection to the airborne microbiological community
           in a library environment
    • Authors: Anna Micheluz; Sabrina Manente; Valeria Prigione; Valeria Tigini; Giovanna Cristina Varese; Giampietro Ravagnan
      Abstract: The management of fungal contaminants inside libraries and archives has become a big challenge for librarians, restorers and scientists. Several disinfection treatments have been developed in recent years, using both chemical and physical approaches on book collections and indoor environments. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the temporal efficiency of these cleanings, especially in relation with the preservation environments. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effect of a chemical disinfection that interested a previous-contaminated book collection inside a University library. The monitoring after 6 months and 1 year from the cleaning confirmed any fungal growth on the disinfected books and the reduction of 90% of the airborne fungal load, highlighting anyway the presence of high fungal diversity. Sixty-eight different airborne fungal entities were isolated, in particular Aspergillus vitricola, Bulleromyces albus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cladosporium pseudocladosporioides, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium brevicompactum, Rodothorula mugillaginosa and Sporodiobolus pararoseus. Several fungal species were sampled from the disinfected books, in particular Aspergillus penicillioides and Penicillium chrysogenum. The presence of these fungi both as airborne and as settled particles highlights the importance to maintain clean the preservation environments in order to prevent further microbial contaminations.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9492-4
  • Poaceae pollen in the atmosphere of Tetouan (NW Morocco): effect of
           meteorological parameters and forecast of daily pollen concentration
    • Authors: Asmae Janati; Hassan Bouziane; Maria del Mar Trigo; Mohamed Kadiri; Mohamed Kazzaz
      Abstract: The Poaceae pollen season has been characterized in Tetouan during a 7-year period, and the effect of weather conditions on daily concentrations was examined. The forecast models were produced using a stepwise multiple regression analyses. Firstly, three models were constructed to predict daily Poaceae pollen concentrations during the main pollen season, as well as the pre-peak and post-peak periods with data from 2008 to 2012 and tested on data from 2013 and 2014. Secondly, the regression models using leave-one-out cross-validation were produced with data obtained during 2008–2014 taking into account meteorological parameters and mean pollen concentrations of the same day in other years. The duration of the season ranged from 70 days in 2009 to 158 days in 2012. The highest amount of Poaceae pollen was detected in spring and the first fortnight of July. The annual sum of airborne Poaceae pollen concentrations varied between 2100 and 6251. The peak of anthesis was recorded in May in six of the other years studied. The regression models accounted for 36.3–85.7% of variance in daily Poaceae pollen concentrations. The models fitted best when the mean pollen concentration of the same day in other years was added to meteorological variables, and explained 78.4–85.7% of variance of the daily pollen changes. When the year 2014 was used for validating the models, the lowest root-mean-square errors values were found between the observed and estimated data (around 13). The reasonable predictor variables were the mean pollen concentration of the same day in other years, mean temperature, precipitations, and maximum relative humidity.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9487-1
  • Phenotypic and genotypic diversity of airborne fungal spores in
           Demänovská Ice Cave (Low Tatras, Slovakia)
    • Authors: Rafał Ogórek; Bartosz Kozak; Zuzana Višňovská; Dana Tančinová
      Abstract: This paper is the first aero-mycological report from Demänovská Ice Cave. Fungal spores were sampled from the internal and external air of the cave in June, 2014, using the impact method with a microbiological air sampler. Airborne fungi cultured on PDA medium were identified using a combination of classical phenotypic and molecular methods. Altogether, the presence of 18 different fungal spores, belonging to 3 phyla, 9 orders and 14 genera, was detected in the air of the cave. All of them were isolated from the indoor samples, and only 9 were obtained from the outdoor samples. Overall, airborne fungal spores belonging to the genus Cladosporium dominated in this study. However, the spores of Trametes hirsuta were most commonly found in the indoor air samples of the cave and the spores of C. herbarum in the outdoor air samples. On the other hand, the spores of Alternaria abundans, Arthrinium kogelbergense, Cryptococcus curvatus, Discosia sp., Fomes fomentarius, Microdochium seminicola and T. hirsuta were discovered for the first time in the air of natural and artificial underground sites. The external air of the cave contains more culturable airborne fungal spores (755 colony-forming units (CFU) per 1 m3 of air) than the internal air (from 47 to 273 CFU in 1 m3), and these levels of airborne spore concentration do not pose a threat to the health of tourists. Probably, the specific microclimate in the cave, including the constant presence of ice caps and low temperature, as well as the location and surrounding environment, contributes to the unique species composition of aeromycota and their spores in the cave. Thus, aero-mycological monitoring of underground sites seems to be very important for their ecosystems, and it may help reduce the risk of fungal infections in humans and other mammals that may arise in particular due to climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9491-5
  • Introducing DNA-based methods to compare fungal microbiota and
           concentrations in indoor, outdoor, and personal air
    • Authors: Choa An; Cheolwoon Woo; Naomichi Yamamoto
      Abstract: Inhalation of airborne fungi is known to cause respiratory illnesses such as allergies. However, the association between exposure and health outcomes remains largely unclear, in part due to lack of knowledge about fungal exposure in daily life. This study aims to introduce DNA-based methods such as high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to compare fungal microbiota and concentrations in indoor, outdoor, and personal air. Five sets of concurrent indoor, outdoor, and personal air samples were collected, each with duration of 4 days. Sequencing analysis revealed greater species richness in personal than indoor air for four out of the five sets, indicating that people are exposed to outdoor species that are not in indoor air. The personal–indoor (P/I) and personal–outdoor (P/O) ratios of total fungi were 1.2 and 0.15, respectively, suggesting that personal exposure to total fungi is better represented by indoor than outdoor concentrations. However, the ratios were taxon dependent, highlighting the complexity of generalizing personal exposure to the diverse kingdom Fungi. These results demonstrate that the HTS/qPCR method is useful for assessing taxon-specific fungal exposure, which might be difficult to achieve effectively using conventional, non-DNA-based techniques.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9490-6
  • Statistical modeling, forecasting and time series analysis of birch
           phenology in Montreal, Canada
    • Authors: Alain Robichaud; Paul Comtois
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyse birch pollen time series observed in Montreal (Canada) in order to understand the link between inter-annual variability of phenology and environmental factors and to build predictive models for the upcoming pollen season. Modeling phenology is challenging, especially in Canada, where phenological observations are rare. Nevertheless, understanding phenology is required for scientific applications (e.g. inputs to numerical models of pollen dispersion) but also to help allergy sufferers to better prepare their medication and avoidance strategies before the start of the pollen season. We used multivariate statistical regression to analyse and predict phenology. The predictors were drawn from a large basin (over 60) of potential environmental predictors including meteorological data and global climatic indices such NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation index) and ENSO/MEI (Multivariate Enso Index). Results of this paper are summarized as follows: (1) an accurate forecast for the upcoming season starting date of the birch pollen season was obtained (showing low bias and total forecast error of about 4 days in Montreal), (2) NAO and ENSO/MEI indices were found to be well correlated (i.e. 44% of the variance explained) with birch phenology, (3) a long-term trend of 2.6 days per decade (p < 0.1) towards longer season duration was found for the length of the birch pollen season in Montreal. Finally, perturbations of the quasi-biennial cycle of birch were observed in the pollen data during the pollen season following the Great Ice Storm of 1998 which affected south-eastern Canada.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9488-0
  • Allergenic Asteraceae in air particulate matter: quantitative DNA analysis
           of mugwort and ragweed
    • Authors: I. Müller-Germann; D. A. Pickersgill; H. Paulsen; B. Alberternst; U. Pöschl; J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky; V. R. Després
      Abstract: Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) are highly allergenic Asteraceae. They often cause pollen allergies in late summer and fall. While mugwort is native to Europe, ragweed reached Europe as a neophyte from North America about 150 years ago and continued spreading ever since. To understand possible relationships between the spread of ragweed, its abundance in air, and to judge possible health risks for the public, we quantified ragweed DNA in inhalable fine as well as in coarse air particulate matter. Mugwort was chosen for comparison, as it is closely related to ragweed and grows in similar, though mainly not identical, habitats but is native to Germany. The DNA quantification was performed on atmospheric aerosol samples collected over a period of 5 years in central Europe. The DNA concentrations were highest during the characteristic pollination periods but varied greatly between different years. In the inhalable fine particle fraction, ragweed exceeds the mugwort DNA concentration fivefold, while the coarse particle fraction, bearing intact pollen grains, contains more mugwort than ragweed DNA. The higher allergenic potential of ragweed might be linked to the humidity or long-range transport-induced bursting of ragweed pollen into smaller allergenic particles, which may reach the lower airways and cause more intense allergic reactions. Airborne ragweed DNA was detected also outside the local pollination periods, which can be explained by atmospheric long-range transport. Back-trajectory analyses indicate that the air masses containing ragweed DNA during winter had originated in regions with milder climate and large ragweed populations (Southern France, Carpathian Basin).
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9485-3
  • Assessment of microbial aerosol emissions in an urban wastewater treatment
           plant operated with activated sludge process
    • Authors: Saied Fathi; Yaghoub Hajizadeh; Mahnaz Nikaeen; Mozhgan Gorbani
      Abstract: Wastewater that enters wastewater treatment plants contains lots of pathogenic and nonpathogenic microorganisms which can become bioaerosols during treatment processes and pose health hazard to workers and nearby residents. The emission of the bioaerosols from an urban wastewater treatment plant in spring and summer in different locations and downwind of the plant adopting an extended mechanical aeration system was investigated. Samples of bacteria and fungi were collected within 6 months at 10 selected points by an Anderson one-stage impactor. The highest concentration of bacteria (mean 1373 CFU/m3, 741–2817 CFU/m3) and fungi (mean 1384 CFU/m3, 212–1610 CFU/m3) was found in downwind of the aeration basins. Statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between concentration of bacterial bioaerosols at downwind side of the aeration basins and wind speed (p value <0.05) and temperature (p value <0.05). Also, in the spring and summer, between the number of bacteria and fungi inside the plant and outside the plant (downwind) a significant correlation was observed (p value ≤0.05). The concentrations of bacteria at a distance of 500 m downwind were much higher than those at the background (upwind) point in spring and summer. The processes of wastewater treatment especially using mechanical equipment to create turbulence can be considered as a major source of spreading airborne microorganisms to ambient air of wastewater treatment plants, and the bioaerosols can be dispersed to downwind distances affecting the nearby neighboring. Therefore, in order to decrease the bioaerosols emission, doing some course of actions such as covering the surface of aeration basins, changing the aeration methods and aeration equipment (e. g using diffuser aerator) may be effective.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9486-2
  • Inhalable dust, endotoxins and (1–3)-β- d -glucans as indicators of
           exposure in waste sorting plant environment
    • Authors: Anna Kozajda; Karolina Jeżak; Marcin Cyprowski; Irena Szadkowska-Stańczyk
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the levels of inhalable dust, endotoxins and (1–3)-β-d-glucans as agents harmful to the respiratory tract of workers of municipal waste sorting plants and interaction between these agents based on the measurements taken in two plants with different processing capacities. The study was conducted in summer season in two waste sorting plants (WSPs) differing in processing capacity. Samples of bioaerosol for inhalable dust (gravimetric method), endotoxins (LAL test in kinetic, chromogenic version) and (1–3)-β-d-glucans (Glucatell test in kinetic version) were collected from 42 sorting workers using individual aspirators with glass fiber filters during the work shift. Average geometric concentrations (geometric standard deviation; min–max) of inhalable dust, endotoxins and (1–3)-β-d-glucans were: WSP1: 1.7 mg m−3 (2.2; 0.6–6.9 mg m−3); 15.9 ng m−3 (2.1; 5.4–78.9 ng m−3), 55.1 ng m−3 (1.8; 20.7–188.6 ng m−3) and WSP2: 0.8 mg m−3 (2.2; 0.2–3.8 mg m−3), 9.8 ng m−3 (2.4; 1.6–29.7 ng m−3), 45.0 ng m−3 (3.2, 5.7–212.9 ng m−3), respectively. A significantly higher concentration of inhalable dust was recorded in WSP1 with bigger processing capacity compared to WSP2 (less processing capacity). Significant (p < 0.05) and very high correlations (Spearman rank R > 0.7) were found between the concentrations of all analyzed harmful agents. Processing capacity of waste sorting plants differentially affects the concentrations of inhalable dust, whereas concentrations of endotoxins and glucans are less clearly affected. This suggests that relative concentrations of endotoxin and glucan are depending on the waste sorting capacity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9484-4
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