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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2329 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Aerobiologia
  [SJR: 0.511]   [H-I: 36]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-3025 - ISSN (Online) 0393-5965
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe
    • Authors: B. Sikoparija; C. A. Skjøth; S. Celenk; C. Testoni; T. Abramidze; K. Alm Kübler; J. Belmonte; U. Berger; M. Bonini; A. Charalampopoulos; A. Damialis; B. Clot; Å. Dahl; L. A. de Weger; R. Gehrig; M. Hendrickx; L. Hoebeke; N. Ianovici; A. Kofol Seliger; D. Magyar; G. Mányoki; S. Milkovska; D. Myszkowska; A. Páldy; C. H. Pashley; K. Rasmussen; O. Ritenberga; V. Rodinkova; O. Rybníček; V. Shalaboda; I. Šaulienė; J. Ščevková; B. Stjepanović; M. Thibaudon; C. Verstraeten; D. Vokou; R. Yankova; M. Smith
      Pages: 181 - 189
      Abstract: Abstract The European Commission Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action FA1203 “SMARTER” aims to make recommendations for the sustainable management of Ambrosia across Europe and for monitoring its efficiency and cost-effectiveness. The goal of the present study is to provide a baseline for spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe that can be used for the management and evaluation of this noxious plant. The study covers the full range of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. distribution over Europe (39°N–60°N; 2°W–45°E). Airborne Ambrosia pollen data for the principal flowering period of Ambrosia (August–September) recorded during a 10-year period (2004–2013) were obtained from 242 monitoring sites. The mean sum of daily average airborne Ambrosia pollen and the number of days that Ambrosia pollen was recorded in the air were analysed. The mean and standard deviation (SD) were calculated regardless of the number of years included in the study period, while trends are based on those time series with 8 or more years of data. Trends were considered significant at p < 0.05. There were few significant trends in the magnitude and frequency of atmospheric Ambrosia pollen (only 8% for the mean sum of daily average Ambrosia pollen concentrations and 14% for the mean number of days Ambrosia pollen were recorded in the air). The direction of any trends varied locally and reflected changes in sources of the pollen, either in size or in distance from the monitoring station. Pollen monitoring is important for providing an early warning of the expansion of this invasive and noxious plant.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9463-1
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Pollen-monitoring: between analyst proficiency testing
    • Authors: B. Sikoparija; EAS QC Working Group; C. Galán; M. Smith
      Pages: 191 - 199
      Abstract: Abstract This study presents the results of a Europe-wide training and Quality Control (QC) exercise carried out within the framework of the European Aerobiology Society’s QC Working Group and European COST Action FA1203 entitled “sustainable management of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europe (SMARTER)” with the aim of ensuring that pollen counters in Europe are confident in the identification of Ambrosia pollen grains. A total of 69 analysts from 20 countries examined a test slide by light microscopy, which contained Ambrosia pollen and pollen from other Asteraceae that could be recorded in the atmosphere at the same time of year (i.e. Artemisia, Iva, and Xanthium). Daily average pollen concentrations produced by individual participants were compared with the assigned value and the bias was measured by z-score. Both the assigned value and standard deviation for proficiency testing were calculated following the consensus value principle (ISO13528:2005) from the results reported by all the participants in the test. It took a total of 531 days from when the exercise commenced until all 69 analysts reported their results. The most outliers were reported for Artemisia pollen concentrations followed by Xanthium and Iva. The poor results for Artemisia and Xanthium were probably caused by low concentrations on the test slide leading to larger bias due to the unequal distribution of pollen over the microscope slide. Participants performed the best in identifying and quantifying Ambrosia pollen. Performing inter-laboratory ring tests with the same sample is very time consuming and might not be appropriate for large-scale proficiency testing in aerobiology. Pollen with similar morphology should be included in the education process of aerobiologists.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9461-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Errors in determining the flow rate of Hirst-type pollen traps
    • Authors: Jose Oteros; Jeroen Buters; Gottfried Laven; Stefani Röseler; Reinhard Wachter; Carsten Schmidt-Weber; Frieder Hofmann
      Pages: 201 - 210
      Abstract: Abstract Standardisation of methods of pollen monitoring networks is vital for data quality. In pollen monitoring networks in Europe, the Hirst-type trap is standard. Hirst traps are calibrated with handheld rotameters. We detected a systematic error in the flow rate calibrated by these standard handheld rotameters. We measured the flow rate of 19 Hirst traps from three commercial brands during calibration but also during monitoring. We used three different rotameters supplied by the manufacturers of the traps, respectively. The actual air flow rate was measured using an electronic heat anemometer with negligible air flow resistance. After calibration to 10 l/min, the rotameter was removed, which led to a significant increase in the flow rate in the range of 10.5–17.2 l/min, a systematic error between 5 and 72%. No significant difference was found between the different commercial trap brands. The analysis revealed that the error depended on the type of the rotameter and the individual trap. The error may be explained by the additional air flow resistance of each rotameter. The total resistance of the system—trap plus rotameter—is higher during calibration when the rotameter is held on the inlet compared to the routine monitoring without the rotameter. Depending on the characteristic curve of the suction pump in the trap (fan), the air flow rate increases to values considerably higher than 10 l/min. Thus, monitoring is done under a higher flow rate than that was calibrated. In order to obtain comparable data within a monitoring network, a solution for correction of this systematic error seems advisable, preferably in cooperation with the manufacturers.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9467-x
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Comparison of dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol and Sabouraud dextrose
           agar with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol for airborne mold sampling
    • Authors: Sibel Mentese; Muserref Tatman Otkun; Elif Palaz
      Pages: 211 - 219
      Abstract: Abstract The more the mold species isolated on a culture medium, the more the sampling environment is represented accurately. According to the sampling purpose, it is crucial to use the best culture medium for mold. However, no study is available regarding the comparison of dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol (DRBC) and Sabouraud dextrose agar with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol (SDA-CHX-CHL) culture media in terms of their application for airborne sampling, isolation, and identification of fungi. Airborne mold samples were impacted onto both DRBC and SDA-CHX-CHL, simultaneously using single-stage Andersen sampler. The limit of detection (LOD) value for airborne mold count was 7 CFU m−3 (1 colony growth on the Petri dish). The total mold counts (TMC) ranged between <7 and 504 CFU m−3 (med 56 CFU m−3) and <7 and 1218 CFU m−3 (med 259 CFU m−3), collected on SDA-CHX-CHL and DRBC, respectively. Significantly higher TMC were observed on DRBC than on SDA regardless of the sampling environment (i.e, indoor or outdoor) (p < 0.05). Among the most predominant mold genera, observation frequencies of Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. on both culture media were found to be more than 70%. Observation frequencies of Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp., and yeast were found to be higher in samples collected on DRBC than those on SDA-CHX-CHL. Finally, DRBC was found to be superior to SDA in terms of both number of colonies and number of genera isolated from the air.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9462-2
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Atmospheric concentrations and intradiurnal pattern of Alternaria and
           Cladosporium conidia in Tétouan (NW of Morocco)
    • Authors: Fadoua Bardei; Hassan Bouziane; Maria del Mar Trigo; Nabila Ajouray; Fatima El Haskouri; Mohamed Kadiri
      Pages: 221 - 228
      Abstract: Abstract Fungal spores of Alternaria and Cladosporium are ubiquitous components of both indoor and outdoor air samples and are the main causes of human respiratory allergies. Monitoring these airborne fungal spores during 2009–2014 was carried out by means of Hirst-type spore trap to investigate their airborne spore concentrations with respect to annual load, seasonality and overall intradiurnal pattern. Alternaria and Cladosporium spores are present throughout the year in the atmosphere of Tétouan, although they show seasonal variations. Despite important differences between years, their highest levels presented a first peak during spring and a higher second peak in summer or autumn depending on the year. The spore concentrations were homogeneously distributed throughout the day with slight increase of 7.6 and 3.7% on average between 12–14 and 14–16 h for Alternaria and Cladosporium, respectively. The borderline of 3000 sp/m3 of Cladosporium linked to the occurrence of allergic diseases was exceeded between 13 and 31 days. Airborne spores of Alternaria overcame the threshold value of 100 sp/m3 up to 95 days, suggesting that Cladosporium and Alternaria could be clinically significant aeroallergens for atopic patients.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9465-z
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Viable airborne microbial counts from air-cooling units with and without
           complaints of urine and body odors
    • Authors: Ka Man Lai; Yik Hei Sung; Kowk Keung Ma
      Pages: 229 - 241
      Abstract: Abstract Viable airborne microbial counts are commonly used in indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment, but studies linking the microbial counts to a specific type of indoor microbial contamination are limited. We hypothesize that the airborne microbial counts can differentiate air-cooling units with and without complaints of urine and body odors. The keratinolytic property of some isolated bacteria prompts to the hypothesis that keratinase is present in the units to break down keratins, structural proteins that form human skin scales, as sources of amino acids and ammonium to produce the odors. Seven bacterial species and four fungal species were identified in the units and room air. Airborne Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Methylobacterium organophilum counts contributed the most to the microbial dissimilarities of units with and without odor complaints. Keratinolytic bacteria and a methylotrophic bacterium were abundant in the units. All the units contained ammonium, and keratinase activity was higher in the units with odor complaints. Extracellular keratinase activity was more effective at 20 °C than at 30 or 4 °C. Keratinolytic bacteria produced high levels of ammonium in the culture with skin cells. Viable airborne microbial counts can help IAQ inspectors to identify potential odor-causing air-cooling units. Keratins may be broken down in the units and associated with the odor complaints.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9466-y
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Pollen spectrum in Northern Tunis, Tunisia
    • Authors: S. Hadj Hamda; A. Ben Dhiab; C. Galán; M. Msallem
      Pages: 243 - 251
      Abstract: Abstract This study has been focused on airborne pollen concentration in Northern Tunis. Pollen has been detected by a volumetric Hirst-type spore trap. This suction sampler was placed for two hydrologic years in the area of Mornag, northeastof Tunisia (36°40N; 10°17E). Fifty-two taxa were identified with heterogeneous daily pollen concentrations and a dominance of anemophilous plants. The main pollen types detected in the atmosphere were Olea europaea (38.7 and 20.75%), Cupressus (33.57 and 55.4%), Urticaceae (9.22 and 12.24%), Poaceae (3.55 and 3.32%), Mercurialis annua (2.96 and 1.6%) and Amaranthaceae (2.49 and 1.55%). The monthly pollen spectrum indicated a seasonal periodicity of airborne pollen with the main pollen season during spring. Two pollen seasons have been observed during these hydrologic years, due to both Cupressus and Amaranthaceae airborne pollen is represented during winter or spring, and also during autumn and late summer, respectively. Other pollen types represent a long pollen season, i.e., Urticaceae, starting in autumn and following until late spring. Daily pollen concentration showed a different behavior during the flowering season between both years, observing differences related to pollen index. Correlation between daily pollen concentrations of the dominant taxa showed a positive and significant correlation between airborne pollen concentrations of spring-pollinated taxa and mean temperature, but negative with maximum temperature, humidity and rainfall. In the case of minimum temperature, a different response, positive for trees and negative for herbaceous plants, has been observed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9464-0
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Variations and trends of Betula pollen seasons in Moscow (Russia) in
           relation to meteorological parameters
    • Authors: Elena Severova; Olga Volkova
      Pages: 253 - 264
      Abstract: Abstract This study investigates possible links of meteorological data and the start date, end date, duration, date of peak, peak value and Seasonal Pollen Index (SPI) of birch pollen seasons recorded in Moscow, Russia, during 1993–2015. Pollen data were collected by a volumetric spore trap. Correlation analysis was used to study relationships between various parameters of pollen seasons. Simple linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate trends over time; multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to describe SPI fluctuations as a function of seasonal or monthly climatic parameters. Air temperatures increased significantly during the study period, but no effect on the timing of the birch pollen season was found. Only the severity of the season showed significant changes that can be considered as a consequence of global warming. Rainfall in May and June of the year preceding flowering, total rainfall in the 40-day pre-season period and average temperature during the pollination were shown to be the most important parameters affecting birch pollen concentrations.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9460-4
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Spatial and temporal variations in the Annual Pollen Index recorded by
           sites belonging to the Portuguese Aerobiology Network
    • Authors: Irene Câmara Camacho; Elsa Caeiro; Raquel Ferro; Roberto Camacho; Rita Câmara; Agnieszka Grinn-Gofroń; Matt Smith; Agnieszka Strzelczak; Carlos Nunes; Mário Morais-Almeida
      Pages: 265 - 279
      Abstract: Abstract This study presents the findings of a 10-year survey carried out by the Portuguese Aerobiology Network (RPA) at seven pollen-monitoring stations: five mainland stations (Oporto, Coimbra, Lisbon, Évora and Portimão) and two insular stations [Funchal (Madeira archipelago) and Ponta Delgada (Azores archipelago)]. The main aim of the study was to examine spatial and temporal variations in the Annual Pollen Index (API) with particular focus on the most frequently recorded pollen types. Pollen monitoring (2003–2012) was carried out using Hirst-type volumetric spore traps, following the minimum recommendations proposed by the European Aerobiology Society Working Group on Quality Control. Daily pollen data were examined for similarities using the Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric test and multivariate regression trees. Simple linear regression analysis was used to describe trends in API. The airborne pollen spectrum at RPA stations is dominated by important allergenic pollen types such as Poaceae, Olea and Urticaceae. Statistically significant differences were witnessed in the API recorded at the seven stations. Mean API is higher in the southern mainland cities, e.g. Évora, Lisbon and Portimão, and lower in insular and littoral cities. There were also a number of significant trends in API during the 10-year study. This report identifies spatial and temporal variations in the amount of airborne pollen recorded annually in the Portuguese territory. There were also a number of significant changes in API, but no general increases in the amount of airborne pollen.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9468-9
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • Airborne pollen in Córdoba City (Spain) and its implications for
           pollen allergy
    • Authors: J. Cebrino; S. Portero de la Cruz; M. J. Barasona; P. Alcázar; C. Moreno; E. Domínguez-Vilches; C. Galán
      Pages: 281 - 291
      Abstract: Abstract Pollen allergy is among the most widespread allergic disease in Andalusia. However, few studies have examined patient information in conjunction with data on airborne pollen concentrations. This paper sought to identify the airborne pollen types prevalent in Córdoba, to examine the relationship between airborne pollen and the occurrence of allergies, and to investigate the use of drugs to treat various symptoms displayed by pollen-allergy sufferers over the study period. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in Córdoba City between February and June in 2014 and 2015, using an original specific questionnaire to collect socio-demographic, symptom and pollen-allergy data. Airborne pollen was collected using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was applied. A total of 178 sensitive subjects were included in the study. The prevalence of allergy to olive, grass and plane-tree pollen was 70.73, 73.17 and 19.51%, respectively, in 2014, and 70.83, 70.83 and 21.12%, respectively, in 2015. In both years, rhinitis was the most common allergic symptom (93.90% in 2014, 87.75% in 2015) and a significant correlation between the occurrence of rhinitis and antihistamine consumption was found (p < 0.05 in 2014, p < 0.001 in 2015). The percentage of asthmatic subjects using an inhaler was significantly higher than those who did not used it (63.16% vs. 26.98%; p < 0.01). In conclusion, this paper supports previous studies showing that the most allergenic pollen types in spring were olive, grass and plane-tree pollen. In addition, we found that rhinitis was the main symptom and antihistamines the medication most widely used by the sensitized population in Córdoba.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9469-8
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
  • FTIR analysis of molecular composition changes in hazel pollen from
           unpolluted and urbanized areas
    • Authors: J. Depciuch; I. Kasprzyk; O. Sadik; M. Parlińska-Wojtan
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: In this study, the effect of urbanization and environmental pollution on qualitative (structural) and quantitative changes of the Corylus avellana (hazel) pollen was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and curve-fitting analysis of amide I profile. The obtained spectroscopic results show significant variations in the fraction of proteins in the hazel pollen, which probably depend on various degrees of anthropopression. Our results suggest that alterations in the chemical composition of pollen, induced by urbanization and air pollutants, may intensify the allergenic potential and may cause the increase in the incidence of allergies in people. Mutations in nucleic acids are accompanied by a number of molecular changes leading to the formation of allergenic proteins. It seems that the type of habitat, where the pollen grew, affects the individual differentiation. Indeed, it was found that in the site exhibiting low pollution, the hazel pollen contain a lower amount of proteins than to the ones from a site with high anthropopression. Hence, FTIR spectroscopy and curve-fitting analysis of amide I profile can be successfully applied as tools for identifying quantitative and qualitative changes of proteins in hazel pollen. Graphical Anthropogenic factors such as air pollution and urbanization lead to changes in structure and chemical composition of hazel pollen. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gaussian analysis showed structural changes in hazel pollen collected from sites with different absorbance values of individual chemical functional groups and changes in the secondary structure of proteins of the pollen.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9445-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • Dead Sea medical tourism: an allergological point of view
    • Authors: Carmi Geller-Bernstein; Ron S. Kenett; Valentina Epstein; Amram Eshel
      Pages: 49 - 58
      Abstract: Abstract A 1-year study was conducted, with the aim to investigate the airborne allergens around the Dead Sea (DS), identify and quantify airborne pollen and spores in the DS region, and determine the different sensitization prevalence among various population groups to these aeroallergens. According to results, we also aimed to define “safe seasons” when there are no or only few aeroallergens in the atmosphere that surrounds the Dead Sea. A Rotorod and a Hirst trap were used for continuous monitoring of pollen and spores which were then identified. Sensitization to aeroallergens was assessed by skin prick tests (SPT) in three groups of allergic residents: foreign tourists, Israeli tourists, and local workers from the hotel industry. Air around the DS is by no means free of aeroallergens, 50 pollen and 43 mold types were identified. Pollen was from native plants, imported ornamentals, and others transported by winds from long distances. Overall pollen concentrations were lower around the Dead Sea than in the Tel Aviv region, but in certain months, they were higher around the DS. Marked seasonal variations in pollen and spore dispersal were observed. By SPT, hypersensitivity to Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cupressus, Solidago, Poaceae, Olea, Artemisia as well as molds such as Alternaria and Aspergillus, was found. As assessed by SPT, some of tourists and permanent residents are allergic to pollen, molds, and house dust mites. The presented study enables one to denote “safe” seasons when the concentration of airborne allergens is below “allergenic risk”: June–August and November–February. These seasons are the most suitable for allergic medical tourists.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9449-z
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • Olive crop-yield forecasting based on airborne pollen in a region where
           the olive groves acreage and crop system changed drastically
    • Authors: Helena Ribeiro; Ilda Abreu; Mário Cunha
      Abstract: Abstract Olive trees are one of the most economically important perennial crops in Portugal. During the last decade, the Alentejo olive-growing region has suffered a significantly change in the crop production system, with the regional pollen index (RPI) and olive fruit production registering a significant growth. The aim of this study was to ascertain the utility of this highly variable production and pollen data in crop forecasting modeling. Airborne pollen was sampled using a Cour-type trap from 1999 to 2015. A linear regression model fitted with the regional pollen index as the independent variable showed an accuracy of 87% in estimating olives fruit production in Alentejo. However, the average deviation between observed and modeled production was 32% with half of the tested years presenting deviations between 36 and 66%. The low accuracy of this model is a consequence of the great overall variation and significant upward trend observed in both the production and the RPI dataset that conceal the true association between these variables. In order to overcome this problem, a detrend procedure was applied to both time series to remove the trend observed. The regression model fitted with the fruit production and the RPI detrended data showed a lowest forecasting accuracy of 63% but the average deviation between observed and modeled production decrease to 14% with a maximum deviation value of 33%. This procedure allows focusing the analysis on the production fluctuations related to the biological response of the trees rather than with the changes in the production system.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9483-5
  • Effects of wind speed and direction on monthly fluctuations of
           Cladosporium conidia concentration in the air
    • Authors: Magdalena Sadyś
      Abstract: Abstract This study determined the relationship between airborne concentration of Cladosporium spp. spores and wind speed and direction using real data (local wind measured by weather station) and modelled data (air mass flow computed with the aid of HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Trajectory model). Air samples containing fungal conidia were taken at an urban site (Worcester, UK) for a period of five consecutive years using a spore trap of the Hirst design. A threshold of ≥6000 s m−3 (double the clinical value) was applied in order to select high spore concentration days, when airborne transport of conidia at a regional scale was more likely to occur. Collected data were then examined using geospatial and statistical tools, including circular statistics. Obtained results showed that the greatest numbers of spore concentrations were detected in July and August, when C. herbarum, C. cladosporioides and C. macrocarpum sporulate. The circular correlation test was found to be more sensitive than Spearman’s rank test. The dominance of either local wind or the air mass on Cladosporium spore distributions varied between examined months. Source areas of this pathogen had an origin within the UK territory. Very high daily mean concentrations of Cladosporium spores were observed when daily mean local wind speed was v s ≤ 2.5 m s−1 indicating warm days with a light breeze.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9482-6
  • Phenotypic and molecular assessment of antimicrobial resistance profile of
           airborne Staphylococcus spp. isolated from flats in Kraków
    • Authors: Anna Lenart-Boroń; Katarzyna Wolny-Koładka; Katarzyna Juraszek; Andrzej Kasprowicz
      Abstract: Abstract Bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus were isolated from air sampled from living spaces in Kraków (Poland). In total, 55 strains belonging to the genus Staphylococcus were isolated from 45 sites, and 13 species of coagulase-negative staphylococci were identified. The species composition of studied airborne microbiota contains Staphylococcus species that are rarely infectious to humans. Most commonly isolated species comprised S. hominis and S. warneri. The disk-diffusion tests showed that the collected isolates were most frequently resistant to erythromycin. The PCR technique was employed to search for genes conferring the resistance in staphylococci to antibiotics from the group of macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins. The analyzed Staphylococcus isolates possessed simultaneously 4 different resistance genes. The molecular analysis with the use of specific primers allowed to determine the most prevalent gene which is mphC, responsible for the resistance to macrolides and for the enzymatic inactivation of the drug by phosphotransferase. The second most often detected gene was msrA1, which confers the resistance of staphylococci to macrolides and is responsible for active pumping of antimicrobial particles out of bacterial cells.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9481-7
  • The relationship between birch pollen, air pollution and weather types and
           their effect on antihistamine purchase in two Swedish cities
    • Authors: Maria Grundström; Åslög Dahl; Tinghai Ou; Deliang Chen; Håkan Pleijel
      Abstract: Abstract Exposure to elevated air pollution levels can aggravate pollen allergy symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between airborne birch (Betula) pollen, urban air pollutants NO2, O3 and PM10 and their effects on antihistamine demand in Gothenburg and Malmö, Sweden, 2006–2012. Further, the influence of large-scale weather pattern on pollen-/pollution-related risk, using Lamb weather types (LWTs), was analysed. Daily LWTs were obtained by comparing the atmospheric pressure over a 16-point grid system over southern Sweden (scale ~3000 km). They include two non-directional types, cyclonic (C) and anticyclonic (A) and eight directional types depending on the wind direction (N, NE, E…). Birch pollen levels were exceptionally high under LWTs E and SE in both cities. Furthermore, LWTs with dry and moderately calm meteorological character (A, NE, E, SE) were associated with strongly elevated air pollution (NO2 and PM10) in Gothenburg. For most weather situations in both cities, simultaneously high birch pollen together with high air pollution had larger over-the-counter (OTC) sales of antihistamines than situations with high birch pollen alone. LWTs NE, E, SE and S had the highest OTC sales in both cities. In Gothenburg, the city with a higher load of both birch pollen and air pollution, the higher OTC sales were especially obvious and indicate an increased effect on allergic symptoms from air pollution. Furthermore, Gothenburg LWTs A, NE, E and SE were associated with high pollen and air pollution levels and thus classified as high-risk weather types. In Malmö, corresponding high-risk LWTs were NE, E, SE and S. Furthermore, occurrence of high pollen and air pollutants as well as OTC sales correlated strongly with vapour pressure deficit and temperature in Gothenburg (much less so in Malmö). This provides evidence that the combination of meteorological properties associated with LWTs can explain high levels of birch pollen and air pollution. Our study shows that LWTs represent a useful tool for integrated daily air quality forecasting/warning.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9478-2
  • Field studies measuring the aerosolization of endotoxin during the land
           application of Class B biosolids
    • Authors: R. F. Herrmann; R. J. Grosser; D. Farrar; R. B. Brobst
      Abstract: Abstract Endotoxins are a component of Gram-negative bacteria cell walls and are known to be present in biosolids. Endotoxins have been shown to be potent stimulators of the innate immune response causing airway irritation and shortness of breath. Class B biosolids are routinely applied to agricultural lands to enhance soil properties and can be used as an alternative to chemical fertilizers. This study investigated the aerosolized endotoxin dispersed during the land application of Class B biosolids on agricultural land and a concrete surface at two sites in Colorado, USA. Aerosolized endotoxin was captured using HiVol samplers fitted with glass fiber filters, polycarbonate filter cassettes (both open and closed) and BioSampler impinger air samplers. Endotoxins were also measured in the biosolids to allow for correlating bulk biosolids concentrations with aerosol emission rates. Endotoxin concentrations in biosolids, impinger solutions and filter extracts were determined using the kinetic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Aerosolized endotoxin concentration was detected from all sites with levels ranging from 0.5 to 642 EU/m3. The four types of sampling apparatus were compared, and the HiVol and open-faced cassette samplers produced higher time-weighted average (TWA) measurements (EU/m3) than the impinger and closed cassette samplers. Ambient wind speed was found to be the variable best describing the observed results with optimal wind speed for highest deposition estimated at 5 m s−1. It is argued that HiVol air samplers are a particularly reliable approach and subsequent analyses relating TWA measurements to wind speed and biosolids characteristics were based on the measurements collected with those samplers.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9480-8
  • Modelled and observed surface soil pollen deposition distance curves for
           isolated trees of Carpinus betulus , Cedrus atlantica , Juglans nigra and
           Platanus acerifolia
    • Authors: Beverley Adams-Groom; Carsten Ambelas Skjøth; Michael Baker; Thomas E. Welch
      Abstract: Abstract Source–distance relationships for pollen deposited directly into surface soil have been rarely undertaken, particularly for a single or isolated source, rather than a forest, grove or plantation. This study aimed to determine surface soil pollen deposition patterns from single, isolated source trees and to compare the results to Gaussian model curves for the same trees. Four isolated tree pollen sources were chosen in Worcester, UK: Carpinus betulus, Cedrus atlantica, Juglans nigra and Platanus acerifolia. Surface soil samples were collected at 1, 5 and then every 10 m, up to 100 m distance from the main trunk of each source along the prevailing wind direction during flowering. A Gaussian dispersion model was used to estimate source strength using tree height and width and wind speeds on days when flowering was occurring and when the wind direction flowed along the sampling transect. This model simulated the expected concentration and deposition along the sampling transect. Modelled and observed results showed that most pollen was deposited beneath the canopy (range 63–94%) in an exponentially decreasing curve and the tailing off started from around the outer edge of the canopy in most cases. The amount of pollen deposited at 50 m was no more than 2.6% of total deposition in the samples for any tree and at 100 m no more than 0.2%. Tree height, width and wind speed during the pollination period were found to be the main parameters affecting deposition away from the source.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9479-1
  • Changes in the Mediterranean pine forest: pollination patterns and annual
           trends of airborne pollen
    • Authors: Concepción De Linares; Rosario Delgado; Maria Jesús Aira; Purificación Alcázar; Silvia Alonso-Pérez; Marzia Boi; Paloma Cariñanos; Emilio Cuevas; Consuelo Díaz de la Guardia; Belén Elvira-Rendueles; Delia Fernández-González; Carmen Galán; Adela Montserrat Gutiérrez-Bustillo; Rosa Pérez-Badia; Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Rajo; Luis Ruíz-Valenzuela; Rafael Tormo-Molina; Maria del Mar Trigo; Rosa M. Valencia-Barrera; Ana Valle; Jordina Belmonte
      Abstract: Abstract In some areas, forests are being affected in diverse aspects such as structure, composition and biodiversity showing an increase or a decrease in the growth rates. Pinus is one of the most dominant genera in the forests of the Northern Hemisphere. This study analyzes the pine pollination patterns in 30 locations of Spain with an average of 21-year dataset. The aim is to evaluate possible changes in flowering intensity as well as in annual pollen production trends, according to the airborne pollen patterns. Annual Pollen Indices show three threshold values: (1) over 4000 grains per year in Catalonia, the Central System Mountains and Ourense (Galicia), (2) between 4000 and 1000 grains in central-south Spain and in the Balearic Islands, and (3) under 1000 in eastern Spain, Cartagena and the Canary Islands. Airborne pollen patterns were also influenced by Pinus species: The species located in the littoral and low land areas pollinated in the first pollination phase, from February to April, and the mountain pine species did in the second one, from April to June. The statistical analyses reveal increasing significant trends in 12 sites and significant decreasing trends in two. The Pinus flowering intensity is showing an earlier start and a delay in the end of the pollination period, thus a longer period of pollen in the air. This study suggests that the aerobiological monitoring is an interesting bio-indicator of changes happening in Pinus landscapes, and therefore explains the vulnerability of this genus in Spain.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9476-4
  • Atmospheric pollen dispersion from herbicide-resistant horseweed ( Conyza
           canadensis L.)
    • Authors: Junming Wang; Meilan Qi; Haiyan Huang; Rongjian Ye; Xiangzhen Li; C. Neal Stewart
      Abstract: Abstract Horseweed (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.) with evolved herbicide resistance has become an especially problematic weed in crop production across the USA and on four continents (North America, South America, Asia, and Europe). Spread of herbicide resistance can occur through pollen-mediated gene flow between resistant and susceptible horseweed populations. However, there are little knowledge, preventive guidelines, and mechanism modeling for pollen transport in this system. We need to better understand pollen dispersion and deposition in the context of atmospheric conditions, herbicide-resistant horseweed patch size, and buffer crop type, height, and field size. A mechanistic model is needed to account for these. A pollen dispersion and deposition model was calibrated and validated using 2013 experimental field data. The validated model was run for various combinations of atmospheric conditions, horseweed characteristics (source strength), and buffer species and size (pollen can be intercepted by crop plants). Large fields with crops with a high leaf area density and tall plants can effectively prevent pollen dispersion. The information will help provide guidelines for preventing herbicide resistance spread from herbicide-resistant weeds and genetically modified plants in general.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9477-3
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