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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Zoological Letters
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2056-306X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Ectopic Fgf signaling induces the intercalary response in developing
           chicken limb buds

    • Authors: Aki Makanae; Akira Satoh
      Abstract: Background Intercalary pattern formation is an important regulatory step in amphibian limb regeneration. Amphibian limb regeneration is composed of multiple steps, including wounding, blastema formation, and intercalary pattern formation. Attempts have been made to transfer insights from regeneration-competent animals to regeneration-incompetent animalsat each step in the regeneration process. In the present study, we focused on the intercalary mechanism in chick limb buds. In amphibian limb regeneration, a proximodistal axis is organized as soon as a regenerating blastema is induced. Intermediate structures are subsequently induced (intercalated) between the established proximal and distal identities. Intercalary tissues are derived from proximal tissues. Fgf signaling mediates the intercalary response in amphibian limb regeneration. Results We attempted to transfer insights into intercalary regeneration from amphibian models to the chick limb bud. The zeugopodial part was dissected out, and the distal and proximal parts were conjunct at st. 24. Delivering ectopic Fgf2 + Fgf8 between the distal and proximal parts resulted in induction of zeugopodial elements. Examination of HoxA11 expression, apoptosis, and cell proliferation provides insights to compare with those in the intercalary mechanism of amphibian limb regeneration. Furthermore, the cellular contribution was investigated in both the chicken intercalary response and that of axolotl limb regeneration. Conclusions We developed new insights into cellular contribution in amphibian intercalary regeneration, and found consistency between axolotl and chicken intercalary responses. Our findings demonstrate that the same principal of limb regeneration functions between regeneration-competent and -incompetent animals. In this context, we propose the feasibility of the induction of the regeneration response in amniotes.
      PubDate: 2018-04-19
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-018-0090-2
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • Physical properties of the tunic in the pinkish-brown salp Pegea
           confoederata (Tunicata: Thaliacea)

    • Authors: Daisuke Sakai; Hiroshi Kakiuchida; Jun Nishikawa; Euichi Hirose
      Abstract: Background Invisibility in the water column is a crucial strategy for gelatinous zooplanktons in avoiding detection by visual predators, especially for animals distributed in the euphotic zone during the daytime; i.e., surface dwellers that do not undergo diel vertical migration. Salps, a member of the subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata), usually have a transparent body that is entirely covered with a cellulosic matrix, called the tunic. Some non-migrator species are known to exhibit a nano-scale nipple array on the tunic surface. However, the physical properties of the salp tunic has been poorly investigated, except for Thetys vagina, in which the tunic was expected to show low reflectance based on the refractive index of the tunic. Pegea confoederata is a non-vertical migrant salp showing pinkish-brown body. We measured the hardness, water content, absorption spectra, and refractive index of its tunic to evaluate its fragility and visibility. Results There are nipple-like protuberances about 80 nm high on the surface of the tunic in P. confoederata. The tunic is very soft; the maximum force to pierce the tunic with a steel rod (1 mm diameter) was < 1 N. The water content of the tunic was > 95%. The absorption spectra of the tunic had no prominent peaks in the wavelength range of 280–800 nm, indicating the tunic is nearly transparent. The difference in refractive indices between tunic and seawater was estimated as 0.002–0.015 at 589 nm. Rigorous coupled wave analyses (RCWA) of light reflection based on 3-dimensional models supported an anti-reflective effect of the nipple array on the tunic surface, which was estimated to vary slightly depending on the forms and the arrangement patterns of nipple-like protuberances in an array. Conclusions The tunic of P. confoederata is very soft and contains more water than those of sessile tunicates (ascidians). Based on the refractive index of the tunic, light reflection is expected to be very low, making this salp’s tunic barely visible in water column. Our results suggest that the nipple array may produce an anti-reflective effect.
      PubDate: 2018-04-12
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-018-0091-1
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • Fusion of piggyBac -like transposons and herpesviruses occurs frequently
           in teleosts

    • Authors: Yusuke Inoue; Masahiko Kumagai; Xianbo Zhang; Tomonori Saga; Deshou Wang; Akihiko Koga; Hiroyuki Takeda
      Abstract: Background Endogenous viral elements play important roles in eukaryotic evolution by giving rise to genetic novelties. Herpesviruses are a large family of DNA viruses, most of which do not have the ability to endogenize into host genomes. Recently, we identified a novel type of endogenous herpesvirus, which we named “Teratorn”, from the medaka (Oryzias latipes) genome, in which the herpesvirus is fused with a piggyBac-like DNA transposon, forming a novel mobile element. Teratorn is a unique herpesvirus that retains its viral genes intact and has acquired the endogenized lifestyle by hijacking the transposon system. However, it is unclear how this novel element evolved in the teleost lineage and whether fusion of two mobile elements is a general phenomenon in vertebrates. Results Here we performed a comprehensive genomic survey searching for Teratorn-like viruses in publicly available genome data and found that they are widely distributed in teleosts, forming a clade within Alloherpesviridae. Importantly, at least half of the identified Teratorn-like viruses contain piggyBac-like transposase genes, suggesting the generality of the transposon-herpesvirus fusion in teleosts. Phylogenetic tree topologies between the piggyBac-like transposase gene and herpesvirus-like genes are nearly identical, supporting the idea of a long-term evolutionary relationship between them. Conclusion We propose that piggyBac-like elements and Teratorn-like viruses have co-existed for a long time, and that fusion of the two mobile genetic elements occurred frequently in teleosts.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-018-0089-8
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • Development of hypobranchial muscles with special reference to the
           evolution of the vertebrate neck

    • Authors: Noritaka Adachi; Juan Pascual-Anaya; Tamami Hirai; Shinnosuke Higuchi; Shigeru Kuratani
      Abstract: Background The extant vertebrates include cyclostomes (lamprey and hagfish) and crown gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), but there are various anatomical disparities between these two groups. Conspicuous in the gnathostomes is the neck, which occupies the interfacial domain between the head and trunk, including the occipital part of the cranium, the shoulder girdle, and the cucullaris and hypobranchial muscles (HBMs). Of these, HBMs originate from occipital somites to form the ventral pharyngeal and neck musculature in gnathostomes. Cyclostomes also have HBMs on the ventral pharynx, but lack the other neck elements, including the occipital region, the pectoral girdle, and cucullaris muscles. These anatomical differences raise questions about the evolution of the neck in vertebrates. Results In this study, we observed developing HBMs as a basis for comparison between the two groups and show that the arrangement of the head–trunk interface in gnathostomes is distinct from that of lampreys. Our comparative analyses reveal that, although HBM precursors initially pass through the lateral side of the pericardium in both groups, the relative positions of the pericardium withrespect to the pharyngeal arches differ between the two, resulting in diverse trajectories of HBMs in gnathostomes and lampreys. Conclusions We suggest that a heterotopic rearrangement of early embryonic components, including the pericardium and pharyngeal arches, may have played a fundamental role in establishing the gnathostome HBMs, which would also have served as the basis for neck formation in the jawed vertebrate lineage.
      PubDate: 2018-02-18
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-018-0087-x
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • DNA metabarcoding of spiders, insects, and springtails for exploring
           potential linkage between above- and below-ground food webs

    • Authors: Hirokazu Toju; Yuki G. Baba
      Abstract: Background Understanding feedback between above- and below-ground processes of biological communities is a key to the effective management of natural and agricultural ecosystems. However, as above- and below-ground food webs are often studied separately, our knowledge of material flow and community dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems remains limited. Results We developed a high-throughput sequencing method for examining how spiders link above- and below-ground food webs as generalist predators. To overcome problems related to DNA-barcoding-based analyses of arthropod–arthropod interactions, we designed spider-specific blocking primers and Hexapoda-specific primers for the selective PCR amplification of Hexapoda prey sequences from spider samples. By applying the new DNA metabarcoding framework to spider samples collected in a temperate secondary forest in Japan, we explored the structure of a food web involving 15 spider species and various taxonomic groups of Hexapoda prey. These results support the hypothesis that multiple spider species in a community can prey on both above- and below-ground prey species, potentially coupling above- and below-ground food-web dynamics. Conclusions The PCR primers and metabarcoding pipeline described in this study are expected to accelerate nuclear marker-based analyses of food webs, illuminating poorly understood trophic interactions in ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-018-0088-9
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • Highly efficient generation of knock-in transgenic medaka by
           CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering

    • Authors: Ikuko Watakabe; Hisashi Hashimoto; Yukiko Kimura; Saori Yokoi; Kiyoshi Naruse; Shin-ichi Higashijima
      Abstract: Background Medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a popular animal model used in vertebrate genetic analysis. Recently, an efficient (~ 30%) knock-in system via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) was established in zebrafish using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. If the same technique were applicable in medaka, it would greatly expand the usefulness of this model organism. The question of the applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 in medaka, however, has yet to be addressed. Results We report the highly efficient generation of knock-in transgenic medaka via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Donor plasmid containing a heat-shock promoter and a reporter gene was co-injected with a short guide RNA (sgRNA) targeted for genome digestion, an sgRNA targeted for donor plasmid digestion, and Cas9 mRNA. Broad transgene expression in the expression domain of a target gene was observed in approximately 25% of injected embryos. By raising these animals, we established stable knock-in transgenic fish with several different constructs for five genetic loci, obtaining transgenic founders at efficiencies of > 50% for all five loci. Further, we show that the method is useful for obtaining mutant alleles. In the experiments where transgene integrations were targeted between the transcription start site and the initiation methionine, the resultant transgenic fish became mutant alleles. Conclusion With its simplicity, design flexibility, and high efficiency, we propose that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in via NHEJ will become a standard method for the generation of transgenic and mutant medaka.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0086-3
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • Flight feather development: its early specialization during embryogenesis

    • Authors: Mao Kondo; Tomoe Sekine; Taku Miyakoshi; Keiichi Kitajima; Shiro Egawa; Ryohei Seki; Gembu Abe; Koji Tamura
      Abstract: Background Flight feathers, a type of feather that is unique to extant/extinct birds and some non-avian dinosaurs, are the most evolutionally advanced type of feather. In general, feather types are formed in the second or later generation of feathers at the first and following molting, and the first molting begins at around two weeks post hatching in chicken. However, it has been stated in some previous reports that the first molting from the natal down feathers to the flight feathers is much earlier than that for other feather types, suggesting that flight feather formation starts as an embryonic event. The aim of this study was to determine the inception of flight feather morphogenesis and to identify embryological processes specific to flight feathers in contrast to those of down feathers. Results We found that the second generation of feather that shows a flight feather-type arrangement has already started developing by chick embryonic day 18, deep in the skin of the flight feather-forming region. This was confirmed by shh gene expression that shows barb pattern, and the expression pattern revealed that the second generation of feather development in the flight feather-forming region seems to start by embryonic day 14. The first stage at which we detected a specific morphology of the feather bud in the flight feather-forming region was embryonic day 11, when internal invagination of the feather bud starts, while the external morphology of the feather bud is radial down-type. Conclusion The morphogenesis for the flight feather, the most advanced type of feather, has been drastically modified from the beginning of feather morphogenesis, suggesting that early modification of the embryonic morphogenetic process may have played a crucial role in the morphological evolution of this key innovation. Co-optation of molecular cues for axial morphogenesis in limb skeletal development may be able to modify morphogenesis of the feather bud, giving rise to flight feather-specific morphogenesis of traits.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0085-4
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • Evolution of the vertebrate neurocranium: problems of the premandibular
           domain and the origin of the trabecula

    • Authors: Shigeru Kuratani; Per. E. Ahlberg
      Abstract: The subdivision of the gnathostome neurocranium into an anterior neural crest-derived moiety and a posterior mesodermal moiety has attracted the interest of researchers for nearly two centuries. We present a synthetic scenario for the evolution of this structure, uniting developmental data from living cyclostomes and gnathostomes with morphological data from fossil stem gnathostomes in a common phylogenetic framework. Ancestrally, vertebrates had an anteroposteriorly short forebrain, and the neurocranium was essentially mesodermal; skeletal structures derived from premandibular ectomesenchyme were mostly anterior to the brain and formed part of the visceral arch skeleton. The evolution of a one-piece neurocranial ‘head shield’ in jawless stem gnathostomes, such as galeaspids and osteostracans, caused this mesenchyme to become incorporated into the neurocranium, but its position relative to the brain and nasohypophyseal duct remained unchanged. Basically similar distribution of the premandibular ectomesenchyme is inferred, even in placoderms, the earliest jawed vertebrates, in which the separation of hypophyseal and nasal placodes obliterated the nasohypophyseal duct, leading to redeployment of this ectomesenchyme between the separate placodes and permitting differentiation of the crown gnathostome trabecula that floored the forebrain. Initially this region was very short, and the bulk of the premandibular cranial part projected anteroventral to the nasal capsule, as in jawless stem gnathostomes. Due to the lengthening of the forebrain, the anteriorly projecting ‘upper lip’ was lost, resulting in the modern gnathostome neurocranium with a long forebrain cavity floored by the trabeculae.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0083-6
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • A sodium binding system alleviates acute salt stress during seawater
           acclimation in eels

    • Authors: Marty Kwok Shing Wong; Takehiro Tsukada; Nobuhiro Ogawa; Supriya Pipil; Haruka Ozaki; Yutaka Suzuki; Wataru Iwasaki; Yoshio Takei
      Abstract: Background Teleosts transiting from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW) environments face an immediate osmotic stress from ion influxes and water loss, but some euryhaline species such as eels can maintain a stable plasma osmolality during early SW exposure. The time course changes in the gene expression, protein abundance, and localization of key ion transporters suggested that the reversal of the ion transport systems was gradual, and we investigate how eels utilize a Na-binding strategy to slow down the ion invasion and complement the transporter-mediated osmoregulation. Results Using an electron probe micro-analyzer, we localized bound Na in various eel tissues in response to SW transfer, suggesting that the Na-binding molecules were produced to sequester excess ionic Na+ to negate its osmotic potential, thus preventing acute cellular dehydration. Mucus cells were acutely activated in digestive tract, gill, and skin after SW transfer, producing Na-binding molecule-containing mucus layers that fence off high osmolality of SW. Using gel filtration HPLC, some molecules at 18 kDa were found to bind Na in the luminal secretion of esophagus and intestine, and higher binding was associated with SW transfer. Transcriptome and protein interaction results indicated that downregulation of Notch and β-catenin pathways, and dynamic changes in TGFβ pathways in intestine were involved during early SW transition, supporting the observed histological changes on epithelial desquamation and increased mucus production. Conclusions The timing for the activation of the Na-binding mechanism to alleviate the adverse osmotic gradient was temporally complementary to the subsequent remodeling of branchial ionocytes and transporting epithelia of the digestive tract. The strategy to manipulate the osmotic potential of Na+ by specific binding molecules is similar to the osmotically inactive Na described in human skin and muscle. The Na-binding molecules provide a buffer to tolerate the salinity changes, which is advantageous to the estuary and migrating fishes. Our data pave the way to identify this unknown class of molecules and open a new area of vertebrate osmoregulation research.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0081-8
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Tube construction by a tanaidacean crustacean using a novel mucus
           secretion system involving the anal opening

    • Authors: Keiichi Kakui; Chizue Hiruta
      Abstract: Background Animals in diverse aquatic groups construct tubes using mucus and filaments, and the acquisition of this capability has likely played an important role in the evolution and diversification of small benthic animals. Tanaidacea is a crustacean order that includes tube-constructing species, most of which belong to Tanaidoidea and Paratanaoidea, with a few in Kalliapseudidae (Apseudoidea). Two previously reported systems used in tube construction are the thoracic-gland system, with secretory glands in thoracic segments (pereonites), and the pereopodal-gland system, with glands in pereopods. Results Parapseudidae (Apseudoidea) also includes a tube-constructing species, Parapseudes algicola (Shiino, 1952), which lacks large secretory glands in all pereonites and pereopods, but has a pair of acinar glands in the pleotelson, lateral to the gut. Each gland connects to the gut via a short duct, and thence to the exterior via the anal opening. Secretions released from these glands are used to construct tubes, and contain acidic and neutral mucopolysaccharides. Conclusion We report in P. algicola a third, novel secretory system, here termed the pleotelsonal-gland system, used for tube construction in Tanaidacea. It is similar to the secretory system in some “thalassinidean” decapods; both systems have secretory glands connecting to the gut and thence to the anal opening as the outlet; however, these gland systems likely evolved independently. Recent discoveries of novel secretory systems for tube construction in Tanaidacea suggest that information from smaller, less well-known groups will be necessary to understand how acquisitions of tube-constructing capability affected diversification in animals.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0082-7
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Morphology of brood pouch formation in the pot-bellied seahorse
           Hippocampus abdominalis

    • Authors: Mari Kawaguchi; Ryohei Okubo; Akari Harada; Kazuki Miyasaka; Kensuke Takada; Junya Hiroi; Shigeki Yasumasu
      Abstract: Background The reproductive strategies of vertebrates are diverse. Seahorses (Pisces: Syngnathidae) possess the unique characteristic of male pregnancy; i.e., males, not females, incubate embryos in a specialized structure called a ‘brood pouch’. The brood pouch is formed along the ventral midline of the tail. The lumen of the brood pouch is surrounded by loose connective tissue, called pseudoplacenta, and dermis. Results We visualized and evaluated the morphology of brood pouch formation in Hippocampus abdominalis to gain generalizable insights into this process in seahorses. First, we employed several staining methods to characterize the pseudoplacenta and dermis of the brood pouch of mature male seahorses. The pseudoplacenta is composed mainly of reticular fibers, while the dermis is composed mainly of collagenous fibers. Further observations showed that pouch formation is initiated by linear projections of epithelia on both ventrolateral sides of the body. These projections elongated toward the ventral midline, eventually fused together, and then formed a baggy structure composed of a single dermis layer with neither smooth muscle nor pseudoplacenta. Finally, the pseudoplacenta was formed, together with two layers of dermis and smooth muscle. Thus, a fully developed brood pouch was established. The morphology of the luminal epithelium also changed during pouch formation. We analyzed the localization of C-type lectins as markers; haCTL II was localized in both the outer and luminal epithelia of the brood pouch throughout development in the male seahorse, whereas haCTL IV, which was not detected in the early stage of seahorse development, became localized only in the luminal epithelium as development proceeded. Conclusions We categorized the processes of brood pouch formation during male seahorse development into three stages: (1) the early stage, characterized by formation of a baggy structure from the primordium; (2) the middle stage, characterized by the differentiation and establishment of brood pouch-specific tissues; and (3) the late stage, characterized by a fully formed pouch with developing blood vessels and a pouch fold ultimately capable of carrying and incubating embryos.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0080-9
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Rhodopsin gene copies in Japanese eel originated in a teleost-specific
           genome duplication

    • Authors: Yoji Nakamura; Motoshige Yasuike; Miyuki Mekuchi; Yuki Iwasaki; Nobuhiko Ojima; Atushi Fujiwara; Seinen Chow; Kenji Saitoh
      Abstract: Background Gene duplication is considered important to increasing the genetic diversity in animals. In fish, visual pigment genes are often independently duplicated, and the evolutionary significance of such duplications has long been of interest. Eels have two rhodopsin genes (rho), one of which (freshwater type, fw-rho) functions in freshwater and the other (deep-sea type, ds-rho) in marine environments. Hence, switching of rho expression in retinal cells is tightly linked with eels’ unique life cycle, in which they migrate from rivers or lakes to the sea. These rho genes are apparently paralogous, but the timing of their duplication is unclear due to the deep-branching phylogeny. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the evolutionary origin of the two rho copies in eels using comparative genomics methods. Results In the present study, we sequenced the genome of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica and reconstructed two regions containing rho by de novo assembly. We found a single corresponding region in a non-teleostean primitive ray-finned fish (spotted gar) and two regions in a primitive teleost (Asian arowana). The order of ds-rho and the neighboring genes was highly conserved among the three species. With respect to fw-rho, which was lost in Asian arowana, the neighboring genes were also syntenic between Japanese eel and Asian arowana. In particular, the pattern of gene losses in ds-rho and fw-rho regions was the same as that in Asian arowana, and no discrepancy was found in any of the teleost genomes examined. Phylogenetic analysis supports mutual monophyly of these two teleostean synteny groups, which correspond to the ds-rho and fw-rho regions. Conclusions Syntenic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the duplication of rhodopsin gene in Japanese eel predated the divergence of eel (Elopomorpha) and arowana (Osteoglossomorpha). Thus, based on the principle of parsimony, it is most likely that the rhodopsin paralogs were generated through a whole genome duplication in the ancestor of teleosts, and have remained till the present in eels with distinct functional roles. Our result indicates, for the first time, that teleost-specific genome duplication may have contributed to a gene innovation involved in eel-specific migratory life cycle.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0079-2
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Hox gene cluster of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi , reveals multiple
           ancient steps of cluster disintegration during ascidian evolution

    • Authors: Yuka Sekigami; Takuya Kobayashi; Ai Omi; Koki Nishitsuji; Tetsuro Ikuta; Asao Fujiyama; Noriyuki Satoh; Hidetoshi Saiga
      Abstract: Background Hox gene clusters with at least 13 paralog group (PG) members are common in vertebrate genomes and in that of amphioxus. Ascidians, which belong to the subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata), are phylogenetically positioned between vertebrates and amphioxus, and traditionally divided into two groups: the Pleurogona and the Enterogona. An enterogonan ascidian, Ciona intestinalis (Ci), possesses nine Hox genes localized on two chromosomes; thus, the Hox gene cluster is disintegrated. We investigated the Hox gene cluster of a pleurogonan ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi (Hr) to investigate whether Hox gene cluster disintegration is common among ascidians, and if so, how such disintegration occurred during ascidian or tunicate evolution. Results Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that the Hr Hox gene complement comprises nine members, including one with a relatively divergent Hox homeodomain sequence. Eight of nine Hr Hox genes were orthologous to Ci-Hox1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 12 and 13. Following the phylogenetic classification into 13 PGs, we designated Hr Hox genes as Hox1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11/12/13.a, 11/12/13.b and HoxX. To address the chromosomal arrangement of the nine Hox genes, we performed two-color chromosomal fluorescent in situ hybridization, which revealed that the nine Hox genes are localized on a single chromosome in Hr, distinct from their arrangement in Ci. We further examined the order of the nine Hox genes on the chromosome by chromosome/scaffold walking. This analysis suggested a gene order of Hox1, 11/12/13.b, 11/12/13.a, 10, 5, X, followed by either Hox4, 3, 2 or Hox2, 3, 4 on the chromosome. Based on the present results and those previously reported in Ci, we discuss the establishment of the Hox gene complement and disintegration of Hox gene clusters during the course of ascidian or tunicate evolution. Conclusions The Hox gene cluster and the genome must have experienced extensive reorganization during the course of evolution from the ancestral tunicate to Hr and Ci. Nevertheless, some features are shared in Hox gene components and gene arrangement on the chromosomes, suggesting that Hox gene cluster disintegration in ascidians involved early events common to tunicates as well as later ascidian lineage-specific events.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0078-3
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • The tymbal muscle of cicada has flight muscle-type sarcomeric architecture
           and protein expression

    • Authors: Hiroyuki Iwamoto
      Abstract: Background The structural and biochemical features of the tymbal (sound-producing) muscle of cicadas were studied by X-ray diffraction and immunochemistry, and compared with those of flight muscles from the same species. Results The X-ray diffraction pattern of the tymbal muscle was very similar to that of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscle: In both muscles, the 2,0 equatorial reflection is much more intense than the 1,1, indicating that both muscles have a flight muscle-type myofilament lattice. In rigor, the first myosin/actin layer line reflection was finely lattice-sampled, indicating that the contractile proteins are arranged with a crystalline regularity as in asynchronous flight muscles. In contrast, the diffraction pattern from the tensor muscle, which modulates the sound by stressing the tymbal, did not show signs of such high regularity or flight muscle-type filament lattice. Electrophoretic patterns of myofibrillar proteins were also very similar in the tymbal muscle and flight muscles, but distinct from those from the tensor or leg muscles. The antibody raised against the flight muscle-specific troponin-I isoform reacted with an 80-kDa band from both tymbal and flight muscles, but with none of the bands from the tensor or leg muscles. Conclusion The close similarities of the structural and biochemical profiles between the tymbal and the flight muscles suggest the possibility that a set of flight muscle-specific proteins is diverted to the tymbal muscle to meet its demand for fast, repetitive contractions.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0077-4
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Red-shift of spectral sensitivity due to screening pigment migration in
           the eyes of a moth, Adoxophyes orana

    • Authors: Aya Satoh; Finlay J. Stewart; Hisaharu Koshitaka; Hiroshi D. Akashi; Primož Pirih; Yasushi Sato; Kentaro Arikawa
      Abstract: Background We have found that the spectral sensitivity of the compound eye in the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana) differs in laboratory strains originating from different regions of Japan. We have investigated the mechanisms underlying this anomalous spectral sensitivity. Methods We applied electrophysiology, light and electron microscopy, opsin gene cloning, mathematical modeling, and behavioral analysis. Results The ERG-determined spectral sensitivity of dark-adapted individuals of all strains peaks around 520 nm. When light-adapted, the spectral sensitivity of the Nagano strain narrows and its peak shifts to 580 nm, while that in other strains remains unchanged. All tested strains appear to be identical in terms of the basic structure of the eye, the pigment migration in response to light- and dark-adaptation, and the molecular structure of long-wavelength absorbing visual pigments. However, the color of the perirhabdomal pigment clearly differs; it is orange in the Nagano strain and purple in the others. The action spectrum of phototaxis appears to be shifted towards longer wavelengths in the Nagano individuals. Conclusions The spectral sensitivities of light-adapted eyes can be modeled under the assumption that this screening pigment plays a crucial role in determining the spectral sensitivity. The action spectrum of phototaxis indicates that the change in the eye spectral sensitivity is behaviorally relevant.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0075-6
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Novel bacteriocyte-associated pleomorphic symbiont of the grain pest
           beetle Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    • Authors: Genta Okude; Ryuichi Koga; Toshinari Hayashi; Yudai Nishide; Xian-Ying Meng; Naruo Nikoh; Akihiro Miyanoshita; Takema Fukatsu
      Abstract: Background The lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) is a stored-product pest beetle. Early histological studies dating back to 1930s have reported that R. dominica and other bostrichid species possess a pair of oval symbiotic organs, called the bacteriomes, in which the cytoplasm is densely populated by pleomorphic symbiotic bacteria of peculiar rosette-like shape. However, the microbiological nature of the symbiont has remained elusive. Results Here we investigated the bacterial symbiont of R. dominica using modern molecular, histological, and microscopic techniques. Whole-mount fluorescence in situ hybridization specifically targeting symbiotic bacteria consistently detected paired bacteriomes, in which the cytoplasm was full of pleomorphic bacterial cells, in the abdomen of adults, pupae and larvae, confirming previous histological descriptions. Molecular phylogenetic analysis identified the symbiont as a member of the Bacteroidetes, in which the symbiont constituted a distinct bacterial lineage allied to a variety of insect-associated endosymbiont clades, including Uzinura of diaspidid scales, Walczuchella of giant scales, Brownia of root mealybugs, Sulcia of diverse hemipterans, and Blattabacterium of roaches. The symbiont gene exhibited markedly AT-biased nucleotide composition and significantly accelerated molecular evolution, suggesting degenerative evolution of the symbiont genome. The symbiotic bacteria were detected in oocytes and embryos, confirming continuous host–symbiont association and vertical symbiont transmission in the host life cycle. Conclusions We demonstrate that the symbiont of R. dominica constitutes a novel bacterial lineage in the Bacteroidetes. We propose that reductive evolution of the symbiont genome may be relevant to the amorphous morphology of the bacterial cells via disruption of genes involved in cell wall synthesis and cell division. Genomic and functional aspects of the host-symbiont relationship deserve future studies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0073-8
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) are commonly associated with a
           diversity of rickettsial endosymbionts

    • Authors: Michael Gerth; Ronny Wolf; Christoph Bleidorn; Julia Richter; Rebekka Sontowski; Jasmin Unrein; Martin Schlegel; Axel Gruppe
      Abstract: Background Bacterial symbionts transmitted from mothers to offspring are found in the majority of arthropods. Numerous studies have illustrated their wide impact on host biology, such as reproduction, behavior, and physiology One of the most common inherited symbionts is Rickettsia spp. (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales), which are found in about one-quarter of terrestrial arthropods, as well as in other invertebrates. In insect populations, Rickettsia spp. have been reported to cause reproductive modifications and fecundity-enhancing effects. Here, we investigated the incidence and genetic diversity of Rickettsia symbionts in green lacewings (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae), which are best known for their use as biological control agents against crop pests. Results We screened 18 species of green lacewings and allies for Rickettsia and found the symbiont in 10 species, infecting 20–100% of sampled individuals. Strain characterization based on multiple bacterial loci revealed an unprecedented diversity of Rickettsia associated with lacewings, suggesting multiple independent acquisitions. Further, the detected Rickettsia lineages are restricted to a specific lineage (i.e., species or genus) of investigated lacewings, and these associations are stable across multiple sampled locations and points in time. Conclusions We conclude that Rickettsia-lacewing symbioses are common and evolutionarily stable. The role of these symbionts remains to be identified, but is potentially important to optimizing their use in biological pest control.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0072-9
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • A fourth subtype of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors is
           activated by oxidized all- trans retinoic acid in medaka ( Oryzias latipes

    • Authors: Kotowa Sakai; Haruka Fukushima; Yuya Yamamoto; Toshitaka Ikeuchi
      Abstract: Background The three known subtypes of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) have been implicated in the control of immunity, brain function, and circadian rhythm in mammals. Here, we demonstrate by phylogenetic analysis that there were originally four subtypes of RORs in vertebrates. One of the novel ror paralogs, rord1 (rorca in the Ensembl database), is conserved among teleosts, but absent in mammals. Using medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a model teleost, we evaluated the expression pattern of this gene, its transactivational properties for endogenic chemicals, and its ability to activate the promoters of putative target genes. Results In eyes, the transcript of rord1 was expressed at higher levels during the day than at night. Interestingly, cholesterol derivatives, which are well-known ligands for mammalian RORs, did not efficiently promote transcriptional activity via RORd1. Thus we sought to identify the ligands that regulate the transcriptional activity of RORd1 using a luciferase reporter cell-based screening system. Using this system, we identified two metabolites of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), 4OH-ATRA and 4-keto ATRA, as potential ligands of RORd1. Moreover, RORd1 activated the promoter of cyp26a1 in a 4OH-ATRA -dependent manner. Conclusions A novel ror subtype, rord has two paralogs, rord1 and rord2, in teleost. Rord1 mRNA is highly abundant in the eyes of medaka during light periods, suggesting that rord1 expression is involved in the regulation of circadian rhythm. We identified two ATRA metabolites, 4OH-ATRA and 4 K–ATRA, as endogenous candidate ligands of RORd1. We also show that 4-oxygenated ATRA metabolites have the potential to activate cyp26a1, the metabolic enzyme of ATRA. Our results support the notion that RORd1 is involved in the metabolism of ATRA in medaka.
      PubDate: 2017-08-11
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0074-7
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Paternal phylogeographic structure of the brown bear ( Ursus arctos ) in
           northeastern Asia and the effect of male-mediated gene flow to insular

    • Abstract: Background Sex-biased dispersal is widespread among mammals, including the brown bear (Ursus arctos). Previous phylogeographic studies of the brown bear based on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA have shown intraspecific genetic structuring around the northern hemisphere. The brown bears on Hokkaido Island, northern Japan, comprise three distinct maternal lineages that presumably immigrated to the island from the continent in three different periods. Here, we investigate the paternal genetic structure across northeastern Asia and assess the connectivity among and within intraspecific populations in terms of male-mediated gene flow. Results We analyzed paternally inherited Y-chromosomal DNA sequence data and Y-linked microsatellite data of 124 brown bears from Hokkaido, the southern Kuril Islands (Kunashiri and Etorofu), Sakhalin, and continental Eurasia (Kamchatka Peninsula, Ural Mountains, European Russia, and Tibet). The Hokkaido brown bear population is paternally differentiated from, and lacked recent genetic connectivity with, the continental Eurasian and North American populations. We detected weak spatial genetic structuring of the paternal lineages on Hokkaido, which may have arisen through male-mediated gene flow among natal populations. In addition, our results suggest that the different dispersal patterns between male and female brown bears, combined with the founder effect and subsequent genetic drift, contributed to the makeup of the Etorofu Island population, in which the maternal and paternal lineages show different origins. Conclusions Brown bears on Hokkaido and the adjacent southern Kuril Islands experienced different maternal and paternal evolutionary histories. Our results indicate that sex-biased dispersal has played a significant role in the evolutionary history of the brown bear in continental populations and in peripheral insular populations, such as on Hokkaido, the southern Kuril Islands, and Sakhalin.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0084-5
  • Strongest grip on the rod: tarsal morphology and attachment of Japanese
           pine sawyer beetles

    • Abstract: Background Plant-dwelling beetles overcome challenging attachment hurdles by means of ellaborated, tarsal attachment devices, which are frequently equipped with hairy adhesive pads. While the tarsal functional morphology has been intensively studied in leaf and ladybird beetles during the last decades, longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae) have been widely neglected in experimental studies on insect attachment. However, they are known to strongly hold on to plant substrates, using tarsi that are densely covered with adhesive setae. In the present study, we examined the Japanese pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternatus, which lives in an arboreal habitat, as an exemplary case. Traction force of male and female beetles on (1) flat and (2) cylindrical, rod-shaped glass was measured. The substrates are further called (1) glass plate and (2) glass rod. Results Both male and female M. alternatus bear ribbon-shaped tarsal adhesive setae with broadened, ultrathin terminals. They release a distinct amount of adhesion-mediating fluid after each step. The beetles never walked on the vertically oriented glass plate. However, they performed well on the horizontal plate, as well as on the horizontally and vertically oriented glass rod. Males generated higher forces and safety factors (traction force devided by the body weight) than females, reaching up to 206 mN traction force and a safety factor of 32 on the horizontal glass rod. Thus, they are able to carry their remarkable body weight (ca. 300 mg) throughout a rather long life span. Conclusions We assume the adaptation of M. alternatus to the attachment on convex and rod-shaped structures to be present in its natural habitat. This longhorn beetle species achieves a proper hold through a combination of interacting parameters: appropriate body alignment and two-sided leg grasping, and generation of normal and friction forces by tarsal pads. This smart attachment system gives rise to the reconsideration of the ecological and evolutionary background, and provides insights for the development of bio-inspired technical grippers.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1186/s40851-017-0076-5
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Heriot-Watt University
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