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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering
Number of Followers: 4  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2199-9260 - ISSN (Online) 2199-9279
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Rehabilitation of Portal Subsidence of Heybat Sultan Twin Tunnels:
           Selection of Shotcrete or Geogrid Alternatives
    • Authors: Ako Daraei; Bengin M. Herki; Aryan Far H. Sherwani; Shokrollah Zare
      Abstract: The occurrence of karst phenomenon is one of the common problems in carbonate rocks in the presence of water. The rock masses constituting the ground surface are mostly of sedimentary types among which carbonate rocks are widely observed. It is therefore necessary to accept such a geological hazard in many projects. Some of the rehabilitation methods for karstic subsidence include grout injection, filling with concrete or shotcrete and making use of geosynthetic products. Few studies have been carried out on the application of the geosynthetic products. Limy rocks form the main lithology of a large part of the 72 km long access road tunnel designed for the Iraqi-Kurdistan. The occurrence of a karstic subsidence with a volume of about 2250 m3 in the portal of Heybat Sultan tunnels revealed the necessity of examining and selecting one of these rehabilitation methods. Concerns about the repetition of such collapses in other tunnels, especially in the 6740 m long Korek twin tunnels that is the longest tunnel of the Middle East located in the vicinity of the project, has doubled the importance of the issue. This paper aims to render an account of the use of shotcrete and geogrid to rehabilitate the subsidence of the portal of Heybat Sultan tunnels. The modeling results with the FLAC numerical finite difference code showed that the displacement amount of the host rock mass after implementing the second method would be 2.9 times less than the first method. Geogrid also reduces the axial forces exerted to the tunnel supporting system up to 43 tons.
      PubDate: 2018-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-018-0132-z
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
  • Three-Dimensional Analysis of Uplift Behaviour of Square Horizontal Anchor
           Plate in Frictional Soil
    • Authors: Awdhesh Kumar Choudhary; Bhardwaj Pandit; G. L. Sivakumar Babu
      Abstract: The paper examines the response of square horizontal anchor plate in frictional soil using three-dimensional analysis. The present numerical model is found to closely predict the experimental uplift pressure–displacement relationship. The ultimate uplift load of anchor plate is found to be significantly influenced by its embedment depth, anchor plate size and properties of the fill sand. Elastic modulus of sand has significant effect on the initial slope of the pressure–displacement responses. However, the elastic modulus has marginal effect on the ultimate capacity of anchor plate. The performance of anchor plate is found to increase by 1.8 times with increase in dilation angle of sand from ψ = 0 to ψ = ϕ in dense sand. The scale effect on the performance of anchor plate is found to be marginal for anchor size in the range of 0.5 m × 0.5 m to 1 m × 1 m. The results obtained from the present numerical investigation agree well with the results reported in literature for similar cases.
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-018-0130-1
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
  • Sediment Retention and Clogging of Geotextile with High Water Content
    • Authors: N. Fatema; S. K. Bhatia
      Abstract: Over the past two decades, geotextile tube dewatering has been predominantly used for dewatering high-water content slurries, fly ash, and different types of sediments and sludges. The water content of these dredged sediments can be as high as 800% and their shear strength is very low before dewatering. The selected geotextile should be tight enough to allow for minimal, clog-free sediment piping and to maintain steady drainage through the geotextile tube. These steps ensure good sediment retention of high water content slurries and provide an adequate discharge capacity of geotextile tubes during dewatering. This study investigates the sediment retention and geotextile clogging of high water content slurries (232.56, 400 and 882.35%). A falling head test (FHT) was used to evaluate the dewatering performance of six pairs of woven and non-woven geotextiles with similar pore openings but different pore size distributions. FHT showed that the piping rate increases with decreasing water content in a slurry (232.56–882.35%) and the degree of clogging decreases with increasing pore sizes (both O50 and O98). In addition, a study was carried out to measure the pore size distribution of 51 geotextiles using capillary flow tests. The capillary flow test results are correlated to mass per unit area of geotextiles, a property of geotextiles which is easy to measure. It was found that O98, O50 and O10 of non-woven geotextiles decrease with the increasing mass per unit area. However, no such trend was found for woven geotextiles.
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-018-0131-0
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
  • Experimental Investigation of the Shear Behavior of EPS Geofoam
    • Authors: Muhammad Imran Khan; Mohamed A. Meguid
      Abstract: Geofoam has been used in a wide range of geotechnical engineering projects since 1960s; either as lightweight fill material (e.g. embankments and bridge approaches) or as compressible inclusion (e.g. retaining walls and culverts). In most of these projects, geofoam is installed either in direct contact with other geofoam blocks or other construction material. Successful design of these composite systems requires a good understanding of both the compression and shear behavior of the geofoam blocks as well as the shear strength of the interface. In this study, an attempt has been made to measure the shear strength parameters of expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam blocks of different densities as well as the interface strength parameters as these blocks interact with sand as well as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) material. A series of direct shear tests has been carried out on geofoam samples of three different densities, namely, 15, 22 and 35 kg/m3. Shear test results on geofoam monoblocks showed that the increase in density results in an increase in the material cohesion, which is associated with a decrease in the internal friction angle. Most of the interface resistance was found to develop at small displacements. For geofoam–PVC interface, both the adhesion and angle of interface friction slightly increased with the increase in geofoam density. The measured geofoam–sand interface strength revealed a consistent increase in the angle of interface friction as the density of geofoam material increased. These experimental results can be used to guide engineers in estimating the interface parameters needed for both analytical and numerical analyses involving soil–EPS–structure interaction.
      PubDate: 2018-03-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-018-0129-7
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
  • A New Approach to Solution for Partially Penetrated Prefabricated Vertical
    • Authors: N. T. Nghia; L. G. Lam; Sanjay Kumar Shukla
      Abstract: Partially penetrated prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs) have been analyzed by many methods, including analytical methods, semi-analytical methods and finite element methods (FEM). The recent methods have considered the drain’s end as a permeable region while most of the current construction techniques use an anchor plate element at the end of a PVD, which prevents water flowing from the beneath untreated soil. This paper takes this practical situation into account and derives a semi-analytical solution for partially penetrated vertical drains. The results are also verified by FEM method using ABAQUS software. As a result, the excess pore pressure with depth obtained by the proposed solution is mechanically reasonable as compared with previous solutions and FEM. In addition, a subroutine of visual basic for application in Microsoft Excel is developed to easily obtain eigenvalues.
      PubDate: 2018-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-018-0128-8
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
  • Slope Stability in Swelling Soils Using Cement Grout: A Case Study
    • Authors: Ako Daraei; Bengin M. A. Herki; Aryan Far H. Sherwani; Shokrollah Zare
      Abstract: Control and stabilization of swelling soils have been a basic challenge in geotechnical engineering since 1970s till now. Major stabilization methods applied for swelling soils lead to minimum one of the disadvantages of high construction cost, laboratory-scale application, implementation only in flat areas and diseases caused by the use of chemical materials. Several instabilities and collapses have happened in side slopes excavated in swelling soils of the under construction highways of Iraq-Kurdistan. This necessitates presenting a method statement to decrease and control swelling potentials. This study aims to describe the cement grouting method applied in Salaheddin side slope which is known as one of the most critical instabilities of Erbil–Haj Omran highway where the optimal grout content was first determined in the laboratory and then it was used in the project as the consolidation grouting. Results indicated that the soil swelling decreases for > 90% by injecting 6% of cement grout. The grouting also increases the uniaxial compressive strength of the soil for more than two times.
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-018-0127-9
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • Predicting Swelling Behavior of a Na + -Bentonite Used in GCLs
    • Authors: Jin-Chun Chai; Shui-Long Shen
      Abstract: The swelling behavior of a Na+-bentonite used in geosynthetic clay liners with lower dry unit weights (less than about 11 kN/m3) was investigated experimentally, and analyzed by diffuse double layer (DDL) theory. Four types of liquid were used. It has been found that the measured swelling pressures are about 20% of that predicted by DDL theory. There are linear relationships between the calculated double layer thickness and the measured corresponding free swelling index and liquid limit.
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-018-0126-x
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • A Study on Geotextile—Sand Interface Behavior Based on Direct Shear and
           Triaxial Compression Tests
    • Authors: Ioannis N. Markou
      Abstract: The effect of shear box size, geotextile type and properties and sand grain shape and size on the sand–geotextile interaction was investigated experimentally by conducting interface tests with conventional (100 mm) and large-scale (300 mm) direct shear boxes. Triaxial compression tests were also conducted on reinforced sand samples in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a methodology developed for obtaining interface friction coefficient values. Four uniform sands, one with subangular grains and three with rounded grains of different sizes were tested in dry and dense condition. Seven nonwoven polypropylene geotextiles of various types and properties and seven woven geotextiles with or without apertures were used in the tests. The conventional shear box is satisfactory for testing materials like those used in the present investigation because it gave comparable interface friction coefficient values to those obtained by the large-scale shear box. The sand–geotextile interaction behavior depends on the surface characteristics of the geotextiles and the interlocking of sand grains in geotextile apertures. The rounded shape and decrease in size of sand grains more effectively mobilize the soil–geotextile interface friction. The results of triaxial compression tests are in quantitative and qualitative agreement with the results of direct shear tests, for geotextiles without apertures. The friction efficiency for geotextiles with apertures obtained from triaxial compression tests attains a maximum value for an aperture ratio (aperture size of geotextile / mean grain size of sand) value approximately equal to 1.9, in agreement with the results of other studies.
      PubDate: 2018-01-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0121-7
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • Interface Shear Strength Properties of Gravel Bases and Subgrades with
           Various Reinforcements
    • Authors: G. Narendra Goud; B. Umashankar
      Abstract: Reinforcing pavement layers with geosynthetics improve the pavement performance significantly. In addition to the use of geosynthetics, the hexagonal–steel–wire mesh has gained popularity as a reinforcing material in pavements. The interface shear property of pavement material and reinforcement is an important input parameter in numerical modeling of the reinforced pavement system. In this study, the interface shear parameters of various pavement materials, namely poor subgrade, fair subgrade, gravel base (GB), and gravel surface (GS) with geogrid and hexagonal–wire–mesh reinforcements is obtained using large-size direct shear test apparatus. GS and GB mixes are selected from Indian rural roads specification of unpaved surface and base layers of the pavement. In addition, the effect of the size of the aperture of geogrid reinforcement on interface properties is studied by considering two types of biaxial geogrids of different aperture sizes. The interface shear strength and interaction coefficients of different reinforcement types with pavement materials are also proposed. The interaction coefficients of three reinforcement types with the pavement materials considered in the study are found to range from 0.82 to 1.45. The interface shear modulus of different interfaces considered in this study ranges from about 12165–57337 kPa/m corresponding to normal streeses in the range of 30–90 kPa.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0124-4
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • Predicting CBR Value of Stabilized Pond Ash with Lime and Lime Sludge
           Using ANN and MR Models
    • Authors: Manju Suthar; Praveen Aggarwal
      Abstract: In the present study, a multilayer perception-artificial neural network and multiple regression model is developed for predicting the California bearing ratio (CBR) value of stabilized pond ash. Pond ash collected from Panipat thermal plant is stabilized with lime (2, 4, 6 and 8%) alone and in combination with lime sludge (5, 10 and 15%). Total 51 datasets of experimentally observed CBR value were used in the development of models. Fitness of the model was observed through three statistical parameters i.e. coefficient of correlation (CC), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error. Both the models predict CBR value with high degree of accuracy having CC more than 0.96. From the sensitivity analysis, it is observed that curing period is the most significant parameter affecting the CBR value of stabilized pond ash.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0125-3
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • Reliability Based LRFD of Geomembrane Liners for V-Shaped Anchor Trenches
           of MSW Landfills
    • Authors: K. V. N. S. Raviteja; B. Munwar Basha
      Abstract: The main objective of design of V-shaped anchor trenches is to ensure safety against the pullout failure in Geomembrane (GMB) liners efficiently. Uncertainties related to soil-liner interface frictional angle, allowable GMB tensile force, and the unit weight of the cover/backfill soil can be quantified through probabilistic means. Load and Resistance Factor Design approach involves reliability theory in the evaluation of load and resistance factors. The present study focuses on the application of reliability based load and resistance factor design of V-shaped anchor trenches. This paper gives a clear guideline for the successful performance of anchor trenches against pullout failure in handling the variability of soil-liner interface frictional angle, allowable GMB tensile force, and the unit weight of the cover/backfill soil. Target reliability approach is used to estimate the probability of pullout failure of GMB liner. The results of the study can be used to understand the response of the anchor trench for variable loads. The study recommends the resistance and the load factors for the design of V-shaped anchor trenches of MSW Landfills.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0123-5
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • Numerical Simulation of the Response of Geosynthetic Encased Stone Columns
           Under Oil Storage Tank
    • Authors: Sithara Pamangattu Muzammil; Renjitha Mary Varghese; Jerin Joseph
      Abstract: Geosynthetic encased stone columns (GESCs) are a newly developed technique in which stone columns are wrapped with geosynthetic to overcome some of the limitations of ordinary stone columns (OSCs) through the additional confinement provided by the geosynthetic. This paper presents the behavior of GESCs under circular oil storage tank and its comparison with OSCs under the same in situ conditions using PLAXIS 3D. In this paper, initial studies were carried out to understand the mechanism of load carrying capacity of soils reinforced with stone columns and the later observations from the parametric studies supported the conclusions. The various parameters considered in this investigation include the effect of encasement stiffness and length on settlement and lateral deformation of stone columns. The results show that with an increase in stiffness value, there is a considerable reduction in the long-term settlement and lateral deformation of GESCs. It was found that settlement reduced by up to 55% and lateral deformation by up to 68% with an increase in geosynthetic stiffness from 1000 to 10,000 kN/m. Meanwhile the encasement length up to six times the diameter was found as the optimum encasement length to get the same performance as that of fully encased stone columns. Further a suitable arrangement of encased stone columns in terms of encasement length has been developed to economize the consumption of geosynthetic without compromising the performance of GESCs.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0122-6
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • A New Failure Load Criterion for Large-Diameter Under-Reamed Piles:
           Practical Perspective
    • Authors: Lei Zhang; Qingsheng Chen; Guang-yun Gao; Sanjay Nimbalkar; Gabriele Chiaro
      Abstract: Sustainable performance of heavy structures such as tanks, storage yards and tall buildings often rely on an efficient transfer of vertical and lateral loads to underlying ground. If the foundation soil does not have sufficient strength, the piles may be belled out (under-reamed) at the base, often termed as large-diameter belled piles (LDBPs). In reality the deformation and failure mechanism of LDBPs are significantly different and are influenced by the nature of foundation soil. However, in the absence of appropriate design guidelines, LDBPs are simply treated as conventional straight piles, often ignoring enlarged base. To access effects of enlarged base on load-deformation behavior, full-scale load tests are conducted on several LDBPs. A novel interpreted failure load criterion is proposed for LDBPs. The general applicability of this criterion is verified using the data from nine independent pile load tests retrieved from four different projects across China. Adopting the proposed method, provision of a much effective and economic design for LDBPs is feasible in comparison with the criteria currently prevalent in practice.
      PubDate: 2018-01-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0120-8
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • A Comparative Numerical Study on Soil–Geosynthetic Interactions Using
           Large Scale Direct Shear Test and Pullout Test
    • Authors: A. Hegde; R. Roy
      Abstract: The direct shear test and the pullout tests are two widely used test procedures for determining the properties of the soil–geosynthetic interface. It is evident from the previous literature that the interface properties obtained from these tests differ considerably. In the present study, an attempt has been made to compare the interface properties obtained from the direct shear test and the pullout tests using the numerical simulations. A nonwoven polypropylene geotextile was used in the study. Three different types of sands with different fines content were considered. The analyses were carried using finite element package PLAXIS2D in two dimensional frameworks. Initially, the numerical model was validated with the existing literature and the validated model was used to study the interface behaviour of the sand-geotextile interface. The results revealed that the interface properties obtained from the direct shear test and the pullout tests vary significantly. The presence of the fines content in the soil reduces the frictional resistance of the soil-geotextile interface. The interaction ratio value was found to vary between 0.67 and 0.97 for different types of sand. The friction coefficient of the pullout test was about 50% of the friction coefficient value obtained from the direct shear test. The friction angles obtained from the pullout test were found to vary between 30 and 50% of the direct shear tests. However, the apparent cohesion of the pullout test was found approximately four times the cohesion value obtained from the direct shear test.
      PubDate: 2017-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0119-1
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • Analysis of Reinforced Unpaved Roads by Modified Structural Number Method
    • Authors: Avinash Kumar Singh; Satyendra Mittal
      Abstract: By inclusion of geosynthetics in cross-sections of pavements, either traffic capacity of pavements can be enhanced for the same structural section or structural section can be reduced for the same traffic capacity. In the past research works, two methods were mainly adopted for the analysis of reinforced pavements, one is by conducting static plate load tests over unpaved roads on the basis of subgrade bearing capacity failure and secondly by applying dynamic or cyclic loads on the paved sections and determining the traffic benefit on the basis of rutting failure criterion. In the present research study, an effort has been made to evaluate the performance of road sections reinforced with geosynthetics using AASHTO 1993 Method. The structural number (SN), which denotes the strength of the pavements, has been modified using load equivalency factor concept. The unpaved sections were reinforced in a single layer at interface and within the subgrade layer at different positions. The maximum load intensities at a settlement of 12.5 mm in unreinforced and reinforced sections were converted into Equivalent Single Axle Load at the surface of pavement using Botswana guidelines on the basis of axle load surveys (2000). Using Load equivalency factor concept, new traffic capacities were determined followed by calculation of modified SNs for reinforced sections using AASHTO 1993 Design equation. The structural contribution of geosynthetics has been quantified in the terms of Base Course Reduction (BCR) values, which is defined as the percentage reduction in structural section of base course layer for reinforced sections as compared to unreinforced section. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the grain size distribution and other important physical parameters of soil used for preparing subgrade. It is clear from the results that there is a considerable increase in load carrying capacity of unpaved sections due to reinforcements achieving an average BCR value of about 44%, with bi-axial geogrid (BX2020) and about 30% with CE121 geonet when reinforced within top one-third of subgrade layer.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0115-5
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • Modeling of Compaction Grouting Technique with Development of Cylindrical
           Cavity Expansion Problem in a Finite Medium
    • Authors: Neha Shrivastava; Kouki Zen; Sanjay Kumar Shukla
      Abstract: The compaction grouting (CPG) method is relatively a new ground improvement technique for mitigating the liquefaction problem. In this technique, a stiff mortar is injected under high pressure that displaces and compacts the surrounding soil. Though the application of the method has been mainly dependent on the field tests, practical experience and empiricism, the compactive mechanism of CPG is not well understood. The objective of the present study is to bring out its compactive mechanism in its densification and confining effect. This paper presents an analytical solution for the process of CPG simulating it as an expansion of a cylindrical cavity in a finite medium. Effect of CPG is quantified as an increase in lateral earth pressure at any stage of applied injection pressure normalized with initial hydrostatic pressure and in terms of a densification factor. Predictions are made to reveal the behavior of CPG-treated soil in three states of density, namely as comparatively loose, medium and dense. Design charts are developed for liquefaction resistance parameter of CPG, RCPG, based on the present model of cavity expansion theory. It has been found that the design methods for CPG-improved ground should account for the coefficient of earth pressure at rest.
      PubDate: 2017-12-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0117-3
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effect of Seasonal Changes on a Hybrid Soil–Geofoam Embankment
    • Authors: Ali Shafikhani; Tejo V. Bheemasetti; Anand J. Puppala
      Abstract: The effects of climatic variations on the performance of the bridge infrastructure were not adequately addressed. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the effect of seasonal temperature and precipitation variations on a bridge infrastructure located in Johnson County, Texas. This bridge has undergone a rehabilitation process by partially replacing the embankment soil with lightweight expanded polystyrene geofoam (EPS geofoam) to reduce bridge approach slab settlements. Four years of monitored vertical deformation and pressure cell data from the field instrumentation was used to analyze the performance of the bridge slab and adjoining roadway pavement system. From the analysis, it was observed that the vertical pressures and total deformations were increased with an increase in temperature and were decreased with a decrease in temperature. Also, with an increase in the temperature, it was observed that the bridge retaining wall exerted lateral pressure on the geofoam blocks and with a decrease in temperature the pressures decreased considerably. This study highlights the observations made on the bridge approach slab and adjoining roadway pavement vertical deformations with respect to temperature and precipitation variations.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0116-4
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Empirical and Numerical Analyses of Tunnel Closure in Squeezing Rock
    • Authors: Manasa Hanumanthappa; V. B. Maji
      Abstract: Squeezing is one of the major problems during tunnel construction in weak geological formations. There are empirical and semi-empirical solutions available to capture squeezing behavior in rocks given by many researchers based on extensive case studies. An investigation showed that these solutions are not always consistent and many times found to underestimate the behavior of rock mass for squeezing failure. So these solutions can be considered as preliminary estimates in predicting squeezing problem and can’t be considered as the final solution in designing the structure. In the present study, numerical analysis of a case study is been carried out using FLAC after investigating with empirical methods. Numerical analysis is performed using Generalised Hoek–Brown (GHB) criterion and the displacements obtained systematically compared with the observed values from the field. The numerical model is found to be efficient in capturing the deformation characteristics and squeezing behavior of the tunnel. The study advocates the applicability of numerical modeling in complimenting empirical analyses for better prediction of the tunnel deformation behavior in squeezing rocks.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0118-2
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Use of Polyamide-6 Type Engineering Polymer as Grouted Rock Bolt Material
    • Authors: Eren Komurlu; Ayhan Kesimal; C. Okay Aksoy
      Abstract: In this study, usability of Polyamide-6 type engineering polymer as a new rock bolt material was investigated carrying out a series of laboratory and field scale experiments. The Polyamide-6 type polymer tested as a grouted rock bolt material was assessed to have a good body strength, large elastic deformation limit and high energy absorbing capacity. The load bearing capacity of Polyamide-6 rock bolts was found to dominantly depend on the mechanical anchorage in front of the shank as a result of having low adhesion to the cement grout values. In this study, polyamide rock bolts have been designed with different mechanical anchors. It was suggested to start the systematical use of polyamide rock bolts having ideal support reactions under both static and dynamic load conditions in rock engineering. Especially, Polyamide-6 rock bolts were assessed to be economically usable in rock masses with squeezing, swelling or bursting problem, which need for non-decreasing support pressure while being higly deformed and good energy absorption capacity.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0114-6
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Performance of Granular Piles-Improved Soft Ground Under Raft Foundation:
           A Numerical Study
    • Authors: Mohamed B. D. Elsawy; Basuony El-Garhy
      Abstract: Reinforcing soft soil with granular piles improves effectively its properties. In the current research, the performance of granular piles reinforced soft soil under a uniformly loaded raft foundation has been investigated numerically utilizing Plaxis 3D. A parametric study was performed under drained loading conditions to investigate the effect of various parameters on the long-term behavior of the raft foundation such as spacing distance, diameter and length of the granular piles. The influence of the parameters has been studied on the overall settlement, bending moment of the raft and the lateral bulging of the granular piles. The results indicated that the existence of the granular piles in soft soil decreases significantly the settlement and the bending moment of the raft. The lateral bulging distribution of the granular piles is dependent on their locations. Additional improvements in the settlement and the bending moment of the raft, and in the lateral bulging also occurred due to the decrease of the spacing ratio, and the increase of area replacement ratio and granular piles length. Reinforcing soft soil using floating ground piles with length to soil layer thickness ratio of 0.75 is sufficient to achieve good improvement performance.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0113-7
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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