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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2574 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2574 Journals sorted by number of followers
Intl. J. on Digital Libraries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 757, SJR: 0.441, CiteScore: 2)
Information Retrieval     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 658, SJR: 0.352, CiteScore: 2)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 525, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Crime, Law and Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 485, SJR: 0.357, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Police and Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 431, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 1)
Diabetologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 321, SJR: 3.228, CiteScore: 5)
Innovative Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.586, CiteScore: 1)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 289, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
Gyroscopy and Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 218, SJR: 1.243, CiteScore: 3)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184, SJR: 0.99, CiteScore: 2)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 1.077, CiteScore: 3)
Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 1.782, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 1.628, CiteScore: 4)
Crime Prevention and Community Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Space Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95, SJR: 3.262, CiteScore: 7)
J. of Autism and Developmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.81, CiteScore: 4)
Intensive Care Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 3.293, CiteScore: 4)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
European J. of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.375, CiteScore: 1)
Marine Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.085, CiteScore: 2)
Landscape Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.858, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.014, CiteScore: 3)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 61)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.035, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.752, CiteScore: 4)
Research in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.702, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Oecologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.695, CiteScore: 3)
J. of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Experimental Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.639, CiteScore: 4)
Machine Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.695, CiteScore: 3)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.276, CiteScore: 3)
Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. for Philosophy of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge journal of evidence-based policing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Earth System Science     Open Access   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.366, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.427, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.159, CiteScore: 4)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.186, CiteScore: 2)
Memory & Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.379, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Astrophysics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.921, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Anesthesia/J. canadien d'anesthésie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.908, CiteScore: 2)
Contemporary Political Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.331, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Bulletin of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Family Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
Astrophysics and Space Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.616, CiteScore: 1)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.093, CiteScore: 2)
Comparative European Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.24, CiteScore: 2)
Demography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.345, CiteScore: 3)
Foundations of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Intl. Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.198, CiteScore: 7)
Water Resources Management     Open Access   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 3)
Qualitative Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.984, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.125, CiteScore: 2)
Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.864, CiteScore: 4)
Mindfulness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.132, CiteScore: 3)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.392, CiteScore: 1)
European Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.25, CiteScore: 0)
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Experimental Astronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.908, CiteScore: 2)
Metal Science and Heat Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Solar Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.517, CiteScore: 3)
European J. of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 2)
Scientometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.125, CiteScore: 3)
IMF Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 3.287, CiteScore: 2)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.445, CiteScore: 4)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.204, CiteScore: 4)
J. of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.022, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Quantitative Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 3.562, CiteScore: 4)
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.323, CiteScore: 2)
JOM J. of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.054, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.408, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.621, CiteScore: 2)
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.695, CiteScore: 1)
Child and Adolescent Social Work J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.444, CiteScore: 1)
Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.914, CiteScore: 2)
Political Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.708, CiteScore: 2)
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.8, CiteScore: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.228, CiteScore: 6)
Der Onkologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.081, CiteScore: 4)
Australian Educational Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Italian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
J. of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.058, CiteScore: 3)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.262, CiteScore: 2)
Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
Motivation and Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.136, CiteScore: 2)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.911, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Population Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.574, CiteScore: 2)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
Information Systems Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.821, CiteScore: 4)
Clinical Social Work J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.498, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Economic Growth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 5.529, CiteScore: 5)
Current Diabetes Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.618, CiteScore: 4)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.674, CiteScore: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.845, CiteScore: 3)
CEAS Aeronautical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.248, CiteScore: 1)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Risk and Uncertainty     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.471, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.827, CiteScore: 2)
Flow, Turbulence and Combustion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.934, CiteScore: 2)
Microsystem Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.346, CiteScore: 1)
IIC - Intl. Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.28, CiteScore: 0)
Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Landslides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.802, CiteScore: 4)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Information Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 3)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
Higher Education Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.652, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Ornithology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
J. of Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Financial Services Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.31, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Computational Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.888, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Banking Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.22, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.587, CiteScore: 2)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Review of Accounting Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.757, CiteScore: 2)
Public Choice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.991, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.249, CiteScore: 3)
Continental Philosophy Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Human Rights Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.175, CiteScore: 1)
European Business Organization Law Review (EBOR)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.409, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Human Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 2)
Evolutionary Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.312, CiteScore: 3)
Russian Aeronautics (Iz VUZ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
The European Physical J. D - Atomic, Molecular, Optical and Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.387, CiteScore: 1)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Mechanics of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Public Health Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.715, CiteScore: 1)
World J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.359, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.352, CiteScore: 1)
Experimental Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.276, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.784, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.514, CiteScore: 3)
Experimental Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.947, CiteScore: 2)
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.066, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Mental Health and Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Science and Mathematics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.737, CiteScore: 1)
Russian J. of Non-Ferrous Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 3)
Breast Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 2)
Diabetes Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.094, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.34, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Materials Engineering and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 2)
Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.345, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.502, CiteScore: 1)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 1)
European Spine J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.535, CiteScore: 2)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.099, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.899, CiteScore: 5)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.562, CiteScore: 1)
Science & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.186, CiteScore: 2)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.514, CiteScore: 1)
Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.448, CiteScore: 1)
Netherlands Intl. Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.274, CiteScore: 0)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.092, CiteScore: 2)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.307, CiteScore: 3)
Hydrogeology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Health Sciences Education
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.64
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 35  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-1677 - ISSN (Online) 1382-4996
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2574 journals]
  • Investigating the validity of web-enabled mechanistic case diagramming
           scores to assess students’ integration of foundational and clinical
    • Abstract: As medical schools have changed their curricula to address foundational and clinical sciences in a more integrated fashion, teaching methods such as concept mapping have been incorporated in small group learning settings. Methods that can assess students’ ability to apply such integrated knowledge are not as developed, however. The purpose of this project was to assess the validity of scores on a focused version of concept maps called mechanistic case diagrams (MCDs), which are hypothesized to enhance existing tools for assessing integrated knowledge that supports clinical reasoning. The data were from the medical school graduating class of 2018 (N = 136 students). In 2014–2015 we implemented a total of 16 case diagrams in case analysis groups within the Mechanisms of Health and Disease (MOHD) strand of the pre-clinical curriculum. These cases were based on topics being taught during the lectures and small group sessions for MOHD. We created an overall score across all 16 cases for each student. We then correlated these scores with performance in the preclinical curriculum [as assessed by overall performance in MOHD integrated foundational basic science courses and overall performance in the Clinical and Professional Skills (CAPS) courses], and standardized licensing exam scores [United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE)] Step 1 (following core clerkships) and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (at the beginning of the fourth year of medical school). MCD scores correlated with students’ overall basic science scores (r = .46, p = .0002) and their overall performance in Clinical and Professional Skills courses (r = .49, p < .0001). In addition, they correlated significantly with standardized exam measures, including USMLE Step 1 (r = .33, p ≤ .0001), and USMLE Step 2 CK (r = .39, p < .0001). These results provide preliminary validity evidence that MCDs may be useful in identifying students who have difficulty in integrating foundational and clinical sciences.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
  • How theory and design-based research can mature PBL practice and research
    • Abstract: Many educational institutions in higher education switched to problem-based learning (PBL) in the last 5 decades. Despite its’ successful implementation worldwide, many institutions still encounter problems in their daily teaching practices that limit deep learning in students. This raises the question: How else can we look at PBL practice and research' The main argument of this reflective paper is to better align PBL practice with the theories or principles of contextual, constructive, self-directed and collaborative learning. This paper explains what these principles or theories are. In addition, it discusses a new way to bridge theory and practice: design-based research (DBR), which combines redesigning theory-based teaching practices with investigating these practices in close collaboration with various stakeholders. There is no one-size-fits-all solution to address the problems encountered in PBL. We should be very careful in drawing conclusions about which PBL approach works best. No single solution works optimally under all conditions. At most, DBR can help us gain better insight into why PBL with certain characteristics, preferably based on theory, might work in a specific context with particular goals in mind.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
  • A systematic scoping review of ethical issues in mentoring in internal
           medicine, family medicine and academic medicine
    • Abstract: Mentoring’s role in medical education is threatened by the potential abuse of mentoring relationships. Particularly affected are mentoring relationships between senior clinicians and junior doctors which lie at the heart of mentoring. To better understand and address these concerns, a systematic scoping review into prevailing accounts of ethical issues and professional lapses in mentoring is undertaken. Arksey and O’Malley’s (Int J Soc Res Methodol 8(1):19–32, 2005. methodological framework for conducting scoping reviews was employed to explore the scope of ethical concerns in mentoring in general medicine. Databases searcheed included PubMed, ScienceDirect, ERIC, Embase, Scopus, Mednar and OpenGrey. 3391 abstracts were identified from the initialy search after removal of duplicates, 412 full-text articles were reviewed, 98 articles were included and thematically analysed. Unsatisfactory matching, misaligned expectations, inadequate mentor training, cursory codes of conduct, sketchy standards of practice, meagre oversight and unstructured processes have been identified as potential causes for ethical and professional breaches in mentoring practice. Changes in how professionalism is viewed suggest further studies of educational culture should also be carried out. The host organization plays a major role in establishing codes of conduct, expectations, and holistically, longitudinally oversight of the mentoring process and mentoring relationships.
      PubDate: 2019-11-09
  • From physiotherapy to the army: negotiating previously developed
           professional identities in mature medical students
    • Abstract: Professional identity formation, the process of transformation from lay person to doctor, is at the heart of medical education. Medical student cohorts can include students who enter medicine from a previous career, i.e. with developed professional identities and who are usually older and more mature. Students with previously developed professional identities may have specific challenges in negotiating their new ‘doctor’ identity. This study examined the development of professional identity in mature medical students who had a variety of previous careers prior to entering medical school. A narrative inquiry was undertaken using interviews of mature medical students with backgrounds that included physiotherapy, clinical physiology, public health and nutrition, and the armed forces. A narrative analysis was conducted combining both thematic and structural perspectives using linguistics and positioning theory as interpretive tools. Three main themes emerged that portray the development processes that arise in this cohort as they develop their medical professional identity: holding back aspects of the previous self; foregrounding aspects of the previous self; and developing new aspects towards forming a ‘new’ self. These themes and their implications are discussed in the context of current literature, highlighting some of the specific challenges that this cohort faces in developing their medical identity. We argue that dedicated faculty and student development be offered, exploring how professional identity formation in mature medical students can be facilitated and supported, so staff and students are better equipped to engage and shape mature students’ professional identity in a meaningful way.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
  • Factors affecting recruitment into General Practice: a double binary
           choice approach
    • Abstract: Recruitment to General Practice (GP) is currently low in many countries. Here we focus on two binary choices for junior doctors: first, whether to apply to GP; second, whether to accept a GP training place if offered. Previous attitudinal studies have indicated factors claimed to affect recruitment. The current study goes further by quantifying the relative impact of different factors on the propensity of candidates to apply to GP and accept a training place. An online questionnaire was sent to candidates applying to United Kingdom (UK) specialty training in 2015. Descriptive statistics and a path analysis evaluated the importance of various factors on GP applications. Our results were synthesised with an analysis of data from the online applications portal. With 3838 candidates responding to the survey, the path analysis showed that personality and previous GP experiences were strongly associated with the decision to apply. There was some evidence that it was easier to enter GP than other specialties; in terms of deciding whether to accept, the evidence suggests GP was a backup plan for around 9% of candidates who accepted a GP post. Our results indicate that recruitment initiatives should focus on candidates who apply to GP but not as first choice or consider GP but do not apply, particularly by providing substantial experience of GP and accentuating the positives of the specialty such as work-life balance and the intellectual challenge of working with patients in primary care. Acceptance of a GP place may also depend on competition for places in other specialties.
      PubDate: 2019-11-06
  • Social ties between team members affect patient satisfaction: a
           data-driven approach to handling complex network analyses
    • Abstract: Research from outside the medical field suggests that social ties between team-members influence knowledge sharing, improve coordination, and facilitate task completion. However, the relative importance of social ties among team-members for patient satisfaction remains unknown. In this study, we explored the association between social ties within emergency teams performing simulated caesarean sections (CS) and patient-actor satisfaction. Two hundred seventy-two participants were allocated to 33 teams performing two emergency CSs in a simulated setting. We collected data on social ties between team-members, measured as affective, personal and professional ties. Ties were rated on 5-point Likert scales. In addition, participants’ clinical experience, demographic data and their knowledge about team members’ roles were surveyed. Perceived patient satisfaction was measured on a 5-point Likert scale. Data was analysed with a linear regression model using elastic net regularization. In total, 109 predictor variables were analysed including 84 related to social ties and 25 related to clinical experience, demographics and knowledge test scores. Of the 84 variables reflecting social ties, 34 (41%) had significant association with patient satisfaction, p < 0.01. By contrast, a significant association with patient satisfaction was found for only one (4%) of the 25 variables reflecting clinical experience, demographics and knowledge of team roles. Affective ties and personal ties were found to be far more important predictors in the statistical model than professional ties and predictors relating to clinical experience. Social ties between emergency team members may be important predictors of patient satisfaction. The results from this study help to enhance our conceptual understanding of social ties and their implications for team-dynamics. Our study challenges existing views of team-performance by placing emphasis on achieving collective competence through affective and personal social ties, rather than focusing on traditional measures of expertise.
      PubDate: 2019-11-05
  • Supervision training in healthcare: a realist synthesis
    • Abstract: Supervision matters: it serves educational, supportive and management functions. Despite a plethora of evidence on the effectiveness of supervision, scant evidence for the impact of supervision training exists. While three previous literature reviews have begun to examine the effectiveness of supervision training, they fail to explore the extent to which supervision training works, for whom, and why. We adopted a realist approach to answer the question: to what extent do supervision training interventions work (or not), for whom and in what circumstances, and why' We conducted a team-based realist synthesis of the supervision training literature focusing on Pawson’s five stages: (1) clarifying the scope; (2) determining the search strategy; (3) study selection; (4) data extraction; and (5) data synthesis. We extracted contexts (C), mechanisms (M) and outcomes (O) and CMO configurations from 29 outputs including short (n = 19) and extended-duration (n = 10) supervision training interventions. Irrespective of duration, interventions including mixed pedagogies involving active and/or experiential learning, social learning and protected time served as mechanisms triggering multiple positive supervisor outcomes. Short-duration interventions also led to positive outcomes through mechanisms such as supervisor characteristics, whereas facilitator characteristics was a key mechanism triggering positive and negative outcomes for extended-duration interventions. Disciplinary and organisational contexts were not especially influential. While our realist synthesis builds on previous non-realist literature reviews, our findings extend previous work considerably. Our realist synthesis presents a broader array of outcomes and mechanisms than have been previously identified, and provides novel insights into the causal pathways in which short and extended-duration supervision training interventions produce their effects. Future realist evaluation should explore further any differences between short and extended-duration interventions. Educators are encouraged to prioritize mixed pedagogies, social learning and protected time to maximize the positive supervisor outcomes from training.
      PubDate: 2019-11-05
  • The compatibility principle: on philosophies in the assessment of clinical
    • Abstract: The array of different philosophical positions underlying contemporary views on competence, assessment strategies and justification have led to advances in assessment science. Challenges may arise when these philosophical positions are not considered in assessment design. These can include (a) a logical incompatibility leading to varied or difficult interpretations of assessment results, (b) an “anything goes” approach, and (c) uncertainty regarding when and in what context various philosophical positions are appropriate. We propose a compatibility principle that recognizes that different philosophical positions commit assessors/assessment researchers to particular ideas, assumptions and commitments, and applies ta logic of philosophically-informed, assessment-based inquiry. Assessment is optimized when its underlying philosophical position produces congruent, aligned and coherent views on constructs, assessment strategies, justification and their interpretations. As a way forward we argue that (a) there can and should be variability in the philosophical positions used in assessment, and these should be clearly articulated to promote understanding of assumptions and make sense of justifications; (b) we focus on developing the merits, boundaries and relationships within and/or between philosophical positions in assessment; (c) we examine a core set of principles related to the role and relevance of philosophical positions; (d) we elaborate strategies and criteria to delineate compatible from incompatible; and (f) we articulate a need to broaden knowledge/competencies related to these issues. The broadened use of philosophical positions in assessment in the health professions affect the “state of play” and can undermine assessment programs. This may be overcome with attention to the alignment between underlying assumptions/commitments.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Understanding the influence of teacher–learner relationships on
           learners’ assessment perception
    • Abstract: Low-stakes assessments are theorised to stimulate and support self-regulated learning. They are feedback-, not decision-oriented, and should hold little consequences to a learner based on their performance. The use of low-stakes assessment as a learning opportunity requires an environment in which continuous improvement is encouraged. This may be hindered by learners’ perceptions of assessment as high-stakes. Teachers play a key role in learners’ assessment perceptions. By investigating assessment perceptions through an interpersonal theory-based perspective of teacher–learner relationships, we aim to better understand the mechanisms explaining the relationship between assessment and learning within medical education. First, twenty-six purposefully selected learners, ranging from undergraduates to postgraduates in five different settings of programmatic assessment, were interviewed about their assessment task perception. Next, we conducted a focussed analysis using sensitising concepts from interpersonal theory to elucidate the influence of the teacher–learner relationship on learners’ assessment perceptions. The study showed a strong relation between learners’ perceptions of the teacher–learner relationship and their assessment task perception. Two important sources for the perception of teachers’ agency emerged from the data: positional agency and expert agency. Together with teacher’s communion level, both types of teachers’ agency are important for understanding learners’ assessment perceptions. High levels of teacher communion had a positive impact on the perception of assessment for learning, in particular in relations in which teachers’ agency was less dominantly exercised. When teachers exercised these sources of agency dominantly, learners felt inferior to their teachers, which could hinder the learning opportunity. To utilise the learning potential of low-stakes assessment, teachers are required to stimulate learner agency in safe and trusting assessment relationships, while carefully considering the influence of their own agency on learners’ assessment perceptions. Interpersonal theory offers a useful lens for understanding assessment relationships. The Interpersonal Circumplex provides opportunities for faculty development that help teachers develop positive and productive relationships with learners in which the potential of low-stakes assessments for self-regulated learning is realised.
      PubDate: 2019-10-29
  • Gender awareness in medicine: adaptation and validation of the Nijmegen
           Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale to the Portuguese population (N-GAMS)
    • Abstract: Health care professionals’ gender awareness has been presented as a mechanism to minimize gender biases in health. The present paper aimed to adapt and validate the Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale (N-GAMS, Verdonk et al. in Sex Roles 58:222–234, 2008. to the Portuguese population, also addressing some limitations of its original study, namely by: (1) testing the scale’s three-fold underlying structure and (2) extending the study of its criteria-related validity, by analyzing sex-related differences in medical students’ gender awareness and the associations between gender awareness and empathy and sexism. One thousand and forty-eight medical students (Mage = 22.90; 67.1% women) filled out the Portuguese version of the N-GAMS ( along with measures of Physician Empathy and Sexism. A Parallel Analysis and an Exploratory Factor Analysis suggested the presence of three factors. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed a good fit of the hypothesized three-factor structure: (1) gender sensitivity (n = 6 items; α = .713), (2) gender-role ideologies towards patients (n = 7 items; α = .858) and (3) gender-role ideologies towards doctors (n = 5 items; α = .837), with a positive association between the latter two (r = .570; p < .001). The also showed good criteria-related validity. Namely, as hypothesized: (1) more empathic students reported more gender sensitivity and lower endorsement of gender-role ideologies; (2) higher hostile and benevolent sexism were associated to higher endorsement of gender-role ideologies; and (3) higher hostile sexism was associated to lower gender sensitivity. Implications of the N-GAMS for research and interventional purposes are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-10-25
  • A thorny path: the developmental course of problem-based learning for
           health sciences education in Asia
    • Abstract: Problem-based learning (PBL), has been in existence for half a century as of 2019 and still remains the most innovative medical education innovation due to its revolutionary pedagogical approach characterized by student-centered learning (SCL) and self-directed learning (SDL) using simulated real-life scenarios as the learning platform. Here, learning becomes more self-driven, meaningful and relevant, pertaining to the social accountability principle of higher education. Being popular worldwide and driven by a strong demand for medical education reform during the past two decades, PBL has rapidly swept across the medical education communities in Asian countries. Many medical schools in Asia were drawn in by the innovative pedagogical methodology that PBL embraces, but tended to neglect with time, often unintentionally, the philosophy that PBL embodies. As a result, PBL in Asia, for various local academic, cultural, economic and administrative reasons started drifting away from its intended educational purposes. Consequently, the acceptance and practice of PBL in Asia has taken compromised forms as PBL-hybrids embedded within long existing and incorrigibly traditional curricula, or other less effective forms for easier implementation and management, at the expense of SCL and SDL. PBL in health sciences education, which has had a 50-year flourishment in the West, remains a continuous struggle in Asia. PBL for health science education in Asia is certainly no panacea, and is probably heading for a thorny path, despite the ultimate hope for a promising future.
      PubDate: 2019-10-22
  • Institutional strategies related to test-taking behavior in low stakes
    • Abstract: Low stakes assessment without grading the performance of students in educational systems has received increasing attention in recent years. It is used in formative assessments to guide the learning process as well as in large-scales assessments to monitor educational programs. Yet, such assessments suffer from high variation in students’ test-taking effort. We aimed to identify institutional strategies related to serious test-taking behavior in low stakes assessment to provide medical schools with practical recommendations on how test-taking effort might be increased. First, we identified strategies that were already used by medical schools to increase the serious test-taking behavior on the low stakes Berlin Progress Test (BPT). Strategies which could be assigned to self-determination theory of Ryan and Deci were chosen for analysis. We conducted the study at nine medical schools in Germany and Austria with a total of 108,140 observations in an established low stakes assessment. A generalized linear-mixed effects model was used to assess the association between institutional strategies and the odds that students will take the BPT seriously. Overall, two institutional strategies were found to be positively related to more serious test-taking behavior: discussing low test performance with the mentor and consequences for not participating. Giving choice was negatively related to more serious test-taking behavior. At medical schools that presented the BPT as evaluation, this effect was larger in comparison to medical schools that presented the BPT as assessment.
      PubDate: 2019-10-22
  • Conflict between clinician teachers and their students: the clinician
    • Abstract: The relationship between clinician teachers and their students is of major importance in medical education. However, there is little known about the effects on clinicians when conflict occurs with their students. What do clinicians perceive to be major causes of these conflicts' How do they react when and after conflict occurs' A phenomenological inquiry exploring the lived experience of 12 clinician teachers in medical schools was performed. The clinicians were selected using purposeful sampling and snowballing techniques. The interviews revolved around discussions based on episodes of conflict with medical students that the clinicians considered significant. The analysis and emergent themes were partially constructed around and informed by theories of conflict, and conflict management. A number of themes emerged from this study. Clinicians experienced that significant psychological and behavioural problems of students had a dominant impact on the likelihood and severity of conflict; these conflicts had a significant emotional impact on clinicians; though the responses to conflict varied, “avoidance” was a mechanism commonly used by clinicians and thus the assessment of attitudinal and behavioural professional issues in the workplace was problematic. This study shows how the clinician perspective to challenging student/clinician encounters impacts on the quality of education they are able to provide. We recommend medical schools consider these issues when designing their programs in order to develop and maintain clinician–teacher engagement and participation.
      PubDate: 2019-10-22
  • Problem-based projects in medical education: extending PBL practices and
           broadening learning perspectives
    • Abstract: Medical education strives to foster effective education of medical students despite an ever-changing landscape in medicine. This article explores the utility of projects in problem-based learning—project-PBL—as a way to supplement traditional case-PBL. First, project-PBL may enhance student engagement and motivation by allowing them to direct their own learning. Second, project-PBL may help students develop metacognitive competencies by forcing them to collaborate and regulate learning in settings without a facilitator. Finally, project-PBL may foster skills and competencies related to medical research. As illustrated through a brief example from Aalborg University, Denmark, students learn differently from project-PBL and case-PBL, and so one implementation cannot simply replace the other. I conclude by suggesting future directions for research on project-PBL to explore its benefits in medical education.
      PubDate: 2019-10-22
  • Role of team dynamics in the learning process: a mixed-methods evaluation
           of a modified team-based learning approach in a behavioral research
           methods course
    • Abstract: Health sciences education is increasingly focusing on building students’ skills to work collaboratively. Therefore, instructors must intentionally incorporate team-based skill building into their courses, using teaching strategies like team-based learning (TBL). An assumption of TBL is that team dynamics facilitate learning; however, limited research has examined this connection. The primary purposes of this mixed-methods evaluation were: (a) to describe the characteristics of team dynamics in a graduate-level research methods course that employs a modified TBL approach, and (b) to examine the association between team dynamics and student grades. Given the importance of preparing health professional students to work collaboratively in their careers, a secondary aim was to examine how team skills developed through a team-based learning approach could be transferred to other courses and to future jobs. We conducted surveys on team dynamics at mid-semester (n = 64) and the end of the semester (n = 66), collected students’ grades for the final paper and overall course, and conducted 4 focus groups with Master of Public Health students (n = 25). Paired t tests were used to examine change in team dynamics and correlations were conducted to assess the relationship between team dynamics and grades. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to team dynamics from the focus group data. Overall, students reported experiencing positive and beneficial team dynamics. The findings support two main underlying categories of team dynamics, interpersonal team processes and task orientation, and the linkages between the categories that allow teams to function. Team dynamics scores were not associated with student grades. However, students recognized the value of practicing team skills in preparation for future group work and jobs. These findings suggest that active learning approaches, such as TBL, can help to facilitate the acquisition of collaborative skills.
      PubDate: 2019-10-18
  • The case for plural PBL: an analysis of dominant and marginalized
           perspectives in the globalization of problem-based learning
    • Abstract: The globalization of problem-based learning (PBL) in health professions education has been both celebrated and criticized. Using a critical narrative review approach, underpinned by our archive of global PBL literature and a targeted literature search, we analyze these dominant global discourses of PBL in health professions education. More precisely, we explore what is missed when the globalization of PBL is theorized either as a positive consequence of standardization, or a problematic spread of Western educational ideals and values around the world. We make visible how two dominant global discourses, a universalist and culturalist discourse, have emerged in the global proliferation of PBL. We also discuss the limitations of the two discourses by demonstrating how they either ignore contextual and cultural diversity or see it as problematic. We then turn to a perspective that has been marginalized in the PBL literature that emphasizes the global origins of PBL, transcending the dichotomy between West and non-West. We make a case for relating to PBL as a plural construct in order to learn from the cultural and situational nuances of educational activities labeled PBL around the world. We argue that PBL as a singular and universal concept has no global future, yet versions of PBL may continue to thrive locally. Finally, we propose avenues for future research that may help elucidate the global and local values that underpin our curricula, as well as the socio-political factors that perpetuate neo-colonialist views and practices in the uptake and implementation of PBL approaches across the globe.
      PubDate: 2019-10-17
  • Correction to: Assessing the effects of an empathy education program using
           psychometric instruments and brain fMRI
    • Abstract: Due to an unfortunate turn of events, the funding note was omitted from the original publication. The correct funding note is published here and should be treated as definitive.
      PubDate: 2019-10-16
  • Evidence-based medicine and problem based learning a critical
    • Abstract: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been the subject of controversy since it was introduced in 1992. However, it has yet to be critically examined as an alternative paradigm for medical education, which is how it was proposed. This commentary examines EBM on the terms on which it was originally advanced and within the context that gave rise to it, the problem-based learning (PBL) environment at McMaster University in the 1970s and 80s. The EBM educational prescription is revealed to be aligned with the information processing psychology (IPP) model of learning through acquisition of general problem solving skills that characterized the early McMaster version of PBL. The IPP model has been identified in the literature as discordant with an alternative, constructivist, model that emerged at Maastricht University in the Netherlands over the subsequent period. Strengths and weaknesses of EBM are identified from the standpoint of the underlying cognitive theories. Principles are proposed with which to guide an educationally viable approach to learning and teaching the valuable skills included within the original EBM formula.
      PubDate: 2019-10-15
  • Behind the times: a brief history of motivation discourse in problem-based
    • Abstract: That idea that problem-based learning (PBL) is more motivating that traditional education has been prevalent since the inception of PBL at McMaster University in the late 1960s. Evidencing this through empirical research, however, has proven to be a lot more problematic. This paper retraces how the discourse on motivation started from a laymen’s conception in the early days of PBL, and slowly evolved into a field of scientific inquiry in the 1980s and 1990s. However, looking at the evolution of motivation theory over the same period, we show that motivation discourse in the burgeoning literature on motivation and PBL remained largely wedded to the laymen’s approach, and failed to catch up with the new achievement-goal theory and self-determination theory approaches. This paper proceeds to analyse the explosion of studies on PBL and motivation after 2000, acknowledging efforts to move away from anecdotal accounts and provide theoretical grounding to the research. However, once again, we show that the majority of the research employed outdated motivational measures that do not fully grasp the complexity of contemporary motivation theory. The paper concludes on the observation that single-course and curriculum-wide research interventions have yielded no conclusive results on the effect of PBL on intrinsic motivation, and that future research should therefore seek to use up-to-date motivational constructs in more targeted interventions.
      PubDate: 2019-10-14
  • PBL and sustainable education: addressing the problem of isolation
    • Abstract: Problem-based learning (PBL) is an innovative educational approach that dates back to the 1960s. However, the twenty-first century goal of sustainable education poses a challenge to PBL, especially as it relates to isolation. Here we discuss the underlying issue of isolation in three respects. First, the information-processing model of PBL depends on generalized skills, whereas real life problem-solving skills involve context-bound cognitive processes. Second, in all models of PBL, the focus on knowledge acquisition for a specific problem improves performance but separates education from the world at large. Third, the existing culture of measurement strengthens the aforementioned isolating effects. In response, we introduce a conceptual approach based on Hannah Arendt’s technical notion of ‘world’. We make suggestions to meet the criteria of sustainable education by reconnecting PBL to our shared world, and emphasizing a responsibility for this shared world.
      PubDate: 2019-10-09
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Heriot-Watt University
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