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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Advances in Health Sciences Education
  [SJR: 1.397]   [H-I: 42]   [22 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-1677 - ISSN (Online) 1382-4996
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • The birth and death of curricula
    • Authors: Geoff Norman
      Pages: 797 - 801
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9790-1
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • The contribution of work characteristics, home characteristics and gender
           to burnout in medical residents
    • Authors: Hanne Verweij; Frank M. M. A. van der Heijden; Madelon L. M. van Hooff; Jelle T. Prins; Antoine L. M. Lagro-Janssen; Hiske van Ravesteijn; Anne E. M. Speckens
      Pages: 803 - 818
      Abstract: Abstract Burnout is highly prevalent in medical residents. In order to prevent or reduce burnout in medical residents, we should gain a better understanding of contributing and protective factors of burnout. Therefore we examined the associations of job demands and resources, home demands and resources, and work–home interferences with burnout in male and female medical residents. This study was conducted on a nation-wide sample of medical residents. In 2005, all Dutch medical residents (n = 5245) received a self-report questionnaire on burnout, job and home demands and resources and work–home interference. Path analysis was used to examine the associations between job and home characteristics and work–home interference and burnout in both males and females. In total, 2115 (41.1 %) residents completed the questionnaire. In both sexes emotional demands at work and the interference between work and home were important contributors to burnout, especially when work interferes with home life. Opportunities for job development appeared to be an important protective factor. Other contributing and protective factors were different for male and female residents. In females, social support from family or partner seemed protective against burnout. In males, social support from colleagues and participation in decision-making at work seemed important. Effectively handling emotional demands at work, dealing with the interference between work and home, and having opportunities for job development are the most essential factors which should be addressed. However it is important to take gender differences into consideration when implementing preventive or therapeutic interventions for burnout in medical residents.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9710-9
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • Inter-rater variability as mutual disagreement: identifying raters’
           divergent points of view
    • Authors: Andrea Gingerich; Susan E. Ramlo; Cees P. M. van der Vleuten; Kevin W. Eva; Glenn Regehr
      Pages: 819 - 838
      Abstract: Abstract Whenever multiple observers provide ratings, even of the same performance, inter-rater variation is prevalent. The resulting ‘idiosyncratic rater variance’ is considered to be unusable error of measurement in psychometric models and is a threat to the defensibility of our assessments. Prior studies of inter-rater variation in clinical assessments have used open response formats to gather raters’ comments and justifications. This design choice allows participants to use idiosyncratic response styles that could result in a distorted representation of the underlying rater cognition and skew subsequent analyses. In this study we explored rater variability using the structured response format of Q methodology. Physician raters viewed video-recorded clinical performances and provided Mini Clinical Evaluation Exercise (Mini-CEX) assessment ratings through a web-based system. They then shared their assessment impressions by sorting statements that described the most salient aspects of the clinical performance onto a forced quasi-normal distribution ranging from “most consistent with my impression” to “most contrary to my impression”. Analysis of the resulting Q-sorts revealed distinct points of view for each performance shared by multiple physicians. The points of view corresponded with the ratings physicians assigned to the performance. Each point of view emphasized different aspects of the performance with either rapport-building and/or medical expertise skills being most salient. It was rare for the points of view to diverge based on disagreements regarding the interpretation of a specific aspect of the performance. As a result, physicians’ divergent points of view on a given clinical performance cannot be easily reconciled into a single coherent assessment judgment that is impacted by measurement error. If inter-rater variability does not wholly reflect error of measurement, it is problematic for our current measurement models and poses challenges for how we are to adequately analyze performance assessment ratings.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9711-8
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • Exploring the premise of lost altruism: content analysis of two codes of
    • Authors: Wael Haddara; Lorelei Lingard
      Pages: 839 - 852
      Abstract: Abstract As an ideal, altruism has long enjoyed privileged status in medicine and medical education. As a practice, altruism is perceived to be in decline in the current generation. A number of educational efforts are underway to reclaim this “lost value” of medicine. In this paper we explore constructions of altruism over a defined period of time through a content analysis of the Canadian and Australian Medical Associations (CMA and AMA respectively) Codes of Ethics. We analyzed all editions of both Codes (1868–2004), using a content analysis approach, including thematic analysis. We coded as altruistic or non-altruistic, respectively, statements in which the interest of the patient is placed ahead of the physician’s and statements in which the interest of the physician is given primacy. We examined the pattern of appearance and disappearance of these statements over time. We identified 13 altruistic and 2 non-altruistic statements across all editions. There is a gradual and uneven loss of altruistic content over time. The CMA Codes of 1938, 1970 and 2004 and the AMA code of 1992 represent significant change points. The most recent versions of both Codes contain only 1 altruistic statement and both non-altruistic statements. We conclude that altruism appears to be a fluid and changing concept over time. Loss of altruism is not merely a current generational issue but extends through the past century and is likely due to political and social forces. These results call into question current educational attempts to reclaim altruism, and point to the social evolution of the ideal.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9713-6
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • Validity: one word with a plurality of meanings
    • Authors: Christina St-Onge; Meredith Young; Kevin W. Eva; Brian Hodges
      Pages: 853 - 867
      Abstract: Abstract Validity is one of the most debated constructs in our field; debates abound about what is legitimate and what is not, and the word continues to be used in ways that are explicitly disavowed by current practice guidelines. The resultant tensions have not been well characterized, yet their existence suggests that different uses may maintain some value for the user that needs to be better understood. We conducted an empirical form of Discourse Analysis to document the multiple ways in which validity is described, understood, and used in the health professions education field. We created and analyzed an archive of texts identified from multiple sources, including formal databases such as PubMED, ERIC and PsycINFO as well as the authors’ personal assessment libraries. An iterative analytic process was used to identify, discuss, and characterize emerging discourses about validity. Three discourses of validity were identified. Validity as a test characteristic is underpinned by the notion that validity is an intrinsic property of a tool and could, therefore, be seen as content and context independent. Validity as an argument-based evidentiary-chain emphasizes the importance of supporting the interpretation of assessment results with ongoing analysis such that validity does not belong to the tool/instrument itself. The emphasis is on process-based validation (emphasizing the journey instead of the goal). Validity as a social imperative foregrounds the consequences of assessment at the individual and societal levels, be they positive or negative. The existence of different discourses may explain—in part—results observed in recent systematic reviews that highlighted discrepancies and tensions between recommendations for practice and the validation practices that are actually adopted and reported. Some of these practices, despite contravening accepted validation ‘guidelines’, may nevertheless respond to different and somewhat unarticulated needs within health professional education.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9716-3
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • Clinician behaviors in telehealth care delivery: a systematic review
    • Authors: Beverly W. Henry; Derryl E. Block; James R. Ciesla; Beth Ann McGowan; John A. Vozenilek
      Pages: 869 - 888
      Abstract: Literature on telehealth care delivery often addresses clinical, cost, technological, system, and organizational impacts. Less is known about interpersonal behaviors such as communication patterns and therapeutic relationship-building, which may have workforce development considerations. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review to identify interpersonal health care provider (HCP) behaviors and attributes related to provider–patient interaction during care in telehealth delivery. Electronic searches were conducted using five indexes/databases: CINAHL, ERIC, PsychInfo, ProQuest Dissertations, PubMed; with hand-searching of the immediate past 10 years of five journals. Search concepts included: communication, telehealth, education, and health care delivery. Of 5261 unique article abstracts initially identified, 338 full-text articles remained after exclusion criteria were applied and these were reviewed for eligibility. Finally, data were extracted from 45 articles. Through qualitative synthesis of the 45 articles, we noted that papers encompassed many disciplines and targeted care to people in many settings including: home care, primary and specialist care, mental health/counseling, and multi-site teams. Interpersonal behaviors were observed though not manipulated through study designs. Six themes were identified: HCP-based support for telehealth delivery; provider–patient interactions during the telehealth event; environmental attributes; and guidelines for education interventions or evaluation of HCP behaviors. Although unable to identify current best practices, important considerations for practice and education did emerge. These include: perceptions of the utility of telehealth; differences in communication patterns such as pace and type of discourse, reliance on visual cues by both provider and patient especially in communicating empathy and building rapport; and confidentiality and privacy in telehealth care delivery.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9717-2
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • A deeper look at implicit weight bias in medical students
    • Authors: Timothy K. Baker; Gregory S. Smith; Negar Nicole Jacobs; Ramona Houmanfar; Robbyn Tolles; Deborah Kuhls; Melissa Piasecki
      Pages: 889 - 900
      Abstract: Abstract The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP, Barnes-Holmes et al. in Psychol Rec 60:527–542, 2010) was utilized as a relatively new tool to measure implicit weight bias in first- and third-year medical students. To date, only two studies (Miller et al. in Acad Med 88:978–982, 2013; Phelan et al. in Med Educ 49:983–992, 2015) have investigated implicit weight bias with medical students and both have found pro-thin/anti-fat implicit attitudes, on average, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald and Banaji in Psychol Rev 102:4–27, 1995) as the assessment tool. The IRAP, however, allows for a deeper analysis of implicit attitudes with respect to both thin and fat in isolation, and it was found that medical students are, on average, actually both pro-thin and pro-fat, and on average are more pro-thin than pro-fat, as opposed to anti-fat. Additionally, it was found that medical students’ implicit weight bias against fat/obese individuals improved over the first 2 years of medical training, and this improvement was specifically driven by improved implicit attitudes toward overweight and obese, while implicit attitudes toward thin remained constant over that time. The implications of more sensitive implicit bias assessment and specific changes in bias over time are discussed within the context of medical education curriculum development.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9718-1
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • The effect of multimedia replacing text in resident clinical
           decision-making assessment
    • Authors: Todd P. Chang; Sheree M. Schrager; Alyssa J. Rake; Michael W. Chan; Phung K. Pham; Grant Christman
      Pages: 901 - 914
      Abstract: Abstract Multimedia in assessing clinical decision-making skills (CDMS) has been poorly studied, particularly in comparison to traditional text-based assessments. The literature suggests multimedia is more difficult for trainees. We hypothesize that pediatric residents score lower in diagnostic skill when clinical vignettes use multimedia rather than text for patient findings. A standardized method was developed to write text-based questions from 60 high-resolution, quality multimedia; a series of expert panels selected 40 questions with both a multimedia and text-based counterpart, and two online tests were developed. Each test featured 40 identical questions with reciprocal and alternating modality (multimedia vs. text). Pediatric residents and rising 4th year medical students (MS-IV) at a single residency were randomized to complete either test stratified by postgraduate training year (PGY). A mixed between-within subjects ANOVA analyzed differences in score due to modality and PGY. Secondary analyses ascertained modality effect in dermatology and respiratory questions using Mann–Whitney U tests, and correlations on test performance to In-service Training Exam (ITE) scores using Spearman rank. Eighty-eight residents and rising interns completed the study. Overall multimedia scores were lower than text-based scores (p = 0.047, η p 2  = 0.04), with highest disparity in rising interns (MS-IV); however, PGY had a greater effect on scores (p = 0.001, η p 2  = 0.16). Respiratory questions were not significantly lower with multimedia (n = 9, median 0.71 vs. 0.86, p = 0.09) nor dermatology questions (n = 13, p = 0.41). ITEs correlated significantly with text-based scores (ρ = 0.23–0.25, p = 0.04–0.06) but not with multimedia scores. In physician trainees with less clinical experience, multimedia-based case vignettes are associated with significantly lower scores. These results help shed light on the role of multimedia versus text-based information in CDMS, particularly in less experienced clinicians.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9719-0
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • Early predictors of need for remediation in the Australian general
           practice training program: a retrospective cohort study
    • Authors: Parker Magin; Rebecca Stewart; Allison Turnock; Amanda Tapley; Elizabeth Holliday; Nick Cooling
      Pages: 915 - 929
      Abstract: Abstract Underperforming trainees requiring remediation may threaten patient safety and are challenging for vocational training programs. Decisions to institute remediation are high-stakes—remediation being resource-intensive and emotionally demanding on trainees. Detection of underperformance requiring remediation is particularly problematic in general (family) practice. We sought to establish early-training assessment instruments predictive of general practice (GP) trainees’ subsequently requiring formal remediation. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of trainees from a large Australian regionally-based GP training organization. The outcome factor was requirement for formal remediation. Independent variables were demographic factors and a range of formative assessments conducted immediately prior to or during early-stage training. Analyses employed univariate and multivariate logistic regression of each predictor assessment modality with the outcome, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 248 trainees, 26 (10.5 %) required formal remediation. Performance on the Colleague Feedback Evaluation Tool (entailing feedback from a trainee’s clinical colleagues on clinical performance, communication and probity) and External Clinical Teaching Visits (half-day sessions of the trainee’s clinical consultations observed directly by an experienced GP), along with non-Australian primary medical qualification, were significantly associated with requiring remediation. There was a non-significant trend for association with performance on the Doctors Interpersonal Skills Questionnaire (patient feedback on interpersonal elements of the consultation). There were no significant associations with entry-selection scores or formative exam or assessment scores. Our finding that ‘in vivo’ assessments of complex behaviour, but not ‘in vitro’ knowledge-based assessments, predict need for remediation is consistent with theoretical understanding of the nature of remediation decision-making and should inform remediation practice in GP vocational training.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9722-5
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • Self-entrustment: how trainees’ self-regulated learning supports
           participation in the workplace
    • Authors: Margaretha H. Sagasser; Anneke W. M. Kramer; Cornelia R. M. G. Fluit; Chris van Weel; Cees P. M. van der Vleuten
      Pages: 931 - 949
      Abstract: Abstract Clinical workplaces offer postgraduate trainees a wealth of opportunities to learn from experience. To promote deliberate and meaningful learning self-regulated learning skills are foundational. We explored trainees’ learning activities related to patient encounters to better understand what aspects of self-regulated learning contribute to trainees’ development, and to explore supervisor’s role herein. We conducted a qualitative non-participant observational study in seven general practices. During two days we observed trainee’s patient encounters, daily debriefing sessions and educational meetings between trainee and supervisor and interviewed them separately afterwards. Data collection and analysis were iterative and inspired by a phenomenological approach. To organise data we used networks, time-ordered matrices and codebooks. Self-regulated learning supported trainees to increasingly perform independently. They engaged in self-regulated learning before, during and after encounters. Trainees’ activities depended on the type of medical problem presented and on patient, trainee and supervisor characteristics. Trainees used their sense of confidence to decide if they could manage the encounter alone or if they should consult their supervisor. They deliberately used feedback on their performance and engaged in reflection. Supervisors appeared vital in trainees’ learning by reassuring trainees, discussing experience, knowledge and professional issues, identifying possible unawareness of incompetence, assessing performance and securing patient safety. Self-confidence, reflection and feedback, and support from the supervisor are important aspects of self-regulated learning in practice. The results reflect how self-regulated learning and self-entrustment promote trainees’ increased participation in the workplace. Securing organized moments of interaction with supervisors is beneficial to trainees’ self-regulated learning.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9723-4
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • Measuring physician cognitive load: validity evidence for a physiologic
           and a psychometric tool
    • Authors: Adam Szulewski; Andreas Gegenfurtner; Daniel W. Howes; Marco L. A. Sivilotti; Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer
      Pages: 951 - 968
      Abstract: Abstract In general, researchers attempt to quantify cognitive load using physiologic and psychometric measures. Although the construct measured by both of these metrics is thought to represent overall cognitive load, there is a paucity of studies that compares these techniques to one another. The authors compared data obtained from one physiologic tool (pupillometry) to one psychometric tool (Paas scale) to explore whether they actually measured the construct of cognitive load as purported. Thirty-two participants with a range of resuscitation medicine experience and expertise completed resuscitation-medicine based multiple-choice-questions as well as arithmetic questions. Cognitive load, as measured by both tools, was found to be higher for the more difficult questions as well as for questions that were answered incorrectly (p < 0.001). The group with the least medical experience had higher cognitive load than both the intermediate and experienced groups when answering domain-specific questions (p = 0.023 and p = 0.003 respectively for the physiologic tool; p = 0.006 and p < 0.001 respectively for the psychometric tool). There was a strong positive correlation (Spearman’s ρ = 0.827, p < 0.001 for arithmetic questions; Spearman’s ρ = 0.606, p < 0.001 for medical questions) between the two cognitive load measurement tools. These findings support the validity argument that both physiologic and psychometric metrics measure the construct of cognitive load.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9725-2
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • The influence of first impressions on subsequent ratings within an OSCE
    • Authors: Timothy J. Wood; James Chan; Susan Humphrey-Murto; Debra Pugh; Claire Touchie
      Pages: 969 - 983
      Abstract: Abstract Competency-based assessment is placing increasing emphasis on the direct observation of learners. For this process to produce valid results, it is important that raters provide quality judgments that are accurate. Unfortunately, the quality of these judgments is variable and the roles of factors that influence the accuracy of those judgments are not clearly understood. One such factor is first impressions: that is, judgments about people we do not know, made quickly and based on very little information. This study explores the influence of first impressions in an OSCE. Specifically, the purpose is to begin to examine the accuracy of a first impression and its influence on subsequent ratings. We created six videotapes of history-taking performance. Each video was scripted from a real performance by six examinee residents within a single OSCE station. Each performance was re-enacted with six different actors playing the role of the examinees and one actor playing the role of the patient and videotaped. A total of 23 raters (i.e., physician examiners) reviewed each video and were asked to make a global judgment of the examinee’s clinical abilities after 60 s (First Impression GR) by providing a rating on a six-point global rating scale and then to rate their confidence in the accuracy of that judgment by providing a rating on a five-point rating scale (Confidence GR). After making these ratings, raters then watched the remainder of the examinee’s performance and made another global rating of performance (Final GR) before moving on to the next video. First impression ratings of ability varied across examinees and were moderately correlated to expert ratings (r = .59, 95% CI [−.13, .90]). There were significant differences in mean ratings for three examinees. Correlations ranged from .05 to .56 but were only significant for three examinees. Rater confidence in their first impression was not related to the likelihood of a rater changing their rating between the first impression and a subsequent rating. The findings suggest that first impressions could play a role in explaining variability in judgments, but their importance was determined by the videotaped performance of the examinees. More work is needed to clarify conditions that support or discourage the use of first impressions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9736-z
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • Implementing medical teaching policy in university hospitals
    • Authors: Rik Engbers; Cornelia R. M. G. Fluit; Sanneke Bolhuis; Marieke de Visser; Roland F. J. M. Laan
      Pages: 985 - 1009
      Abstract: Abstract Within the unique and complex settings of university hospitals, it is difficult to implement policy initiatives aimed at developing careers in and improving the quality of academic medical teaching because of the competing domains of medical research and patient care. Factors that influence faculty in making use of teaching policy incentives have remained underexplored. Knowledge of these factors is needed to develop theory on the successful implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals. To explore factors that influence faculty in making use of teaching policy incentives and to develop a conceptual model for implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals. We used the grounded theory methodology. We applied constant comparative analysis to qualitative data obtained from 12 semi-structured interviews conducted at the Radboud University Medical Center. We used a constructivist approach, in which data and theories are co-created through interaction between the researcher and the field and its participants. We constructed a model for the implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals, including five factors that were perceived to promote or inhibit faculty in a university hospital to make use of teaching policy incentives: Executive Board Strategy, Departmental Strategy, Departmental Structure, Departmental Culture, and Individual Strategy. Most factors we found to affect individual teachers’ strategies and their use of medical teaching policy lie at the departmental level. If an individual teacher’s strategy is focused on medical teaching and a medical teaching career, and the departmental context offers support and opportunity for his/her development, this promotes faculty’s use of teaching policy incentives.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9737-y
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • Social learning in a longitudinal integrated clinical placement
    • Authors: Chris Roberts; Michele Daly; Fabian Held; David Lyle
      Pages: 1011 - 1029
      Abstract: Abstract Recent research has demonstrated that longitudinal integrated placements (LICs) are an alternative mode of clinical education to traditional placements. Extended student engagement in community settings provide the advantages of educational continuity as well as increased service provision in underserved areas. Developing and maintaining LICs require a differing approach to student learning than that for traditional placements. There has been little theoretically informed empirical research that has offered explanations of which are the important factors that promote student learning in LICs and the relationships between those factors. We explored the relationship between student learning, student perceptions of preparedness for practice and student engagement, in the context of a rural LIC. We used a sequential qualitative design employing thematic, comparative and relational analysis of data from student interviews (n = 18) to understand possible processes and mechanisms of student learning in the LIC. Through the theoretical lens of social learning systems, we identified two major themes; connectivity and preparedness for practice. Connectivity described engagement and relationship building by students, across formal and informal learning experiences, interprofessional interactions, social interactions with colleagues, interaction with patients outside of the clinical setting, and the extent of integration in the wider community. Preparedness for practice, reflected students’ perceptions of having sufficient depth in clinical skills, personal and professional development, cultural awareness and understanding of the health system, to work in that system. A comparative analysis compared the nature and variation of learning across students. In a relational analysis, there was a positive association between connectivity and preparedness for practice. Connectivity is a powerful enabler of students’ agentic engagement, collaboration, and learning within an LIC. It is related to student perceptions of preparedness for practice. These findings provide insight for institutions wishing to develop similar programmes, by encouraging health professional educators to consider all of the potential elements of the placements, which most promote connectivity.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9740-3
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • Instructional practices for evidence-based practice with pre-registration
           allied health students: a review of recent research and developments
    • Authors: Danielle Hitch; Kelli Nicola-Richmond
      Pages: 1031 - 1045
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study is to update a previous review published in this journal on the effectiveness of teaching and assessment interventions for evidence based practice in health professions, and to determine the extent to which the five recommendations made from that review have been implemented. The Integrating Theory, Evidence and Action method was used to synthesise all published evidence from 2011 to 2015, which addressed instructional practices used for evidence based practice with pre-registration allied health students. Seventeen articles were found to meet the inclusion criteria, and were analysed for both their individual rigour and relationship to the five recommendations. The evidence reviewed in this study was diverse in both its geographical setting and the allied health disciplines represented. Most of the evidence used less rigorous methods, and the evidence base is generally exploratory in nature. To date, the five recommendations regarding instructional practices in this area have been implemented to varying degrees. Many current practices promote social negotiation, collaborative decision-making and collaborative learning, so the social constructivist approach is being adopted. However, the prior knowledge of students is not being assessed as a basis for scaffolding, communication of evidence based practice to varying audiences is rarely addressed and the role of clinicians in the learning of evidence based practice knowledge, skills, beliefs and attitudes remains limited.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9702-9
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2017)
  • Weighing the cost of educational inflation in undergraduate medical
    • Authors: Ronald Cusano; Kevin Busche; Sylvain Coderre; Wayne Woloschuk; Karen Chadbolt; Kevin McLaughlin
      Pages: 789 - 796
      Abstract: Abstract Despite the fact that the length of medical school training has remained stable for many years, the expectations of graduating medical students (and the schools that train them) continue to increase. In this Reflection, the authors discuss motives for educational inflation and suggest that these are likely innocent, well-intentioned, and subconscious—and include both a propensity to increase expectations of ourselves and others over time, and a reluctance to reduce training content and expectations. They then discuss potential risks of educational inflation, including reduced emphasis on core knowledge and clinical skills, and adverse effects on the emotional, psychological, and financial wellbeing of students. While acknowledging the need to change curricula to improve learning and clinical outcomes, the authors proffer that it is naïve to assume that we can inflate educational expectations at no additional cost. They suggest that before implementing and/or mandating change, we should consider of all the costs that medical schools and students might incur, including opportunity costs and the impact on the emotional and financial wellbeing of students. They propose a cost-effectiveness framework for medical education and advocate prioritization of interventions that improve learning outcomes with no additional costs or are cost-saving without adversely impacting learning outcomes. When there is an additional cost for improved learning outcomes or a decline in learning outcomes as a result of cost saving interventions, they suggest careful consideration and justification of this trade-off. And when there are neither improved learning outcomes nor cost savings they recommend resisting the urge to change.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9708-3
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2017)
  • The effect of communication skills training on patient-pharmacist
           communication in pharmacy education: a meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Communication skills in pharmacy education and practice are increasingly regarded as a crucial component. However, thus far, estimating of the overall communication skills training (CST) effects in a variety of outcomes is lacking. The aim of this study was to synthesize the effects of CST in pharmacy education by performing a meta-analysis of CST studies. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Communication and Mass Media Complete (CMMC), key journals, and bibliographic databases. The effect sizes (ESs) were extracted and pooled in random effects meta-analyses. We assessed the quality of the study using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). From 34,737 articles, 9 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The overall effect size for CST was 0.611 (95% CI 0.327–0.895), and it was statistically significant (p = 0.000). We found based on the subgroup analyses that CST has a large effect size when it used stand-alone courses, lecture-lab based courses, video recordings, feedback, training for 2 or more semesters, hours per week ≥5 h and external assessments. For the CST effect, the effect sizes were ranked in order of confidence, knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The result of the meta-regression is that the total number of attendees is significantly negatively correlated with the effect sizes of the CST. The findings of the present meta-analysis provide evidence that CST in pharmacy education may act as an efficient way to improve the communication competency of students, and it may serve as a guide for pharmacy educators.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
  • Time for action: key considerations for implementing social accountability
           in the education of health professionals
    • Authors: William Ventres; Charles Boelen; Cynthia Haq
      Abstract: Abstract Within health professional education around the world, there exists a growing awareness of the professional duty to be socially responsible, being attentive to the needs of all members of communities, regions, and nations, especially those who disproportionately suffer from the adverse influence of social determinants. However, much work still remains to progress beyond such good intentions. Moving from contemplation to action means embracing social accountability as a key guiding principle for change. Social accountability means that health institutions attend to improving the performance of individual practitioners and health systems by directing educational and practice interventions to promote the health of all the public and assessing the systemic effects of these interventions. In this Reflection, the authors (1) review the reasons why health professional schools and their governing bodies should codify, in both curricular and accreditation standards, norms of excellence in social accountability, (2) present four considerations crucial to successfully implementing this codification, and (3) discuss the challenges such changes might entail. The authors conclude by noting that in adopting socially accountable criteria, schools will need to expand their philosophical scope to recognize social accountability as a vitally important part of their institutional professional identity.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9792-z
  • Erratum to: Hemispheric activation differences in novice and expert
           clinicians during clinical decision making
    • Authors: Pam Hruska; Kent G. Hecker; Sylvain Coderre; Kevin McLaughlin; Filomeno Cortese; Christopher Doig; Tanya Beran; Bruce Wright; Olav Krigolson
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9787-9
  • Erratum to: Working memory, reasoning, and expertise in
    • Authors: Pam Hruska; Olav Krigolson; Sylvain Coderre; Kevin McLaughlin; Filomeno Cortese; Christopher Doig; Tanya Beran; Bruce Wright; Kent G. Hecker
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9786-x
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