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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Advances in Health Sciences Education
  [SJR: 1.397]   [H-I: 42]   [27 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-1677 - ISSN (Online) 1382-4996
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Getting granted
    • Authors: Geoff Norman
      Pages: 233 - 239
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-018-9820-7
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2018)
  • The grades that clinical teachers give students modifies the grades they
    • Authors: Michael Paget; Gurbir Brar; Pamela Veale; Kevin Busche; Sylvain Coderre; Wayne Woloschuk; Kevin McLaughlin
      Pages: 241 - 247
      Abstract: Prior studies have shown a correlation between the grades students receive and how they rate their teacher in the classroom. In this study, the authors probe this association on clinical rotations and explore potential mechanisms. All In-Training Evaluation Reports (ITERs) for students on mandatory clerkship rotations from April 1, 2013 to January 31, 2015 were matched with the corresponding student’s rating of their teacher (SRT). The date and time that ITERs and SRTs were submitted was used to divide SRTs into those submitted before versus after the corresponding ITER was submitted. Multilevel, mixed effects linear regression was used to examine the association between SRT, ITER rating, and whether the ITER was submitted before or after SRT. Of 2373 paired evaluations, 1098 (46.3%) SRT were submitted before the teacher had submitted the ITER. There was a significant interaction between explanatory variables: when ITER ratings had not yet been submitted, the regression coefficient for this association was 0.25 (95% confidence interval [0.17, 0.33], p < 0.001), whereas the regression coefficient was significantly higher when ITER ratings were submitted prior to SRT (0.40 [0.31, 0.49], p < 0.001). Finding an association between SRT and ITER when students do not know their ITER ratings suggests that SRTs can capture attributes of effective teaching, but the effect modification when students have access to their ITER rating supports grade satisfaction bias. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of grade satisfaction and to identify other biases that may impact the validity of SRT.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9783-0
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2018)
  • How do physicians become medical experts' A test of three competing
           theories: distinct domains, independent influence and encapsulation models
    • Authors: Claudio Violato; Hong Gao; Mary Claire O’Brien; David Grier; E Shen
      Pages: 249 - 263
      Abstract: The distinction between basic sciences and clinical knowledge which has led to a theoretical debate on how medical expertise is developed has implications for medical school and lifelong medical education. This longitudinal, population based observational study was conducted to test the fit of three theories—knowledge encapsulation, independent influence, distinct domains—of the development of medical expertise employing structural equation modelling. Data were collected from 548 physicians (292 men—53.3%; 256 women—46.7%; mean age = 24.2 years on admission) who had graduated from medical school 2009–2014. They included (1) Admissions data of undergraduate grade point average and Medical College Admission Test sub-test scores, (2) Course performance data from years 1, 2, and 3 of medical school, and (3) Performance on the NBME exams (i.e., Step 1, Step 2 CK, and Step 3). Statistical fit indices (Goodness of Fit Index—GFI; standardized root mean squared residual—SRMR; root mean squared error of approximation—RSMEA) and comparative fit \((X_{D}^{2} ,X^{2} )\) of three theories of cognitive development of medical expertise were used to assess model fit. There is support for the knowledge encapsulation three factor model of clinical competency (GFI = 0.973, SRMR = 0.043, RSMEA = 0.063) which had superior fit indices to both the independent influence and distinct domains theories ( \(X_{29}^{2} = 88.11\) vs \(X_{29}^{2} = 443.91\) [ \(X_{D}^{2} = 355.80\) ] vs \(X_{29}^{2} = 514.93\) [ \(X_{D}^{2} = 426.82\) ], respectively). The findings support a theory where basic sciences and medical aptitude are direct, correlated influences on clinical competency that encapsulates basic knowledge.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9784-z
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2018)
  • Effects of test item disclosure on medical licensing examination
    • Authors: Eunbae B. Yang; Myung Ae Lee; Yoon Soo Park
      Pages: 265 - 274
      Abstract: In 2012, the National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board of Korea decided to publicly disclose all test items and answers to satisfy the test takers’ right to know and enhance the transparency of tests administered by the government. This study investigated the effects of item disclosure on the medical licensing examination (MLE), examining test taker performance, psychometric characteristics, and factors affecting pass rates. This paper analyzed examinee performance data (n = 20,455) from 41 medical schools who took the MLE before (2009–2011) and after (2012–2014) the item disclosure policy (5548 total items). Changes in passing rates, performance of examinee, difficulty and reliability of the test, and factors affecting pass rate of the medical licensing examination before and after item disclosure were analyzed. In order to identify changes caused by item disclosure in the effects of student and school variables on the passing rate of MLE, Binary Logistic Hierarchical Linear Model was used. There was no significant change in pass rates before and after item disclosure. There was a modest increase in the proportion of test takers in the high-scoring group, following item disclosure. Degree completion status, gender, age of applicants and school mean were significant factors affecting pass rates, regardless of item disclosure. There was no difference between passing rates before and after item disclosure with respect to student- and school-level variables. Despite potential concerns for changes in test and examinee characteristics, empirical findings indicate that there was no significant difference caused by implementing item disclosure.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9788-8
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2018)
  • From aggregation to interpretation: how assessors judge complex data in a
           competency-based portfolio
    • Authors: Andrea Oudkerk Pool; Marjan J. B. Govaerts; Debbie A. D. C. Jaarsma; Erik W. Driessen
      Pages: 275 - 287
      Abstract: While portfolios are increasingly used to assess competence, the validity of such portfolio-based assessments has hitherto remained unconfirmed. The purpose of the present research is therefore to further our understanding of how assessors form judgments when interpreting the complex data included in a competency-based portfolio. Eighteen assessors appraised one of three competency-based mock portfolios while thinking aloud, before taking part in semi-structured interviews. A thematic analysis of the think-aloud protocols and interviews revealed that assessors reached judgments through a 3-phase cyclical cognitive process of acquiring, organizing, and integrating evidence. Upon conclusion of the first cycle, assessors reviewed the remaining portfolio evidence to look for confirming or disconfirming evidence. Assessors were inclined to stick to their initial judgments even when confronted with seemingly disconfirming evidence. Although assessors reached similar final (pass–fail) judgments of students’ professional competence, they differed in their information-processing approaches and the reasoning behind their judgments. Differences sprung from assessors’ divergent assessment beliefs, performance theories, and inferences about the student. Assessment beliefs refer to assessors’ opinions about what kind of evidence gives the most valuable and trustworthy information about the student’s competence, whereas assessors’ performance theories concern their conceptualizations of what constitutes professional competence and competent performance. Even when using the same pieces of information, assessors furthermore differed with respect to inferences about the student as a person as well as a (future) professional. Our findings support the notion that assessors’ reasoning in judgment and decision-making varies and is guided by their mental models of performance assessment, potentially impacting feedback and the credibility of decisions. Our findings also lend further credence to the assertion that portfolios should be judged by multiple assessors who should, moreover, thoroughly substantiate their judgments. Finally, it is suggested that portfolios be designed in such a way that they facilitate the selection of and navigation through the portfolio evidence.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9793-y
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2018)
  • Qualitative analysis of MMI raters’ scorings of medical school
           candidates: A matter of taste'
    • Authors: Mette K. Christensen; Eva Lykkegaard; Ole Lund; Lotte D. O’Neill
      Pages: 289 - 310
      Abstract: Recent years have seen leading medical educationalists repeatedly call for a paradigm shift in the way we view, value and use subjectivity in assessment. The argument is that subjective expert raters generally bring desired quality, not just noise, to performance evaluations. While several reviews document the psychometric qualities of the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI), we currently lack qualitative studies examining what we can learn from MMI raters’ subjectivity. The present qualitative study therefore investigates rater subjectivity or taste in MMI selection interview. Taste (Bourdieu 1984) is a practical sense, which makes it possible at a pre-reflective level to apply ‘invisible’ or ‘tacit’ categories of perception for distinguishing between good and bad. The study draws on data from explorative in-depth interviews with 12 purposefully selected MMI raters. We find that MMI raters spontaneously applied subjective criteria—their taste—enabling them to assess the candidates’ interpersonal attributes and to predict the candidates’ potential. In addition, MMI raters seemed to share a taste for certain qualities in the candidates (e.g. reflectivity, resilience, empathy, contact, alikeness, ‘the good colleague’); hence, taste may be the result of an ongoing enculturation in medical education and healthcare systems. This study suggests that taste is an inevitable condition in the assessment of students’ performance. The MMI set-up should therefore make room for MMI raters’ taste and their connoisseurship, i.e. their ability to taste, to improve the quality of their assessment of medical school candidates.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9794-x
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2018)
  • Response distortion on personality tests in applicants: comparing
           high-stakes to low-stakes medical settings
    • Authors: Jeromy Anglim; Stefan Bozic; Jonathon Little; Filip Lievens
      Pages: 311 - 321
      Abstract: The current study examined the degree to which applicants applying for medical internships distort their responses to personality tests and assessed whether this response distortion led to reduced predictive validity. The applicant sample (n = 530) completed the NEO Personality Inventory whilst applying for one of 60 positions as first-year post-graduate medical interns. Predictive validity was assessed using university grades, averaged over the entire medical degree. Applicant responses for the Big Five (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) and 30 facets of personality were compared to a range of normative samples where personality was measured in standard research settings including medical students, role model physicians, current interns, and standard young-adult test norms. Applicants had substantially higher scores on conscientiousness, openness, agreeableness, and extraversion and lower scores on neuroticism with an average absolute standardized difference of 1.03, when averaged over the normative samples. While current interns, medical students, and especially role model physicians do show a more socially desirable personality profile than standard test norms, applicants provided responses that were substantially more socially desirable. Of the Big Five, conscientiousness was the strongest predictor of academic performance in both applicants (r = .11) and medical students (r = .21). Findings suggest that applicants engage in substantial response distortion, and that the predictive validity of personality is modest and may be reduced in an applicant setting.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9796-8
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2018)
  • Applying Kane’s validity framework to a simulation based assessment
           of clinical competence
    • Authors: Walter Tavares; Ryan Brydges; Paul Myre; Jason Prpic; Linda Turner; Richard Yelle; Maud Huiskamp
      Pages: 323 - 338
      Abstract: Assessment of clinical competence is complex and inference based. Trustworthy and defensible assessment processes must have favourable evidence of validity, particularly where decisions are considered high stakes. We aimed to organize, collect and interpret validity evidence for a high stakes simulation based assessment strategy for certifying paramedics, using Kane’s validity framework, which some report as challenging to implement. We describe our experience using the framework, identifying challenges, decisions points, interpretations and lessons learned. We considered data related to four inferences (scoring, generalization, extrapolation, implications) occurring during assessment and treated validity as a series of assumptions we must evaluate, resulting in several hypotheses and proposed analyses. We then interpreted our findings across the four inferences, judging if the evidence supported or refuted our proposed uses of the assessment data. Data evaluating “Scoring” included: (a) desirable tool characteristics, with acceptable inter-item correlations (b) strong item-total correlations (c) low error variance for items and raters, and (d) strong inter-rater reliability. Data evaluating “Generalizability” included: (a) a robust sampling strategy capturing the majority of relevant medical directives, skills and national competencies, and good overall and inter-station reliability. Data evaluating “Extrapolation” included: low correlations between assessment scores by dimension and clinical errors in practice. Data evaluating “Implications” included low error rates in practice. Interpreting our findings according to Kane’s framework, we suggest the evidence for scoring, generalization and implications supports use of our simulation-based paramedic assessment strategy as a certifying exam; however, the extrapolation evidence was weak, suggesting exam scores did not predict clinical error rates. Our analysis represents a worked example others can follow when using Kane’s validity framework to evaluate, and iteratively develop and refine assessment strategies.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9800-3
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2018)
  • How cognitive engagement fluctuates during a team-based learning session
           and how it predicts academic achievement
    • Authors: Jerome I. Rotgans; Henk G. Schmidt; Preman Rajalingam; Joey Wong Ying Hao; Claire Ann Canning; Michael A. Ferenczi; Naomi Low-Beer
      Pages: 339 - 351
      Abstract: The objective of the paper is to report findings of two studies that attempted to find answers to the following questions: (1) What are the levels of cognitive engagement in TBL' (2) Are there differences between students who were more exposed to TBL than students who were less exposed to TBL' (3) To which extent does cognitive engagement fluctuate as a function of the different activities involved in TBL' And (4) How do cognitive engagement scores collected over time correlate with each other and with academic achievement' The studies were conducted with Year-1 and -2 medical students enrolled in a TBL curriculum (N = 175, 62 female). In both studies, six measurements of cognitive engagement were taken during the distinct TBL activities (preparation phase, individual/team readiness assurance test, burning questions, and application exercises). Data were analysed by means of one-way repeated-measures ANOVAs and path modelling. The results of the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that cognitive engagement systematically fluctuated as a function of the distinct TBL activities. In addition, Year-1 students reported significantly higher levels of cognitive engagement compared to Year-2 students. Finally, cognitive engagement was a significant predictor of performance (β = .35). The studies presented in this paper are a first attempt to relate the different activities undertaken in TBL with the extent to which they arouse cognitive engagement with the task at hand. Implications of these findings for TBL are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9801-2
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2018)
  • The bargaining of professionalism in emergency care practice: NHS
           paramedics and higher education
    • Authors: Assaf Givati; Chris Markham; Ken Street
      Pages: 353 - 369
      Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, as part of reforms to the National Health Service and with it organizational changes to ambulance work in the UK, paramedic education has undergone a process of academisation and a shift from in-house, apprenticeship weeks-long occupational training, to university-based undergraduate programs. While the professional regulation and standardization of Allied Health Professionals’ education in high-income countries has captured scholarly attention, the study of paramedic practice is still in its infancy and there is a need to explore its evolvement in relation to the fluid societal–political circumstances affecting its provision and demand. Based on interviews with front-line paramedics, paramedic educators and paramedic science students in the South of England, this article examines how the reforms to paramedic education have impacted the professionalization of paramedics and their discourse of professionalism. Framed within to the ‘new’ sociology of professions, the case of British paramedics demonstrates the complex nature of the relationship between the university and professional practice. It appears that universities, the providers of paramedic education, are caught between two opposing discourses of professionalism: on the one hand, that of providing a platform for students’ socialization and engagement with professionalism ‘from within’ practice which is based on students’ common goals and mutual experiences, and, on the other hand, serving as a conduit for managerial/organizational strategies of professionalism which appear to undermine the role of university socialization.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9802-1
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2018)
  • Student learning outcomes, perceptions and beliefs in the context of
           strengthening research integration into the first year of medical school
    • Authors: Mayke W. C. Vereijken; Roeland M. van der Rijst; Jan H. van Driel; Friedo W. Dekker
      Pages: 371 - 385
      Abstract: Research integrated into undergraduate education is important in order for medical students to understand and value research for later clinical practice. Therefore, attempts are being made to strengthen the integration of research into teaching from the first year onwards. First-year students may interpret attempts made to strengthen research integration differently than intended by teachers. This might be explained by student beliefs about learning and research as well as student perceptions of the learning environment. In general, student perceptions of the learning environment play a pivotal role in fostering student learning outcomes. This study aims to determine whether a curriculum change intended to promote research integration fosters student learning outcomes and student perceptions of research integrated into teaching. To serve this purpose, three subsequent cohorts of first-year students were compared, one before and two after a curriculum change. Learning outcomes of these students were measured using scores on a national progress test of 921 students and assessments of a sample of 100 research reports of a first-year student research project. 746 Students filled out the Student Perceptions of Research Integration Questionnaire. The findings suggest that learning outcomes of these students, that is, scores on research related test items of the progress test and the quality of research reports, were better than those of students before the curriculum change.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9803-0
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2018)
  • ‘There’s so much to it’: the ways physiotherapy students and recent
           graduates experience practice
    • Authors: S. Barradell; T. Peseta; S. Barrie
      Pages: 387 - 406
      Abstract: Health science courses aim to prepare students for the demands of their chosen profession by learning ways appropriate to that profession and the contexts they will work and live in. Expectations of what students should learn become re-contextualised and translated into entry-level curriculum, with students operating as a connection between what is intended and enacted in curriculum, and required in the real world. Drawing on phenomenology, this paper explores how students understand practice—the collective, purposeful knowing, doing and being of a community—in entry-level physiotherapy programs. Ways of thinking and practising (WTP)—a framework attentive to the distinctive nature of a discipline, its values, philosophies and world-view (McCune and Hounsell in High Educ 49(3):255–289, 2005)—provides the conceptual lens. Six themes describing how students see the WTP of physiotherapy practice emerged from the analysis: discovery of new knowledge; problem solving client related contexts; adopting a systems based approach to the body; contributing to a positive therapeutic alliance; developing a sense of self and the profession; and the organisation of the workforce. The study produces knowledge about practice by focusing on physiotherapy students’ experiences of disciplinary learning. Including students in educational research in this way is an approach that can help students realise their potential as part of a community of practice.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9804-z
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2018)
  • Swimming in a tsunami of change
    • Authors: Saad Y. Salim; Jonathan White
      Pages: 407 - 411
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9795-9
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2018)
  • Group interventions to promote mental health in health professional
           education: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled
    • Authors: Kristin Lo; Jamie Waterland; Paula Todd; Tanvi Gupta; Margaret Bearman; Craig Hassed; Jennifer L. Keating
      Pages: 413 - 447
      Abstract: Effects of interventions for improving mental health of health professional students has not been established. This review analysed interventions to support mental health of health professional students and their effects. The full holdings of Medline, PsycINFO, EBM Reviews, Cinahl Plus, ERIC and EMBASE were searched until 15th April 2016. Inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials of undergraduate and post graduate health professional students, group interventions to support mental health compared to alternative education, usual curriculum or no intervention; and post-intervention measurements for intervention and control participants of mindfulness, anxiety, depression, stress/distress or burnout. Studies were limited to English and short term effects. Studies were appraised using the PEDro scale. Data were synthesised using meta-analysis. Four comparisons were identified: psychoeducation or cognitive-behavioural interventions compared to alternative education, and mindfulness or relaxation compared to control conditions. Cognitive-behavioural interventions reduced anxiety (−0.26; −0.5 to −0.02), depression (−0.29; −0.52 to −0.05) and stress (0.37; −0.61 to −0.13). Mindfulness strategies reduced stress (−0.60; −0.97 to −0.22) but not anxiety (95% CI −0.21 to 0.18), depression (95% CI −0.36 to 0.03) or burnout (95% CI −0.36 to 0.10). Relaxation strategies reduced anxiety (SMD −0.80; 95% CI −1.03 to −0.58), depression (−0.49; −0.88 to −0.11) and stress (−0.34; −0.67 to −0.01). Method quality was generally poor. Evidence suggests that cognitive-behavioural, relaxation and mindfulness interventions may support health professional student mental health. Further high quality research is warranted.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9770-5
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2018)
  • Subjective awareness of ultrasound expertise development: individual
           experience as a determinant of overconfidence
    • Authors: Jordan Richard Schoenherr; Jason Waechter; Scott J. Millington
      Abstract: Medical decision-making requires years of experience in order to develop an adequate level of competence to successfully engage in safe practice. While diagnostic and technical skills are essential, an awareness of the extent and limits of our own knowledge and skills is critical. The present study examines clinicians’ subjective awareness in a diagnostic cardiac ultrasound task. Clinicians answered diagnostic and treatment related questions for a range of pathologies. Following these questions, clinicians indicated their level of confidence in their response. A comparison of response accuracy and confidence revealed that clinicians were generally overconfident in their responses. Critically, we observed that a clinician’s overconfidence was negatively correlated with prior experience: clinicians that had more prior experience expressed less overconfidence in their performance such that some clinicians were in fact underconfident. We discuss the implications for training in medical education and decision-making.
      PubDate: 2018-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-018-9826-1
  • Three visions of doctoring: a Gadamerian dialogue
    • Authors: Benjamin Chin-Yee; Atara Messinger; L. Trevor Young
      Abstract: Medicine in the twenty-first century faces an ‘identity crisis,’ as it grapples with the emergence of various ‘ways of knowing,’ from evidence-based and translational medicine, to narrative-based and personalized medicine. While each of these approaches has uniquely contributed to the advancement of patient care, this pluralism is not without tension. Evidence-based medicine is not necessary individualized; personalized medicine may be individualized but is not necessarily person-centered. As novel technologies and big data continue to proliferate today, the focus of medical practice is shifting away from the dialogic encounter between doctor and patient, threatening the loss of humanism that many view as integral to medicine’s identity. As medical trainees, we struggle to synthesize medicine’s diverse and evolving ‘ways of knowing’ and to create a vision of doctoring that integrates new forms of medical knowledge into the provision of person-centered care. In search of answers, we turned to twentieth-century philosopher Hans-Georg Gadamer, whose unique outlook on “health” and “healing,” we believe, offers a way forward in navigating medicine’s ‘messy pluralism.’ Drawing inspiration from Gadamer’s emphasis on dialogue and ‘practical wisdom’ (phronesis), we initiated a dialogue with the dean of our medical school to address the question of how medical trainees and practicing clinicians alike can work to create a more harmonious pluralism in medicine today. We propose that implementing a pluralistic approach ultimately entails ‘bridging’ the current divide between scientific theory and the practical art of healing, and involves an iterative and dialogic process of asking questions and seeking answers.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-018-9824-3
  • Do reciprocal relationships between academic workload and self-regulated
           learning predict medical freshmen’s achievement' A longitudinal
           study on the educational transition from secondary school to medical
    • Authors: Joselina Barbosa; Álvaro Silva; Maria Amélia Ferreira; Milton Severo
      Abstract: One of the most important factors that makes the transition from secondary school to medical school challenging is the inability to put in the study time that a medical school curriculum demands. The implementation of regulated learning is essential for students to cope with medical course environment and succeed. This study aimed to investigate the reciprocal relationships between self-regulated learning skills (SRLS) and academic workload (AW) across secondary school to medical school transition. Freshmen enrolled in medical school (N = 102) completed questionnaires at the beginning and at the end of their academic year, assessing AW (measured as study time hours and perceived workload), SRLS (planning and strategies for learning assessment, motivation and action to learning and self-directedness) and academic achievement. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a longitudinal path analysis were performed. According to the EFA, study time and perceived workload revealed two factors of AW: students who had a high perceived workload also demonstrated increased study time (tandem AW); and those who had a low perceived workload also demonstrated increased study time (inverse AW). Only a longitudinal relationship between SRLS and AW was found in the path analysis: prior self-directedness was related to later tandem AW. Moreover, success during the first year of medical school is dependent on exposure to motivation, self-directedness and high study time without overload during secondary school and medical school, and prior academic achievement. By better understanding these relationships, teachers can create conditions that support academic success during the first year medical school.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-018-9825-2
  • A practical guide for implementing and maintaining value-added clinical
           systems learning roles for medical students using a diffusion of
           innovations framework
    • Authors: Jed D. Gonzalo; Deanna Graaf; Amarpreet Ahluwalia; Dan R. Wolpaw; Britta M. Thompson
      Abstract: After emphasizing biomedical and clinical sciences for over a century, US medical schools are expanding experiential roles that allow students to learn about health care delivery while also adding value to patient care. After developing a program where all 1st-year medical students are integrated into interprofessional care teams to contribute to patient care, authors use a diffusion of innovations framework to explore and identify barriers, facilitators, and best practices for implementing value-added clinical systems learning roles. In 2016, authors conducted 32 clinical-site observations, 29 1:1 interviews with mentors, and four student focus-group interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was used to identify themes.
      Authors discussed drafts of the categorization scheme, and agreed upon results and quotations. Of 36 sites implementing the program, 17 (47%) remained, 8 (22%) significantly modified, and 11 (31%) withdrew from the program. Identified strategies for implementing value-added roles included: student education, patient characteristics, patient selection methods, activities performed, and resources. Six themes influencing program implementation and maintenance included: (1) educational benefit, (2) value added to patient care from student work, (3) mentor time and site capacity, (4) student engagement, (5) working relationship between school, site, and students, and, (6) students’ continuity at the site. Health systems science is an emerging focus for medical schools, and educators are challenged to design practice-based roles that enhance education and add value to patient care. Health professions’ schools implementing value-added roles will need to invest resources and strategize about best-practice strategies to guide efforts.
      PubDate: 2018-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-018-9822-5
  • Can physician examiners overcome their first impression when examinee
           performance changes'
    • Authors: Timothy J. Wood; Debra Pugh; Claire Touchie; James Chan; Susan Humphrey-Murto
      Abstract: There is an increasing focus on factors that influence the variability of rater-based judgments. First impressions are one such factor. First impressions are judgments about people that are made quickly and are based on little information. Under some circumstances, these judgments can be predictive of subsequent decisions. A concern for both examinees and test administrators is whether the relationship remains stable when the performance of the examinee changes. That is, once a first impression is formed, to what degree will an examiner be willing to modify it' The purpose of this study is to determine the degree that first impressions influence final ratings when the performance of examinees changes within the context of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Physician examiners (n = 29) viewed seven videos of examinees (i.e., actors) performing a physical exam on a single OSCE station. They rated the examinees’ clinical abilities on a six-point global rating scale after 60 s (first impression or FIGR). They then observed the examinee for the remainder of the station and provided a final global rating (GRS). For three of the videos, the examinees’ performance remained consistent throughout the videos. For two videos, examinee performance changed from initially strong to weak and for two videos, performance changed from initially weak to strong. The mean FIGR rating for the Consistent condition (M = 4.80) and the Strong to Weak condition (M = 4.87) were higher compared to their respective GRS ratings (M = 3.93, M = 2.73) with a greater decline for the Strong to Weak condition. The mean FIGR rating for the Weak to Strong condition was lower (3.60) than the corresponding mean GRS (4.81). This pattern of findings suggests that raters were willing to change their judgments based on examinee performance. Future work should explore the impact of making a first impression judgment explicit versus implicit and the role of context on the relationship between a first impression and a subsequent judgment.
      PubDate: 2018-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-018-9823-4
  • A framework for mentoring of medical students: thematic analysis of
           mentoring programmes between 2000 and 2015
    • Authors: Yin Shuen Tan; Shao Wen Amanda Teo; Yiying Pei; Julia Huina Sng; Hong Wei Yap; Ying Pin Toh; Lalit K. R. Krishna
      Abstract: A consistent mentoring approach is key to unlocking the full benefits of mentoring, ensuring effective oversight of mentoring relationships and preventing abuse of mentoring. Yet consistency in mentoring between senior clinicians and medical students (novice mentoring) which dominate mentoring processes in medical schools is difficult to achieve particularly when mentors practice in both undergraduate and postgraduate medical schools. To facilitate a consistent approach to mentoring this review scrutinizes common aspects of mentoring in undergraduate and postgraduate medical schools to forward a framework for novice mentoring in medical schools. Four authors preformed independent literature searches of novice mentoring guidelines and programmes in undergraduate and postgraduate medical schools using ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, OVID and Science Direct databases. 25,605 abstracts were retrieved, 162 full-text articles were reviewed and 34 articles were included. The 4 themes were identified—preparation, initiating and supporting the mentoring process and the obstacles to effective mentoring. These themes highlight 2 key elements of an effective mentoring framework-flexibility and structure. Flexibility refers to meeting the individual and changing needs of mentees. Structure concerns ensuring consistency to the mentoring process and compliance with prevailing codes of conduct and standards of practice.
      PubDate: 2018-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-018-9821-6
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