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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Allergo Journal International
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   ISSN (Online) 2197-0378
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Identification of bee and wasp taxa relevant in systemic allergic
           reactions to Hymenoptera stings in Central Europe
    • Authors: Volker Mauss; Franziska Ruëff
      Pages: 81 - 87
      Abstract: Background Correct identification of the Hymenoptera that was responsible for stinging a patient is crucial when establishing the indication for specific immunotherapy (SIT) using Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy (VIT), advising the patient on allergen avoidance, and in terms evaluating accidental stings or sting challenges during VIT. There are around 15 species of social bees and wasps that most frequently cause stings in Central Europe. Even lay people are normally able to correctly classify causal insects into their respective families, i. e., Apidae or Vespidae. On the other hand, a more precise taxonomic classification and distinction within the subfamily and the genus is often imprecise or incorrect; for example, within the family Apidae (true bees), Apis (honeybees) is often mistaken for Bombus (bumblebees), while within the family Vespidae (folded-winged wasps), there is confusion between Polistes (paper wasps), Vespa (hornets), Dolichovespula (yellow jackets, long-cheeked wasps), and Vespula (yellow jackets, short-cheeked wasps). Results The morphological characters used for the typing of relevant genera are described and illustrated. A redetermination of wasps used at university hospitals for sting challenge tests revealed that 7% did not belong to the desired genus Vespula, but mainly to Dolichovespula instead. However, sting challenge tests using Dolichovespula species elicit approximately the same percentage of systemic allergic reactions as do Vespula stings. Conclusion With training, even nonentomologists are able to distinguish between taxa using simple techniques. The fact that a similar number of systemic allergic reactions are seen with sting challenge tests using Dolichovespula as with challenge tests using Vespula may be due to the high allergen affinity between the venoms. Another possible explanation for this could be that allergic reactions are more commonly triggered by Dolichovespula venom compared with Vespula venom than originally assumed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0019-x
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 3 (2017)
  • Psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES) mimicking acute anaphylactic
    • Authors: Azadeh Tajmir-Riahi; Vera Mahler
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0028-9
  • Course of respiratory allergy by treatment strategy based on German
           routine data
    • Authors: Ann-Kathrin Weschenfelder; Ludger Klimek; Norbert Mülleneisen; Harald Renz; Wolfgang Wehrmann; Thomas Werfel; Eckard Hamelmann; Jürgen Wasem; Janine Biermann
      Abstract: Purpose Allergic respiratory diseases represent a global health problem. The two major treatment strategies are symptom treatment and specific immunotherapy (SIT). SIT is considered the only causal treatment option available with the ability to alter the course of the disease. This study aims to describe the course of disease and medication of respiratory allergy across treatment strategies and disease groups. Methods The analysis is based on routine data from a German statutory health insurance. The patient cohort is observed from 2007–2012. For each year based on assured outpatient diagnoses patients are assigned to a disease group: rhinitis, asthma or both diseases. Additionally, prescribed medication is considered. Treatment comparisons are based on matched pairs. Results The study population comprises 165,446 patients with respiratory allergy. In 2007 the most frequent disease group is rhinitis (70%), followed by asthma (16%) and both diseases (14%). During the observation period a second allergic respiratory diagnosis occurs only in about 12% of rhinitis patients and 28% of asthma patients. In about 50% of patients with both diseases one of the diagnoses is omitted. These patients are more likely to no longer report their asthma diagnosis when receiving immunotherapy compared to symptom treatment. Furthermore immunotherapy reduces the frequency of asthma medication use. Conclusions Results of detailed analysis of diagnoses reflect the alternating nature of allergic diseases. Although limited by accuracy of documentation and the lack of clinical information, the comparison of treatment strategies shows some advantages of immunotherapy regarding course of disease and asthma medication use.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0027-x
  • Insects and arachnids as elicitors of toxic and allergic reactions in
    • Authors: Randolf Brehler
      Abstract: Background Bees and wasps are the main culprits in terms of severe allergic reactions to insects in Germany; venoms from both insects are available for specific immunotherapy (SIT). Therefore, it is important to differentiate reactions to venom from other animals. It is also necessary for the sake of targeted prevention to assign sting reactions of any kind to their causal agents. Methods By searching Medline, it was possible to identify relevant elicitors of sting and bite reactions particularly in Germany and Europe. Results Not only Hymenoptera stings, but also bites and stings from other insects, as well as skin contact with insect components, can cause allergic and/or toxic skin reactions. Mosquitoes, horseflies, and thrips cause local reactions. Contact with some beetles may lead to blister formation and skin inflammation. Bed bugs are becoming an increasing problem in Germany too, and introduction into the domestic environment via luggage is possible. Although spider bites can also cause reactions in humans in Germany, reactions to lice and flea bites are more common. Some caterpillars have hair and bristles that act as a defense mechanism and cause not only skin reactions, but also respiratory reactions, including asthma attacks. Ants, particularly in the US and Australia, are relevant triggers of anaphylactic reactions. Conclusion Hymenoptera stings are the most common cause of systemic allergic reactions, while ants also need to be borne in mind in tropical and subtropical countries. Other insects rarely cause anaphylactic reactions. In this part of the world, numerous other insects may be the cause of local sting reactions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0026-y
  • Allergic reactions to antibiotics – two sides of the same coin: clearly
           diagnose or reliably rule out
    • Authors: Ludger Klimek; Christoph Aderhold; Annette Sperl; Axel Trautmann
      Abstract: Background Antibiotics cause allergic reactions with a disproportionate frequency compared with other drugs. Skin symptoms such as exanthema usually result but systemic anaphylactic responses may also occur. Materials and methods An up-to-date review of the scientific literature on allergies to antibiotics was conducted, based on searches in MEDLINE and PubMed, as well as national and international guideline registers and Cochrane. Results Allergic reactions are observed primarily in response to antibiotics from the group of β‑lactams, but also to clindamycin, sulfonamide antibiotics, fluorochinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines. In many cases, detailed diagnostic procedures are not carried out. However, claims made in the medical history alone are often insufficient to diagnose antibiotics allergy and may lead to false-positive assessments. Effective antibiotics are, therefore, frequently withheld from patients – or patients refuse to take them – without justification. For example, up to 10% of the whole population claim to be allergic to penicillin, but in only 2% of cases can this be verified by skin tests and challenge testing. Conclusions Thorough diagnostic investigation of possible allergy to antibiotics both allows antibiotic allergy to be reliably diagnosed (in the event of a positive outcome) and, if the results are negative, enables the further use of major groups of antibiotics. It also helps to reduce the unnecessary application of reserve antibiotics.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0025-z
  • Pollen-related food allergy: an update
    • Authors: Regina Treudler; Jan-Christoph Simon
      Abstract: Background The vast majority of IgE-mediated food allergies in adults are based on sensitization to pollen, followed by reactions to structurally related, often unstable allergens, in particular in fruit (including edible nuts), vegetables, and spices. Materials and methods This article provides an up-to-date overview of selected scientific works on pollen-related food allergy and has been drawn-up on the basis of PubMed research, the German Study on Adult Health (Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland, DEGS) conducted by the Robert Koch Institute, as well as the national and international guideline registries. Results Birch pollen-related symptoms are generally the commonest form of pollen-related allergy observed in Northern Europe. The types of fruit that most frequently cause symptoms belong to the Rosaceae (e. g., apple, cherry) and Fagales families (hazelnut). Reactions to legumes (e. g., peanut, soy) and vegetables, including celery, carrot, tomato, and bell pepper, are also worthy of note. In addition to oropharyngeal contact urticaria, the clinical symptoms of pollen-related food allergy can range from the involvement of other organ systems to anaphylactic shock. The main plant food allergens belong to a handful of protein families: Bet v 1 homologs, profilins, lipid transfer proteins, storage proteins, and thaumatin-like proteins. Conclusion The diagnosis of pollen-related food allergy has seen significant advances in recent years in the wake of component-resolved/molecular allergology, thereby, enabling reliable identification. Treatment comprises dietary counseling and the prescription of emergency medication. In addition, allergen-specific immunotherapy for cross-reactive pollen allergens appears to positively affect concomitant food allergies in some patients.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0022-2
  • The small liver fluke ( Dicrocoelium dendriticum ): an unusual clinical
           finding in chronic urticaria
    • Authors: Carolin Blatner; Eva Maria Oppel; Andreas Wieser; Thomas Herzinger; Franziska Ruëff
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0021-3
  • Dealing with absolute and relative contraindications to specific
           immunotherapy using Hymenoptera venoms
    • Authors: Andrea Bauer; Franziska Ruëff
      Abstract: Background Acute infectious disorders, uncontrolled bronchial asthma, severe chronic inflammatory disorders, severe cardiovascular disorders, autoimmune or immunodeficiency disorders, active or progressive cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), treatment initiation during pregnancy, as well as medication with β‑blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, among others, are considered either absolute or relative contraindications to specific immunotherapy using Hymenoptera venom (HV-SIT). Some of the contraindications listed above, however, are potential risk factors in the event of anaphylaxis, such that one regularly needs to challenge these contraindications on a case-by-case basis so as not to withhold HV-SIT from patients at particularly high risk. Methods Literature review. Results and conclusion Study data on a risk-increasing effect are available for only some of the contraindications to HV-SIT listed in the product information or guidelines. Moreover, these data are partially conflicting. Nevertheless, acute infectious disorders, active autoimmune disorders during flare-ups, active or progressive malignant disease, uncontrolled bronchial asthma, AIDS, and treatment during pregnancy are considered absolute contraindications to the initiation of HV-SIT. Some of these contraindications are, by their very nature, temporary. In other cases, therapy can be initiated once the underlying disease has been optimally treated. Relative contraindications to the initiation of HV-SIT include autoimmune disorders in remission, immune defects and immunosuppressive therapy, well-controlled chronic infectious diseases, category A and B HIV, partially controlled bronchial asthma, limited compliance, age below 5 years, cancer in remission, comedication with ACE inhibitors and β‑blockers, as well as treatment (continuation) during pregnancy. In the case of relative as well as absolute contraindications, it is essential to conduct a risk/benefit analysis prior to initiating or continuing HV-SIT.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0024-0
  • Mast cell diseases in patients with insect venom allergy: implications for
           diagnosis and therapy
    • Authors: Franziska Ruëff; Sebastian Mastnik; Eva Maria Oppel
      Abstract: Background Clonal mast cell disease is detected in up to 5% of adult patients with insect venom allergy. Mastocytosis and monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome (MMAS) are considered high-risk diseases in Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA). Methods Literature review. Results Mastocytosis or MMAS are detected in HVA patients more frequently than random chance would permit. Patient histories in mast cell disease often reveal particularly severe sting reactions. Moreover, the risk of side effects is higher and the likelihood that specific immunotherapy (SIT) using Hymenoptera venom (HV) will fail is greater. Conclusion The determination of baseline serum tryptase (bST) and an examination of the skin are recommended in all adult patients with a previous history of systemic sting reactions. Patients with mastocytosis of the skin and/or bST elevated above 20 µg/l should always undergo further investigation. If bST is elevated in the absence of mastocytosis, or if a more accurate diagnosis of the mast cell disease is relevant, a so-called liquid biopsy can be performed, enabling a KIT mutation (tyrosine kinase receptor) to be investigated in peripheral blood. Bone marrow biopsy, bone density measurement, and upper abdominal ultrasound are also indicated. Due to the specific hazards posed by clonal mast cell diseases, HV-SIT is of particular relevance to this patient group. Patients with clonal mast cell disease are at greater risk of treatment failure and should therefore undergo sting challenge. In bee venom allergy, one should try to achieve a higher maintenance dose (200 µg bee venom) from the start, likewise in patients with wasp venom allergy and sting reactions requiring resuscitation. Lifelong continuation of HV-SIT is recommended in mast cell disease.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0023-1
  • Diagnostics in Hymenoptera venom allergy: current concepts and
           developments with special focus on molecular allergy diagnostics
    • Authors: Thilo Jakob; David Rafei-Shamsabadi; Edzard Spillner; Sabine Müller
      Abstract: Background The high rate of asymptomatic sensitization to Hymenoptera venom, difficulty in correctly identifying Hymenoptera and loss of sensitization over time make an accurate diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy challenging. Although routine diagnostic tests encompassing skin tests and the detection of venom-specific IgE antibodies with whole venom preparations are reliable, they offer insufficient precision in the case of double sensitized patients or in those with a history of sting anaphylaxis, in whom sensitization cannot be proven or only to the presumably wrong venom. Methods Systematic literature research and review of current concepts of diagnostic testing in Hymenoptera venom allergy. Results and discussion Improvements in diagnostic accuracy over recent years have mainly been due to the increasing use of molecular allergy diagnostics. Detection of specific IgE antibodies to marker and cross-reactive venom allergens improves the discrimination between genuine sensitization and cross-reactivity, and this provides a better rationale for prescribing venom immunotherapy. The basophil activation test has also increased diagnostic accuracy by reducing the number of Hymenoptera venom sensitizations overlooked with routine tests. This paper reviews current concepts of diagnostic testing in Hymenoptera venom allergy and suggests fields for further development.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0014-2
  • 11th Meeting of the German Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
           Working Group on Insect Venom Allergy, Fulda, May 19/20, 2017
    • PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0020-4
  • Bee venom allergy: a recent trend among amateur beekeepers
    • Authors: Gwendolyn Dinkel; Katharina Pietschke; Katharina Belge; Amir Yazdi; Jörg Fischer
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0018-y
  • Birch, grass, and mugwort pollen concentrations and intradiurnal patterns
           at two different urban sites in Berlin, Germany
    • Authors: Anke Simoleit; Matthias Werchan; Barbora Werchan; Hans-Guido Mücke; Ulrich Gauger; Torsten Zuberbier; Karl-Christian Bergmann
      Abstract: Purpose The study investigated the seasonal courses and intradiurnal patterns of birch (Betula), grass (Poaceae), and mugwort (Artemisia) pollen at two sites in the city of Berlin in 2014 and 2015. Methods The “Motorway Site” was situated at a busy city motorway and the “City Center Site” on the roof of a large hospital. Sampling was undertaken with 7‑day recording volumetric spore traps. Light microscopic analysis led to daily means (pollen/m3 air) and 2‑h means (daily %). Correlation coefficients were calculated to compare pollen season between the sites. Rainless days were examined for their intradiurnal maximum of pollen concentration and corresponding wind direction in order to identify the impact of local pollen sources. Birch trees, grassed areas, and mugwort/field sagewort stems were mapped at both sites. Results The seasonal courses of Betula, Poaceae, and Artemisia pollen each showed significantly positive correlations between the sites, but absolute counts were higher at the motorway. Artemisia pollen showed a distinct morning profile at both sites. Poaceae pollen concentrated on the second half of the day peaking in the evening or at night. Betula pollen offered no clear trend, but the main period mostly started at 8 am and lasted until the end of day. Conclusions Higher pollen counts at the motorway seem to be associated with the local vegetation that was much more abundant than at the city center. Local sources of weeds (Artemisia) and grasses (Poaceae) releasing pollen at low heights appear to be more contributing for local pollen load than trees (Betula) at these sites.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0012-4
  • Impaired quality of life in patients with insect venom allergy
    • Authors: Dirk Koschel
      Abstract: Background Although documented fatalities following insect stings are only rarely reported, insect venom allergy is a potentially life-threatening disease. Experiencing anaphylaxis due to an insect sting represents a threatening event for patients. Methods A presentation and discussion of the published data on the importance of quality of life among insect venom allergy patients. Results It is well established today that affected individuals experience anxiety, practice avoidance behavior, and restrict outdoor physical activities as a result of insect stings, thereby impacting their quality of life as a whole. Using a specially developed quality-of-life questionnaire among individuals allergic to wasp venom, it was possible to show that performing specific Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy (VIT) results in improved quality of life, despite the occurrence of an initial and mild systemic sting reaction with manifestations restricted to the skin. Solely carrying an adrenaline autoinjector does not show this effect. This improved quality of life due to VIT was demonstrated not only in adults, but also in children with insect venom allergy, as well as in their parents. It was also shown that the tolerated sting challenge as a method of monitoring treatment efficacy under on-going VIT likewise results in increased quality of life in patients. The fact that the patient experiences a “problem-free,” controlled sting by the disease-causing insect confirms the good efficacy of VIT described in the patient information and has measurable effects on patients’ quality of life and behavior. Conclusions Therefore, particularly with regard to quality of life, it is important to ensure that all insect venom allergy patients are referred to an allergist, the indication for VIT is verified, treatment is initiated where appropriate, and sting challenge is performed during maintenance treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0017-z
  • Erratum to: Allergy and school: nothing to be sneezed at!
    • Authors: Reinhard Bornemann; Katharina Hagemeister; Hans-Georg Bresser; Eckard Hamelmann
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0015-1
  • Erratum to: Allergens and molecular diagnostics of shellfish allergy
    • Authors: Andreas L. Lopata; Jörg Kleine-Tebbe; Sandip D. Kamath
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0016-0
  • German guideline for the management of adverse reactions to ingested
    • Authors: Imke Reese; Barbara Ballmer-Weber; Kirsten Beyer; Thomas Fuchs; Jörg Kleine-Tebbe; Ludger Klimek; Ute Lepp; Bodo Niggemann; Joachim Saloga; Christiane Schäfer; Thomas Werfel; Torsten Zuberbier; Margitta Worm
      Abstract: Adverse food reactions are far more often perceived than objectively verified. In our scientific knowledge on non-allergic adverse reactions including the so called histamine intolerance, there are large deficits. Due to the fact that this disorder is increasingly discussed in the media and the internet, more and more people suspect it to be the trigger of their symptoms. The scientific evidence to support the postulated link between ingestion of histamine and adverse reactions is limited, and a reliable laboratory test for objective diagnosis is lacking. This position paper by the “Food Allergy” Working Group of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI) in collaboration with the German Association of Allergologists (AeDA), the Society for Pediatric Allergology and Environmental Medicine (GPA), and the Swiss Society for Allergology and Immunology (SGAI) reviews the data on the clinical picture of adverse reactions to ingested histamine, summarizes important aspects and their consequences, and proposes a practical diagnostic and therapeutic approach.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-017-0011-5
  • Six years of INSTAND e. V. sIgE proficiency testing
    • Authors: N. Wojtalewicz; S. Goseberg; K. Kabrodt; I. Schellenberg
      Abstract: Background Even though allergies are an important health issue, wide manufacturer-dependent differences in the detected amounts of allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) have repeatedly been found. These discrepancies hinder diagnostics and research into clinically significant cutoff points for life-threatening symptoms. Methods To evaluate whether the reported differences have led to changes in diagnostic testing, we analyzed data from six years of round robin testing (RRT, also known as proficiency testing) at the Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Qualitätssicherung in medizinischen Laboratorien e.V.  (Society for Promoting Quality Assurance in medical Laboratories) for the important allergen sources bee venom, wasp venom, and birch pollen. The results of the four main suppliers of in vitro diagnostic sIgE testing were compared in a pseudo-anonymized form using overlay images of box plot graphs for the semiquantitative data and allergen class results. Coefficients of variation (CV) were obtained to study the development of interlaboratory comparability. Results We found that the large differences between the manufacturer collectives remained constant between January 2010 and April 2015 without any real improvement. The CVs were good for two of the four analyzed suppliers, one was marginal and one above the quality level of 20%. Conclusion The numerous publications that have found discrepancies in the sIgE results of the different suppliers did not change the status quo within the last six years. Unfortunately, this is unlikely to change until there is a characterized standard material with known values of sIgE.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-016-0005-8
  • Carl Prausnitz Giles – family doctor and father of reagin detection
    • Authors: Alan Martin Edwards; David Hide
      Abstract: Dr. Carl Prausnitz Giles was born in Hamburg, Germany in 1876, the son of Otto Prausnitz, a Physician in the army reserve of the King of Prussia and Edith Giles, daughter of George and Elizabeth Giles of Bonchurch, Isle of Wight, United Kingdom. Carl qualified in Medicine at the Universities of Leipzig, Kiel and Breslau. He began work at the Hamburg Hygiene Institute, undertaking diagnostic work on cholera, plague, typhoid, diphtheria and tuberculosis. Carl frequently visited his mother’s home in Bonchurch and became proficient in both German and English and obtained British medical qualifications, MRCS. LRCP. The key work, for which he is mainly remembered, was the discovery of the principle responsible for the supersensitivity of his co-worker, Küstner, to cooked fish. In a classic paper published in 1921, he showed this could be transferred to non-sensitive individuals. He called it reagin, eventually shown to be IgE antibody. The test demonstrating its existence, the Prausnitz-Küstner reaction, was used for many years to demonstrate allergy in patients. In 1926, Prausnitz was appointed Professor and Director of the Institute of Hygiene in Breslau. Due to his Jewish antecedents, in 1934 he was compulsorily retired from his Chair in Breslau and moved his family to England. In 1935 he moved to Bonchurch. At the age of 60 years he embarked on a career in General Practice in partnership with a childhood friend, Dr. Bruce Williamson. He took his mother’s maiden name and became Dr. CP Giles of Ventnor, Isle of Wight. UK.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-016-0004-9
  • Contact allergy and intolerance to sulphite compounds: clinical and
           occupational relevance
    • Authors: Michael Häberle; Johannes Geier; Vera Mahler
      Abstract: Background Sulphites are widely used as preservatives and antioxidants, e. g., in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are known to trigger epidermal sensitizations and associated eczematous contact allergic skin reactions; to identify these, patch testing is performed using sodium disulphite (= sodium metabisulphite; CAS 7681-57-4). In addition to this, inhalation or oral exposure to sulphite can cause the clinical picture of sulphite intolerance, including bronchoconstriction, urticaria, cardiovascular, intestinal, and/or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions, the identification of which requires challenge testing. Methods This review discusses the prevalence of sulphites, their chemical characteristics, statutory regulations and limit values; sulphite-related diseases and their diagnosis; the occupational significance of sulphites as contact allergens in the literature published between 1968 and 2015; and the current incidence of contact sensitizations in the patient collective at a dermatology practice. Individual cases of inhalative occupational sulphite intolerance were also analyzed. Results A reaction incidence of 3.1% (++ or +++ reaction on day 4) to sodium metabisulphite (1% in Vaseline) was determined in a 10-year collective comprising 780 patients tested at a dermatology practice; in none of these cases was occupational relevance identified. In contrast, the rate of positive test reactions to sulphite was 1.1–4.5% in eight large patch test collectives. Although occupational relevance in the positive test results (depending on selection criteria) was between 0 and 100%, it was predominantly (in six of eight studies) between 5 and 14%. Approximately 50 cases involving occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to sulphite have been published in the literature over the last 45 years, as well as a small number of cases of occupational sulphite intolerance. Discussion In summary, epidermal sensitizations to sulphite are rarely of occupational relevance. Despite the wide prevalence of sulphites in the form of preservatives and antioxidants, the low number of cases documented in an occupational dermatological context suggests that occupational sulphite exposure only rarely exists in disease-triggering form.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40629-016-0003-x
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