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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Advances in Contraception
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0267-4874 - ISSN (Online) 1573-7195
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Cessation of publication of Advances in Contraception
    • Authors: Rosemary Kirkman
      Pages: 5 - 5
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006765108938
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • A farewell message from the Managing Editor
    • Authors: Kelley Williams
      Pages: 7 - 8
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006741525776
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • Outcomes in action: How relevant to clinical practice are health outcome
           measures such as the rate of unintended pregnancies in young teenagers?
    • Authors: A. Bigrigg
      Pages: 245 - 256
      Abstract: Abstract Scientific evidence shows that correct contraceptive use will prevent unintended pregnancy and the provision of contraceptives is recognized as a cost-effective intervention. This could encourage health authorities to keep investing more resources in family planning until the target rate of unintended pregnancies is reached, but if this was the only approach taken, the target rate never would be reached. Clinicians and their public health colleagues need to examine their practice in the light of all available evidence. Once desirable changes of practice are identified, local relevant health outcome measures need to be used to assess the effectiveness of the chosen approaches. Blunt factors, such as the unintended pregnancy rate in a city or region, will not suffice to inform individuals whether they are contributing to the overall picture.
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006709804626
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • Correlates of visit regularity among family planning clients in urban
           Yemen
    • Authors: E. Inaoka; S. Wakai; Y. Nakamura; Y. Al Babily; A.A.R. Saghayroun
      Pages: 257 - 274
      Abstract: Abstract Contraceptive discontinuation has been an important issue in low contraceptive prevalence countries like Yemen. Religious and cultural factors might play a large role in barriers against contraceptive acceptance. This study revealed the characteristics of women who accepted contraception and the factors related to the regularity of visits to a clinic in Yemen. Women perceived that accepting contraception was against neither Islam nor their husband's attitudes. They rather paid attention to mother and child health. Regularity of visits was not related to socioeconomic or demographic factors, but was related to satisfaction with family planning services. This implies that different approaches are needed to promote `continuation' and `regular visits'. A population policy which promotes birth spacing for maternal health in accordance with cultural contexts should be an effective and acceptable strategy in Yemen. Regular visits could be prompted by increasing the quality of services, including communication between clients and providers about side-effects and alternative choices of methods.
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006728021465
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • Comparison of the performances of TCu380A and TCu380S IUDs up to five
           years
    • Authors: L. Bahamondes; J. Díaz; C. Petta; I. Monteiro; C.D. Monteiro; C.H. Regina
      Pages: 275 - 281
      Abstract: Abstract A modification of the TCu380A IUD to create the model TCu380S was introduced many years ago. The TCu380S utilizes copper sleeves that are flush in the plastic and are set at both ends of the horizontal arm. The objective of this study is to compare the clinical performance of the TCu380A and the TCu380S IUDs, especially regarding contraceptive performance and expulsion, in a cohort of women who had one of these two devices inserted at random. This paper presents the results up to 5 years of use. A total of 1568 women were enrolled: 806 women received a TCu380A and 762 women received a TCu380S IUD. The performance was evaluated by life-table analysis and significance between rates was tested by the method of log-rank. The cumulative pregnancy rate was low in users of both models of IUD but lower in users of the TCu380S model through the 5 years of use, without statistical significance. Expulsion was significantly higher in users of the TCu380S model during the five years of use. The other reasons for discontinuation were similar for both devices and did not show statistical significance. The continuation rate was significantly lower in users of the TCu380S model in the first and second years of use. Both devices presented a very low pregnancy rate and TCu380S presented a lower pregnancy rate than the TCu380A, although without statistical significance.
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006780005535
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • Contraception in teenage Nigerian school girls
    • Authors: J.I.B. Adinma; A.O. Agbai; A.O. Okeke; J.M. Okaro
      Pages: 283 - 291
      Abstract: Abstract Contraception is reviewed in 314 teenage Nigerian school girls comprising 128 students at secondary and 186 at tertiary levels of institution. Out of all the teenagers, 26.8% were sexually exposed, among whom there was a total pregnancy rate of 19.05%. The rate of sexual exposure was higher in teenagers from tertiary institutions, 38.7% compared with 9.4% from secondary institutions. However, the pregnancy rate was higher among the sexually exposed secondary school girls, 33% vs. 16.7% for tertiary school girls. The mean level of contraceptive awareness for the various methods of contraception was 38.2% for the entire survey group: 22.6% for the secondary school girls and 54.4% for the tertiary school girls. Mean true contraceptive usage (TCU) among sexually active students, on the other hand, was 17.7%: 5% and 16.5% for the secondary school girls and tertiary school girls, respectively. The source of information on contraception for the study group was highest from `a friend' (37.3%) and from the `newsprint' (36.9%) and was lowest from routine `lectures and sex instructions' (9.2%). Twenty-five point five per cent of the entire study group, 43% of the secondary school girls and 13.4% of the tertiary school girls, had never had any information on contraception. Instruction on contraception, as part of the academic curricula at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education, would improve contraceptive knowledge and forestall the emotional and social problems resulting from unwanted teenage pregnancies.
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006732222373
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • Antifertility effect of aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula in
           female rats
    • Authors: R. Yadav; G.C. Jain
      Pages: 293 - 301
      Abstract: Abstract Oral administration of aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula to mated female rats from day 1-5 of pregnancy at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight resulted in 57.14% and 71.43% prevention of pregnancy, respectively, whereas 100% pregnancy inhibition was noted at 500 mg/kg bw. In the uterine bioassay test carried out in immature bilaterally ovariectomized female rats, aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula (100 mg/kg bw) increased the uterine wet weight (p<0.05) and luminal epithelial cell height (p<0.001) but did not induce premature opening of the vagina. This suggests a mild estrogenic activity of the extract. However, when the extract was administered conjointly with estradiol valerate (EDV, 0.1 mg/kg bw), it significantly (p<0.001) prevented the estrogen-induced uterotrophic effect, thus showing an antiestrogenic nature of the extract in the presence of a strong estrogen.
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006784224191
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • Factors associated with discontinuation rates of the Copper T380A IUD in a
           Peruvian public hospital
    • Authors: F. Escudero; G.F. Gonzales; L. Delgadillo; A.E. Villena
      Pages: 303 - 311
      Abstract: Abstract The objectives of this study were to evaluate performance and causes of discontinuation of the Copper T380A IUD by users at the Family Planning Service at Hospital Arzobispo Loayza in Lima, Peru, during a period of three years. The study included 3167 acceptors of the CuT380A attending the service during 1992-1994. IUDs were inserted during interval timing. Follow-up was at 1, 12, 24 and 36 months after insertion. The following events were recorded: number of pregnancies, expulsions and all causes of discontinuation. The cumulative rates per 100 woman-years using the life-table method was calculated. Also calculated were the relative risks for expulsion and for pregnancy. At the end of the study, 361 women had discontinued the method for various reasons, whereas 1667 women continued using the method. The lost-to-follow-up proportion increased over time from 35.9 per 100 woman-years for the first year to 38.2 for the third year. The cumulative discontinuation rate over three years was 22.6±1.3 (cumulative rate±standard error) per 100 woman-years. The cumulative pregnancy rate for three years was 1.2±0.4 per 100 woman-years, whereas the cumulative rate of expulsion was 4.9±0.4 for the first, 6.4 for the second and 6.8 for the third year. The main cause of discontinuation during the first year of use was expulsion (4.9 per 100 woman-years) followed by personal reasons (2.1 per 100 woman-years). At the end of the third year, the main cause was personal reasons (11.4) and the second cause was expulsion (6.8). A higher probability of expulsion, pregnancy and discontinuation for bleeding and/or pain was associated with age less than 20 years. In conclusion, the effectiveness of the CuT380A IUD after three years of use was 98.8 per 100 woman-years, whereas continuation was 39.2, and loss to follow-up increased over time.
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006792409169
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • Initial UK experience of the levonorgestrel-releasing contraceptive
           intravaginal ring
    • Authors: J. Sahota; P.M.F. Barnes; E. Mansfield; J.L. Bradley; R.J.E. Kirkman
      Pages: 313 - 324
      Abstract: Abstract A study was performed to establish the tolerance, acceptability and associated efficacy of a levonorgestrel-releasing intravaginal ring (IVR) in a sample of British women requiring contraception. This was achieved with an open non-randomized prospective study of 1710 women aged 18-40 years, recruited in 75 centers geographically spread around the UK using an IVR designed to release 20 μg/day of levonorgestrel. Assessments were made at baseline, after 6 weeks, after 3 months and then 3-monthly. After initial insertion of the IVR, it was changed at 3-monthly intervals. A total of 1591 women were eligible for analysis, with 572 available after 12 months and 34 after 24 months of use. Life-table analysis revealed pregnancy rates of 5.1% and 6.5% at 12 months and 24 months, respectively. The IVR was rated as acceptable or very acceptable as a form of contraceptive by 60.7% of women at 12 months. The most common adverse events were menstrual disturbance, headache and vaginal discharge. No significant pattern of biochemical, hematological, microbiological or cytological abnormalities was found but vaginal erythematous lesions were noted at some centers. This IVR was found to be a generally well-accepted method of contraception with a failure rate comparable to some other progestogen-only methods. On this basis, further development of hormone-releasing intravaginal rings is justified.
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006748626008
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • Factors affecting contraceptive use and behavior in Kocaeli, Turkey
    • Authors: B. Vural; F. Vural; J. Diker; I. Yücesoy
      Pages: 325 - 336
      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to investigate contraceptive use and its determinants in Kocaeli, Turkey. A questionnaire was applied to 922 randomly selected sexually active women of reproductive age, in order to extract information concerning contraceptive use and sociodemographic factors affecting behavior and contraceptive use. Knowledge of at least one method was nearly universal. Intrauterine devices and withdrawal were the most commonly used methods. Illiterate women and housewives had less knowledge about some modern methods. The number of children (p<0.001), nuclear type family (p<0.05), and approval of family planning (p<0.001) were the factors most predictive of contraceptive use. Husbands were involved in family planning via discussing family size (79.4%) and method (85.5%); 38.2% of males participated actively by using withdrawal or condom. Increasing the literacy of both male and female partners significantly increased both contraceptive use and the participation of husbands in family planning descision making. In conclusion, increasing the education level of couples and the status of women would result in increased contraceptive use in the future. Since the contraceptive behavior of women is influenced by their husbands' attitudes, family planning programs should be focused on the needs of both partners.
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006700726916
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • Fine structure of the langur monkey vas deferens and possible role of
           changes following vasectomy in the success or failure of the vasovasostomy
           
    • Authors: N.K. Lohiya; S. Srivastava; A.S. Ansari; B. Manivannan
      Pages: 337 - 350
      Abstract: Abstract Studies on the ultrastructure of the vas deferens have been carried out in control, vasectomized (6 and 24 months) and vasovasostomized (12 months) langur monkeys (Presbytis entellus entellus Dufresne). Vas deferens epithelium of the control animals depicted four types of cells, viz. the basal cells, principal cells, mitochondria-rich or apical cells and pencil or dark cells. The basal cells were short, cuboidal in nature with prominent nuclei, and contained sparse cytoplasmic organelles. The principal cells were characterized by the presence of nuclei with irregular outline and intranuclear electron-dense granules, well-developed Golgi bodies with prominent secretory vesicles, cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, free ribosome particles, lysosomes and stereocilia in the cytoplasm, suggesting an active secretory role, as well as the absorptive functions of the cells. The mitochondria-rich cells consisted of numerous mitochondria, and other cytoplasmic organelles were sparse. The pencil cells were dark, slightly compressed and situated between the principal cells. Vasectomy resulted in reduction of cytoplasmic volume and vacuolization of the cytoplasm, especially in the Golgi region of the principal cells. Rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria were poorly defined. Vasovasostomy showed no appreciable improvement in the configuration of the cytoplasmic organelles. The results suggest that a persistent reduced secretory activity of the cells following vasectomy and vasovasostomy might also be one of the factors responsible for unsuccessful vasovasostomy.
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006704827825
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • A decade of experience with TCu200
    • Authors: H.P. Bhattoa; S. Ganacharya; I. Batár
      Pages: 351 - 361
      Abstract: Abstract This paper summarizes ten years of experience with 2766 interval insertions of the TCu200 device. One hundred and twenty months of use were completed by 572 patients and the cumulative woman-months of use were 159 664. For evaluating the overall performance, gross cumulative and yearly specific life-table termination and continuation rates were calculated as suggested by Tietze [2]. The cumulative pertinent rates at the end of the ten-year follow-up period were as follows: pregnancy 10.2; expulsion 6.3; bleeding/pain 32.3; and removal for other medical reasons 19.4. The gross annual rates for the same conditions at the end of the first year of use were: 1.8, 2.4, 4.2, and 2.0, while in the tenth year they were: 0.6, 0.1, 4.4, and 2.8, respectively. The continuation rate was 89.1 at the end of the 12th month and 33.2 at the end of the 10th year. Based on this evaluation, the TCu200 IUD has a good overall performance and a longer lifespan than was previously expected.
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006708911895
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • Contraceptive methods used and preferred by men and women
    • Authors: A.-L. Kirkkola; I. Virjo; M. Isokoski; K. Mattila
      Pages: 363 - 374
      Abstract: Abstract In 1997, a random sample of Finnish men (n = 395) and women (n = 393) aged 18-50 years received a postal questionnaire concerning family planning, in which they were asked which contraceptive methods they had ever used and which three methods they considered to be best. Men's contraceptive preferences were compared to those of women. The response rate for men was 45% and for women 56%. The majority of both men and women had used, together with their partners, condom, oral contraceptives (OCs) and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The use of diaphragm, Norplant, Depo Provera and postcoital IUDs was not common. Among the men, 2-11% did not know whether their partner/partners had used the contraceptives in question. Concerning the three best contraceptive methods, men placed the condom first and women OCs. No male or female respondents rated postcoital emergency pills a superior method. Both men and women appreciated the most reliable means.
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006760928734
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • Research and quality control in natural family planning with relational
           database systems
    • Authors: C. Gnoth; M. Bremme; R. Klemm; P. Frank-Herrmann; E. Godehardt; G. Freundl
      Pages: 375 - 380
      Abstract: Abstract Research and quality control in natural family planning (NFP) is based on continuous data collection in prospective studies. The quality of the data is determined by the reliability of collection, input, management, and retrieval. During a period of ten years, different relational databases were programmed to manage the large number of very different data in NFP studies. Recently, all experience with different database systems has been summarized by writing and testing a completely new data management system based on MS Access 97: NFPDAT 1.0. This new software is used for data collection, evaluation and administration in NFP Study Groups. Over 200 internal formulae guarantee maximum data consistency while 30 000 cycles from 1477 patients were stored. Easy data evaluation for research and administration is possible with the help of a new report generator even without prior knowledge of SQL (System Query Language) or Visual Basic for MS Access 97. Using this method, interim results for research and quality control can be obtained at any time. NFPDAT can be used by all Natural Family Planning Study Groups using the symptothermal method for research and administration. With the help of NFPDAT, various prospective studies of Natural Family Planning were conducted.
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006713112804
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • Author Index to Volume 15
    • Pages: 381 - 382
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1017379813713
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • Title Index to Volume 15
    • Pages: 383 - 383
      PubDate: 1999-12-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1017369230551
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 4 (1999)
       
  • Quinacrine sterilization: experience among women at high risk for surgery
    • Authors: A.R. Sarin
      Pages: 175 - 178
      Abstract: Abstract A non-surgical method of female sterilization is needed because many women are at high risk of complications with standard surgical methods, especially in developing countries. Also, some women who desire sterilization refuse it for fear of surgery. To meet these special needs, we initiated a trial of quinacrine sterilization (QS), a non-surgical method involving transcervical insertion of 252 mg quinacrine as pellets by a modified IUD inserter. Diclofenac (50 mg) was inserted with the quinacrine pellets. This insertion was repeated a month later and a 150-mg injection of depo medroxyprogesterone was administered at the time of the first insertion. One hundred and thirty-four women of reproductive age entered the trial. Of these, 92 were considered to be at high risk for surgery, 27 had refused surgery, and 15 had had failed surgical sterilization. Mean follow-up was 3.46 years. No pregnancies or serious complications were experienced. The main side-effect was menstrual irregularity, due probably to the depo medroxyprogesterone injection. QS is a suitable option for women at high risk of surgical complications.
      PubDate: 1999-09-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006757914435
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (1999)
       
  • Characteristics of copper corrosion in simulated uterine fluid in the
           presence of protein
    • Authors: Jianjun Zhu; Naixin Xu; Chengdian Zhang
      Pages: 179 - 190
      Abstract: Abstract In order to acquire more knowledge of the performance of copper-bearing intrauterine devices (Cu-IUDs), corrosion behavior of copper in a simulated uterine fluid was investigated in the presence of proteins. The proteins studied included serum albumin, γ-globulin and hemoglobin. Electrochemical polarization resistance measurements indicated that, in all cases under study, the corrosion rate of copper declined with time and the proteins always increased the rate. Moreover, different kinds of protein showed different dependence of copper corrosion rate on protein level. Addition of serum albumin initially raised the copper corrosion rate; however, the higher albumin concentration resulted in less promotion of the corrosion. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the specimen surface showed that, both in the presence and absence of serum albumin, cuprous oxide was the only corrosion product, even though at higher concentrations of albumin less cuprous oxide was formed. This implies that serum albumin does not alter the corrosion mechanism. Electrochemical cathodic reduction of the oxide film and chemical analysis of solution after corrosion testing proved that the proportion of soluble ionic copper in the whole corrosion products varied with the albumin level. The copper corrosion rate in the presence of γ-globulin or hemoglobin increased monotonically with increasing concentration of the protein. These three proteins shifted the corrosion potential of copper towards negative. It could be inferred that the proteins accelerated the anodic dissolution process of copper and hence enhanced its corrosion.
      PubDate: 1999-09-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006793231274
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (1999)
       
  • Comparative study on the acceptability of two modern monophasic oral
           contraceptive preparations: 30 μg ethinyl estradiol combined with 150 μg
           desogestrel or 75 μg gestodene
    • Authors: L. Zichella; C. Sbrignadello; A. Tomassini; A. Di Lieto; C. Montoneri; G. Zarbo; M. Mancone; P. Pietrobattista; G. Bertoli; G. Perrone
      Pages: 191 - 200
      Abstract: Abstract Cycle control and tolerability of two monophasic oral contraceptive pills containing 30 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE) with either 150 μg desogestrel (DSG) or 75 μg gestodene (GSD) were compared in women starting oral contraception. A minimum of 200 healthy women at risk for pregnancy were to be treated for a total of 6 cycles per patient in a prospective, randomized open parallel-group multicenter trial. Two hundred and forty-one subjects were randomized, 115 to DSG/EE and 126 to GSD/EE. Compliance to the study preparation was high (around 95%) in both groups and no pregnancies occurred during the study. Cycle control was excellent; there were no differences between the two groups with regard to incidence of spotting and breakthrough bleeding or duration and intensity of withdrawal bleeding. Side-effects were mild and in general comparable in the two groups. Both at baseline and during treatment, a higher proportion of women taking GSD/EE complained about breast tenderness. This resulted in more early withdrawals because of breast tenderness in the GSD/EE group. It was concluded that monophasic DSG/EE and GSD/EE are equally effective, have similar cycle control and both are generally well tolerated.
      PubDate: 1999-09-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006745315344
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (1999)
       
  • Pilot study on the use of repeated doses of misoprostol in termination of
           pregnancy at less than 9 weeks of gestation
    • Authors: O.S. Tang; K.S. Wong; L.C.H. Tang; P.C. Ho
      Pages: 211 - 216
      Abstract: Abstract Pregnancy was terminated by repeated doses of vaginal misoprostol in 20 women at a gestational age of less than 9 weeks. The women were given 800 μg of vaginal misoprostol as an initial dose followed by 400 μg of vaginal misoprostol every 3 h for 4 doses. Fourteen women (70%, 95% confidence interval: 48–85%) had a complete abortion. Two women (10%) had a missed abortion, and two (10%) had an ongoing pregnancy. Two women (10%) had an incomplete abortion. The interval between the first dose of misoprostol and the passage of tissue mass was 25.3±34.4 h (median: 15 h).The duration of vaginal bleeding was 23.6±20.4 days (median: 14 days). Side-effects were mild and there was no significant drop in hemoglobin level. Repeated doses of vaginal misoprostol may be an alternative for women who do not want surgical abortion and who live in an area where mifepristone is not available.
      PubDate: 1999-09-01
      DOI: 10.1023/a:1006701600323
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (1999)
       
 
 
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