Authors:Hendrik Speleers Pages: 235 - 255 Abstract: Abstract A local approximation study is presented for hierarchical spline spaces. Such spaces are composed of a hierarchy of nested spaces and provide a flexible framework for local refinement in any dimensionality. We provide approximation estimates for general hierarchical quasi-interpolants expressed in terms of the truncated hierarchical basis. Under some mild assumptions, we prove that such hierarchical quasi-interpolants and their derivatives possess optimal local approximation power in the general q-norm with \(1\leq q\leq \infty \) . In addition, we detail a specific family of hierarchical quasi-interpolants defined on uniform hierarchical meshes in any dimensionality. The construction is based on cardinal B-splines of degree p and central factorial numbers of the first kind. It guarantees polynomial reproduction of degree p and it requires only function evaluations at grid points (odd p) or half-grid points (even p). This results in good approximation properties at a very low cost, and is illustrated with some numerical experiments. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-016-9483-y Issue No:Vol. 43, No. 2 (2017)

Authors:Mazen Ali; Kristina Steih; Karsten Urban Pages: 257 - 294 Abstract: Abstract We use asymptotically optimal adaptive numerical methods (here specifically a wavelet scheme) for snapshot computations within the offline phase of the Reduced Basis Method (RBM). The resulting discretizations for each snapshot (i.e., parameter-dependent) do not permit the standard RB ‘truth space’, but allow for error estimation of the RB approximation with respect to the exact solution of the considered parameterized partial differential equation. The residual-based a posteriori error estimators are computed by an adaptive dual wavelet expansion, which allows us to compute a surrogate of the dual norm of the residual. The resulting adaptive RBM is analyzed. We show the convergence of the resulting adaptive greedy method. Numerical experiments for stationary and instationary problems underline the potential of this approach. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-016-9485-9 Issue No:Vol. 43, No. 2 (2017)

Authors:Kanghui Guo; Demetrio Labate Pages: 295 - 318 Abstract: Abstract Edges and surface boundaries are often the most relevant features in images and multidimensional data. It is well known that multiscale methods including wavelets and their more sophisticated multidimensional siblings offer a powerful tool for the analysis and detection of such sets. Among such methods, the continuous shearlet transform has been especially successful. This method combines anisotropic scaling and directional sensitivity controlled by shear transformations in order to precisely identify not only the location of edges and boundary points but also edge orientation and corner points. In this paper, we show that this framework can be made even more flexible by controlling the scaling parameter of the anisotropic dilation matrix and considering non-parabolic scaling. We prove that, using ‘higher-than-parabolic’ scaling, the modified shearlet transform is also able to estimate the degree of local flatness of an edge or surface boundary, providing more detailed information about the geometry of edge and boundary points. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-016-9486-8 Issue No:Vol. 43, No. 2 (2017)

Authors:Tongke Wang; Zhiyue Zhang; Zhifang Liu Pages: 319 - 350 Abstract: Abstract A general framework is constructed for efficiently and stably evaluating the Hadamard finite-part integrals by composite quadrature rules. Firstly, the integrands are assumed to have the Puiseux expansions at the endpoints with arbitrary algebraic and logarithmic singularities. Secondly, the Euler-Maclaurin expansion of a general composite quadrature rule is obtained directly by using the asymptotic expansions of the partial sums of the Hurwitz zeta function and the generalized Stieltjes constant, which shows that the standard numerical integration formula is not convergent for computing the Hadamard finite-part integrals. Thirdly, the standard quadrature formula is recast in two steps. In step one, the singular part of the integrand is integrated analytically and in step two, the regular integral of the remaining part is evaluated using the standard composite quadrature rule. In this stage, a threshold is introduced such that the function evaluations in the vicinity of the singularity are intentionally excluded, where the threshold is determined by analyzing the roundoff errors caused by the singular nature of the integrand. Fourthly, two practical algorithms are designed for evaluating the Hadamard finite-part integrals by applying the Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Kronrod rules to the proposed framework. Practical error indicator and implementation involved in the Gauss-Legendre rule are addressed. Finally, some typical examples are provided to show that the algorithms can be used to effectively evaluate the Hadamard finite-part integrals over finite or infinite intervals. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-016-9487-7 Issue No:Vol. 43, No. 2 (2017)

Authors:Adrianna Gillman Pages: 351 - 364 Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an integral formulation for Helmholtz problems with mixed boundary conditions. Unlike most integral equation techniques for mixed boundary value problems, the proposed method uses a global boundary charge density. As a result, Calderón identities can be utilized to avoid the use of hypersingular integral operators. Numerical results illustrate the performance of the proposed solution technique. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-016-9488-6 Issue No:Vol. 43, No. 2 (2017)

Authors:Rishi Kumar Pandey; Hradyesh Kumar Mishra Pages: 365 - 383 Abstract: Abstract In this article, we apply the newly introduced numerical method which is a combination of Sumudu transforms and Homotopy analysis method for the solution of time fractional third order dispersive type PDE equations. It is also discussed generalized algorithm, absolute convergence and analytic result of the finite number of independent variables including time variable. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-016-9489-5 Issue No:Vol. 43, No. 2 (2017)

Authors:Zhendong Gu Pages: 385 - 409 Abstract: Abstract The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the piecewise spectral collocation method for system of Volterra integral equations. The provided convergence analysis shows that the presented method performs better than global spectral collocation method and piecewise polynomial collocation method. Numerical experiments are carried out to confirm these theoretical results. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-016-9490-z Issue No:Vol. 43, No. 2 (2017)

Authors:Vladimir Kazeev; Ivan Oseledets; Maxim Rakhuba; Christoph Schwab Pages: 411 - 442 Abstract: Abstract Tensor-compressed numerical solution of elliptic multiscale-diffusion and high frequency scattering problems is considered. For either problem class, solutions exhibit multiple length scales governed by the corresponding scale parameter: the scale of oscillations of the diffusion coefficient or smallest wavelength, respectively. As is well-known, this imposes a scale-resolution requirement on the number of degrees of freedom required to accurately represent the solutions in standard finite-element (FE) discretizations. Low-order FE methods are by now generally perceived unsuitable for high-frequency coefficients in diffusion problems and high wavenumbers in scattering problems. Accordingly, special techniques have been proposed instead (such as numerical homogenization, heterogeneous multiscale method, oversampling, etc.) which require, in some form, a-priori information on the microstructure of the solution. We analyze the approximation properties of tensor-formatted, conforming first-order FE methods for scale resolution in multiscale problems without a-priori information. The FE methods are based on the dynamic extraction of principal components from stiffness matrices, load and solution vectors by the quantized tensor train (QTT) decomposition. For prototypical model problems, we prove that this approach, by means of the QTT reparametrization of the FE space, allows to identify effective degrees of freedom to replace the degrees of freedom of a uniform “virtual” (i.e. never directly accessed) mesh, whose number may be prohibitively large to realize computationally. Precisely, solutions of model elliptic homogenization and high-frequency acoustic scattering problems are proved to admit QTT-structured approximations whose number of effective degrees of freedom required to reach a prescribed approximation error scales polylogarithmically with respect to the reciprocal of the target Sobolev-norm accuracy ε with only a mild dependence on the scale parameter. No a-priori information on the nature of the problems and intrinsic length scales of the solution is required in the numerical realization of the presently proposed QTT-structured approach. Although only univariate model multiscale problems are analyzed in the present paper, QTT structured algorithms are applicable also in several variables. Detailed numerical experiments confirm the theoretical bounds. As a corollary of our analysis, we prove that for the mentioned model problems, the Kolmogorov n-widths of solution sets are exponentially small for analytic data, independently of the problems’ scale parameters. That implies, in particular, the exponential convergence of reduced basis techniques which is scale-robust, i.e., independent of the scale parameter in the problem. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-016-9491-y Issue No:Vol. 43, No. 2 (2017)

Authors:Ole Christensen; Marzieh Hasannasab; Jakob Lemvig Pages: 443 - 472 Abstract: Abstract Generalized shift-invariant (GSI) systems, originally introduced by Hernández et al. and Ron and Shen, provide a common frame work for analysis of Gabor systems, wavelet systems, wave packet systems, and other types of structured function systems. In this paper we analyze three important aspects of such systems. First, in contrast to the known cases of Gabor frames and wavelet frames, we show that for a GSI system forming a frame, the Calderón sum is not necessarily bounded by the lower frame bound. We identify a technical condition implying that the Calderón sum is bounded by the lower frame bound and show that under a weak assumption the condition is equivalent with the local integrability condition introduced by Hernández et al. Second, we provide explicit and general constructions of frames and dual pairs of frames having the GSI-structure. In particular, the setup applies to wave packet systems and in contrast to the constructions in the literature, these constructions are not based on characteristic functions in the Fourier domain. Third, our results provide insight into the local integrability condition (LIC). PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-016-9492-x Issue No:Vol. 43, No. 2 (2017)

Authors:Paolo Ghelardoni; Cecilia Magherini Abstract: Abstract A matrix method for the solution of direct fractional Sturm-Liouville problems (SLPs) on bounded domains is proposed where the fractional derivative is defined in the Riesz sense. The scheme is based on the application of the Galerkin spectral method of orthogonal polynomials. The order of convergence of the eigenvalue approximations with respect to the matrix size is studied. Some numerical examples that confirm the theory and prove the competitiveness of the approach are finally presented. PubDate: 2017-03-24 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-017-9529-9

Authors:Wenwu Gao; Zongmin Wu Abstract: Abstract The paper provides an approach for constructing multivariate radial kernels satisfying higher-order generalized Strang-Fix conditions from a given univariate generator. There are three key features of the approach. First, the kernels are explicitly expressed only by the derivatives of the f-form of the generator without computing any Fourier transforms. Second, it includes the radial kernels with the highest-order generalized Strang-Fix conditions. Finally, it requires only computing univariate derivatives of the f-form. Therefore, the approach is simple, efficient and easy to implement. As examples, the paper constructs radial kernels from some commonly used generators, including the Gaussian functions, the inverse multiquadric functions and compactly supported positive definite functions. PubDate: 2017-03-24 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-017-9528-x

Authors:Lin Mu; Xiu Ye Abstract: Abstract The goal of this paper is to introduce a simple finite element method to solve the Stokes equations. This method is in primal velocity-pressure formulation and is so simple such that both velocity and pressure are approximated by piecewise constant functions. Implementation issues as well as error analysis are investigated. A basis for a divergence free subspace of the velocity field is constructed so that the original saddle point problem can be reduced to a symmetric and positive definite system with much fewer unknowns. The numerical experiments indicate that the method is accurate. PubDate: 2017-03-21 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-017-9526-z

Authors:Ghulam Mustafa; Rabia Hameed Abstract: Abstract Families of parameter dependent univariate and bivariate subdivision schemes are presented in this paper. These families are new variants of the Lane-Riesenfeld algorithm. So the subdivision algorithms consist of both refining and smoothing steps. In refining step, we use the quartic B-spline based subdivision schemes. In smoothing step, we average the adjacent points. The bivariate schemes are the non-tensor product version of our univariate schemes. Moreover, for odd and even number of smoothing steps, we get the primal and dual schemes respectively. Higher regularity of the schemes can be achieved by increasing the number of smoothing steps. These schemes can be nicely generalized to contain local shape parameters that allow the user to adjust locally the shape of the limit curve/surface. PubDate: 2017-03-13 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-017-9519-y

Authors:Pietro Dell’Acqua Abstract: Abstract In recent years, several efforts were made in order to introduce boundary conditions for deblurring problems that allow to get accurate reconstructions. This resulted in the birth of Reflective, Anti-Reflective and Mean boundary conditions, which are all based on the idea of guaranteeing the continuity of the signal/image outside the boundary. Here we propose new boundary conditions that are obtained by suitably combining Taylor series and finite difference approximations. Moreover, we show that also Anti-Reflective and Mean boundary conditions can be attributed to the same framework. Numerical results show that, in case of low levels of noise and blurs able to perform a suitable smoothing effect on the original image (e.g. Gaussian blur), the proposed boundary conditions lead to a significant improvement of the restoration accuracy with respect to those available in the literature. PubDate: 2017-03-10 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-017-9525-0

Authors:Fu-Jun Liu; Zhong-Qing Wang; Hui-Yuan Li Abstract: Abstract A fully diagonalized spectral method using generalized Laguerre functions is proposed and analyzed for solving elliptic equations on the half line. We first define the generalized Laguerre functions which are complete and mutually orthogonal with respect to an equivalent Sobolev inner product. Then the Fourier-like Sobolev orthogonal basis functions are constructed for the diagonalized Laguerre spectral method of elliptic equations. Besides, a unified orthogonal Laguerre projection is established for various elliptic equations. On the basis of this orthogonal Laguerre projection, we obtain optimal error estimates of the fully diagonalized Laguerre spectral method for both Dirichlet and Robin boundary value problems. Finally, numerical experiments, which are in agreement with the theoretical analysis, demonstrate the effectiveness and the spectral accuracy of our diagonalized method. PubDate: 2017-03-08 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-017-9522-3

Authors:William Paulsen; Samuel Cowgill Abstract: Abstract The generalized tetration, defined by the equation F(z+1) = b F(z) in the complex plane with F(0) = 1, is considered for any b > e 1/e . By comparing other solutions to Kneser’s solution, natural conditions are found which force Kneser’s solution to be the unique solution to the equation. This answers a conjecture posed by Trappmann and Kouznetsov. Also, a new iteration method is developed which numerically approximates the function F(z) with an error of less than 10−50 for most bases b, using only 180 nodes, with each iteration gaining one or two places of accuracy. This method can be applied to other problems involving the Abel equation. PubDate: 2017-03-07 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-017-9524-1

Authors:Natalia Kopteva; Torsten Linß Abstract: Abstract Linear and semilinear second-order parabolic equations are considered. For these equations, we give a posteriori error estimates in the maximum norm that improve upon recent results in the literature. In particular it is shown that logarithmic dependence on the time step size can be eliminated. Semidiscrete and fully discrete versions of the backward Euler and of the Crank-Nicolson methods are considered. For their full discretizations, we use elliptic reconstructions that are, respectively, piecewise-constant and piecewise-linear in time. Certain bounds for the Green’s function of the parabolic operator are also employed. PubDate: 2017-03-02 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-017-9514-3

Authors:Theresa Wenger; Sina Ober-Blöbaum; Sigrid Leyendecker Abstract: Abstract In this work, variational integrators of higher order for dynamical systems with holonomic constraints are constructed and analyzed. The construction is based on approximating the configuration and the Lagrange multiplier via different polynomials. The splitting of the augmented Lagrangian in two parts enables the use of different quadrature formulas to approximate the integral of each part. Conditions are derived that ensure the linear independence of the higher order constrained discrete Euler-Lagrange equations and stiff accuracy. Time reversibility is investigated for the discrete flow on configuration level only as for the flow on configuration and momentum level. The fulfillment of the hidden constraints plays an important role for the time reversibility of the presented integrators. The order of convergence is investigated numerically. Order reduction of the momentum and the Lagrange multiplier compared to the order of the configuration occurs in general, but can be avoided by fulfilling the hidden constraints in a simple post processing step. Regarding efficiency versus accuracy a numerical analysis yields that higher orders increase the accuracy of the discrete solution substantially while the computational costs decrease. A comparison to the constrained Galerkin methods in Marsden and West (Acta Numerica 10, 357–514 2001) and the symplectic SPARK integrators of Jay (SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis 45(5), 1814–1842 2007) reveals that the approach presented here is more general and thus allows for more flexibility in the design of the integrator. PubDate: 2017-03-02 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-017-9520-5

Authors:X. Claeys; R. Hiptmair; E. Spindler Abstract: Abstract We consider isotropic scalar diffusion boundary value problems whose diffusion coefficients are piecewise constant with respect to a partition of space into Lipschitz subdomains. We allow so-called material junctions where three or more subdomains may abut. We derive a boundary integral equation of the second kind posed on the skeleton of the subdomain partition that involves, as unknown, only one trace function at each point of each interface. We prove the well-posedness of the corresponding boundary integral equations. We also report numerical tests for Galerkin boundary element discretisations, in which the new approach proves to be highly competitive compared to the well-established first kind direct single-trace boundary integral formulation. In particular, GMRES seems to enjoy fast convergence independent of the mesh resolution for the discrete second kind BIE. PubDate: 2017-03-01 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-017-9517-0

Authors:J. A. Ezquerro; M. A. Hernández-Verón Abstract: Abstract This paper focuses on the importance of center conditions on the first derivative of the operator involved in the solution of nonlinear equations by Newton’s method when the semilocal convergence of the method is established from the technique of recurrence relations. PubDate: 2017-02-28 DOI: 10.1007/s10444-017-9518-z