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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Advances in Atmospheric Sciences
  [SJR: 0.959]   [H-I: 44]   [34 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1861-9533 - ISSN (Online) 0256-1530
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Atmospheric circulation and dynamic mechanism for persistent haze events
           in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region
    • Authors: Ping Wu; Yihui Ding; Yanju Liu
      Pages: 429 - 440
      Abstract: In this study, regional persistent haze events (RPHEs) in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region were identified based on the Objective Identification Technique for Regional Extreme Events for the period 1980–2013. The formation mechanisms of the severe RPHEs were investigated with focus on the atmospheric circulation and dynamic mechanisms. Results indicated that: (1) 49 RPHEs occurred during the past 34 years. (2) The severe RPHEs could be categorized into two types according to the large-scale circulation, i.e. the zonal westerly airflow (ZWA) type and the high-pressure ridge (HPR) type. When the ZWA-type RPHEs occurred, the BTH region was controlled by near zonal westerly airflow in the mid–upper troposphere. Southwesterly winds prevailed in the lower troposphere, and near-surface wind speeds were only 1–2 m s−1. Warm and humid air originating from the northwestern Pacific was transported into the region, where the relative humidity was 70% to 80%, creating favorable moisture conditions. When the HPR-type RPHEs appeared, northwesterly airflow in the mid–upper troposphere controlled the region. Westerly winds prevailed in the lower troposphere and the moisture conditions were relatively weak. (3) Descending motion in the mid-lower troposphere caused by the above two circulation types provided a crucial dynamic mechanism for the formation of the two types of RPHEs. The descending motion contributed to a reduction in the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which generated an inversion in the lower troposphere. This inversion trapped the abundant pollution and moisture in the lower PBL, leading to high concentrations of pollutants.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6158-z
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 4 (2017)
  • Performance of RegCM4 over major river basins in China
    • Authors: Xuejie Gao; Ying Shi; Zhenyu Han; Meili Wang; Jia Wu; Dongfeng Zhang; Ying Xu; Filippo Giorgi
      Pages: 441 - 455
      Abstract: A long-term simulation for the period 1990–2010 is conducted with the latest version of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics’ Regional Climate Model (RegCM4), driven by ERA-Interim boundary conditions at a grid spacing of 25 km. The Community Land Model (CLM) is used to describe land surface processes, with updates in the surface parameters, including the land cover and surface emissivity. The simulation is compared against observations to evaluate the model performance in reproducing the present day climatology and interannual variability over the 10 main river basins in China, with focus on surface air temperature and precipitation. Temperature and precipitation from the ERA-Interim reanalysis are also considered in the model assessment. Results show that the model reproduces the present day climatology over China and its main river basins, with better performances in June–July–August compared to December–January–February (DJF). In DJF, we find a warm bias at high latitudes, underestimated precipitation in the south, and overestimated precipitation in the north. The model in general captures the observed interannual variability, with greater skill for temperature. We also find an underestimation of heavy precipitation events in eastern China, and an underestimation of consecutive dry days in northern China and the Tibetan Plateau. Similar biases for both mean climatology and extremes are found in the ERA-Interim reanalysis, indicating the difficulties for climate models in simulating extreme monsoon climate events over East Asia.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6179-7
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 4 (2017)
  • An abrupt rainfall decrease over the Asian inland plateau region around
           1999 and the possible underlying mechanism
    • Authors: Jinling Piao; Wen Chen; Ke Wei; Yong Liu; Hans-F. Graf; Joong-Bae Ahn; Alexander Pogoreltsev
      Pages: 456 - 468
      Abstract: A decadal change in summer rainfall in the Asian inland plateau (AIP) region is identified around 1999. This decadal change is characterized by an abrupt decrease in summer rainfall of about 15.7% of the climatological average amount, leading to prolonged drought in the Asian inland plateau region. Both the surface air temperature and potential evapotranspiration in the AIP show a significant increase, while the soil moisture exhibits a decrease, after the late 1990s. Furthermore, the normalized difference vegetation index shows an apparent decreasing trend during 1999–2007. Three different drought indices—the standardized precipitation index, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index, and the self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index—present pronounced climate anomalies during 1999–2007, indicating dramatic drought exacerbation in the region after the late 1990s. This decadal change in the summer rainfall may be attributable to a wave-like teleconnection pattern from Western Europe to Asia. A set of model sensitivity experiments suggests that the summer warming sea surface temperature in the North Atlantic could induce this teleconnection pattern over Eurasia, resulting in recent drought in the AIP region.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6136-5
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 4 (2017)
  • Application of a three-dimensional variational method for radar
           reflectivity data correction in a mudslide-inducing rainstorm simulation
    • Authors: Hongli Li; Xiangde Xu
      Pages: 469 - 481
      Abstract: Various types of radars with different horizontal and vertical detection ranges are deployed in China, particularly over complex terrain where radar blind zones are common. In this study, a new variational method is developed to correct three-dimensional radar reflectivity data based on hourly ground precipitation observations. The aim of this method is to improve the quality of observations of various types of radar and effectively assimilate operational Doppler radar observations. A mudslide-inducing local rainstorm is simulated by the WRF model with assimilation of radar reflectivity and radial velocity data using LAPS (Local Analysis and Prediction System). Experiments with different radar data assimilated by LAPS are performed. It is found that when radar reflectivity data are corrected using this variational method and assimilated by LAPS, the atmospheric conditions and cloud physics processes are reasonably described. The temporal evolution of radar reflectivity corrected by the variational method corresponds well to observed rainfall. It can better describe the cloud water distribution over the rainfall area and improve the cloud water analysis results over the central rainfall region. The LAPS cloud analysis system can update cloud microphysical variables and represent the hydrometeors associated with strong convective activities over the rainfall area well. Model performance is improved and the simulation of the dynamical processes and moisture transport is more consistent with observation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6010-5
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 4 (2017)
  • Numerical simulation of the rapid intensification of Hurricane Katrina
           (2005): Sensitivity to boundary layer parameterization schemes
    • Authors: Jianjun Liu; Feimin Zhang; Zhaoxia Pu
      Pages: 482 - 496
      Abstract: Accurate forecasting of the intensity changes of hurricanes is an important yet challenging problem in numerical weather prediction. The rapid intensification of Hurricane Katrina (2005) before its landfall in the southern US is studied with the Advanced Research version of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model. The sensitivity of numerical simulations to two popular planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes, the Mellor–Yamada–Janjic (MYJ) and the Yonsei University (YSU) schemes, is investigated. It is found that, compared with the YSU simulation, the simulation with the MYJ scheme produces better track and intensity evolution, better vortex structure, and more accurate landfall time and location. Large discrepancies (e.g., over 10 hPa in simulated minimum sea level pressure) are found between the two simulations during the rapid intensification period. Further diagnosis indicates that stronger surface fluxes and vertical mixing in the PBL from the simulation with the MYJ scheme lead to enhanced air–sea interaction, which helps generate more realistic simulations of the rapid intensification process. Overall, the results from this study suggest that improved representation of surface fluxes and vertical mixing in the PBL is essential for accurate prediction of hurricane intensity changes.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6209-5
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 4 (2017)
  • Interannual climate variability change during the Medieval Climate Anomaly
           and Little Ice Age in PMIP3 last millennium simulations
    • Authors: Kaiqing Yang; Dabang Jiang
      Pages: 497 - 508
      Abstract: In this study, we analyzed numerical experiments undertaken by 10 climate models participating in PMIP3 (Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 3) to examine the changes in interannual temperature variability and coefficient of variation (CV) of interannual precipitation in the warm period of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the cold period of the Little Ice Age (LIA). With respect to the past millennium period, the MCA temperature variability decreases by 2.0% on average over the globe, and most of the decreases occur in low latitudes. In the LIA, temperature variability increases by a global average of 0.6%, which occurs primarily in the high latitudes of Eurasia and the western Pacific. For the CV of interannual precipitation, regional-scale changes are more significant than changes at the global scale, with a pattern of increased (decreased) CV in the midlatitudes of Eurasia and the northwestern Pacific in the MCA (LIA). The CV change ranges from −7.0% to 4.3% (from −6.3% to 5.4%), with a global average of −0.5% (−0.07%) in the MCA (LIA). Also, the variability changes are considerably larger in December–January–February with respect to both temperature and precipitation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6075-1
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 4 (2017)
  • Observational evidence of high ice concentration in a shallow convective
           cloud embedded in stratiform cloud over North China
    • Authors: Jiefan Yang; Hengchi Lei; Tuanjie Hou
      Pages: 509 - 520
      Abstract: In this study we observed the microphysical properties, including the vertical and horizontal distributions of ice particles, liquid water content and ice habit, in different regions of a slightly supercooled stratiform cloud. Using aircraft instrument and radar data, the cloud top temperature was recorded as higher than −15°C, behind a cold front, on 9 September 2015 in North China. During the flight sampling, the high ice number concentration area was located in the supercooled part of a shallow convective cloud embedded in a stratiform cloud, where the ambient temperature was around −3°C. In this area, the maximum number concentrations of particles with diameter greater than 100 μm and 500 μm (N 100 and N 500) exceeded 300 L−1 and 30 L−1, respectively, and were related to large supercooled water droplets with diameter greater than 24 μm derived from cloud–aerosol spectrometer probe measurements. The ice particles types in this region were predominantly columnar, needle, graupel, and some freezing drops, suggesting that the occurrence of high ice number concentrations was likely related to the Hallett–Mossop mechanism, although many other ice multiplication processes cannot be totally ruled out. The maximum ice number concentration obtained during the first penetration was around two to three orders of magnitude larger than that predicted by the Demott and Fletcher schemes when assuming the cloud top temperature was around −15°C. During the second penetration conducted within the stratiform cloud, N 100 and N 500 decreased by a factor of five to ten, and the presence of columnar and needle-like crystals became very rare.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6079-x
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 4 (2017)
  • On the response of subduction in the South Pacific to an intensification
           of westerlies and heat flux in an eddy permitting ocean model
    • Authors: Chengyan Liu; Zhaomin Wang; Bingrui Li; Chen Cheng; Ruibin Xia
      Pages: 521 - 531
      Abstract: Based on an eddy permitting ocean general circulation model, the response of water masses to two distinct climate scenarios in the South Pacific is assessed in this paper. Under annually repeating atmospheric forcing that is characterized by different westerlies and associated heat flux, the response of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) is quantitatively estimated. Both SAMW and AAIW are found to be warmer, saltier and denser under intensified westerlies and increased heat loss. The increase in the subduction volume of SAMW and AAIW is about 19.8 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s−1). The lateral induction term plays a dominant role in the changes in the subduction volume due to the deepening of the mixed layer depth (MLD). Furthermore, analysis of the buoyancy budget is used to quantitatively diagnose the reason for the changes in the MLD. The deepening of the MLD is found to be primarily caused by the strengthening of heat loss from the ocean to the atmosphere in the formation region of SAMW and AAIW.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6021-2
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 4 (2017)
  • Favorable environments for the occurrence of overshooting tops in tropical
    • Authors: Liangxiao Sun; Xiaoyong Zhuge; Yuan Wang
      Pages: 532 - 544
      Abstract: Based on Multifunctional Transport Satellite data and the infrared window-texture detection algorithm, the level of overshooting top (OT) activity within a tropical cyclone (TC), which is defined as the hourly mean number of OT occurrence, was statistically investigated in the western North Pacific basin for the period 2005–12. Based on the level of OT activity, the samples were divided into OT and non-OT cases or high-activity-OT (HA-OT) and low-activity-OT (LA-OT) cases. The differences in large-scale environmental variables between OT (HA-OT) and non-OT (LA-OT) cases were examined 12 hours prior to the OT occurrence. Statistical analysis showed that environmental differences did exist between the OT and non-OT cases. The OTs were more skewed towards the early stage of the TC life cycle, and mostly concentrated in low latitudes. Meanwhile, a sufficiently deep warm-water layer, large temperature difference between the upper- and lower-level troposphere, large humidity at the middle and upper levels, and large atmospheric instability, were favorable for OT occurrence. The differences in large-scale environmental characteristics between HA-OTs and LA-OTs were not as significant as those between OTs and non-OTs, but the HA-OT samples tended to occur when the vertical shear was weak and the TC intensity was low. Finally, statistical models were designed to predict the OT and HA-OT. When at least three OT (HA-OT) predictor thresholds were satisfied, the Peirce skill score reached a maximum value of 0.49 (0.30).
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6122-y
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 4 (2017)
  • A Ka-band solid-state transmitter cloud radar and data merging algorithm
           for its measurements
    • Authors: Liping Liu; Jiafeng Zheng; Jingya Wu
      Pages: 545 - 558
      Abstract: This study concerns a Ka-band solid-state transmitter cloud radar, made in China, which can operate in three different work modes, with different pulse widths, and coherent and incoherent integration numbers, to meet the requirements for cloud remote sensing over the Tibetan Plateau. Specifically, the design of the three operational modes of the radar (i.e., boundary mode M1, cirrus mode M2, and precipitation mode M3) is introduced. Also, a cloud radar data merging algorithm for the three modes is proposed. Using one month’s continuous measurements during summertime at Naqu on the Tibetan Plateau, we analyzed the consistency between the cloud radar measurements of the three modes. The number of occurrences of radar detections of hydrometeors and the percentage contributions of the different modes’ data to the merged data were estimated. The performance of the merging algorithm was evaluated. The results indicated that the minimum detectable reflectivity for each mode was consistent with theoretical results. Merged data provided measurements with a minimum reflectivity of −35 dBZ at the height of 5 km, and obtained information above the height of 0.2 km. Measurements of radial velocity by the three operational modes agreed very well, and systematic errors in measurements of reflectivity were less than 2 dB. However, large discrepancies existed in the measurements of the linear depolarization ratio taken from the different operational modes. The percentage of radar detections of hydrometeors in mid- and high-level clouds increased by 60% through application of pulse compression techniques. In conclusion, the merged data are appropriate for cloud and precipitation studies over the Tibetan Plateau.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6044-8
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 4 (2017)
  • Analysis of a vortex precipitation event over Southwest China using AIRS
           and in situ measurements
    • Authors: Chengcheng Ni; Guoping Li; Xiaozhen Xiong
      Pages: 559 - 570
      Abstract: A strong precipitation event caused by the southwest vortex (SWV), which affected Sichuan Province and Chongqing municipality in Southwest China on 10–14 July 2012, is investigated. The SWV is examined using satellite observations from AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), in situ measurements from the SWV intensive observation campaign, and MICAPS (Marine Interactive Computer-Aided Provisioning System) data. Analysis of this precipitation process revealed that: (1) heavy rain occurred during the development phase, and cloud water content increased significantly after the dissipation of the SWV; (2) the area with low outgoing longwave radiation values from AIRS correlated well with the SWV; (3) variation of the temperature of brightness blackbody (TBB) from AIRS reflected the evolution of the SWV, and the values of TBB reduced significantly during the SWV’s development; and (4) strong temperature and water vapor inversions were noted during the development of the SWV. The moisture profile displayed large vertical variation during the SWV’s puissant phase, with the moisture inversion occurring at low levels. The moisture content during the receding phase was significantly reduced compared with that during the developing and puissant phases. The vertical flux of vapor divergence explained the variation of the moisture profile. These results also indicate the potential for using AIRS products in studying severe weather over the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings, where in situ measurements are sparse.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-5262-4
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 4 (2017)
  • The Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 2016
    • Authors: Sophie Godin-Beekmann; Irina Petropavloskikh; Stefan Reis; Paul Newman; Wolfgang Steinbrecht; Markus Rex; Michelle L. Santee; Richard S. Eckman; Xiandong Zheng; Matthew B. Tully; David S. Stevenson; Paul Young; John Pyle; Mark Weber; Johanna Tamminen; Gina Mills; Alkis F. Bais; Clare Heaviside; Christos Zerefos
      Pages: 283 - 288
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6309-2
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2017)
  • Evaluation of NASA GISS post-CMIP5 single column model simulated clouds
           and precipitation using ARM Southern Great Plains observations
    • Authors: Lei Zhang; Xiquan Dong; Aaron Kennedy; Baike Xi; Zhanqing Li
      Pages: 306 - 320
      Abstract: The planetary boundary layer turbulence and moist convection parameterizations have been modified recently in the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Model E2 atmospheric general circulation model (GCM; post-CMIP5, hereafter P5). In this study, single column model (SCM P5) simulated cloud fractions (CFs), cloud liquid water paths (LWPs) and precipitation were compared with Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) groundbased observations made during the period 2002–08. CMIP5 SCM simulations and GCM outputs over the ARM SGP region were also used in the comparison to identify whether the causes of cloud and precipitation biases resulted from either the physical parameterization or the dynamic scheme. The comparison showed that the CMIP5 SCM has difficulties in simulating the vertical structure and seasonal variation of low-level clouds. The new scheme implemented in the turbulence parameterization led to significantly improved cloud simulations in P5. It was found that the SCM is sensitive to the relaxation time scale. When the relaxation time increased from 3 to 24 h, SCM P5-simulated CFs and LWPs showed a moderate increase (10%–20%) but precipitation increased significantly (56%), which agreed better with observations despite the less accurate atmospheric state. Annual averages among the GCM and SCM simulations were almost the same, but their respective seasonal variations were out of phase. This suggests that the same physical cloud parameterization can generate similar statistical results over a long time period, but different dynamics drive the differences in seasonal variations. This study can potentially provide guidance for the further development of the GISS model.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-5254-4
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2017)
  • The long-term variation of extreme heavy precipitation and its link to
           urbanization effects in Shanghai during 1916–2014
    • Authors: Ping Liang; Yihui Ding
      Pages: 321 - 334
      Abstract: Using the hourly precipitation records of meteorological stations in Shanghai, covering a period of almost a century (1916–2014), the long-term variation of extreme heavy precipitation in Shanghai on multiple spatial and temporal scales is analyzed, and the effects of urbanization on hourly rainstorms studied. Results show that: (1) Over the last century, extreme hourly precipitation events enhanced significantly. During the recent urbanization period from 1981 to 2014, the frequency of heavy precipitation increased significantly, with a distinct localized and abrupt characteristic. (2) The spatial distribution of long-term trends for the occurrence frequency and total precipitation intensity of hourly heavy precipitation in Shanghai shows a distinct urban rain-island feature; namely, heavy precipitation was increasingly focused in urban and suburban areas. Attribution analysis shows that urbanization in Shanghai contributed greatly to the increase in both frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall events in the city, thus leading to an increasing total precipitation amount of heavy rainfall events. In addition, the diurnal variation of rainfall intensity also shows distinctive urban-rural differences, especially during late afternoon and early nighttime in the city area. (3) Regional warming, with subsequent enhancement of water vapor content, convergence of moisture flux and atmospheric instability, provided favorable physical backgrounds for the formation of extreme precipitation. This accounts for the consistent increase in hourly heavy precipitation over the whole Shanghai area during recent times.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6120-0
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2017)
  • Impact of drought on agriculture in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, India
    • Authors: Reshmita Nath; Debashis Nath; Qian Li; Wen Chen; Xuefeng Cui
      Pages: 335 - 346
      Abstract: In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought in India and its impact on agriculture during the summer season (April–September). In the analysis, we use Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) datasets between 1982 and 2012 at the six-monthly timescale. Based on the criterion SPEI < −1, we obtain a map of the number of occurrences of drought and find that the humid subtropical Upper Middle Gangetic Plain (UMGP) region is highly drought-prone, with an occurrence frequency of 40%–45%. This UMGP region contributes at least 18%–20% of India’s annual cereal production. Not only the probability of drought, but the UMGP region has become increasingly drought-prone in recent decades. Moreover, cereal production in the UMGP region has experienced a gradual declining trend from 2000 onwards, which is consistent with the increase in drought-affected areas from 20%–25% to 50%–60%, before and after 2000, respectively. A higher correlation coefficient (−0.69) between the cereal production changes and drought-affected areas confirms that at least 50% of the agricultural (cereal) losses are associated with drought. While analyzing the individual impact of precipitation and surface temperature on SPEI at 6 month timescale [SPEI (6)] we find that, in the UMGP region, surface temperature plays the primary role in the lowering of the SPEI. The linkage is further confirmed by correlation analysis between SPEI (6) and surface temperature, which exhibits strong negative values in the UMGP region. Higher temperatures may have caused more evaporation and drying, which therefore increased the area affected by drought in recent decades.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6102-2
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2017)
  • A comparison of cloud layers from ground and satellite active remote
           sensing at the Southern Great Plains ARM site
    • Authors: Jinqiang Zhang; Xiang’ao Xia; Hongbin Chen
      Pages: 347 - 359
      Abstract: Using the data collected over the Southern Great Plains ARM site from 2006 to 2010, the surface Active Remote Sensing of Cloud (ARSCL) and CloudSat-CALIPSO satellite (CC) retrievals of total cloud and six specified cloud types [low, mid-low (ML), high-mid-low (HML), mid, high-mid (HM) and high] were compared in terms of cloud fraction (CF), cloud-base height (CBH), cloud-top height (CTH) and cloud thickness (CT), on different temporal scales, to identify their respective advantages and limitations. Good agreement between the two methods was exhibited in the total CF. However, large discrepancies were found between the cloud distributions of the two methods at a high (240-m) vertical grid spacing. Compared to the satellites, ARSCL retrievals detected more boundary layer clouds, while they underestimated high clouds. In terms of the six specific cloud types, more low- and mid-level clouds but less HML- and high-level clouds were detected by ARSCL than by CC. In contrast, the ARSCL retrievals of ML- and HM-level clouds agreed more closely with the estimations from the CC product. Lower CBHs tended to be reported by the surface data for low-, ML- and HML-level clouds; however, higher CTHs were often recorded by the satellite product for HML-, HM- and high-level clouds. The mean CTs for low- and ML-level cloud were similar between the two products; however, the mean CTs for HML-, mid-, HM- and high-level clouds from ARSCL were smaller than those from CC.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6030-1
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2017)
  • Relationships between the extratropical ENSO precursor and leading modes
           of atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere
    • Authors: Jianhuang Qin; Ruiqiang Ding; Zhiwei Wu; Jianping Li; Sen Zhao
      Pages: 360 - 370
      Abstract: Previous studies suggest that the atmospheric precursor of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the extratropical Southern Hemisphere (SH) might trigger a quadrapole sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in the South Pacific and subsequently influence the following ENSO. Such a quadrapole SSTA is referred to as the South Pacific quadrapole (SPQ). The present study investigated the relationships between the atmospheric precursor signal of ENSO and leading modes of atmospheric variability in the extratropical SH [including the SH annular mode (SAM), the first Pacific-South America (PSA1) mode, and the second Pacific-South America (PSA2) mode]. The results showed that the atmospheric precursor signal in the extratropical SH basically exhibits a barotropic wavenumber-3 structure over the South Pacific and is significantly correlated with the SAM and the PSA2 mode during austral summer. Nevertheless, only the PSA2 mode was found to be a precursor for the following ENSO. It leads the SPQ-like SSTA by around one month, while the SAM and the PSA1 mode do not show any obvious linkage with either ENSO or the SPQ. This suggests that the PSA2 mode may provide a bridge between the preceding circulation anomalies over the extratropical SH and the following ENSO through the SPQ-like SSTA.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6016-z
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2017)
  • Quality assessment and forecast sensitivity of global remote sensing
    • Authors: Swapan Mallick; Devajyoti Dutta; Ki-Hong Min
      Pages: 371 - 382
      Abstract: The satellite-derived wind from cloud and moisture features of geostationary satellites is an important data source for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. These datasets and global positioning system radio occultation (GPSRO) satellite radiances are assimilated in the four-dimensional variational atmospheric data assimilation system of the UKMO Unified Model in India. This study focuses on the importance of these data in the NWP system and their impact on short-term 24-h forecasts. The quality of the wind observations is compared to the short-range forecast from the model background. The observation increments (observation minus background) are computed as the satellite-derived wind minus the model forecast with a 6-h lead time. The results show the model background has a large easterly wind component compared to satellite observations. The importance of each observation in the analysis is studied using an adjoint-based forecast sensitivity to observation method. The results show that at least around 50% of all types of satellite observations are beneficial. In terms of individual contribution, METEOSAT-7 shows a higher percentage of impact (nearly 50%), as compared to GEOS, MTSAT-2 and METEOSAT-10, all of which have a less than 25% impact. In addition, the impact of GPSRO, infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer (IASI) and atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) data is calculated. The GPSRO observations have beneficial impacts up to 50 km. Over the Southern Hemisphere, the high spectral radiances from IASI and AIRS show a greater impact than over the Northern Hemisphere. The results in this study can be used for further improvements in the use of new and existing satellite observations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6109-8
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2017)
  • Influence of island chains on the Kuroshio intrusion in the Luzon Strait
    • Authors: Zhida Huang; Hailong Liu; Pengfei Lin; Jianyu Hu
      Pages: 397 - 410
      Abstract: By applying a global high-resolution (0.1°) OGCM, the influence of the island chains in the Luzon Strait (LS) on the Kuroshio intrusion is studied systematically. The island chains in the LS are separated into three parts: the south island chain, the middle and north island chain, and Babuyan Island. One control and three sensitivity experiments are conducted by adding these three parts of the topography gradually. From comparisons of the circulation, temperature, and salinity structures, it is found that the south island chain decreases the westward bending of the main Kuroshio path, the middle and north island chain increases the westward bending, and Babuyan Island also increases the westward bending. These results are extremely clear in winter. Dynamic diagnoses suggest that the westward bending increases with an increase in the incidence angle of the Kuroshio and an increase in the Kuroshio east branch transport. Moreover, the middle and north island chain can split the Kuroshio into two parts, the Kuroshio west and east branches, which can be seen clearly in the satellite altimeter maps.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6159-y
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2017)
  • Implementation of a conservative two-step shape-preserving advection
           scheme on a spherical icosahedral hexagonal geodesic grid
    • Authors: Yi Zhang; Rucong Yu; Jian Li
      Pages: 411 - 427
      Abstract: An Eulerian flux-form advection scheme, called the Two-step Shape-Preserving Advection Scheme (TSPAS), was generalized and implemented on a spherical icosahedral hexagonal grid (also referred to as a geodesic grid) to solve the transport equation. The C grid discretization was used for the spatial discretization. To implement TSPAS on an unstructured grid, the original finite-difference scheme was further generalized. The two-step integration utilizes a combination of two separate schemes (a low-order monotone scheme and a high-order scheme that typically cannot ensure monotonicity) to calculate the fluxes at the cell walls (one scheme corresponds to one cell wall). The choice between these two schemes for each edge depends on a pre-updated scalar value using slightly increased fluxes. After the determination of an appropriate scheme, the final integration at a target cell is achieved by summing the fluxes that are computed by the different schemes. The conservative and shape-preserving properties of the generalized scheme are demonstrated. Numerical experiments are conducted at several horizontal resolutions. TSPAS is compared with the Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) approach to demonstrate the differences between the two methods, and several transport tests are performed to examine the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the two schemes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6097-8
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2017)
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