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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Advances in Atmospheric Sciences
  [SJR: 0.959]   [H-I: 44]   [34 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1861-9533 - ISSN (Online) 0256-1530
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Sensitivity of potential evapotranspiration estimation to the Thornthwaite
           and Penman–Monteith methods in the study of global drylands
    • Authors: Qing Yang; Zhuguo Ma; Ziyan Zheng; Yawen Duan
      Pages: 1381 - 1394
      Abstract: Drylands are among those regions most sensitive to climate and environmental changes and human-induced perturbations. The most widely accepted definition of the term dryland is a ratio, called the Surface Wetness Index (SWI), of annual precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (PET) being below 0.65. PET is commonly estimated using the Thornthwaite (PET Th) and Penman–Monteith equations (PET PM). The present study compared spatiotemporal characteristics of global drylands based on the SWI with PET Th and PET PM. Results showed vast differences between PET Th and PET PM; however, the SWI derived from the two kinds of PET showed broadly similar characteristics in the interdecadal variability of global and continental drylands, except in North America, with high correlation coefficients ranging from 0.58 to 0.89. It was found that, during 1901–2014, global hyper-arid and semi-arid regions expanded, arid and dry sub-humid regions contracted, and drylands underwent interdecadal fluctuation. This was because precipitation variations made major contributions, whereas PET changes contributed to a much lesser degree. However, distinct differences in the interdecadal variability of semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions were found. This indicated that the influence of PET changes was comparable to that of precipitation variations in the global dry–wet transition zone. Additionally, the contribution of PET changes to the variations in global and continental drylands gradually enhanced with global warming, and the Thornthwaite method was found to be increasingly less applicable under climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-6313-1
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 12 (2017)
  • Contrasting the skills and biases of deterministic predictions for the two
           types of El Niño
    • Authors: Fei Zheng; Jin-Yi Yu
      Pages: 1395 - 1403
      Abstract: The tropical Pacific has begun to experience a new type of El Niño, which has occurred particularly frequently during the last decade, referred to as the central Pacific (CP) El Niño. Various coupled models with different degrees of complexity have been used to make real-time El Niño predictions, but high uncertainty still exists in their forecasts. It remains unknown as to how much of this uncertainty is specifically related to the new CP-type El Niño and how much is common to both this type and the conventional Eastern Pacific (EP)-type El Niño. In this study, the deterministic performance of an El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ensemble prediction system is examined for the two types of El Niño. Ensemble hindcasts are run for the nine EP El Niño events and twelve CP El Niño events that have occurred since 1950. The results show that (1) the skill scores for the EP events are significantly better than those for the CP events, at all lead times; (2) the systematic forecast biases come mostly from the prediction of the CP events; and (3) the systematic error is characterized by an overly warm eastern Pacific during the spring season, indicating a stronger spring prediction barrier for the CP El Niño. Further improvements to coupled atmosphere–ocean models in terms of CP El Niño prediction should be recognized as a key and high-priority task for the climate prediction community.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-6324-y
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 12 (2017)
  • Effects of wind fences on the wind environment around Jang Bogo Antarctic
           Research Station
    • Authors: Jang-Woon Wang; Jae-Jin Kim; Wonsik Choi; Da-Som Mun; Jung-Eun Kang; Hataek Kwon; Jin-Soo Kim; Kyung-Soo Han
      Pages: 1404 - 1414
      Abstract: This study investigated the flow characteristics altered by Jang Bogo Antarctic Research Station using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. The topography and buildings around Jang Bogo Station were constructed with computer-aided-design data in the CFD model domain. We simulated 16 cases with different inflow directions, and compared the flow characteristics with and without Jang Bogo Station for each inflow direction. The wind data recorded by the site’s automatic weather station (AWS) were used for comparison. Wind rose analysis showed that the wind speed and direction after the construction of Jang Bogo Station were quite different from those before construction. We also investigated how virtual wind fences would modify the flow patterns, changing the distance of the fence from the station as well as the porosity of the fence. For westerly inflows, when the AWS was downwind of Jang Bogo Station, the decrease in wind speed was maximized (−81% for west-northwesterly). The wind speed reduction was also greater as the distance of the fence was closer to Jang Bogo Station. With the same distance, the fence with medium porosity (25%–33%) maximized the wind speed reduction. These results suggest that the location and material of the wind fence should be selected carefully, or AWS data should be interpreted cautiously, for particular prevailing wind directions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-6333-x
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 12 (2017)
  • Variation in Brewer–Dobson circulation during three sudden stratospheric
           major warming events in the 2000s
    • Authors: Mengchu Tao; Yi Liu; Yuli Zhang
      Pages: 1415 - 1425
      Abstract: As the strongest subseasonal atmospheric variability during boreal winter, three remarkable sudden stratospheric major warming (SSW) events in the 2000s are investigated in terms of the Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) response. Our study shows that the changes of cross-isentropic velocity during the SSWs are not only confined to the polar region, but also extend to the whole Northern Hemisphere: enhanced descent in the polar region, as well as enhanced ascent in the tropics. When the acceleration of the deep branch of the BDC descends to the middle stratosphere, its strength rapidly decreases over a period of one to two weeks. The acceleration of the deep branch of the BDC is driven by the enhanced planetary wave activity in the mid-to-high-latitude stratosphere. Different from the rapid response of the deep branch of the BDC, tropical upwelling in the lower stratosphere accelerates up to 20%–40% compared with the climatology, 20–30 days after the onset of the SSWs, and the acceleration lasts for one to three months. The enhancement of tropical upwelling is associated with the large-scale wave-breaking in the subtropics interacting with the midlatitude and tropical Quasi-Biennial Oscillation–related mean flow.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-6321-1
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 12 (2017)
  • The tropical Pacific–Indian Ocean associated mode simulated by
    • Authors: Xin Li; Chongyin Li
      Pages: 1426 - 1436
      Abstract: Oceanic general circulation models have become an important tool for the study of marine status and change. This paper reports a numerical simulation carried out using LICOM2.0 and the forcing field from CORE. When compared with SODA reanalysis data and ERSST.v3b data, the patterns and variability of the tropical Pacific–Indian Ocean associated mode (PIOAM) are reproduced very well in this experiment. This indicates that, when the tropical central–western Indian Ocean and central–eastern Pacific are abnormally warmer/colder, the tropical eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific are correspondingly colder/warmer. This further confirms that the tropical PIOAM is an important mode that is not only significant in the SST anomaly field, but also more obviously in the subsurface ocean temperature anomaly field. The surface associated mode index (SAMI) and the thermocline (i.e., subsurface) associated mode index (TAMI) calculated using the model output data are both consistent with the values of these indices derived from observation and reanalysis data. However, the model SAMI and TAMI are more closely and synchronously related to each other.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-6176-5
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 12 (2017)
  • Multiyear observations of deposition-mode ice nucleating particles at two
           high-altitude stations in India
    • Authors: Sandeep D. Wagh; Baban Nagare; Sanjay D. More; P. Pradeep Kumar
      Pages: 1437 - 1446
      Abstract: Ice nucleating particle (INP) measurements were made at two high-altitude stations in India. Aerosols collected on filter paper at Girawali Observatory, Inter University Center for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IGO), and at the Radio Astronomy Center, Ooty (RAC), were activated in deposition mode using a thermal gradient diffusion chamber to determine the INP concentrations. The measurement campaigns at IGO were conducted during 2011, 2013 and 2014, and at RAC during 2013 and 2014. When the aerosol samples were exposed to an ice supersaturation of between 5% and 23% in the temperature range −17.6°C to −22°C, the maximum INP number concentration at IGO and RAC was 1.0 L−1 and 1.6 L−1, respectively. A maximum correlation coefficient of 0.76 was observed between the INP number concentration and ice supersaturation. The airmass trajectories analyzed for the measurement campaigns showed that the Arabian Desert and arid regions were the main INP contributors. Elemental analysis of particles showed the presence of Na, Cl, Si, Al, Fe, Cu, Co, Cd, S, Mn and K, as well as some rare-Earth elements like Mo, Ru, La, Ce, V and Zr. When aerosols in the size range 0.5–20 μm were considered, the fraction that acted as INPs was 1: 104 to 1: 106 at IGO, and 1: 103 to 1: 104 at RAC. The higher ratio of INPs to aerosols at RAC than IGO may be attributable to the presence of rare-Earth elements observed in the aerosol samples at RAC, which were absent at IGO.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-7048-8
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 12 (2017)
  • Understanding the surface temperature cold bias in CMIP5 AGCMs over the
           Tibetan Plateau
    • Authors: Xiaolei Chen; Yimin Liu; Guoxiong Wu
      Pages: 1447 - 1460
      Abstract: The temperature biases of 28 CMIP5 AGCMs are evaluated over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) for the period 1979–2005. The results demonstrate that the majority of CMIP5 models underestimate annual and seasonal mean surface 2-m air temperatures (T as) over the TP. In addition, the ensemble of the 28 AGCMs and half of the individual models underestimate annual mean skin temperatures (T s) over the TP. The cold biases are larger in T as than in T s, and are larger over the western TP. By decomposing the T s bias using the surface energy budget equation, we investigate the contributions to the cold surface temperature bias on the TP from various factors, including the surface albedo-induced bias, surface cloud radiative forcing, clear-sky shortwave radiation, clear-sky downward longwave radiation, surface sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and heat storage. The results show a suite of physically interlinked processes contributing to the cold surface temperature bias. Strong negative surface albedo-induced bias associated with excessive snow cover and the surface heat fluxes are highly anticorrelated, and the cancelling out of these two terms leads to a relatively weak contribution to the cold bias. Smaller surface turbulent fluxes lead to colder lower-tropospheric temperature and lower water vapor content, which in turn cause negative clear-sky downward longwave radiation and cold bias. The results suggest that improvements in the parameterization of the area of snow cover, as well as the boundary layer, and hence surface turbulent fluxes, may help to reduce the cold bias over the TP in the models.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-6326-9
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 12 (2017)
  • A high-order spatiotemporal precision-matching Taylor–Li scheme for
           time-dependent problems
    • Authors: Pengfei Wang
      Pages: 1461 - 1471
      Abstract: Based on the Taylor series method and Li’s spatial differential method, a high-order hybrid Taylor–Li scheme is proposed. The results of a linear advection equation indicate that, using the initial values of the square-wave type, a result with third-order accuracy occurs. However, using initial values associated with the Gaussian function type, a result with very high precision appears. The study demonstrates that, when the order of the time integral is more than three, the corresponding optimal spatial difference order could be higher than six. The results indicate that the reason for why there is no improvement related to an order of spatial difference above six is the use of a time integral scheme that is not high enough. The author also proposes a recursive differential method to improve the Taylor–Li scheme’s computation speed. A more rapid and high-precision program than direct computation of the high-order space differential item is employed, and the computation speed is dramatically boosted. Based on a multiple-precision library, the ultrahigh-order Taylor–Li scheme can be used to solve the advection equation and Burgers’ equation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-7018-1
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 12 (2017)
  • Microphysical processes of a stratiform precipitation event over eastern
           China: analysis using micro rain radar data
    • Authors: Hong Wang; Hengchi Lei; Jiefan Yang
      Pages: 1472 - 1482
      Abstract: Data collected using the micro rain radar (MRR) situated in Jinan city, eastern China, were used to explore the altitudinal and temporal evolution of rainfall microphysical characteristics, and to analyze the bright band (BB) characteristics and hydrometeor classification. Specifically, a low-intensity and stable stratiform precipitation event that occurred from 0000 to 0550 UTC 15 February 2015 and featured a BB was studied. During this event, the rainfall intensity was less than 2 mm h−1 at a height of 300 m, which was above the radar site level, so the errors caused by the vertical air motion could be ignored. The freezing height from the radiosonde matched well with the top of the BB observed by the MRR. It was also found that the number of 0.5–1 mm diameter drops showed no noticeable variation below the BB. The maximum fall velocity and the maximum gradient fall velocity (GFV) of the raindrops appeared at the bottom of the BB. Meanwhile, a method that uses the GFV and reflectivity to identify the altitude and the thickness of the BB was established, with which the MRR can provide a reliable and real-time estimation of the 0°C isotherm. The droplet fall velocity was used to classify the types of snow crystals above the BB. In the first 20 min of the selected precipitation event, graupel prevailed above the BB; and at an altitude of 2000 m, graupel also dominated in the first 250 min. After 150 min, the existence of graupel and dendritic crystals with water droplets above the BB was inferred.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-7005-6
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 12 (2017)
  • A step forward toward effectively using hyperspectral IR sounding
           information in NWP
    • Authors: Jun Li; Wei Han
      Pages: 1263 - 1264
      Abstract: 摘 要 搭载在气象卫星上的作为全球观测资料重要来源之一的高光谱分辨率红外(IR)探测仪器, 例如搭载于 Aqua 卫星上的 AIRS, Metop-A/B 卫星上的 IASI 以及 SNPP 卫星上的 CrIS, 其观测数据通过同化应用到业务数值天气预报(NWP)模式, 能够改进数值天气预报. 在全部的卫星观测中, 红外和微波探测器的观测对数值天气预报技术具有最重要的影响(Joo 等, 2013; Cucurull 和Anthes, 2014). 虽然先进的红外探测器在数值天气预报系统中占有重要地位, 但由于其观测数据量巨大, 在全部可用的通道中也只有数百个通道的观测可被同化利用. 例如, AIRS, IAS I和CrIS 分别拥有 2372, 8461 和 1305 个观测通道, 也只有部分观测通道被主要的业务中心同化应用到了数值天气预报模式中. 为了有效地将高光谱红外遥感信息同化到数值天气预报模式中, 提出了多种筛选通道的方法. 例如, Li 和 Huang(1994)提出一种基于逐步回归的方法, 用于 AIRS 的通道筛选; Collard(2007)提出了基于信息内容分析以及相关限制条件的筛选方案; Rabier 等(2002)研究了基于雅可比矩阵及迭代方法的筛选方案, 用于顺序筛选通道以获得最大信息量; 在标准方法的基础上, Ventress 和 Dudhia(2014)发展的改进方案在通道筛选过程中可以更好的模拟和量化光谱相关误差; Migliorini(ECMWF技术备忘录, 编号727, 2014)研究了基于最优流依赖在有云情况下的通道筛选方案. 这些方法都可以有效地筛选一套通道, 为同化辐射量提供最优化信息, 尤其是地球同步卫星上的先进的高光谱探测器; 例如, 搭载在风云四号卫星上的地球同步干涉红外探测器(Yang 等, 2017). 综上所述, 通道筛选方案都是基于信息内容分析, 同时考虑非线性及其他因素(例如, 相关误差)的影响. 信息内容分析方法的一大局限在于采用线性方法筛选具有高度非线性的吸收通道(例如, 与温度相比, 水汽吸收通道的辐射量与大气中水汽的含量之间具有较大的非线性关系). 这类通道筛选方法的另一个局限在于不同吸收区间的通道被独立筛选, 由于不同通道的权重不同, 将导致主观的通道筛选结果. 最近, 一个新的通道筛选方法被提出 (Noh 等, 2017). 采用这种方法, 通过计算每个独立...
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-7167-2
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 11 (2017)
  • A new Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer channel selection and
           assessment of its impact on Met Office NWP forecasts
    • Authors: Young-Chan Noh; Byung-Ju Sohn; Yoonjae Kim; Sangwon Joo; William Bell; Roger Saunders
      Pages: 1265 - 1281
      Abstract: A new set of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) channels was re-selected from 314 EUMETSAT channels. In selecting channels, we calculated the impact of the individually added channel on the improvement in the analysis outputs from a one-dimensional variational analysis (1D-Var) for the Unified Model (UM) data assimilation system at the Met Office, using the channel score index (CSI) as a figure of merit. Then, 200 channels were selected in order by counting each individual channel’s CSI contribution. Compared with the operationally used 183 channels for the UM at the Met Office, the new set shares 149 channels, while the other 51 channels are new. Also examined is the selection from the entropy reduction method with the same 1D-Var approach. Results suggest that channel selection can be made in a more objective fashion using the proposed CSI method. This is because the most important channels can be selected across the whole IASI observation spectrum. In the experimental trial runs using the UM global assimilation system, the new channels had an overall neutral impact in terms of improvement in forecasts, as compared with results from the operational channels. However, upper-tropospheric moist biases shown in the control run with operational channels were significantly reduced in the experimental trial with the newly selected channels. The reduction of moist biases was mainly due to the additional water vapor channels, which are sensitive to the upper-tropospheric water vapor.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-6299-8
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 11 (2017)
  • Decadal Indian Ocean dipolar variability and its relationship with the
           tropical Pacific
    • Authors: Yun Yang; Jianping Li; Lixin Wu; Yu Kosaka; Yan Du; Cheng Sun; Fei Xie; Juan Feng
      Pages: 1282 - 1289
      Abstract: A robust decadal Indian Ocean dipolar variability (DIOD) is identified in observations and found to be related to tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV). A Pacific Ocean–global atmosphere (POGA) experiment, with fixed radiative forcing, is conducted to evaluate the DIOD variability and its relationship with the TPDV. In this experiment, the sea surface temperature anomalies are restored to observations over the tropical Pacific, but left as interactive with the atmosphere elsewhere. The TPDV-forced DIOD, represented as the ensemble mean of 10 simulations in POGA, accounts for one third of the total variance. The forced DIOD is triggered by anomalous Walker circulation in response to the TPDV and develops following Bjerknes feedback. Thermocline anomalies do not exhibit a propagating signal, indicating an absence of oceanic planetary wave adjustment in the subtropical Indian Ocean. The DIOD–TPDV correlation differs among the 10 simulations, with a low correlation corresponding to a strong internal DIOD independent of the TPDV. The variance of this internal DIOD depends on the background state in the Indian Ocean, modulated by the thermocline depth off Sumatra/Java.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-7009-2
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 11 (2017)
  • Why was the strengthening of rainfall in summer over the Yangtze River
           valley in 2016 less pronounced than that in 1998 under similar preceding
           El Niño events'—Role of midlatitude circulation in August
    • Authors: Chaofan Li; Wei Chen; Xiaowei Hong; Riyu Lu
      Pages: 1290 - 1300
      Abstract: It is widely recognized that rainfall over the Yangtze River valley (YRV) strengthens considerably during the decaying summer of El Niño, as demonstrated by the catastrophic flooding suffered in the summer of 1998. Nevertheless, the rainfall over the YRV in the summer of 2016 was much weaker than that in 1998, despite the intensity of the 2016 El Niño having been as strong as that in 1998. A thorough comparison of the YRV summer rainfall anomaly between 2016 and 1998 suggests that the difference was caused by the sub-seasonal variation in the YRV rainfall anomaly between these two years, principally in August. The precipitation anomaly was negative in August 2016—different to the positive anomaly of 1998. Further analysis suggests that the weaker YRV rainfall in August 2016 could be attributable to the distinct circulation anomalies over the midlatitudes. The intensified “Silk Road Pattern” and upper-tropospheric geopotential height over the Urals region, both at their strongest since 1980, resulted in an anticyclonic circulation anomaly over midlatitude East Asia with anomalous easterly flow over the middle-to-lower reaches of the YRV in the lower troposphere. This easterly flow reduced the climatological wind, weakened the water vapor transport, and induced the weaker YRV rainfall in August 2016, as compared to that in 1998. Given the unique sub-seasonal variation of the YRV rainfall in summer 2016, more attention should be paid to midlatitude circulation—besides the signal in the tropics—to further our understanding of the predictability and variation of YRV summer rainfall.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-7003-8
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 11 (2017)
  • Modification of the SUNFLUX solar radiation scheme with a new aerosol
           parameterization and its validation using observation network data
    • Authors: Yongjian He; Zhi’an Sun; Guoping Shi; Jingmiao Liu; Jiandong Li
      Pages: 1301 - 1315
      Abstract: SUNFLUX is a fast parameterization scheme for determination of the solar radiation at the Earth’s surface. In this paper, SUNFLUX is further modified in the treatment of aerosols. A new aerosol parameterization scheme is developed for five aerosol species. Observational data from Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations are used to evaluate the accuracy of the original and modified SUNFLUX schemes. General meteorological data are available at SURFRAD stations, but not at BSRN stations. Therefore, the total precipitable water content and aerosol data are obtained from AERONET stations. Fourteen stations are selected from both BSRN and AERONET. Cloud fraction data from MODIS are further used to screen the cloud. Ten-year average aerosol mixing ratios simulated by the CAM-chem system are used to calculate the fractions of aerosol optical depth for each aerosol species, and these fractions are further used to convert the observed total aerosol optical depth into the components of individual species for use in the evaluations. The proper treatment of multiple aerosol types in the model is discussed. The evaluation results using SUNFLUX with the new aerosol scheme, in terms of the BSRN dataset, are better than those using the original aerosol scheme under clear-sky conditions. However, the results using the SURFRAD dataset are slightly worse, attributable to the differences in the input water vapor and aerosol optical depth. Sensitivity tests are conducted to investigate the error response of the SUNFLUX scheme to the errors in the input variables.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-016-6262-0
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 11 (2017)
  • Dynamical feedback between synoptic eddy and low-frequency flow as
           simulated by BCC_CSM1.1(m)
    • Authors: Fang Zhou; Hong-Li Ren
      Pages: 1316 - 1332
      Abstract: Since the interaction between atmospheric synoptic eddy (SE) (2–8 days) activity and low-frequency (LF) (monthly) flow (referred to as SELF) plays an essential role in generating and maintaining dominant climate modes, an evaluation of the performance of BCC_CSM1.1(m) in simulating the SE feedback onto the LF flow is given in this paper. The model captures well the major spatial features of climatological eddy vorticity forcing, eddy-induced growth rate, and patterns of SELF feedback for the climate modes with large magnitudes in cold seasons and small magnitudes in warm seasons for both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. As in observations, the eddy-induced growth rate and SELF feedback patterns in the model also show positive SE feedback. Overall, the relationships between SE and LF flow show that BCC_CSM1.1(m) satisfactorily captures the basic features of positive SE feedback, which demonstrates the simulation skill of the model for LF variability. Specifically, such an evaluation can help to find model biases of BCC_CSM1.1(m) in simulating SE feedback, which will provide a reference for the model’s application.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-6318-9
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 11 (2017)
  • Improvement of a snow albedo parameterization in the
           Snow–Atmosphere–Soil Transfer model: evaluation of impacts of aerosol
           on seasonal snow cover
    • Authors: Efang Zhong; Qian Li; Shufen Sun; Wen Chen; Shangfeng Chen; Debashis Nath
      Pages: 1333 - 1345
      Abstract: The presence of light-absorbing aerosols (LAA) in snow profoundly influence the surface energy balance and water budget. However, most snow-process schemes in land-surface and climate models currently do not take this into consideration. To better represent the snow process and to evaluate the impacts of LAA on snow, this study presents an improved snow albedo parameterization in the Snow–Atmosphere–Soil Transfer (SAST) model, which includes the impacts of LAA on snow. Specifically, the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model is incorporated into the SAST model with an LAA mass stratigraphy scheme. The new coupled model is validated against in-situ measurements at the Swamp Angel Study Plot (SASP), Colorado, USA. Results show that the snow albedo and snow depth are better reproduced than those in the original SAST, particularly during the period of snow ablation. Furthermore, the impacts of LAA on snow are estimated in the coupled model through case comparisons of the snowpack, with or without LAA. The LAA particles directly absorb extra solar radiation, which accelerates the growth rate of the snow grain size. Meanwhile, these larger snow particles favor more radiative absorption. The average total radiative forcing of the LAA at the SASP is 47.5 W m−2. This extra radiative absorption enhances the snowmelt rate. As a result, the peak runoff time and “snow all gone” day have shifted 18 and 19.5 days earlier, respectively, which could further impose substantial impacts on the hydrologic cycle and atmospheric processes.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-7019-0
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 11 (2017)
  • Impact of the time scale of model sensitivity response on coupled model
           parameter estimation
    • Authors: Chang Liu; Shaoqing Zhang; Shan Li; Zhengyu Liu
      Pages: 1346 - 1357
      Abstract: That a model has sensitivity responses to parameter uncertainties is a key concept in implementing model parameter estimation using filtering theory and methodology. Depending on the nature of associated physics and characteristic variability of the fluid in a coupled system, the response time scales of a model to parameters can be different, from hourly to decadal. Unlike state estimation, where the update frequency is usually linked with observational frequency, the update frequency for parameter estimation must be associated with the time scale of the model sensitivity response to the parameter being estimated. Here, with a simple coupled model, the impact of model sensitivity response time scales on coupled model parameter estimation is studied. The model includes characteristic synoptic to decadal scales by coupling a long-term varying deep ocean with a slow-varying upper ocean forced by a chaotic atmosphere. Results show that, using the update frequency determined by the model sensitivity response time scale, both the reliability and quality of parameter estimation can be improved significantly, and thus the estimated parameters make the model more consistent with the observation. These simple model results provide a guideline for when real observations are used to optimize the parameters in a coupled general circulation model for improving climate analysis and prediction initialization.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-6272-6
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 11 (2017)
  • Influence of the preceding austral summer Southern Hemisphere annular mode
           on the amplitude of ENSO decay
    • Authors: Fei Zheng; Jianping Li; Ruiqiang Ding
      Pages: 1358 - 1379
      Abstract: There is increasing evidence of the possible role of extratropical forcing in the evolution of ENSO. The Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM) is the dominant mode of atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere extratropics. This study shows that the austral summer (December–January–February; DJF) SAM may also influence the amplitude of ENSO decay during austral autumn (March–April–May; MAM). The mechanisms associated with this SAM–ENSO relationship can be briefly summarized as follows: The SAM is positively (negatively) correlated with SST in the Southern Hemisphere middle (high) latitudes. This dipole-like SST anomaly pattern is referred to as the Southern Ocean Dipole (SOD). The DJF SOD, caused by the DJF SAM, could persist until MAM and then influence atmospheric circulation, including trade winds, over the Niño3.4 area. Anomalous trade winds and SST anomalies over the Niño3.4 area related to the DJF SAM are further developed through the Bjerkness feedback, which eventually results in a cooling (warming) over the Niño3.4 area followed by the positive (negative) DJF SAM.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-6339-4
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 11 (2017)
  • Preface to the special issue on commemorating the centenary of Duzheng
           YE’s birth
    • Authors: Jiang Zhu
      Pages: 1035 - 1035
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-7002-9
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 10 (2017)
  • From climate to global change: Following the footprint of Prof. Duzheng
           YE’s research
    • Authors: Congbin Fu
      Pages: 1159 - 1168
      Abstract: To commemorate 100 years since the birth of Professor Duzheng YE, this paper reviews the contribution of Ye and his research team to the development from climate to global change science in the past 30 or so years, including: (1) the role of climate change in global change; (2) the critical time scales and predictability of global change; (3) the sensitive regions of global change—transitional zones of climate and ecosystems; and (4) orderly human activities and adaptation to global change, with a focus on the development of a proactive strategy for adaptation to such change.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-6300-6
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 10 (2017)
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