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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.956
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 37  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1861-9533 - ISSN (Online) 0256-1530
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • First Rocketsonde Launched from an Unmanned Semi-submersible Vehicle
    • Authors: Hongbin Chen; Jun Li; Yuejian Xuan; Xiaosong Huang; Weifeng Zhu; Keping Zhu; Wenzheng Shao
      Pages: 339 - 345
      Abstract: The unmanned semi-submersible vehicle (USSV) developed by the unmanned surface vehicle team of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics is an unmanned, rugged, and high-endurance autonomous navigation vessel designed for the collection of long-term, continuous and real-time marine meteorological measurements, including atmospheric sounding in the lower troposphere. A series of river and sea trials were conducted from May 2016 to November 2017, and the first rocketsonde was launched from the USSV. Real-time meteorological parameters in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were obtained, including sea surface temperature, and vertical profiles of the pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction. These data are extremely useful and important for research on air–sea interactions, sea surface heat and latent heat flux estimations, MABL modeling, and marine satellite product validation.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-018-8249-5
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2019)
  • Seasonal Variations of Observed Raindrop Size Distribution in East China
    • Authors: Long Wen; Kun Zhao; Mengyao Wang; Guifu Zhang
      Pages: 346 - 362
      Abstract: Seasonal variations of rainfall microphysics in East China are investigated using data from the observations of a two-dimensional video disdrometer and a vertically pointing micro rain radar. The precipitation and rain drop size distribution (DSD) characteristics are revealed for different rain types and seasons. Summer rainfall is dominated by convective rain, while during the other seasons the contribution of stratiform rain to rainfall amount is equal to or even larger than that of convective rain. The mean mass-weighted diameter versus the generalized intercept parameter pairs of convective rain are plotted roughly around the “maritime” cluster, indicating a maritime nature of convective precipitation throughout the year in East China. The localized rainfall estimators, i.e., rainfall kinetic energy–rain rate, shape–slope, and radar reflectivity–rain rate relations are further derived. DSD variability is believed to be a major source of diversity of the aforementioned derived estimators. These newly derived relations would certainly improve the accuracy of rainfall kinetic energy estimation, DSD retrieval, and quantitative precipitation estimation in this specific region.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-018-8107-5
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2019)
  • Assessment of Temperature Extremes in China Using RegCM4 and WRF
    • Authors: Xianghui Kong; Aihui Wang; Xunqiang Bi; Dan Wang
      Pages: 363 - 377
      Abstract: This study assesses the performance of temperature extremes over China in two regional climate models (RCMs), RegCM4 and WRF, driven by the ECMWF’s 20th century reanalysis. Based on the advice of the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI), 12 extreme temperature indices (i.e., TXx, TXn, TNx, TNn, TX90p, TN90p, TX10p, TN10p WSDI, ID, FD, and CSDI) are derived from the simulations of two RCMs and compared with those from the daily station-based observational data for the period 1981–2010. Overall, the two RCMs demonstrate satisfactory capability in representing the spatiotemporal distribution of the extreme indices over most regions. RegCM performs better than WRF in reproducing the mean temperature extremes, especially over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Moreover, both models capture well the decreasing trends in ID, FD, CSDI, TX10p, and TN10p, and the increasing trends in TXx, TXn, TNx, TNn, WSDI, TX90p, and TN90p, over China. Compared with observation, RegCM tends to underestimate the trends of temperature extremes, while WRF tends to overestimate them over the TP. For instance, the linear trends of TXx over the TP from observation, RegCM, and WRF are 0.53°C (10 yr)−1, 0.44°C (10 yr)−1, and 0.75°C (10 yr)−1, respectively. However, WRF performs better than RegCM in reproducing the interannual variability of the extreme-temperature indices. Our findings are helpful towards improving our understanding of the physical realism of RCMs in terms of different time scales, thus enabling us in future work to address the sources of model biases.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-018-8144-0
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2019)
  • Interannual Salinity Variability in the Tropical Pacific in CMIP5
    • Authors: Hai Zhi; Rong-Hua Zhang; Pengfei Lin; Peng Yu
      Pages: 378 - 396
      Abstract: Salinity variability and its causes in the tropical Pacific are analyzed using observations, reanalysis products and model simulations. The mixed-layer salinity (MLS) budget analyses from observations and reanalysis products indicate that its interannual evolution is closely related to ENSO and is predominantly governed by surface forcing and surface advection in the western-central equatorial Pacific. It is found that the observed MLS tendency leads Ni˜no3.4 by about 12 months due to the effect of negative freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation). These observation-based analyses are used to evaluate the corresponding simulation using GFDL-ESM2M. It is evident that the model can simulate the spatiotemporal variations of MLS with some discrepancies compared to observations. In the warm pool of the equatorial Pacific the MLS tendency in the model is sensitive to ocean dynamics, however model biases cause the tendency to be underestimated. In particular, the freshwater flux is overestimated while the ocean surface zonal current and vertical velocity at the base of the mixed layer are underestimated. Due to model biases in representing the related physics, the effects of surface forcing on the simulated MLS budget are overestimated and those of subsurface and surface advection are relatively weak. Due to weaker surface advection and subsurface forcing than observed, the simulated compensations for surface forcing are suppressed, and the simulated MLS tendency that leads Ni˜no3.4 by 8–10 months, which is shorter than the observed lead time. These results are useful for the interpretation of observational analyses and other model simulations in the tropical Pacific.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-018-7309-1
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2019)
  • Numerical Study of Boundary Layer Structure and Rainfall after Landfall of
           Typhoon Fitow (2013): Sensitivity to Planetary Boundary Layer
    • Authors: Meiying Dong; Chunxiao Ji; Feng Chen; Yuqing Wang
      Pages: 431 - 450
      Abstract: The boundary layer structure and related heavy rainfall of Typhoon Fitow (2013), which made landfall in Zhejiang Province, China, are studied using the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model, with a focus on the sensitivity of the simulation to the planetary boundary layer parameterization. Two groups of experiments—one with the same surface layer scheme and including the Yonsei University (YSU), Mellor–Yamada–Nakanishi–Niino Level 2.5, and Bougeault and Lacarrere schemes; and the other with different surface layer schemes and including the Mellor–Yamada–Janjić and Quasi-Normal Scale Elimination schemes—are investigated. For the convenience of comparative analysis, the simulation with the YSU scheme is chosen as the control run because this scheme successfully reproduces the track, intensity and rainfall as a whole. The maximum deviations in the peak tangential and peak radial winds may account for 11% and 33% of those produced in the control run, respectively. Further diagnosis indicates that the vertical diffusivity is much larger in the first group, resulting in weaker vertical shear of the tangential and radial winds in the boundary layer and a deeper inflow layer therein. The precipitation discrepancies are related to the simulated track deflection and the differences in the simulated low-level convergent flow among all tests. Furthermore, the first group more efficiently transfers moisture and energy and produces a stronger ascending motion than the second, contributing to a deeper moist layer, stronger convection and greater precipitation.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-018-7281-9
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2019)
  • Intermodel Diversity in the Zonal Location of the Climatological East
           Asian Westerly Jet Core in Summer and Association with Rainfall over East
           Asia in CMIP5 Models
    • Abstract: The East Asian westerly jet (EAJ), an important midlatitude circulation of the East Asian summer monsoon system, plays a crucial role in affecting summer rainfall over East Asia. The multimodel ensemble of current coupled models can generally capture the intensity and location of the climatological summer EAJ. However, individual models still exhibit large discrepancies. This study investigates the intermodel diversity in the longitudinal location of the simulated summer EAJ climatology in the present-day climate and its implications for rainfall over East Asia based on 20 CMIP5 models. The results show that the zonal location of the simulated EAJ core is located over either the midlatitude Asian continent or the western North Pacific (WNP) in different models. The zonal shift of the EAJ core depicts a major intermodel diversity of the simulated EAJ climatology. The westward retreat of the EAJ core is related to a warmer mid-upper tropospheric temperature in the midlatitudes, with a southwest-northeast tilt extending from Southwest Asia to Northeast Asia and the northern North Pacific, induced partially by the simulated stronger rainfall climatology over South Asia. The zonal shift of the EAJ core has some implications for the summer rainfall climatology, with stronger rainfall over the East Asian continent and weaker rainfall over the subtropical WNP in relation to the westward-located EAJ core.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Determination of the Backward Predictability Limit and Its Relationship
           with the Forward Predictability Limit
    • Abstract: In this work, two types of predictability are proposed—forward and backward predictability—and then applied in the nonlinear local Lyapunov exponent approach to the Lorenz63 and Lorenz96 models to quantitatively estimate the local forward and backward predictability limits of states in phase space. The forward predictability mainly focuses on the forward evolution of initial errors superposed on the initial state over time, while the backward predictability is mainly concerned with when the given state can be predicted before this state happens. From the results, there is a negative correlation between the local forward and backward predictability limits. That is, the forward predictability limits are higher when the backward predictability limits are lower, and vice versa. We also find that the sum of forward and backward predictability limits of each state tends to fluctuate around the average value of sums of the forward and backward predictability limits of sufficient states. Furthermore, the average value is constant when the states are sufficient. For different chaotic systems, the average value is dependent on the chaotic systems and more complex chaotic systems get a lower average value. For a single chaotic system, the average value depends on the magnitude of initial perturbations. The average values decrease as the magnitudes of initial perturbations increase.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Evidence of Specific MJO Phase Occurrence with Summertime California
           Central Valley Extreme Hot Weather
    • Abstract: This study examines associations between California Central Valley (CCV) heat waves and the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO). These heat waves have major economic impact. Our prior work showed that CCV heat waves are frequently preceded by convection over the tropical Indian and eastern Pacific oceans, in patterns identifiable with MJO phases. The main analysis method is lagged composites (formed after each MJO phase pair) of CCV synoptic station temperature, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and velocity potential (VP). Over the CCV, positive temperature anomalies occur only after the Indian Ocean (phases 2–3) or eastern Pacific Ocean (phases 8–1) convection (implied by OLR and VP fields). The largest fractions of CCV hot days occur in the two weeks after onset of those two phase pairs. OLR and VP composites have significant subsidence and convergence above divergence over the CCV during heat waves, and these structures are each part of larger patterns having significant areas over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Prior studies showed that CCV heat waves can be roughly grouped into two clusters: Cluster 2 is preceded by a heat wave over northwestern North America, while Cluster 1 is not. OLR and VP composite analyses are applied separately to these two clusters. However, for Cluster 2, the subsidence and VP over the CCV are not significant, and the large-scale VP pattern has low correlation with the MJO lagged composite field. Therefore, the association between the MJO convection and subsequent CCV heat wave is more evident in Cluster 1 than Cluster 2.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Evaluation of the Global and Regional Assimilation and Prediction System
           for Predicting Sea Fog over the South China Sea
    • Abstract: In the South China Sea, sea fog brings severe disasters every year, but forecasters have yet to implement an effective sea-fog forecast. To address this issue, we test a liquid-water-content-only (LWC-only) operational sea-fog prediction method based on a regional mesoscale numerical model with a horizontal resolution of about 3 km, the Global and Regional Assimilation and Prediction System (GRAPES), hereafter GRAPES-3km. GRAPES-3km models the LWC over the sea, from which we infer the visibility that is then used to identify fog. We test the GRAPES-3km here against measurements in 2016 and 2017 from coastal-station observations, as well as from buoy data, data from the Integrated Observation Platform for Marine Meteorology, and retrieved fog and cloud patterns from Himawari-8 satellite data. For two cases that we examine in detail, the forecast region of sea fog overlaps well with the multi-observational data within 72 h. Considering forecasting for 0–24 h, GRAPES-3km has a 2-year-average equitable threat score (ETS) of 0.20 and a Heidke skill score (HSS) of 0.335, which is about 5.6% (ETS) and 6.4% (HSS) better than our previous method (GRAPES-MOS). Moreover, the stations near the particularly foggy region around the Leizhou Peninsula have relatively high forecast scores compared to other sea areas. Overall, the results show that GRAPES-3km can roughly predict the formation, evolution, and dissipation of sea fog on the southern China coast.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Current Status and Future Challenges of Weather Radar Polarimetry:
           Bridging the Gap between Radar Meteorology/Hydrology/Engineering and
           Numerical Weather Prediction
    • Abstract: After decades of research and development, the WSR-88D (NEXRAD) network in the United States was upgraded with dual-polarization capability, providing polarimetric radar data (PRD) that have the potential to improve weather observations, quantification, forecasting, and warnings. The weather radar networks in China and other countries are also being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Now, with radar polarimetry technology having matured, and PRD available both nationally and globally, it is important to understand the current status and future challenges and opportunities. The potential impact of PRD has been limited by their oftentimes subjective and empirical use. More importantly, the community has not begun to regularly derive from PRD the state parameters, such as water mixing ratios and number concentrations, used in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In this review, we summarize the current status of weather radar polarimetry, discuss the issues and limitations of PRD usage, and explore potential approaches to more efficiently use PRD for quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting based on statistical retrieval with physical constraints where prior information is used and observation error is included. This approach aligns the observation-based retrievals favored by the radar meteorology community with the model-based analysis of the NWP community. We also examine the challenges and opportunities of polarimetric phased array radar research and development for future weather observation.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • A Hybrid Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model and Its Simulation of ENSO and
           Atmospheric Responses
    • Abstract: A new hybrid coupled model (HCM) is presented in this study, which consists of an intermediate tropical Pacific Ocean model and a global atmospheric general circulation model. The ocean component is the intermediate ocean model (IOM) of the intermediate coupled model (ICM) used at the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS). The atmospheric component is ECHAM5, the fifth version of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology atmospheric general circulation model. The HCM integrates its atmospheric and oceanic components by using an anomaly coupling strategy. A 100-year simulation has been made with the HCM and its simulation skills are evaluated, including the interannual variability of SST over the tropical Pacific and the ENSO-related responses of the global atmosphere. The model shows irregular occurrence of ENSO events with a spectral range between two and five years. The amplitude and lifetime of ENSO events and the annual phase-locking of SST anomalies are also reproduced realistically. Despite the slightly stronger variance of SST anomalies over the central Pacific than observed in the HCM, the patterns of atmospheric anomalies related to ENSO, such as sea level pressure, temperature and precipitation, are in broad agreement with observations. Therefore, this model can not only simulate the ENSO variability, but also reproduce the global atmospheric variability associated with ENSO, thereby providing a useful modeling tool for ENSO studies. Further model applications of ENSO modulations by ocean-atmosphere processes, and of ENSO-related climate prediction, are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Indian Ocean Dipole-related Predictability Barriers Induced by Initial
           Errors in the Tropical Indian Ocean in a CGCM
    • Abstract: Using GFDL CM2p1 (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model, version 2p1), the effects of initial sea temperature errors on the predictability of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are explored. When initial temperature errors are superimposed on the tropical Indian Ocean, a winter predictability barrier (WPB) and a summer predictability barrier (SPB) exist in IOD predictions. The existence of the WPB has a close relation with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the winter of the growing phase of positive IOD events. That is, when ENSO exists in winter, no WPB appears in IOD predictions, and vice versa. In contrast, there is no inherent connection between the existence of the SPB and ENSO. Only the dominant spatial pattern of SPB-related initial errors is studied in this paper, which presents a significant west-east dipole pattern in the tropical Indian Ocean and is similar to that of WPB-related initial errors in previous studies. The SPB-related initial errors superimposed on the tropical Indian Ocean induce the sea surface temperature (SST) and wind anomalies in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Then, under the interaction between the Indian and Pacific oceans through the atmospheric bridge and Indonesian Throughflow, a west-east dipole pattern of SST errors appears in summer, which is further strengthened under the Bjerknes feedback and yields a significant SPB.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Evaluation of Simulated CO 2 Concentrations from the CarbonTracker-Asia
           Model Using In-situ Observations over East Asia for 2009–2013
    • Abstract: The CarbonTracker (CT) model has been used in previous studies for understanding and predicting the sources, sinks, and dynamics that govern the distribution of atmospheric CO2 at varying ranges of spatial and temporal scales. However, there are still challenges for reproducing accurate model-simulated CO2 concentrations close to the surface, typically associated with high spatial heterogeneity and land cover. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of nested-grid CT model simulations of CO2 based on the CT2016 version through comparison with in-situ observations over East Asia covering the period 2009–13. We selected sites located in coastal, remote, inland, and mountain areas. The results are presented at diurnal and seasonal time periods. At target stations, model agreement with in-situ observations was varied in capturing the diurnal cycle. Overall, biases were less than 6.3 ppm on an all-hourly mean basis, and this was further reduced to a maximum of 4.6 ppm when considering only the daytime. For instance, at Anmyeondo, a small bias was obtained in winter, on the order of 0.2 ppm. The model revealed a diurnal amplitude of CO2 that was nearly flat in winter at Gosan and Anmyeondo stations, while slightly overestimated in the summertime. The model’s performance in reproducing the diurnal cycle remains a challenge and requires improvement. The model showed better agreement with the observations in capturing the seasonal variations of CO2 during daytime at most sites, with a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.70 to 0.99. Also, model biases were within −0.3 and 1.3 ppm, except for inland stations (7.7 ppm).
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Convective Bursts Episode of the Rapidly Intensified Typhoon Mujigae
    • Abstract: Convective burst (CB) characteristics at distinct stages of a rapidly intensified Typhoon Mujigae (2015), are investigated based on a 72-h simulation. The spatial features show that almost all CB elements develop in the eyewall. The number of CBs in the inner-core region within a 100 km radius—which account for a large proportion of the total CBs, with a sharp increase about 6 h before the onset of rapid intensification (RI)—provides some indication of the RI of the typhoon. The CBs during pre-RI and RI are examined from dynamic and thermodynamic viewpoints. The combination of lower-level convergent inflow and upper-level divergent outflow pushes a relay-race-like transmission of convective activity, favorable for the development of deep convection. A double warm-core structure is induced by the centripetal outflow sinking and warming associated with CBs, which directly accelerates RI by a sudden decrease in hydrostatic pressure. By utilizing the convection activity degree (CAD) index derived from the local total energy anomaly, a correlation formula between CBs and CAD is deduced. Furthermore, an intense CAD (ICAD) signal threshold (with a value equal to 100) to predict CBs is obtained. It is verified that this ICAD threshold is effective for estimating the occurrence of a CB episode and predicting RI of a typhoon. Therefore, this threshold may be a valuable tool for identifying CB episodes and forecasting rapidly intensified typhoons.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Differences between Convective and Stratiform Precipitation Budgets in a
           Torrential Rainfall Event
    • Abstract: Differences in rainfall budgets between convective and stratiform regions of a torrential rainfall event were investigated using high-resolution simulation data produced by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The convective and stratiform regions were reasonably separated by the radar-based convective–stratiform partitioning method, and the three-dimensional WRF-based precipitation equation combining water vapor and hydrometeor budgets was further used to analyze the rainfall budgets. The results showed that the magnitude of precipitation budget processes in the convective region was one order larger than that in the stratiform region. In convective/stratiform updraft regions, precipitation was mainly from the contribution of moisture-related processes, with a small negative contribution from cloud-related processes. In convective/ stratiform downdraft regions, cloud-related processes played positive roles in precipitation, while moisture-related processes made a negative contribution. Moisture flux convergence played a dominant role in the moisture-related processes in convective or stratiform updraft regions, which was closely related to large-scale dynamics. Differences in cloud-related processes between convective and stratiform regions were more complex compared with those in moisture-related processes. Both liquid- and ice-phase microphysical processes were strong in convective/stratiform updraft regions, and ice-phase processes were dominant in convective/stratiform downdraft regions. There was strong net latent heating within almost the whole troposphere in updraft regions, especially in the convective updraft region, while the net latent heating (cooling) mainly existed above (below) the zero-layer in convective/stratiform downdraft regions.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Coupling of a Regional Climate Model with a Crop Development Model and
           Evaluation of the Coupled Model across China
    • Abstract: In this study, the CERES (Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis) crop model was coupled with CLM3.5, the land module of the regional climate model RegCM4. The new coupled model was named RegCM4 CERES; and in this model, crop type was further divided into winter wheat, spring wheat, spring maize, summer maize, early rice, late rice, single rice, and other crop types based on each distribution fraction. The development of each crop sub-type was simulated by the corresponding crop model separately, with each planting and harvesting date. A simulation test using RegCM4 CERES was conducted across China from 1999 to 2008; a control test was also performed using the original RegCM4. Data on crop LAI (leaf area index), soil moisture at 10 cm depth, precipitation, and 2 m air temperature were collected to evaluate the performance of RegCM4 CERES. The evaluation provided comparison of single-station time series, regional distributions, seasonal variations, and statistical indices for RegCM4 CERES. The results revealed that the coupled model had an excellent ability to simulate the phonological changes and spatial variations in crops. The consideration of dynamic crop development in RegCM4 CERES corrected the wet bias of the original RegCM4 over North China and the cold bias over South China. However, the degree of improvement was minimal and the statistical indices for RegCM4 CERES were roughly the same as the original RegCM4.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Latitudinal and Scan-dependent Biases of Microwave Humidity Sounder
           Measurements and Their Dependences on Cloud Ice Water Path
    • Abstract: The relationship between differences in microwave humidity sounder (MHS)–channel biases which represent measured brightness temperatures and model-simulated brightness temperatures, and cloud ice water path (IWP) as well as the influence of the cloud liquid water path (LWP) on the relationship is examined. Seven years (2011–17) of NOAA-18 MHS-derived measured brightness temperatures and IWP/LWP data generated by the NOAA Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System Microwave Surface and Precipitation Products System are used. The Community Radiative Transfer Model, version 2.2.4, is used to simulate model-simulated brightness temperatures using European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis data as background fields. Scan-angle deviations of the MHS window channel biases range from −1.7 K to 1.0 K. The relationships between channels 2, 4, and 5 biases and scan angle are symmetrical about the nadir. The latitude-dependent deviations of MHS window channel biases are positive and range from 0–7 K. For MHS non-window channels, the latitudinal deviations between measured brightness temperatures and model-simulated brightness temperatures are larger when the detection height is higher. No systematic warm or cold deviations are found in the global spatial distribution of difference between measured brightness temperatures and model-simulated brightness temperatures over oceans after removing scan-angle and latitudinal deviations. The corrected biases of five different MHS channels decrease differently with respect to the increase in IWP. This decrease is stronger when LWP values are higher.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Causes of the Extreme Hot Midsummer in Central and South China during
           2017: Role of the Western Tropical PacificWarming
    • Abstract: This study investigates why an extreme hot midsummer occurred in Central and South China (CSC) during 2017. It is shown that the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) was abnormally intensified and westward-extending, resulting in anomalous high pressure and consequent extreme heat over CSC. The abnormal WNPSH was favored by the warming of the western tropical Pacific (WTP), which was unrelated to ENSO and manifested its own individual effect. The WTP warming enhanced the convection in-situ and led to anomalous high pressure over CSC via a local meridional circulation. The influence of the WTP was confirmed by CAM4 model experiments. A comparison between the 2017 midsummer and 2010 midsummer (with a stronger WNPSH but weaker extreme heat) indicated that the influence of the WNPSH on extreme heat can be modulated by the associated precipitation in the northwestern flank. The role of the WTP was verified by regression analyses on the interannual variation of the WTP sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA). On the other hand, the WTP has undergone prominent warming during the past few decades, resulting from decadal to long-term changes and favoring extreme warm conditions. Through a mechanism similar to the interannual variation, the decadal to long-term changes have reinforced the influence of WTP warming on the temperature over CSC, contributing to the more frequent hot midsummers recently. It is estimated that more than 50% of the temperature anomaly over CSC in the 2017 midsummer was due to the WTP warming, and 40% was related to the decadal to long-term changes of the WTP SSTA.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Hindcasts of Stratospheric SuddenWarming by
           BCC_CSM1.1(m): A Comparison with ECMWF
    • Abstract: This study focuses on model predictive skill with respect to stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events by comparing the hindcast results of BCC_CSM1.1(m) with those of the ECMWF’s model under the sub-seasonal to seasonal prediction project of the World Weather Research Program and World Climate Research Program. When the hindcasts are initiated less than two weeks before SSW onset, BCC_CSM and ECMWF show comparable predictive skill in terms of the temporal evolution of the stratospheric circumpolar westerlies and polar temperature up to 30 days after SSW onset. However, with earlier hindcast initialization, the predictive skill of BCC_CSM gradually decreases, and the reproduced maximum circulation anomalies in the hindcasts initiated four weeks before SSW onset replicate only 10% of the circulation anomaly intensities in observations. The earliest successful prediction of the breakdown of the stratospheric polar vortex accompanying SSW onset for BCC_CSM (ECMWF) is the hindcast initiated two (three) weeks earlier. The predictive skills of both models during SSW winters are always higher than that during non-SSW winters, in relation to the successfully captured tropospheric precursors and the associated upward propagation of planetary waves by the model initializations. To narrow the gap in SSW predictive skill between BCC_CSM and ECMWF, ensemble forecasts and error corrections are performed with BCC_CSM. The SSW predictive skill in the ensemble hindcasts and the error corrections are improved compared with the previous control forecasts.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
  • Microphysical Properties of Rainwater in Typhoon Usagi (2013): A Numerical
           Modeling Study
    • Abstract: A 2-km resolution simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Morrison microphysics was employed to investigate the rainwater microphysical properties during different stages of Typhoon Usagi (2013) in the inner-core and outer region. The model reproduced the track, intensity, and overall structure of Usagi (2013) reasonably. The simulated raindrop size distribution showed a rapid increase in small-size raindrop concentration but an oscillated decrease in large-size ones in the inner-core region, corresponding well with the upward motion. It was found that there existed two levels (1.25 and 5.25 km) of maximum number concentration of raindrops. The ice-related microphysics at high levels was stronger than the warm-rain processes at low levels. The larger raindrops formed by self-collection in the inner-core suffered from significant breakup, but the raindrops outside the eyewall did not experience evident breakup. Model results indicated that the dominant terms in the water vapor budget were the horizontal moisture flux convergence (HFC) and local condensation and deposition. The evaporation from the ocean surface (PBL) was ∼10% of the HFC in the inner core, but up to 40% in the outer region as the air therein was far from saturation. Furthermore, water vapor in the outer region was obtained equally through evaporation from the cloud and inward transportation from the environment. An earlier start of cloud microphysical processes in the inner-core region was evident during the intensification stage, and the continuous decreasing of condensation in both the inner-core and outer regions might imply the beginning of the storm weakening.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
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