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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2341 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2341 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica
  [SJR: 0.294]   [H-I: 13]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2213-5812 - ISSN (Online) 2213-5820
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2341 journals]
  • Nonlinear homotopy in geodesy
    • Authors: B. Paláncz; J. L. Awange
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Abstract In Paláncz et al. (J Geod 84: 79–85, 2009), linear homotopy was introduced and its applications to geodesy presented. Never before had the concept of nonlinear homotopy been used by the geodetic community. This is partly attributed to the complexity of the involved equations and partly due to the computational time required. Recently, however, Nor et al. (MATEMATIKA 29: 159–171, 2013) suggested the possibility of constructing nonlinear homotopy. In this short note, Nor et al. (MATEMATIKA 29: 159–171, 2013) idea is developed for geodetic applications and an example of its use illustrated.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0169-1
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The ionosphere electron density spatio-temporal modeling based on the
           Slepian basis functions
    • Authors: Mohammad Ali Sharifi; Saeed Farzaneh
      Pages: 5 - 18
      Abstract: Abstract Radio occultation (RO) is one of the most novel satellite approaches that can be used to study ionospheric electron densities, by combining the observations of global navigation satellite systems and low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites to determine ionospheric electron density profiles with high vertical resolutions. This study aims at developing a multi-dimensional model of the electron density derived from ionospheric GPS RO measurements by the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites. In order to develop a 4D local model for the electron density, a Slepian function was used to account for longitudinal and latitudinal variations, the B-spline was utilized for time variations and the Chapman profile function was used to express the height variations of the electron density, in this way the parameters of the Chapman function, namely the maximum electron density of the F2 layer (NmF2) and the corresponding F2 peak height (hmF2) were modeled. The coefficients of the two sets of the Slepian functions were estimated using the least-squares adjustment technique. In order to validate the accuracy of the proposed technique, two approaches are considered: (1) The estimated F2-peak values were compared with the IRI model and ionosonde stations values, (2) Comparing the modeled electron density profile against the one estimated using RO methods.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0165-5
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Regional ionosphere modeling using spherical cap harmonics and empirical
           orthogonal functions over Iran
    • Authors: Mir Reza Ghaffari Razin; Behzad Voosoghi
      Pages: 19 - 33
      Abstract: Abstract The ionosphere is the ionized part of the upper region of the atmosphere extending from 60 to 1500 km above the earth’s surface. In this layer, free electrons are produced during the interaction of extreme ultra violet and x-ray radiation with the upper neutral atmosphere. Knowledge of the ionospheric electron density distribution is important for scientific studies and practical applications. In this paper, a new computerized ionospheric tomography reconstruction technique is developed to estimate electron density profiles over Iran. In this method, a functional based model is used to represent the electron density in space. The functional based model uses empirical orthogonal functions and spherical cap harmonics to describe the vertical and horizontal distribution of the electron density, respectively. The degree and the number of basis functions are chosen so that, the relative error of results is minimized. For this purpose, ionosonde observations (Lat. = 35.73°, Lon. = 51.38°) at 2007.04.03 is used. To apply the method for constructing a 3D-image of the electron density, GPS measurements of the Iranian permanent GPS network (at 2012/08/11) has been used. The modeling region is between 24 to 40 N and 44 to 64 W. The result of 3D-model has been compared to that of the international reference ionosphere model 2012 (IRI-2012). The analysis conducted in this paper indicates that the choice of spherical cap harmonics to 3 (Kmax = 3) and empirical orthogonal function in 3 (Q = 3), the regional reconstructed error is less than 36 %. The results show the advantages of this method in modeling of the ionosphere electron density on local and regional scales.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0162-8
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Ionospheric irregularities at low latitude using VHF scintillations during
           extreme low solar activity period (2008–2010)
    • Authors: S. B. Singh; V. S. Rathore; Ashutosh K. Singh; A. K. Singh
      Pages: 35 - 51
      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, we have used 250 MHz radio signal radiated by geostationary satellite UFO-02 to study the occurrence characteristics of very high frequency scintillations associated with ionospheric irregularities during recent extreme low solar activity period from 2008 to 2010 at low latitude Indian station Varanasi (Geomag. latitude = 14°55′N, long. = 154°E, Dip angle = 37.3°, Sub-ionospheric dip = 34°). The impact of this recent extreme low solar activity period on ionosphere is investigated. It is observed that the scintillation occurrence is low having maximum percentage occurrence during pre-midnight periods. With increasing interest in understanding the behavior of ionospheric irregularities, an effort has been made to examine also the influence of solar and magnetic activity over the occurrence of scintillations. During the extreme low solar activity years the scintillation occurrences do not vary linearly with the sunspot number. The inhibition and generation of irregularities during enhanced magnetic activity period are explained by considering changes in the electric field. The spectral analysis provide spectral index for irregularities which varied between −1.5 and −8 and characteristic length of irregularities varied between 400 and 1200 m which confirms that 250 MHz scintillations observed over Varanasi were associated with intermediate scale irregularities.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0168-2
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • 2013 Seismic swarm recorded in Galati area, Romania: focal mechanism
           solutions
    • Authors: Andreea Craiu; Marius Craiu; Mihail Diaconescu; Alexandru Marmureanu
      Pages: 53 - 67
      Abstract: Abstract An unusual seismic swarm started on September 23, 2013, close to Galati city, in Izvoarele region (Romania), and lasted until November 12, 2013. 406 earthquakes were recorded during several phases of seismic activity. The strongest events—a magnitude 3.9 earthquake, occurred on September 29, and two ML 3.8 shocks, occurred on October 3 and 4, respectively, were accompanied by specific seismicity bursts. The seismogenic region of the swarm is situated between two main crustal faults, which builds up the primary fault system, oriented SE–NW: New Trotus Fault (at the limit between North Dobrogea and Scythian Platform) to the North and east, and Peceneaga Camena fault (which separates North Dobrogea block from the Moesian Platform) to the South. The epicentral zone belongs to a complex tectonic area, in which a secondary fault system—lying NE–SW, perpendicular to the primary system—is also present. The focal mechanisms show normal faulting, with an important strike-slip component, one of the nodal planes being oriented roughly in a NE–SW direction. The objective of this study is to investigate the seismic swarm recorded in a new seismic area of Romania, near the town Galati in Izvoarele region. We show detailed hypocentral location, focal mechanisms and the correlation between seismicity and tectonic structures.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0161-9
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Ground motion estimation during 25th April 2015 Nepal earthquake
    • Authors: J. Dhanya; Maheshreddy Gade; S. T. G. Raghukanth
      Pages: 69 - 93
      Abstract: Abstract In the absence of an array of strong motion records, numerical and empirical methods are used to estimate the ground motion during 25th April 2015 Nepal earthquake. Spectral finite element method is used to simulate low frequency displacements. First, the simulated ground displacement is compared with the recorded data at Kathmandu. The good agreement between the comparisons validates the input source and medium parameters. The spatial variation of ground displacement is depicted through peak ground displacement and Ground residual displacement (GRD) contours near the epicentral region. The maximum GRD is of the order of 0.6 m in east–west, 1.8 m in north–south and 0.6 m in vertical (Z) direction respectively. Stochastic finite fault seismological model is used to simulate acceleration time histories. First, the seismological model is calibrated for the region with the available strong ground motion records at Kathmandu. The estimated stress drop for main-event and aftershocks lie in between 50 and 95 bars. Acceleration time histories are simulated at several stations near the epicentral region. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration (Sa) contour maps are provided. The estimated PGA near the epicentral region varies from 0.3 to 0.05 g. Another estimate of PGA for the main event is obtained from damage reports. The estimated PGA from simulations and damage reports are observed to be consistent with each other. The average amplification in the Indo-Gangetic plain is estimated to be in the order of 2–6. The simulated results from the study can be used as the basis for the possible ground motion behaviour for a future earthquake of comparable magnitude in the Himalayan region.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0170-8
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Improving availability and accuracy of GPS/BDS positioning using QZSS for
           single receiver
    • Authors: Zengke Li; Fu Chen
      Pages: 95 - 109
      Abstract: Abstract The Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) service area covers East Asia and Oceania region and its platform is multi-constellation GNSS. The QZSS system is not required to work in a stand-alone mode, but together with data from other GNSS satellites. QZSS data is processed and analysed for single receiver together with GPS/BDS data in the paper. Single point positioning mode, static precise point positioning mode and kinematic precise point positioning mode are used to assess the impact of QZSS on GPS/BDS single receiver positioning. The data corresponding to the day 2015-02-05 taken from the IGS station of CUT0 is considered. The sky plots and number of satellite for the various satellite systems are given. The PDOP (Position Dilution of Precision) value, position error and solution success rate under different cut-off elevation angles are compared between GPS/BDS and GPS/BDS/QZSS. The results indicate that QZSS is able to decrease the position error and increase success rate of resolution for GPS/BDS single receiver positioning, especially under high cut-off elevation angle. The availability and accuracy of GPS/BDS positioning are improved using QZSS for single receiver.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0167-3
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Low-cost land vehicle attitude determination using single-epoch GPS data,
           MEMS-based inclinometer measurements
    • Authors: Wantong Chen; Kunfan Hu; Ercui Li
      Pages: 111 - 129
      Abstract: Abstract GPS compasses equipped with short baselines can provide precise heading and elevation information for land vehicles. Most recent research in this area has focused on developing single-frequency, single-epoch ambiguity resolution, as the ambiguity resolution in a single epoch can guarantee total independence from carrier phase slips and lock losses. The reliability of single-frequency, single-epoch ambiguity resolution, however, are often insufficient for actual applications due to the weak baseline model. For land vehicle applications, baseline elevation can also be measured by inclinometer, which provides an important constraint that can be exploited to directly assist the ambiguity resolution process. In this study, we developed an innovative method that fully integrates MEMS-based inclinometer measurements into single-difference GPS observation equations and obtains the fixed baseline solution via weighted constrained integer least squares. We then explored the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method by building an integrated GPS/inclinometer compass system (IGICS) with low-cost GPS receivers (U-Blox LEA-6T) and a MEMS-based inclinometer (SCA-100T). Both actual static and dynamic experiments demonstrated that our method is capable of successfully fixing the set of integer ambiguities to the correct value for land vehicles equipped with very short baselines. The proposed method is also more easily implemented than the traditional augmenting scheme with rate gyros and IMU, as evidenced by a comparative experiment conducted using three approaches: (1) the new method; (2) horizontal constraint without inclinometer measurements; and (3) exploiting inclinometer measurements without imposing horizontal constraints.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0164-6
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Study on the effect of fractures on conventional induction log based on
           physical and numerical simulation
    • Authors: Zeyu Nan; Jun Li; Wenna Zhou
      Pages: 131 - 140
      Abstract: Abstract Fractures are important storage area and migration pathway in fractured reservoir. Abnormal conventional induction logging response has been found in fracture zone of reservoir, but few scholars have studied the conventional induction log response of fractured reservoirs. In this paper, the effect of fractures on conventional induction log has been studied based on physical and numerical simulation. Firstly, a physical model has been built to simulate the influence of fractures on conventional log. Secondly, the geometric factor theory has been used to find the minimum fracture width that the conventional induction log could identify, and the minimum interval between two adjacent fractures that the conventional induction log could distinguish. Thirdly, a fracture evaluation method based on numerical simulation was proposed, and a complex model containing surrounding rock and fractures was established to test the possibility of evaluating the fracture parameters using this method. Finally field data were used to test this method. From the results in this paper, we conclude that fractures influence conventional induction log significantly and fractures could be detected and evaluated by the conventional induction log.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0166-4
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Climate change impacts on surface water resources in arid and semi-arid
           regions: a case study in northern Jordan
    • Authors: Nezar Hammouri; Jan Adamowski; Muwaffaq Freiwan; Shiv Prasher
      Pages: 141 - 156
      Abstract: Abstract Given Jordan’s limited water resources and the doubling of its population over the last two decades, the gap between water demand and supply has been constantly increasing. Climate change is anticipated to worsen this situation by jeopardizing existing water resources. In the present study, SWAT was used to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources in the northern regions of Jordan. Global climate models (GCM) were used to assess the future impacts of climate change on water resources in the study area. The analyses of three different GCM-generated datasets indicate that stream flow rates are expected to decrease by up to 22 % by the year 2080. This decrease will be particularly severe in the months of maximum peak flow (February and March), perhaps reaching as much as 35–40 %. A minor increase in stream flow rates is expected to occur in some months. Based on these results, impacts of climate change are projected to raise water deficits in Jordan. Therefore, it is crucial to review Jordan’s 2008–2022 National Water Strategy.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0163-7
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Thermo-mechanical controls on geothermal energy resources: case studies in
           the Pannonian Basin and other natural laboratories
    • Authors: Sierd Cloetingh; Jan-Diederik Van Wees; Viktor Wesztergom
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0200-1
       
  • Characterisation of a landslide by its fracture system using Electric
           Resistivity Tomography and Pressure Probe methods
    • Authors: K. Szokoli; L. Szarka; M. Metwaly; J. Kalmár; E. Prácser; S. Szalai
      Abstract: Abstract We have studied a slowly moving loess landslide along the River Danube in South Hungary. In contrast with other efforts, we aimed to determine its fracture system. Due to the homogeneous composition of the loess, it seems to be the only possibility to get information about the landslide and its further evolution. Beside of the well-known Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) the so-called Pressure Probe (PreP) method was applied to characterise the supposedly dense fracture system. This method was developed to detect and characterise mechanically weak zones, which may not visible from the surface, and may occur e.g. due to landslides. Fracture zones had been especially well localised by the ERT, enabling the prediction of the positions of future rupture surfaces and thus also the delineation of the endangered zones. PreP was able to give a very detailed image about the surface projection of the fractures. Both methods proved to be good to characterise the fracture system of such a landslide area. Geophysical predictions have been verified also in reality: the mass movements occurred about 1½ years after the measurements. Therefore, to provide early risk warnings and to avoid damage to constructions or endangering human life, the application of the ERT and PreP methods is highly recommended.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0199-3
       
  • A public domain model for 1D temperature and rheology construction in
           basement-sedimentary geothermal exploration: an application to the Spanish
           Central System and adjacent basins
    • Authors: J. Limberger; D. Bonte; G. de Vicente; F. Beekman; S. Cloetingh; J. D. van Wees
      Abstract: Abstract Brittle basement and sedimentary rocks, in particular if these are underlain by radiogenic crust, are considered a prime target for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). They are marked by high geothermal gradients, caused by radiogenic heat production, and are well suited to be used for geothermal doublets after hydraulic stimulation. Critical conditions for successful EGS projects are: (a) tectonic stresses close to failure, allowing creation of induced fractures by means of hydraulic stimulation; (b) sufficient high temperatures >150 °C, preferably in excess of 200 °C, at depths of less than 5 km; (c) sufficient high water flow rates, to be sustained through induced fractures. For geothermal production, knowledge on thermo-mechanical properties of the lithosphere provides critical constraints on crustal stresses and basement temperatures. We developed a freely available 1D thermal and rheological model for basement-sedimentary areas. This tool helps to understand variability of deep temperatures, as an effect of uncertainties in thermal and rheological properties and tectonic constraints for the lithosphere, important for assessing geothermal prospectivity. The tool is demonstrated on the Central System in Spain and the adjacent Tajo and Duero basins.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0197-5
       
  • Seasonal variation analysis of Greenland ice mass time-series
    • Authors: Roghayeh Shamshiri; Hossein Nahavandchi; Gholamreza Joodaki
      Abstract: Abstract We derive the mass balance of Greenland ice sheet from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for the period January 2003–October 2014. We have found an ice mass loss with peak amplitude of −15 cm/yr in the southeastern and northwestern parts, and an acceleration of −2.5 cm/yr2 in the southwestern region. Global warming is a well-known suspected triggering factor of ice melting. We use MODIS-derived Ice Surface Temperature (IST), and continuous and cross wavelet transforms have been determined to investigate the common power and relative phase between GRACE derived time-series of ice mass changes and IST time-series. Results indicate a high common power between the two time-series for the whole study period, but with different time patterns.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0198-4
       
  • Double-difference relocation of the 29 January 2011 ML 4.5 Oroszlány
           earthquake and its aftershocks and its relevance to the rheology of the
           lithosphere and geothermal prospectivity
    • Authors: Eszter Békési; Bálint Süle; László Lenkey; Ágnes Lenkey-Bőgér; István Bondár
      Abstract: Abstract In the central part of Hungary, an earthquake with the local magnitude of 4.5 occurred near the town of Oroszlány, on 29 January 2011. The main shock and its more than 200 aftershocks were recorded by a significant number of three-component seismic stations, which enabled us to perform multiple event location on the event cluster. We applied the double difference, HypoDD method to relocate the aftershock sequence in order to identify the pattern of active faulting. We used the extended International Seismological Centre location algorithm, iLoc to determine the initial single event locations for the aftershock sequence and applied multiple event location algorithm on the new hypocenters. To improve both location precision and accuracy, we added differential times from waveform cross correlation to the double-difference multiple event location process to increase the accuracy of arrival time readings. We show that both HypoDD collapses the initial, rather diffuse locations into a smaller cluster and the vertical cross-sections show sharp images of seismicity. Some of the relocated events in the cluster are ground truth quality with a location accuracy of 5 km or better. Having achieved accurate locations, we further examined the extent of the seismogenic zone. We investigated the relationship between geothermics and seismicity through strength profiles constructed for the study area. The aftershocks of the Oroszlány earthquake are dominantly in the range of 5–10 km, fitting well to the extent of the thin brittle part of the crust. It shows that the events are well in accordance with a thermally attenuated lithosphere and elevated geothermal gradient in the upper crust and basin sediments. These findings underline the geothermal prospectivity of the Panonian Basin.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0195-7
       
  • High-resolution quantitative reconstruction of Late Cretaceous-Tertiary
           erosion in the West Netherlands Basin using multi-formation compaction
           trends and seismic data: implications for geothermal exploration
    • Authors: Geza Worum; Jan-Diederik van Wees
      Abstract: Abstract A workflow is presented to determine the detailed, high-resolution pattern of erosion in maturely explored Sedimentary Basins by analysing the sonic log-based interval velocity patterns of nine stratigraphic intervals complemented by a geometrical approach involving the extrapolation of 3-D seismic reflectors. The jointly evaluated results of the two approaches not only provide important constraints on the inversion tectonics of a basin, but are also used to better constrain its maturity history and reservoir quality for geothermal energy. The developed workflow is demonstrated for the West Netherlands Basin. The pattern of erosion, which is consistent with observed subcrop maps, shows increasing amount of erosion towards the East and reflects the complex deformation of the basin, in which the reactivation of faults played a major role. Indirectly the results also indicate that continuous, syn-inversion sedimentation was taking place on the flanks of the basin during the Late Cretaceous, while its centre was characterised by non-deposition or slight erosion. For geothermal exploration the inferred variations of amount of erosion has implications for the spatial distribution of porosity which is an important parameter for the assessment of reservoir quality.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0196-6
       
  • The role of pargasitic amphibole in the formation of major geophysical
           discontinuities in the shallow upper mantle
    • Authors: István Kovács; László Lenkey; David. H. Green; Tamás Fancsik; György Falus; János Kiss; László Orosz; Jolán Angyal; Zsuzsanna Vikor
      Abstract: Abstract Several explanations have been proposed for variation in geophysical properties and depths for the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (LAB) and mid-lithospheric discontinuities (MLD). Here, we investigate the proposal that the dehydration solidus of pargasitic amphibole-bearing upper mantle with very low bulk water (hundreds ppm) may be one of the main reasons for the observed geophysical anomalies. The dehydration solidus may be associated with a very small degree of partial melting in the upper mantle at temperatures and pressures in excess of 1050 °C (for geochemically more depleted) or 1100 °C (for geochemically less depleted upper mantle) and from 1 to 3 GPa (~30 to 90 km) respectively. This small amount of partial melt may be responsible for changes in geophysical properties (e.g. lower seismic velocity, higher attenuation of seismic waves, higher electrical conductivity) in association with the LAB and MLD. This simple petrologic model is tested on the abundant geophysical data of the Carpathian–Pannonian region (CPR), central Europe. The high resolution heat flow data available in the CPR allows us to estimate the depths to intersection of area specific depth-temperature curves with the dehydration solidus temperatures (1050 and 1100 °C isotherms). There is relatively small mismatch (<5 km) between the position of these intersections and the geophysically determined LAB in the central area of the CPR. These observations lend support for the proposition that the dehydration solidus may be largely responsible for depth variation of the LAB in young continental rift areas. Towards the margins of the CPR, however, where the heat flow is lower (≲70 mW/m2), the predictive capability of the dehydration solidus model deteriorates. This is because, for lower geothermal gradients, pargasitic amphibole breaks down at ~90 km (or ~3 GPa) before temperature exceeds the dehydration solidus temperatures. Consequently, at ~90 km depth we expect no changes in geophysical properties indicative of hydrous silicate melt, in areas where surface heat flow is lower (i.e. Precambrian cratonic shields, Phanerozoic continental lithospheres or, possibly older oceanic plates). Alternatively, in these areas, the intersection of the geotherm with pargasitic amphibole breakdown may cause small changes in properties which correlate with the MLD rather than the LAB, which is at deeper levels.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0191-3
       
  • Regularized nonlinear inversion of magnetic anomalies of simple geometric
           models using Occam’s method: an application to the Morvarid iron-apatite
           deposit in Iran
    • Authors: Reza Ghanati; Hosseinali Ghari; Moslem Fatehi
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper we tackle the problem of inverting geophysical magnetic data due to simple shape anomalies caused by thin sheet, cylinder and fault models using Occam’s inversion scheme. A significant aspect of using Occam’s inversion is the choice of the regularization parameter controlling the trade-off between the data fidelity and regularization term in the cost function of optimization problem, and consequently, reliable estimation of subsurface models. Two criteria L-curve and weighted generalized cross validation are considered in order to choose an optimum value of the regularization parameter. The proposed strategy was first evaluated on three theoretical synthetic models for each of the magnetic simple-shaped structures with different random errors, where a considerable agreement was obtained between the exactly known and estimated models. The validity of the technique was also applied to one real data set from Morvarid iron-apatite deposit, in Northwest Iran. The resulting inverted parameters using the proposed algorithm correspond reasonably closely with the known geology and nearby borehole information.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0193-9
       
  • Lithospheric scale 3D thermal model of the Alpine–Pannonian
           transition zone
    • Authors: L. Lenkey; D. Raáb; G. Goetzl; A. Lapanje; A. Nádor; D. Rajver; Á. Rotár-Szalkai; J. Svasta; F. Zekiri
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper we present the results of 3D conductive thermal modeling of the Alpine–Pannonian transition zone. The study area comprises the Vienna, Danube, Styrian and Mura–Zala basins, surrounded by the Eastern Alps, the Western Carpathians and Transdanubian Range. The model consists of three layers: Tertiary sediments, the underlying crust and lithospheric mantle. The crust and mantle were homogenous with constant thermal properties. Heat production in the sediments and crust was 1 μW/m3. The thermal conductivity of sediments varied horizontally and vertically and based on laboratory measurements. We tested two scenarios: a steady-state and a time-dependent case. The conductive heat transport equation was solved by finite element method using Comsol Multiphysics. The results of the steady-state model fit to the observation in the northern part of the study area, but this model predicts lower heat flow density and temperatures than observed in the southern part of the study area including the Styrian basin. The area underwent lithospheric stretching during the Early-Middle Miocene time, therefore the temperature field in the lithosphere is not steady-state. We calculated the initial temperature distribution in the lithosphere at the end of rifting using non-homogeneous stretching factors, and we modeled the present day thermal field. The results of the time-dependent model fit to the observed heat flow density and temperatures, except in those areas where intensive groundwater flow occurs in the carbonatic basement of the Transdanubian Range and Northern Calcareous Alps, and the metamorphic basement high between the Mura trough and Styrian basin. We conclude that time-dependent model is able to predict the temperature field in the upper 6–8 km of the crust, and is a valuable tool in EGS exploration.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0194-8
       
  • Key results on deep electrical conductivity anomalies in the Pannonian
           Basin (PB), and their geodynamic aspects
    • Authors: A. Ádám; L. Szarka; A. Novák; V. Wesztergom
      Abstract: Abstract In the first part of the paper a brief introduction is given (a) to the magnetotelluric (MT) and magnetovariation (MV) soundings, (b) to electrical resistivity of minerals and rocks, and their dependence on temperature and fluid content. The basic geoelectric model in the Pannonian Basin is a (linear) tectonic zone (“dike”) and a series of dikes. In the second part the main crustal and mantle conductivity anomalies observed in the Pannonian Basin (PB) are summarized: (a) deep conductive crustal fractures and their relation to the occurrence of the earthquakes, boundary of the megablock(s) etc., (b) middle crustal conductors as indicators of decrease in stress and seismic activity depending on thermal regime, (c) the conductive asthenosphere and its lateral change in the PB in connection with the heat flow and tectonics. The general relation between the depth of the conductive asthenosphere and the regional heat flow is also presented, (d) MT anisotropy of the resistivity distribution in the PB and its tectonic explanation based on Haas’s tectonic map (2001, Fig. 1). All these observations and conclusions are considered as results for further investigations.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0192-2
       
 
 
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