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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica
  [SJR: 0.294]   [H-I: 13]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2213-5812 - ISSN (Online) 2213-5820
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Improvement of seismic structural interpretation of Zagros fold-thrust
           belt by dip scanning in common diffraction surface imaging method
    • Authors: Mehrdad Soleimani; Behshad Jodeiri Shokri; Mehrnoush Rafiei
      Pages: 283 - 299
      Abstract: Abstract Geological interpretation and seismic imaging on data acquired from complex media, especially when accompanied by a thick layer of salt and/or anhydrate, is always a controversial task. The aim of this study is to introduce a method for seismic imaging of complex structures and study the folding scenario of the Zagros overthrust in SW Iran based on the improved seismic image processed by the proposed method. A diffraction based version of the common reflection surface stack method, called the common diffraction surface (CDS), was selected to enhance quality of seismic image from the Zagros fold-thrust belt. The 2D CDS method was also developed here to 3D partial CDS. Consequently, three sets of 2D and a set of 3D seismic data were processed with the conventional Kirchhoff prestack time migration and the partial common diffraction surface methods. Geological models released in previous studies of the Zagros overthrust were used as the base model of interpretation. Structural interpretation on seismic sections with new method was in accordance with previous geological models and improved in some parts where the new method could enhance quality of the seismic image. Seismic structural interpretation shows the inner part of the belt was subjected to folding, uplift and erosion. This mechanism constituted a resistant mass in the Dezful Embayment in front of the SW moving thrust and folds. This resistant mass formed tightly folded or thrusted and highly shortened structures in the Izeh zone and High Zagros area. In the oil rich zone of the Dezful Embayment, the thick evaporate—rich Gachsaran Formation, decouples the folding above it from the folding below, making seismic imaging of potential traps beneath the detachment horizons extremely difficult.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0182-4
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 3 (2017)
  • A noise analysis method for GNSS signals of a standalone receiver
    • Authors: Zhetao Zhang; Bofeng Li; Yunzhong Shen; Ling Yang
      Pages: 301 - 316
      Abstract: Abstract Extensive studies on signal noise analysis of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers are mainly based on zero and/or short baselines where a pair of receivers is required. This paper develops a new signal noise assessment method for a standalone GNSS receiver. In this new method, the time differenced geometry-free ( \( \Delta \) GF) model is formed, where the residual ionospheric delay and multipath remain. In order to eliminate these systematic trend biases, the second-order polynomial fitting is used. Then the mixed autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model is further applied to capture this stationary and time-correlated time series. As a result, the pure random noise of \( \Delta \) GF is obtained, which is finally used to assess the precision of receiver signal in terms of the error propagation law. The performance of this new method is numerically tested by using 10 sets of data and compared with the methods of zero and short baselines. The results indicate that the new method is able to assess both the phase and code precision of a standalone receiver, and the conclusions are consistent to those from the methods of zero and short baselines. Since again the new method needs only one receiver, it could be implemented in more applications than the traditional methods, especially in precise point positioning.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0189-x
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 3 (2017)
  • Total horizontal derivatives of potential field three-dimensional
           structure tensor and their application to detect source edges
    • Authors: Shuai Zhou; Danian Huang; Jian Jiao
      Pages: 317 - 329
      Abstract: Abstract Edge detection of the geological structures horizontal position is the vital task of the potential field interpretation, and some traditional edge detectors have poor ability in delineating edges clearly and accurately. Some people made efforts to purpose new methods which can balance the weak and strong anomalies simultaneously. In this paper, we purposed new edge detection methods based on directional total horizontal derivatives of three-dimensional structure tensor for the causative sources. In order to balance weak and strong amplitude anomalies simultaneously, we used the vertical derivatives of potential field to normalize the new defined filters. For the complex geological situation with positive and negative gravity or magnetic anomalies, we introduced a new strategy to reduce the false edges. The presented filters were tested on synthetic and real potential field data to verify its feasibility. All of the results have shown the new edge detection methods can not only display the sources edges precisely and clearly, but also bring out more geological subtle details.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0171-7
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 3 (2017)
  • Numerical evolution of the asymmetry in the compositionally inhomogeneous
           lower mantle driven by Earth’s rotation
    • Authors: Tamás Bozóki; Mátyás Herein; Attila Galsa
      Pages: 331 - 343
      Abstract: Abstract Numerical model calculations have been carried out to study the effect of the centrifugal force on the compositionally dense material accumulated in the lowermost mantle. The deformation of an initial dense layer encircling the core was investigated systematically as a function of the density difference between the lower dense and the overlaying mantle, β and the angular velocity of the planet, Ω in a two-dimensional cylindrical shell domain. It was established that increasing β does not influence the magnitude of the deformation of the dense layer but decreases the velocity of the deformation. The relaxation time of the deformation is inversely proportional to β similarly to post-glacial rebound. On the other hand, increasing Ω enhances the magnitude of the deformation but does not affect the deformation relaxation time. The magnitude of the deformation is approximately proportional to Ω2. It was pointed out that for the present-day mantle parameters, β = 2–4 % and Ω = 7.3 × 10−5 1/s the equatorial elevation of the dense layer is about 2 km which more than two orders of magnitude less than the height of the seismically observed large low shear velocity provinces beneath Africa and Pacific. During the Earth’s history when the rotation of our planet was faster the influence of the centrifugal force was much more significant and the equatorial elevation of the dense layer might have reached even 100 km.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0172-6
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 3 (2017)
  • Network based performance of GPS-only and combined GPS/GLONASS positioning
           under different sky view conditions
    • Authors: Salih Alcay; Cemal Ozer Yigit
      Pages: 345 - 356
      Abstract: Abstract This paper offers a comprehensive assessment of network-based positioning results using GPS-only and combined GPS/GLONASS data under open to limited sky view conditions. Data analysis is performed in a short (4 h) and a long (24 h) term spanning observations from five GNSS stations using 10°, 20°, 30° and 40° elevation cut-off angles, which simulate the availability of satellites in different sky view conditions. Evaluation of the results reveals insignificant differences between the accuracy of the GPS-only and combined GPS/GLONASS solutions for daily observation in all sky view conditions. However the clear advantage of integrating GPS and GLONASS observation in a GNSS differential solution is apparent for short (4 h) observation periods, particularly at the highest elevation cut-off angle (40°).
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0173-5
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 3 (2017)
  • Orthometric height connection across sea with ship-borne gravimetry and
           GNSS measurement along the ship route
    • Authors: Jianbo Wang; Jinyun Guo; Xin Liu; Qiaoli Kong; Yi Shen; Yu Sun
      Pages: 357 - 373
      Abstract: Abstract A new method is proposed to connect the orthometric height datum of island far from mainland with measurements of both ship-borne gravimetry and GNSS along the ship route connecting these datums. The methodology of route height datum connection is based on the astronomical leveling principle. The effect of the deflection of the vertical (DOV) error and the ellipsoidal height difference error are major factors on the precision of the orthometric height connection. To improve the computational accuracy of DOVs along the ship route, the collinear adjustment is used to improve the accuracy of the gravity measurements and GNSS ellipsoidal heights. The remove-restore technique in conjunction with the measured DOVs on the mainland and island is used to improve the estimation accuracy of the DOVs along the ship route. The least squares collocation method is used to estimate the residual DOVs. The covariance of gravity anomalies and cross-covariance function between gravity anomalies and DOVs are derived from the disturbing potential spherical harmonic expansion. The optimal partition number is also studied for the high precision orthometric height connection across sea. Finally, we use the proposed method to connect the orthometric height datum point on Qingdao coast in Shandong Province of China with the datum point on Caoyu coast in Fujian Province of China.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0174-4
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 3 (2017)
  • A modified un-combined model to improve the performance of precise point
           positioning: model and test results
    • Authors: Xingwang Zhao; Chao Liu; Jian Deng; Cuiying Zhang; Xuexiang Yu
      Pages: 375 - 388
      Abstract: Abstract Precise point positioning (PPP) can achieve high-accuracy point solution using un-differenced code and carrier phase observations. Many PPP models have a higher measurement noise and multipath effects, resulting in a long time to obtain sub-decimeter to centimeter positioning accuracy during a short duration. This paper will address a modified un-combined (MUC) model based on phase–phase geometry-free combination in addition to code–phase ionosphere-free combination and original carrier phase observations. The observation system composed by the new combinations has a lower measurement noise and orbit error level compared with the un-combined (UC) model, University of Calgary (UofC) model and standard un-differenced ionosphere-free combined (UD) model. Moreover, it can capture the changing characteristics of atmospheric delays between epochs as constraints to accelerate the filter convergence. We use the data sets from about 114 international GNSS service reference stations to analyze the performance of the MUC model. Numerical results show that the MUC model generally yields the best performance when the observation duration is short. For the 0.5 h duration observation data sets, about 70.2 % of all 6912 convergence tests are convergent, which is an increase by 19.2, 2.8 and 49.3 % points compared with the UC, UofC and UD models, respectively. For the common convergence parts of all the test data sets, the mean convergence time of the MUC model is significantly reduced by 22.9, 9.6 and 35.3 %, and the percentage of the 2D position biases within 0–5 cm is increased by 16.0, 3.4 and 55.0 %, respectively, compared with the UC, UofC and UD models. Therefore, the proposed PPP model is more beneficial for the PPP user to quickly obtain sub-decimeter to centimeter positioning accuracy during a short duration.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0175-3
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 3 (2017)
  • L 1 norm minimization in partial errors-in-variables model
    • Authors: Jun Zhao; Qingming Gui; Feixiao Guo
      Pages: 389 - 406
      Abstract: Abstract The weighted total least-squares (WTLS) estimate is sensitive to outliers and will be strongly disturbed if there are outliers in the observations and coefficient matrix of the partial errors-in-variables (EIV) model. The L 1 norm minimization method is a robust technique to resist the bad effect of outliers. Therefore, the computational formula of the L 1 norm minimization for the partial EIV model is developed by employing the linear programming theory. However, the closed-form solution cannot be directly obtained since there are some unknown parameters in constrained condition equation of the presented optimization problem. The iterated procedure is recommended and the proper condition for stopping iteration is suggested. At the same time, by treating the partial EIV model as the special case of the non-linear Gauss–Helmert (G–H) model, another iterated method for the L 1 norm minimization problem is also developed. At last, two simulated examples and a real data of 2D affine transformation are conducted. It is illustrated that the results derived by the proposed L 1 norm minimization methods are more accurate than those by the WTLS method while the observations and elements of the coefficient matrix are contaminated with outliers. And the two methods for the L 1 norm minimization problem are identical in the sense of robustness. By comparing with the data-snooping method, the L 1 norm minimization method may be more reliable for detecting multiple outliers due to masking. But it leads to great computation burden.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0178-0
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 3 (2017)
  • An analysis of crustal magnetic anomaly and Curie surface in west
           Himalayan syntaxis and adjacent area
    • Authors: Guoming Gao; Guofa Kang; Guangquan Li; Chunhua Bai; Yingyan Wu
      Pages: 407 - 420
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the magnetic model NGDC-720-V3 is used to investigate the distribution of crustal magnetic anomaly and the depth of Curie surface in west Himalayan syntaxis and its adjacent area. The Curie surface is compared with regional heat flow, the Moho, and seismicity. The results show that the magnetic anomaly and Curie surface are both consistent with the regional tectonic setting. Tarim craton, Tadjik Basin, and Indian Plate have positive magnetic anomaly and a Curie surface deeper than 36 km, corresponding to low heat flow there. In contrast, orogenic belts such as west Himalayan syntaxis, Tianshan Mountain, Afghanistan, and Tibetan Plateau have negative anomaly and a Curie surface shallower than 32 km, corresponding to high heat flow. The north of the syntaxis presents a positive anomaly on the surface, resulting from Ferghana Basin, while the negative anomaly in large depth is probably associated with the subduction of the slab and the resulting heat. The depth of the Curie surface has an inverse relationship to the Moho depth, which is attributed to temperature and isostatic balance. The distribution of earthquakes with epicenter deeper than 100 km clearly suggests the subduction of the Indian plate deep down to the asthenosphere and the deep earthquakes were caused by shear motion within the subducting slab.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0179-z
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 3 (2017)
  • Geometric features of LOS data derived by SAR PSI technologies and the
           three-dimensional data fusion
    • Authors: László Bányai; Eszter Szűcs; Viktor Wesztergom
      Pages: 421 - 436
      Abstract: Abstract At present, the satellite SAR persistent scatterer interferometry can already estimate surface changes with a near to 1 mm theoretical precision limit. However, the ascending and descending acquisitions of available SAR services cannot provide three-dimensional changes routinely, though the slow deformation processes are basically three-dimensional (3D). In this paper the geometric features of ascending and descending SAR data and possible fusion with geodetic data are summarised. All the geometric equations are introduced, which are necessary to derive the two characteristic changes in the observation plain defined by ascending and descending unit vectors pointing to SAR satellite positions. The unambiguously derivable characteristic changes can be transformed into vertical and east changes, but they may be biased by possible north displacement. The geometric features of symmetric and asymmetric acquisitions are also investigated. Monte-Carlo simulation is used to investigate the precision of two estimated components. It is experienced that the precisions are not sensitive to one degree standard deviations of positional angles. The Gauss–Markov model of least square adjustment method is used to derive only the statistical properties of reasonable data fusion which can contribute to the 3D applications. Although complementary satellites, which are already proposed in the literature, could provide precise autonomous solutions, in the practise GNSS and levelling data can be used for direct data fusion. Whereas, even errorless levelled high changes cannot contribute to the proper estimation of northern components, GNSS derived changes are the best candidates, which can be interpolated or measured directly. Moreover, these two techniques can properly compensate the weaknesses of each other. The interferometric SAR techniques are not sensitive enough to the north changes, but can contribute to the precision of height estimation, which are the weakest components of the GNSS technique. This statement is valid if the standard deviations of combined data are comparable. For test computations the geometric parameters of available Sentinel-1A images are used, which cover the area of the Széchenyi István Geophysical Observatory, where experimental integrated geodetic benchmark is located combining ascending and descending backscatterers with the possibility of the GNSS, gravimetric and traditional geodetic measurements, as well.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0183-3
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 3 (2017)
  • Erratum to: An application of AVO derived attributes to analyze seismic
           anomalies of gas hydrate bearing sediments in Makran offshore, Pakistan
    • Authors: Muhammad Irfan Ehsan; Nisar Ahmed; Zia Ud Din; Perveiz Khalid; Liu Xue Wei
      Pages: 437 - 437
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-016-0180-6
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 3 (2017)
  • Application of the PCA/EOF method for the analysis and modelling of
           temporal variations of geoid heights over Poland
    • Authors: Walyeldeen Godah; Malgorzata Szelachowska; Jan Krynski
      Abstract: Abstract Temporal variations of geoid heights are vitally important in geodesy and Earth science. They are essentially needed for dynamic and kinematic updates of the static geoid model. These temporal variations, which substantially differ for different geographic locations, can successfully be determined using the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission data. So far, statistical decomposition methods, e.g. the Principal Component Analysis/Empirical Orthogonal Function (PCA/EOF) method, have not been implemented for the analysis and modelling of temporal mass variations within the Earth’s system over the area of Poland. The aim of this contribution is to analyse and model temporal variations of geoid heights obtained from GRACE mission data over the area of Poland using the PCA/EOF method. Temporal variations of geoid heights were obtained from the latest release, i.e. release five, of monthly GRACE-based Global Geopotential Models. They can reach the level of 10 mm. The PCA modes and their corresponding EOF loading patterns were estimated using two different algorithms. The results obtained revealed that significant part of the signal of temporal variations of geoid heights over Poland can be obtained from the first three PCA modes and EOF loading patterns. They demonstrate the suitability of the PCA/EOF method for analysing and modelling temporal variations of geoid heights over the area investigated.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0206-8
  • The 2D time-dependent similarity transformation model as a tool for
           deformation monitoring
    • Authors: Dimitrios Ampatzidis; Christian Gruber; Vasileios Kampouris
      Abstract: Abstract Besides the methodology of triangulation and geodetic networks nowadays, the permanent stations of satellite receivers exist, giving extra asset to geodetic daily practice. Permanent stations perform observations incessantly for the visible satellites. However, the coordinates of these stations are often changing over time due to geophysical and tectonic processes. Consequently, these changes are perceived to modern observations. So, along with the coordinates of geodetic points in a given epoch, their changes over time (e.g. the velocities of their movements) are also considered. Furthermore, any change to the reference system definition or/and to the network’s geometry can significantly impact the estimated coordinates and velocities. This paper investigates the reference datum definition problem (or datum problem, or zero order design problem) in a such network over time, which is later generalized for the study of the deformation control-networks. Emphasis is given to techniques of time-dependent 2D transformation models, with numerical tests on a simulation network.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0205-9
  • Preliminary results of GOCE-based height system unification between Greece
           and Turkey over marine and land areas
    • Authors: Georgios S. Vergos; Bihter Erol; Dimitrios A. Natsiopoulos; Vassilios N. Grigoriadis; Mustafa Serkan Işık; Ilias N. Tziavos
      Abstract: Abstract The unification of local vertical datums (LVDs) at a country-wide scale has gained significant attention lately due to the availability of GOCE-based global geopotential models (GGMs) and the unprecedented geoid height accuracies offered. Within a single country, several LVDs may be used, especially in the case of islandic nations. Therefore, the unification of all of them to a single nation-wide LVD is of utmost importance. The same holds for neighboring countries, where the unification of their vertical datums is necessary as a tool of engineering, cross-border collaboration and environmental and risk management projects. The aforementioned set the main scope of the present study, which focuses on the use of GOCE and GOCE/GRACE GGMs in order to investigate the offsets between the Greek and Turkish LVDs. First an evaluation of the latest release 5 GOCE GGMs is carried out, either to their maximum degree or through spectral enhancement with EGM208 and topographic effects. Then, the geopotential value for the Greek and Turkish LVDs is performed, along with different estimates for the marine area of the Aegean Sea where several islands and isles exist with each one realizing its own LVD. The relative offset between the two LVDs was determined and used to provide a direct link between the Greek and Turkish LVDs with the IAG conventional value recently proposed as a global WHS. From the results achieved it was concluded that the spectrally enhanced GOCE GGMs reduce the standard deviation of the differences with GPS/levelling data by 2–4 cm over Turkey and 2 cm for mainland Greece. In terms of the zero-level geopotential determination, the LVD of the Greek mainland is 64.9 cm below the IAG conventional value, while that of Turkey is 9.6 cm above. Finally, it is concluded that in practice each Greek island realizes its own LVD with offsets between them as large as 35 cm. Despite that fact, the spectrally enhanced GOCE GGMs and in particular GOCO05s provides the overall smallest height residuals over the islands, hence the \( \widehat{W}_{o}^{LVD} \) based on that can be recommended as the best estimate. In that way, relative offsets with the LVD of mainland Greece can be computed for each island, ranging between −23.8 and 15.5 cm.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0204-x
  • An improved torque type gravity gradiometer with dynamic modulation
    • Authors: Jie Luo; Jia-Hao Xu; Qi Liu; Cheng-Gang Shao; Lin Zhu; Hui-Hui Zhao; Wei-Huang Wu
      Abstract: Abstract Traditional torque type gravity gradiometer has an important pole in gravity gradient measurements, while it is relatively inefficient and with the precision of about 1 E mainly caused by the static operating mode. In this paper, we develop an improved torque type gravity gradiometer to improve the measuring efficiency, which is based on the dynamic modulation. The dynamic modulation keeps the gradiometer rotating on a turntable steadily, measures the deflection angle of the torsion pendulum continuously and then obtains the gravity gradients. The result shows that after using the improved gradiometer, the gradients W xz and W yz are obtained with precisions of 0.45 E and 0.32 E respectively in a cycle of 20 min.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0202-z
  • Remote reference magnetotelluric processing algorithm based on magnetic
           field correlation
    • Authors: Zhang Gang; Tuo Xianguo; Wang Xuben; Gao Song; Li Huailiang; Yu Nian; Liu Yong; Shen Tong
      Abstract: Abstract Valid interpretations require precise and accurate determination of magnetotelluric impedance. Although remote reference magnetotellurics has been extensively investigated, majority of these studies have focused on the non-correlation between noise and signal or between the noise in the base station and that in the reference station. Few works have explored the correlation between magnetic signals in the base station and in the reference station. This study analyzes the effects of remote reference magnetotellurics on the sounding curve under different noise intensities in the base station. Results showed that regular remote reference magnetotellurics induce a limited quality-improving effect on the sounding curve and fail to satisfy the further data processing requirements at a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), suggesting that regular remote reference magnetotelluric methods cannot obtain an accurate transfer function under a low SNR for a time series. Comparison of various magnetic field data revealed that a strong correlation exists among magnetic signals 60 km apart at the Longmenshan area. Thus, the remote reference magnetotelluric method based on the magnetic field correlation between the base and reference stations is proposed to screen the power spectrum and undo the noise. The effectiveness and correctness of the proposed method are validated by the results of the theoretical and field data processing and of the intermediate data analysis, further proving that the remote reference magnetotelluric method based on magnetic field correlation is superior to the regular remote reference magnetotelluric method.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0203-y
  • A solution to dynamic errors-in-variables within system equations
    • Authors: Vahid Mahboub; Mohammad Saadatseresht; Alireza A. Ardalan
      Abstract: Abstract We noticed that if INS data is used as system equations of a Kalman filter algorithm for integrated direct geo-referencing, one encounters with a dynamic errors-in-variables (DEIV) model. Although DEIV model has been already considered for observation equations of the Kalman filter algorithm and a solution namely total Kalman filter (TKF) has been given to it, this model has not been considered for system equations (dynamic model) of the Kalman filter algorithm. Thus, in this contribution, for the first time we consider DEIV model for both observation equations and system equations of the Kalman filter algorithm and propose a least square prediction namely integrated total Kalman filter in contrast to the TKF solution of the previous approach. The variance matrix of the unknown parameters are obtained. Moreover, the residuals for all variables are predicted. In a numerical example, integrated direct geo-referencing problem is solved for a GPS–INS system.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0201-0
  • Thermo-mechanical controls on geothermal energy resources: case studies in
           the Pannonian Basin and other natural laboratories
    • Authors: Sierd Cloetingh; Jan-Diederik Van Wees; Viktor Wesztergom
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0200-1
  • A public domain model for 1D temperature and rheology construction in
           basement-sedimentary geothermal exploration: an application to the Spanish
           Central System and adjacent basins
    • Authors: J. Limberger; D. Bonte; G. de Vicente; F. Beekman; S. Cloetingh; J. D. van Wees
      Abstract: Abstract Brittle basement and sedimentary rocks, in particular if these are underlain by radiogenic crust, are considered a prime target for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). They are marked by high geothermal gradients, caused by radiogenic heat production, and are well suited to be used for geothermal doublets after hydraulic stimulation. Critical conditions for successful EGS projects are: (a) tectonic stresses close to failure, allowing creation of induced fractures by means of hydraulic stimulation; (b) sufficient high temperatures >150 °C, preferably in excess of 200 °C, at depths of less than 5 km; (c) sufficient high water flow rates, to be sustained through induced fractures. For geothermal production, knowledge on thermo-mechanical properties of the lithosphere provides critical constraints on crustal stresses and basement temperatures. We developed a freely available 1D thermal and rheological model for basement-sedimentary areas. This tool helps to understand variability of deep temperatures, as an effect of uncertainties in thermal and rheological properties and tectonic constraints for the lithosphere, important for assessing geothermal prospectivity. The tool is demonstrated on the Central System in Spain and the adjacent Tajo and Duero basins.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0197-5
  • Double-difference relocation of the 29 January 2011 ML 4.5 Oroszlány
           earthquake and its aftershocks and its relevance to the rheology of the
           lithosphere and geothermal prospectivity
    • Authors: Eszter Békési; Bálint Süle; László Lenkey; Ágnes Lenkey-Bőgér; István Bondár
      Abstract: Abstract In the central part of Hungary, an earthquake with the local magnitude of 4.5 occurred near the town of Oroszlány, on 29 January 2011. The main shock and its more than 200 aftershocks were recorded by a significant number of three-component seismic stations, which enabled us to perform multiple event location on the event cluster. We applied the double difference, HypoDD method to relocate the aftershock sequence in order to identify the pattern of active faulting. We used the extended International Seismological Centre location algorithm, iLoc to determine the initial single event locations for the aftershock sequence and applied multiple event location algorithm on the new hypocenters. To improve both location precision and accuracy, we added differential times from waveform cross correlation to the double-difference multiple event location process to increase the accuracy of arrival time readings. We show that both HypoDD collapses the initial, rather diffuse locations into a smaller cluster and the vertical cross-sections show sharp images of seismicity. Some of the relocated events in the cluster are ground truth quality with a location accuracy of 5 km or better. Having achieved accurate locations, we further examined the extent of the seismogenic zone. We investigated the relationship between geothermics and seismicity through strength profiles constructed for the study area. The aftershocks of the Oroszlány earthquake are dominantly in the range of 5–10 km, fitting well to the extent of the thin brittle part of the crust. It shows that the events are well in accordance with a thermally attenuated lithosphere and elevated geothermal gradient in the upper crust and basin sediments. These findings underline the geothermal prospectivity of the Panonian Basin.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40328-017-0195-7
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