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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.641, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.576
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1006-7191 - ISSN (Online) 2194-1289
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Crevice Corrosion Performance of 436 Ferritic Stainless Steel Studied by
           Different Electrochemical Techniques in Sodium Chloride Solutions with
           Sulfate Addition
    • Authors: Jia-Ming Wang; Sheng-Sheng Qian; Yuan-Yuan Liu; Yang-Ting Sun; Yi-Ming Jiang; Jin Li
      Pages: 815 - 822
      Abstract: The crevice corrosion behaviors of 436 stainless steels in chloride-containing solutions with sulfate addition were studied using potentiodynamic, galvanostatic and repassivation potential measurements. The results of these electrochemical tests were compared and discussed. Galvanostatic test was proved to be the most powerful technique in detecting the crevice corrosion of 436 stainless steels, while the repassivation potential measurement was the most time-saving method in this study. Sulfate ions have inhibited the crevice corrosion of 436 stainless steels in chloride-containing solution, which may result from the effects of competitive adsorption and the IR drop mechanism.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0720-x
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2018)
  • Phase Transformation and Carbide Precipitation of Functional Gradient
           Semi-solid 9Cr18 Steel
    • Authors: Yong-Jin Wang; Ren-Bo Song; Ren-Feng Song
      Pages: 823 - 830
      Abstract: The unique phase transformation and carbide evolution in 9Cr18 steel were investigated during semi-solid forming and subsequent heat treatment. The functional gradient thixoforging 9Cr18 component was divided into inner area and edge area. Microstructure evolution was different at each area. After semi-solid cooling, the solid particles in the inner area were retained as meta-austenite. During annealing, M23C6 carbide began to precipitate when temperature reached 700 °C. Martensite transformation occurred when temperature reached 800 °C. The occurrence of M23C6 carbide and martensite structure would be harmful to the mechanical properties of inner area. In the edge area, the liquid underwent eutectic transformation to form bar-shape M7C3 carbide and secondary austenite after semi-solid cooling. The width of bar-shape carbide would decrease during annealing. By controlling the carbide evolution, we could tailor the functional gradient material with required property.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0723-7
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2018)
  • Gradient Elastic–Plastic Properties of Expanded Austenite Layer in
           316L Stainless Steel
    • Authors: Yong Jiang; Yang Li; Yun-Fei Jia; Xian-Cheng Zhang; Jian-Ming Gong
      Pages: 831 - 841
      Abstract: The gradient mechanical properties, variation of stress with strain and surface cracking behavior of expanded austenite developed on 316L austenitic stainless steel were investigated by nanoindentation tests, X-ray residual stress analysis and scanning electron microscope observation in four-point bending tests. The results show that the plastic properties of the carburizing layer including true initial yield strengths and strain hardening exponents increase significantly from substrate to surface, while the true elastic modulus just improves slightly. Due to the onset of plastic flow, the residual stresses are almost equivalent to the true initial yield strengths from surface to the depth of ~ 10 μm. The results of four-point bending tests show that surface stress increases linearly with the increase in strain until the strain reaches ~ 1.0%, after that the plastic yield happens. The expanded austenite surface layer is brittle, and the cracks will be created at the strain of ~ 1.4%. The cracking stress is about ~ 2.4 GPa.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0710-z
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2018)
  • Solidification of Pb–Al Alloys Under the Influence of Electric
           Current Pulses
    • Authors: Tauseef Ahmed; Hong-Xiang Jiang; Wang Li; Jiu-Zhou Zhao
      Pages: 842 - 852
      Abstract: Continuous solidification experiments are carried out with Pb–Al alloys under the influence of the electric current pulses (ECPs). The results demonstrate that the ECPs mainly affect the microstructure formation through changing the energy barrier for the nucleation of the minority phase droplets (MPDs) and minority phase particles (MPPs) during cooling Pb–Al alloys in the liquid–liquid and liquid–solid phase transformation temperature ranges in advance of the solidification of the matrix liquid. For Pb–Al alloys with Al-rich droplets/particles as the minority phase, the ECPs lower the energy barriers for the nucleation of the MPDs/MPPs and cause a significant increase in the nucleation rate of the MPDs/MPPs and, thus, promote the formation of Pb–Al alloys with a well-dispersed or even nanoparticles dispersed microstructure. The ECPs parameters show an important influence on the microstructure formation of Pb–Al alloys. The refinement extent of the MPDs/MPPs increases with the increase in the peak current density. For a given peak current density, the refinement extent of the MPDs/MPPs increases with the increases in the pulse frequency and pulse width first, and then level off and become asymptotic.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0685-1
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2018)
  • Effects of Welding Speed and Post-weld Hot Rolling on Microstructure and
           Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir-Welded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy
    • Authors: Gang Liu; Li-Na Ma; Zhen-Duo Ma; Xue-Song Fu; Guo-Bing Wei; Yan Yang; Tian-Cai Xu; Wei-Dong Xie; Xiao-Dong Peng
      Pages: 853 - 864
      Abstract: The as-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy sheets are welded by friction stir welding (FSW) in this study, followed by annealing and hot rolling with different reductions. The effects of welding speed and the rolling reduction on the microstructure, tensile properties, microhardness and fracture surfaces of the specimens are investigated. The results show that the microstructures of the FSW joint in different regions become more and more consistent as the hot rolling reduction increases. The mechanical properties of the FSW joints and the joint coefficient are improved with increasing rolling reduction; however, the hardness value in the stirred zone decreases firstly and then increases. When the rolling reduction is 50%, the tensile strength of FSW joint is close to that of base metal. The sample L3 achieves the best comprehensive properties, with the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation of 162, 287.9 MPa, and 17.9%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0725-5
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2018)
  • Effect of Solution Treatment on Microstructure and Corrosion Properties of
           Mg–4Gd–1Y–1Zn–0.5Ca–1Zr Alloy
    • Authors: Jian-Wei Dai; Xiao-Bo Zhang; Yang Fei; Zhang-Zhong Wang; Huai-Ming Sui
      Pages: 865 - 872
      Abstract: The as-cast multi-element Mg–4Gd–1Y–1Zn–0.5Ca–1Zr alloy with low rare earth additions was prepared, and the solution treatment was applied at different temperatures. The microstructural evolution of the alloy was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and corrosion properties of the alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution were evaluated by immersion and electrochemical tests. The results indicate that the as-cast alloy is composed of the α-Mg matrix, lamellar long-period stacking-ordered (LPSO) structure and eutectic phase. The LPSO structure exists with more volume fraction in the alloy solution-treated at 440 °C, but disappears with the increase in the solution temperature. For all the solution-treated alloys, the precipitated phases are detected. The corrosion rates of the alloys decrease first and then increase slightly with the increase in the solution temperature, and the corrosion resistance of the solution-treated alloys is more than four times as good as that of the as-cast alloy. In addition, the alloy solution-treated at 480 °C for 6 h shows the best corrosion property.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0709-5
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2018)
  • Ultrafine-Grained Microstructure and Improved Mechanical Behaviors of
           Friction Stir Welded Cu and Cu–30Zn Joints
    • Authors: Yan-Fei Wang; Jian An; Kun Yin; Ming-Sai Wang; Yu-Sheng Li; Chong-Xiang Huang
      Pages: 878 - 886
      Abstract: Ultra-strong joints of pure Cu and Cu–30Zn alloy were obtained by friction stir welding under flowing water. The effects of heat inputting condition and material characteristics on the morphologies, microstructures and mechanical properties of welding joints were studied. Defect-free stirring zones of pure Cu and Cu–30Zn were characterized by onion-ringed structure and plastic flowing bands, respectively. Both low stacking fault energy and fast cooling condition contributed to the formation of small recrystallized grains less than 1 μm in stirring zones. The welding joints in both materials exhibited enhanced mechanical performances due to ultrafine-grained microstructure in stirring zones and disappearance of soft heat-affected-zone. The technique of digital image correlation was used to study the tensile deformation behaviors of welding joints and verify the improved tensile properties.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0719-3
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2018)
  • Microstructure and Stress-Rupture Property of Large-Scale Complex
           Nickel-Based Single Crystal Casting
    • Authors: Min Huang; Gong Zhang; Dong Wang; Jia-Sheng Dong; Li Wang; Lang-Hong Lou
      Pages: 887 - 896
      Abstract: The microstructure and stress-rupture property of the large-scale complex single crystal (SX) casting DD10 were investigated in high-rate solidification process. It is found that the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) does not increase monotonically with the height increase. When across the platform, the temperature gradient increases due to the effect of platform, and the corresponding PDAS decreases. The distribution of eutectic volume fraction in large-scale complex SX casting is affected by PDAS, solid back diffusion, and the development of high order dendrites. The eutectic volume fraction contained in the sample taken below the platform decreases with the height increase. While the eutectic volume fraction contained in the sample taken upper the platform increases gradually with the height increase. After heat treatment, most of the γ/γ′ eutectics are eliminated and the components are distributed uniformly. The similar stress rupture properties of the samples at different heights in the same direction are obtained.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0716-6
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2018)
  • Comments on “Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Zn-Doped
           CdO Thin Films Fabricated by a Simplified Spray Pyrolysis Technique” by
           K. Usharani and A.R. Balu Published in Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.)
           28(1), 64–71 (2015)
    • PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Dynamic Recrystallization and Texture Evolution of GW94 Mg Alloy During
           Multi- and Unidirectional Impact Forging
    • Abstract: Multi- and unidirectional impact forgings were successfully applied to a (GW94) Mg–RE alloy. The microstructure and texture evolution were investigated systematically. The obtained results indicated that during unidirectional impact forging, a bimodal chain deform microstructure was sustained till last forging pass, whereas {10–12} extension twins-assisted continuous dynamic recrystallization took place during the multidirectional impact forging (MDIF). The coalescence and intersection of {10–12} extension twins during MDIF efficiently refined the original coarse grains and led to an almost recrystallized homogeneous microstructure. The texture analysis demonstrated that unidirectional impact forging yielded out the strong basal texture; however, MDIF resulted in non-basal texture, which was attributed to the cooperative effects of continuous DRX, twinning, and MDIF itself during the deformation process.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Hot Deformation Behavior and Microstructural Characteristics of
           Ti–46Al–8Nb Alloy
    • Abstract: Hot deformation behavior, microstructural evolution and flow softening mechanism were investigated in Ti–46Al–8Nb alloy via isothermal compression approach. The true stress–strain curves exhibited typical work hardening and flow softening, in which the dependence of the peak stress on temperature and strain rate was obtained by hyperbolic sine equation with Zener–Hollomon (Z) parameter, and the activation energy was calculated to be 446.9 kJ/mol. The microstructural analysis shows that the alternate dark and light deformed ribbons of Al-rich and Nb-rich regions appeared and were associated with local flow involving solute segregation. The Al segregation promoted flow softening mainly arising from the recrystallization of γ phase with low stacking fault energy. The coarse recrystallized γ and several massive γ phase were observed at grain boundaries. While in the case of Nb segregation, β/B2 phase harmonized bending of lamellae, combined with the growth of recrystallized γ grains and α + β + γ → α + γ transition under conditions of temperature and stress, leading to the breakdown of α2/γ lamellar colony. During the hot compression process, gliding and dissociation of dislocations occurred in γ phase that acted as the main softening mechanism, leading to extensive γ twins and cross twins in α/γ lamellae and at grain boundaries. In general, homogeneous microstructure during the hot deformation process can be obtained in TiAl alloy with high Nb addition and low Al segregation. The deformation substructures intrinsically promote the formability of Ti–46Al–8Nb alloy.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Precipitation Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Ferritic
           Ti–V–Mo Complex Microalloyed Steel
    • Abstract: Precipitation behavior of (Ti, V, Mo)C and microstructural evolution of the ferritic Ti–V–Mo complex microalloyed steel were investigated through changing coiling temperature (CT). It is demonstrated that the strength of the Ti–V–Mo microalloyed steel can be ascribed to the combination of grain refinement hardening and precipitation hardening. The variation of hardness (from 318 to 415 HV, then to 327 HV) with CT (from 500 to 600–625 °C, then to 700 °C) was attributed to the changes of volume fraction and particle size of (Ti, V, Mo)C precipitates. The optimum CT was considered as 600–625 °C, at which the maximum hardness value (415 HV) can be obtained. It was found that the atomic ratios of Ti, V and Mo in (Ti, V, Mo)C carbides were changed as the CT increased. The precipitates with the size of < 10 nm were the V-rich particles at higher CT of 600 and 650 °C, while the Ti-rich particles were observed at lower CT of 500 and 550 °C. Theoretical calculations indicated that the maximum nucleation rate of (Ti, V, Mo)C in ferrite matrix occurred around 630 °C, which was consistent with the 625 °C obtained from experiment results.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Reply to Comments on “Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of
           Zn-Doped CdO Thin Films Fabricated by a Simplified Spray Pyrolysis
           Technique” by K. Usharani and A.R. Balu published in Acta Metall. Sin.
           (Engl. Lett.) 28(1), 64–71 (2015)
    • PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Influence of Nb Content on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a
           7%Ni Steel
    • Abstract: The influence of Nb content on the microstructure and cryogenic mechanical properties of a 7%Ni steel was investigated within the Nb content range from 0 to 0.05%. The microstructure was characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and the low-temperature mechanical property tests were conducted. The Nb addition can effectively refine the prior austenite grains and microstructure of the steel. Fine niobium precipitates with a diameter of about 10–50 nm were observed. They tend to be spherical and locate mainly in the vicinity of grain boundaries. Although there are considerable amounts of reversed austenite forming at grain boundaries in the specimen containing the highest Nb content, no Nb element was detected in such reversed austenite, which implies that Nb element did not affect the formation of the reversed austenite directly. Mechanical test results suggest that the strength of the 7%Ni steel is not simply in relation to the prior austenite grain size, but also depends on the amount of reversed austenite. On the other hand, the grain refinement, enhanced with increasing Nb content, has a good effect on cryogenic toughness.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Tortoise Carapace Structure
           Bio-Inspired Hybrid Composite
    • Abstract: A turtle carapace bio-inspired Ti matrix hybrid composite was successfully fabricated in this work. This composite incorporates two parts: the Ti–Al intermetallic multilayered composite and continuous SiC fibers-reinforced Ti matrix composite. In the Ti–Al intermetallic multilayered composite part, a series of Ti–Al intermetallics compounds, including Ti3Al, TiAl, TiAl2 and TiAl3, were formed between the Ti layers. In the continuous SiC fibers-reinforced Ti matrix composite part, SiC fibers and Ti matrix were found to be bonded well through weak interface reaction. Flexural strength of this material reached 1.21 ± 0.16 GPa, measured by three-point bending test. The deformation features suggest that the hierarchical structure combining ductile Ti layers/matrix with brittle high-strength Ti–Al intermetallics layers/SiC fibers can effectively enhance the mechanical properties of the bio-inspired hybrid composite.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Degradation behaviors of La–Mg–Ni-based metal hydride alloys:
           structural stability and influence on hydrogen storage performances
    • Abstract: The present work focuses on the structural stability upon hydrogenation of three typical La–Mg–Ni-based alloys: La2MgNi9, La3MgNi14 and La4MgNi19. Structural changes during gaseous and electrochemical cycles were characterized, and the influence of the structure distortion on the hydrogen storage properties was concerned. Hydrogen-induced amorphization (HIA) and disproportionation of the three alloys have occurred during both the gaseous and electrochemical cycles. Structural stability of the phase structures in the La–Mg–Ni system is found to follow the order: LaNi5 > (La,Mg)5Ni19 > (La,Mg)2Ni7 > (La,Mg)Ni3 > (La,Mg)Ni2. HIA increases thermal stability of the metal hydrides and difficulty to dehydrogenation and leads to degradation of both the gaseous and electrochemical capacities. Interestingly, La2MgNi9 with poor stability presents elevated discharge capability even at 60 °C which can be attributed to increase in the hydrogen desorption capability and inhibition of the self-discharge induced by severe HIA at higher temperatures. In addition, HIA in the electrochemical reactions is obviously weaker than the extent during the gaseous cycles, which is mainly due to the slower hydrogenation speed. The development of HIA in the gaseous and electrochemical process is considered to follow the direct and gradual modes, respectively.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Scalable Synthesis of Hierarchical Antimony/Carbon Micro-/Nanohybrid
           Lithium/Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes Based on Dimethacrylate Monomer
    • Abstract: A facile scalable synthesis of hierarchical Sb/C micro-/nanohybrid has been addressed in this work, which possesses the advantages of both micrometer and nanometer scale structures as lithium-ion battery anode. Difunctional methacrylate monomers are used as solvent and carbon source as well. Liquid precursor of antimony(III) n-butoxide is dissolved in the resin monomer solution, and further incorporated into the cross-linking polymer network via photo polymerization. Through calcination in argon/hydrogen atmosphere, antimony nanoparticles are in situ formed by carbothermal reduction, and homogeneously embedded in the in situ formed micrometer sized carbon matrix. The morphology, structure, crystallinity, spatial dispersion, composition, and electrochemical performance of the Sb/C micro-/nanohybrid are systematically investigated. The cyclic and rate performance of the Sb/C micro-/nanohybrid anode have been effectively improved compared to the pure carbon anode. A reversible capacity of 362 mAh g−1 is achieved with a reasonable mass loading density after 300 cycles at 66 mA g−1, corresponding to capacity retention of 79%. With reducing mass loading density, the reversible capacity reaches 793 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles. Moreover, the electrochemical performance of Sb/C micro-/nanohybrid as sodium-ion battery anode is also investigated in this study. Graphical Sb/C hierarchical micro-/nanohybrid lithium-ion battery anode with good cyclic stability is synthesized in a scalable way using difunctional methacrylate monomers as solvent and carbon source, where a reversible capacity of 362 mAh g−1 is achieved after 300 cycles with a reasonable mass loading density, corresponding to capacity retention of 79%
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Hot Deformation Behavior and Dynamic Recrystallization Characteristics in
           a Low-Alloy High-Strength Ni–Cr–Mo–V Steel
    • Abstract: This study presented a quantitative investigation of deformation behavior and dynamic recrystallization of low-alloy high-strength Ni–Cr–Mo–V steels during hot deformation. A series of isothermal compression experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200 °C and strain rates from 0.01 to 10 s−1 with a height reduction of 60%. A complete Arrhenius constitutive model and processing maps were developed. The results showed that the constitutive model had the ability to predict the flow stress with an average absolute relative error of < 5.7%. The processing maps constructed at strains of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 showed that flow instability was prone to occur at higher strain. Dynamic recrystallization tended to take place at higher temperatures (900–1200 °C) and lower strain rates (0.01–1 s−1). The critical strain for the onset of dynamic recrystallization was determined, and a kinetics model was developed. The predicted results for recrystallization volume fraction and flow stress were compared with the experimental data, which indicated that the model was accurate and reliable.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Wear Behaviors of GH4169 Super Alloy and 3Cr2W8V Tool Steel Under Dry
           Rolling Condition
    • Abstract: Wear behaviors of 3Cr2W8V and GH4169 with H70, including surface property, wear performance and friction work, were investigated. 3Cr2W8V and H70 friction pair suffered severer wear and surface damage than GH4169 and H70 friction pair. The wear process had an impact on GH4169 subsurface hardening, but no effect on 3Cr2W8V. Heat energy was a proportion of the total friction work, and 3Cr2W8V consumed more energy than GH4169 during temperature rise. From the numerical calculations, 3Cr2W8V had a more concentrated heat distribution and produced more wear than GH4169. Ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) and uniform elongation (εUE) were considered to evaluate the wear resistance of two materials, and GH4169 had a higher σUTS × εUE value and lower wear degree. In conclusion, the wear mechanism of GH4169 is adhesive wear, and 3Cr2W8V is a combination of abrasive and adhesive wear. Cooling can reduce the wear volume for GH4169 due to good thermal conductivity. The results show that GH4169 is more reliable for the tool material, with a better wear resistance under dry rolling condition.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Effects of Semi-solid Isothermal Heat Treatment on Microstructures and
           Damping Capacities of Fly Ash Cenosphere/AZ91D Composites
    • Abstract: The fly ash cenosphere/AZ91D composites were successfully prepared and isothermally heat-treated at different temperatures for different time. The effects of semi-solid isothermal heat treatment on the microstructures and damping capacities of fly ash cenosphere/AZ91D composites were investigated. With the increase in isothermal temperature or holding time, the small liquid droplets within grains increased in size but decreased in quantity. The average size and shape factor of Mg2Si particles increased with the rise of isothermal temperature. The damping capacities of the composites were improved by isothermal heat treatment. At room temperature, the composites after heat treatment at 520 and 550 °C had a higher damping capacity due to interface damping when the strain amplitude was lower than about 8.8 × 10−5, and the composite after heat treatment at 580 °C had a better damping capacity because of the dislocation damping under the condition of high strain amplitude. The damping capacities of the composites increased with the rise of the test temperature, and the damping mechanisms varied depending on different test temperatures. The interface damping played an important role when the test temperature was below about 100 °C, and the dislocation damping and grain boundary damping took effect with the rise of test temperature.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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