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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2345 journals)

 Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)   [SJR: 0.525]   [H-I: 18]   [5 followers]  Follow         Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)    ISSN (Print) 1006-7191 - ISSN (Online) 2194-1289    Published by Springer-Verlag  [2345 journals]
• Shape Memory Effect Induced by Stress-induced α ′ Martensite in a
Metastable Fe–Cr–Ni Austenitic Stainless Steel
• Authors: Yong-Ning Wang; Jie Chen; Hua-Bei Peng; Yu-Hua Wen
Pages: 513 - 520
Abstract: It is not clear whether a shape memory effect (SME) can be realized by stress-induced α′ martensite in metastable austenitic stainless steels although the stress-induced ε martensite in these materials can result in the SME. To clarify this problem, the relationship between the shape recovery and the reverse transformation of the stress-induced ε and α′ martensite in a 304 stainless steel was investigated. The results show that the stress-induced α′ martensite can result in the SME when heating above 773 K. After deformation at 77 K and step heating or directly holding at 1073 K, two-stage shape recoveries below 440 K and above 773 K can be obtained due to the reverse transformation of the stress-induced ε martensite and α′ martensite, respectively. After deformation at room temperature, the α′ martensite produced can result in the SME only when directly holding at 1073 K. The intrusion of more dislocations before the formation of the α′ martensite at room temperature than at 77 K is the reason that the α′martensite induced at room temperature cannot result in the SME in the case of slow heating. The recovered strains resulting from the stress-induced ε and α′ martensite are proportional to the amounts of their reverse transformation, respectively.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0571-x
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Magnetic Phase Separation in Diluted Magnetic System: Zn 1−x Fe x O
• Authors: Archita Mondal; Sanchari Sarkar; Neepamala Giri; Souvik Chatterjee; Ruma Ray
Pages: 521 - 527
Abstract: Single-phase diluted magnetic systems Zn1−x Fe x O have been prepared by chemical route. Structural and spectroscopic (UV–Vis and Mössbauer) studies indicate the incorporation of Fe3+ ions in the lattice sites. The UV–Vis results point to a systematic increase in the band gap with increasing Fe doping. The room temperature magnetization of Zn1−x Fe x O indicates a paramagnetic behavior which is in accordance with the Mössbauer results, illustrating quadrupolar doublet. At low temperature, the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization shows a cusp and this temperature increases systematically with decreasing particle size. The weak exchange bias effect manifested by a M–H loop shift is observed for x = 0.03. This shift is accompanied by the enhancement of coercivity. The dc magnetization results suggest the coexistence of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions for low doping of Fe, i.e., for x = 0.03.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0530-6
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Dendritic Growth, Eutectic Features and Their Effects on Hardness of a
Ternary Sn–Zn–Cu Solder Alloy
• Authors: Bismarck Luiz Silva; Rodrigo Valenzuela Reyes; Amauri Garcia; José Eduardo Spinelli
Pages: 528 - 540
Abstract: The present investigation is based on the results of a directionally solidified (DS) Sn–9 wt%Zn–2 wt%Cu alloy, including primary/secondary/tertiary dendrite arm spacings of the Sn-rich matrix, the morphologies of the eutectic mixture and the corresponding interphase spacing, the nature and proportion of the Cu–Zn intermetallic compound (IMC). The main purpose is to establish interrelations of these microstructure features with experimental solidification thermal parameters, such as cooling rates and growth rates (v), macrosegregation and hardness. Such interrelations are interesting for both industry and academy since they represent a tool permitting the preprogramming of final properties based on the design of the microstructure. In the case of Sn–Zn–Cu alloys, hardly anything is known about the combined effects of the length scale of the microstructure and fraction and distribution of the primary IMC on hardness. The alloy microstructure is composed of a β-Sn dendritic region, surrounded by a eutectic mixture of α-Zn and β-Sn phases and the γ-Cu5Zn8 IMC. The eutectic interphase spacing varies in the range 1.2–3.6 μm, with the α-Zn phase having a globular morphology for v > 0.5 mm/s and a needle-like morphology for v < 0.3 mm/s. A modified Hall–Petch-type experimental expression relating hardness to the interphase spacing is proposed.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0572-9
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Effect of Double Oxide Film Defects on Mechanical Properties of As-Cast
C95800 Alloy
• Authors: Xin-Yi Zhao; Zhi-Liang Ning; Fu-Yang Cao; Shan-Guang Liu; Yong-Jiang Huang; Jing-Shun Liu; Jian-Fei Sun
Pages: 541 - 549
Abstract: The morphology of double oxide film defects and their influence on the tensile mechanical properties of a commercial Cu–Al (C95800) alloy were investigated in this study. Plane castings were produced with two types of pouring systems, and their tensile properties were measured and then analyzed by means of Weibull statistics method. The fracture surfaces of the tensile specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. A large amount of double oxide film defects were observed on the tensile fractured specimens of the top-filled plane castings, and their chemical composition is identified to be Al2O3. Weibull statistics analyses showed that the double oxide film defects significantly reduce mechanical properties of the castings investigated. Furthermore, the ultimate tensile strength is more obviously deteriorated by double oxide film defects than elongation.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-016-0526-7
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Surface Modification of Titanium by Producing Ti/TiN Surface Composite
Layers via FSP
• Authors: Ali Shamsipur; Seyed-Farshid Kashani-Bozorg; Abbas Zarei-Hanzaki
Pages: 550 - 557
Abstract: In this paper, we report the use of blowing nitrogen gas for the successful fabrication of a composite layer composed of Ti/TiN on a substrate of commercially pure titanium (cp-2) using the friction stir processing technique. The prepared composite layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The maximum microhardness of the Ti/TiN composite reached 1024 HV, which is 6.4 times higher than that of the titanium substrate. The results of wear test indicated that the Ti/TiN composite layer possesses excellent abrasive and adhesive wear resistance because of the formation of the TiN and its high hardness.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0529-z
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• In Vitro Biocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 Osteoblast-like Cells on Arg-Gly-Asp
Acid Peptides Immobilized Graphite-like Carbon Coating on Carbon/Carbon
Composites
• Authors: Sheng Cao; He-Jun Li; Ke-Zhi Li; Jin-Hua Lu; Lei-Lei Zhang
Pages: 558 - 566
Abstract: Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites were deposited with graphite-like carbon (GLC) coating, and then, Arg-Gly-Asp acid (RGD) peptides were successfully immobilized onto the functionalized GLC coating. GLC coating was utilized to prevent carbon particles releasing and create a uniform surface condition for C/C composites. RGD peptides were utilized to improve biocompatibility of GLC coating. Surface chemical characterizations of functionalized GLC coating were detected by contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectra. Optical morphology of GLC coatings was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In vitro biological performance was determined using samples seeded with MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and cultured for 1 week. Surface characterizations and morphological analysis indicated that C/C composites were covered by a dense and uniform GLC coating. Contact angle of GLC coating was reduced to 27.2° when it was functionalized by H2O2 oxidation at 40 °C for 1 h. In vitro cytological test showed that the RGD peptides immobilized GLC coating had a significant improvement in biocompatibility. It was suggested that RGD peptides provided GLC coating with a bioactive surface to improve cell adhesion and proliferation on C/C composites.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0542-2
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior and Processing Map Development of
25CrMo4 Mirror Plate Steel During Hot Deformation
• Abstract: The dynamic recrystallization behavior of 25CrMo4 steel was systematically investigated by compression deformation at different temperatures and strain rates on a Gleeble 1500 thermal mechanical simulation tester. The flow curves under different deformation conditions were obtained, and the effects of deformation temperature and strain rate on the appearance of the flow curves were discussed. Based on the experimental flow curves, the activation energy determined by regression analysis was Q = 337 kJ/mol, and the constitutive model was constructed. All the characteristic points of the flow curves were identified from the work hardening rate curves ( $$\theta = {\text{d}}\sigma /{\text{d}}\varepsilon \;{\text{vs}} \;\sigma$$ ), which were derived from the flow curves. Then, the kinetics model of dynamic recrystallization was determined by combining the Avrami equation with the stress loss resulted from the dynamic recrystallization. With the aid of the kinetics model, the effect of strain on the efficiency of power dissipation was discussed. Furthermore, the optimum parameters for the forging process were determined based on the processing maps.
PubDate: 2017-06-23

• Microstructure and Optical Properties of Ti 54.5 Ni 45.5 Nanocrystalline
Thin Film
• Abstract: Nanocrystalline Ti54.5Ni45.5 thin film was prepared by magnetron sputtering followed by rapid thermal annealing. The film displayed martensite structure and (001) compound twin substructure, and the transformation temperatures M s and A s are 313 and 365 K, respectively. The reflectivity for the wavelength from 200 to 800 nm at 298 and 393 K was investigated, and the results showed that the optical reflectivity contrast between martensite and austensite at 780, 650, 514 and 405 nm was 105.64, 170.83, 112.22 and 149.92%, respectively, which were larger than those of other reported optical recording materials.
PubDate: 2017-06-22

• Corrosion Behavior of the Ni–Cr–Fe Base Superalloy GH984G in a
Synthetic Coal Ash and Flue Gas Environment
• Abstract: The corrosion behavior of the new Ni–Cr–Fe base superalloy GH984G in a synthetic coal ash and flue gas environments was studied at 700 °C. The results showed that the corrosion rate was slow during the initial corrosion stage, then followed by a stage of faster mass loss. During the corrosion test, the scale trended to spall slightly, resulting in the formation of corrosion pits on the sample surfaces. The main corrosion products were identified as NiFeCrO4 and a small amount of Cr2O3. The scale microstructure involved the presence of three corrosion layers. The outer layer contained Cr, Ni, Fe, O and a small amount of S. Many micro-cracks were detected in the Cr-rich intermediate oxide layer. The inner corrosion layer was thin and rich in S. Internal sulfidation and internal oxidation occurred in the substrate. Because of its relatively high Cr content, the GH984G superalloy exhibited a good corrosion resistance under the test conditions.
PubDate: 2017-06-22

• Enhanced Microwave Absorption Properties of Double-Layer Absorbers Based
on Spherical NiO and Co 0.2 Ni 0.4 Zn 0.4 Fe 2 O 4 Ferrite Composites
• Abstract: Microwave absorption properties of spherical NiO particles and Co0.2Ni0.4Zn0.4Fe2O4 (CNZF) ferrites with single-layer and double-layer absorbers were studied in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. The spherical NiO particles were synthesized by using a hydrothermal process, while the CNZF powders were prepared by using a sol–gel autoignition method. The double-layer absorbers, composed of 30 wt% NiO as matching layer and 30 wt% CNZF as absorption layer, with a total thickness of 3.2 mm, exhibited a maximum reflection loss (R L) of –67.0 dB at 9.2 GHz and an effective absorbing bandwidth below –10 dB to be 3.9 GHz from 7.0 to 10.9 GHz. The excellent microwave absorption performance of the double-layer absorbers should be ascribed to the high impedance matching ratio, the great microwave attenuation capability, and well-coupled layer.
PubDate: 2017-06-21

• Effects of Ausforming Procedure and Following Annealing Treatment on
Microstructural Characteristics in Cobalt
• Abstract: The effects of ausforming procedure and subsequent annealing treatments on microstructures of cobalt (Co) samples are investigated by electron channeling contrast and electron backscatter diffraction techniques. Results show that the ausformed Co samples consist of coarsen blocky laths (single ε phase) with the irregular morphology and the ultra-fine acicular laths (dual phase: γ and ε) with the slender and rectangular morphologies. As compared to the slight reduction sample, the much denser acicular laths are observed in the heavily ausformed sample. In addition, recrystallization behavior and annealing-induced γ → ε transformation have occurred in ausformed Co samples during the annealing treatment.
PubDate: 2017-06-21

• Facile Synthesis, Characterization of Flower-Like Vanadium Pentoxide
Powders and Their Photocatalytic Behavior
• Abstract: In this paper, V2O5 sol was firstly prepared using vanadyl sulfate as a vanadium source by modified sol–gel method at room temperature. Then flower-like V2O5 powders were prepared by coagulating as-prepared sol with anhydrous ethanol and subsequent annealing crystallization. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that V2O5 powders exhibited orthorhombic crystal structure after annealing at 450 °C. The experimental data obtained from both field emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy identified that V2O5 powders were approximately flower-like in shape and about 5 μm in size. Besides, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface area of flower-like V2O5 powders was 24.25 m2/g. According to Uv–Vis spectroscopy, the degradation rate of toluidine blue O (TBO) on as-prepared flower-like V2O5 powders during 10 h of visible light irradiation with an intensity of 15.4 mW/m2 was 88%, which was faster than those over P25 (46%) as a comparison. In addition, the mineralization process of TBO was investigated, which primarily consisted of demethylation and ring-opening oxidation processes, and confirmed by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry. The precipitation–oxidation–peptization, coagulation, and crystallization processes were proposed as the formation mechanism for the preparation of flower-like V2O5.
PubDate: 2017-06-20

• Microstructure and Properties of the Cr–Si–N Coatings Deposited by
Combining High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) and Pulsed DC
Magnetron Sputtering
• Authors: Tie-Gang Wang; Yu Dong; Belachew Abera Gebrekidan; Yan-Mei Liu; Qi-Xiang Fan; Kwang Ho Kim
Abstract: The Cr–Si–N coatings were prepared by combining system of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. The Si content in the coating was adjusted by changing the sputtering power of the Si target. By virtue of electron-probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy, the influence of the Si content on the coating composition, phase constituents, deposition rate, surface morphology and microstructure was investigated systematically. In addition, the change rules of micro-hardness, internal stress, adhesion, friction coefficient and wear rate with increasing Si content were also obtained. In this work, the precipitation of silicon in the coating was found. With increasing Si content, the coating microstructure gradually evolved from continuous columnar to discontinuous columnar and quasi-equiaxed crystals; accordingly, the coating inner stress first declined sharply and then kept almost constant. Both the coating hardness and the friction coefficient have the same change tendency with the increase of the Si content, namely increasing at first and then decreasing. The Cr–Si–N coating presented the highest hardness and average friction coefficient for an Si content of about 9.7 at.%, but the wear resistance decreased slightly due to the high brittleness. The above phenomenon was attributed to a microstructural evolution of the Cr–Si–N coatings induced by the silicon addition.
PubDate: 2017-06-15
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0609-0

• Synergistic Effect of Mo, W, Mn and Cr on the Passivation Behavior of a
Fe-Based Amorphous Alloy Coating
• Authors: Wan-Ping Tian; Hong-Wang Yang; Suo-De Zhang
Abstract: In this work, the electrochemical behaviors of SAM2X5 Fe-based amorphous alloy coating and hard chromium coating were comparatively studied in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. In comparison with the hard chromium coating, the SAM2X5 coating exhibited a wider and stable passive region with lower passive current density in the potentiodynamic polarization and showed a considerably lower current density at different anodic potentials in the potentiostatic polarization. In order to understand the passivation mechanism of the Fe-based amorphous coating, the components of the passive films formed at various polarization potentials were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The synergistic effect of Mo, W, Mn and Cr in the passive films was systemically analyzed. It has been revealed that Mo and W facilitate the formation of compact and stable Cr2O3 passive film at lower potentials, and the substantial enrichment of Mn in the passive film enhances the passivation ability at relatively higher potentials. The deep understanding of the passivation characteristics in multicomponent alloy systems could provide a guide for the design of corrosion-resistant amorphous alloy coatings for engineering applications.
PubDate: 2017-06-14
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0604-5

• Effect of Initial Goss Texture Sharpness on Texture Evolution and Magnetic
Properties of Ultra-thin Grain-oriented Electrical Steel
• Authors: Rui-Yang Liang; Ping Yang; Wei-Min Mao
Abstract: In this study, high- and low-grade grain-oriented electrical steels were used as the initial materials to produce 0.08-mm-thick sheet with one-step cold-rolling method. Electron backscattering diffraction analysis technique and X-ray diffraction texture analysis technique were adopted to investigate the effect of initial Goss texture sharpness on texture evolution and magnetic properties of ultra-thin grain-oriented electrical steel. The results showed that primary recrystallization and secondary recrystallization were the main processes that occurred during annealing. The induced factors for secondary recrystallization of two grades samples were not consistent. The high-grade samples presented texture induction mechanism, while the low-grade samples revealed strong surface-energy induction mechanism. The initial Goss texture sharpness had a great impact on texture evolution and magnetic properties of ultra-thin grain-oriented electrical steel. The Goss texture component formed after primary recrystallization was stronger, and better magnetic properties were obtained at low frequencies. For low-grade samples, secondary recrystallization enhanced the intensity of Goss texture, and both grain size and texture contributed to better high-frequency magnetic properties after secondary recrystallization. By controlling the annealing process, the magnetic properties of low-grade products could be significantly improved, thus achieving conversion from low-grade to high-grade products.
PubDate: 2017-06-12
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0610-7

• Microstructural Characterization of Pure Titanium Treated by Laser Surface
Treatment Under Different Processing Parameters
• Authors: Can Huang; Jian Tu; Yu-Ren Wen; Zhi Hu; Zhi-Ming Zhou; An-Ping Dong; Guo-Liang Zhu
Abstract: Advanced characterization techniques are utilized to investigate the effect of laser surface treatment on microstructural evolution of pure titanium (Ti). The results show that there are three distinctly different types of microstructure from surface to substrate in Ti samples, including phase transformation and solidification microstructure in zone I (melting zone); insufficient recrystallization grains with residual α martensitic plates in zone II (heat-affected zone, HAZ); fully recrystallization microstructure in zone III (base metal, BM). The hardness evolution profiles under different laser treatment parameters are similar. The highest hardness in MZ is ascribed to α plate, while the lowest hardness value in HAZ is due to the insufficiently recrystallized grains. The metallurgical process on the laser-modified Ti samples is systematically discussed in this work.
PubDate: 2017-06-12
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0608-1

• Synthesis and Characterization of Electroless Ni–P/Ni–Mo–P Duplex
Coating with Different Thickness Combinations
• Authors: Gong-Sheng Song; Shuo Sun; Zhong-Chi Wang; Cheng-Zhi Luo; Chun-Xu Pan
Abstract: In this work, a novel duplex Ni–P/Ni–Mo–P coating upon the aluminum (Al) substrate was synthesized via an electroless plating, i.e., the binary Ni–P coating as a transition layer and the ternary Ni–Mo–P coating on the top. It was found that the duplex coating was of a high hardness, large elastic modulus, low porosity and excellent corrosion resistance. In addition, experimental results revealed that for a total 20 μm coating thickness, the duplex coating with a 7 μm of the Ni–Mo–P coating exhibited the best corrosion resistance in 0.5 mol/L sulfuric acid solution, which was attributed to its compact structure and low porosity. This duplex Ni–P/Ni–Mo-P coating with a thin ternary Ni–Mo–P layer is expected to solve the problem of low deposition rate of ternary alloy coating and thereby may expand applications of Al and its alloys in the fields of machine manufacture and corrosion environment.
PubDate: 2017-06-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0603-6

• Corrosion Resistance of Silane-Modified Hydroxyapatite Films on Degradable
Magnesium Alloys
• Authors: Yan-Bin Zhao; Li-Qian Shi; Lan-Yue Cui; Chang-Lei Zhang; Shuo-Qi Li; Rong-Chang Zeng; Fen Zhang; Zhen-Lin Wang
Abstract: A polymethyltrimethoxysilane (PMTMS)/hydroxyapatite (HA) hybrid coating was successfully fabricated on a magnesium alloy by hydrothermal treatment and immersion method. The microstructure and composition of the coating were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The physical properties were investigated using scratch testing. At the same time, the corrosion resistance was evaluated via electrochemical and immersion tests. The results demonstrated that the corrosion resistance of the silane hybrid coating was significantly enhanced compared with the naked magnesium alloy. Especially, the corrosion current density of the PMTMS/HA magnesium alloy was three orders of magnitude lower than that of the bare material.
PubDate: 2017-06-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0601-8

• Corrosion and Cavitation Erosion Behaviors of Two Marine Propeller
Materials in Clean and Sulfide-Polluted 3.5% NaCl Solutions
• Authors: Qi-Ning Song; Nan Xu; Ye-Feng Bao; Yong-Feng Jiang; Wei Gu; Yu-Gui Zheng; Yan-Xin Qiao
Abstract: The corrosion and cavitation erosion behaviors of two main materials for ship propellers, i.e., nickel–aluminum bronze (NAB) and manganese–nickel–aluminum bronze (MAB) were investigated in a clean and sulfide-polluted 3.5% NaCl solutions. The presence of sulfide increased the corrosion damage of both NAB and MAB by rendering the corrosion product film thicker, more porous and less protective. For MAB, the formation of Fe oxides/sulfides within the corrosion product film may reduce the film compactness and responsible for the lower corrosion resistance, compared with NAB. The presence of sulfide caused the occurrence of more severe corrosion on the surface and therefore further enhanced the cavitation erosion damage. Compared with the result in the clean solution, the cavitation–erosion mass loss rate was raised by a factor of  about 11.88% for MAB, and 58.6% for NAB. For NAB, the mechanical erosion dominated the damage in the clean solution, while the cavitation erosion synergy made a significant contribution to the overall damage in the sulfide-polluted solution. For MAB, it was the mechanical damage that contributed mainly to the cavitation erosion damage in both solutions. The exfoliation of large-sized κ phase and the cleavage rupture of β phases resulted in lower cavitation erosion resistance of MAB, compared with NAB.
PubDate: 2017-06-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0602-7

• Performance of Chemical Vapor Deposited Boron-Doped AlN Thin Film as
Thermal Interface Materials for 3-W LED: Thermal and Optical Analysis
• Authors: S. Shanmugan; D. Mutharasu
Abstract: Boron-doped aluminum nitride (B-AlN) thin films were synthesized on Al substrates by using chemical vapor deposition method by changing the synthesis parameters and were used as thermal interface material for high power light emitting diode (LED). The B-AlN thin film-coated Al substrate was used as heat sink and studied the performance of high power LED at various driving currents. The recorded transient cooling curve was evaluated to study the rise in junction temperature (T j), total thermal resistance (R th-tot) and the substrate thermal resistance (R th-sub) of the given LED. From the results, the B-AlN thin film (prepared at process 4) interfaced LED showed low R th-tot and T j value for all driving currents and observed high difference in R th-tot (ΔR th-tot = 2.2 K/W) at 700 mA when compared with the R th-tot of LED attached on bare Al substrates (LED/Al). The T j of LED was reduced considerably and observed 4.7 °C as ΔT j for the film prepared using process 4 condition when compared with LED/Al boundary condition at 700 mA. The optical performance of LED was also tested for all boundary conditions and showed improved lux values for the given LED at 700 mA where B-AlN thin film was synthesized using optimized flow of Al, B and N sources with minimized B and N content. The other optical parameters such as color correlated temperature and color rendering index were also measured and observed low difference for all boundary conditions. The observed results are suggested to use B-AlN thin film as efficient solid thin film thermal interface materials in high power LED.
PubDate: 2017-06-03
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0592-5

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