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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2353 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)
  [SJR: 0.525]   [H-I: 18]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1006-7191 - ISSN (Online) 2194-1289
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Influence of Surface Finishing on High-Temperature Oxidation of AISI Type
           444 Ferritic Stainless Steel Used in SOFC Stacks
    • Authors: Valeria Bongiorno; Paolo Piccardo; Simone Anelli; Roberto Spotorno
      Pages: 697 - 711
      Abstract: Abstract This research is focused on the study of the samples, approximatively 15 × 30 mm2 sized, that were mechanically cut from two sheets (0.4 and 0.2 mm thick, respectively) of AISI 444 Type ferritic stainless steel (FSS) (DIN 1.4521, Eu designation X2CrMoTi18-2); this material was in the ‘as-rolled’ state. Part of these specimens were treated superficially on one side using abrasive SiC papers with different average grit sizes (i.e., 46.2, 30.2, 18.3 μm) and diamond suspension (up to 1 μm) in order to obtain various surface roughness. Both the ‘as-rolled’ and superficially treated samples were then aged in a muffle furnace in static air according to a thermal cycle corresponding to the curing phase of an experimental glass used as sealing in the solid oxide fuel cell stacks. After aging, the chemical compositions and morphological peculiarities of the scale formed depending on the thickness of the samples and their surface state were studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, bright field light optical microscopy. The obtained results show that all scales formed consist of an inner Cr2O3 subscale and an outer (Mn,Cr)3O4 spinel layer; the relationship between FSS grain size and scale microstructural features is consistent on the samples with mirror-like surface only; the scale thicknesses on SiC grinded samples are comparable; the scales covering the ‘as-rolled’ surfaces are morphologically similar to those grown on the surfaces finished with the 30.2 and 18.3 μm SiC papers, and their thicknesses show an intermediate situation between the abraded and the mirror-like specimens. The last described characteristics depend mainly on the surface and microstructural peculiarities resulting from the rolling process.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0543-1
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Corrosion and Cavitation Erosion Behaviors of Two Marine Propeller
           Materials in Clean and Sulfide-Polluted 3.5% NaCl Solutions
    • Authors: Qi-Ning Song; Nan Xu; Ye-Feng Bao; Yong-Feng Jiang; Wei Gu; Yu-Gui Zheng; Yan-Xin Qiao
      Pages: 712 - 720
      Abstract: Abstract The corrosion and cavitation erosion behaviors of two main materials for ship propellers, i.e., nickel–aluminum bronze (NAB) and manganese–nickel–aluminum bronze (MAB) were investigated in a clean and sulfide-polluted 3.5% NaCl solutions. The presence of sulfide increased the corrosion damage of both NAB and MAB by rendering the corrosion product film thicker, more porous and less protective. For MAB, the formation of Fe oxides/sulfides within the corrosion product film may reduce the film compactness and responsible for the lower corrosion resistance, compared with NAB. The presence of sulfide caused the occurrence of more severe corrosion on the surface and therefore further enhanced the cavitation erosion damage. Compared with the result in the clean solution, the cavitation–erosion mass loss rate was raised by a factor of  about 11.88% for MAB, and 58.6% for NAB. For NAB, the mechanical erosion dominated the damage in the clean solution, while the cavitation erosion synergy made a significant contribution to the overall damage in the sulfide-polluted solution. For MAB, it was the mechanical damage that contributed mainly to the cavitation erosion damage in both solutions. The exfoliation of large-sized κ phase and the cleavage rupture of β phases resulted in lower cavitation erosion resistance of MAB, compared with NAB.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0602-7
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Comparative Study of Bypass-Current MIG Welded–Brazed
           Aluminum/Galvanized Steel and Aluminum/Stainless Steel
    • Authors: Yu-Gang Miao; Guang-Yu Chen; Peng Zhang; Duan-Feng Han
      Pages: 721 - 730
      Abstract: Abstract A bypass-current metal inert-gas welding–brazing technology has been developed to join aluminum/galvanized steel and aluminum/stainless steel. Microstructure, intermetallic compounds and hardness distribution of the joints were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and microhardness tests. Comparative study on both types of joints was carried out. During aluminum to galvanized steel assembling, finer seam was obtained under a more stable process. A uniform interfacial reaction layer with a thickness of 2–4 μm was formed. During aluminum to stainless steel assembling, an uneven interfacial reaction layer with a thickness of 5–45 μm was formed. Intermetallic compounds at the interface of aluminum/galvanized steel were identified as Fe–Al–Si–Zn complex phases, while Fe–Al–Cr–Ni complex phases were found at the aluminum/stainless steel interface. Microhardness of interfacial layer increases rapidly within reaction layer due to possible brittle intermetallic compounds.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0578-3
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Preliminary Study on Porous High-Manganese 316L Stainless Steel Through
           Physical Vacuum Dealloying
    • Authors: Yibin Ren; Jun Li; Ke Yang
      Pages: 731 - 734
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, porous stainless steel was prepared successfully by physical vacuum dealloying method. The based alloy is high-manganese 316L-50Mn alloy. The porous high-manganese 316L stainless steel showed a three-dimensional continuous porous structure with 1–2 μm pore size. Temperature was the key factor for the physical dealloying process to produce porous stainless steel, and the optimized treatment temperature was between 800 and 850 °C for the high-manganese 316L-50Mn alloy.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0600-9
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Characterization of Prealloyed Ti–6Al–4V Powders from EIGA and PREP
           Process and Mechanical Properties of HIPed Powder Compacts
    • Authors: Rui-Peng Guo; Lei Xu; Bernie Ya-Ping Zong; Rui Yang
      Pages: 735 - 744
      Abstract: Abstract Prealloyed Ti–6Al–4V powders were prepared by electrode induction melting gas atomization (EIGA) and plasma rotating electrode process (PREP) in this work. A comparative study of EIGA and PREP powders for hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) compaction was conducted. Characterization of important technological parameters such as particle size distribution, powder surface morphology and flowability was carried out. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V powder compacts HIPed from EIGA and PREP powders were also investigated. The results showed that the EIGA powder has a finer average particle size and higher tap density, while the PREP powder has better flowability and less pores. Micropores can be observed in heat-treated EIGA powder compacts by X-ray tomography and the porosity was found to be about 0.02%. There are no micropores (≥4 μm) to be detected in heat-treated PREP powder compacts. Transgranular fracture mode as well as micropores contributes to the scatter in fatigue property of heat-treated PREP powder compacts. The respective advantages and disadvantages of both EIGA and PREP powders for producing Ti-based complex parts through HIPing were also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0540-4
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Quantitative Phase Field Simulation of α Particle Dissolution in
           Ti–6Al–4V Alloys Below β Transus Temperature
    • Authors: Mei Yang; Gang Wang; Tao Liu; Wen-Juan Zhao; Dong-Sheng Xu
      Pages: 745 - 752
      Abstract: Abstract A quantitative phase field method of multi-component diffusion-controlled phase transformations coupled with the Kim–Kim–Suzuki model was applied to study the effect of initial particle size distribution (PSD) in 3D and space distribution in 2D on dissolution of α particles in Ti–6Al–4V alloy below β transus temperature in real time and length scale. The thermodynamic and mobility data were obtained from Thermo-Calc and DICTRA softwares, respectively. The results show that the volume fractions of α particles decay with time as: \( f = f_{\text{eq}} + (f_{0} - f_{\text{eq}} )\exp ( - Kt^{n} ) \) for four cases of PSD. The sequence of dissolution kinetics from fast to slow is: uniform PSD, normal PSD, lognormal PSD and bimodal PSD. The space distribution is found to be a major factor affecting the dissolution kinetics and the microstructures. When the distance of the particles is less than critical value, the dissolution rates reduce with the decrease in distance. The Al and V concentration fields around the particles appear more obvious soft impingement.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0562-y
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Influence Factors of Aluminum–Slag Interfacial Reaction Under
           Electric Field
    • Authors: Xin-Yu Lv; An-Ping Dong; Jun Wang; Da Shu; Bao-De Sun
      Pages: 753 - 761
      Abstract: Abstract The interfacial reaction between aluminum melt and molten slag under an electric field plays a significant role in aluminum electro-slag refining. Here we studied this interfacial reaction within 680 and 820 °C under an electric field between 0 and 9 V. The evolution of aluminum composition was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The dominant factor during the interfacial reaction was identified through orthogonal experiments, in which the slag-to-aluminum mass ratio, initial silicon concentration, electric voltage, reaction time, and temperature were selected as the influence factors. The greatest influence factor on the interfacial reaction was found to be the reaction time. Also, single-factor experiments revealed that the reaction kinetic processes largely obeyed an irreversible kinetic model, and the silicon removal efficiency was enhanced by increasing the voltage and slag/metal ratio.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0574-7
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Influence of Fe Addition on Phase Transformation, Microstructure and
           Mechanical Property of Equiatomic NiTi Shape Memory Alloy
    • Authors: Ya-Nan Zhao; Shu-Yong Jiang; Yan-Qiu Zhang; Yu-Long Liang
      Pages: 762 - 770
      Abstract: Abstract Based on equiatomic nickel and titanium, three kinds of NiTiFe alloys with a nominal chemical composition of Ni49Ti49Fe2, Ni48Ti48Fe4 and Ni47Ti47Fe6 (at.%), respectively, have been designed to investigate the influence of the addition of Fe element on phase transformation, microstructure and mechanical property of equiatomic NiTi shape memory alloy. The microstructures of three kinds of NiTiFe alloys are characterized by the equiaxed grains instead of the dendrites. Consequently, some Ti2Ni precipitates are found to distribute in the grains interior and at the grain boundaries. The content of Fe element has an important influence on mechanical property of NiTiFe alloy. With increasing content of Fe element, the strength of NiTiFe alloy increases substantially, but the plasticity decreases sharply. It can be concluded that precipitation strengthening and solution strengthening play a significant role in enhancing the strength of NiTiFe alloy. In the case of three NiTiFe alloys, neither martensitic transformation nor reverse transformation can be observed in the range from −150 to 150 °C. On the one hand, the phase transformation temperature is probably out of the scope of the present experimental temperature. On the other hand, the addition of Fe element probably suppresses first-order martensitic transformation or reverse transformation, and consequently the second-order-like phase transformation from an incommensurate stage to a commensurate stage can probably take place.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0584-5
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Secondary Precipitation Behavior of Nitride in the Electro-slag Remelted
           Structure of Alloy 690
    • Authors: Min Wang; Bo Chen; Xian-Chao Hao; Ying-Che Ma; Kui Liu
      Pages: 771 - 780
      Abstract: Abstract The precipitation and evolution of secondary nitrides (S-nitrides) in the Alloy 690 electro-slag remelted (ESR) structure were investigated. Experimental results indicate that S-nitrides precipitated in the interdendritic region of the ESR structure at temperatures higher than 1100 °C. S-nitrides could spread throughout the entire interdendritic area after sufficient exposure, and they were more numerous and much finer than primary nitrides. Furthermore, after studying the evolution of S-nitride particles at 1100, 1200 and 1300 °C, it was determined that the precipitation of S-nitrides was controlled by the diffusion of nitrogen. In addition, by investigating the elemental segregation of ESR structure and calculating critical Ti concentrations, S-nitride precipitation was found to be thermodynamically inevitable in the Alloy 690 ESR structure.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0541-3
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Tribological Characterization of Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites Processed
           by Powder Metallurgy
    • Authors: M. Megahed; M. A. Attia; M. Abdelhameed; A. G. El-Shafei
      Pages: 781 - 790
      Abstract: Abstract Aluminum (Al)-based aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and silicon carbide (SiC) particles hybrid metal matrix composites were processed by powder metallurgy technique, followed by sintering at 500 °C and then hot extrusion. The tribological properties of these composites with different weight fractions of Al2O3 and SiC were investigated; extrusion process significantly reduces the extent of porosity after cold compaction and sintering processes. Hybridization of the two reinforcements improved hardness and wear resistance of the composites. With an increase in SiC content, hardness was increased and consequently the wear resistance was enhanced also. Scanning electron microscopy observations show a better interfacial bond between matrix and reinforcements and a better distribution of the reinforcements.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0568-5
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Experiment and Simulation for Rolling of Diamond–Cu Composites
    • Authors: Yun-Long Wang; Kai-Kun Wang; Yu-Wei Wang; Guang-Chen Li
      Pages: 791 - 800
      Abstract: Abstract We demonstrate an innovative preparation approach of diamond/Cu composites by powder-in-tube technique and rolling. A small copper tube was loaded with Ti- and Cu-coated diamond particles, and then the diamond particles were combined with Cu matrix by composite rolling. The morphology and element distribution of the interface between diamond and Cu were determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometer. Finite element method (FEM) simulation was used to analyze the rolling process associated with experiment by DEFORM-3D. The final experimental results showed that homogeneous distribution of diamond particles could be observed in the center layer of the composites. According to the contrast experiments, the sample, whose diamond particle size is 0.12–0.15 mm and thickness of pre-rolling is 1.2 mm, showed relatively complete morphologies and homogeneous distribution. Experimental results indicated a poor efficacy of excessive rolling reduction. The thermal conductivity of the composites is about 453 W (m K)−1 by theoretical calculation. For FEM simulation, rolling strain and temperature field of the composites were simulated by DEFORM-3D. Simulation results were interpreted, and numerical results verified the reliability of the model. The simulation predicted that the local area of large strain, indicative of the strain along the thickness direction, could be intensified by adding diamond particles.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0561-z
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Influence of Silver Contents on the Tribological Properties of Ni-Based
           Self-Lubricating Coatings by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying
    • Authors: Bo Li; Jun-Hong Jia; Yi-Min Gao; Hong-Jian Guo; Min-Min Han; Wen-Zhen Wang
      Pages: 801 - 808
      Abstract: Abstract The NiCrAlY–Mo–Ag composite coatings were prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying. The tribological properties of the composite coatings were investigated from 25 to 900 °C in details. The tribo-layer formed on the worn surface of the composite coatings and influenced the tribological properties at different temperatures. The addition of silver could effectively decrease the friction coefficient and wear rate of the coatings at the wide range of temperature. The rubbing process could form the nickel molybdate and promote the formation of silver molybdate within the worn surfaces at high temperature. The synergistic lubricating effects of nickel molybdate and silver molybdate are attributed to the improvement of the tribological properties of coatings at high temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0573-8
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Carbide Precipitation in Ferrite in Nb–V-Bearing Low-Carbon Steel During
           Isothermal Quenching Process
    • Authors: Xiao-Lin Li; Cheng-Shuai Lei; Xiang-Tao Deng; Yan-Mei Li; Yong Tian; Zhao-Dong Wang; Guo-Dong Wang
      Abstract: Abstract The precipitation behavior of nanometer-sized carbides in ferrite in Nb–V-bearing low-carbon steel was studied by electron microscopy and nanoindentation hardness measurements. The results indicated that interphase precipitation and random precipitation could occur simultaneously for the specimen isothermally treated at 700 °C for 60 min, while in other specimens, only random precipitation was observed. This phenomenon might be explained by mass balance criterion during the diffusional phase transformation. Nanohardness result indicated that the average hardness of the specimens isothermally held at 600 °C for 20 min was 3.87 GPa. For the specimen isothermally holding at 650 °C for 20 min, the average hardness was 4.10 GPa and the distribution of the nanohardness was in a narrower range compared with that of the specimen isothermal holding at 600 °C for 20 min. These implied that the carbides in the specimens isothermal treated at 650 °C were more uniformly dispersed, and the number density of the carbides was greater than that treated at 600 °C. Using Ashby–Orowan model, the contribution of precipitation strengthening to yield strength was estimated to be ~110 MPa for the specimen isothermally treated at the temperature of 650 °C for 20 min.
      PubDate: 2017-08-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0632-1
       
  • Effect of Sub- T g Annealing on the Corrosion Resistance of the
           Cu–Zr Amorphous Alloys
    • Authors: Sang-Soo Shin; Hong-Kyu Kim; Jae-Chul Lee; Ik-Min Park
      Abstract: Abstract Despite the economy of material cost and excellent toughness of Cu-based amorphous alloys, especially Cu50Zr50, their poor corrosion resistance to a chloride medium limits their widespread applications. In this study, corrosion tests were performed on the Cu50Zr50 amorphous alloy with different degrees of short-range order, which were prepared by annealing below the glass transition temperature (T g). It was found that the corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys is improved to a significant level when the alloys were heated below T g. Calorimetric studies showed that thermally activated relaxation process of created disorder, which occurs during sub-T g annealing, is responsible for the improvement in the corrosion resistance. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on the Cu–Zr amorphous alloys demonstrated that the relaxation process of the alloys is associated with the formation of energetically stable icosahedra and icosahedron-like structures. Our study highlights the effects of sub-T g annealing on the improvement in the corrosion resistance of the amorphous alloys from the viewpoint the relaxation process of the short-range orders.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0637-9
       
  • Microstructural Characterization and Phase Separation Sequences During
           Solidification of Ni 3 Al-Based Superalloy
    • Authors: Jing Wu; Yong-Chang Liu; Chong Li; Xing-Chuan Xia; Yu-Ting Wu; Hui-Jun Li; Hai-Peng Wang
      Abstract: Abstract As-cast microstructure of a designed polycrystalline Ni3Al-based superalloy is characterized using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope equipped with selected area diffraction system, and the intermetallic phase transformations involved during solidification process are determined based on thermal analysis measurements. The as-cast microstructure is mainly composed of 80.63 vol% dendritic and 19.37 vol% interdendritic phases, and the dendrite is identified as quasi-cuboidal \(\gamma_{\text{I}}^{\prime }\) phase connected by γ-channels where ultrafine \(\gamma_{\text{II}}^{\prime }\) particles are distributed, and the interdendritic phases are determined as γ′–γ eutectic structure consisting of γ E phase with dotted quasi-spherical \(\gamma_{\text{E}}^{\prime }\) particles. During solidification, the dendrite firstly nucleates from liquid melt near 1348 °C; subsequently, the residual liquidoid is transformed into interdendritic phases around 1326 °C. Afterward, γ′ phase will precipitate from dendritic γ-matrix with two-stage characteristics, resulting in the distinct precipitation of \(\gamma_{\text{I}}^{\prime }\) and \(\gamma_{\text{II}}^{\prime }\) phases when approaching to 1190 and 1043 °C, respectively. The corresponding transformations involved during the solidification process can be translated as:
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0634-z
       
  • Preparation and Magnetic Properties of Anisotropic SmCo 5 /Co Composite
           Particles
    • Authors: Lin Lv; Feng-Qing Wang; Qiang Zheng; Juan Du; Xian-Lin Dong; Ping Cui; J. Ping Liu
      Abstract: Abstract Anisotropic SmCo5/Co nanocomposite powders have been prepared by electroless Co deposition on commercial SmCo5 powders with hydrazine as reducer. The Co particles are mainly in the range of 8–27 nm and form dense/continuous soft magnetic coatings on the surface of SmCo5 powders. Exchange coupling happened between the coated Co soft magnetic particles and the SmCo5 hard phase. As a result, SmCo5/Co nanocomposite powders with remanence of 73.58 emu/g and energy product of 13.74 MGOe were obtained in the optimum condition, as compared with those of 70.52 emu/g and 13.40 MGOe for uncoated SmCo5 powders. The effects of Co adding amount on Co particle size, coating morphology, and magnetic properties of SmCo5/Co products were investigated.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0631-2
       
  • Microstructure Evolution and Growth Orientation of Directionally
           Solidified Mg–4 wt% Zn Alloy with Different Growth Rates
    • Authors: Hong-Min Jia; Xiao-Hui Feng; Yuan-Sheng Yang
      Abstract: Abstract The microstructure evolution and growth orientation of directionally solidified Mg–4 wt% Zn alloy in the growth rate range from 20 to 200 μm/s were investigated. A typical cellular structure was observed with a growth rate of 20 μm/s, and the cellular spacing was 115 μm. When the growth rate increased to 60 μm/s, cellular structure with some developed perturbations was obtained and the cellular spacing was 145 μm, suggesting that the cell-to-dendrite transition happened at the growth rate lower than 60 μm/s. As the growth rate further increased, the microstructure was dendritic and the primary dendritic arm spacing decreased. The relationship between the primary dendritic arm spacings and the growth rates was in good agreement with Trivedi model during dendritic growth. Besides, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that the growth direction of directionally solidified Mg–4 wt% Zn alloy was \(\left\langle {11\bar{2}0} \right\rangle\) lay in \(\left\{ {0002} \right\}\) crystal plane, and the preferred orientation was explained with the lattice vibration model for one-dimensional monatomic chain.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0630-3
       
  • Crack Initiation and Propagation Evaluation for Sn–5Sb Solder Under
           Low-Cycle Fatigue
    • Authors: Noritake Hiyoshi
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, a crack initiation and propagation behavior of Sn–5Sb lead-free solder under low-cycle fatigue is discussed. Cyclic push–pull loading tests with a single-hole specimen have been conducted at 313 K to investigate the crack initiation and propagation behavior of Sn-5Sb solder which has a higher melting point temperature than that of Sn–Ag–Cu solders. A fatigue life ratio correlates with the crack length within a small scatter. Crack initiates at the early stage, and almost all the life period is crack propagation process independent of strain range and strain rate. The crack propagation rate depends on the strain range and the strain rate. The adaptation of J-integral value for Sn–5Sb solder is also discussed. J-integral value is a suitable parameter for crack propagation rate evaluation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0605-4
       
  • Influence Factors of the Generation and Accumulation of Electric Charge on
           the Oil-Delivery Metal Pipelines
    • Authors: Xing-Hui Hou; Jing-Kun Yu; Ming-Kuo Sheng; Zhao-Yang Liu; Xin Yang
      Abstract: Abstract The interfacial electrification properties play an important role in the electrochemical corrosion reaction which leads the electrostatic charge to generate and accumulate on the metal surface when the insulating oil flows through a metal pipe. In this paper, the interfacial electrification properties resulted by the oil flow rate and the action of electric charge trapper are investigated by measuring the current and potential on the surface of the test metal pipe. The measured results showed that the current and potential between the metal pipe and the earth increased with the rise of flow rate; and as the flow rate increased, the growth trends of the current and potential difference between two close flow rates increased and decreased, respectively, while there was an electric charge trapper set in the radial direction of the pipe, the measured current and potential decreased compared with that of without electric charge trapper, which was because it captured and caught part of charge in the oil flow bulk to neutralize the opposite charge on the surface of the metal pipe.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0623-2
       
  • Fabrication of Fullerene-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Nanocomposites
    • Authors: Hamed Asgharzadeh; Hamid Faraghi; Hyoung Seop Kim
      Abstract: Abstract Fullerene-reinforced Al matrix nanocomposites were fabricated by high-energy mechanical milling followed by consolidation through hot extrusion or high-pressure torsion (HPT). The results indicate that a relatively homogeneous microstructure consisting of elongated, micrometer-sized Al grains is formed in the hot-extruded specimens. However, the microstructure is not uniform along the radius of the HPT disks, which includes coarse grains near the center of the disk and ultrafine grains in the middle and along the edge of the specimen. Microstructural evaluations of the HPT disks indicate that Al grain refinement occurs due to the addition of fullerene, as grain size is reduced to 60 nm from 118 nm. The formation of the harmful aluminum carbide phase is not detected during the fabrication of Al/C60 nanocomposites. The hardness, yield stress, and ultimate tensile strength of the Al-2 vol.% C60 nanocomposites are about 27–160% higher than those of the monolithic Al samples, revealing the effective strengthening of fullerene particles in Al matrix. Moreover, mechanical properties of the Al/fullerene nanocomposites are significantly enhanced (59–272%) by utilizing HPT in comparison to hot-extruded specimens due to their much finer Al grain structure. The reduction in the number and the size of the dimples, as well as the formation of smooth regions on the tensile fracture surface of Al/C60, results in their overall lower ductility compared to monolithic Al.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0629-9
       
 
 
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