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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)
  [SJR: 0.525]   [H-I: 18]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1006-7191 - ISSN (Online) 2194-1289
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Hardware Materials in Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell: A Review
    • Authors: Ling Chen; Chao-Yi Yuh
      Pages: 289 - 295
      Abstract: Abstract The high-temperature molten carbonate fuel cell is an ultra-clean and highly efficient power generator. It is operated at ~550–650 °C, which is considered optimal in facilitating fast fuel cell reaction kinetics, utilizing waste heat efficiently, and allowing use of commercial construction materials. Commercial MW-size (mega watt) power plants of FuelCell Energy products have already been deployed worldwide. Metallic hardware materials are extensively utilized and may experience high-temperature reducing and oxidizing atmospheres in the presence of molten alkali carbonate electrolyte. Material selections are founded on many decades of focused research and development and field experience. Results to date show that the baseline stack module materials meet 5-year life goal and BOP (balance of plant) construction materials meet 20-year life goal. Material durability is well understood, and solutions are available to further extend the durability. This paper will review hardware materials experience and development approaches that would further reduce cost and extend life.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0547-x
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Performance of Corrosion-Resistant Alloys in Concentrated Acids
    • Authors: Ajit Mishra
      Pages: 306 - 318
      Abstract: Abstract Nickel alloys containing optimum amounts of chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) are widely used in the chemical processing industries due to their tolerance to both oxidizing and reducing conditions. Unlike stainless steel (SS), Ni–Cr–Mo (W) alloys exhibit remarkably high uniform corrosion resistance in major concentrated acids, like hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). A higher uniform corrosion resistance of Ni–Cr–Mo (W) alloys, compared to other alloys, in concentrated acids can be attributed to the formation of protective oxide film of Mo and W in reducing acids, and Cr oxide film in oxidizing solutions. The localized corrosion resistance of Ni–Cr–Mo (W) alloys, containing high amount Cr as well as Mo (or Mo + W), is also significantly higher than that of other commercially available alloys. The present study investigates the role of alloying elements, in nickel alloys, to uniform corrosion resistance in concentrated acids (HCl, HCl + oxidizing impurities and H2SO4) and localized corrosion performance in chloride-rich environments using ASTM G-48 test methodology. The corrosion tests were conducted on various alloys, and the results were analyzed using weight loss technique and electrochemical techniques, in conjunction with surface characterization tools.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0538-y
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Corrosion Behavior and Hardness of Al– M ( M : Mo, Si, Ti, Cr)
    • Authors: J. Esquivel; R. K. Gupta
      Pages: 333 - 341
      Abstract: Abstract The corrosion behavior of Al–5 at.% Cr, Al–5 at.% Si, Al–5 at.% Mo and Al–5 at.% Ti produced via casting and Al–5 at.% Cr produced by high-energy ball milling and subsequent consolidation by cold pressing was studied using potentiodynamic polarization and surface analysis following constant immersion tests. Alloys were characterized using a scanning electron microscope coupled with the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Hardness, a representative of the strength, was also measured. The alloys produced by casting contained coarse intermetallics and therefore exhibited poor corrosion resistance. Al–5 at.% Cr alloy produced by high-energy ball milling exhibited a significantly improved corrosion resistance and hardness, which was attributed to the grain refinement to nanoscale and extended solid solubility of Cr in Al. The study indicated that the high-energy ball milling was capable of producing Al alloys with improved corrosion behavior and hardness.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0550-2
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Galvanic Effect Between Galvanized Steel and Carbon Fiber Reinforced
    • Authors: Chi Zhang; Da-Jiang Zheng; Guang-Ling Song
      Pages: 342 - 351
      Abstract: Abstract The galvanic corrosion behavior of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) GM-CFRP and Tepex-CFRP in contact with a Zn-coated DP590 steel in solution containing 0.9 wt% NaCl + 0.1 wt% CaCl2 + 0.075 wt% NaHCO3 was investigated. The results showed that the GM-CFRP/steel couple was initially more resistant to galvanic corrosion, but its galvanic corrosion activity gradually became higher than the Tepex-CFRP/steel couple. The different galvanic behaviors of these two couples were discussed based on the electrochemical performance of GM-CFRP, Tepex-CFRP and DP590 coupons in the testing solution.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0539-x
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Threshold Chloride Concentration for Passivity Breakdown of
           Mg–Zn–Gd–Nd–Zr Alloy (EV31A) in Basic Solution
    • Authors: Jakraphan Ninlachart; Krishnan S. Raja
      Pages: 352 - 366
      Abstract: Abstract Mg–Zn–Gd–Nd–Zr alloy (EV31A) is a heat-treatable magnesium (Mg) cast alloy that can be used up to 200 °C for automobile and aerospace applications. This alloy has excellent mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength: 280 MPa at room temperature, and ~230 MPa at 200 °C) and improved corrosion resistance. Electrochemical corrosion studies were conducted on this alloy under different heat treatment conditions in 0.1 M NaOH solution with the addition of 0–1000 ppm of chloride. The alloy showed excellent passivity in the 0.1 M NaOH solution. The passive potential range typically extended to more than 1.2 VAg/AgCl. The transpassive potential was observed to be dependent on heat treatment condition of the alloy. More than 80 ppm of chloride was required to induce passivity breakdown in any heat treatment condition. Peak aging at 200 °C for 16 h imparted better resistance for localized corrosion than other heat-treated conditions. The alloy in the as-received condition showed the highest passivation kinetics due to its smaller grain size that possibly increased the diffusion of reactive elements to form protective oxide. The passive film of the EV31A alloy showed n-type semiconductivity with a charge carrier density of ~2 × 1021 cm−3 with no chloride addition. The charge carrier density increased with chloride addition in the electrolyte which could be correlated with the susceptibility to localized corrosion.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0548-9
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Threshold Chloride Concentrations and Passivity Breakdown of Rebar Steel
           in Real Concrete Solution at Different pH Conditions with the Addition of
    • Authors: Robert Blair; Batric Pesic; Jacob Kline; Ian Ehrsam; Krishnan Raja
      Pages: 376 - 389
      Abstract: Abstract Addition of glycerol as a viscosity modifier in concrete is proposed to decrease the permeability of corrosion-inducing ions such as chloride and sulfate. In addition to controlling the permeability of concrete, glycerol could perform as an inhibitor of corrosion of rebar steel. Cyclic polarization studies were carried out on metallographically polished rebar steel specimens in actual concrete solutions at two different pH conditions (pH 12.5 and 9.0) and different chloride concentrations. The threshold concentration of chloride for passivity breakdown at pH 12.5 was greater than 50 × 10−3 mol/L in the absence of glycerol addition. The threshold increased to 81 × 10−3 mol/L upon addition of 2 wt% glycerol. The threshold chloride concentration for passivity breakdown in pH 9.0 cement solution was 0.2 × 10−3 mol/L without glycerol addition. No beneficial effect of glycerol was observed in the low pH condition. However, glycerol enhanced the passivation kinetics of the rebar steel in saturated cement solution, but did not affect the electronic properties of the passive layer. The passive layers exhibited n-type semiconductivity with a charge carrier density in the range of 2–7.5 × 1020 cm−3. Polarization of the specimens to potentials is higher than oxygen evolution potential, resulted in transition top-type semiconducting character due to an accumulation of holes. This phenomenon could be related to the passivity breakdown.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0532-4
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Corrosion Resistance of Transmission Pipeline Steel Coated with Five Types
           of Enamels
    • Authors: Liang Fan; Fujian Tang; Signo T. Reis; Genda Chen; Michael L. Koenigstein
      Pages: 390 - 398
      Abstract: Abstract Corrosion is one of the main causes of incidents occurred in hazardous liquid and gas transmission pipelines in the USA, resulting in a loss of over $12 billion per year. In this study, the corrosion resistance of pipeline steel coated with five types of enamel was investigated in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution with linear polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. Steel coupons were cut from API 5L X65 pipeline steel and coated with five types of enamels using the wet process. The microstructures of all enamel samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Experimental results indicate that all enamel coatings increase the corrosion resistance of pipeline steel, and pure enamel PE2, mixed enamels ME1 and ME2 have higher corrosion resistances than pure enamel PE1 and mixed enamel ME3.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0554-y
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • A Review on Grain Refinement of Aluminum Alloys: Progresses, Challenges
           and Prospects
    • Authors: Ren-Guo Guan; Di Tie
      Abstract: Abstract Aluminum becomes the most popular nonferrous metal and is widely used in many fields such as packaging, building transportation and electrical materials due to its rich resource, light weight, good mechanical properties, suitable corrosion resistance and excellent electrical conductivity. Grain refinement, which is obtained by changing the size of grain structure by different techniques, is a preferred method to improve simultaneously the strength and plasticity of metallic materials. Therefore, grain refining of aluminum is regarded as a key technique in aluminum processing industry. Up to now, there have been a number of techniques for aluminum grain refining. All the techniques can be classified as four categories as follows: grain refining by vibration and stirring during solidification, rapid solidification, the addition of grain refiner and severe plastic deformation. Each of them has its own merits and demerits as well as applicable conditions, and there are still some arguments in the understanding of the mechanisms of these techniques. In this article, the research progresses and challenges encountered in the present techniques and the future research issues and directions are summarized.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0565-8
  • Comparison of Acoustic Emission Characteristics for C/SiC Composite
           Component Under Combination of Heating and Mechanical Loading
    • Authors: Zhi-Yong Tan; Chang-Wan Min; Hong-Wei Wu; Yu-Hai Qian; Mei-Shuan Li
      Abstract: Abstract The acoustic emission (AE) characteristics of C/SiC composite component under various conditions were compared, with the purpose of identifying the possible damage and failure mechanism. During the process of the single mechanical loading, the highest amplitude of the AE signal was less than 85 dB and the main damage forms of matrix cracking and interface debonding were involved. For the heating process, high-energy AE signals with an amplitude more than 85 dB were detected and fiber fracture mechanism was determined as well due to the thermal stress caused by the mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficient between the reinforced fiber and matrix. During the combination process of the heating and mechanical loading, it was concluded that the degree of damage was much severer than the simple superposition of damage produced by the individual mechanical loading and the individual heating process.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0564-9
  • Shape Memory Effect Induced by Stress-induced α ′ Martensite in a
           Metastable Fe–Cr–Ni Austenitic Stainless Steel
    • Authors: Yong-Ning Wang; Jie Chen; Hua-Bei Peng; Yu-Hua Wen
      Abstract: Abstract It is not clear whether a shape memory effect (SME) can be realized by stress-induced α′ martensite in metastable austenitic stainless steels although the stress-induced ε martensite in these materials can result in the SME. To clarify this problem, the relationship between the shape recovery and the reverse transformation of the stress-induced ε and α′ martensite in a 304 stainless steel was investigated. The results show that the stress-induced α′ martensite can result in the SME when heating above 773 K. After deformation at 77 K and step heating or directly holding at 1073 K, two-stage shape recoveries below 440 K and above 773 K can be obtained due to the reverse transformation of the stress-induced ε martensite and α′ martensite, respectively. After deformation at room temperature, the α′ martensite produced can result in the SME only when directly holding at 1073 K. The intrusion of more dislocations before the formation of the α′ martensite at room temperature than at 77 K is the reason that the α′martensite induced at room temperature cannot result in the SME in the case of slow heating. The recovered strains resulting from the stress-induced ε and α′ martensite are proportional to the amounts of their reverse transformation, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0571-x
  • Effect of Stress Ratio on the Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of the
           Nickel-based GH4169 Alloy
    • Authors: Shen Ye; Jian-Guo Gong; Xian-Cheng Zhang; Shan-Tung Tu; Cheng-Cheng Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract The fatigue crack growth behavior of the newly developed GH4169 nickel-based alloy at a maximum stress of 700 MPa and different stress ratios was investigated in the present work employing the specimens with a single micro-notch at a frequency of 129 Hz at room temperature. The results demonstrate a typical three-stage process of fatigue crack propagation processing from the microstructurally small crack (MSC) stage to the physically small crack (PSC) stage, and finally to the long crack stage. The crack growth rate in the MSC stage is relatively high, while the crack growth rate in the PSC stage is relatively low. A linear function of crack-tip reversible plastic zone size was proposed to predict the crack growth rate, indicating an adequate prediction solution.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0567-6
  • Dendritic Growth, Eutectic Features and Their Effects on Hardness of a
           Ternary Sn–Zn–Cu Solder Alloy
    • Authors: Bismarck Luiz Silva; Rodrigo Valenzuela Reyes; Amauri Garcia; José Eduardo Spinelli
      Abstract: Abstract The present investigation is based on the results of a directionally solidified (DS) Sn–9 wt%Zn–2 wt%Cu alloy, including primary/secondary/tertiary dendrite arm spacings of the Sn-rich matrix, the morphologies of the eutectic mixture and the corresponding interphase spacing, the nature and proportion of the Cu–Zn intermetallic compound (IMC). The main purpose is to establish interrelations of these microstructure features with experimental solidification thermal parameters, such as cooling rates and growth rates (v), macrosegregation and hardness. Such interrelations are interesting for both industry and academy since they represent a tool permitting the preprogramming of final properties based on the design of the microstructure. In the case of Sn–Zn–Cu alloys, hardly anything is known about the combined effects of the length scale of the microstructure and fraction and distribution of the primary IMC on hardness. The alloy microstructure is composed of a β-Sn dendritic region, surrounded by a eutectic mixture of α-Zn and β-Sn phases and the γ-Cu5Zn8 IMC. The eutectic interphase spacing varies in the range 1.2–3.6 μm, with the α-Zn phase having a globular morphology for v > 0.5 mm/s and a needle-like morphology for v < 0.3 mm/s. A modified Hall–Petch-type experimental expression relating hardness to the interphase spacing is proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0572-9
  • Transformation Mechanism of ( γ  +  γ ′) and the Effect of Cooling
           Rate on the Final Solidification of U720Li Alloy
    • Authors: Guang-Di Zhao; Guo-Liang Yang; Fang Liu; Xin Xin; Wen-Ru Sun
      Abstract: Abstract The transformation mechanism of (γ + γ′) was studied by analyzing the microstructure and elemental distribution of the U720Li samples heated at 1250 °C and cooled at the rates in the range of 1–100 °C/s. Although the (γ + γ′) is deemed to be formed by a eutectic reaction and has been called eutectic (γ + γ′), it was found in the present study that the (γ + γ′) precipitation begins with a peritectic reaction of (L + γ) → γ′, and develops by the eutectic reaction of L → (γ + γ′). The energy for the γ′ nucleation is low because the interfacial energy for the γ/γ′ interface is about one-tenth of the solid/liquid interface, and hence, the nucleation rate is high and the fine structure of (γ + γ′) is formed at the initial precipitation stage. The γ and γ′ in (γ + γ′) tend to grow into a lamellar structure because it is difficult for them to nucleate directly from the residual liquids, and hence, the γ′ precipitates naturally tend to grow divergently direction of the regions rich in Al and Ti, forming a fan-like structure of the (γ + γ′). As a result, the γ′ precipitates will coarsen finally because the space between them is enlarged. The solidification of the final residual liquids is a diffusion dependent process. When cooled at a higher rate, a higher degree of super cooling is reached and finally the solidification is finished by the pseudo-eutectic reaction of L → (γ + boride) and L → (γ + η), which can absorb Zr and B. When cooled at a rate low enough, most of the residual liquids are consumed by the (γ + γ′) growth due to the sufficient diffusion, and the boride and Zr-bearing phase are precipitated at a quasi-equilibrium state. Under this condition, Ti is depleted at the (γ + γ′) growth front. However, the η-Ni3Ti phase is formed there occasionally due to the boride precipitation, because the compositions of the two phases are complementary.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0566-7
  • Synthesis and Compression Property of Oxidation-Resistant Ni–Al
    • Authors: Wen-Wen Zeng; Si-Han Hou; Xiao-Jun Ding; De-Li Duan; Shu Li; Shi-Hong Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Three different Ni–Al foams were synthesized by vapor aluminizing with control of aluminizing time. Oxidation tests under 1100 °C and compression tests were conducted to evaluate the oxidation resistance and compression properties of the foams. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) tests were carried out to study the phase composition and microstructure of Ni–Al foams before and after oxidation. Results showed that vapor aluminizing process did not change the foam macro- and microstructure, and the phase composition became from β/γ′-phase to single β-phase as the aluminizing time extending. The Ni–Al foams possessed excellent oxidation resistance, and decreased Al content increased oxidation weight gain and altered oxidation products. Foams containing single β-phase presented obvious brittleness under compression tests, but the foam with β/γ′-phase exhibited elasticity and toughness to a certain extent. The elasticity and toughness of the foams significantly can be improved after oxidation because of the phase changing in matrix during oxidation, and the pre-oxidized high-Al-content Ni–Al foams exhibited good compression properties, as well as excellent oxidation resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0569-4
  • Tribological Characterization of Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites Processed
           by Powder Metallurgy
    • Authors: M. Megahed; M. A. Attia; M. Abdelhameed; A. G. El-Shafei
      Abstract: Abstract Aluminum (Al)-based aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and silicon carbide (SiC) particles hybrid metal matrix composites were processed by powder metallurgy technique, followed by sintering at 500 °C and then hot extrusion. The tribological properties of these composites with different weight fractions of Al2O3 and SiC were investigated; extrusion process significantly reduces the extent of porosity after cold compaction and sintering processes. Hybridization of the two reinforcements improved hardness and wear resistance of the composites. With an increase in SiC content, hardness was increased and consequently the wear resistance was enhanced also. Scanning electron microscopy observations show a better interfacial bond between matrix and reinforcements and a better distribution of the reinforcements.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0568-5
  • Interpenetrated Magnesium–Tricalcium Phosphate Composite: Manufacture,
           Characterization and In Vitro Degradation Test
    • Authors: Mariano Casas-Luna; Serhii Tkachenko; Miroslava Horynová; Lenka Klakurková; Pavel Gejdos; Sebastian Diaz-de-la-Torre; Ladislav Celko; Jozef Kaiser; Edgar B. Montufar
      Abstract: Abstract Magnesium and calcium phosphates composites are promising biomaterials to create biodegradable load-bearing implants for bone regeneration. The present investigation is focused on the design of an interpenetrated magnesium–tricalcium phosphate (Mg–TCP) composite and its evaluation under immersion test. In the study, TCP porous preforms were fabricated by robocasting to have a prefect control of porosity and pore size and later infiltrated with pure commercial Mg through current-assisted metal infiltration (CAMI) technique. The microstructure, composition, distribution of phases and degradation of the composite under physiological simulated conditions were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, elemental chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that robocast TCP preforms were full infiltrated by magnesium through CAMI, even small pores below 2 μm have been filled with Mg, giving to the composite a good interpenetration. The degradation rate of the Mg–TCP composite displays lower value compared to the one of pure Mg during the first 24 h of immersion test.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0560-0
  • Corrosion Study of Base Material and Welds of a
           Ni–Cr–Mo–W Alloy
    • Authors: Ajit Mishra
      Abstract: Abstract Alloys containing chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo), as the major alloying elements, are widely used in various industries where the material experiences corrosive environments. Chromium (Cr), when added in an optimum amount, forms a Cr2O3 passive film which protects the underlying metal in aggressive solutions. Molybdenum (Mo) forms its oxides in the low pH solutions, thus, enhances the uniform corrosion resistance of an alloy in reducing acids and assists in inhibition to localized corrosion. Minor alloying elements, like tungsten (W) and copper (Cu), also improve the overall corrosion resistance of an alloy in specific solutions. In the present study, corrosion resistance behavior of commercial iron-based alloys (316L SS, 254 SMO and 20Cb3) and nickel-based alloys (Monel 400, Alloy 625 and C-276) was studied in the acidic solutions. While the corrosion behavior of wrought alloys has been widely studied, there is little to no information on the corrosion performance of their welds, typically being the weak regions for corrosion initiation and propagation. Therefore, an attempt was undertaken to investigate the uniform and localized corrosion performance of base metal, simulated heat-affected zone and all-weld-metal samples of a Ni–Cr–Mo–W alloy, C-276. The study was conducted in aggressive acidic solutions. Various corrosion and surface analytical techniques were utilized to analyze the results.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0559-6
  • Localized Corrosion Characteristics of Nickel Alloys: A Review
    • Authors: Helmuth Sarmiento Klapper; Natalia S. Zadorozne; Raul B. Rebak
      Abstract: Abstract There are a great variety of commercial nickel alloys mainly because nickel is able to dissolve a large amount of alloying elements while maintaining a single ductile austenitic phase. Nickel alloys are generally designed for and used in highly aggressive environments, for example, those where stainless steels may experience pitting corrosion or environmentally assisted cracking. While nickel alloys are generally resistant to pitting corrosion in chloride-containing environments, they may be prone to crevice corrosion attack. Addition of chromium, molybdenum and tungsten increases the localized corrosion resistance of nickel alloys. This review on the resistance to localized corrosion of nickel alloys includes specific environments such as those present in oil and gas upstream operations, in the chemical process industry and in seawater service.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0553-z
  • Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in Highly Alkaline Environment
    • Authors: Somi Doja; Lukas Bichler; Simon Fan
      Abstract: Abstract Industrial components made with a magnesium–aluminum alloy AZ31 are often used in diverse engineering applications where component weight, strength, and durability are critical. Similarly as other Mg alloys, however, the AZ31 is susceptible to corrosion in alkaline environments. In this work, corrosion of commercial grade AZ31 alloy plate was examined in potassium hydroxide (KOH) using immersion and potentiodynamic studies. The results suggest that the concentration of Al and Mn in the alloy may govern the kinetics of micro-galvanic corrosion and the initiation of corrosion pits. Further, trace amounts of Ni in the AZ31 alloy were seen to enable formation of Ni(OH)2 surface layer, which may have further accelerated alloy corrosion due to its cracking and void coalescence. The effect of pH on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 was studied with reference to Pourbaix diagrams.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0549-8
  • Long-term Field Corrosion Monitoring in Supporting Structures of China
           Xiamen Xiangan Subsea Tunnel
    • Authors: Chao-Yang Gong; Xiao-Yong He; Yong-Wei Li; Si-Zhe He; Xuan Cheng; Liu-Ying Huang; Ying Zhang; Jiu-Bin Chen; Shao-Hui Xu; Jian-Bin Zhang; Chao Zeng
      Abstract: Abstract Xiamen Xiangan Subsea Tunnel is the first undersea tunnel constructed in China. It has become the major undersea pathway connecting Xiamen Island and Xiangan District since its operation in 2010. The total length is 6.05 km with the undersea length of 4.2 km. In an effort to onsite-monitor reinforcement corrosion in concrete structures, the commercially available CorroWatch multiprobe sensors and ERE-20 reference electrodes were pre-embedded in the selected locations and positions of supporting structures during the tunnel constructions. The real-time data have been collected annually by onsite measurements for 6 years. In this paper, the feasibility of the onsite corrosion monitoring system and suitability of the measured parameters including corrosion current, potential and temperature are discussed based on the preliminary results. The measured typical cyclic-type variations in corrosion current and temperature with monitoring time might be related to the seasonal changes during the annual routine measurements. The widely scattered corrosion potentials that are fluctuated complicatedly reflected localized differences in the vicinity of rebar and concrete. These findings, along with the progressively ongoing research, will provide valuable information in structural durability for service life prediction of reinforced concrete structures exposed to marine environments.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0552-0
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