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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2341 journals)

 Adsorption   [SJR: 0.774]   [H-I: 52]   [4 followers]  Follow         Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)    ISSN (Print) 1572-8757 - ISSN (Online) 0929-5607    Published by Springer-Verlag  [2341 journals]
• Adsorptive smoothers for exhaust gas cleaning
• Authors: Sven Meyer; Otto Carlowitz; Matthias Napp; Sven Gutperl
Pages: 211 - 216
Abstract: Abstract Organic solvents are used in a variety of production processes. Each process has a specific emission curve. Emission curves with high concentration peaks of organic solvents lead to difficult engineering of necessary exhaust gas treatment plants. The implementation of adsorptive smoother buffers organic solvents during high emission periods, while a discharge from the storage increases the output level during low emission periods. Additionally the cut off of emission peaks has the advantage of an easier compliance with safety requirements. Modelling results as well as experimental data show the effect of adsorptive smoothers for exhaust gas flows. Defining a degree of smoothing it can be shown that the amplitude of peaks can be reduced up to over 90 % depending of the adsorbent. Nevertheless experiments with multi-component mixtures of organic solvents are necessary to analyze effects like co-adsorption.
PubDate: 2017-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-016-9822-9
Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2-3 (2017)

• Probing adsorption on a nanoscale: field desorption microspectroscopy
• Authors: Yuri Suchorski
Pages: 217 - 224
Abstract: Abstract Combining an energy analyzer with a field ion microscope equipped with a probe-hole which corresponds to just few atomic surface sites, spatially resolved energy analysis of ions field desorbed from the adsorbent surface is possible on a nm-scale. The experimentally measured values of the kinetic energy of field ions can be related (by means of a thermionic cycle) to the physically meaningful binding energy of corresponding adsorbed species. The development of the technique into a full serviceable micro-spectroscopy on a nanoscale allowed recent detection of the weakly adsorbed CO species on Pt(111) which are largely analogous to those adsorbed at high pressures and provided first results for the binding energy of Li adatoms in a coadsorption system, namely Li–O–W(112) for various lithium and oxygen coverages. In the present contribution, an overview of the experimental possibilities of the technique is given and recent results are discussed.
PubDate: 2017-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-016-9824-7
Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2-3 (2017)

• Influence of free-space calibration using He on the measurement of
• Authors: Marie Shimomura; Masayuki Yoshida; Akira Endo
Pages: 249 - 255
Abstract: Abstract It is well known that helium (He) molecules that remain inside micropores after free-space calibration at a low temperature (77.4 K) affect the shape of an adsorption isotherm, especially in a very low relative pressure region. This negative effect of the remaining He leads to a misunderstanding of the porous characteristics, such as micropore size distribution and surface properties. However, it is still believed that such erroneous interpretations are limited to narrow microporous materials such as activated carbon and measurements at low temperatures, namely the measurement of the adsorption of N2 and Ar at their boiling points. Here we report a systematic investigation of the influence of free-space calibration using He on microporous, mesoporous and non-porous materials. Zeolite Y, mesoporous silica, carbon black and aerosil 200 were used for the measurements. N2, H2O and CO2 adsorption isotherms were measured at 77.4, 298 and 298 K, respectively. Free-space calibration was carried out before and after the isotherm measurement for each sample. Although the influence of the He that remained in the sample was small for the non-porous sample, the shape of the isotherms for the other samples in a low relative pressure region was rather affected by the timing of the free-space calibration even for the mesoporous sample, and at an ambient temperature.
PubDate: 2017-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-016-9845-2
Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2-3 (2017)

• Toxic gas sensing on nanoporous carbons
• Authors: Nikolina A. Travlou; Teresa J. Bandosz
Pages: 271 - 280
Abstract: Abstract Activated carbons, either synthetic, developed in our laboratory, or commercial were prepared or further modified, in order to introduce specific heteroatoms such as oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur to their matrix. Chips with thin layers of active materials were prepared and used for ammonia or hydrogen sulfide sensing. They showed high sensitivity and their response was selective. They also responded linearly to changes in various ammonia concentrations. The incorporation of specific heteroatoms to the carbons matrices was an effective means to control the type of the charge carriers, and thus the electronic and transport properties. Depending on the specific chemical arrangement of heteroatoms, materials exhibiting n- or p-type conduction were obtained. Pyridines and nitropyridines played an important role. A small amount of ammonia was oxidized to NO2 on the surface of sulfur and nitrogen co-doped carbons, due to their ability to generate superoxide ions. When adsorbed in the pore system of the carbons, it affected the electrical signal due to an increase in the population of holes as charge carriers. The synergistic effect between the heteroatoms greatly enhanced the electrical response of the chips. The mechanism governing the reversible sensing involved several processes, including specific interactions between NH3 and surface functional groups, pore-filling with NH3/NO2, and electron–hole conductivity. The structural and chemical features of the carbons were found to act either synergistically or competitively. Surface acidity, by enhancing the affinity of the carbons towards NH3 adsorption, contributed to an ammonia selective detection.
PubDate: 2017-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-016-9848-z
Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2-3 (2017)

• 5-fluorouracil adsorption on hydrated silica: density functional theory
based-study
• Authors: A. Díaz Compañy; A. Juan; G. Brizuela; S. Simonetti
Pages: 321 - 325
Abstract: Abstract Hydrated SiO2(111) has been projected as a competent support of an anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Theoretical calculations using the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) were performed to study the drug-silica interactions that control the adsorption of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on an hydrated SiO2(111) surface. Only dispersive interactions are presented during the drug adsorption on the hydrophobic surface while cooperation exists between directional H-bonds and dispersion forces on hydrated silica. H-bonds become dominant for the hydrophilic surface driven interactions with important energetic consequences on adsorption. The density of states slightly shifted towards lower energy values showing a stabilization of the electron states of the 5-FU molecule on hydrated silica, and the electronic charge transfer mainly happens on the interface between polar groups of 5-FU and the nearest silanol groups, in agreement with the formation of the H-bonding interactions. The results reveal the remarkable influence of H-bonds in the adsorption mechanism on hydrated silica.
PubDate: 2017-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-016-9853-2
Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2-3 (2017)

• Adsorption accumulation of natural gas based on microporous carbon
• Authors: I. E. Men’shchikov; A. A. Fomkin; A. Yu. Tsivadze; A. V. Shkolin; E. M. Strizhenov; E. V. Khozina
Pages: 327 - 339
PubDate: 2017-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-016-9854-1
Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2-3 (2017)

• Decomposition of dimethyl carbonate caused by adsorption onto activated
carbon
• Authors: Friederike Stehmann; Eike Wiegmann; Stephan Scholl
Pages: 341 - 348
Abstract: Abstract This contribution addresses the adsorptive cleaning of an exhaust gas released from a Lithium–Ion-battery recycling process. Adsorption in fixed beds is frequently used to clean off gases containing solvents, toxic components, or other contaminates. Well-established short-cut models are available to determine capacity and dynamics of such adsorber beds. However, uncertainties arise if the gas contains unknown trace components or if new components appear due to chemical reaction or decomposition processes. In the present study, the off gas mainly consists of dimethyl carbonate in a nitrogen gas stream. Dimethyl carbonate decomposes when contacted with activated carbon. The decomposition product methanol co-adsorbs together with dimethyl carbonate onto activated carbon and therefore decreases the adsorption capacity for DMC. This paper shows the influences of temperature, residence time, carbon mass and water on the decomposition of dimethyl carbonate. Additionally, first results of fixed-bed experiments including temperature profile and breakthrough curve are discussed to show the effect of decomposition occurring in fixed-bed adsorption.
PubDate: 2017-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-016-9858-x
Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2-3 (2017)

• Pretreatment of liquid industrial streams by adsorption: challenges and
perspectives
• Authors: Alexandra Godin
Pages: 349 - 353
Abstract: Abstract Liquid phase adsorption is a common process in waste water purification, desiccation applications or in (analytical) laboratory applications; e.g. chromatography. However, this economic separation process has even more potential. The removal of undesired poisonous, environmentally harmful or corrosive contaminants from organic liquids by adsorption is such an application. Here, contaminant concentrations can be brought down to the detection limit or even below. These contaminants can be e.g. sulfur or nitrogen compounds or heavy metals like mercury. In the liquid phase adsorption process the chemical and physical properties of the mobile components (adsorptive and bulk phase) as well as the nature of the adsorbent play an important role. Each industrial stream to be treated requires a precise analysis of the components involving the interactions between the components as well as possible resulting side reactions which may occur during the adsorption or desorption process. The paper focuses on the possibilities of desulfurization of liquid propane gas streams depending on the nature of the side components of the stream and the availability and the composition of the regeneration gas. The limitations of the adsorption capacity and selectivity of the adsorbent towards sulfuric compounds in the liquid phase are discussed. On the other hand the potential of the adsorption technology in purification of liquid streams as an inexpensive and readily available method is demonstrated.
PubDate: 2017-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-017-9859-4
Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2-3 (2017)

• Effects of phosphoric acid activation on the nanopore structures of carbon
xerogel/carbon nanotubes hybrids and their capacitance storage
• Authors: Nady A. Fathy; K. P. Annamalai; Yousheng Tao
Pages: 355 - 360
Abstract: Abstract This paper aimed to study the electrochemical capacitance behaviors in relation to the nanopore structures of three carbon materials, which were prepared under different conditions and named as carbon xerogels (CXs), carbon xerogels/carbon nanotubes hybrids (CXs/CNTs) and activated carbon xerogels/carbon nanotubes hybrids (aCXs/CNTs). Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed the growth of CNTs on the CXs surface in the CXs/CNTs hybrids. Nitrogen physisorption measurements at 77 K indicated a decrease in the specific surface area and the total pore volume of micropores and mesopores after decorating the CXs surface with CNTs, however an increase after activation with phosphoric acid at 973 K for 180 min. Because of the combination of CNTs and phosphoric acid activation, electrochemical capacitance increased in the order of CXs < CXs/CNTs < aCXs/CNTs and it delivered maximum capacitance of 151 F g− 1 at 2.5 A g− 1 in 1 M H2SO4.
PubDate: 2017-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-017-9860-y
Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2-3 (2017)

• Selection of a stationary phase for the chromatographic separation of
organic acids obtained from bioglycerol oxidation
• Authors: Lucas C. D. Coelho; Nelson M. L. Filho; Rui P. V. Faria; Ana M. Ribeiro; Alírio E. Rodrigues
Abstract: Abstract A screening study of the chromatographic separation of Glyceric Acid (GCA) and Tartronic Acid (TTA) was performed using three different polystyrene-divinylbenzene ion-exchange resins in hydrogen form (Dowex® 50WX-8, Dowex® 50WX-4, Dowex® 50WX-2). The experiments were described by the axial dispersion flow model with the LDF approximation incorporated into the software gPROMS. From the three investigated adsorbents differing by the crosslinking, Dowex® 50WX-2 has presented the higher adsorption capacity, as well as the highest bed efficiency expressed by the number of theoretical plates. The adsorption equilibrium constants were determined from single breakthrough experiments, and a very good agreement between experimental and simulated data was achieved for both single components and binary mixtures. Therefore, the fundamental data determined within this work represents a key contribution to the design of continuous chromatographic processes for the purification of GCA and TTA.
PubDate: 2017-04-11
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-017-9882-5

• A robust dynamic column breakthrough technique for high-pressure
measurements of adsorption equilibria and kinetics
• Authors: Thomas Saleman; Gongkui Xiao; Gang Li; Eric F. May
Abstract: Abstract Adsorption equilibria and kinetics of N2 and CH4 on four adsorbents, namely commercial activated carbon Norit RB3, zeolite 13X, zeolite 4A and molecular sieving carbon MSC-3K 172, were measured at temperatures of (273 and 303) K in the pressure range of (25–900) kPa using an improved dynamic breakthrough apparatus. Equilibrium adsorption measurements were performed with breakthrough experiments, and sorption kinetics were measured with a chromatographic pulse technique to eliminate undesirable systematics such as buoyancy and limitations imposed by heat transfer in conventional breakthrough techniques. The differential equations governing the spreading of a pulse passing through the column were solved in the Laplace domain to reduce numerical dispersion and artefacts associated with solving these equations for adsorption in the time domain on a finite grid. A method for identifying the reliable measurement range of sorption rates (mass transfer coefficients) from 10−4 to 1 s−1 was proposed and demonstrated with the four adsorbents. The sorption rates for Norit RB3 and zeolite 13X had values above the upper resolvable limit of 1 s−1. The measured sorption rates for MSC-3K 172 and zeolite 4A were compared with values obtained independently using a static volumetric method on the same adsorbents at the same temperatures but over a lower pressure range (0–110 kPa) (Xiao et al., Adsorption 23 (2017) 131–147). The sorption rates obtained for the two adsorbents via these two independent techniques were consistent within the measurement uncertainty of each method, which significantly increases the confidence with which these values can be used in simulations of industrial PSA processes.
PubDate: 2017-04-09
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-017-9884-3

• Adsorption of laterally interacting gas mixtures on homogeneous surfaces
• Authors: F. O. Sanchez-Varretti; P. M. Pasinetti; F. M. Bulnes; A. J. Ramirez-Pastor
Abstract: Abstract The adsorption of binary mixtures containing particles A and B on homogeneous substrates is studied by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, quasi-chemical approximation (QCA), and exact counting of states on finite cells (we call this approach cluster approximation, CA). The energies involved in the adsorption model are five: (1) $$\epsilon_A,$$ interaction energy between an A particle and a lattice site; (2) $$\epsilon_B,$$ interaction energy between a B particle and a lattice site; (3) $$w_{AA},$$ nearest-neighbor interaction energy between two A particles; (4) $$w_{AB}$$ (= $$w_{BA}$$ ), nearest-neighbor interaction energy between an A particle and a B particle and (5) $$w_{BB}$$ , nearest-neighbor interaction energy between two B particles. The process is monitored by following the coverage of both species with the simultaneous increasing of the individual chemical potentials of each mixture component. A non-trivial interdependence between the partial adsorption isotherms was observed and discussed in the context of the lattice-gas theory. The theoretical formalism is used to model experimental data of methane-carbon dioxide mixtures adsorbed on activated carbon. In addition, an excellent agreement was obtained between theoretical and MC simulation results. This finding evidences the usefulness of CA and QCA as a starting point to predict the behavior of a system governed by a large number of parameters.
PubDate: 2017-04-08
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-017-9885-2

• Orthogonal numerical simulation on multi-factor design for rapid pressure
• Authors: XinGang Zheng; Hua Yao; Yun Huang
Abstract: Abstract A two-dimensional model is established to simulate the rapid pressure swing adsorption (RPSA) process used for air separation with single bed. The model considers the transport phenomena occurring in both axial and radial direction. The decision variables include five factors (two heights of dead zone, durations of pressurization and adsorption steps, product extraction ratio), and the performance indexes consist of four variables (product purity, product recovery, bed size factor and average volume product yield). Based on an L16 (45) orthogonal design, 16 cases are arranged and the corresponding simulations are performed until the cycle steady states are reached from a given initial state. Range analysis is used to investigate the relative importance of the five factors on each performance index. Each factor’s optimal level and the corresponding combination is found out for each performance index successively.
PubDate: 2017-04-08
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-017-9886-1

• Results of comparative sorption studies of the coal-methane system carried
out by means of an original volumetric device and a reference gravimetric
instrument
• Authors: Mateusz Kudasik
Abstract: Abstract The present paper discusses the idea of an innovative device for sorption measurements, working under isobaric conditions and based on a precise piston pressure regulator. As part of the research, the author compared the results of sorption measurements obtained with the constructed piston sorptomat with the results obtained by means of a reference device. The sorption capacities of 15 granular high-volatile bituminous coal samples, determined on the basis of methane sorption courses registered with both instruments were compared. The author also defined the criterion of compatibility of the obtained results, which stated that the compared results are compatible if their values fall within the range of measurement uncertainties of the instruments with which they had been established. After comparing the results obtained with the original instrument with the results obtained with the reference gravimetric device, it was observed that 30 out of 33 measurements of sorption capacities were classified as compatible (based on the defined measurement compatibility criterion). The mean difference in the readings provided by both instruments was 1.64%, for sorption capacity determined in 33 measurement points and the methane pressure range of 1–10 bar.
PubDate: 2017-04-04
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-017-9881-6

• Computer simulation of adsorption and sitting of CO 2 , N 2 , CH 4 and
water on a new Al(OH)-fumarate MOF
• Authors: Juliana A. Coelho; Adriano E. O. Lima; Alírio E. Rodrigues; Diana C. S. de Azevedo; Sebastião M. P. Lucena
Abstract: Abstract The water present in all gas stream leads to changes in the adsorbed amount of the target gas and the selectivity among the constituents of the mixture. The high stability characteristics and low cost of the new Al(OH) fumarate MOF synthetized by BASF, makes it an interesting porous material with mild hydrophobic properties for industrial use. Thus, new force field parameters were proposed for the CO2, N2 and CH4 /Al(OH) fumarate systems validated by adsorption experimental data in three temperatures. The sittings of CO2, N2, CH4 and H2O molecules inside the MOF pores at high (303 K) and low (150 K or 230 K) temperatures were also presented. An alternative approach that performed Monte Carlo simulations on two ensembles, the canonical ensemble (NVT) and the grand canonical ensemble (µVT), was validated and applied to evaluate the coadsorption of CO2/H2O, N2/H2O and CH4/H2O for a MOF exposure to the relative humidity of 14, 20, 25, 30 and 40% at 303 K. The gases molecules fill the center of the pores of the Al(OH) fumarate MOF near the aluminum clusters. The water molecules showed a complex behavior, forming clusters even in the early stages of adsorption. The Al(OH)-fumarate MOF, when compared to NaX, shows hydrophobic behavior and impaired in CO2 capacity only at relative humidity above 20%. We also found that CO2 selectivity increases for CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 as the amount of water increases. We hope that the proposed methodology to study water coadsorption could be applied to other frameworks to assist in the screening of MOF for separation/capture.
PubDate: 2017-02-22
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-017-9872-7

• Editorial for the special issue “FOA-12” in “adsorption” by the
guest editor Andreas Seidel-Morgenstern
• Authors: Andreas Seidel-Morgenstern
PubDate: 2017-02-18
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-017-9876-3

• Nonideal gas modelling of pressure swing adsorption processes
• Authors: Matthias Stegmaier
Abstract: Abstract Besides adsorption equilibrium and adsorption kinetics, nonisothermal temperature effects have a high impact on the simulation results and hence on the process design of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes. Due to moderate pressures of PSA processes, the gas phase is usually treated as ideal for the ease of solving the underlying model equations. As a consequence, only the ideal gas enthalpy is considered for the energy balance of the gas phase of the adsorber column. Real gas effects like the Joule-Thomson effect or the real gas mixing enthalpy effects are usually neglected. With the simulation package ADLIN, it is possible to model the gas phase in general as real phase in both the material and energy balance while the accuracy is depending on the applied underlying real gas model. The modelling of the adsorbed phase is not subject to this investigation and is modelled in the same manner as usual. On an example of detailed dynamic modelling of high pressure swing adsorption for the purification of hydrogen, the impact of nonideal gas phase vs. ideal gas phase towards the simulation results is shown. Furthermore, additional results of PSA processes are discussed based on the overall material and energy balance of the gas separation process. It turns out that for the simulation of typical hydrogen purification processes by PSA the ideal gas model is usually sufficient to get reasonable results. For high adsorption pressure or methane purification PSA, the nonideal gas simulation results deviate significantly from the ideal gas behavior, and real gas models should be applied for detailed dynamic PSA simulation. Although the capacity of the PSA was generally increased due to the nonideality of the gas phase, the product recovery was generally reduced.
PubDate: 2017-02-18
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-017-9877-2

• Adsorption of volatile organic compounds in composite zeolites pellets for
space decontamination
• Authors: Guillaume Rioland; Habiba Nouali; T. Jean Daou; Delphine Faye; Joël Patarin
Abstract: Abstract FAU–*BEA-types zeolites pellets were elaborated with a hydraulic press in the presence of a small amount (5 wt%) of binder [methylcellulose (MC) or anhydrous sodium metasilicate (Na2SiO3)] for molecular decontamination, in particular for the space field. Nitrogen sorption–desorption revealed a small loss of micropore volume (10%) with a compression load of 6 tons (0.24 cm3/g instead of 0.27 cm3/g for the mixture of FAU and *BEA-types zeolites powders), which can be attributed to a partial amorphization. Adsorption kinetics of n-hexane, and cyclohexane showed that the optimum pellets can adsorb volatile organic compounds. For example, FAU–*BEA-type zeolite powder mixture (50 wt% of each zeolite) adsorb 130 mg of n-hexane per g of anhydrous zeolite whereas the pellets made with 5 wt% of MC or Na2SiO3 adsorb about 117–118 mg of n-hexane per g of anhydrous zeolite. These results are coherent with the ones obtained with the cyclohexane and nitrogen adsorption where a small loss of the adsorption capacities was observed.
PubDate: 2017-02-07
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-017-9870-9

• Parameters estimability analysis and identification for adsorption
equilibrium models of carbon dioxide
• Authors: S. Bedel; C. Vallières; M. A. Latifi
Abstract: Abstract This research work deals with the modeling of the CO2 adsorption on a commercial adsorbent, based on the temperature dependent Sips and Toth models. In fact, these semi-empirical approaches can properly predict the equilibrium of adsorption of CO2, and more specifically in the case of energetically heterogeneous surfaces. In addition, the investigated adsorption models involve several unknown parameters to be estimated from the available adsorption equilibrium experimental data, measured between 303 and 343 K and up to a CO2 partial pressure of 101 kPa. An estimability analysis was therefore carried out in order to evaluate which parameters are estimable and those that can be fixed either from literature or from previous studies. According to the estimability analysis, whatever the adsorption model which is used, only one over the six unknown parameters is considered as nonestimable. The estimable model parameters are especially the maximum amount adsorbed (qm0), the equilibrium constant (b0), the heterogeneity factors (s0 and t0) assessed at the reference temperature (T0) as well as the constant model parameter (α), which is related to the heterogeneity factors (s and t). The estimable parameters were then identified and their optimized values were used in the comparison of the model predictions and the experimental measurements of CO2 adsorption equilibrium. The results show finally that the model predictions fit well with the experimental data.
PubDate: 2017-02-06
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-017-9864-7

• Estimating pore size distributions of activated carbons via optical
calorimetry
• Authors: Michelle Wöllner; Matthias Leistner; Philipp Wollmann; Matthias Benusch; Nicole Klein; Wulf Grählert; Stefan Kaskel
Abstract: Abstract Optical calorimetry is a powerful technique for the characterization of porous materials within only a few minutes (e.g. specific surface area, adsorption capacity). In the current work, optical calorimetry is presented to be a versatile tool for the pore size characterization of activated carbons. Therefore, measurements were performed with six different test gases (N2O, C2H6, C3H8, n-C4H10, i-C4H10, SF6) in the optical calorimeter InfraSORP at ambient conditions. By combining the results of optical calorimetric measurement for each adsorptive, a pore size distribution (PSD) can be estimated in the range of 0.4–6 nm which is in accurate accordance with the PSD of reference CO2 (273 K) and N2 (77 K) physisorption experiments. While common physisorption experiments can easily take a few days, the PSD by using the optical calorimetric screening is obtained within roughly 1 h.
PubDate: 2017-02-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-016-9852-3

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