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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

 Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering   [SJR: 0.345]   [H-I: 20]   [5 followers]  Follow         Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)    ISSN (Print) 1319-8025    Published by Springer-Verlag  [2352 journals]
• An Efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Photovoltaic
Systems Using Takagi–Sugeno Fuzzy Models
• Authors: D. Ounnas; M. Ramdani; S. Chenikher; T. Bouktir
Pages: 4971 - 4982
Abstract: This paper proposes a new Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy model-based maximum power tracking controller to draw the maximum power from a solar photovoltaic (PV) system. A DC–DC boost converter is used to control the output power from the PV panel. Based on the T–S fuzzy model, the fuzzy maximum power point tracking controller is designed by constructing fuzzy gain state feedback controller and an optimal reference model for the optimal PV output voltage, which corresponds actually to maximum power point (MPP). A comparative study with the two base-line controllers of perturb and observe, and the incremental conductance shows that the proposed controller offers fast dynamic response, much less oscillation around MPP, and superior performance.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2532-0
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• A Novel Square Wave Generator Using Second-Generation Differential Current
Conveyor
• Authors: Vallabhuni Vijay; Avireni Srinivasulu
Pages: 4983 - 4990
Abstract: By using two resistors and a single capacitor with second-generation differential current conveyor as an active element, a new square wave generator is proposed and implemented. The frequency of operation of the introduced model is varied with respect to the variation of remaining passive components. Maximum reduction in noise effects caused by parasitics generated during integrated circuit fabrication is achieved with the scheme of grounded capacitor. The mathematical model of the selected circuit is verified in both simulation and experimental mode and found having matched in all three aspects. The elevated advantages and merits of the given topology are compared and tabulated contrary to the existing standard models. Using Cadence virtuoso with gpdk 180 nm libraries, the circuit is verified with a supply rail voltage of ±2.5 V. Later, prototype is also tested with commercially available current feedback operational amplifiers of AD844AN.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2539-6
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• Design and Simulation of MEMS-Based Digital-to-Analog Converters for
In-Plane Actuation
• Authors: P. Pandiyan; G. Uma; M. Umapathy
Pages: 4991 - 5001
Abstract: A microelectromechanical system-based digital-to-analog converter (MEMS DAC) using a bent beam electrothermal compliant actuator as a single mechanical bit is proposed in this work. Two types of MEMS DAC namely asymmetric and symmetric structures with multi-bent beam actuators in a chevron arrangement are designed, modeled and simulated in MEMS CAD tool CoventorWare. The proposed DACs generate the mechanical displacement at the output from the digital input based on the principle of weighted stiffness which is analogous to an electronic weighted resistor DAC. The DACs are built using a standard SOIMUMPs process, and its coupled electrothermomechanical analysis is carried out to illustrate their performance. The device operates on 5 V which is well suited with conventional CMOS logic and in turn reduces the power consumption of the device. The simulation result shows that symmetric and asymmetric MEMS DACs produce a nonlinear error of 0.5 and 3.5% from its ideal straight line. The nonlinearity error is found to be less in symmetric design due to equal width of bent beam.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2544-9
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• Solution to Fault Detection During Power Swing Using Teager–Kaiser
Energy Operator
• Authors: Jitendra Kumar; Premalata Jena
Pages: 5003 - 5013
Abstract: The selectivity property of distance relay is affected due to the operation of power swing blocking element which is used to prevent the false tripping imposed by power swing. Therefore, the fault detection algorithm is required to overcome such type of problems. Further, the fault detection during power swing for a series-compensated line is more challenging as the metal oxide varistor protecting the series capacitor imposes other frequency components and adds transients in the voltage and current signals. To resolve such protection challenges, this paper proposes an integrated approach for fault detection, which is based on Teager–Kaiser energy operators of instantaneous zero sequence voltage (Scheme 1) and phasor of negative sequence current (Scheme 2). Instantaneous zero sequence voltage appears only for unsymmetrical ground faults, and it is not affected by current transformer saturation. Other types of faults such as symmetrical, line-to-line faults are detected by Scheme 2, which is immune to capacitor coupling voltage transformer transients. However, both the schemes cover all fault scenarios. The main advantage of proposed scheme is that it is independent of the threshold. It is also not influenced by voltage and current inversions imposed by series capacitor and can detect the fault within 3 ms. The proposed scheme is validated using voltage and current data obtained by simulating 400 kV, 50 Hz, 9-bus multi-machine system using PSCAD/EMTDC. Further, to validate the proposed scheme in real time, the experiments are also carried out on real-time digital simulator.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2538-7
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• High Impedance Fault Localization Using Discrete Wavelet Transform for
Single Line to Ground Fault
• Authors: Mohd Syukri Ali; Ab Halim Abu Bakar; ChiaKwang Tan; Hamzah Arof; Hazlie Mokhlis; Mohamad Sofian Abu Talip
Pages: 5031 - 5044
Abstract: This paper presents a new approach to determine the high impedance fault location in a distribution network using discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The technique comprises three stages which are fault impedance identification, faulty section localization and fault distance estimation. First, the transient voltage and current waveforms are analyzed using DWT to obtain the energy values of its coefficients. Then artificial neural network is utilized to predict the fault impedance value. Next, the database and trigonometry techniques are used to localize the faulty section and fault distance successively. The proposed method is used to detect single line to ground faults on a 38-node distribution simulated network created using the PSCAD/EMTDC software. The output waveforms are analyzed using MATLAB. The fault impedance and fault distance can be estimated with errors of less than 0.42 and 2.37%, respectively, while the faulty section can be determined within the 6th rank. The encouraging results show that the approach is capable of determining the fault impedance value, localizing the faulty section and estimating the fault distance under various fault inception angles, fault impedances and fault distances.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2545-8
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• Robust Composite Adaptive Fuzzy Identification Control of Uncertain MIMO
Nonlinear Systems in the Presence of Input Saturation
• Authors: Hesam Fallah Ghavidel; Ali Akbarzadeh Kalat
Pages: 5045 - 5058
Abstract: Adaptive fuzzy control methods are very interesting because of their robustness against uncertainties. In this paper, a robust composite adaptive fuzzy controller for a class of MIMO nonlinear systems in the presence of input saturation is presented. Using the modeling error between the plant states and a serial–parallel identification model, an adaptive fuzzy system is employed to approximate the unknown uncertainties of the system and in addition, each subsystem of MIMO system is able to adaptively estimate and compensate uncertainties and disturbances with unknown bounds. A robust $$H_{\infty }$$ control term is designed to remove the influence of fuzzy approximation errors. Stability of the proposed method is guaranteed based on Lyapunov theory. Finally, in our simulation studies, to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed technique, a two-link robot manipulator is employed.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2552-9
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• Smooth Integration of Gansu Wind Farm into the Grid Using the Stator
Flux-Oriented Vector Method and Fuzzy Logic Control
• Authors: Mostafa Kheshti; Xiaoning Kang; Yasenjiang Jiarula
Pages: 5059 - 5069
Abstract: Gansu province wind energy potential in China is around 237 GW. According to the schedule, 20 GW wind energy is connected to the grid by 2020. However, there is a chance of instability in the presence of big intermittency. To integrate this huge generated wind power, a reliable control strategy is required. The proposed portable power plant (PPP) energy storage system is fully compatible with a smart grid and mitigates the dispatching complexity and provides better designing and implementation of Gansu wind farm in China. In a two-way power flow, when the generation is bigger than the load demand, the additional power is stored in the PPP for future use, and when the demand is higher than the total generation, the stored power is applied to feed the grid. Also the PPP can charge the grid during peak demand periods or when the local network is stressed. An intelligent controller is linked with PPP to monitor the power flow. The stator flux-oriented vector method is used for modeling the system. Then, a fuzzy controller is applied to adjust the modulation index of PWM inverter and also uses energy storage units to stabilize the output of the power plant. Real field data of the Gansu wind farm with 24-h horizon have been applied on the proposed system. The results show the high performance of the fuzzy-based PPP system in the presence of fluctuations and increase the efficiency of the power system by storing energy through PPP. With a large-scale plan for application of smart grid and renewable energy sources in China, this paper introduces an essential step of this vision to provide a feasible framework for future large-scale smart grid projects in China as well as stable operation of Gansu wind farm as the biggest wind farm in mainland when it is completed.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2596-x
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• Intelligent Distributed Control Techniques for Effective Current Sharing
and Voltage Regulation in DC Distributed Systems
• Authors: Shivam; Ratna Dahiya
Pages: 5071 - 5081
Abstract: The droop control method is a basic technique for parallel operation of source converters. The cable line resistance of source converters is one of the causes for circulating current, degradation of load sharing, and poor voltage regulation in DC microgrid application. The control objective of microgrid is to minimize trade-off between bus voltage regulation and effective current sharing. The distributed control technique based on droop control is superior among other control technique in terms of expandability and reliability. This paper presents a distributed control technique which not only helps an effective solution for parallel operation of source converters, but also facilitates availability of maximum power to the load. The droop resistance of distributed controller is adjusted by using a fuzzy inference system in order to reduce the bus voltage degradation. This proposed scheme offers simplicity and robust control over the existing distributed control scheme. The performance of the DC microgrid which consists of three source converters with different cable line resistances and common load is verified in the MATLAB/Simulink environment.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2576-1
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• Performance Analysis and Experimental Validation of 2-DOF Fractional-Order
Controller for Underactuated Rotary Inverted Pendulum
• Authors: Prakash Dwivedi; Sandeep Pandey; Anjali Junghare
Pages: 5121 - 5145
Abstract: Several numbers of controllers are developed and implemented to enhance the performance of rotary single inverted pendulum (RSIP). This paper addresses a new two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) fractional control strategy for RSIP, which is a composition of feedback and feed-forward paths. Primary controller relates the perturbation attenuation, while the secondary controller is accountable for set point tracking. The pole placement technique is used for the design of 2-DOF proportional integral derivative (2-DOF PID) controller. In order to intensify the potentiality of 2-DOF PID controller, it is supplemented with fractional calculus. The tuning of fractional parameters is done by frequency domain analysis using the Nyquist plot. The proposed 2-DOF fractional-order PID controller is materialized on RSIP system which out turns the outstanding experimental results for both stabilization and trajectory tracking tasks. The system is investigated for stability, sensitivity and robustness, which confirms the ability of the proposed controller to reject the external random perturbations.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2618-8
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• Smooth Higher-Order Sliding Mode Control of a Class of Underactuated
Mechanical Systems
• Authors: Ibrahim Shah; Fazal ur Rehman
Pages: 5147 - 5164
Abstract: This paper investigates the application of smooth higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control to a class of underactuated mechanical systems. Underactuated mechanical systems have increasing practical importance, but their strong nonlinear behavior and increased vulnerability to uncertainties due to the absence of actuators for some of the configuration variables make the control design problem a challenging task. Sliding mode control (SMC) has the most effective role in controlling such strong nonlinear uncertain systems. However, the standard SMC has chattering in the control action, which is undesired and practically not applicable, especially in mechanical control systems. To achieve smooth control and robustness needed for underactuated mechanical systems, smooth HOSM control laws based on the Super-Twisting Algorithm and the Smooth Super-Twisting Algorithm are proposed. Closed-form analytic expressions are derived for performance design parameters of the sliding surface. These expressions determine the performance of the sliding mode dynamics and also guarantee its stability. For comparison of the results, a standard SMC law is also presented and its merits/demerits are discussed. The design procedure is illustrated by applying it to two well-known cases of the Beam-and-Ball system and the Cart–Pole system as representative examples of the class. Numerical simulation results verify the enhanced control performance and robustness of the theoretical work.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2617-9
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• A New Method to Tune a Fractional-Order PID Controller for a Twin Rotor
Aerodynamic System
• Authors: Omar Waleed Abdulwahhab; Nizar Hadi Abbas
Pages: 5179 - 5189
Abstract: This paper proposes a new method to tune a fractional-order Proportional–Integral–Derivative controller (also called $$\mathrm {P}\mathrm {I}^{\uplambda }\mathrm {D}^{\upmu }$$ ) for a Twin Rotor Aerodynamic System, which is a nonlinear highly coupled Multi-Input–Multi-Output system. The five parameters of the controller are tuned using optimization to minimize a performance index which is a weighted sum of absolute values of four frequency domain specifications: gain crossover frequency, phase margin, ISO damping property (to be robust against process gain variation), and magnitude peak value at the resonant frequency, where the latter is the new control design specification that is suggested by this paper. The performance of the proposed controller is compared with that of an integer-order Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID) controller. Simulation results shows that the fractional-order controller outperforms its integer-order counterpart in minimizing the performance index, which results in satisfying the required design specification more accurately. This is demonstrated by first testing the performance of the of the closed-loop system where the fractional-order controller gives better performance than the integer-order controller and second by testing the robustness of the system by changing one of the process parameters, where the fractional-order controller is much more robust, unlike the integer-order controller where the closed-loop system becomes unstable.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2629-5
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

Pages: 5191 - 5199
Abstract: Cognitive radio is of great interest for current and future wireless communications. In this paper, the capacity of underlay cognitive radio networks is studied where closed-form expressions for both the ergodic capacity and the outage capacity of the secondary user (SU) are derived. The obtained results reveal new details on the joint effect of multipath fading and shadowing on the capacity of the SU where the increase of the ergodic capacity and degradation of the outage capacity due to heavy shadowing are demonstrated and quantified. Furthermore, the analytical results are verified by Monte-Carlo simulations for different fading scenarios.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2688-7
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• Efficient and Reliable Modulation Classification for MIMO Systems
• Authors: Mohammad Rida Bahloul; Mohd Zuki Yusoff; Abdel-Haleem Abdel-Aty; Mohd Naufal Saad; Anis Laouiti
Pages: 5201 - 5209
Abstract: In this paper, an efficient and reliable feature-fusion-based modulation classification (MC) algorithm for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems is developed. It uses two higher-order cumulants of the transmitted signal streams to classify a broad set of modulation types with no prior knowledge of the channel state information. We address the problem of the soft-decision fusion for the feature-fusion-based MC algorithms for MIMO systems and introduce an optimal soft-decision fusion scheme to find the classification result. The complexity order of the proposed MC algorithm is studied in detail to demonstrate its low computation cost, and its performance is validated extensively by simulation results to show its practical effectiveness.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2730-9
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• Design and Simulation of a Hybrid PD-ANFIS Controller for Attitude
Tracking Control of a Quadrotor UAV
• Authors: Shahida Khatoon; Ibraheem Nasiruddin; Mohammad Shahid
Pages: 5211 - 5229
Abstract: Optimal gain scheduling of conventional PID controller for simultaneous disturbance rejection and faster settling time capabilities is very difficult to achieve for quadrotor system. The nonlinear system dynamics and unstable behavior of quadrotor require a more advanced attitude tracking stabilization. Therefore, in this paper a novel hybrid PD-adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system controller design is presented. The simulation results of the proposed hybrid controller are compared with conventional PD, PID and fuzzy logic controller. The comparative study of the dynamic response plots reveals that the proposed hybrid controller is able to exhibit better results in terms of response time, robustness and better disturbance rejection capability.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2586-z
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• A Two-Stage Hierarchical Bilingual Emotion Recognition System Using a
Hidden Markov Model and Neural Networks
• Authors: Mohamed Deriche; Ahmed H. Abo absa
Pages: 5231 - 5249
Abstract: Speech emotion recognition continues to attract a lot of research especially under mixed-language scenarios. Here, we show that emotion is language dependent and that enhanced emotion recognition systems can be built when the language is known. We propose a two-stage emotion recognition system that starts by identifying the language, followed by a dedicated language-dependent recognition system for identifying the type of emotion. The system is able to recognize accurately the four main types of emotion, namely neutral, happy, angry, and sad. These types of emotion states are widely used in practical setups. To keep the computation complexity low, we identify the language using a feature vector consisting of energies from a basic wavelet decomposition. A hidden Markov model (HMM) is then used to track the changes of this vector to identify the language, achieving recognition accuracy close to 100%. Once the language is identified, a set of speech processing features including pitch and MFCCs are used with a neural network (NN) architecture to identify the emotion type. The results show that that identifying the language first can substantially improve the overall accuracy in identifying emotions. The overall accuracy achieved with the proposed system reached more than 93%. To test the robustness of the proposed methodology, we also used a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for both language identification and emotion recognition. Our proposed HMM-NN approach showed a better performance than the GMM-based approach. More importantly, we tested the proposed algorithm with 6 emotions which are showed that the overall accuracy continues to be excellent, while the performance of the GMM-based approach deteriorates substantially. It is worth noting that the performance we achieved is close to the one attained for single language emotion recognition systems and outperforms by far recognition systems without language identification (around 60%). The work shows the strong correlation between language and type of emotion, and can further be extended to other scenarios including gender-based, facial expression-based, and age-based emotion recognition.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2742-5
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• Cholesky Factorization-Based Parallel Factor for Azimuth and Elevation
Angles Estimation
• Authors: Nizar Tayem
Pages: 5251 - 5262
Abstract: In this paper, the problem of estimating the two-dimensional direction of arrival angles with automatic pair matching for multiple non-coherent sources is presented. The proposed method employs Cholesky factorization for a Hermitian positive-definite covariance matrix in conjunction with parallel factor (PARAFAC) and trilinear alternative least squares method. The proposed method offers several advantages compared with well-known eigenvalue decomposition (EVD)-based methods. First, it provides fast execution since Cholesky factorization requires O( $$n^{3}$$ /6) number of operations, whereas EVD requires $$O(n^{3})$$ . Second, it is suitable for hardware implementation using field-programmable gate arrays. Third, it provides significantly lower memory requirements since only the lower triangular matrix of Cholesky factorization requires to be stored. Fourth, it applies PARAFAC model to the signal space with a smaller dimension compared with the conventional PARAFAC model that is applied directly to noise data without preprocessing. Hence, the proposed method provides better performance and less computational cost and processing time compared with the conventional PARAFAC model. Computer simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2678-9
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• Delay-Dependent Robust $$H_\infty$$ H ∞ Filtering with Lossy
Measurements for Discrete-Time Systems
• Authors: Aziza Zabari; El Houssaine Tissir; Fernando Tadeo
Pages: 5263 - 5273
Abstract: The design of robust $$H_\infty$$ filters for discrete-time systems with delays and lossy measurements is solved in this paper, when the uncertain parameters lie inside a given convex polytope, and measurements are lost following a binary switching sequence satisfying a conditional probability distribution. Delay-dependent $$H_\infty$$ filters are designed, which ensure that the filtering error system is exponentially mean-square stable, and that a given $$H_\infty$$ level of disturbance attenuation is achieved for the admissible uncertainties and lossy measurements. Less conservative results are obtained, compared with previous results, which are established in terms of LMIs. An iterative algorithm from numerical optimization ideas is proposed to design the filter. Three numerical examples illustrate the applicability of the proposed methodology.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2608-x
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• Some Picture Fuzzy Aggregation Operators and Their Applications to
Multicriteria Decision-Making
• Authors: Harish Garg
Pages: 5275 - 5290
Abstract: The objective of the work is to present some series of the aggregation operators for the picture fuzzy sets (PFSs). As PFSs have been an extended version of the intuitionistic fuzzy set theory which not only considers the degree of acceptance or rejection but also taken into the account the degree of refusal during the analysis. Thus, by considering all these degrees, some aggregation operators, namely picture fuzzy weighted average, picture fuzzy ordered weighted average, and picture fuzzy hybrid average aggregation operators, have been proposed along with their desirable properties. A decision-making approach based on these operators has also been presented. Finally, an illustrative example has been given for demonstrating the approach.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2625-9
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• A System Dynamics Model for Determining the Traffic Congestion Charges and
Subsidies
• Authors: Shuwei Jia; Guangle Yan; Aizhong Shen; Jun Zheng
Pages: 5291 - 5304
Abstract: In view of the urban traffic congestion and vehicle exhaust pollution, this paper utilizes the system dynamics method to establish a traffic congestion pricing management model from the perspective of environmental and social benefits. Firstly, the charge policy in Shanghai is introduced to test, validate and simulate the model to get a relatively reasonable range of congestion charges. The results show that this policy reduces the supply level of public transport (SLPT). To this end, this paper further introduces the subsidy mechanism to improve the model and adopts the sensitivity analysis and marginal decreasing (increasing) effects to explore the reasonable subsidy range. Secondly, the combination schemes such as zero subsidy and low charge, zero subsidy and high charge, and high charge and subsidy are conducted with dynamic simulation and comparison to obtain a relatively satisfactory solution. Finally, the implementation effect of the scheme is simulated to obtain the following results: The degree of traffic congestion and amount of $$\hbox {NO}_{\mathrm{X}}$$ emissions decreased by 70.27 and $$19.92\%$$ after the implementation of the policy, respectively. The SLPT increased by approximately $$123.67\%$$ . This verifies the rationality, validity and practicability of the model.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2637-5
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

• An Integrated Fuzzy TOPSIS-Knapsack Problem Model for Order Selection in a
Bakery
• Authors: Yusuf Tansel İç; Melis Özel; İmdat Kara
Pages: 5321 - 5337
Abstract: In this study, a new model has been developed for the order selection problem for a bakery firm located in Turkey. We consider a combined order selection and process planning problem where a make-to-order bakery goods producer firm has to determine a set of orders to process so as to maximize the total profit. The developed model combines setup costs, sales price, lot size, demand and other important daily data of the products. After collecting the related data, fuzzy TOPSIS method is used to obtain the rankings of the orders (bread types). Then, the ranking scores are incorporated in the knapsack problem to determine the lot size and which orders to select. A computer application is also provided in the paper. With the help of MS Excel Visual Basic program, the computer application updates data daily, ranks the products, determines the lot size, and helps the decision maker with the selection of orders. The computational results show that the proposed method presented better results than the current method applied in the firm. Comparing the two methods in terms of cost reduction, the proposed method gives better results than the current method with 27%. Furthermore, the proposed computer program does not need extra special software or a commercial computer program, which is favorable for small-size enterprises.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2809-3
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 12 (2017)

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