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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2329 journals)

 Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering   [SJR: 0.345]   [H-I: 20]   [5 followers]  Follow         Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)    ISSN (Print) 1319-8025    Published by Springer-Verlag  [2329 journals]
• Two-Step Salt Stress Acclimatization Confers Marked Salt Tolerance
Improvement in Four Rice Genotypes Differing in Salt Tolerance
• Authors: Warisa Pilahome; Sumontip Bunnag; Anawat Suwanagul
Pages: 2191 - 2200
Abstract: In this study, four rice genotypes were evaluated for their salt tolerance characteristics in terms of ion concentrations and expression levels of OsHAK1, a gene that is involved in the regulation of K ion uptake. Salt tolerance profiles were assessed at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% NaCl. It was observed that the growth of salt-sensitive (RD6 and Sakon Nakhon) and moderately salt-tolerant (Niaw Ubon 2) cultivars were completely inhibited at 1.5% NaCl, with satisfactory growth observed for salt-tolerant (Pokkali) cultivar. One- and two-step treatments were compared for their efficacy in inducing salt tolerance in rice plants. One-step treatment was ineffective for producing rice plants with improved salt tolerance, while two-step treatment was a promising approach, producing salt-tolerant rice plants growing vigorously at 1.5% NaCl. Inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry indicated that salt-sensitive cultivars produced from two-step treatment showed improvements in their abilities to maintain $$\hbox {Na}^{+}/\hbox {K}^{+}$$ ratios. Real-time qRT-PCR revealed that a remarkable increase in the OsHAK1 transcript level was not observed in plants grown at 1.5% NaCl. Besides, the OsHAK1 transcript level was not related to Na and/or K concentrations, and $$\hbox {Na}^{+}/\hbox {K}^{+}$$ ratios, suggesting that other genes involved in $$\hbox {K}^{+}$$ uptake regulation may express at higher levels and therefore, OsHAK1 expressed at low levels.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-016-2335-8
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• Prevalence of HCV Infection in General Population of District Malakand,
Pakistan: A Comparative Analysis of the Diagnostic Techniques
Pages: 2201 - 2205
Abstract: Hepatitis C is a fatal liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Symptoms of the infection may not be present in the early stage, but chronic infection may leads to cirrhosis of the liver. This study is designed to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus in the general population of district Malakand. The current study aims to assess the prevalence of infection and effective detection through different diagnostic techniques. Random blood sampling was performed from different areas in district Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The samples were tested for anti-HCV antibodies by Immunochromatographic technique (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time PCR. A total of 1431 samples (338 males and 1093 females) were screened for HCV infection, out of which 27 (7.98%) males and 32 (2.92%) females were seropositive by ICT method. Sixteen (4.73%) males and 19 (1.73%) females were seropositive by ELISA technique, and 12 (3.6%) males and nine (0.82%) females were positive by real-time PCR. Overall prevalence was found to be 1.47%. Our results suggest that prevalence of infection was high in males as compared to females. It was depicted from the study that prevalence of infection increased with increasing age. We suggest that advanced techniques such as ELISA should be used for screening of HCV in a resource-limited area followed by real-time PCR confirmation as a final diagnostic technique to confirm the actual infection.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-016-2337-6
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• Smoke Priming Regulates Growth and the Expression of Myeloblastosis and
Zinc-Finger Genes in Rice under Salt Stress
• Authors: Ijaz Malook; Gulmeena Shah; Mehmood Jan; Kamran Iqbal Shinwari; M. Mudasar Aslam; Shafiq ur Rehman; Muhammad Jamil
Pages: 2207 - 2215
Abstract: Salinity negatively affects the rice growth and productivity around the globe including Pakistan. The current study describes about the application of new approach of smoke solution priming, which was used to overcome the deteriorating effect of salinity by investigating its affects on biochemical and molecular attributes of rice crop. Seeds of two rice varieties (Basmati-385 and Shaheen Basmati) were soaked in smoke solution for 24 h. Smoke-soaked seeds were used to evaluate its effect on plant fresh and dry biomass, elemental uptake and expression of myeloblastosis (MYB) and zinc-finger (ZAT12) genes against different levels of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM). Fresh and dry biomass of plant was decreased with increasing level of salt stress, while plant raised from smoke-primed seeds had lowers the adverse effect of salt stress. Concentration of sodium ion and $$\hbox {Na}^{+}/\hbox {K}^{+ }$$ ratio was increased, while potassium ion concentration was decreased with increasing salt concentration in the medium. The amount of sodium ion was noted higher in roots than shoots, while potassium was in low amount in roots than shoot. Smoke solution reduced the harmful effect of salt stress by reducing the uptake of sodium ion and increasing potassium ions both in roots and in shoots. The expression of MYB and ZAT12 genes was checked by using RT-PCR approach. Result shows that MYB and ZAT12 protein genes were expressed differently under various levels of salt stress, while priming with the smoke solution changed the expression profile of MYB and ZAT12 protein genes by alleviating the drastic effect. It was concluded that priming with smoke solution protects the plants from ionic toxicity, shows promising effect on rice growth and can be used for enhancing crop productivity under saline condition.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-016-2378-x
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• Physicochemical Properties and Antibacterial Effect of Lysozyme
Incorporated in a Wheat-Based Active Packaging Film
• Authors: Nozieana Khairuddin; Bazlul Mobin Siddique; Ida Idayu Muhamad
Pages: 2229 - 2239
Abstract: In addition to offering a host of health benefits, antimicrobial (AM) wheat-based packaging is a promising form of active food packaging with great economic and environmental potential. The main objective of this study is to develop a formulation of AM wheat-based film in which the active compound, lysozyme, is incorporated into the polymeric material. A solution casting method was used in the film preparation, and lysozyme was incorporated prior to casting. The resultant film is slightly less opaque, more translucent and whitish in appearance, implying that the AM film could retain similar property with the initial opacity value of the wheat-based film. The water uptake of wheat-film is reduced with the incorporation of lysozyme. The reduction in moisture content of AM film indicates a relationship between lysozyme and water molecules in the diffusion mechanism throughout the film matrices. This film helps to reduce the growth of E. coli and B. subtilis to 1.74 and 3.48 log CFU/mL, respectively, for an incubation of 48 h. FTIR analysis implies the consistency of the chemical composition and structure of the AM film compared to the control film, which indicates that the addition of lysozyme into the wheat-based film did not affect or alter the carbonyl function groups of the wheat-based film. The study will help the researcher to discover and understand wheat-based films for incorporating antimicrobial properties and to explore new matrices for further development.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2444-z
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• New Proteolytic Pathway with Probable Hypoallergenic Properties of
Lactobacillus Isolated from Dromedary Milk
Pages: 2241 - 2246
Abstract: Cow milk is a nutritious product that could be the first food introduced into infant’s diet when breastfeeding is not possible. However, ingestion of cow milk can cause allergenic reaction in subjects which adverse immunologic response to bovine milk proteins. Clinical trials demonstrated that the microbial fermentation of bovine milk could be a possible strategy to reduce allergic symptoms in childhood. During fermentation process, some epitopes of milk proteins are destroyed by digestive enzymes of lactic acid bacteria. The antigenicity reduction depends on the specificity of the proteinases from these bacteria. In this study, functional three autochthonous Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp dextranicum isolated from Algerian dromedary milk were tested for their proteolytic and hypoallergenic properties. Hydrolysis of cow milk proteins by isolates was assayed using different techniques. Results revealed that Lactobacillus plantarum C22P was associated with rapid growth and pronounced proteolytic activity when cultured in the presence of cow milk proteins. A total degradation of beta lactoglobulin and k-casein was obtained by this strain. Results presented in this manuscript suggest that Lb plantarum C22P could be used as new potential adjunct bacteria with interesting proteolytic and hypoallergenic activities.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2442-1
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• Application of Multifactorial Experimental Design for Optimization of
Streptokinase Production Using Streptococcus equisimilis SK-6
• Authors: Shilpi Bhardwaj; Sourav Bhattacharya; Arijit Das; Muthusamy Palaniswamy; Jayaraman Angayarkanni
Pages: 2273 - 2277
Abstract: The study involves statistical experimental designs for optimizing culture conditions to enhance streptokinase synthesis by Streptococcus equisimilis SK-6. One-factor-at-a-time method of optimization demonstrated variables (glucose, tryptone and period of incubation) influenced streptokinase production. Further, optimization under shake flask fermentation was performed using central composite design of response surface methodology. The value of $$R^{2}$$ (0.9403) indicated better association between the predicted and observed responses. Additionally, model F value of 17.50 and coefficient of variation (16.37) indicated the model to be significant ( $$p>0.0001$$ ), leading to a highly reliable experimental design. Compared to the unoptimized conditions, a 3.2-fold increase in streptokinase production (0.269 U/ml) by S. equisimilis SK-6 was observed within 48 h in a medium containing tryptone (18 g/l) and glucose (10 g/l). This study is possibly the first attempt to optimize streptokinase synthesis from a wild strain of S. equisimilis by use of multifactorial experimental design, and hence it can be regarded as a model approach for enhancing the produce of streptokinase by industrial fermentation process.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2475-5
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• Effect of Heavy Metals and Inorganic Nutrients Existing as Co-contaminants
on Bioremoval of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) by Nostoc hatei
TISTR 8405
• Authors: Witaya Pimda; Sumontip Bunnag
Pages: 2291 - 2301
Abstract: Water pollution caused by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has become a serious health and environmental concern all over the world. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of Nostoc hatei strain TISTR 8405 to remove 2,4-D under different conditions. The strain TISTR 8405 was found to grow well with 2,4-D at a concentration range of 2–50 mg/L with satisfactory bioremovability. Despite its growth ability at broad-range pH intervals (4–9), the strain TISTR 8405 performed its bioremovability at decreased rates in the extreme acidic environment. Addition of heavy metals caused a strong suppressing effect on the bioremoval of 2,4-D, while amendment of nutrients enhanced bioremoval efficiency of the herbicide. GC-MS analysis indicated that the strain TISTR 8405 could degrade 2,4-D, transforming it into 2,4-DCP. The findings obtained in this study suggest that the strain TISTR 8405 could be used as a promising bioremedial agent for bioremoval of 2,4-D. However, the presence of heavy metals in aquatic environments can possibly impede its bioremoval activities.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2492-4
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• Combination of 4-Hydroxybutyrate Carbon Precursors as Substrate for
Simultaneous Production of P(3HB- co -4HB) and Yellow Pigment by
Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13
• Authors: I. Iszatty; O. Noor Aidda; R. Hema; A. A. Amirul
Pages: 2303 - 2311
Abstract: Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer is a type of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) that has attracted intensive attention in the medical applications. A novel P(3HB-co-4HB)-producing bacteria strain Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 accumulates high levels of PHAs and a yellow pigment that has potential antibacterial property. This present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of various combination of 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) carbon precursors on the biosynthesis of P(3HB-co-4HB) and yellow pigment. Combination of 1,4-butanediol with 1,6-hexanediol shows an effective yield on cell dry weight of 1.8–10.8 g/L, PHA content of 28–47 wt% and pigment concentration of 0.05–0.18 g/L. Enhancement of P(3HB-co-4HB) and yellow pigment production were successfully achieved using 1,4-butanediol with 1,6-hexanediol at $$\hbox {C/N}=23$$ which resulted in an outstanding increased of PHA content and pigment concentration of 52 wt% and 0.25 g/L, respectively. Furthermore, the addition of fructose had successfully induced the yellow pigment production by 61%, without affecting the growth and PHA accumulation. This report was proved to show the capability of Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 to produce high yield of P(3HB-co-4HB) with various 4HB monomer compositions and yellow pigment from various of 4HB carbon precursors. As this was the first to report on the high yield of yellow pigment production by Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13, the selection of 4HB carbon precursors’ combination can serve a significant experience and strategy to increase both pigment and P(3HB-co-4HB) production.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2451-0
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• Exploring the Potential of 1-Pentanol and Oleic Acid for Optimizing the
Production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate- co -3-hydroxyvalerate) Copolymer by
Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020
• Authors: Kai-Hee Huong; K. Shantini; R. Sharmini; A. A. Amirul
Pages: 2313 - 2320
Abstract: The potential of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) P(3HB-co-3HV) copolymer production has remained unexplored for Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020. This study is devoted to a full range exploration on the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) containing 3HV monomer, from the screening of carbon sources to the optimization of fermentation parameters. Fatty acid (oleic acid) and alcohol (1-pentanol) was found to be the best combination which resulted in high cell dry weight (CDW) (9.4 g/L), as well as high PHA accumulation of 76 wt%. Alcohols were found to be less toxic compared to other 3HV precursors; meanwhile, oleic acid contributed to sufficient amount of acetyl-CoAs as the building block for PHA thus contributing to high PHA content. Improvement was strategized by focusing on 1-pentanol concentration, incubation period and temperature which are the major factors affecting the copolymer production. An optimization study has resulted in high CDW (13.3 g/L) and PHA concentration (10.23 g/L), which increased significantly to 45 and 43%, respectively, compared to pre-optimized culture. This study warrants the usage of oleic acid and 1-pentanol as one of the viable strategies for industrial scale production of P(3HB-co-3HV) copolymer.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2473-7
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• MFC—An Approach in Enhancing Electricity Generation Using Electroactive
Biofilm of Dissimilatory Iron-Reducing (DIR) Bacteria
• Authors: C. Yuvraj; V. Aranganathan
Pages: 2341 - 2347
Abstract: A potential dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae was employed in dual chamber microbial fuel cell for the formation of biofilm on the anode surface. Biofilm development on the electrode was examined as extracellular polymeric substances and phospholipids quantitatively. Significant increase in open circuit voltage and the current was observed from first cycle (0.950 V, 1.250 mA) to the last cycle (1.2 V, 1.683 mA) of microbial fuel cell operation. Increasing columbic efficiency from 8 to 62% showed the amount of electrons available from the oxidation of organic matter into electricity. Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency increment from 44 to 85% establishes effective utilization of organic matter by K. pneumoniae. The scanning electron microscopic observations proved the ability to form a biofilm on an electrode surface. Results of the present study suggested that increasing power output is directly proportional to biofilm formed on the electrode surface. Biofilm development enhances the current production as a result of effective electrocatalysis by K. pneumoniae.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2529-8
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• The $$\hbox {Co}^{2+}$$ Co 2 + Reduction on the Hetero-System $$\hbox {CuFe}_{2} \hbox {O}_{4}/\hbox {SnO}_{2}$$ CuFe 2 O 4 / SnO 2 Under Solar
Light
• Authors: S. Tebani; N. Nasrallah; B. Bellal; A. Chergui; M. Trari; R. Maachi
Pages: 2397 - 2402
Abstract: The $$\hbox {Co}^{2+}$$ reduction on the hetero-system $$\hbox {CuFe}_{2} \hbox {O}_{4}/\hbox {SnO}_{2}$$ under solar light is reported for the first time. The spinel $$\hbox {CuFe}_{2} \hbox {O}_{4}$$ , prepared by co-precipitation, is characterized photoelectrochemically, and the conduction band ( $$-1.63 \hbox { V}_{SCE}$$ ) is more cathodic than the $$\hbox {Co}^{2+}$$ level. $$\hbox {SnO}_{2}$$ , synthesized by chemical route, is used as electrons bridge to mediate the electron transfer. The photocatalysis is investigated in batch mode by varying the catalyst dose, the $$\hbox {Co}^{2+}$$ concentration and pH. Reduction efficiency of 62% is obtained under sunlight ( $$102\,\hbox {mW cm}^{-2}$$ ) and optimal conditions ( $$\hbox {Co}^{2+}: 50\,\hbox {mg L}^{-1}, \hbox { pH } \sim 5.5, \hbox {CuFe}_{2} \hbox {O}_{4}/\hbox {SnO}_{2}: 1/1$$ ). The reduction follows a zero-order kinetic with a rate constant of $$0.29\,\hbox {mol L}^{-1} \,\hbox {mn}^{-1}$$ . The decrease in the conversion rate over illumination time is due to the competitive hydrogen formation on ultrafine co-clusters. $$\hbox {H}_{2}$$ evolution rate of $$0.19 \, \upmu \hbox {mol}\,(\hbox {mg catalyst})^{-1}\,\hbox { mn}^{-1}$$ under artificial light ( $$29\,\hbox {mW cm}^{2}$$ ) is obtained.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-016-2396-8
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• Enhancing Liquid-Phase Exfoliation of Graphene with Addition of Anthracene
in Organic Solvents
• Authors: Randhir Singh; Chandra Charu Tripathi
Pages: 2417 - 2424
Abstract: In this work, graphene is synthesized via liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite in organic solvents with addition of anthracene. Graphene concentration is enhanced by adding anthracene in organic solvents. Anthracene intercalates into the edges of graphite and results in graphene concentration enhancement. By adding anthracene in benzonitrile (BZN) solvent, the graphene concentration is increased from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/ml. The effect of anthracene in concentration enhancement is most prominent in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), orthodichlorobenzene (ODCB) and BZN solvents as compared to others. With addition of anthracene, the graphene concentration in NMP and ODCB solvents is increased to 0.04 mg/ml. This facile method of concentration enhancement is highly suitable for preparing conducting graphene films and composites for various electronics device applications such as field-effect transistors, flexible paper supercapacitors.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-016-2379-9
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• Synthesis, Characterization, and Solution Behavior of a Long-Chain
Hydrophobic Association Anionic
Acrylamide/2-Acrylamido-2-Methylpropanesulfonic Acid/ n -Octyl Acrylate
Terpolymers
• Authors: Guixue Qi; Huabin Li; Rui Zhu; Zhi Zhang; Linbo Zhou; Jianchao Kuang
Pages: 2425 - 2432
Abstract: A long-chain hydrophobic association anionic terpolymer (PAAO) was synthesized by acrylamide, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid, and n-octyl acrylate using the micellar polymerization technique to obtain an oil-displacement polymer with good thermal stability and solution properties. The molecular structure of the terpolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Conventional thermogravimetric analysis measurement was used successfully to characterize the hydrophobic microblock structure of PAAO. The initial decomposition temperature of the polymer was 222  $$^{\circ }\hbox {C}$$ , higher than that of polyacrylamide $$(210\,^{\circ }\hbox {C})$$ . As indicators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology, polymer concentration, salinity tolerance, temperature, and shear rate were investigated in the aqueous solution. The number of hydrophobic monomers strongly affected the apparent viscosity behaviors of the polymers. PAAO exhibited favorable viscosity enhancement properties, salt tolerance, temperature resistance, and recoverable viscosity after shearing, making it useful in EOR and drilling fluids.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-016-2408-8
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate from Water by Clinoptilolite-Supported
Iron Hydroxide Nanoparticle
Pages: 2433 - 2439
Abstract: In this study, we used clinoptilolite-supported iron hydroxide NPs ( $$\hbox {Fe(OH)}_{3}$$ /Cp) for evaluating the simultaneous removal of $$\hbox {NO}_{3}^{-}$$ and $$\hbox {PO}_{4}^{-3}$$ . Remediation was investigated in a range of initial concentrations of $$\hbox {NO}_{3}^{-}$$ (0–25 mg/L) and $$\hbox {PO}_{4}^{-3}$$ (0–25 mg/L) as a function of pH (2–8), nanoparticles concentration (1 and 0.5 g/L). To achieve the best result, the weight ratio of raw material in iron sulfate versus clinoptilolite (5:1, 2:1, 1:1, 2:1) was tested. The highest pollutant removal was obtained 93% for $$\hbox {PO}_{4}^{-3}$$ in 5:1 ratio of Fe versus clinoptilolite and 81% for $$\hbox {NO}_{3}^{-}$$ in 1:2 ratio of Fe versus clinoptilolite at the pH of 2. Kinetic data for $$\hbox {NO}_{3}^{-}$$ and $$\hbox {PO}_{4}^{-3}$$ were well fitted in the pseudo-first-order model and pseudo-second-order model, respectively. Based on the results, it may be concluded that $$\hbox {Fe(OH)}_{3}$$ /Cp NPs can effectively be used for simultaneous removal of $$\hbox {NO}_{3}^{- }$$ and $$\hbox {PO}_{4}^{-3 }$$ from water resources.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2432-3
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• A Simple Process for the Synthesis of Novel Pyrazolyltriazole and
Dihydropyrazolylthiazole Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents
• Authors: Bakr F. Abdel-Wahab; Rizk E. Khidre; Hanan A. Mohamed; Gamal A. El-Hiti
Pages: 2441 - 2448
Abstract: Series of novel 1,2-bis((3-(1-aryl-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methylene) hydrazines 4 and 2-(5-(3-(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyrazol-4-yl) pyrazol-1-yl)thiazoles 13 were synthesized using simple and convenient procedures, and their structures were established. Treatment of pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes 1 with methyl ketones in alkaline medium gave the corresponding (E)-1-aryl-3-(3-(1-aryl-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)prop-2-en-1-ones 3 in 82–86% yields. Treatment of 3 with hydrazine hydrate gave 4, in 69–75% yields, rather than the expected 1-aryl-5-methyl-4-(1-aryl-4-(3-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazoles. Reactions of 3 with thiosemicarbazide gave the corresponding carbothioamides 9 which in reaction with phenacyl bromides gave the corresponding dihydropyrazolylthiazoles 13 in 82–87% yields. The novel synthesized product exhibits good antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2530-2
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• The Factors Optimization on Georeferencing Analogue Maps
• Authors: Yasemin Sisman; Aziz Sisman
Pages: 2471 - 2478
Abstract: The cadastral maps that have been produced in Turkey to date are based on different coordinate systems, map scales, map sheets and measurement methods; however, a great number of these maps are not digital. Today, advances in information systems have made it necessary to digitize these data. For this purpose, the georeferencing technique is commonly used, in which coordinates are transformed between the scanned image and reference coordinate systems. This method is mostly preferred in engineering applications. The accuracy of georeferencing is affected by several factors related to mapping, digitizing and evaluation processes. Experimental designs are widely used to examine the effect of these factors on the response variable. The response surface methodology (RSM) methods are widely used for determining the optimum value of factors and the effects of factors on the response variable. The study was carried out while resolution of scanned maps (DPI), map scale (MS) and the common point number (CPN) are selected as factors and the standard deviation (SD) selected as response variable to determine the optimal factors for accurate georeferencing. To this end, the effect of and interactions between the DPI, MS and CPN were investigated, and their optimum values were obtained using the Box–Behnken method, one of the RSM methods. The optimum conditions for MS and CPN were determined as 1/1000 and 8, respectively.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-016-2353-6
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• Spatial and Seasonal Trends of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Along the
Kanyakumari Coast, Bay of Bengal, India
• Authors: K. Gurumoorthi; R. Venkatachalapathy
Pages: 2479 - 2486
Abstract: Kanyakumari is one of the major tourist destinations in south India, because it is endowed with a variety of marine organisms (especially coral reefs) and is the meeting point of three bodies of water, the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean. In order to assess the spatial distribution and seasonal variation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) along the Kanyakumari coast, 30 sediment samples were collected and analysed using ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy. The concentration of PHCs in surface sediments ranged from 3.14 to 8.7 and from 6.61 to 14.59  $$\upmu$$ g/g during the northeast (NE) and southwest (SW) monsoon, respectively. Spatial and seasonal distribution of PHCs showed decreasing pattern from offshore to nearshore region, due to more marine-based inputs transported by currents during the SW monsoon than the NE monsoon. Comparative analysis with previous results around the world showed that the level of PHCs in sediments <10  $$\upmu$$ g/g as chrysene equivalents are considered to be the natural background level in this region. According to Agency for toxic substances and disease registry, the levels of PHCs in the study area are less harmful to the marine ecosystem.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2445-y
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• Improved Sensitivity of the Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Photonic
Crystal Waveguide
• Authors: Sarra Bendib; Ameur Zegadi
Pages: 2559 - 2563
Abstract: In this paper, we used the finite-difference time domain method to analyze the wavelength spectrum as detected at the end of two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide that contains circle- and ring-shaped silicon rods distributed in an air wafer. A shift of 0.0758  $$\upmu$$ m in the wavelength position of the upper band edge, corresponding to a sensitivity of 758 nm/RIU, was observed. A local defect has been introduced, which produces a very high shift in the cutoff wavelength corresponding to a higher sensitivity of 1490 nm/RIU.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2439-9
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• Solutions with Wright Function for Time Fractional Free Convection Flow of
Casson Fluid
Pages: 2565 - 2572
Abstract: A fractional model of Casson fluid coupled with energy equation is developed. Casson fluid in the presence of heat transfer is considered over an oscillating vertical plate with constant wall temperature. Definition of fractional Caputo derivative is used in the mathematical formulation of the problem. Exact solutions via Laplace transform are obtained and presented in terms of Wright function. Parametric studies were undertaken, and the obtained solutions are illustrated through plots for various physical parameters.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2521-3
Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 6 (2017)

• Microstructural and Mechanical Investigation of NiTi Intermetallics
Produced by Hot Deformation Technique
• Authors: Sinan Aksöz
Abstract: Abstract This work has been carried out to bring an innovative approach to the difficulties encountered in the production of NiTi shape memory alloys by powder metallurgy (PM). For this purpose, new binder system, which was water soluble, was used for production of NiTi green parts. The green parts were sintered at $$1200\,{^{\circ }}\hbox {C}$$ for 60 min, and then red parts were deformed at $$1000\,{^{\circ }}\hbox {C}$$ for 40 and 50% deformation ratios. To observe the characterization of the microstructure and hot deformation effects, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mapping, microhardness and density measurements were applied to the samples. Experimental results show that the rhombohedral phase (space group R3), which was a lenticular disk-like morphology (disks), was detected at $$1200\,{^{\circ }}\hbox {C}$$ sintered PM parts. 551HV microhardness and $$5.85\,\hbox {g/cm}^{3}$$ density values could be achieved with the 50% hot deformation ratio. Furthermore, intermetallic components such as $$\hbox {Ni}_{4}\hbox {Ti}_{3}$$ , $$\hbox {Ni}_{3}\hbox {Ti}$$ , NiTi and NiTi $$(\hbox {B}_{19})$$ , which directly affect the shape memory, are beginning to form in the microstructure with deformation.
PubDate: 2017-05-04
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-017-2567-2

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